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Sample records for psychological defense styles

  1. Sense of coherence and self-sacrificing defense style as predictors of psychological distress and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis: a 5-year prospective study.

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    Goulia, Panagiota; Voulgari, Paraskevi V; Tsifetaki, Niki; Andreoulakis, Elias; Drosos, Alexandros A; Carvalho, André F; Hyphantis, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Individual differences in adjustment during a disease's course determine psychological response and outcome. This study aimed to investigate prospectively whether coping with health stressors and self-sacrificing defense style could predict psychological adjustment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Seventy-four consecutive RA patients attending a rheumatology clinic were assessed for psychological distress (SCL-90-R), sense of coherence (SOC scale), self-sacrificing defense style (Defense Style Questionnaire-88), disease activity (DAS-28), pain, disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire) and HRQoL (World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form) at baseline and 5 years later. Multiple regression and moderator analyses were carried out. The results showed that disease activity (p psychological distress (p = .031), social relations HRQoL (p = .042) and environment HRQoL (p = .020) significantly improved over time. SOC was found an independent predictor of improvement in psychological distress (p = .003), overall general health (p = .002) and social relations HRQoL (p = .004); self-sacrificing independently predicted environment HRQoL (p = .042). The self-sacrificing defense style moderated the relationships between improvement in pain and improvement in overall general health (p = .024) and between improvement in pain and improvement in social relations HRQoL (p = .006). These findings indicate that, in RA, SOC predicts improvement in psychological distress and HRQoL over time, while a self-sacrificing defense style moderates the relationship of pain with HRQoL in the long term. These variables may partly explain inter-individual differences in adaptation to RA. Therefore, the design of psychotherapeutic trials targeting the patients' defensive profiles and coping with health stressors capacities is an important research perspective.

  2. Defense styles of pedophilic offenders.

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    Drapeau, Martin; Beretta, Véronique; de Roten, Yves; Koerner, Annett; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2008-04-01

    This pilot study investigated the defense styles of pedophile sexual offenders. Interviews with 20 pedophiles and 20 controls were scored using the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales. Results showed that pedophiles had a significantly lower overall defensive functioning score than the controls. Pedophiles used significantly fewer obsessional-level defenses but more major image-distorting and action-level defenses. Results also suggested differences in the prevalence of individual defenses where pedophiles used more dissociation, displacement, denial, autistic fantasy, splitting of object, projective identification, acting out, and passive aggressive behavior but less intellectualization and rationalization.

  3. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

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    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  4. Happiness and Defense Styles in Psychiatrists.

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    Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.

  5. Defense styles explain psychiatric symptoms: an empirical study.

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    Holi, M M; Sammallahti, P R; Aalberg, V A

    1999-11-01

    To examine the relation between psychiatric symptoms and defense mechanisms, we administered two questionnaires, the Symptom Check-list 90 (SCL-90) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) to 122 psychiatric out-patients and to a community sample of 337 subjects. Using regression analysis, we found that 51.8% of the variation in subject's Global Severity Index value could be explained by his defense style. Of the three defense styles, the immature style explained most of the variation in the symptoms. We found little overall evidence for specific connections between particular defenses and symptoms. Projection and dissociation were central in most of the symptom dimensions. We compared patients and controls with the same level of general symptom severity and found that patients used significantly more devaluation and splitting, and controls used significantly more altruism and idealization. Whether defenses predispose to certain symptomatology or are one of its aspects is discussed.

  6. [The Life Style Index: correlations with psychological distress and hostility].

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    Hyphantis, T; Floros, G D; Goulia, P; Iconomou, G; Assimakopoulos, K

    2011-01-01

    The Life Style Index (LSI) was designed to assess defense mechanisms, assuming that their use is related to specific emotional states and diagnostic concepts. Aiming to further investigate the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the LSI, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of specific defense mechanisms with dimensions of psychological distress and hostility features in three different populations. The sample comprised 1261 adults (410 healthy participants, 723 medical patients and 128 psychiatric patients). Along with defense mechanisms (LSI), Psychological Distress (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-28) and Hostility features (Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire, HDHQ) were also assessed. The results showed that increased psychological distress is related with increased use of all defenses except Denial, with which psychological distress is negatively associated. Regression is constantly related with psychological distress and differentiates psychiatric patients from the other groups of participants, while Compensation and Reaction Formation are related to depressive symptomatology. In medical patients, Repression was found to increase the physical dimension of psychological distress and the social dysfunction. On the contrary,Denial was negatively associated with these dimensions of psychological distress. In the psychiatric patient and healthy participant samples, Projection plays the most detrimental role. Regarding hostility and direction of hostility, those who were found to introvert their hostility presented with higher scores in Denial, indicating that they possibly 'deny' their hostility, and the degree of the Denial was found to be negatively associated with the degree of Introverted Hostility. Those who directed their hostility towards the others, presented with higher rates of Projection, while neither Denial nor Reaction Formation seemed sufficient enough to temper the degree of Extroverted

  7. The relationship between personality, defense styles, internet addiction disorder, and psychopathology in college students.

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    Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Garyfallos, Georgios

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess any underlying links between personality, defense styles, Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and psychopathology in a college student sample. This is a cross-sectional study of fourth-year Greek Medical students who responded in a comprehensive test battery, which included validated questionnaires on IAD, personality traits, patterns of psychological defense styles, and psychopathology symptoms. A path model that was tested using Partial Least Squares (PLS) methodology showed that the defense styles employed by the students and certain personality traits (Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Neuroticism/Anxiety, and Aggression-Hostility) contributed to the prediction of variability in IAD, with IAD in turn predicting variability in overt psychopathology.

  8. The Comparison of Defense Mechanism Styles and Personality Characteristics in Addicts and Healthy Individuals

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    Mohsen Ahmadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to comprise of psychological defense mechanism styles and personality characteristics in addicts and healthy individuals. Method: In this causal-comparative study, 70 addicts person (with an average age of 37.29±9.81and the age range 23 to 58 years were selected via accessible sampling method of clinics and Hamadan’s addicted self-representing center during the Autumn of 2011, The number of 70 relatives of these people that demographic variables were matched as possible with the comparison group were selected. Both groups were asked to respond to the defense mechanism style and Eysenk personality Questionnaires. Results: The result of this study showed that the scores mean of addicts were higher than healthy people on immature defense mechanism style, neourotism, and neurotic and extraversion personality characteristics and lower than in mature defense style variables. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study there was a significant difference between addict individuals and healthy people in defense mechanism and personality characteristics.

  9. [Study of defense styles, defenses and coping strategies in alcohol-dependent population].

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    Ribadier, A; Varescon, I

    2017-05-01

    Defense mechanisms have been seen to greatly change over time and across different definitions made by different theoretical currents. Recently with the definition provided by the DSM IV, defense mechanisms have integrated the concept of coping as a defensive factor. These mechanisms are no longer considered just through a psychodynamic approach but also through a cognitive and behavioral one. In recent years, new theories have therefore integrated these two components of the defensive operation. According to Chabrol and Callahan (2013), defense mechanisms precede coping strategies. In individuals with psychopathological disorders, these authors indicate a relative stability of these mechanisms. Also, we asked about the presence of unique characteristics among people with alcohol dependence. Indeed, studies conducted with people with alcohol dependence highlight the presence of a neurotic defense style and some highly immature defenses (projection, acting out, splitting and somatization). In terms of coping strategies, persons with alcohol dependence preferentially use avoidant strategies and strategies focused on emotion. However, although several studies have been conducted to assess coping strategies and defense styles within a population of individuals with an alcohol problem, at the present time none of them has taken into account all these aspects of defense mechanisms. The aim of this study is therefore to study the defenses and defense styles and coping strategies in an alcohol-dependent population. This multicenter study (3 CHU, 1 center of supportive care and prevention in addiction and 1 clinic) received a favorable opinion of an Institutional Review Board (IRB Registration #: 00001072). Eighty alcohol-dependent individuals responded to a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics and elements related to the course of consumption. Coping strategies were assessed by means of a questionnaire validated in French: the Brief Cope. The Defense

  10. Psychoticism, Immature Defense Mechanisms and a Fearful Attachment Style are Associated with a Higher Homophobic Attitude.

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    Ciocca, Giacomo; Tuziak, Bogdan; Limoncin, Erika; Mollaioli, Daniele; Capuano, Nicolina; Martini, Alessia; Carosa, Eleonora; Fisher, Alessandra D; Maggi, Mario; Niolu, Cinzia; Siracusano, Alberto; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2015-09-01

    Homophobic behavior and a negative attitude toward homosexuals are prevalent among the population. Despite this, few researches have investigated the psychologic aspects associated with homophobia, as psychopathologic symptoms, the defensive system, and attachment styles. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychologic factors mentioned earlier and their correlation with homophobia. Five hundred fifty-one university students recruited, aged 18-30, were asked to complete several psychometric evaluation. In particular, Homophobia Scale (HS) was used to assess homophobia levels, the Symptoms Check List Revised (SCL-90-R) for the identification of psychopathologic symptoms, the Defence Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) for the evaluation of defense mechanisms and the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) for attachment styles. After a regression analysis, we found a significant predictive value of psychoticism (β = 0.142; P = 0.04) and of immature defense mechanisms (β = 0.257; P homophobia, while neurotic defense mechanisms (β = -0.123; P = 0.02) and depressive symptoms (β = -0.152; P = 0.04) have an opposite role. Moreover, categorical constructs of the RQ revealed a significant difference between secure and fearful attachments styles in levels of homophobia (secure = 22.09 ± 17.22 vs. fearful = 31.07 ± 25.09; P homophobia compared with the subjects demonstrating a fearful style of attachment. Hence, in the assessment of homophobia and in the relevant programs of prevention, it is necessary to consider the psychologic aspects described earlier. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Exploring the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, homicide-related posttraumatic stress disorder and psychiatric co-morbidity.

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    Chung, Man Cheung; Di, Xiaohu; Wan, King Hung

    2016-09-30

    This study investigated the interrelationship between alexithymia, defense style, emotional suppression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following homicide and psychiatric co-morbidity. One hundred and fifty male homicide perpetrators and 156 male perpetrators of non-violent crime completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (except for non-violent perpetrators), the General Health Questionnaire-28, the Defense Styles Questionnaire, the Courtauld Emotional Control Scale and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. The results showed that 44% of homicide perpetrators met the criteria for PTSD. No significant differences were found between groups in alexithymia, defense style and psychiatric co-morbidity. Homicide perpetrators suppressed depression significantly more than the non-violent group. PLS analyses showed that alexithymia was significantly correlated with defense style. Defense styles were significantly correlated with emotional suppression which, in turn, was associated with homicide-related PTSD and psychiatric co-morbidity. To conclude, perpetrators can experience PTSD reactions following the act of homicide. The severity of these reactions and other psychological problems were related to difficulty getting in touch with distressing emotions, the defenses they used to protect themselves psychologically and the way they suppressed their emotion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Investigating aggressive styles and defense mechanisms in bipolar patients and in their parents

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    Nicola Luigi Bragazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is a very common mental health disorder, whose etiology concerning aggressive styles and defense mechanisms is still poorly known despite the efforts dedicated to develop psychological and biological theories. After obtaining written signed informed consent, this study will recruit inpatients with a clinical diagnosis of BD, based on Structured Clinical Interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and their parents. The Bus-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Defense Style Questionnaire 40, the Symptom check list SCL-90-R, developed by DeRogatis will be administered to the participants, together with a semi-structured questionnaire concerning demographic data (age, gender, employment, education and only for the patients clinical information (onset year of the disorder, presence of co-morbidities, alcohol and drug use, suicide tendencies, kind of treatment. All the questionnaires are in the Italian validated version. The successful completion of this study will shed light on the relationship between aggressive styles and defensive mechanisms in bipolar inpatients and in their parents, helping the clinicians to develop ad hoc psychological interventions.

  13. Psychological defensive profile of sciatica patients with neuropathic pain and its relationship to quality of life.

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    Tutoglu, A; Boyaci, A; Karababa, I F; Koca, I; Kaya, E; Kucuk, A; Yetisgin, A

    2015-09-01

    To identify differences between defense styles and mechanisms in sciatica patients with or without neuropathic pain and their relationship to quality of life. The study included 37 sciatica patients with neuropathic pain (SNP), 36 sciatica patients without neuropathic pain and 38 healthy subjects. Pain severity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Psychological condition was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Defense mechanisms were assessed using a 40-item Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) and quality of life was assessed using Short Form-36 (SF-36). BDI and BAI scores were significantly higher in the SNP group (p < 0.001). Idealization and immature defense styles, as well as isolation, displacement and somatization were significantly higher in the SNP group (p < 0.05). SF-36 parameters also differed significantly between the groups, with controls having the best scores and the SNP group the worst. In linear regression analysis, acting out and BDI were found to affect the pain domain of the SF-36 (p < 0.001). The acting out defensive style and BDI were independently associated with pain-related quality of life. In the SNP group, significant differences were found in the immature and neurotic styles of the defense mechanisms.

  14. An Investigation of Leadership Styles and Psychological Contracts

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    Chu, Hui-Chin; Fu, Chi-Jung

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether a statistically significant relationship exists between the leadership styles of managers and employee psychological contracts, as perceived by the employees. The findings indicated that the employees' perception of leadership style significantly affected satisfaction levels of employee psychological…

  15. [Study on psychiatric disorders and defensive process assessed by the "defense style questionnaire" in sterile males SAMPLE consulting in andrology].

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    Bellone, M; Cottencin, O; Rigot, J M; Goudemand, M

    2005-01-01

    The literature about artificial insemination and the associated psychological, psychiatric and sexual disorders is relatively rich. But the majority of these studies is made in gynaecology, with a feminine approach of the disorder. There are very few works led in andrology. This justified the investigation of new trails in order to understand better the clinical context of the sterile man. We undertake a study about the psychiatric disorders among sterile men and about the defense styles. These are a clinical entity recently introduced in the quantitative psychopathology research. The defense style questionnaire (DSQ) is a psychometric scale used in common practice in order to measure the defense styles. We made this study in order to examine the psychiatric state of a sterile males sample consulting in andrology; to assess the defense style by means of the Bond and al DSQ-88 ; to look into a difference between the defensive process according to their clinical situation of azoospermic males or as the oligoazoospermic males and finally, to reveal a correlation between the psychiatric disorders developed in this sample of sterile males and the defensive process they used. There were 42 people (22 azoospermic males and 20 oligoazoospermic males) aged between 23 and 49 years old in the analysed sample. These have been selected at the surgery of andrology at the RUHC of Lille, depending on their arrival order for 6 months. There was no significant difference between the two groups as far as the age and the education standard are concerned. The selection criteria were medical and somatic. Our sample population were divided into two groups: azoospermia (no spermatozoon found in the semen analysis) and oligoasthenospermia (decrease of the number and the mobility of the spermatozoa and an increase of the percentage of atypical forms). The method first consisted in the DSQ, followed by the analysis of the psychiatric state according to the DSM IV, a hetero questionnaire to

  16. Faculty application of the American Psychological Association style.

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    Morse, Gwen Goetz

    2009-10-01

    This article explores current faculty methods with the application and evaluation of the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Specific aims were to determine concerns related to APA style, review faculty grading practices, identify institutional resources, and report potential solutions for improving application of APA style. A survey with an exploratory descriptive research design was developed and distributed online to academic chairs and deans, requesting their support in distributing the survey to their faculty. Responses (N = 704) were grouped into five categories: departmental and personal concerns; faculty grading practices; institutional resources; format, writing style, and grammar; and suggestions and potential solutions. Sixty percent reported that application and evaluation of APA style is a concern in their department. Content analysis identified four categories as proposed solutions: consistency, education, resources, and dialogue. On the basis of the feedback of the participants, the CRED program is proposed for the issues that were identified. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Vaginal orgasm is associated with less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms.

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    Brody, Stuart; Costa, Rui Miguel

    2008-05-01

    Freud implied a link between inability to have a vaginal orgasm and psychosexual immaturity. Since Kinsey, many sexologists have asserted that no such link exists. However, empirical testing of the issue has been lacking. The objective was to determine the relationship between different sexual behavior triggers of female orgasm and use of immature psychological defense mechanisms. Women reported their past month frequency of different sexual behaviors and corresponding orgasm rates and completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). The association between ability to have vaginal intercourse orgasm (versus clitoral orgasm) and the use of DSQ-40 immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) was examined. In a sample of 94 healthy Portuguese women, vaginal orgasm (triggered solely by penile-vaginal intercourse) was associated with less use of DSQ-40 immature defenses. Vaginal orgasm was associated with less somatization, dissociation, displacement, autistic fantasy, devaluation, and isolation of affect. Orgasm from clitoral stimulation or combined clitoral-intercourse stimulation was not associated with less use of immature defenses, and was associated with more use of some immature defenses. In one regression analysis, more masturbation and less vaginal orgasm consistency made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. In another regression analysis, any use of extrinsic clitoral stimulation for intercourse orgasm, and lack of any vaginal orgasm, made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. Vaginally anorgasmic women had immature defenses scores comparable to those of established (depression, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) outpatient psychiatric groups. Results were not confounded by social desirability responding or relationship quality. The results linking penile-vaginal orgasm with less use of immature

  18. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

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    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Patterns of dysfunctional parenting styles and psychological disturbances in offspring].

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    Kumnig, Martin; Höfer, Stefan; Huber, Alexandra; Messner, Carmen; Renn, Daniela; Mestel, Robert; Klingelhöfer, Jürgen; Kopp, Martin; Doering, Stephan; Schüßler, Gerhard; Rumpold, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunctional parenting styles represent a risk factor for the development of psychological disturbances. The present study investigated the differential validity of the German language Fragebogen zur Erfassung dysfunktionaler Erziehungsstile (FDEB; Measurement of Parental Styles, MOPS) and determined whether different forms of psychological disorders are associated with specific patterns of parenting styles. 145 inpatients, 108 outpatients and a control group of 633 representative individuals from the general population were investigated by adapting the FDEB. A comparison of dysfunctional parenting styles showed different distress levels within the diagnostic groups: Patients suffering from depression reported high levels of maternal indifference and over protectiveness together with an abusive rearing behavior on the part of both parents. Patients with anxiety disorders reported having overprotective mothers. Bulimic patients as well as those with personality disorders significantly exhibited stress in almost all areas. However, anorexic patients did not differ significantly from the control group, which appeared to be the least affected of all. The FDEB showed a satisfactory differential validity. There was evidence that specific patterns of dysfunctional parenting styles were associated with different diagnostic groups.

  20. Personality and Defense Styles: Clinical Specificities and Predictive Factors of Alcohol Use Disorder in Women.

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    Ribadier, Aurélien; Dorard, Géraldine; Varescon, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated personality traits and defense styles in order to determine clinical specificities and predictive factors of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in women. A female sample, composed of AUD outpatients (n = 48) and a control group (n = 50), completed a sociodemographic self-report and questionnaires assessing personality traits (BFI), defense mechanisms and defense styles (DSQ-40). Comparative and correlational analyses, as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regressions, were performed. AUD women presented with higher neuroticism and lower extraversion and conscientiousness. They used less mature and more neurotic and immature defense styles than the control group. Concerning personality traits, high neuroticism and lower conscientiousness were predictive of AUD, as well as low mature, high neurotic, and immature defense styles. Including personality traits and defense styles in a logistic model, high neuroticism was the only AUD predictive factor. AUD women presented clinical specificities and predictive factors in personality traits and defense styles that must be taken into account in AUD studies. Implications for specific treatment for women are discussed.

  1. Psychometric properties of the defense style questionnaire (DSQ-40) in adolescents.

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    Ruuttu, Titta; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Holi, Matti; Karlsson, Linnea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Heilä, Hannele; Tuisku, Virpi; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) in adolescents. Internal consistency, factor structure, and discriminant and concurrent validity of the DSQ-40 were studied in 211 adolescent psychiatric outpatients aged 13 to 19 years and 199 age-matched and sex-matched controls. Principal components analysis yielded four internally consistent components: mature, neurotic, image-distorting, and immature defense styles. The outpatients reported more immature, image-distorting, and neurotic styles and less mature style than did the controls, suggesting adequate discriminant validity. As a demonstration of convergent and concurrent validity, the severity of psychiatric symptoms assessed by the General Health Questionnaire and psychosocial adjustment assessed by the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale correlated theoretically meaningfully with the different defense styles. The DSQ-40 appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for adolescents.

  2. Revising Psychology Misconceptions by Integrating a Refutation-Style Text Framework into Poster Presentations

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    Lassonde, Karla A.; Kolquist, Molly; Vergin, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Refutation-style texts have been considered a viable strategy for changing psychological misconceptions. The current study aims to integrate refutation-style texts into a classroom-based method of learning. Psychology students were administered a true/false misconception survey and then viewed several refutation-style poster presentations…

  3. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

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    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  4. Adolescent psychological development, parenting styles, and pediatric decision making.

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    Partridge, Brian C

    2010-10-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child risks harm to adolescents insofar as it encourages not only poor decision making by adolescents but also parenting styles that will have an adverse impact on the development of mature decision-making capacities in them. The empirical psychological and neurophysiological data weigh against augmenting and expression of the rights of children. Indeed, the data suggest grounds for expanding parental authority, not limiting its scope. At the very least, any adequate appreciation of the moral claims regarding the authority of parents with respect to the decision-making capacity of adolescents needs to be set within an understanding of the psychological and neurophysiological facts regarding the development of adolescent decision-making capacity.

  5. Validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Defense Style (CADS): mothers' and children's responses to the stresses of missile attacks.

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    Wolmer, L; Laor, N; Cicchetti, D V

    2001-06-01

    This study furthers the validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Defense Style (CADS) as a measure of children's defensive behavior. Participants were 81 mothers who assessed the defense style (CADS) of their 8- to 10-year-old children, as well as their own defense style and level of object relations. Five years earlier, the mothers had rated their children's symptom level and personality after the missile attacks during the Gulf War. The original factor structure of the CADS was replicated for the most part. Self-oriented and other-oriented defenses were related to the children's early personality and symptomatic reaction, as well as to their mother's defense style and level of object relations. The CADS factors correlated with the defenses of the Defense Mechanisms Manual. The results provide further validation of the CADS and suggest possible areas of implementation, such as longitudinal examination of defenses, psychopathology screening, and therapeutic improvement.

  6. Peculiarities of Coping and Mechanisms of Psychological Defense in Persons with Alcohol Dependence

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    Тинатин Владимировна Чхиквадзе

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the features of the defensive-coping behavior of alcohol dependent personality in the context of the necessity to optimize addiction therapy methods. An analysis of the range of coping strategies and mechanisms of psychological defense in alcoholism was conducted. The study involved 120 men and women between the ages of 30 and 60; 62 of them are patients with alcohol dependence, registered with the narcological clinic, and 58 people who do not have alcohol dependence. The following psychodiagnostic methods were used: “Strategic Approach to Coping Scale - SACS” (S. Hofball, “Life Style Index - LSI” (R. Plutchik, H. Kellerman & H.R. Conte. In the course of the analysis, it was found that behavioral pattern “aggressive actions” is expressed at a higher level in individuals with alcohol dependence. The leading coping strategies for both dependent respondents and the control sample are “seeking social support”, “cautious actions”, “coming into contact”. When assessing the gender characteristics of coping behavior, it was revealed that alcohol-dependent women use coping “avoidance” and “impulsive actions” more often than alcohol-dependent men. The dominant mechanisms of psychological defense for both dependent respondents and the control sample are “projection”, “intellectualization” and “negation”. There are differences between the group of respondents with alcohol dependence and the control group in the degree of tension of the defense mechanisms “substitution” and “compensation”: higher rates are observed in patients with alcoholism. The mechanism of defense “intellectualization” is more often and more intensively manifested in alcohol-dependent men, “reactive formations” - in alcoholdependent women. Identified in the course of the empirical study, the features are considered as possible “targets” for the psychological correction of an alcohol

  7. Attacking and defensive styles of play in soccer: analysis of Spanish and English elite teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Navarro, Javier; Fradua, Luis; Zubillaga, Asier; Ford, Paul R; McRobert, Allistair P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to define and categorise different styles of play in elite soccer and associated performance indicators by using factor analysis. Furthermore, the observed teams were categorised using all factor scores. Data were collected from 97 matches from the Spanish La Liga and the English Premier League from the seasons 2006-2007 and 2010-2011 using the Amisco® system. A total of 19 performance indicators, 14 describing aspects of attacking play and five describing aspects of defensive play, were included in the factor analysis. Six factors, representing 12 different styles of play (eight attacking and four defensive), had eigenvalues greater than 1 and explained 87.54% of the total variance. Direct and possession styles of play, defined by factor 1, were the most apparent styles. Factor analysis used the performance indicators to cluster each team's style of play. Findings showed that a team's style of play was defined by specific performance indicators and, consequently, teams can be classified to create a playing style profile. For practical implications, playing styles profiling can be used to compare different teams and prepare for opponents in competition. Moreover, teams could use specific training drills directed to improve their styles of play.

  8. Greater tactile sensitivity and less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms predict women's penile-vaginal intercourse orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Houde, Stephanie; Hess, Ursula

    2010-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that diminished tactile sensitivity might be associated with reduced sexual activity and function. Research has also demonstrated significant physiological and psychological differences between sexual behaviors, including immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) impairing specifically women's orgasm from penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI). To examine the extent to which orgasm triggered by PVI (distinguished from other sexual activities) is associated with both greater tactile sensitivity and lesser use of immature psychological defenses. Seventy French-Canadian female university students (aged 18-30) had their finger sensitivity measured with von Frey type microfilaments, completed the Defense Style Questionnaire and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale, and provided details of the 1 month (and ever) frequencies of engaging in, and having an orgasm from, PVI, masturbation, anal intercourse, partner masturbation, and cunnilingus. Logistic and linear regression prediction of orgasm triggered by PVI from tactile sensitivity, age, social desirability responding, and immature psychological defenses. Having a PVI orgasm in the past month was associated with greater tactile sensitivity (odds ratio=4.0 for each filament point) and less use of immature defense mechanisms (odds ratio=5.1 for each scale point). Lifetime PVI orgasm was associated only with less use of immature defense mechanisms (and lower social desirability responding score). Orgasms triggered by other activities were not associated with either tactile sensitivity or immature defense mechanisms. Tactile sensitivity was also associated with greater past month PVI frequency (inclusion of PVI frequency in a logistic regression model displaced tactile sensitivity), and lesser use of immature defenses was associated with greater past month PVI and PVI orgasm frequencies. Both diminished physical sensitivity and the

  9. Coping Styles and Psychological Distress among Hong Kong University Students: Validation of the Collectivist Coping Style Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Angela F. Y.; Chang, Jian Fang

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of the Collectivist Coping Style inventory (Heppner "et al." "Journal of Counseling Psychology" 53:107-125, 2006) and investigated how the effects of stress-related events on psychological distress are mediated through coping strategies. Three hundred and five Hong Kong university…

  10. Proactive and Reactive Composite Scales for the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct composite scales for the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) from the PICTS thinking style, factor, and content scales designed to provide general estimates of criminal thinking. The Entitlement thinking style scale, Self-Assertion/Deception factor scale, and Historical content…

  11. Effects of Response Styles on the Report of Psychological and Somatic Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Wolfgang; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed the impact of two major response style dimensions (self-deception and impression management) on the report of psychological and somatic symptoms. Results confirmed that response styles were more predictive of psychological than somatic symptoms. Both anxiety and depression were associated with a high rate of physical symptoms,…

  12. The determination of contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predicts positive psychological components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein Ebrahimi moghadam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the essential of positive psychological components, as compliment of deficiency oriented approaches, has begun in recent days,we decided to take into account this new branch of psychology which scientifically considers studying forces of human, as well as because of the importance of this branch of psychology, we also tried to search the contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predict positive psychological components. Materials and Methods:In this cross sectional study 200 psychological students of Azad university (Rudehen branch selected using cluster sampling method. Then they were estimated by Bradbery and Grivers emotional intelligence questionnaire , Bamrind parenting styles and Rajayi et al positive psychological components questionnaire. Research data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation, inferential statistics (multiple regression and Pierson correlation coefficient and SPSS software. Results:Among the components of emotional intelligence, the component of emotional self consciousness (β=0.464 had the greatest predictable , and reaction leadership showed no predictability in this research between parenting styles , authority parenting styles had positive significance relationship with positive psychological components. And no significant relationship was found between despot parenting styles and positive psychological components. Conclusion: Regarding the results of this research and importance of positive psychological components, it is suggested to treat the emotional intelligence from childhood and to learn it to parents and remind them the parenting way to decrease the satisfaction of individuals which leads to promotion of society mental health.

  13. High Beck Depression Inventory 21 scores in adolescents without depression are associated with negative self-image and immature defense style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilahti, Emma M; Haravuori, Henna; Rytilä-Manninen, Minna; Lindberg, Nina; Kettunen, Kirsi; Marttunen, Mauri

    2018-05-01

    Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) is widely used in assessing adolescents' psychological wellbeing, but occasionally the result diverges from diagnostics. Our aim was to identify factors associated with discrepancies between BDI scores and diagnostic assessment in adolescent psychiatric patients and general population. The study comprised 206 inpatients (13-17 years old) and 203 age and gender matched non-referred adolescents. Study subjects filled self-reports on depression symptoms (BDI-21), alcohol use (AUDIT), defense styles (DSQ-40) and self-image (OSIQ-R), and on background information and adverse life events. Diagnostics was based on K-SADS-PL interview, and/or clinical interview and clinical records when available. We compared subjects who scored in BDI-21 either 0-15 points or 16-63 points firstly among subjects without current unipolar depression (n = 284), secondly among those with unipolar depression (n = 105). High BDI-21 scores in subjects without depression diagnosis (n = 48) were associated with female sex, adverse life events, parents' psychiatric problems, higher comorbidity, higher AUDIT scores, worse self-image and more immature defense styles. Low BDI-21 scores among subjects with depression diagnosis (n = 23) were associated with male sex, more positive self-image and less immature defense style. In conclusion, high BDI-21 scores in the absence of depression may reflect a broad range of challenges in an adolescent's psychological development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The determination of contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predicts positive psychological components

    OpenAIRE

    hosein Ebrahimi moghadam; mahin Fekraty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since the essential of positive psychological components, as compliment of deficiency oriented approaches, has begun in recent days,we decided to take into account this new branch of psychology which scientifically considers studying forces of human, as well as because of the importance of this branch of psychology, we also tried to search the contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predict positive psychological components. Materials and Methods:...

  15. Effects of Spectrum Teaching Styles on College Students' Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Self-Determined Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephanie; Byra, Mark; Readdy, Tucker; Wallhead, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of two landmark spectrum styles, practice and inclusion, on students' basic psychological needs satisfaction and self-determined motivation. Twelve classes of college-aged students (n = 149) participated in two badminton lessons taught under the conditions of the practice and inclusion styles.…

  16. Adolescent Psychological Well-Being by Identity Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tommy M.; Pittman, Joe F.

    2007-01-01

    High school-age adolescents (N=262) in two samples completed a measure of identity style, along with measures of self-esteem, hopelessness, delinquent attitudes, educational expectations, and optimism/efficacy. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the relationship between identity style and the other psychosocial variables. Participants…

  17. The Influences of Leadership Style and School Climate to Faculty Psychological Contracts: A Case of S University in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Chin; Fu, Chi-Jung

    2006-01-01

    This study was to investigate the impacts of leadership style and school climate on faculty psychological contracts. Demographic variables were also tested. The findings indicated that overall perceptions of the faculties toward leadership style, school climate, and psychological contract were favorable. Moreover, leadership style and school…

  18. Sexual attraction and psychological adjustment in Dutch adolescents: coping style as a mediator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; van Beusekom, G.; Sandfort, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from

  19. Effects of an Interteaching Probe on Learning and Generalization of American Psychological Association (APA) Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Jonathan M.; Faas, Caitlin

    2017-01-01

    This study implemented the components of interteaching as a probe to teach American Psychological Association (APA) Style to undergraduate university students in a psychology research methods and statistics course. The interteaching method was compared to the traditional lecture-based approach between two sections of the course with the same…

  20. The levels of psychological functioning of personality and the mechanisms of defense

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez Camacho, Erika; Chávez-León, Enrique; Ontiveros Uribe, Martha Patricia; Yunes Jiménez, Arlette; Náfate López, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Otto Kernberg states three types of personality organizations, also named psychological functional levels. They reflect the patient's predominant psychological characteristics: identity integration grade, defense mechanisms, and reality test. In mental disorders, the predominant defensive influences significantly in the severity and evolution of the suffering. Objectives The objective of the actual study was to determine the usage of defense mechanisms by patients with some mental disorder, g...

  1. Examining the Relationship between Communication Patterns of Source Family and Self-Consciousness with Defensive Styles of Discordant Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Ma’asoomeh Kheirkhah; Ebrahim Namani

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown the relationship between communication patterns of source family with defensive styles of discordant couples. For this reason, the present research has examined the relationship between communication patterns of source family and self-consciousness with defensive styles of discordant couples. This study is a descriptive-correlation type. Its population consisted of all discordant couples referred to counseling centers of Mashhad in 2015. Among the referred 140 disc...

  2. Self-reported immature defense style as a predictor of outcome in short-term and long-term psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Maarit A; Sirkiä, Carlos; Knekt, Paul; Lindfors, Olavi

    2014-07-01

    Identification of pretreatment patient characteristics predictive of psychotherapy outcome could help to guide treatment choices. This study evaluates patients' initial level of immature defense style as a predictor of the outcome of short-term versus long-term psychotherapy. In the Helsinki Psychotherapy Study, 326 adult outpatients with mood or anxiety disorder were randomized to individual short-term (psychodynamic or solution-focused) or long-term (psychodynamic) psychotherapy. Their defense style was assessed at baseline using the 88-item Defense Style Questionnaire and classified as low or high around the median value of the respective score. Both specific (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI], Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS], Symptom Check List Anxiety Scale [SCL-90-Anx], Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale [HARS]) and global (Symptom Check List Global Severity Index [SCL-90-GSI], Global Assessment of Functioning Scale [GAF]) psychiatric symptoms were measured at baseline and 3-7 times during a 3-year follow-up. Patients with high use of immature defense style experienced greater symptom reduction in long-term than in short-term psychotherapy by the end of the 3-year follow-up (50% vs. 34%). Patients with low use of immature defense style experienced faster symptom reduction in short-term than in long-term psychotherapy during the first year of follow-up (34% vs. 19%). Knowledge of patients' initial level of immature defense style may potentially be utilized in tailoring treatments. Further research on defense styles as outcome predictors in psychotherapies of different types is needed.

  3. The Child's Demystification of Psychological Defense Mechanisms: A Structural and Developmental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Michael J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Explored the relationships between the cognitive developmental level of preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational children (N=10) and their success in interpreting and explaining each of eight commonly described mechanisms of psychological defense. (JMB)

  4. A study of the face validity of the 40 item version of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Henri; Rousseau, Amélie; Rodgers, Rachel; Callahan, Stacey; Pirlot, Gérard; Sztulman, Henri

    2005-11-01

    There are few studies examining the face validity of the 40-item version of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). Moreover, the existing studies have provided conflicting results. The present study provides an in-depth examination of the face validity of the DSQ-40. Eight clinicians independently attributed each item of the DSQ-40 to a defense mechanism. The defense mechanisms listed in the DSM-IV Defensive Functioning Scale and their definitions were provided as a guide, along with the definition of those defense mechanisms investigated by the DSQ that are not included. It was further specified that the raters could attribute the items to defense mechanisms other than those listed or coping mechanisms. Twelve items out of 40 (30%) were attributed to the defense mechanisms they were supposed to investigate by fewer than four out of the eight raters. This result suggests that a substantial part of the DSQ-40 is lacking in face validity.

  5. The Predictive Strength of Perceived Parenting and Parental Attachment Styles on Psychological Symptoms among Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körük, Serdar; Öztürk, Abdülkadir; Kara, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting, parental attachment styles and psychological symptoms among Turkish university students and it also aims to find out which perceived parenting and parental attachment styles predict psychological symptoms which were measured. This study is a quantitative research and…

  6. Psychological distress and styles of coping in parents of children awaiting elective cardiac surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utens, E. M.; Versluis-den Bieman, H. J.; Verhulst, F. C.; Witsenburg, M.; Bogers, A. J.; Hess, J.

    2000-01-01

    We sought to assess the level of psychological distress, and the styles of coping of, parents of children with congenital heart disease. The study was based on questionnaires, which were completed, on average, four weeks, with a range from 0.1 to 22.1 weeks, prior to elective cardiac surgery or

  7. The Relationship between Psychological Contract Breach and Employee Deviance: The Moderating Role of Hostile Attributional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Su-Fen; Peng, Jei-Chen

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the main effects and the interaction effects of psychological contract breach and hostile attributional style on employee deviance (i.e., interpersonal deviance and organizational deviance). Data were collected from 233 employees and their supervisors in eight electronic companies in Taiwan. Results demonstrate that…

  8. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  9. Psychological defense mechanisms in patients with syphilis at different stages of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filonova A.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the study of psychological defense mechanisms in patients with syphilis at different stages of the disease. Material and methods. We used questionnaire Plutchik-Kellerman-Comte "life style Index". The study involved 257 people (118 women (46% and 139 men (54% aged 18 to 67 years (mean age — 23,5±8,9years. Results. In patients with primary syphilis primary mecha-protection scheme is "denying"; secondary syphilis of skin and mucus-purity membranes— "replacement"; syphilis latent early — "projection"; in patients with late syphilis — intellectualization. Thus, in patients with late forms of syphilis is dominated by more Mature mechanisms of protection (projection, rationalization. Patients with early forms use more primitive mechanisms (denial, substitution. Conclusion. The obtained data may be useful in the choice of methods of psychotherapy, the formation of patients more realistic (ADAP-tive installations for the treatment, restoration of family and other social relations, the prevention of distress and improving the quality of life of patients.

  10. Psychological status and coping styles of caregivers of individuals with intellectual disability and psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Anuja S; Ramesh, Sonali

    2018-06-27

    The psychological status of caregivers of individuals with intellectual disability and psychiatric illness (PI) is important for effective management. The aim of this study was to examine the psychological status and its relationship with coping styles among these caregivers. Caregivers (N = 80) of individuals with intellectual disability (n = 40) and PI (n = 40) were administered a socio-demographic questionnaire, depression, anxiety and stress scale and COPE Inventory. Caregivers experienced depression, anxiety and stress symptoms. These symptoms were found to be significantly higher among caregivers of individuals with intellectual disability than those with PI. The most common coping style used was religious coping. Use of positive reinterpretation and growth was associated with lower levels of depression and stress symptoms. Caregivers' mental health plays an important role in the quality of care delivery and outcome. Use of appropriate coping styles can reduce the impact of these symptoms. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mediating effect of coping styles on the association between psychological capital and psychological distress among Chinese nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Peng, J; Wang, D; Kou, L; Chen, F; Ye, M; Deng, Y; Yan, J; Liao, S

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Studies show that psychological capital (PsyCap) is a protective factor against psychological distress, such as depressive symptoms. However, few have attempted to address the role of coping styles in the relationship between PsyCap and psychological distress. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study found moderate levels of PsyCap among nurses in China. Among the subcategories of PsyCap, optimism and hope were most highly correlated with psychological distress. Psychological distress was positively associated with negative coping and negatively associated with positive coping. This study confirmed the partial mediating effect of coping styles in PsyCap and psychological distress among Chinese nurses. In other words, this study found direct and indirect effects of PsyCap on psychological distress mediated via coping styles. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The significant mediating effect of negative and positive coping styles between PsyCap and psychological distress has implications for hospital administrators, especially nurse leaders. Effective strategies should be implemented to improve PsyCap and coping styles among Chinese nurses, and alleviate psychological distress. Optimism and hope should be emphasized in PsyCap investment. Different styles of coping are influenced and modified by teaching and experience. Therefore, it is essential that nurse managers organize educational and training programmes to provide nurses with relative coping knowledge and techniques, and improve their coping ability. Several studies suggest that coping styles are affected by social support. Thus, nurse managers should assist nurses with social support and enhance coping strategies to reduce psychological distress. Introduction PsyCap includes four categories namely self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Research has demonstrated that PsyCap and coping styles affect current psychological distress. Nevertheless, few

  12. Psychological Distress, Physical Symptoms, and the Role of Attachment Style in Acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochos, Antigonos; Bennett, Ashley

    2016-03-01

    Context • Attachment research has contributed significantly to the understanding of the origins as well as the treatment of psychological and somatic distress; however, no study so far has explored the role of attachment in acupuncture. The effects on endogenous opioids of both acupuncture and intimate interpersonal bonding as well as clients' reliance on a practitioner's care may suggest that individual differences in attachment style could be linked to individual differences in responses to acupuncture. Objective • The study intended to investigate the role of attachment style in determining outcomes in acupuncture. Design • A pre- and postintervention, single group, quasiexperimental design was used. Setting • Treatment and data collection took place in an acupuncture clinic in London, England, United Kingdom. Eighty-two acupuncture clients with a mean age of 46 ± 14.53 took part in the study. Participants suffered from a variety of somatic and psychological complaints. Intervention • Traditional Chinese acupuncture was administered to all participants in weekly sessions, with the mean number of sessions that participants received being 5 ± 3.5. Outcome Measures • Psychological distress and somatic symptoms were measured using the General Heath Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and the Bradford Somatic Inventory (BSI), respectively. The Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) was used to assess attachment style, with the 4 styles being secure, dismissing, preoccupied, and fearful. Results • After treatment, both somatic and nonsomatic distress were reduced (P attachment insecurity and symptom severity ceased to exist. The strength rather than the quality of the attachment style moderated the reduction in somatic distress, whereas the preoccupied style of attachment moderated the effects of medically unexplained symptoms on distress. Conclusions • Attachment style may have an impact on acupuncture outcomes by predisposing individuals to different patterns of

  13. [The mediating role of the interpersonal schemas between parenting styles and psychological symptoms: a schema focused view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soygüt, Gonca; Cakir, Zehra

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived parenting styles and interpersonal schemas. The second purpose was to investigate the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms. University students (N=94), ages ranging between 17-26, attending to different faculty and classes, have completed Interpersonal Schema Questionnaire, Young Parenting Inventory and Symptom Check List-90. A series of regression analyses revealed that perceived parenting styles have predictive power on a number of interpersonal schemas. Further analyses pointed out that the mediator role of Hostility situation of interpersonal schemas between psychological symptoms and normative, belittling/criticizing, pessimistic/worried parenting styles on the mother forms (Sobel z= 1.94-2.08, p parenting styles (Sobel z= 2.20-2.86, p parenting styles on interpersonal schemas. Moreover, the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms was also observed. Excluding pessimistic/anxious parenting styles, perceived parenting styles of mothers and fathers differed in their relation to psychological symptoms. In overall evaluation, we believe that, although schemas and parental styles have some universalities in relation to their impacts on psychological health, further research is necessary to address their implications and possible paternal differences in our collectivistic cultural context.

  14. Ego mechanisms of defense are associated with patients’ preference of treatment modality independent of psychological distress in end-stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hyphantis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hyphantis1, Spiros Katsoudas2, Sonia Voudiclari31Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 2Nephrologist, Renal Clinic, Hippocration General Hospital, Athens, Greece; 3Department of Nephrology, University of Athens, GreeceAbstract: Several parameters mediate the selection of treatment modality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD. The nephrology community suggests that patient preference should be the prime determinant of modality choice. We aimed to test whether ego mechanisms of defense are associated with patients’ treatment modality preferences, independent of psychological distress. In 58 eligible ESRD patients who had themselves chosen their treatment modality, we administered the Symptom Distress Checklist-90-R and the Defense Style Questionnaire. Thirtyseven patients (53.4% had chosen hemodialysis and 21 (46.6% peritoneal dialysis. Patients who preferred peritoneal dialysis were younger (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.804–0.988, had received more education (OR, 8.84; 95% CI: 1.301–60.161, and were twice as likely to adopt an adaptive defense style as compared to patients who preferred hemodialysis (57.1% vs 27.0%, respectively; P < 0.033. On the contrary, the latter were more likely to adopt an image-distorting defense style (35.1% vs 14.3%; P = 0.038 and passive–aggressive defenses (OR, 0.73: 95% CI: 0.504–1.006. These results were independent of psychological distress. Our findings indicate that the patient’s personality should be taken into account, if we are to better define which modalities are best suited to which patients. Also, physicians should bear in mind passive–aggressive behaviors that warrant attention and intervention in patients who preferred hemodialysis.Keywords: end-stage renal disease, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, ego mechanisms of defense, DSQ, psychopathology

  15. Psychological Well-being and Parenting Styles as Predictors of Mental Health among Students: Implication for Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad reza khodabakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lack of mental health interferes with one's individual achievement and ability for undertaking the responsibilities of everyday life. Researches show that psychological well-being and parenting styles have an important role in ones' increasing general health. The current study examined the relationship between psychological well-being and parenting styles with students' mental health. Methods: This study was carried out on 278 students (124 boys and 154 girls of Boukan's high schools. The participants were asked to complete psychological well-being inventory and mental health parenting style questionnaire. Data was analyzed using of Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The results showed that psychological well-being and authoritative parenting styles were significantly related with mental health; also, Permissive parenting styles has significant positive relationship with mental health. The regression analysis indicated that mental health is predictable by psychological well-being and parenting styles. Conclusion: The knowledge of parenting styles and psychological well-being and their relationships with general well-being can provide the significant implications on the provision of students' health. Parenting styles and psychological well-being, as significant variables in general well-being, needs more clinical research.

  16. Relationship between transformational leadership style and organizational commitment: Mediating effect of psychological empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Ayyub, Samia; Bashir, Muhammad Khawar

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment of employees with mediating role of psychological empowerment in the textile sector Punjab Pakistan. Data was collected using tools from 250 employees. The transformational leadership questionnaire, MLQ-Multifactor leadership Questionnaire [1] was used to verify the perception of the employees towards transformational leadership style in two dimensions i.e. idealized influence and inspirational motivation. The organizational commitment questionnaire designed by [2] was used to verify the affective organizational commitment. Further, psychological empowerment questionnaire was developed by [3] which was used to examine the state of psychological empowerment of textile sector employees. Pearson Correlation revealed that there exists a positive significant relationship between idealized influence and affective organizational commitment, Inspirational motivation and affective organizational commitment, affective organizational commitment and psychological empowerment. The results from the study put forward that there is a significant relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment. The mediating variable which one is suitable in the model i.e. psychological empowerment and the model is good fit as the F value is significant.

  17. Parenting styles and bullying. The mediating role of parental psychological aggression and physical punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Romera, Eva María; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Studies concerning parenting styles and disciplinary practices have shown a relationship between both factors and bullying involvement in adolescence. The scarce available evidence suggests that abusive disciplinary practices increase teenagers' vulnerability to abuse in school or the likelihood of them becoming abusers of their peers in the same context. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the indirect effect of parenting styles in adolescents' bullying involvement through disciplinary practices, although a relationship between parenting styles and disciplinary practices has been shown. The aim of this research was to determine the mediating role of punitive parental discipline (physical punishment and psychological aggression) between the dimensions of parents' parenting styles and their children's involvement in bullying victimization and aggression. We used a sample comprising 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age=14.34). Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. The results confirmed the mediating role of parental discipline between the parenting practices analyzed and students' aggression and victimization. Significant gender-related differences were found for aggression involvement, where boys were for the most part linked to psychological aggression disciplinary practices and girls to physical punishment. Victimization directly correlated with parental psychological aggression discipline behavior across both sexes. In conclusion, the results seem to suggest that non-democratic parenting styles favor the use of punitive discipline, which increases the risk of adolescents' bullying involvement. Therefore, intervention programs must involve parents to make them aware about the important role they play in this process and to improve their parenting styles. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Humor Styles Questionnaire in Italy: Psychometric Properties and Relationships With Psychological Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Sirigatti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ and the relation between humor and psychological well-being within the context of Italy. A total of 293 (178 females, 115 males Italian high school and undergraduate university students – whose ages ranged from 14 to 25 years – completed the Italian versions of the HSQ and the Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being scales (RPWB. The HSQ scale reliabilities were generally acceptable, and intercorrelations among the scales were rather low; the confirmatory factor analysis supported the four-factor structure. Males reported significantly more use of Aggressive humor than did females; no differences were found between adolescents and young adults in the use of humor styles. Affiliative and Self-enhancing humor styles were positively associated with the six dimensions of the RPWB, whereas Self-defeating humor was negatively correlated with the RPWB scales. SEM analysis showed a significant and positive relationship between humor as measured by the HSQ and psychological well-being as assessed by the RPWB. Overall, the findings supported the theoretical structure and usefulness of the HSQ in an Italian context and the differential role of humor components in the various dimensions of psychological well-being.

  19. Parental Expressivity and Parenting Styles in Chinese Families: Prospective and Unique Relations to Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children's psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. DESIGN: The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children's adjustment was measured with parents', teachers', and peers' or children's reports. RESULTS: Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children's externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child's adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes.

  20. Effects of Bullying Experience on Psychological Well-Being Mediated by Conflict Management Styles and Psychological Empowerment among Nursing Students in Clinical Placement: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liping; Kim, Hyunli

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to test a proposed structural equation model in which bullying experience, conflict management styles and psychological empowerment predict psychological well-being among Chinese nursing students in clinical placement. Three hundred and sixty-six nursing students recruited from five hospitals in J city and Y city were assessed with self-report questionnaires on bullying experience, conflict management styles, psychological empowerment and psychological well-being including depression, self-esteem, and academic major satisfaction. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and AMOS version 22.0. The evaluation parameters included the comparative fit index at .90, the goodness of fit index at .93, the root mean square error of approximation at .07, and χ²/df ratio at 2.66, indicating that the proposed structural equation model provided a good fit to the data. Experience of being bullied during clinical placement, conflict management styles and psychological empowerment explained 93.0% of the variance and had significant effects on psychological well-being, with conflict management styles and psychological empowerment mediating the association between bullying and psychological well-being. The findings indicated that mediation by conflict management styles and psychological empowerment alleviated the negative influence of bullying on psychological well-being. To limit bullying and its negative effects, development of effective guidelines to deal with bullying will be a critical tool for both Chinese nursing students and their instructors. Further research should incorporate conflict management styles and psychological empowerment into the specific intervention strategies for handling bullying behaviors among nursing students and staff nurses and promoting nursing students' psychological well-being. © 2017 Korean Society of Nursing Science

  1. Virtual Leadership: The Influence of Transformational Leadership Style on Employee Satisfaction at the Defense Contract Management Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the possible relationship between transformational leadership style behaviors and the influence it had on employee satisfaction. The information presented in this study involved virtual team members at the Defense Contract Management Agency, Navy Special Emphasis Operations. The…

  2. Association of coping style and psychological well-being in hospital nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Loukzadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing jobs are among the occupations experiencing high levels of stress. Level of psychological well-being and coping style with stressful situations among nurses has large impact on their job performance. Limited information exists about the relationship between coping styles and psychological well-being among nurses, so the present study examined the way of coping and the level of psychological well-being as well as their relationships among nurses. Methods: In this correlational study, 100 nurses from Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences were selected by multi-stage random sampling in 2012. Lazarus and Folkman's coping styles and Ryff's psychological well-being Questionnaires were completed by self-report method. Collected data were entered software SPSS ver. 13 and then analyzed using Pearson correlation test. Results: The results showed EFCSwere more used but PFCSstyle was less used with a little difference by mean (SD of 87.91 (10.76 vs. 73.12 (12.15. Between EFCSand some psychological well-being dimensions such as purpose in life (P=0.01, r= - 0.28 and personal development (P= 0.03, r= - 0.024, a significant negative association and between PFCSstyle and purpose in life, a significant positive relationship was found (P=0.006, r= 0.31. Conclusion: Considering that PFCSstyle is more effective in solving problems and job stress, as well as, the increased use of EFCSis associated with adverse health consequences, improvement of nurses' coping strategies to cope better with stressful events by skill training and promotion of nurses' psychological well-being level is recommended.

  3. Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury, Annual Report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    applications for recovering from disaster and trauma Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center Develops and delivers advanced TBI-specifi c treatment...specifically aimed at developing cognitive and motor therapy tools using videogame technology, game-based PH outreach tools and support tools for children of...Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health and Traumatic Brain Injury Annual Report 2009 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No

  4. Psychological masochism: A systematic review of the literature on conflicts, defenses, and motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Békés, Vera; Perry, J Christopher; Robertson, Brian M

    2018-05-01

    Our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on psychological masochism to identify hypotheses for examination in clinical studies. We identified defenses, conflicts, and motives using standardized measures in 23 psychoanalytic papers. Three primary and three secondary subtypes of masochism emerged in the literature. Overall Gratification Inhibition (subtype I.1) was the "healthiest" form, associated with higher developmental level motives and neurotic defenses. The Global Conflict (I.2) was the least healthy form of masochism, consistent with personality disorder. It was associated with early developmental level motives and immature defenses, including depressive defenses, often associated with depression. Dominant Other (I.3) represented masochistic attachment problems, associated with early developmental level motives, object-related, image-distorting defenses, and narcissism. Of the secondary types, Separation-Abandonment (II.1) reflected object-related defenses, and separation-related motives. Rejection of Others (II.2) represented a sadistic-narcissistic form, associated with image-distorting and disavowal defenses, with both early and later developmental level motives. Finally, Sexual Pleasure vs. Guilt (II.3) was associated with autistic fantasy, and both early and later developmental level motives, suggesting a distinct traumatic origin and representing the juncture of sexual and psychological masochism. Analysts described six distinguishable types of masochism. Future studies should examine their validity.

  5. Psychological Well-being and Parenting Styles as Predictors of Mental Health among Students: Implication for Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad reza khodabakhsh; Fariba kiani; Soliman Ahmedbookani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The lack of mental health interferes with one's individual achievement and ability for undertaking the responsibilities of everyday life. Researches show that psychological well-being and parenting styles have an important role in ones' increasing general health. The current study examined the relationship between psychological well-being and parenting styles with students' mental health. Methods: This study was carried out on 278 students (124 boys and 154 girls) of Boukan's hi...

  6. Ego mechanisms of defense are associated with patients' preference of treatment modality independent of psychological distress in end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Katsoudas, Spiros; Voudiclari, Sonia

    2010-03-24

    Several parameters mediate the selection of treatment modality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The nephrology community suggests that patient preference should be the prime determinant of modality choice. We aimed to test whether ego mechanisms of defense are associated with patients' treatment modality preferences, independent of psychological distress. In 58 eligible ESRD patients who had themselves chosen their treatment modality, we administered the Symptom Distress Checklist-90-R and the Defense Style Questionnaire. Thirty-seven patients (53.4%) had chosen hemodialysis and 21 (46.6%) peritoneal dialysis. Patients who preferred peritoneal dialysis were younger (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.804-0.988), had received more education (OR, 8.84; 95% CI: 1.301-60.161), and were twice as likely to adopt an adaptive defense style as compared to patients who preferred hemodialysis (57.1% vs 27.0%, respectively; P psychological distress. Our findings indicate that the patient's personality should be taken into account, if we are to better define which modalities are best suited to which patients. Also, physicians should bear in mind passive-aggressive behaviors that warrant attention and intervention in patients who preferred hemodialysis.

  7. Comparison of psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normally-hearing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Ghasempour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Families who have a child with hearing deficiency deal with different challenges, and mothers have a greater responsibility towards these children because of their traditional role of caregiver; so, they deal with more psychological problems. The aim of this study was to compare the psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normal children.Methods: In this cross-sectional and post event study (causal-comparative method, 30 mothers of deaf students and 30 mothers of normal students from elementary schools of Ardabil, Iran, were selected using available sampling. The Ryff psychological well-being (1989 and Billings and Moos coping styles (1981 questionnaires were used in this study. The data were analyzed using MANOVA test.Results: We found that in mother's of deaf children, psychological well-being and its components was significantly lower than mothers of normal children (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. There was a significant difference between two groups in terms of cognitive coping style, too (p<0.01. However, mothers of deaf children used less cognitive coping style.Conclusions: It seems that child's hearing loss affects on mothers psychological well-being and coping styles; this effect can be visible as psychological problems and lower use of adaptive coping styles.

  8. Perceived parenting style, self-esteem and psychological distress in adolescents with heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri; Mansoor, Daniela; Gagin, Roni; Lorber, Avraham

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between perceived parenting style, depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem in adolescents with heart disease compared with healthy adolescents. Forty-five adolescents, aged 12-18 with congenital or acquired heart disease and 50 healthy age-matched adolescents answered perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem, depressed mood and anxiety questionnaires. The study group reported higher perceived acceptance and lower perceived parental control than healthy adolescents, but similar levels of depressed mood, anxiety and self-esteem. Fischer's r-to-z transformation and regression analyses showed different associations between perceived parenting style and depressed mood, anxiety and self esteem. In the study group, higher perceived parental acceptance was associated with lower depressed mood and higher self-esteem, whereas these associations were not significant in the control group. In the control, but not the study group, higher perceived parental control was associated with lower depressed mood and lower anxiety. Parenting style proved to exert a differential effect on adolescents with and without heart disease. For the former, perceived parental acceptance had a more substantial effect on psychological well-being than perceived parental control. Professionals caring for these adolescents should be aware of the special importance of parenting style on the well-being of adolescents with heart disease, and address this issue in the clinical setting with the patients and their parents.

  9. Comparisons of childhood trauma, alexithymia, and defensive styles in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures vs. epilepsy: Implications for the etiology of conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Marcia J; Dwivedi, Alok K; Privitera, Michael D; Isaacs, Kelly; Hughes, Cynthia; Bowman, Michelle

    2013-08-01

    It has been theorized that conversion disorder is the result of emotion that cannot be experienced consciously as feeling states or put into words (i.e., alexithymia), but there is little confirming empirical evidence. We sought to characterize subjects with conversion disorder compared to subjects with a distinct medical illness, using the model of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) vs. epilepsy (ES), on measures of childhood traumatic experience, alexithymia and maturity of psychological defensive strategies. All subjects admitted to the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit of the University of Cincinnati Medical Center were offered self-report questionnaires (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and Response Evaluation Measure-71) at the outset of evaluation. Diagnosis of each subject was confirmed by video-EEG and we compared subjects with PNES to those with ES on these measures. 82 subjects had ES AND 96 had PNES. Those with PNES were significantly more likely to have experienced childhood trauma in all domains (p=.005 to p=.05), and were significantly more likely to have alexithymia (p=.0267). There was a significant difference in the capacity to identify feelings, and a trend towards significance in capacity to describe feelings. There were no differences in defensive styles between the two groups. PNES diagnosis was associated with female sex, higher alexithymia scores and higher rates of childhood trauma, but not with differences in defensive styles compared to ES. These findings add empirical evidence for theories regarding the cause of conversion disorder and may aid in the design of prospective treatment trials in patients with conversion disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress resiliency, psychological empowerment and conflict management styles among baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Eula W; Rauschhuber, Maureen L; Norgan, Gary H; Cook, Jennifer D; Canchola, Leticia; Richardson, Cynthia; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2012-07-01

    This article is a report of a Neuman Systems Model-guided correlational study of the relations of stress resiliency, psychological empowerment, selected demographic characteristics (age, ethnicity, semester in school) and conflict management styles. Emerging evidence suggests that stress resiliency and psychological empowerment can strengthen student nurses in academic achievement and coping with stress. Little is known about conflict management styles of students and the relationship to empowerment, resiliency and the implications for managing workplace conflict. A correlational study was conducted in Spring 2010 with 166 baccalaureate students. Most participants were female, single, Hispanic and 25 years old. The data collection instruments included the Stress Resiliency Profile, the Psychological Empowerment Instrument, the Conflict Mode Instrument and a demographic inventory. Descriptive and inferential correlational statistics were used to analyse the data. Students scored in the high range for focusing on their deficiencies in conflict situations; they scored above the 60th percentile for avoiding and accommodating behaviours and were less likely to use competing or collaborating strategies to manage conflict. Empowerment scores were significantly correlated with stress resiliency scores. Students with high scores on empowerment had high scores on the skill recognition subscale of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting more resilience; high scores on empowerment were related to high necessitating subscale scores of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting a predisposition to stress. Neuman Systems Model may provide guidance for educators to strengthen student nurses' management of stressors in the workplace. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Marital satisfaction, conflict communication, attachment style and psychological distress in couples with a hospitalized depressed patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Gilbert M D; Buysse, Ann; Heene, Els; Eisler, Ivan; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2007-04-01

    There has been fairly consistent empirical support for the association between major depressive disorder and marital dissatisfaction. However, this evidence is limited mostly to out-patient and population-based samples. Further, the role of possible mediating factors such as attachment style and conflict communication are less well investigated in major depression. The present study aims to investigate whether couples with a depressed partner and nonclinical couples differ in marital satisfaction, attachment style, psychological distress and conflict communication. Gender differences are also investigated. Seventy-seven couples, who participated in a family intervention trial, were compared with 77 age- and gender-matched nonclinical couples. The depressed patients reported more psychological distress and attachment difficulties and less marital satisfaction than their partners and the nonclinical couples. Partners perceived their relationship as more satisfying than the nonclinical couples. The clinical couples reported less mutual constructive and more mutual avoidant communication in their relationship compared with the nonclinical couples. Finally, female depressed patients reported higher levels of psychological symptoms and were more avoidant attached than male patients. This study shows important differences in several individual and relational characteristics between couples with a depressed partner and nonclinical couples. Further research will be necessary to clarify whether the investigated psychosocial variables play a causal and/or a maintaining role in depression.

  12. [Psychological femininity and masculinity, self-appeal, attachment styles, coping styles and strategies of self-presentation among women with suicide attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Eugenia; Zalewska, Karolina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to diagnose particular personality characteristics of women with suicide attempts: psychological femininity and masculinity, self-appeal, attachment styles, self-presentation strategies and coping styles. A group of 35 adult women who attempted suicide and the control group (35 women) were submitted to a research. The following measures were used: Inventory of Gender Identity (IPP), Strategies of Self-presentation Questionnaire (KSA), Attachment Style Test, Sense of Self-Appeal Scale (SPWA), Coping Inventory of Stressful Situations (CISS). Female suicide-attempters had a lower index of psychological masculinity and a lower sense of self-appeal than women in the control group. They were characterised by an avoidant attachment style, used a strategy of self-depreciation in self-presentation and an emotion-oriented style of coping. The predictors of risk of suicide behaviours that mainly showed: avoidant-attachment style and strategy of self-depreciation in self-presentation. Parasuicides were characterised by lower self-esteem and weak interpersonal skills, which reduced their ways of coping in difficult situations.

  13. Self-esteem, psychological distress, and coping styles in pregnant smokers and non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varescon, Isabelle; Leignel, Shirley; Gérard, Caroline; Aubourg, Frédérique; Detilleux, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale. Comparisons, correlations, and regression models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the group of pregnant women who smoked had significantly lower mean self-esteem, elevated psychological distress and anxiety scores, and reported using more emotion-focused coping than the group of pregnant non-smokers. Self-esteem significantly predicted problem-focused coping. This study confirms the importance of assessing these psychological variables to offer women more specific support to quit smoking.

  14. Acculturation, psychological adjustment, and parenting styles of Chinese immigrant mothers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Cheah, Charissa S L; Calvin, Grace

    2016-10-01

    This study examined whether acculturation to American culture, maintenance of Chinese culture, and their interaction predicted Chinese immigrant parents' psychological adjustment and parenting styles. We hypothesized that American orientation would be associated with more positive psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms in immigrant mothers, which in turn would be associated with more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. The examination of the roles of Chinese orientation and the interaction of the 2 cultural orientations in relation to psychological adjustment and parenting were exploratory. Participants were 164 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers in the United States (Mage = 37.80). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of acculturation on psychological adjustment and parenting. Bootstrapping technique was used to explore the conditional indirect effects of acculturation on parenting as appropriate. American orientation was strongly associated with positive psychological well-being, which was in turn related to more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. Moreover, American and Chinese orientations interacted to predict depressive symptoms, which were in turn associated with more authoritarian parenting. Specifically, American orientation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms only at mean or high levels of Chinese orientation. Results suggest acculturation as a distal contextual factor and psychological adjustment as 1 critical mechanism that transmits effects of acculturation to parenting. Promoting immigrant parents' ability and comfort in the new culture independently or in conjunction with encouraging biculturalism through policy intervention efforts appear crucial for the positive adjustment of Chinese immigrant parents and children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Acculturation, Psychological Adjustment, and Parenting Styles of Chinese Immigrant Mothers in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Calvin, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined whether acculturation to American culture, maintenance of Chinese culture, and their interaction predicted Chinese immigrant parents’ psychological adjustment and parenting styles. We hypothesized that American orientation would be associated with more positive psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms in immigrant mothers, which in turn would be associated with more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. The examination of the roles of Chinese orientation and the interaction of the two cultural orientations in relation to psychological adjustment and parenting were exploratory. Methods Participants were 164 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers in the U.S. (Mage = 37.80). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of acculturation on psychological adjustment and parenting. Bootstrapping technique was used to explore the conditional indirect effects of acculturation on parenting as appropriate. Results American orientation was strongly associated with positive psychological well-being, which was in turn related to more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. Moreover, American and Chinese orientations interacted to predict depressive symptoms, which were in turn associated with more authoritarian parenting. Specifically, American orientation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms only at mean or high levels of Chinese orientation. Conclusions Results suggest acculturation as a distal contextual factor and psychological adjustment as one critical mechanism that transmits the effects of acculturation to parenting. Promoting immigrant parents’ ability and comfort in the new culture independently or in conjunction with encouraging biculturalism through policy intervention efforts appear crucial for the positive adjustment of Chinese immigrant parents and children. PMID:27077796

  16. A social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Atefeh Arab; Najmeh Sedrpoushan; Afsaneh Javadzade

    2013-01-01

    We present a social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being among third year high school female students in city of Khomeinishahr, Iran during the year of 2012. The study selects a sample of 300 students from 1260 female students who were enrolled in third year high school education, randomly. The study uses the Baumrind’s questionnaire on parenting style, which consists of 30 questions which equally measure three parentin...

  17. Inflexible parents, inflexible kids: a 6-year longitudinal study of parenting style and the development of psychological flexibility in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn E; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C L

    2012-08-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined the longitudinal relationships between perceived parenting style and psychological flexibility among students at five Australian schools (N= 749) over 6 years, beginning in Grade 7 (50.3% female, mean age 12.39 years). Parenting style was measured in Grades 7 and 12, and psychological flexibility from Grade 9 through 12. Psychological flexibility decreased, on average, with age. Multi-level modelling indicated that authoritarian parenting (low warmth, high control) in Grade 7 predicted later (low) psychological flexibility. Moreover, increases in authoritarian parenting and decreases in authoritative parenting (high warmth and control) were associated with adolescent psychological flexibility across the high school years. Change in parenting predicted future psychological flexibility but did not predict change over time. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that adolescent psychological flexibility in Grade 9 predicted later decreases in authoritarian and increases in authoritative parenting. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how parenting changes and the consequences of such change for the development of psychological flexibility.

  18. Positive Psychological Capital and Parenting Styles among adolescents: Khasi and Non-Khasi Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Karmakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The psychological capital (PsyCap, an individual’s positive psychological state of development, is characterized by four components. These four components are (1 Hope (commonly associated with one’s positive expectancy towards the future, (2 Self-efficacy (confidence to put in considerable effort to succeed at challenging task, (3 Resilience (individual’s capability to successfully cope with adverse circumstances, uncertainty and conflict and (4 Optimism (a cognitive process directed at positive outcomes or expectancies of a bright and prosperous future. The sample consists of 160 Khasi (75 boys and 85 girls selected from East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya and 185 non-Khasi (100 boys and 85 girls selected from Kolkata district of West Bengal adolescents studying at high schools of East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya and Kolkata district of West Bengal. Parental Authority Questionnaire and Psychological Capital Scale were used to assess the parenting style and positive PsyCap, respectively. The results revealed that dimensions of positive PsyCap vary with respect to culture and the effect of culture is prominent among adolescent boys. Non-Khasi adolescent boys are significantly higher on positive PsyCap dimensions than their Khasi counterparts. Adolescents who perceive their parents as high on authoritarian dimension display lower level of Positive PsyCap and its dimensions while those perceive their parents as high on authoritative style score higher on Positive PsyCap and its dimensions. Implications for parental practices and positive PsyCap in families and schools are discussed.

  19. The minimizing style: perceptions of psychological abuse and quality of past and current relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varia, R; Abidin, R R

    1999-11-01

    The goals of this current project were to expand and elaborate on the results of Varia, Abidin, and Dass' (1996) study to better understand what historical parenting factors may contribute in creating a "Minimizing" perception of childhood psychological abuse. A second objective included examining the association between perceptual styles and adult ratings of adult relationship satisfaction. Ninety individuals from a non-clinical adult sample completed self-report questionnaires regarding psychological maltreatment and adult relationship satisfaction. Three groups were created and compared using analysis of variance. The groups were (I) "Non-Abused," consistent reporters of no abuse; (II) "Acknowledgers," consistent reporters of abuse; and (III) "Minimizers," reporters of abuse, but do not label themselves as having been abused. Results indicated a continuum effect with the Non-Abused individuals reporting the highest level of maternal warmth and affection, the Acknowledgers reporting the lowest, with the Minimizers in the middle. The Non-Abused group reported the healthiest adjustment in terms of adult relationship satisfaction. While Minimizers and Acknowledgers reported similar levels of psychologically abusive experiences, Acknowledgers reported more difficulties with adult relationships. This study highlights the importance of studying Minimizers, a group which describes abusive events but minimizes the meaning and scope of these experiences. The relatively higher levels of maternal care which the Minimizers reported is hypothesized to be associated with their perceptions that they were not abused and acted as a protective factor associated with better quality adult relationships. The varying degrees of nurturance and care in the early family environment of abused individuals is speculated to be associated with distinct perceptual styles.

  20. Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2017-01-01

    Defined as the tropes, figures, and grammar of the text, style is quite concrete, quite analyzable. Pure detection and identification of the tropes and figures of a text is not very interesting to literary studies, though, unless it is combined with interpretation, that is, unless you ask: What i...

  1. The Associations among Psychological Distress, Coping Style, and Health Habits in Japanese Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akio Tada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12, the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with “Avoidance coping” (β = 0.39, p < 0.001, and was negatively associated with “Active coping” (β = −0.30, p < 0.001, “exercise habit” (β = −0.25, p = 0.001, and “sleeping” (β = −0.24, p = 0.002. In the path model, “Active coping” and “Avoidance coping” had significant or marginally significant associations with “exercise habits” (active: β = 0.19, p = 0.008, avoidance: β = −0.12, p = 0.088, and psychological distress (active: β = −0.25, p < 0.001, avoidance: β = 0.363, p < 0.001. However, these coping style variables did not have a significant association with “sleep”. In general, the size of the correlations was below 0.4. Conclusions: Exercise habits mediated the relationship between coping styles and psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.

  2. Structural organization of psychological defenses and coping strategies of preschool teachers with different levels of professional burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Анатоліївна Колтунович

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the actual problem of modern education system – preschool teachers’ professional burnout. Assumptions about the existence of the relationship between professional burnout, coping strategies and mechanisms of psychological defenses; about the determination of burnout at different stages of its formation according to the structural organization of coping and psychological defenses were empirically proven, and their leading and basic components were defined

  3. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D; Bargh, John A

    2009-12-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence.

  4. Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Lobato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant differences were observed in terms of the mature, neurotic and immature categories. Discussion: One possible explanation for this result is the fact that the procedure does not resolve gender dysphoria, which is a core symptom in such patients. Another aspect is related to the early onset of the gender identity disorder, which determines a more regressive defensive structure in these patients. Conclusion: Sex reassignment surgery did not improve the defensive profile as measured by the Defensive Style Questionnaire.Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de 32 pacientes transexuais em dois momentos do estudo usando o Defensive Style Questionnaire. Método: O Defensive Style Questionnaire foi aplicado a 32 pacientes quando ingressaram no Programa de Transtorno de Identidade de Gênero e 12 meses após a cirurgia de redesignação sexual. Resultados: Houve modificações em dois mecanismos de defesa: antecipação e idealização; porém, sem mudanças significativas nos fatores maduro, neurótico e imaturo. Discussão: Uma possibilidade para esse resultado é o fato de a intervenção cirúrgica não resolver a disforia de gênero (principal sintoma desses pacientes. Outro aspecto está relacionado com o fato de o transtorno de identidade de gênero ser instalado precocemente, o que determina uma estrutura defensiva mais regressiva para esses pacientes. Conclusão: A cirurgia de redesignação sexual não foi

  5. Comparing two self-report measures of coping--the Sense of Coherence Scale and the Defense Style Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammallahti, P R; Holi, M J; Komulainen, E J; Aalberg, V A

    1996-09-01

    Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and Bond's Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) were compared in a sample of 334 community controls and 122 psychiatric outpatients. The major question was, whether the two coping inventories with different theoretical backgrounds-stress research vs. psycho-analysis-tap similar phenomena. The affinity of the two coping measures was evident: in multiple regression analysis defenses explained 68% of the variance in sense of coherence. Not surprisingly, the SOC scale-emerging out of the salutogenic orientation-showed more expertise in measuring how people manage when they do well, whereas the DSQ-with its theoretical roots deep in psychopathology-was most sensitive to how people manage when they do rather poorly.

  6. Estilos de defensa predominantes en relación con experiencias anómalo/paranormales (Predominant Defenses Styles in Relation to Abnormal / Paranormal Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Parra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El concepto de mecanismos de defensa tiene sus orígenes en la teoría psicoanalítica, que se centra más en el proceso de las defensas que en el objetivo de las defensas. El presente estudio examinó las diferencias entre individuos que tienen experiencias anómalo/paranormales y tres estilos defensivos (factor maduro, neurótico e inmaduro y quienes no han tenido tales experiencias. Estudiantes universitarios (60 % mujeres y 40 % varones, Edad promedio = 33.87 años recibieron el Cuestionario de Estilos de Defensa (DSQ-40 y diez preguntas que exploran varias experiencias anómalo/paranormales. Las personas reportaron una alta frecuencia de experiencias, tales como déjà-vu, sueños de percepción extrasensorial (PES, telepatía y recuerdos de vidas pasadas. Los resultados también mostraron mayor nivel de experiencias paranormales y defensas maduras, así como defensas neuróticas, en comparación con individuos sin experiencias. Aunque la naturaleza del estudio es francamente exploratoria, el autor sugiere que algunas de estas experiencias atribuidas a causas paranormales parecen servir como un mecanismo de protección a potenciales eventos traumáticos, mejorar el bienestar subjetivo del individuo o – al menos– evitar o disminuir las consecuencias perturbadoras de los eventos negativos de la vida. Por lo tanto, las experiencias paranormales podrían corresponder a rasgos no patológicos que producen cambios en la «homeostasis» psicológica. ABSTRACT: The concept of defense mechanisms has its origins in psychoanalytic theory, which focuses more on the defenses´process than on the objective of defenses. The present study examined the differences between individuals who have abnormal/paranormal experiences – and three defensive styles (mature, neurotic, and immature factor, and those who have not had such experiences. College students (60 % women and 40 % men, mean age = 33.87 years old received the Defense Styles

  7. Teaching Clinical (and Nonclinical) Psychology through Applications to the Legal System: Violence Risk Assessment and the Insanity Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Marina L.; Costanzo, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of dangerousness and the insanity defense are two areas where psychologists provide research-based expertise to the courts. Teachers of psychology can use these topics to capture the attention of students and to show how psychological research and theory can inform and influence the legal system. Specifically, teachers can use the…

  8. Teacher Subject Specialisms and Their Relationships to Learning Styles, Psychological Types and Multiple Intelligences: Implications for Course Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris; Ball, Ian

    2004-01-01

    This study explores issues in teacher education that increase our understanding of, and response to, the individual differences displayed by learners. A large undergraduate teacher education cohort provided evidence of the range and distribution of preferences in learning styles, psychological types and multiple intelligences. This information…

  9. Relationship of Psychological Well-Being with Perceived Stress, Coping Styles, and Social Support amongst University Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulrajah, Annette Ananthi; Harun, Lily Mastura Haji

    The aim of this study was to: (a) explore the levels of four factors (psychological well-being, perceived stress, coping styles, and social support) among undergraduates; (b) acquire an accurate description of the demographic variables; (c) explore the relationships among the four factors after controlling for the possible intervening demographic…

  10. Adolescent survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the mediating role of attachment style and coping in psychological and interpersonal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, D L; Levendosky, A A

    1999-11-01

    To examine attachment style and coping strategies as potential mediating variables between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and psychological and interpersonal functioning in an attempt to explain variability in extent of disorder and level of functioning. Eighty adolescent females, aged 14-16 years, answered questions regarding abuse history, attachment style, coping with an interpersonal stressor, depression and trauma symptomatology, and conflict with a best friend. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that attachment style mediates the effects of CSA and child abuse and neglect on coping and psychological distress. The indirect effects of CSA and other abuse through attachment accounted for most of the effects on coping and psychological distress. Avoidant and cognitive coping strategies also served as mediators in the models, accounting for most of the effects of the other variables on interpersonal conflict. The findings indicate that attachment style and coping strategies influence psychological and interpersonal functioning, mediating the direct effects of CSA and other types of child abuse and neglect. These results have implications for therapeutic intervention with children and adolescents who have experienced child abuse.

  11. Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles as They Predict Constructive Culture and Defensive Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Eppard, Randy G.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a predictive model of several components of organizational and leadership Culture in a large sample of municipal employees using three sets of predictors: demographic/employment status of employees, measures of employeesâ judgments of their supervisorâ s transactional leadership styles, and measures of employeesâ judgments of their supervisorâ s transformational leadership style. To what extent does transformational and transactional leadership (bot...

  12. BMI, life-style and psychological conditions in a sample of elderly Italian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellini, F; Giuli, C; Papa, R; Gagliardi, C; Malavolta, M; Mocchegiani, E

    2010-08-01

    To identify the relationship among cognitive status, psychological conditions, anthropometric measurements and life-style in a sample of elderly Italian men and women. Three hundred and six volunteers for ZINCAGE Project recruited. The sample was made up of healthy older adults living in the Marche Region aged 65 and over. All elderly were given a complete medical, anthropometric assessment, and psycho-social evaluation. Overall, the participants perceived themselves to be in very good or good (22%) or fair (69%) health; only 9% reported a poor health status. The 46% of the sample fell within the normal body mass index (BMI) range, though 38% were overweight, 12% were obese, and only 4% were underweight. In both sexes, BMI significantly decreased with age (psedentary activities (r=0.188; psedentary (r=0.221; psedentary (r=0.258; p<0.001) leisure activities were positively associated with education level (p<0.05). It was found that lower scores of physical activity were associated to higher scores of Geriatric Depression Scale (r=-0.425; p<0.01), lower scores of Mini Mental State Examination (r=0.266; p<0.001) and higher score of Perceived Stress Scale (r=-0.131; p<0.05). Men and women lead different lifestyles and have a different psychological status, with advancing age consequently stressing the need for healthy lifestyle programmes particularly in the case of overweight and obese elderly people.

  13. Moderating effects of coping styles on anxiety and depressive symptoms caused by psychological stress in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C-X; Tse, L-A; Ye, X-Q; Lin, F-Y; Chen, Y-M; Chen, W-Q

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to assess possible interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes. Three hundred and four patients with Type 2 diabetes underwent a face-to-face interview by trained research staff according to a standardized questionnaire including information on socio-demographic characteristics, psychological stress, coping styles and anxiety and depressive symptoms. The interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed by hierarchical multiple regression analyses. There were significant associations of the four domains of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms, except for the relationship between 'reduced economic condition' and depressive symptoms. 'Negative coping style' significantly increased the level of both anxiety and depressive symptoms; whereas, 'active coping style' and 'avoidant coping style' decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The interactions of 'negative coping style' with 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' and 'reduced economic condition' significantly increased the risk of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and the interaction of 'social/family crisis caused by the disease' with 'avoidance coping style' and 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' with 'active coping style' significantly decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The results of this study suggest that certain coping styles might moderate the association of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  14. Psychosocial mediation of religious coping styles: a study of short-term psychological distress following cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L; Park, Crystal L; Huang, Bu; Rodgers, Willard; Tice, Terrence N

    2007-06-01

    Although religiousness and religious coping styles are well-documented predictors of well-being, research on the mechanisms through which religious coping styles operate is sparse. This prospective study examined religious coping styles, hope, and social support as pathways of the influence of general religiousness (religious importance and involvement) on the reduced postoperative psychological distress of 309 cardiac patients. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that controlling for preoperative distress, gender, and education, religiousness contributed to positive religious coping, which in turn was associated with less distress via a path fully mediated by the secular factors of social support and hope. Furthermore, negative religious coping styles, although correlated at the bivariate level with preoperative distress but not with religiousness, were associated both directly and indirectly with greater post-operative distress via the same mediators.

  15. A social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Arab

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being among third year high school female students in city of Khomeinishahr, Iran during the year of 2012. The study selects a sample of 300 students from 1260 female students who were enrolled in third year high school education, randomly. The study uses the Baumrind’s questionnaire on parenting style, which consists of 30 questions which equally measure three parenting styles including authoritarian, indulgent and authoritative in Likert scale. The survey also uses Gottfredson’s questionnaire to examine occupational aspirations. The study examines whether there is any relationship between parenting style from one side and three personal characteristics including gender, career aspiration and wishes type on the other side. Using Chi-Square technique, the survey examines three hypotheses and the results confirm all three hypotheses of the survey.

  16. The role of fantasies, countertransference, and psychological defenses in patient violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, W R

    1989-12-01

    Over the past decade the management of aggression on psychiatric units has generally focused on pharmacologic and physical interventions rather than on psychodynamic concerns. The author reviews the dynamics of violence and discusses how clinical staff's fantasies, countertransferences, and psychological defenses may interact to trigger patient aggression. Interventions that address these issues with staff include developing a cohesive treatment team in which clinical staff can express their feelings without the need to explore the psychodynamic underpinnings, having clinical leaders maintain a strong presence on the unit to serve as role models, and providing regular inservice training.

  17. Maternal Alexithymia and Attachment Style: Which Relationship with Their Children’s Headache Features and Psychological Profile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuela Tarantino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionA growing body of literature has shown an association between somatic symptoms and insecure “attachment style.” In a recent study, we found a relationship between migraine severity, ambivalent attachment style, and psychological symptoms in children/adolescents. There is evidence that caregivers’ attachment styles and their way of management/expression of emotions can influence children’s psychological profile and pain expression. To date, data dealing with headache are scarce. Our aim was to study the role of maternal alexithymia and attachment style on their children’s migraine severity, attachment style, and psychological profile.Materials and methodsWe enrolled 84 consecutive patients suffering from migraine without aura (female: 45, male: 39; mean age 11.8 ± 2.4 years. According to headache frequency, children/adolescents were divided into two groups: (1 high frequency (patients reporting from weekly to daily attacks, and (2 low frequency (patients having ≤3 episodes per month. We divided headache attacks intensity into two groups (mild and severe pain. SAFA “Anxiety,” “Depression,” and “Somatization” scales were used to explore children’s psychological profile. To evaluate attachment style, the semi-projective test SAT for patients and ASQ Questionnaire for mothers were employed. Maternal alexithymia traits were assessed by TAS-20.ResultsWe found a significant higher score in maternal alexithymia levels in children classified as “ambivalent,” compared to those classified as “avoiding” (Total scale: p = 0.011. A positive correlation has been identified between mother’s TAS-20 Total score and the children’s SAFA-A Total score (p = 0.026. In particular, positive correlations were found between maternal alexithymia and children’s “Separation anxiety” (p = 0.009 and “School anxiety” (p = 0.015 subscales. Maternal “Externally-oriented thinking” subscale

  18. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  19. Predicting recidivism in sex offenders with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Deming, Adam; Casbon, Todd

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was capable of predicting recidivism in 322 male sex offenders released from prison-based sex offender programs in a Midwestern state. The Static-99R and PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Reactive (R), and Entitlement (En) scores all correlated significantly with general recidivism, the Static-99R correlated significantly with violent recidivism, and the Static-99R score and PICTS GCT, Proactive (P), and En scores correlated significantly with failure to register as a sex offender (FTR) recidivism. Area under the curve effect size estimates varied from small to large, and Cox regression analyses revealed that the PICTS En score achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting general recidivism and the PICTS GCT, P, and En scores achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting FTR recidivism. It is speculated that the PICTS in general and the En scale in particular may have utility in risk management and treatment planning for sex offenders by virtue of their focus on antisocial thinking. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Coaches' interpersonal style, basic psychological needs and the well- and ill-being of young soccer players: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Isabel; González, Lorena; Fabra, Priscila; Castillo, Isabel; Mercé, Juan; Duda, Joan L

    2012-01-01

    This study entailed a longitudinal test of basic psychological needs theory, a sub-theory in the self-determination framework (Deci & Ryan, 2000), in young soccer players. We examined whether changes in soccer players' perceptions of the coaches' interpersonal style (autonomy supportive and controlling) predicted changes in the players' need satisfaction/need thwarting, and in turn, variability in their reported subjective vitality and burnout over the course of a season. Young male soccer players (M = 12.58 ± 0.54 years) completed a questionnaire at two time points in the season [n(T1) = 725; n(T2) = 597]. Changes in the players' perceptions of an autonomy supportive environment significantly predicted changes in psychological need satisfaction (positively) and in psychological need thwarting (negatively). Changes in psychological need satisfaction positively predicted changes in subjective vitality and negatively related to cross-time variation in global burnout scores. In contrast, changes in the players' perceptions of a controlling coach-created environment were positively associated with changes in psychological need thwarting that corresponded to increases in player burnout. Finally, results provided support for the assumed mediational roles of psychological need satisfaction and need thwarting in the social environment to well- and ill-being relationships.

  1. Parental Expressivity and Parenting Styles in Chinese Families: Prospective and Unique Relations to Children’s Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objectives Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children’s psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. Design The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children’s adjustment was measured with parents’, teachers’, and peers’ or children’s reports. Results Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children’s externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. Conclusions Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child’s adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes. PMID:23226715

  2. Analysis of psychological defense mechanism and personality character in patients with alcohol dependence%酒依赖患者心理防御机制及人格特征的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟健

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨酒依赖患者心理防御机制和人格特征. 方法:64例酒依赖患者于人院治疗2周后完全戒断酒精及躯体不适消除后运用防御方式问卷(DSQ)及艾森克个性问卷(EPQ)分别评定其防御机制及人格类型,并与129名健康对照者比较. 结果:酒依赖患者心理防御机制为不成熟及中间型;EPQ精神质和神经质评分显著高于正常对照者(P<0.05或P<O.01);不成熟及中间型防御机制与EPQ精神质和神经质评分正相关. 结论:酒依赖患者可能存在不良人格,其与不成熟防御机制相互关联.%Objective:To explore the psychological defense mechanism and personality character in patients with alcohol dependence.Method:After 2 weeks treatment in hospital,the 64 patients with alcohol dependence were completely eliminated withdrawal after alcohol and body discomfort.Then,the psychological defense mechanism and personality type were assessed by defense style questionnaire (DSQ) and Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ).The results were compared with 129 normal controls.Results:The psychological defense mechanisms in the patients were immature type and middle type.The scores of psychoticism and neuroticism of EPQ were significantly higher than normal controls (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).The styles of immature and middle psychological defense mechanisms were positively correlated to the scores of psychoticism and neuroticism in EPQ.Conclusion:The patients with alcohol dependence may have ill-personality; which correlated with immature defense mechanism.

  3. The interdependence between learning styles and and types of intelligence in students of Psychology specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Jelescu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Learning styles and types of intelligence are essential features of effective learning. Discovering and creative approach could be more appropriate form of learning to the current conditions of society.

  4. Social and psychological climate of educational institution as a measure of consistency of leadership style and type of organizational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Kotlyar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe process and results of a study conducted on the basis of state educational institutions of Moscow (a secondary school and a school with advanced study of foreign languages. We demonstrate the possibility of using the analysis of social and psychological environment as an indicator of leadership style consistency and type of organizational culture of educational institution. We revealed an educational trend that the real organizational culture with a predominance of one type of its elements, the desired profile will tend to the mixed type. We mapped out a plan for further research on the topic.

  5. The Comparison of Hardiness and Coping Styles with Psychological Stress in Addicted and Normal People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Molazadeh, E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the hardiness and coping styles with stress in addicted and normal people in the city of Rasht. Method: The method of this study was causal comparative research. In sampling one hundred addicts were selected by multistage cluster sampling and one hundred normal ones selected by available sampling, then the Kobasa personal views survey and Moos and Billings coping styles questionnaires were administered among both groups. The Pearson correlation coefficients, independent samples t-test and regression analysis were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences between the mean scores of hardiness and emotion focused coping style in addicted and normal people, but there was no significant difference on problem focused coping style. Regression analysis also showed that hardiness can be a significant predictor for emotion focused coping style. Conclusion: The findings of this research show the important role of some of the personality characteristics such as hardiness and coping styles with stress that may correlate with the tendency to addiction and substance abuse in people.

  6. COGNITIVE-STYLE APPROACH TO PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF THE GIFTED PUPILS MOUNTAIN SCHOOLS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Paliy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The differential-cognitological point of view, giftedness is “a systemic quality of a personality that develops throughout life and determines their abilities to achieve exceptionally high results in one or more activities compared to those of other people”. Herewith, it is the fundamental concept of general aptitude, under which “the level of general abilities development that determines the range of activities in which a person can achieve great success” is understood. Within the structure of general aptitude intellectual giftedness is singled out as the level of development, as well as the type of organization of individual mental experience, which ensure an opportunity of creative intellectual activity, i. e. an activity, related to the creation of subjectively and objectively new ideas, to the use of innovative approaches to solving problems and openness to controversial aspects of the situation and so on. In order to identify talented children and adults the value of intellectual quotient (IQ is still most commonly used. Psychometric approach (the measurement of psychic phenomena with the help of standardized IQ tests to the diagnosis of intellectual giftedness, which is dominant in psychological diagnostics today, by definition, cannot “measure” the phenomena of an individual psyche, since the modern level of psychological science does not allow to proceed to psychological diagnosis, let alone prediction of a certain person`s behavior, on the basis of individual results in performing a psychological test (psychometric test of intelligence, personality questionnaire, projective methods etc. In our opinion, many problems in psychological and pedagogical support of gifted children could be avoided by making use of cognitive-style approach to diagnosis of intellectual giftedness, creative abilities, propensities and peculiar mental traits of a separate individuality. Objectivity of such an approach is corroborated by the results

  7. The Interrelations among the Perception of Parental Styles and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAHIMI, Farnaz; HEAVEN, Patrick; CIARROCHI, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal study aims to examine the relationships between the perception of parental style, hope, self-esteem and Eysenck’s psychoticism dimension throughout the span of four years. Methods: The sample was composed of 884 students from the Wollongong Youth Study, which commenced when students entered high school. During the course of the 4 years of the study, each participant completed the test booklets each time data was collected. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Post-hoc test, Repeated Measurement, Pearson and Partial Correlation and General Linear Model in order to provide the aims of the study. Results: The mean score of hope and self-esteem among adolescents from authoritative parents were higher from permissive and authoritarian families while the hope with a permissive perception were lower than those with authoritarian, and self-esteem was lower in the authoritarian group compared to the permissive group. Children with a permissive perception reported higher psychoticism compared to the two other. Significant correlations were found between authoritative perception and hope, self-esteem and psychoticism. Finally, hope, self-esteem and psychoticism showed a significant inter correlation in all of the parental styles. Conclusion: Adolescents with the perception of each kind of parental style showed significant between group differences in psychological well-being throughout the four years of the study. PMID:23967424

  8. The Interrelations among the Perception of Parental Styles and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahimi, Farnaz; Heaven, Patrick; Ciarrochi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study aims to examine the relationships between the perception of parental style, hope, self-esteem and Eysenck's psychoticism dimension throughout the span of four years. The sample was composed of 884 students from the Wollongong Youth Study, which commenced when students entered high school. During the course of the 4 years of the study, each participant completed the test booklets each time data was collected. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Post-hoc test, Repeated Measurement, Pearson and Partial Correlation and General Linear Model in order to provide the aims of the study. The mean score of hope and self-esteem among adolescents from authoritative parents were higher from permissive and authoritarian families while the hope with a permissive perception were lower than those with authoritarian, and self-esteem was lower in the authoritarian group compared to the permissive group. Children with a permissive perception reported higher psychoticism compared to the two other. Significant correlations were found between authoritative perception and hope, self-esteem and psychoticism. Finally, hope, self-esteem and psychoticism showed a significant inter correlation in all of the parental styles. Adolescents with the perception of each kind of parental style showed significant between group differences in psychological well-being throughout the four years of the study.

  9. Psychological Separation and Adjustment to University: Moderating Effects of Gender, Age, and Perceived Parenting Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyers, Wim; Goossens, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Examined the association between psychological separation and adjustment to university among college students. Found that two dimensions of psychological separation--independence from parents and positive separation feelings--predicted better adjustment to college life. Independence from parents was moderated by grade, gender, and perceived…

  10. Développement d'un Gestionnaire Automatisé de Bibliographies selon les normes de l'American Psychological Association (GABI APA Style)

    OpenAIRE

    Thirion, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Nowadays, there are plenty of complete and user-friendly database management systems. However, most of them only produce poorly organized raw data, generally lacking of internal consistency. This situation remains awkward, especially for scientists who have regularly to report references in an extremely ruled international format. GABI APA Style was built in titis context. GABl APA Style is a reference manager software using the presentation rules of the American Psychological Association ...

  11. Intellectual ability, learning style, personality, achievement motivation and academic success of psychology students in higher education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busato, V.V.; Prins, F.J.; Elshout, J.J.; Hamaker, C.

    2000-01-01

    This study is directed towards an integration of intellectual ability, learning style, personality and achievement motivation as predictors of academic success in higher education. Correlational analyses partly confirmed and partly disconfirmed our expectations in a sample of 409 first-year

  12. Repressive Adaptive Style and Self-Reported Psychological Functioning in Adolescent Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Gerstle, Melissa; Montague, Erica Q.

    2008-01-01

    Low levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and psychosocial distress have been reported in pediatric cancer survivors. One explanation is the relatively high prevalence of the repressive adaptive style (low distress, high restraint) in this population. We investigated the relationship between this…

  13. Religious Coping Styles, General Health, and Psychological Well-Being Among Mothers of Mentally Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nikmanesh

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: The results of the current study suggest that the religious coping styles affect the general health among the mothers of mentally disabled children. This study also indicated that paying attention to the type of religious coping used by these mothers is essential.

  14. Oxidative stress associated with exercise, psychological stress and life-style factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1996-01-01

    generation. Here, we review the effect of alcohol, air pollution, cigarette smoke, diet, exercise, non-ionizing radiation (UV and microwaves) and psychological stress on the development of oxidative stress. Regular exercise and carbohydrate-rich diets seem to increase the resistance against oxidative stress....... Air pollution, alcohol, cigarette smoke, non-ionizing radiation and psychological stress seem to increase oxidative stress. Alcohol in lower doses may act as an antioxidant on low density lipoproteins and thereby have an anti-atherosclerotic property....

  15. Self-Regulation and Dimensions of Parenting Styles Predict Psychological Procrastination of Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Mortazanajad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nPrevious research has linked self regulation and parenting styles separately to academic procrastination. This article investigates the impact of the dimensions of parenting styles, behavioral self regulation and short term self regulation on procrastination of students. "nMethod: A sample of 249 adolescents (174 females and 75 male aged 19 - 21 years completed measures of Parent as Social Context Questionnaire- Adolescent Report, Self-regulation Questionnaire (SRQ, Adolescent Self- Regulatory Inventory (ASRI and Procrastination Tendency scale. Correlation coefficient indicted that in contrast to harsh or unsupportive parenting (rejection, chaos, and coercion, authoritative parenting (warmth, structure, and autonomy support was inversely related with procrastination. "nResults: The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed a clear negative relationship between a students' short term self regulation, dimensions of parenting styles (structure and warmth and procrastination consistent with the literature. "nConclusions: Surprisingly, in contrast to behavioral self regulation of Miler& Brown, short term self regulation was found to be negatively related to procrastination.

  16. The interaction of perceived maternal and paternal parenting styles and their relation with the psychological distress and offending characteristics of incarcerated young offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J; Power, K; Loucks, N; Swanson, V

    2001-04-01

    A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental control. Parental care was not a distinguishing factor in offending patterns, although high paternal control was linked with a younger age of first arrest. When interactions of paternal and maternal parenting styles were examined, young offenders who perceived poor parenting (i.e. neglectful parenting or affectionless control) from both parents had the highest levels of psychological distress overall. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  17. Psychological Defenses against Death Anxiety: Integrating Terror Management Theory and Firestone's Separation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Jonathan F.

    2007-01-01

    The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing…

  18. Predicting recidivism with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) in community-supervised male and female federal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Lowenkamp, Christopher T

    2016-06-01

    Higher order scores derived from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; Walters, 1995) have been found to predict recidivism in released prison inmates with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The current study sought to determine whether the PICTS is capable of predicting general recidivism in a sample of 81,881 male and 14,519 female offenders on federal probation or supervised release. Results indicated that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking, Proactive, and Reactive scores and 6 of the 7 thinking style scales predicted recidivism in follow-ups of 6 or more months, 12 or more months, and 24 or more months with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The effect sizes were reduced to small and low-moderate, respectively, when age and prior arrests were controlled for in a series of partial correlations. It was also noted that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking score contributed significant diagnostic information to recidivism prediction in both males and females above and beyond the information provided by a comprehensive risk assessment procedure. These results indicate that the PICTS may be a useful adjunct to other risk assessment procedures in providing comprehensive risk prediction and management services to offenders under community supervision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. An item response theory analysis of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles: comparing male and female probationers and prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-09-01

    An item response theory (IRT) analysis of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was performed on 26,831 (19,067 male and 7,764 female) federal probationers and compared with results obtained on 3,266 (3,039 male and 227 female) prisoners from previous research. Despite the fact male and female federal probationers scored significantly lower on the PICTS thinking style scales than male and female prisoners, discrimination and location parameter estimates for the individual PICTS items were comparable across sex and setting. Consistent with the results of a previous IRT analysis conducted on the PICTS, the current results did not support sentimentality as a component of general criminal thinking. Findings from this study indicate that the discriminative power of the individual PICTS items is relatively stable across sex (male, female) and correctional setting (probation, prison) and that the PICTS may be measuring the same criminal thinking construct in male and female probationers and prisoners. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Different Approaches to Teaching the Mechanics of American Psychological Association Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Timothy M.; Spitzer, Tam M.

    2006-01-01

    Students have to learn two distinctly different tasks when writing research papers: a) creating and organizing prose, and b) formatting a manuscript according to the nuances and mechanics of a pre-determined format, such as Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. Two studies examined different…

  1. Personal involvement as a special style of Department of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takhir Yu. Bazarov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The author, being a former student of the Department of Psychology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, and now is teacher, professor, remembers those who created and maintained such traditions of the Department as depth of knowledge and coherence of ideas, methodological clarity and dialogue, holistic view of the issue and using problem solving in teaching, and also the joint work of professors and students in the way of perceiving the truth. According to the author the 50th anniversary of the Department of Psychology is an occasion to both recall the path members of the Department went over the years, including several epochs, and to outline the prospects for further development. Considerable attention is paid to the personality of G.M. Andreeva, who is a gifted teacher, a brilliant scholar, and one of the founders of social psychology in the Russia. Particular attention is drawn to Galina Andreeva collecting the brightest staff of the Chair of Social Psychology, whose key feature was involvement in both the scientific and also collective life of the Department, which contributed to the development of the new important branch of psychology. The author also singles out the figure of the wonderful teacher L.A. Petrovskaya who encouraged the students to cherish their individuality as she believed it to be the main tool of the professional psychologist. With much gratitude the author recalls tips for organizing the teaching process received from A.U. Kharash. The paper characterizes the current state and the importance of the Department, and outlines the prospects for further development. In particular, the author speaks of the need for developing student personal involvement in professional activities, and also of creating favourable conditions at the Deaprtment for a student successful transition from training to real life.

  2. The learning type makes the difference - the interrelation of Kolb's learning styles and psychological status of preclinical medical students at the University of Erlangen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Pascal H; Scholz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Theories on learning styles and types have been integral to discussions on the basics of teaching for nearly 40 years. The learning style typology of Kolb divides learners into four groups (Diverger, Assimilator, Converger and Accomodator), which differ both in terms of their learning behaviour as well as personality and preferences. We studied the sense of coherence and burnout symptoms in medical students of the preclinical semesters (1(st) to 4(th) semester) at the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen within the context of the observed learning styles. A total of 530 students were interviewed in winter semester 2012/13 using standardized psychometric questionnaires. Our students showed a significant correlation between the respective learning styles and expression of a sense of coherence, as well as cognitive and emotional burnout symptoms. The learning styles of the students differed significantly within these same parameters. We also demonstrated that learning styles and types not only influence study performance, but that there are also relationships to sense of coherence and psychological ailments. A more forward-looking integration of the theory of learning types in the medical education curriculum could positively influence both the performance and psychological well-being of the students.

  3. Long-term psychological distress, and styles of coping, in parents of children and adolescents who underwent invasive treatment for congenital cardiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerboer, Alinda W.; Helbing, Willem A.; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; van Domburg, Ron T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the level of psychological distress and styles of coping in both mothers and fathers of children who underwent invasive treatment for congenital cardiac disease at least 7 years and 6 months ago. The General Health Questionnaire and the Utrecht Coping List were completed by parents of

  4. Does age at the time of elective cardiac surgery or catheter intervention in children influence the longitudinal development of psychological distress and styles of coping of parents?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utens, Elisabeth M.; Versluis-den Bieman, Herma J.; Witsenburg, Maarten; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Hess, John; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2002-01-01

    To assess the influence of age at a cardiac procedure of children, who underwent elective cardiac surgery or interventional cardiac catheterisation for treatment of congenital cardiac defects between 3 months and 7 years of age, on the longitudinal development of psychological distress and styles of

  5. Alexithymia, Defenses, and Ego Strength: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Relationships with Psychological Well-Being and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziadni, Maisa S; Jasinski, Matthew J; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela; Lumley, Mark A

    2017-12-01

    Affect regulation is important to mental health. A deficit in one's ability to identify and express emotions (alexithymia), cognitive styles of regulating emotional conflict (defenses), and the capacity for integrative and complex self-other understanding (ego strength or maturity) need to be studied to understand how they relate to each other as well as to mental health and well-being. A sample of 415 community-dwelling adults from a major metropolitan area in the Midwest U.S., stratified for gender, age, and ethnicity, completed three methodologically different measures of affect regulation along with measures of well-being and depression. Six years later, 49% of the sample again reported their well-being and depression. At baseline, ego strength and the defenses of principalization and reversal correlated negatively with alexithymia and the other defenses (turning against self, turning against object and projection), even after controlling for negative affect. Cross-sectionally, relationships were largely as hypothesized, with low alexithymia, use of mature defenses, and greater ego strength correlating with less depression and greater well-being, although some of these relationships were attenuated after controlling for negative affect. Prospectively, each of the affect regulation measures predicted hypothesized changes in well-being after 6 years, after controlling for baseline well-being, but affect regulation did not predict changes in depression. These findings illuminate similarities and differences among these affect regulation constructs, suggest the importance of differentiating well-being from depression, and reveal that affect regulation uniquely predicts changes in long-term well-being.

  6. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 21, Number 2, Issue 69

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Manual of the American Psychological Association ( 6th Edition ). For all other style questions, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th...Graphic Designer Technical Editor Editorial Assistant Proofreader Multimedia Assistant Editing , Design, and Layout A Publication of the Defense...language. Format Please submit your manuscript with references in APA format (author-date-page number form of citation) as outlined in the Publication

  7. Probing folk-psychology: Do Libet-style experiments reflect folk intuitions about free action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschländer, Robert; Pauen, Michael; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2017-02-01

    There is an ongoing debate in philosophy and psychology about when one should consider an action to be free. Several aspects are frequently suggested as relevant: (a) a prior intention, (b) a conscious action-related thought, (c) prior deliberation, (d) a meaningful choice, (e) different consequences of the action, and (f) the duration between intention and action. Here we investigated which criteria laypeople adopt and thus probed their intuitions about free actions in three surveys based on daily life scenarios. First, our results indicate that laypeople consider a conscious intention important for an action to be free. Second, laypeople consider spontaneous actions without consequences to be freer than actions with prior deliberation. Third, laypeople consider proximal rather than distal intentions relevant when it comes to judging actions as free. Taken together, these results suggest that simple laboratory experiments on action choices reflect laypeople's intuitions of free actions to a considerable degree. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Accuracy of weight perception, life-style behaviours and psychological distress among overweight and obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambalia, Amina; Hardy, Louise L; Bauman, Adrian

    2012-03-01

    To compare overweight and obese adolescents with accurate and inaccurate self-reported weight perception across a range of behaviours and measures of psychological well-being. This study uses a cross-sectional survey of grade 7-12 high school students in New South Wales, Australia, conducted in 2008 (n= 7553). Overweight and obese students based on body mass index were classified as accurate perceivers (weight perception was 'too fat') or inaccurate perceivers (weight perception was 'about right'). Nearly a third of adolescents had incongruity between self-perceived body weight status and body mass index-determined weight category. Compared with boys, girls were less likely to underestimate their body weight (odds ratio: 0.26; 95% confidence interval: 0.25, 0.27) and more likely to overestimate their body weight (odds ratio: 3.4; 95% confidence interval: 3.3, 3.5). Accurate body weight perception was higher in obese adolescents compared with overweight adolescents (69.5% vs. 44.0%). Compared with mis-perceivers, accurate overweight and obese perceivers had significantly higher odds of trying to lose weight and being more physically active; however, they showed a combination of unhealthy and healthy behaviours (i.e. dietary patterns and sedentary activities). Accurate weight perception among overweight and obese adolescents was associated with increased odds of feeling sad or depressed in the past 6 months. Further research on social, familial and psychological factors that predict or mediate healthy and unhealthy weight-related behaviours among adolescents by accuracy of weight perception is needed. Accurate weight perception should be considered in counselling and behavioural interventions. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. Examining patterns of association with defensive information processing about colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Amy; Swank, Paul R; Vernon, Sally W

    2014-11-01

    To reduce negative psychological affect from information or behavior that is inconsistent with one's positive self-concept, individuals use a variety of defensive strategies. It is unknown whether correlates differ across defenses. We examined correlates of four levels of defensive information processing about colorectal cancer screening. Cross-sectional surveys were completed by a convenience sample of 287 adults aged 50-75 years. Defenses measures were more consistently associated with individual differences (especially avoidant coping styles); however, situational variables involving health-care providers also were important. Future research should examine changes in defenses after risk communication and their relative impact on colorectal cancer screening. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Family function, Parenting Style and Broader Autism Phenotype as Predicting Factors of Psychological Adjustment in Typically Developing Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Mohammadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and "broader autism phenotype" (BAP, while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children's behavioral and psychosocial adjustment are overlooked. The aim of the present study was to reveal how parenting style and family function as well as BAP effect psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism.The Participants included 65 parents who had one child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and one typically developing child. Of the children with ASDs, 40 were boys and 25 were girls; and they were diagnosed with ASDs by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R. The Persian versions of the six scales were used to collect data from the families. Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis were used to determine which variables were related to the psychological adjustment of sibling of children with ASDs and which variables predicted it better.Significant relationships were found between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ total difficulties, prosocial behaviors and ASDs symptoms severity, parenting styles and some aspects of family function. In addition, siblings who had more BAP characteristics had more behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Behavioral problems increased and prosocial behavior decreased with permissive parenting style. Besides, both of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles led to a decrease in behavioral problems and an increase in prosocial behaviors. Our findings revealed that some aspects of family function (affective responsiveness, roles, problem solving and behavior control were

  11. Family function, Parenting Style and Broader Autism Phenotype as Predicting Factors of Psychological Adjustment in Typically Developing Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammadreza; Zarafshan, Hadi

    2014-04-01

    Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and "broader autism phenotype" (BAP), while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children's behavioral and psychosocial adjustment are overlooked. The aim of the present study was to reveal how parenting style and family function as well as BAP effect psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism. The Participants included 65 parents who had one child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and one typically developing child. Of the children with ASDs, 40 were boys and 25 were girls; and they were diagnosed with ASDs by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). The Persian versions of the six scales were used to collect data from the families. Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis were used to determine which variables were related to the psychological adjustment of sibling of children with ASDs and which variables predicted it better. Significant relationships were found between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties, prosocial behaviors and ASDs symptoms severity, parenting styles and some aspects of family function. In addition, siblings who had more BAP characteristics had more behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Behavioral problems increased and prosocial behavior decreased with permissive parenting style. Besides, both of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles led to a decrease in behavioral problems and an increase in prosocial behaviors. Our findings revealed that some aspects of family function (affective responsiveness, roles, problem solving and behavior control) were significantly

  12. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk;...

  13. The Mediator Relationship/Effect of Subsets of Applied Parenting Styles and Self ـ Efficacy on Psychological Well ـ Being in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    لیدا ملک‌زاده

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the moderator relationship of dimensions of parenting styles and self-efficacy with psychological wellbeing in teenagers. The statical population of this study is all female students in first grade of high school in Tehran.Four hundred and fifty students were selected through cluster sampling method form 5 areas (north, south, west, east and center in Tehran. For measuring the factors in this study parenting styles (Shiffer,1965, psychological wellbeing scale (ryff, 1989 and self-efficacy scale (Sherer & Adams, 1982 were used. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and path analysis. Results show that the moderator effect of self-efficacy and perceived Acceptance-Rejection significantly predict psychological wellbeing and subscales of Environmental mastery, Personal growth, Positive relations with others, Purpose in life and Self- acceptance. Self-efficacy and perceived demandingness-Freedom, separately and significantly predicts subscale of Autonomy. In conclusion, results show that the moderator effect of self-efficacy­ and perceived Acceptance-Rejection and the moderator effect of self-efficacy and perceived demandingness-Freedom significantly predicts subscale of self-acceptance. In subscale of positive relations with others, in addition to the moderator effect between self-efficacy and perceived Acceptance-Rejection, these later two variables separately are significant predictor variables.

  14. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 18, Number 4, Issue 60, October 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    number form of citation ) as outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition). For all other style questions...please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th Edition). Contributors are encouraged to seek the advice of a reference librarian in completing...From Workforce to Warfighter Diagnosing Key Drivers of Job Impact and Business Results Attributable to Training at the Defense Acquisition

  15. Estilos de aprendizaje y metacognición en estudiantes de psicología de Arequipa (Learning and Metacognition Styles in Psychology Students from Arequipa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lizandro Arias Gallegos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En este estudio se presenta la correlación de los estilos de aprendizaje según el modelo de Kolb (divergente, asimilador, convergente y acomodador con la metacognición y sus tres dimensiones (autoconocimiento, autorregulación y evaluación. Para ello, se utilizó el Inventario de Estilos de Aprendizaje de Kolb (α = 0.8 y el Inventario de Estrategias Metacognitivas de O’Neil y Abedi (α = 0.90. La muestra estuvo conformada por 273 estudiantes de psicología de tres universidades de Arequipa, seleccionados mediante la técnica de grupos intactos. Los resultados indican que el estilo divergente es el predominante en las tres universidades y que existen altos porcentajes de estudiantes con niveles bajos de metacognición, autoconocimiento, autorregulación y evaluación. Para el caso de la Universidad Nacional de San Agustín (UNSA y la Universidad Católica de Santa María (UCSM, se hallaron relaciones entre el estilo de aprendizaje convergente y la metacognición. Hubo relaciones inversas entre este estilo y el estilo divergente. El análisis de varianza indica que los estilos de aprendizaje no tienen efecto sobre la metacognición ni sus dimensiones. Abstract In this study, learning styles were correlated according to Kolb’s model (divergent, assimilator, convergent and usher with metacognition and its three dimensions (self-knowledge, self-regulation and evaluation. For this purpose, Kolb’s Styles of Learning Inventory was used (α = 0.87 and O’Neil and Abedi’s Metacognitive Strategies Inventory (α = 0.90. The sample was made-up of 273 psychology students from three universities in Arequipa that were selected through the intact group technique. The results indicated that the divergent style is prevalent in the three universities, and there are high percentages of students with low levels of metacognition, self-knowledge, self-regulation and evaluation. In the case of the Universidad Nacional de San Agustin (UNSA and the

  16. Ego mechanisms of defense are associated with patients? preference of treatment modality independent of psychological distress in end-stage renal disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Katsoudas, Spiros; Voudiclari, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    Several parameters mediate the selection of treatment modality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The nephrology community suggests that patient preference should be the prime determinant of modality choice. We aimed to test whether ego mechanisms of defense are associated with patients? treatment modality preferences, independent of psychological distress. In 58 eligible ESRD patients who had themselves chosen their treatment modality, we administered the Symptom Distress Checklist-90-R and ...

  17. Inflexible Parents, Inflexible Kids: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study of Parenting Style and the Development of Psychological Flexibility in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn E.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2012-01-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined…

  18. Coping styles and locus of control as predictors for psychological adjustment of adolescents with a chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, JO; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, WHG

    This study examines the way coping styles and locus of control contribute to the prediction of psychosocial adjustment in adolescents with a chronic illness. Psychosocial adjustment of 84 adolescents aged 13-16 years with a chronic illness was assessed with measures of social adjustment. global

  19. The Interrelations among the Perception of Parental Styles and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    SHAHIMI, Farnaz; HEAVEN, Patrick; CIARROCHI, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal study aims to examine the relationships between the perception of parental style, hope, self-esteem and Eysenck?s psychoticism dimension throughout the span of four years. Methods: The sample was composed of 884 students from the Wollongong Youth Study, which commenced when students entered high school. During the course of the 4 years of the study, each participant completed the test booklets each time data was collected. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Po...

  20. Attachment style, relationship quality, and psychological distress in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures versus epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Becky; Norman, Paul; Reuber, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Psychopathology levels are elevated in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and those with epilepsy. However, patients with PNES report higher rates of trauma and neglect, poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and an increased prevalence of insecure attachment. We examined to what extent attachment style and relationship quality with their main informal carer impact on levels of HRQoL, depression, and anxiety in patients with PNES versus those with epilepsy. Consecutive patients with PNES (N=23) and epilepsy (N=72) completed questionnaires about attachment style, quality of their relationship with their main informal carer, seizure severity, HRQoL, depression, and anxiety. Patients with PNES reported higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower HRQoL than those with epilepsy. PNES: No significant correlations were found with HRQoL but depression correlated positively with attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and relationship conflict. Anxiety correlated positively with attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and relationship conflict, and negatively with relationship depth and support. Epilepsy: HRQoL correlated negatively with seizure severity, depression, anxiety, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety. Depression correlated positively with attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and relationship conflict. Anxiety correlated positively with seizure severity, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety. Correlations between measures of relationship quality and anxiety were stronger in patients with PNES versus those with epilepsy (zs=2.66 to 2.97, ps<0.004). Attachment style and relationship quality explained larger amounts of variance in depression (45%) and anxiety (60%) in the patients with PNES than those with epilepsy (16% and 13%). Levels of anxiety and depression were higher in patients with PNES than those with epilepsy. Interpersonal problems were much more closely associated with anxiety and depression in

  1. Design and Validation of a Rubric to Assess the Use of American Psychological Association Style in Scientific Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merma Molina, Gladys; Peña Alfaro, Hilda; Peña Alfaro González, Silvia Rosa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the "American Psychological Association" (APA). The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific…

  2. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association--5th edition: a review of additions and changes in style requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cynthia L; Aud, Myra A

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the substantive changes and enhancements between the 4th edition and new 5th edition of the so that modifications and enhancements are more easily incorporated into the reader's writing and editing practice. The 4th and new 5th editions of the were compared and substantive changes are presented. The following text style requirements are addressed: (a) use of parentheses to enclose statistical values, (b) use of italics, and (c) presentation of statistical data. Reference citation style changes include: (a) use of italics instead of underlining, (b) use of et al., and (c) use of the hanging indent. With the explosion of electronic media use, guidelines for documenting these sources are reviewed. Appropriate use of adverbs and research subject descriptors, submission of manuscripts on disks or files, responsibilities of corresponding authors, and converting the dissertation into a journal article are addressed. This information should assist the reader to quickly and accurately focus upon the enhancements and changes in the recently released 5th edition. Hopefully these changes will easily be incorporated into the readers' editing responsibilities, manuscripts, and subsequent publications.

  3. Sexual Stigma, Coping Styles, and Psychological Distress: A Longitudinal Study of Men Who Have Sex With Men in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Steward, Wayne T; Miège, Pierre; Hudes, Esther; Gregorich, Steven E

    2016-08-01

    The direct link between stigma against sexual minorities and psychological distress is well established. However, few studies have examined the potential mediating roles of avoidant and social support coping in the relationships between internalized and anticipated stigma associated with homosexuality and depressive symptoms and anxiety among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). We recruited a longitudinal sample of 493 MSM in Beijing, China from 2011 to 2012. Participants completed computer-based questionnaires at baseline, 6, and 12 months. We found significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on symptoms of both depression and anxiety via avoidant coping: anticipated MSM stigma at baseline was significantly associated with avoidant coping (B = 0.523, p stigma, avoidant coping had a significant positive effect on depressive symptoms and anxiety at 12 months (B = 0.069, p = 0.001 and B = 0.071, p = 0.014). In contrast, no significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on either psychological distress outcome via social support coping were found. No significant indirect effects of internalized MSM stigma via either avoidant or social support coping were found. These results underscore the need for interventions that address anticipations of stigma and the use of avoidant coping techniques to manage such anticipations.

  4. Studying the relationship between the styles of attachment, drug addiction and psychological profile of addicts in comparison with non-addicts (in self-introduced centers of Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Emphasizing on effective factors in drug dependency and multiple drug relapse, is probably related to formation of personality models. These models are heavily affected by development orientation personality. Various researches show that attachment as a development factor has a decisive role in forming personality models. Hence, in one hand, the present research evaluates the relationship between attachment styles and drug dependency and ,in the other hand, it addresses the relationship between attachment /drug addiction and psychological profile. The statistical community of this research consists of all male referrals to self-introduced centers in Bushehr province in summer 1381. The sample group consists 100 individuals of this community and comparison group cnosists another 100 individuals who had no history of drug abuse. They were controlled by counterpart variables. The tools of this research are MCMI-II and adults’ attachment questionnaire. The satisfaction of validity and reliabilty of research literature are reported. Apllied statistical methods include χ² statistical test and profile analysis. To compare the individual distribution based on attachment style, χ² test is obtained meaningfully in P<0/05 level. Also, the results of profile analysis for evaluating the effect of drug addiction and attachment style on psychological profile is meaningful in P<0/01 level. In summary, the research shows that there is a relationship between attachment style and drug addiction as well as between attachment/addiction and psychological profile.

  5. Stamina in adults: is attachment style a factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, R J; Hicks, R A; Roundtree, T; Inman, G M

    2000-10-01

    The study was designed to extend inquiry on adult attachment style to include the variable of personal stamina. The data were derived from an anonymous survey administered to 163 college students (82 women and 81 men) in introductory psychology classes. Attachment style was measured by the Close Relationship Questionnaire, based on a four-category scheme suggested by Bartholomew. Stamina was evaluated with a self-report scale developed by R. A. Hicks. The pattern of statistically significant differences (p stamina scores than did those who self-endorsed the fearful or preoccupied alternatives in that categorical measure. No other pairwise comparisons of stamina scores were statistically significant. The results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that secure attachment is more facilitative of personal stamina than are insecure styles. Methodological limits on inferences and corresponding alternative interpretations, the potential effectiveness of defensive suppression of the attachment system in dismissing-avoidant adults, and directions for research are discussed.

  6. Design and Validation of a Rubric to Assess the Use of American Psychological Association Style in scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Merma Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the American Psychological Association (APA. The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific article is coherent with these rules. Overall, the rubric will concentrate on General Aspects of the article and on the Citation System. To do this, 10 articles that were published within 2012-2016 and included in the Journal Citation Report will be analyzed using technical expertise. After doing 5 pilot studies, the results showed the validity and the reliability of the instrument. Furthermore, the process showed the evidence of the possibilities of the rubric to contribute to uniform criteria that can be used as a didactic tool in different scenarios.

  7. FY96 Support to the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), Center for Standards (CFS) for continuing improvement of the DoD HCI Style Guide. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; Donohoo, D.T.; Sanchez, J.A.; Gellert, D.A.

    1996-09-30

    PNNL successfully completed the three tasks: Task 1 - This task provided DISA with an updated set of design checklists that can be used to measure compliance with the Style Guide. These checklists are in Microsoft{reg_sign}Word 6.0 format. Task 2 - This task provided a discussion of two basic models for using the Style Guide and the Design Checklist, as a compliance tool and as a design tool.

  8. Remembered parenting style and psychological well-being in young adults whose parents had experienced early child loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantke, Renate; Slade, Pauline

    2006-03-01

    Pre-, peri-, or postnatal childloss can have devastating consequences for bereaved families. This study explored the long-term sequelae of these experiences for the young adult siblings' psychological well-being and the perceived quality of parenting received during participants' first 16 years of life. A bereaved group of young adult siblings was compared to a non-bereaved group on the Parent Bonding Instrument, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and the Mental Health Index-5. The loss group reported their mothers, but not their fathers, to have been more protective/controlling than non-bereaved participants. No differences between the loss group and the comparison group were found for parental care, their own mental health or self-esteem. Those participants whose siblings died during the peri/post-natal period perceived their parents as more controlling than the miscarriage group as well as the non-bereaved group. Higher protection scores were evident among those born subsequent to the loss than those who were born before. Lower levels of protection were associated with better mental health across all groups. In the non-bereaved group lower levels of protection were associated with better self-esteem, but in the bereaved group a different even opposite pattern was shown. Young adults who lost a sibling when they themselves were under 5 recall their mothers as more protective/controlling than non-bereaved groups, although they do not report less care nor differ in mental health nor self-esteem. Higher levels of parental protection/control were found where the child was born subsequent to loss and for peri/post-natal loss rather than miscarriage. While high protection was associated with poorer mental health regardless of loss this may not be necessarily disadvantageous to the child's self-esteem. Differences with regard to parent gender were found.

  9. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Shuvabrata; Sanyal, Nilanjana; Mukherjee, Urbi

    2014-01-01

    An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. The main objectives of the present study were (a) to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b) whether the primary infertile women (n=18) are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12) with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women) were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life.

  10. Psychological profile of women with infertility: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvabrata Poddar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: An endeavour to probe into the psychological profile of infertile women in a comparative stance with the fertile women is not very common. This study is an attempt to explore the possible non-apparent personality factors which contribute to the unexplained pain of infertility. Methods: The main objectives of the present study were (a to examine whether infertile women are different from fertile women in terms of selected psychological variables- narcissistic components, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defensive manoeuvres; and (b whether the primary infertile women (n=18 are different from the secondary infertile women (n=12 with respect to those variables. A total of 60 individuals (30 infertile women and 30 matched fertile women were assessed through Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ, Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI and Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ was administered on to the fertile women to rule out the psychiatric morbidity. Results: Findings revealed that infertile women group differed from fertile women group with respect to narcissism, dimensions of attachment style and uses of defense mechanism. The primary infertile group also showed marked difference from the secondary infertile group with respect to those variables. Conclusions: This study endeavours to enrich the knowledge regarding the personality dynamics of infertile women to design psychotherapeutic programme to aid their well-being, help them to cherish the flavour of parenthood and improve their quality of life.

  11. Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Education.

    Information is provided regarding major learning styles and other factors important to student learning. Several typically asked questions are presented regarding different learning styles (visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic, and multisensory learning), associated considerations, determining individuals' learning styles, and appropriate…

  12. 父母教养方式和青少年成就动机、竞争心理的关系%The Relationship between Parental Rearing Styles and Adolescents Achievement Motivation, Competitive Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶颖瑜; 应湘

    2012-01-01

    To explore adolescent parents parenting style, achievement motivation and competitive psychology. The parents' rearing style rating scale (EMBU), Achievement Motivation Scale (AMS), college students compete psychological scale and high school students compete psychological scale of 397 young people. Results: (1), adolescents' parenting styles mainly to positive parenting, care to understand more severely punished less, and due to the gender of their children, whether begotten and grade differences. (2), parents' some factors and achievement motivation, competitive psychological and significantly related. (3), the parents of some of the factors and achievement motivation, competitive psychological predictive ability.%为探索青少年父母教养方式、成就动机和竞争心理的关系。采用父母教养方式评价量表(EMBU)、成就动机量表(AMS)、大学生竞争心理量表和中学生竞争心理量表对397名青少年进行研究。结果表明:(1)青少年父母教养方式以积极养育方式为主,关爱理解较多,严厉惩罚较少,并因子女的性别、是否独生和年级而有所差异。(2)父母的某些因子与成就动机、竞争心理有显著相关。(3)父母的某些因子与成就动机、竞争心理有预测能力。

  13. Style and creativity in design

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Chiu-Shui

    2015-01-01

    This book looks at causative reasons behind creative acts and stylistic expressions. It explores how creativity is initiated by design cognition and explains relationships between style and creativity. The book establishes a new cognitive theory of style and creativity in design and provides designers with insights into their own cognitive processes and styles of thinking, supporting a better understanding of the qualities present in their own design.  An explanation of the nature of design cognition begins this work, with a look at how design knowledge is formulated, developed, structured and utilized, and how this utilization triggers style and creativity. The author goes on to review historical studies of style, considering a series of psychological experiments relating to the operational definition, degree, measurement, and creation of style. The work conceptually summarizes the recognition of individual style in products, as well as the creation of such styles as a process before reviewing studies on cr...

  14. Effects of Parenting Style upon Psychological Well-Being of Young Adults: Exploring the Relations among Parental Care, Locus of Control and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taris, Toon W.; Bok, Inge A.

    1997-01-01

    Used structural equation model to explore relationship between parenting style and Dutch young adult offsprings' depression and locus of control. Found that loving, caring parenting styles predicted lower depression levels. A loving, caring upbringing provided by fathers predicted a shift toward an internal locus of control, but a similar…

  15. Psychological defense, ideological hideaway, or rational reckoning? The role of uncertainty in local adaptation to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    As adaptation planning is rising rapidly on the agenda of decision-makers, the need for adequate information to inform those decisions is growing. Locally relevant climate change (as well as related impacts and vulnerability) information, however, is difficult to obtain and that which can be obtained carries the burden of significant scientific uncertainty. This paper aims to assess how important such uncertainty is in adaptation planning, decision-making, and related stakeholder engagement. Does uncertainty actually hinder adaptation planning? Is scientific uncertainty used to postpone decisions reflecting ideologically agendas? Or is it a convenient defense against cognitive and affective engagement with the emerging and projected - and in some cases daunting - climate change risks? To whom does such uncertainty matter and how important is it relative to other challenges decision-makers and stakeholders face? The paper draws on four sources of information to answer these questions: (1) a statewide survey of California coastal managers conducted in summer 2011, (2) years of continual engagement with, and observation of, decision-makers in local adaptation efforts, (3) findings from focus groups with lay individuals in coastal California; and (4) a review of relevant adaptation literature to guide and contextualize the empirical research. The findings entail some "inconvenient truths" for those claiming critical technical or political importance. Rather, the insights suggest that some uncertainties matter more than others; they matter at certain times, but not at others; and they matter to some decision-makers, but not to others. Implications for scientists communicating and engaging with communities are discussed.

  16. The Role of Defense Mechanisms, Personality and Demographical Factors on Complicated Grief following Death of a loved one by Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Rahimian-Boogar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of the risk factors and psychological correlates of prolonged grief disorder is vital for health promotions in relatives of persons who died of cancer. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of defense mechanisms, character dimension of personality and demographic factors on complicated grief following a loss of a family member to cancer .Method: A number of 226 persons who had lost a family member to cancer in a cancer institute at Tehran University of Medical Science were selected through compliance sampling and completed the Inventory of complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R, the Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ, the Character dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, and the Demographical questionnaire. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis, using the PASW version 18 .Results: Findings revealed that neurotic defense style had a significant positive predictive role in the complicated grief; and cooperativeness, age of the deceased person, self-transcendence and mature defense style had a significant negative predictive role in complicated grief (p<0.001. R2 was 0.73 for the final model (p<.001.Conclusion: The results revealed that two character dimensions (low cooperativeness and self-transcendence, high neurotic defense style and young age of the deceased person were involved in the psychopathological course of the complicated and prolonged grief. It was concluded that personality characteristics of the grieving persons and demographics of the deceased person should be addressed in designing tailored interventions for complicated grief.

  17. Mediating the relation between workplace stressors and distress in ID support staff: comparison between the roles of psychological inflexibility and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, A Solomon; Bethay, J Scott; Ladner-Graham, Jennifer M

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined how different patterns of coping influence psychological distress for staff members in programs serving individuals with intellectual disabilities. With a series of path models, we examined the relative usefulness of constructs (i.e., wishful thinking and psychological inflexibility) from two distinct models of coping (i.e., the transactional model and the psychological flexibility models, respectively) as mediators to explain how workplace stressors lead to psychological distress in staff serving individuals with intellectual disabilities. Analyses involved self-report questionnaires from 128 staff members (84% female; 71% African American) from a large, state-funded residential program for individuals with intellectual and physical disabilities in the southern United States of America. Cross-sectional path models using bootstrapped standard errors and confidence intervals revealed both wishful thinking and psychological inflexibility mediated the relation between workplace stressors and psychological distress when they were included in separate models. However, when both variables were included in a multiple mediator model, only psychological inflexibility remained a significant mediator. The results suggest psychological inflexibility and the psychological flexibility model may be particularly useful for further investigation on the causes and amelioration of workplace-related stress in ID settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Demystifying APA style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Claudia M

    2002-01-01

    Many nursing schools and health care journals have adopted the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA stylebook) as their guide to achieve uniformity and consistency in manuscript preparation as well as in usage and writing style. Published in 2001, the fifth edition of the APA stylebook contains 440 pages and can overwhelm someone who tries to use it for the first time. This article delineates main points in the areas of manuscript preparation, reference lists, in-text citations, and style choices.

  19. Memories of paternal relations are associated with coping and defense mechanisms in breast cancer patients: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Renzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. Methods One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood. Results High levels of paternal overprotection were associated with less mature defenses, withdrawal and fantasy and less adaptive coping mechanisms, such as hopelessness/helplessness. Low levels of paternal care were associated with a greater use of repression. No association was found between maternal care, overprotection, coping and defense mechanisms. Immature defenses correlated positively with less adaptive coping styles, while mature defenses were positively associated to a fighting spirit and to fatalism, and inversely related to less adaptive coping styles. Conclusions These data suggest that paternal relations in childhood are associated with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation in adjusting to cancer immediately after surgery. Early experiences of bonding may constitute a relevant index for adaptation to cancer, indicating which patients are at risk and should be considered for psychological interventions.

  20. The Effect of an Intervention to Improve Newly Qualified Teachers' Interpersonal Style, Students Motivation and Psychological Need Satisfaction in Sport-Based Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Damien; Sarrazin, Philippe; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in self-determination theory research in the educational setting (e.g., Reeve, Deci, & Ryan, 2004), suggest that teachers' interpersonal style should be considered as consisting of three dimensions: autonomy support, structure and interpersonal involvement. Based on this theoretical proposition, the purpose of the present study…

  1. Effects of parenting style upon psychological well-being of young adults: Exploring the relations among parental care, locus of control, and depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.W.; Bok, I. A.

    1997-01-01

    The current study explores the relations among parenting styles and depression among a representative longitudinal sample of 642 young Dutch adults. We assumed that if parents show their involvement during the first sixteen years of the lives of their children, these children are more likely to

  2. Improving Teamwork through Awareness of Conversational Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehling, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Conversational styles can sometimes cause conflicts on problem-solving writing teams. In self-defense, students often resort to blaming and shaming around conversational styles, which can just worsen unproductive group behaviors, limiting idea exchanges and deflecting attention from substantive issues and onto what is often labeled "personality…

  3. Discussion of the Necessity of Psychological Warfare Education in National Defense Education in Universities%试论普通高校国防教育中开展心理战教育的必要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巴文娟

    2012-01-01

    现代心理战的战略地位对普通高校的国防教育提出了新的要求,必须将心理战教育纳入国防教育的内容体系之中,这是信息化时代的要求、国家心理安全的要求.也是大学生自身特性的要求,由此,才能使国防教育更好地为国家安全服务。%The strategic position of modern psychological warfare defense for college education put forward new demands, psychological warfare must be the content of education in national defense education system, is the requirement of the information age mental state security, and also the requirements of the students" characteristics, so that we can make education better serve the defense of national security.

  4. Effects of parenting style upon psychological well-being of young adults: Exploring the relations among parental care, locus of control, and depression.

    OpenAIRE

    Taris, T.W.; Bok, I. A.

    1997-01-01

    The current study explores the relations among parenting styles and depression among a representative longitudinal sample of 642 young Dutch adults. We assumed that if parents show their involvement during the first sixteen years of the lives of their children, these children are more likely to develop an internal locus of control. In turn, children with an internal locus of control would be less likely to experience feelings of depression later in life. Additionally, we examined the reverse ...

  5. Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…

  6. Intercultural conflict styles: literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batkhina A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.

  7. Cognitive Styles Used in Evidence Citation by Ancient Christian Authors: The Psychology of a Major Ancient Controversy over the Historicity of the Pentateuch, and Its Implications for Science Education Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Senter

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive experiential self-theory recognizes two cognitive styles that humans use as modes of everyday thinking – experiential thinking and rational thinking – which appear to be products of two functional systems in the brain. These cognitive styles are diagnosable in writing samples of authors who cite evidence in support of a position. Here, I report an analysis of writing samples of opponents in a momentous ancient controversy. Christian authors of the first five centuries disagreed as to whether the stories in the Pentateuch were literal, accurate records of history that could be interpreted allegorically (the literocredist camp or included non-historical stories that were allegory only (the allophorist camp. Cognitive analysis of their evidence citations reveals a predominance of experiential thinking in literocredists and rational thinking in allophorists in reference to this question. This finding augments those of previous studies that implicate the experiential thinking system as the source of today’s biblical literocredism, and shows that the connection between experiential thinking and literocredism is millennia-old. This study also reveals that the allophorist position was dominant among Christian writers in the first three centuries and that the literocredist position did not rise into prominence until the fourth century, suggesting a major cognitive shift among theologians in that century. These findings elucidate the psychology of a prominent ancient controversy but also are relevant to current science education, because the literocredist mindset continues today as anti-evolution bias. The role of cognitive style in such bias has profound implications for classroom strategies for conceptual change.

  8. [Psychometric assessment of defense mechanisms: correlation between questionnaire and expert rating. Initial study of validity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reister, G; Fellhauer, R F; Franz, M; Wirth, T; Schellberg, D; Schepank, H; Tress, W

    1993-01-01

    Within the limits of an epidemiological longitudinal field survey on prevalence and course of psychogenic disorders a high-risk-population suffering from medical psychogenic impairment was investigated. The study was conducted in order to verify an etiological multi-level-model of psychogenic disorders in relation to the socialempiric variables "critical life events" and "social support" as well as the depth psychological oriented construct "personality". Besides other instruments a self rating scale based on Vallant's hierarchical model of defense, i.e. the german adaptation of the DSQ (Defense Style Questionnaire) of Bond and coworkers, was used for the accurate measurement of relevant personality parameters. Although defense processes predominantly work unconscious, manifestations of defense mechanisms could be measured indirectly by means of the rating scale. Its essential dimensions separated clinical patients from a group of healthy controls. Furthermore an immature organisation of defense was found to be related to psychogenic impairment. Concerning self- and expert-rating a significant correlation between "immature defense" and the defense mechanisms "schizoid phantasy", "projection" and "acting out" was proved.

  9. Style as a Symptom: A Phenomenological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorc, Anthony F.

    1984-01-01

    Findings from early and current phenomenological studies indicate that stylistic characteristics are indicators of psychological forces that guide interactions with the world. Implications of how this theory relates to learning and teaching styles are discussed. (DF)

  10. A comparative study about the effect of psychological intervention in improving psychological health, coping style and social support in interns.%心理干预对实习期临床医生心理健康、应对方式及社会支持改善效果的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金耀; 李霞; 姜平平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore efficacy of psychological intervention in improving psychological health, coping style and social support in interns. Methods A total of 195 interns were randomly divided into study group (99 cases) with psychological intervention and control group (96 cases) without psychological intervention for 12-week follow-up. They were assessed with Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) , Coping Methods Inventory (CMI) and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) at baseline and the end of the 12th week. Results At the end of follow up, factors scores of SCL-90, CMI and SDSS in study group were all significantly improved when compared with baseline ( P 0.05). Conclusion Psychological intervention is effective in improving psychological health, coping style and social support of interns.%目的 探讨心理干预对实习期临床医生心理健康、应对方式及社会支持改善的效果.方法 将195名实习期临床医生随机分为研究组99名和对照组96名,研究组实施心理干预,对照组不接受心理干预,共12周.在基线及第12周末分别应用症状自评量表(SCL-90)、应对方式问卷(CMI)及社会支持评定量表(SSRS)评价干预效果.结果 在干预后,研究组的SCL-90、CMI及SSRS各因子评分较基线时均有不同程度的改善(P<0.05),而对照组各量表评分均无明显改善(P>0.05).结论 心理干预可明显改善实习期临床医生的心理健康状况、应对方式及社会支持.

  11. Cognitive styles: Controversial issues and research problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia N. Volkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analytical review of cognitive styles research, considering the problems of its theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. Issues concerning the prospects, as well as theoretical and practical relevance of cognitive styles research, are discussed. We examine the main causes leading to researchers’ declining interest to study of cognitive styles, related to theory, methodology, measurement and practical applications. The main problems discussed relate to lack of clear definition and common theoretical framework. Moreover, the number of empirical studies prevails over the one aimed at theoretical generalization of empirical results and findings, and therefore the primacy of empirics appears. We analyze the possible ways of advancing the field, suggested research programs and potential perspectives for future research. We pose questions of the relationship between cognitive styles and other psychological constructs, such as abilities and cognitive strategies. We emphasize the need to develop integrative models of cognitive styles in order to systematize and organize a large number of existing cognitive styles dimensions. The main controversial issues concerning cognitive styles’ stability and value are considered. We suggest that cognitive style is a psychological mean of cognitive tasks solving, based on both situation circumstances and subject’s current cognitive resources. Issues concerning cognitive styles may answer the question on the nature of individual differences and clarify psychological mechanisms of personality-situation interaction. Furthermore, it may serve as a basis for integrated studies at the areas of personality and cognitive psychology.

  12. Development and Validation of Coaches' Interpersonal Style Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Juan J.; Sánchez-Oliva, David; Leo, Francisco M.; Sánchez-Cano, Jorge; García-Calvo, Tomás

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives were to develop and validate the Coaches' Interpersonal Style Questionnaire. The Coaches' Interpersonal Style Questionnaire analyzes the interpersonal style adopted by coaches when implementing their strategy of supporting or thwarting athletes' basic psychological needs. Method: In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis…

  13. Teaching APA Style Documentation: Discovery Learning, Scaffolding and Procedural Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, Thomas; Zafonte, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Students struggle with learning correct documentation style as found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and teachers are often at a loss for how to best instruct students in correct usage of APA style. As such, the first part of this paper discusses the current research on teaching documentation styles as well as…

  14. [Clinical, neurophysiological and psychological characteristics of neurosis in patients with panic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuter, N V

    2008-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with panic disorders (PD), aged 31,5 years, 17 men, 31 women, were studied. The results were analyzed in comparison to a control group which comprised 16 healthy people, 6 men, 10 women, mean age 29,5 years. A traditional clinical approach, including somatic, neurologic and psychiatric examination, was used in the study. Also, a neurophysiological study using compression and spectral analyses, EEG, cognitive evoked potentials, skin evoked potentials, was conducted. A psychological examination included assessment of personality traits (Cattell's test), MMPI personality profile, mechanisms of psychological defense, the "Life style index" and Sondy test. A decrease of - and -rhythms was found that implied the reduction of activation processes. The psychological data mirror as common signs characteristic of all PD, as well as psychological features characteristic of neurotic disorders. The results obtained confirm the heterogeneity of PD in nosological aspect that demands using differential approach to the problems of their diagnostics and treatment.

  15. Applying Rapid Acquisition Policy Lessons for Defense Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-21

    import- ing Silicon Valley- style innovation practices to its acquisition process, it is im- portant to assess an organization’s ability to...these efforts. Keywords: defense acquisition, defense procurement, rapid acquisition, de- fense innovation, program management , organizational culture...Device De- feat Organization, JIEDDO, Rapid Equipping Force, REF Silicon Valley- style innovation is a hot topic in the Department of De-fense (DOD). For

  16. Style Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum....

  17. Transforming Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Christopher J; Bunn, M. E; Lutes, Charles; Cavoli, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... Despite the resources and attention consumed by the war on terror, and recent decisions by the White House to curtail the growth of defense spending, the senior leadership of the Department of Defense (DoD...

  18. Supervisão: estilos, satisfação e sintomas depressivos em estagiários de psicologia Supervision: supervisory style, supervisee satisfaction and depressive symptoms in psychology students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Catarina Marques Ribeiro de Figueiredo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A figura do supervisor assume-se como um dos principais factores protectores da experiência de estágio, emergindo como uma importante fonte de suporte emocional e/ou como um "amortecedor" do impacto gerado pela transição universidade-mundo do trabalho. Visando estudar a relação entre os estilos de supervisão, os níveis de satisfação do estagiário (em relação aos supervisores da universidade e da instituição de estágio e a sua eventual relação com sintomatologia depressiva, foi realizado um estudo com 83 estagiários de Psicologia da Universidade do Minho, avaliados no final do seu estágio, através do Inventário de Estilos Supervisivos, do Questionário da Qualidade da Supervisão e do Inventário da Depressão de Beck. Os resultados revelam uma concordância na forma como estes avaliam ambos os supervisores em termos de estilo supervisivo e satisfação com a supervisão, surgindo uma maior satisfação associada a um estilo atractivo e orientado para a tarefa. No caso do supervisor da universidade, a periodicidade regular do seu acompanhamento emerge como uma variável importante, associando-se a maiores níveis de satisfação. Não foram encontradas correlações entre qualquer uma dessas variáveis e sintomatologia depressiva.In this paper the supervisor is assumed as having a determinant role on the quality of the trainee's experience, acting as an important source of emotional support and as a "buffer" of the impact caused by the university-to-work transition. In an attempt to explore possible relationships between the supervisory styles, the supervisee's satisfaction (regarding the university and the field supervisor and depressive symptomatology the authors carried out a study, at the University of Minho, involving 83 psychology trainees evaluated at the end of their practicum. The study was based on the Supervisory Styles Inventory, the Supervisee Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Beck's Depression Inventory

  19. [Parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torío López, Susana; Peña Calvo, José Vicente; Inda Caro, Mercedes

    2008-02-01

    Parental educational styles constitute one of the key elements of family socialization. The aim of the present essay is to present the results of a research project carried out in the Principality of Asturias (Spain) among 2,965 families with children of infant and primary-school age (5-8 years old). This research attempts to analyse, among other aspects, parental behaviour tendencies in child upbringing. The analysis of the results obtained allows us to: 1) identify the most common attitudinal and behavioural tendencies of parents in the upbringing of their children; 2) determine how many people have a well defined parental style, and delimit their socio-educational characteristics. Lastly, we consider the need to change some parental behaviour patterns and stress the importance of family education programmes, with the aim of promoting appropriate parenting models and modifying or improving current practices.

  20. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  1. Emotional exhaustion and defense mechanisms in intensive therapy unit nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Anna; Howard, Ruth A; Oyebode, Jan R

    2009-05-01

    Contrary to its original conceptualization, research has found that emotional demands do not lead to burnout in nurses. According to psychoanalytic theory, unconscious defense mechanisms may protect nurses from conscious awareness of work-related anxiety. This prevents self-report and may explain research findings. The maturity of defense style influences how anxiety is managed. Immature defenses prevent the conscious processing necessary for resolution of anxiety. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the use of immature defenses will lead to emotional exhaustion. This cross-sectional study used questionnaires to explore the defense mechanisms of 87 Intensive Therapy Unit nurses. Although the sample endorsed a predominantly mature defense style, the use of immature defenses predicted emotional exhaustion. Also, lower levels of reported stress associated with emotional demands predicted emotional exhaustion. Although this strongly implies the mediating role of immature defense mechanisms, the results were not statistically significant.

  2. Manicured, romantic, or wild? The relation between need for structure and preferences for garden styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Agnes E.; van Winsum-Westra, Marijke

    2010-01-01

    The present research examined individual differences in preferences for three basic garden styles: manicured, romantic, and wild. Building on theoretical insights from landscape preference research, it was hypothesized that preferences for garden styles are guided by psychological needs. This

  3. Decision-making style, nicotine and caffeine use and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2015-11-01

    As therapeutic interventions are being developed utilising telehealth and mobile phones, it is important to understand how substance-dependent individuals will respond to offers of online assistance. The present paper considered the following: (1) how decision-making style is associated with use and dependence upon commonly used stimulants and (2) how it influences behavioural responses to electronic offers of further information about these drugs. An online survey examined patterns of nicotine and caffeine use, administered Severity of Dependence Scales for caffeine and nicotine and assessed decision-making style using the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire and mood using the Kessler Distress Scale. Upon completing these scales, the 181 participants with a mean age of 28.14 years were offered further information online. Stimulant dependence was associated with psychological distress. Caffeine dependence was linked to hypervigilance (panic). Decisional self-esteem varied with stimulant dependence and Kessler Distress Scale score. Participants with high decisional self-esteem declined electronic offers of further information. Confidence rather than defensive avoidance was a factor in reducing information-seeking behaviours on the Internet. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Response Styles in the Partial Credit Model

    OpenAIRE

    Tutz, Gerhard; Schauberger, Gunther; Berger, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    In the modelling of ordinal responses in psychological measurement and survey- based research, response styles that represent specific answering patterns of respondents are typically ignored. One consequence is that estimates of item parameters can be poor and considerably biased. The focus here is on the modelling of a tendency to extreme or middle categories. An extension of the Partial Credit Model is proposed that explicitly accounts for this specific response style. In contrast to exi...

  5. In defense of weight phobia as the central organizing motive in anorexia nervosa: historical and cultural arguments for a culture-sensitive psychological conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermas, T

    1996-05-01

    Recently several proposals at dropping weight phobia as the central criterion for the differential diagnosis of anorexia nervosa have been advanced, aiming at establishing a new diagnostic category including any self-induced weight loss. The validity of weight phobia as a diagnostic criterion is defended. After summarizing clinical arguments, four groups of culturally or historically remote cases of self-induced weight loss or refusal of food are analyzed in regard to the presence of weight phobia and clinical similarity to modern anorexia nervosa (extreme fasting in the Third World, in the European late Middle Ages, early modern times, and late 19th century). It is demonstrated that modern Western anorexia nervosa with weight phobia is clearly distinct from other groups of cases of extreme fasting without weight phobia. It is concluded that the psychological motive of weight phobia should remain the central criterion for the differential diagnosis of anorexia nervosa.

  6. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  7. Undergraduate Psychological Writing: A Best Practices Guide and National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Shaziela; Salter, Nicholas P.

    2017-01-01

    There is no comprehensive guide for teaching psychological writing, and little is known about how often instructors teach the topic. We present a best practices guide for teaching psychological writing beyond just American Psychological Association style, discuss psychology-specific writing assignments, and examine psychological writing…

  8. IFE PsychologIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The journal has a multidisciplinary focus. It is not intended ... Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and School Adjustment of Secondary School Adolescents in Bayelsa State, Nigeria · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world . Millions of asteroids and...helps make Planetary Defense viable because defending the Earth against asteroids benefits from all the above technologies. So if our planet security...information about their physical characteristics so we can employ the right strategies. It is a crucial difference if asteroids are made up of metal

  10. Social cognition and the manic defense: attributions, selective attention, and self-schema in bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, H M; Startup, M; Bentall, R P

    1999-05-01

    Manic patients, depressed bipolar patients, and normal controls were compared on measures of social cognition. Manic patients showed a normal self-serving bias on the Attributional Style Questionnaire, but depressed patients attributed negative events more than positive events to self. On an implicit test of attributional style, both patient groups attributed negative events more than positive events to self. Both patient groups showed slowed color naming for depression-related but not euphoria-related words. Manic patients, like normal controls, endorsed mainly positive words as true of self but, like the depressed patients, recalled mainly negative words. Findings from the implicit tests indicate a common form of psychological organization in manic and depressed patients, whereas the contrasts between the scores on the implicit and explicit measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a manic defense.

  11. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Discursive psychology examines how psychological issues are made relevant and put to use in everyday talk. Unlike traditional psychological perspectives, discursive psychology does not approach the question of what psychology comprises and explains from an analyst's perspective. Instead, the focus

  12. Impact of organisational culture and leadership style on quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of organisational culture and leadership style on quality of work-life among employees in Nigera. ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... As hypothesized, the study reveals that organizational culture and leadership style independently and jointly significantly influence quality of work life ...

  13. Comprehending APA Style through Manuscript Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gabie E.; Eggleston, Tami J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity designed to enhance undergraduate student comprehension of the American Psychological Association (APA) manual and style where students examined a poorly written paper for errors in relation to the APA guidelines. Reports the results of a study that tested the effectiveness of the activity. (CMK)

  14. Defense Business Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Business Board Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Search Defense Business Board: Search Defense Business Board Business Excellence in Defense of the Nation Defense Business Board Home Charter Members Meetings Studies Contact Us The Defense

  15. Structural evaluation of multifunctional flood defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorendt, M.Z.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    style="margin: 0cm 0cm 10pt;">Flood risk reduction aims to minimize losses in low-lying areas. One of the ways to reduce flood risks is to protect land by means of flood defenses. The Netherlands has a long tradition of flood protection and, therefore, a wide variety of technical reports written

  16. A question of who, not if: Psychological disorders in Holocaust survivors' children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, Yael; Norris, Fran H; Engdahl, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Because findings on the mental health status of Holocaust survivors' offspring have been inconsistent, we aimed to identify factors that place some offspring at greater risk for developing mood or anxiety disorders. Using a web-based survey and structured clinical interviews with adult children of survivors, we attempted to predict disorders from offspring's circumstances, perceptions of parents' posttrauma adaptational styles, and self-reported reparative adaptational impacts. Posttrauma adaptational styles encompass intrafamilial and interpersonal psychological, social and behavioral coping, mastery, and defense mechanisms used by each parent. Reparative adaptational impacts reflect the offspring's self-reported insecurity about their own competence, reparative protectiveness, need for control, obsession with the Holocaust, defensive psychosocial constriction, and immature dependency. Of the disorders studied, generalized anxiety disorder was most frequent, followed by major depressive episode and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Only 2 variables independently predicted these disorders: participants' age and reparative adaptational impacts. Parents' styles were correlated with the presence of disorder, but had no effect when the child's reparative impacts were controlled. The age effect was consistent with epidemiologic research showing lower prevalence of psychological disorder in older cohorts. The severity of participants' reparative impacts was unequivocally the most important (OR = 5.3) or at least the most proximal precursor to the development of psychological disorders. When reparative impacts were low, frequency of disorder was low (8%); when reparative impacts were high, frequency of disorder was high (46%). Reparative adaptational impacts could guide clinicians in treating children of survivors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Analytic information processing style in epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonfiglio, Marzia; Di Sabato, Francesco; Mandillo, Silvia; Albini, Mariarita; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Giallonardo, Annateresa; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2017-08-01

    Relevant to the study of epileptogenesis is learning processing, given the pivotal role that neuroplasticity assumes in both mechanisms. Recently, evoked potential analyses showed a link between analytic cognitive style and altered neural excitability in both migraine and healthy subjects, regardless of cognitive impairment or psychological disorders. In this study we evaluated analytic/global and visual/auditory perceptual dimensions of cognitive style in patients with epilepsy. Twenty-five cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients matched with 25 idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) sufferers and 25 healthy volunteers were recruited and participated in three cognitive style tests: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C. Cornoldi test series called AMOS, and the Mariani Learning style Questionnaire. Our results demonstrate a significant association between analytic cognitive style and both IGE and TLE and respectively a predominant auditory and visual analytic style (ANOVA: p values <0,0001). These findings should encourage further research to investigate information processing style and its neurophysiological correlates in epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Program for Improving Undergraduate Psychology Students' Basic Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Wood, Rebecca M.; Austad, Carol Shaw; Fallahi, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of in-class writing instruction, practice, peer review, and feedback on writing skills of undergraduates enrolled in a general psychology course. We rated writing for grammar, writing style, mechanics, and American Psychological Association referencing style. Significant differences emerged on the 4 writing skill domains (p…

  19. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  20. Film Noir Style Genealogy

    OpenAIRE

    Rietuma, Dita

    2012-01-01

    Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...

  1. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-09-30

     Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual's personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students.  This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants' most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression.  A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P academic performance.  There was a significant association between academic performance and ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression levels in our

  2. Starlink Document Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawden, M. D.

    This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

  3. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Studying the relationship between the styles of attachment, drug addiction and psychological profile of addicts in comparison with non-addicts (in self-introduced centers of Bushehr Province)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Emphasizing on effective factors in drug dependency and multiple drug relapse, is probably related to formation of personality models. These models are heavily affected by development orientation personality. Various researches show that attachment as a development factor has a decisive role in forming personality models. Hence, in one hand, the present research evaluates the relationship between attachment styles and drug dependency and ,in the other hand, it addresses the relationship betwe...

  5. Perceived Parental Styles and Adult Separation Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başbuğ, Sezin; Cesur, Gizem; Durak Batıgün, Ayşegül

    2017-01-01

    The Mediating Role of Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions OBJECTIVE: This study primarily aimed to determine whether perceived parental styles and interpersonal cognitive distortions are predictors of adult separation anxiety. Further, this study aimed to examine the mediating role of interpersonal cognitive distortions in the relationship between perceived over-permissive/boundless parental styles and adult separation anxiety in university students. This study included 444 university students (281 female (63,3%) and 163 male (36,7%) with a mean age of sample 21,02 years (SS = 1,70). The Demographic Information Form, Young Parenting Inventory, Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale, and Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire were used. The regression analyses revealed that the age of the participants and their percieved controlling/shaping father parenting style negatively predicted adult separation anxiety, while percieved over-permissive/boundless mother parenting style, exploitative/abusive and overprotective/anxious father parenting styles and the subscales of the interpersonal cognitive distortions scale positively predicted adult separation anxiety. As hypothesized, data from this study reveal that subscales of the interpersonal cognitive distortions scale play a full mediating role in the relationship between over-permissive/boundless parenting styles and adult separation anxiety. Results indicate that the perceived over-permissive/boundless parenting style positively predicts adult separation anxiety symptoms by distorting interpersonal cognitions. Furthermore, the over-permissive parenting style and lack of boundaries and/or discipline lead to similar adverse effects as do authoritarian and normative parenting. To our knowledge, there are very few studies investigating adult separation anxiety symptoms in Turkey. Therefore, our current study provides practical information to mental health professionals regarding adult separation anxiety symptoms, which

  6. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  7. Toward a Developmental Ecological Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Eugene C.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses Adolph's research on locomotion with regard to the requirements of an ecological psychology, especially the use of control laws; her examination of individual styles and normative patterns as it reflects a dynamic systems perspective; and her use of cognitive processes of decision making in explaining why infants approach or avoid a…

  8. Leadership styles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.

  9. Citation Styles For Internet Resources : A Webliography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A Webliography collects resources about citation Styles For internet resources, it divided by the styles: Chicago University style, MLA style, APA style, ISO style, and some articles about internet resources citation.

  10. Parenting style and practices in stepfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassoni C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia Cassoni,1 Regina HL Caldana21Graduate School in Psychology, 2Department of Psychology and Education, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP BrazilAbstract: There are several studies on the best way to raise a child, ie, what would be the consequences of our actions for our children. We tend to think of how to educate children in a traditional family, but society has undergone many changes and, hence, family structures have undergone changes too. Today, we find a large number of stepfamilies facing the same issues concerning how to educate a child. Stepfamily configuration often entails more than just the addition of a new parent figure. The objective of this study was to shed some light on how these stepfamilies deal with issues of parenting style and practices. We reviewed the Brazilian and international literature concerning parenting styles and practices in stepfamilies. The papers identified were organized and submitted to analysis. We identified very few papers addressing parenting styles and practices, pointing to an important but unaddressed social change as reflected in new family structures. There is a need for longitudinal studies aimed at understanding not only a particular moment in time, but also moments within a context, ie, an analysis with a holistic approach without preconceived ideas.Keywords: parenting styles, parenting practices, stepfamilies

  11. Measuring criminal thinking styles: The construct validity and utility of the PICTS in a Dutch prison sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulten, B.H.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Criminal thinking and thinking styles are important areas in the assessment and treatment of offenders. The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS: Walters, 2005) is designed to assess such criminal thinking styles. In the current study, the associations between criminal

  12. Learning styles in the classroom: Educational benefit or planning exercise?

    OpenAIRE

    Hulme, JA; Allcock, SJ

    2010-01-01

    Differentiation of teaching is encouraged to accommodate student diversity. This study investigated whether using learning styles as a basis for differentiation improved A-level student performance, compared to differentiation on the basis of academic ability. Matched classes of A-level psychology students participated. In one class, learning activities were differentiated by academic ability; in the other class, learning activities were differentiated by learning style for nine weeks, follow...

  13. Implementing and Evaluating a Writing Course for Psychology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Perilou

    2003-01-01

    In this article, I describe Writing in Psychology, a semester-length 3-credit elective course designed to improve students' writing skills, familiarize them with psychology's writing conventions, and teach them American Psychological Association (APA) style. Students produced a case report, a report of an empirical study, a conference abstract,…

  14. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 22, Number 2, Issue 73

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    advice of a reference librarian in completing citation of government documents because standard for- mulas of citations may provide incomplete...published or has expertise in the manuscript’s subject. Authors should be familiar with the style and format of previous Defense ARJs and adhere to...designated style guides. It is also the responsibility of the corresponding author to furnish a government agency/employer clearance with each submission

  15. Evaluating Style Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roon, F.A.; Nijman, T.E.; Ter Horst, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate applications of (return based) style analysis.The portfolio and positivity constraints imposed by style analysis are useful in constructing mimicking portfolios without short positions.Such mimicking portfolios can be used, e.g., to construct efficient portfolios of mutual

  16. Evaluating Style Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. de Roon (Frans); T.E. Nijman (Theo); B.J.M. Werker

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we evaluate applications of (return based) style analysis. The portfolio and positivity constraints imposed by style analysis are useful in constructing mimicking portfolios without short positions. Such mimicking portfolios can be used e.g. to construct efficient

  17. Profiling & Utilizing Learning Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, James W., Ed.

    The purpose of the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) Learning Style Profile is to provide educators with a well-validated and easy-to-use instrument for diagnosing the cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and study/instructional preferences of middle level and senior high school students. The Learning Style…

  18. Cognitive Style: Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    1989-01-01

    A literature review describes several dimensions of cognitive styles in an effort to illustrate individual stylistic differences. Discusses the field dependence-independence dimension, taking into account age, sex, and cultural differences. Suggests that cognitive style theory needs to be structured in a broader theoretical framework. (NH)

  19. Codependency and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Judith L.; Crawford, Duane W.

    1992-01-01

    College students (n=175) reported the parenting style of their mother and father and completed a scale assessing their own level of codependency. Parenting style of the father (uninvolved, permissive, authoritarian, or democratic) was related to offspring codependency. Both sons and daughters of authoritarian fathers had higher levels of…

  20. Attachment Styles as Predictors of Stigma Tendency in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Gencoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the association between attachment styles and stigma in adults. Participants were 361 adults (186 females and 175 males aged between 18 and 69 (M=31.77, SD=9.45. Participants completed the measurement instruments for determining their stigmatizing tendencies and attachment styles. Study results showed that, stigma tendencies of people with the secure attachment style are lower for the discrimination and exclusion, prejudgment and psychological health dimensions, and are higher for people with the fearful attachment style for the discrimination and exclusion, labeling and psychological health dimensions. Preoccupied and dismissive attachment styles are also positively associated with prejudgment tendency. Finally, stigma tendencies of males are more likely to be higher than females for the discrimination and exclusion, labeling and psychological health dimensions. Because different attachment styles are related variously to the subscales of stigma in this study, interventions to decrease stigma of individuals can verge to enhancing the quality of mother-child interactions.

  1. The Relationship of Decision-Making Styles and Attributional Styles in Addicted and Non-addicted Men

    OpenAIRE

    Shaghaghy, Farhad; Saffarinia, Majid; Iranpoor, Mohadeseh; Soltanynejad, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background One of social problems which has affected our society and resulted in problems for different groups of people is drug abuse. This issue indicates a serious psychological, physical and social problem in community. Social skills have positive and successful influences in prevention of substance abuse. This includes the ability to explain events correctly and then appropriate decision making. This study compares decision making styles and attributional styles between addicted and non ...

  2. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. AUTOMATIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the field of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classification of architectural styles from facade images. Our classifier first identifies the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classifier to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.

  4. The role of parenting styles and teacher interactional styles in children's reading and spelling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Leskinen, Esko; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the associations between parenting styles, teacher interactional styles, and children's reading and spelling skills. The sample consisted of 864 Finnish-speaking children and their parents (864 mothers, 864 fathers) and teachers (N=123). Children's risk for reading disabilities and reader status were assessed in kindergarten. Children were also tested on reading and spelling skills in Grades 1 and 2. Parenting styles and teacher interactional styles were measured using parents' and teachers' self-reports in Grade 1. First, the results indicated that both an authoritative parenting style and authoritative teacher interactional style positively predicted children's spelling skill development. Second, authoritative parenting was particularly beneficial for the spelling skill development of children who were at risk for reading disabilities. Third, authoritative teaching promoted spelling skill development particularly among children who were nonreaders in kindergarten but had no risk for reading disabilities. Finally, some evidence was found that authoritative teaching could compensate for the negative impact of nonauthoritative parenting on reading development among kindergarten nonreaders. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between attachment styles and happiness in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Marzyeh; Rezaei, Farzin; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Rostamian, Negar

    2016-01-01

    Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students' attachment styles and demographic characteristics. This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver's attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA) and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people ( P = 0.03). No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style ( P = 0.001), male gender ( P = 0.005), and scholar achievement ( P = 0.047) were associated with higher happiness score. The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.

  6. Relationship between attachment styles and happiness in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzyeh Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students′ attachment styles and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver′s attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the  SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Results: Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people (P = 0.03. No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style (P = 0.001, male gender (P = 0.005, and scholar achievement (P = 0.047 were associated with higher happiness score. Conclusion: The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.

  7. Home - Defense Technology Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    by @dtsamil Defense Technology Security Administration Mission, Culture, and History Executive Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration Official seal of Defense Technology Security Administration OFFICE of the SECRETARY of DEFENSE Defense Technology Security Administration

  8. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George N.

    2017-11-01

    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  9. Optimizing Active Cyber Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Wenlian; Xu, Shouhuai; Yi, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Active cyber defense is one important defensive method for combating cyber attacks. Unlike traditional defensive methods such as firewall-based filtering and anti-malware tools, active cyber defense is based on spreading "white" or "benign" worms to combat against the attackers' malwares (i.e., malicious worms) that also spread over the network. In this paper, we initiate the study of {\\em optimal} active cyber defense in the setting of strategic attackers and/or strategic defenders. Specific...

  10. Everybody was Kung-Fu fighting-The beneficial effects of Tai Chi Qigong and self-defense Kung-Fu training on psychological and endocrine health in middle aged and older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, A; Lacker, T J; Ehlert, U

    2018-02-01

    Higher age is associated to a variety of physical and mental disorders. Age-related changes in steroid secretion have been suggested to be an underlying mechanism leading to frailty, depression, and sexual dysfunction. However, Tai chi qigong and similar forms of exercise have been shown to improve a great variety of health-related parameters in older individuals. We examined 56 self-reporting healthy men actively practicing Tai chi qigong and/or self-defense Kung-fu and 55 age-matched self-reporting healthy controls. Saliva samples were obtained in a standardized procedure for subsequent quantification of circulating testosterone and cortisol levels. In addition, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and sexual health were assessesd via self-report questionnaires. Age was negatively associated with testosterone, while no association emerged for cortisol. Tai chi qigong and/or self-defense Kung-fu training was neither associated with testosterone nor cortisol. More weekly Tai chi qigong and/or self-defense Kung-fu training (4 or more times per week) was instead associated with a lower CT-ratio, less depressive symptoms, and higher life satisfaction compared to individuals, who trained only one to three times per week. More years of Tai chi qigong and/or self-defense Kung-fu training were associated with less depressive symptoms and higher life satisfaction but not with the CT-ratio. No significant associations emerged for Tai chi qigong and/or self-defense Kung-fu training and sexual health. When compared to the age-matched controls, there is a significant effect of Tai chi, qigong and/or self-defense Kung-fu on the CT-ratio. Contrast analyses revealed a significantly lower CT-ratio for the high training load group in contrast to the low training load group. Further, in contrast to the control group, the low training load group exhibits a significantly higher CT-ratio. For depression, contrast analyses revealed a significantly lower level of depression in the

  11. How to Write a Bachelor Thesis in (APA) Style

    OpenAIRE

    Hirnstein, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor students at the Faculty of Psychology in Bergen are required to write their thesis according to the guidelines of scientific writing by the American Psychological Association (APA). These guidelines provide help with structuring the thesis, describing research methods, reporting findings, referencing, and using a clear scientific writing style. Despite its relevance, teaching the APA guidelines has been considered somewhat boring by both students and teaching staff – largely due to t...

  12. Adolescents’ Conflict Resolution Styles Toward Mothers : The Role of Parenting and Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Klimstra, Theo; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, we examined associations between contextual and individual factors and adolescents’ conflict resolution with mothers. In Study 1, we explored links between maternal responsiveness and psychological control and adolescent conflict resolution styles (positive problem solving,

  13. Adolescents’ conflict resolution styles toward mothers : The role of parenting and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, L.C.; Luyckx, K.; Van Leeuwen, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Branje, S.T.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, we examined associations between contextual and individual factors and adolescents’ conflict resolution with mothers. In Study 1, we explored links between maternal responsiveness and psychological control and adolescent conflict resolution styles (positive problem solving,

  14. A Matter of Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Lasse Gøhler; Grønvad, Jonas Følsgaard; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2018-01-01

    , defined by choices of research topics, theories, empirical material, analytical methods/techniques, epistemological research aims, practical research aims, publication strategies and collaborative activities. The first dimension opposes a quantitative style focusing on questions of cognition, on the one...

  15. Self-construal as moderator in the relationship between self-esteem and humour style

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.A. (Clinical Psychology) Humour serves various intrapersonal and interpersonal functions. The affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive and self-defeating humour styles are employed by individuals throughout their interactions and can influence their and others’ intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning. Humour styles have been related to positive attributes, such as self-esteem and optimism. Individual differences in the type of humour style displayed could furthermore be influenced by ...

  16. Investigation on trait coping style among parents of children with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Ze-shu NING; Li-ming YANG; Zhi JIANG; Bo CHEN; Jie ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of trait coping style and mental health status in parents of children with epilepsy, so as to provide a theoretical basis for psychological and behavioral interventions. Methods A total of 225 parents of children with epilepsy were assessed with Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) and their characteristics of trait coping style were analyzed. Results Compared between different genders, different working pressures and between previously diagnosed and ...

  17. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  18. Nonresident Fathers' Parenting Style and the Adjustment of Late-Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Jennifer K.; Mounts, Nina S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…

  19. One Hundred Top Small District Executive Educators: Their Personalities and Leadership Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueder, Donald C.

    1989-01-01

    Of 75 small-district educational administrators identified as successful, a significant number displayed intuitive and thinking psychological types and preferred visionary rational leadership styles. This was particularly true for female administrators and was contrary to the traditional rational leadership style seen in earlier studies of…

  20. Investigating Opinions of Mothers on Different Socioeconomic Status in Terms of Perceived Maternal Styles

    OpenAIRE

    VAR, Esra ÇALIK; Kılıç, Şükran; Kumandaş, Hatice

    2017-01-01

    Problem Statement: There are various environmental factors such as culture, socioeconomic status, family patterns, parental personality, family size, and education system among others, which affect development of individuals. Especially in the childhood period, parenting style is an important variable in forming physical, emotional, cognitive, and social development. Parenting style affects the capacity of children to interact with others, psychological wellbeing, and life skills; therefore, ...

  1. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  2. Kantian Psychologism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperber, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/377312894

    2017-01-01

    For more than a hundred years now, the dominant view amongst scholars has been that Kant's philosophy has nothing to do with psychology, or, at the very least, that psychology is inessential to Kant's philosophical project. In the early reception of Kant's work, however, psychology played a central

  3. Remembered parenting styles and adjustment in middle and late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrauff, Tanja C; Cooney, Teresa M; An, Jeong Shin

    2009-01-01

    Authoritative parenting is the parenting style often associated with positive outcomes for children and adolescents. This study considers whether remembered parenting styles in childhood predict multiple dimensions of functioning in adulthood. We used the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States data set (N = 2,232) to assess the association between parenting behaviors remembered from childhood-classified as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved-and psychological well-being, depressive symptoms, and substance abuse, in a subsample of mid- and later-life adults. Differences in outcomes by sex, race, and childhood socioeconomic status were also examined across parenting styles. Adults who remembered authoritative compared with authoritarian and uninvolved parents reported greater psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms, and those with uninvolved parents noted greater substance abuse. No outcome differences were found between remembered authoritative and indulgent parenting styles. A few sex and race interactions were identified: Authoritative parenting (compared with uninvolved) was more strongly associated with men's psychological well-being than women's, and authoritative parenting (compared with authoritarian) predicted reduced depressive symptoms for Whites more than non-Whites. There is some support that remembered parenting styles continue to be related to functioning across the lifespan. There is also evidence of resiliency, flexibility, and malleability in human development.

  4. Self-esteem, coping styles, and quality of life in polish adolescents and young adults with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, Ewa; Lukowska, Ewa; Fudalej, Piotr S

    2014-05-01

    Objectives : To evaluate self-esteem, coping styles, and health-related quality of life and their relationships in Polish adolescents and young adults with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate and related sex differences. Design and Participants : Self-report questionnaires measuring self-esteem (Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory), coping styles (Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations), and health-related quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were completed by 48 participants with cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 31 males, 17 females) and 48 controls without cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 28 males, 20 females) matched for age, place of residence, and socioeconomic status. Results : Regarding self-esteem, individuals with cleft lip and palate scored higher on body functioning (P self-esteem and coping styles, and quality of life (P young adults with and without cleft lip and palate differed little in terms of psychological adjustment measures. The higher scores in defensive self-enhancement of individuals with cleft lip and palate suggest the need for instruments measuring social approval in psychosocial adjustment research involving this group.

  5. Personality structure and social style in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark James; Majolo, Bonaventura; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver; De Marco, Arianna; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje; Widdig, Anja; Gerald, Melissa S; Weiss, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Why regularities in personality can be described with particular dimensions is a basic question in differential psychology. Nonhuman primates can also be characterized in terms of personality structure. Comparative approaches can help reveal phylogenetic constraints and social and ecological patterns associated with the presence or absence of specific personality dimensions. We sought to determine how different personality structures are related to interspecific variation in social style. Specifically, we examined this question in 6 different species of macaques, because macaque social style is well characterized and can be categorized on a spectrum of despotic (Grade 1) versus tolerant (Grade 4) social styles. We derived personality structures from adjectival ratings of Japanese (Macaca fuscata; Grade 1), Assamese (M. assamensis; Grade 2), Barbary (M. sylvanus; Grade 3), Tonkean (M. tonkeana; Grade 4), and crested (M. nigra; Grade 4) macaques and compared these species with rhesus macaques (M. mulatta; Grade 1) whose personality was previously characterized. Using a nonparametric method, fuzzy set analysis, to identify commonalities in personality dimensions across species, we found that all but 1 species exhibited consistently defined Friendliness and Openness dimensions, but that similarities in personality dimensions capturing aggression and social competence reflect similarities in social styles. These findings suggest that social and phylogenetic relationships contribute to the origin, maintenance, and diversification of personality. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Mastering the APA Style of Referencing with Ease | Omotosho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Students and lecturers in tertiary institutions whose areas of specialization are in Education and the Social and Behavioural Sciences are required to apply the APA style whenever they submit their projects and papers. However, due to the fact that the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is very ...

  7. Learning Styles in the Classroom: Educational Benefit or Planning Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allcock, Sarah J.; Hulme, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Differentiation of teaching is encouraged to accommodate student diversity. This study investigated whether using learning styles as a basis for differentiation improved A-level student performance, compared to differentiation on the basis of academic ability. Matched classes of A-level psychology students participated. In one class, learning…

  8. APA, Meet Google: Graduate Students' Approaches to Learning Citation Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Note Chism, Nancy; Weerakoon, Shrinika

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by Perkins' Theories of Difficulty concept, this exploratory study examined the learning patterns of graduate students as they grappled with using the style sheet of the American Psychological Association (APA). The researchers employed task performance analysis of three APA formatting tasks, interviews, and observation during a "think…

  9. Preparing Special Education Research Articles in APA Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algozzine, Bob; Spooner, Fred; Karvonen, Meagan

    2002-01-01

    This article addresses key considerations in preparing special education research articles for submission to professional journals in which the preferred style guide is the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association." The guidelines are drawn from special education literature, from editors, and from authors experienced in…

  10. EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE IN TRAFFIC POLICE OFFICERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.

  11. Mathematical psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelder, William H

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical psychology is a sub-field of psychology that started in the 1950s and has continued to grow as an important contributor to formal psychological theory, especially in the cognitive areas of psychology such as learning, memory, classification, choice response time, decision making, attention, and problem solving. In addition, there are several scientific sub-areas that were originated by mathematical psychologists such as the foundations of measurement, stochastic memory models, and psychologically motivated reformulations of expected utility theory. Mathematical psychology does not include all uses of mathematics and statistics in psychology, and indeed there is a long history of such uses especially in the areas of perception and psychometrics. What is most unique about mathematical psychology is its approach to theory construction. While accepting the behaviorist dictum that the data in psychology must be observable and replicable, mathematical models are specified in terms of unobservable formal constructs that can predict detailed aspects of data across multiple experimental and natural settings. By now almost all the substantive areas of cognitive and experimental psychology have formal mathematical models and theories, and many of these are due to researchers that identify with mathematical psychology. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Socioecological psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro

    2014-01-01

    Socioecological psychology investigates humans' cognitive, emotional, and behavioral adaption to physical, interpersonal, economic, and political environments. This article summarizes three types of socioecological psychology research: (a) association studies that link an aspect of social ecology (e.g., population density) with psychology (e.g., prosocial behavior), (b) process studies that clarify why there is an association between social ecology and psychology (e.g., residential mobility → anxiety → familiarity seeking), and (c) niche construction studies that illuminate how psychological states give rise to the creation and maintenance of a social ecology (e.g., familiarity seeking → dominance of national chain stores). Socioecological psychology attempts to bring the objectivist perspective to psychological science, investigating how objective social and physical environments, not just perception and construal of the environments, affect one's thinking, feeling, and behaviors, as well as how people's thinking, feeling, and behaviors give rise to social and built environments.

  13. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 17, Number 2, Issue 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    especially citations (endnotes instead of footnotes), in the format specified in two specific style manuals. The ARJ follows the author (date) form of... citation . We expect you to use the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition) and the Chicago Manual of Style (15th...Edition). Contributors are encouraged to seek the advice of a reference librarian in completing citation of government documents because standard formulas

  14. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 22, Number 1, Issue 72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    references in APA format (author-date-page number form of citation) as outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association [ 6th ... Edition ]). For all other style questions, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (16th Edition ). Contributors are encouraged to seek the advice of...reference to government works. Helpful guidance is also available in The Complete Guide to Citing Government Documents (Revised Edition ): A Manual

  15. Defense AR Journal. Volume 18, Number 1, Issue 57

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Manual of the American Psychological Association ( 6th Edition ). For all other style questions, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th Edition ...112 Format Please submit your manuscript with references in APA format (author- date-page number form of citation) as outlined in the Publication ...Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour

  16. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 21, Number 1, Issue 68

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Manual of the American Psychological Association ( 6th Edition ). For all other style questions, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th...language. Format Please submit your manuscript with references in APA format (author- date-page number form of citation) as outlined in the Publication ...January 2014 Vol. 21 No. 1 | ISSUE 68 Challenging Conventional Wisdom REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public

  17. Strategic Defense Initiative Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1990-01-01

    ... to Third World and other nations. I will then discuss the scope of the SDI effort, the evolving strategic defense system architectures and theater defense, our compliancy with the ABM Treaty, technology spinoffs resulting from SDI...

  18. Parenting style, individuation, and mental health of Egyptian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan; Menshar, Kariman E

    2006-02-01

    Three questionnaires that measure parenting style, adolescent-family connectedness, and mental health were administered to 351 Egyptian adolescents. Results show that in rural communities the authoritarian style is more predominant in the parenting of male adolescents, while the authoritative style is more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. In urban communities, on the other hand, the authoritarian style was more predominant in the parenting of female adolescents. The connectedness of all female adolescents with their family was stronger than that of male adolescents. The connectedness of girls was found to be more emotional and financial in villages and to be more functional in town. Female adolescents reported a higher frequency of psychological disorders. Mental health was associated with authoritative parenting, but not with authoritarian parenting. It seems that authoritarian parenting within an authoritarian culture is not as harmful as within a liberal culture.

  19. Technological Style is History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blond, Lasse

    The effort to comprehend innovation across cultures and time highlights the importance of the explicating factors external to technology. It becomes relevant to nuance or differentiate the understanding of social and cultural responses to adopted technologies by recognizing that technology shapes...... culture, and just as importantly that culture shapes technology. By looking at a recent transfer of technology this reciprocal exchange is elaborated by considering the cultural or contextual influence in the adaptation of technology. In this connection the notion of technological style is revisited...... by questioning whether it pays due attention to the non-technical factors of the process? In order to compensate for the deficiencies of the technological style as a sensitizing device the concept of sociotechnical style is introduced – a concept more in tune with resent research in technology studies....

  20. Management styles and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.

  1. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    French, Geoffrey S

    2004-01-01

    .... This paper examines defensive tactics and strategies from the German defense in depth that emerged from World War I to the American Active Defense that developed in the Cold War and proposes a new mindset for DIW that draws on these operational concepts from military history.

  2. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  3. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  5. Emotional state and coping style among gynecologic patients undergoing surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Toshiko; Murata, Hinako; Matsushima, Eisuke; Sakata, Yu; Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Aso, Takeshi

    2007-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in emotional state and the relationship between emotional state and demographic/clinical factors and coping style among gynecologic patients undergoing surgery. Using the Japanese version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS), 90 patients (benign disease: 32, malignancy: 58) were examined on three occasions: before surgery, before discharge, and 3 months after discharge. They were also examined using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) on one occasion before discharge. The scores for the subscales depression, anger, and confusion were the highest after discharge while those for anxiety were the highest before surgery. The average scores of the POMS subscales for all subjects were within the normal range. With regard to the relationship between these emotional states and other factors, multiple regressions showed that the principal determinants of anxiety before surgery were religious belief, psychological symptoms during hospitalization and emotion-oriented (E) coping style; further, it was found that depression after discharge could be explained by chemotherapy, duration of hospitalization, and E coping style. The principal determinants of anger after discharge and vigor before surgery were length of education and E coping style, and severity of disease, chemotherapy, E coping style and task-oriented coping style, respectively. Those of post-discharge fatigue and confusion were length of education, psychological symptoms, and E coping style. In summary it is suggested that the following should be taken into account in patients undergoing gynecologic surgery: anxiety before surgery, depression, anger, and confusion after surgery, including coping styles.

  6. Example based style classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welnicka, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of analysis of families of shapes which can be classified according to two categories: the main one corresponding usually to the coarse shape which we call the function and the more subtle one which we call the style. The style and the function both contribute to the overal...... this similarity should be reflected across different functions. We show the usability of our methods first on the example of a number of chess sets which our method helps sort. Next, we investigate the problem of finding a replacement for a missing tooth given a database of teeth....

  7. Leadership styles in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Vicki; Murray, Melanie

    2017-06-21

    Nurses are often asked to think about leadership, particularly in times of rapid change in healthcare, and where questions have been raised about whether leaders and managers have adequate insight into the requirements of care. This article discusses several leadership styles relevant to contemporary healthcare and nursing practice. Nurses who are aware of leadership styles may find this knowledge useful in maintaining a cohesive working environment. Leadership knowledge and skills can be improved through training, where, rather than having to undertake formal leadership roles without adequate preparation, nurses are able to learn, nurture, model and develop effective leadership behaviours, ultimately improving nursing staff retention and enhancing the delivery of safe and effective care.

  8. The Analysis of Dimmesdale in the Viewpoint of Psychology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子恒

    2014-01-01

    The Scarlet Letter is a psychological romance,which is full of delicate inward description.Based on the author Hawthorne’ s excellent effec-tiveness in the psychological description,this thesis uses Sigmund Freud’ s theory of personality structure and Anna Freud’ s theory of psychological defense mechanisms to analyze Dimmesdale,a leading character in the novel,and to show the development of Dimmesdale’ s psychology and the reasons of his final death.

  9. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  10. The Relationship of Decision-Making Styles and Attributional Styles in Addicted and Non-addicted Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaghaghy, Farhad; Saffarinia, Majid; Iranpoor, Mohadeseh; Soltanynejad, Ali

    2011-01-01

    One of social problems which has affected our society and resulted in problems for different groups of people is drug abuse. This issue indicates a serious psychological, physical and social problem in community. Social skills have positive and successful influences in prevention of substance abuse. This includes the ability to explain events correctly and then appropriate decision making. This study compares decision making styles and attributional styles between addicted and non addicted men to recognize their role in addiction. In this study, 200 addicted and non addicted men were randomly selected. Decision-making style and attributional style questionnaires were used. Data analysis was performed by independent Student's t and Pearson correlation tests. The study population included 81 addicted and 90 non-addicted men. Addicted and non addicted men were significantly different in rational decision-making style (P rational decision making and optimistic attribution style (r = -0.305, P rational decision making and learned helplessness (r = 0.309, P rational in decision making and addicts that developed learned helplessness were less rational and did not have optimistic attribution style. These issues show that addiction institutions and therapists have to pay attention to cognitive factors for addiction prevention.

  11. Parenting styles and mental health of Palestinian-Arab adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2004-06-01

    The relationship between three parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative) and the mental health of Arab adolescents was tested. It was hypothesized that parenting style toward boys would differ from that towards girls, psychological adjustment of girls would differ from that of boys, and that the authoritarian style applied within the authoritarian Arab society is not associated with poor psychological adjustment. The Parental Authority Questionnaire, Child Attitude Toward Parents, Lipsitt's Self-Concept Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Psychological State Scale were administered to 431 Arab adolescents. Sex comparison revealed that the parenting style with regard to girls tends to be more authoritative and less authoritarian than with regard to boys. Girls scored higher than boys on identity disorder, anxiety disorder, and depression scales, whereas boys scored higher than girls on the behavior disorder scale. There was no significant relationship between the authoritarian parenting style and the mental health measures. A significant positive relationship exists between the authoritative parenting style and the mental health of children. Among boys, the permissive parenting style was associated with negative attitudes towards parents, lower self-esteem and increased identity, anxiety, phobia, depressive, and conduct disorders. It seems, therefore, that the effect of parenting style is culturally and gender dependent rather than universal.

  12. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  13. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    The film Derrida by Amy Ziering Kofman & Kirby Dick (2003) has a memorable scene, showing Derrida watching Derrida watching Derrida. This regression, almost ad infinitum, would seem to have the specific purpose to hammer home the point to the viewer of the film that all communication is mediated......, and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... have to be repeated and answers interrupted when the light or the sound is not just right. He furthermore deconstructs the interview process by constantly referring to the impossibility of answering questions without specific contexts, frames and grounds. This makes it easy to characterize the film...

  14. Workshops Increase Students' Proficiency at Identifying General and APA-Style Writing Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Terrence D.; Marek, Pam

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of 20- to 30-min workshops on recognition of errors in American Psychological Association-style writing, 58 introductory psychology students attended one of the three workshops (on grammar, mechanics, or references) and completed error recognition tests (pretest, initial posttest, and three follow-up tests). As a…

  15. Style in Educational Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, John

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of broadcast educational television for adult audiences are discussed in terms of: style in television, television grammar, and course and resource-type programs. The current British Broadcasting Company (BBC) Adult Literacy Project and the television program "On the Move" are used as examples. (LH)

  16. Cultural Styles of Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E. S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Offers an alternative methodology for studying persuasive strategies by examining the persuasive strategies selected by professional persuaders representing those cultures being studied. Analyzes the persuasive styles of United States, Soviet Union and Arab diplomats involved in international negotiations in the Security Council of the United…

  17. Perspective: Louisville Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Louisville, Kentucky is an eclectic town of architectural styles from Greek revival to Renaissance Revival to Post modernism, not to mention an entire street dedicated to artsy mom and pop stores. Louisville is second only to the New York City Soho district in terms of the number of its cast-iron facades. Many of these building's fronts have…

  18. The Style of Gorgias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consigny, Scott

    1992-01-01

    Examines two prominent schools of critics who employ a hermeneutic strategy and who arrive at conflicting interpretations of Gorgias's overall "philosophy." Argues that in fact both schools misconstrue the nature of Gorgias's writing. Presents an alternative reading of Gorgias' style. (TB)

  19. A Manual of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska State Dept. of Education, Lincoln.

    This "Manual of Style" is offered as a guide to assist Nebraska State employees in producing quality written communications and in presenting a consistently professional image of government documents. The manual is not designed to be all-inclusive. Sections of the manual discuss formatting documents, memorandums, letters, mailing…

  20. The relationship of individual psychological and individual-typological characteristics in individuals with personality disorders, committed socially dangerous acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinsky A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between individual psychological and individually-typological characteristics of patients with personality disorders who committed socially dangerous acts were studied, taking into account the severity of the organic factor and the degree of their social dangerousness. 121 males were surveyed, 70 of them were diagnosed with "organic personality disorder" and 33 - personality disorder. The types of personality disorders were diagnosed. The individual variables, the ratio of processes of system activation of behavior and its inhibition, protective styles, especially coping behaviours that constitute aggression, styles of self-regulation were analyzed. It was revealed that low settings of the system activation behavior found in the group of persons with a high degree of social dangerousness, determines the formation of individual psychological treats related to the rigidity behavior, the instability of the motives, impulsivity, negative emotionality, disinhibition. During comparison of samples of individuals with medium and high degree of social dangerousness it has been discovered that self-centeredness, as a component of self-control, high levels of affective components of aggression – anger and immature defense mechanisms significantly distinguish individuals with a high degree of public danger.

  1. Put Your Style at Stake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Christian Garmann; Olaison, Lena; Meier Sørensen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    This article uses the concept of style to rethink sustainable entrepreneurship. Our point of departure is the conceptual distinction between organization as style made durable and entrepreneurship as the disruption of style. We show that style is not simply an aesthetic category, but rather what...... enable the creation of new styles. In order to conceptualize this creative process, we explore how play can create disharmonies within the organization, but we also maintain that any new practice will remain marginal without a collective assemblage capable of adopting it. On this basis, we argue...... that sustainable entrepreneurship consists of making an environmentally friendly and socially conscious style durable, but also of disrupting such a style. In order to illustrate our argument, we use the example of the sustainable smartphone producer Fairphone. In conclusion, we argue that the concept of style may...

  2. Identity style and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.

  3. Paranormal belief and attributional style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, R T; Whisnand, E A

    2000-06-01

    52 college students completed Tobacyk's 1988 Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and Peterson, Semmel, von Baeyer, Abramson, Metalsky, and Seligman's 1982 Attributional Style Questionnaire. Analysis showed significantly higher depressive attributional styles among high scorers on paranormal phenomena than low scorers.

  4. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  5. Discursive Psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molder, te H.

    2015-01-01

    Discursive psychology was established in the United Kingdom by the end of the 1980s, mainly in response to the dominant cognitivist approach in social psychology. While it borrowed notions from poststructuralism and sociology of science, it is most akin to conversation analysis. Discursive

  6. Psychological experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, Martijn; Emmanuel, Steven M.; McDonald, William; Stewart, Jon

    2015-01-01

    For Kierkegaard the ‘psychological experiment’ is a literary strategy. It enables him to dramatize an existential conflict in an experimental mode. Kierkegaard’s aim is to study the source of movement that animates the existing individual (this is the psychological part). However, he is not

  7. Does learning style influence academic performance in different forms of assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Tracey; Boohan, Mairead; Stevenson, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Educational research on learning styles has been conducted for some time, initially within the field of psychology. Recent research has widened to include more diverse disciplines, with greater emphasis on application. Although there are numerous instruments available to measure several different dimensions of learning style, it is generally accepted that styles differ, although the qualities of more than one style may be inherent in any one learner. But do these learning styles have a direct effect on student performance in examinations, specifically in different forms of assessment? For this study, hypotheses were formulated suggesting that academic performance is influenced by learning style. Using the Honey and Mumford Learning Style Questionnaire, learning styles of a cohort of first year medical and dental students at Queen's University Belfast were assessed. Pearson correlation was performed between the score for each of the four learning styles and the student examination results in a variety of subject areas (including anatomy) and in different types of assessments - single best answer, short answer questions and Objective Structured Clinical Examinations. In most of the analyses, there was no correlation between learning style and result and in the few cases where the correlations were statistically significant, they generally appeared to be weak. It seems therefore from this study that although the learning styles of students vary, they have little effect on academic performance, including in specific forms of assessment. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  8. Teaching for Different Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropper, Carolyn

    1994-01-01

    This study examined learning styles in 137 high ability fourth-grade students. All students were administered two learning styles inventories. Characteristics of students with the following learning styles are summarized: auditory language, visual language, auditory numerical, visual numerical, tactile concrete, individual learning, group…

  9. Learning styles in otolaryngology fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Malik, Mohammad U; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Pandian, Vinciya; Brown, David J; Weatherly, Robert A; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have identified a predominant learning style in trainees from different specialties, more recently in otolaryngology residents. The purpose of our study was to determine a predominant learning style within otolaryngology fellowships and to identify any differences between otolaryngology fellows and residents. We conducted a survey of otolaryngology fellows at 25 otolaryngology fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We emailed Kolb's Learning Style Index version 3.1 to 16 pediatric otolaryngology (PO) and 24 otology/neurotology (ON) fellows. This index is a widely used 12-item questionnaire. The participants answered each item in the questionnaire as it applied to their preferred learning style: accommodating, converging, diverging, or assimilating. Results were then analyzed and compared between each subspecialty and the previously reported preferred styles of otolaryngology residents. Ten PO and 20 ON fellows completed the survey, with an overall response rate of 75%. PO and ON fellows (60% of each group) preferred a learning style that was "balanced" across all four styles. For ON fellows, 35% preferred converging and 5% preferred accommodating styles. For PO fellows, converging and accommodating styles accounted for 20% each. It was previously reported that 74.4% of otolaryngology residents prefer either converging or accommodating styles. We believe that the fellowship training environment calls for fellows to use more than one learning style to become proficient physicians, hence the trend toward potentially developing a balanced style when at this level. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Cognitive Styles and Distance Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuliang; Ginther, Dean

    1999-01-01

    Considers how to adapt the design of distance education to students' cognitive styles. Discusses cognitive styles, including field dependence versus independence, holistic-analytic, sensory preference, hemispheric preferences, and Kolb's Learning Style Model; and the characteristics of distance education, including technology. (Contains 92…

  11. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  12. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  13. Underground population defense structures in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wukasch, E.

    The design and construction ofunderground shelters to protect the Chinese population in the event of nuclear war are described. Built in the style of World War II air raid shelters and designed as neighborhood defense facilities, these are not judged to be adequate for nuclear defense needs, particularly the needs of urban populations. However, 80% of China's population is rural and 1/3 of this has lived underground for centuries in cliff dwellings and atrium houses. It is, therefore, concluded that China's rural population has a better chance the the population of any other country for long-term survival from the later consequences, as well as the immediate shock, of an urban nuclear attack. (LCL)

  14. Attachment style and interpersonal trauma in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  15. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Attachment style and readiness for psychotherapy among psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, David; Tsai, Michelle; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2017-06-01

    Ninety-two adults attending outpatient mental health services completed measures of attachment style and readiness to engage in psychotherapy. Correlation and linear regression analyses found anxious attachment to be positively associated with treatment-seeking distress and found avoidant attachment to be negatively associated with openness to personal disclosure in the therapy relationship. Insecure attachment may influence prospective patients' readiness for psychotherapy. Patients with an avoidant attachment style may need assistance in preparing for the relational aspects of psychotherapy. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  17. New Oxford style manual

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. New Hart's Rules, Oxford's definitive guide to style, consists of 20 chapters that provide authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication. Topics covered include how to use italic, roman, and other type treatments, numbers and dates, law and legal references, illustrations, notes and references, and bibliographies. The guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, which features 25,000 alphabetically arranged entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The dictionary a...

  18. Managerial style in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  19. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    The concept of style is relevant for both the analysis and synthesis of designs. New styles are often formed by the adaptation of previous ones based on changes in design criteria and context. A formal characterization of style is given by shape grammars, which describe the compositional rules...... underlying a set of designs. Stylistic change can be modelled by grammar transformations, which allow the transformation of the structure and vocabulary of a grammar that is used to describe a particular style. In order for grammars to be useful beyond a single application, they should have the capability...... to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...

  20. Parenting styles and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Does the economy influence the way people bring up their children? How can we determine and measure a child’s utility? How can parenting styles be categorized in an economic model? These are the questions that Professor Fabricio Zilibotti of the University of Zurich addressed in his honorary lecture ‘Parenting with Style’, which he delivered at the April International Academic Conference during the 5th LCSR international workshop ‘Social and Cultural Changes in Cross-National Perspective: Sub...

  1. Rondocubism versus National Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnídková, Vendula

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a range of various terms used to refer to architectural production from the period after the First World War, among the most common being 'Rondocubism' and the 'National Style'. The terminological ambiguity clearly points to the problem with the very character of the style of expression that lies behind these diverse labels. In the 1920s, figures of the interwar avant-garde were already sharply critical of the post-war decorative style, the leading figures of which were the architects Pavel Janák and Josef Gočár. While this negative stigma was later overcome, following several thematic studies, it is still possible to look for other inspiring sources outside aesthetic categories that were directed at clarifying this theme. Extensive social projects had architects employed in all sorts of artistic activities, and therefore a possible answer to what the essence of the style was is offered by the wider political and cultural context. After the foundation of the Czechoslovak Republic, the former protagonists of architectural Cubism and their colleagues from the Czechoslovak Workshop Association, Artěl and the School of Decorative Arts attained such social standing that they could effectively influence local artistic development. Through the individual conception applied to official commissions they created a visual identity of the new state system. As is apparent from their theoretical writings, they found their sources of information for ornamental decoration of buildings and craft artefacts by bonding with local tradition. This did not of course mean directly borrowing from folk-art prototypes. Advanced forms of national art were intended to help establish Czechoslovakia in the international scene and were also a conscious attempt through a more folkish form of expression to appeal to the wider strata of the population.

  2. Technologies for distributed defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiders, Barbara; Rybka, Anthony

    2002-07-01

    For Americans, the nature of warfare changed on September 11, 2001. Our national security henceforth will require distributed defense. One extreme of distributed defense is represented by fully deployed military troops responding to a threat from a hostile nation state. At the other extreme is a country of 'citizen soldiers', with families and communities securing their common defense through heightened awareness, engagement as good neighbors, and local support of and cooperation with local law enforcement, emergency and health care providers. Technologies - for information exploitation, biological agent detection, health care surveillance, and security - will be critical to ensuring success in distributed defense.

  3. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  4. Framing Gangnam Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsun Catherine Yoon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the way in which news about Gangnam Style was framed in the Korean press. First released on 15th July 2012, it became the first video to pass two billion views on YouTube. 400 news articles between July 2012 and March 2013 from two South Korean newspapers - Chosun Ilbo and Hankyoreh were analyzed using the frame analysis method in five categories: industry/economy, globalization, cultural interest, criticism, and competition. The right-left opinion cleavage is important because news frames interact with official discourses, audience frames and prior knowledge which consequently mediate effects on public opinion, policy debates, social movement and individual interpretations. Whilst the existing literature on Gangnam Style took rather holistic approach, this study aimed to fill the lacuna, considering this phenomenon as a dynamic process, by segmenting different stages - recognition, spread, peak and continuation. Both newspapers acknowledged Gangnam Style was an epochal event but their perspectives and news frames were different; globalization frame was most frequently used in Chosun Ilbo whereas cultural interest frame was most often used in Hankyoreh. Although more critical approaches were found in Hankyoreh, reflecting the right-left opinion cleavage, both papers lacked in critical appraisal and analysis of Gangnam Style’s reception in a broader context of the new Korean Wave.

  5. The features of perception and processing of visual information in boxers with different style of match.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined 22 boxers qualifications aged 18-23 years, divided into two groups by their style of fight: attack and defensive. Revealed that the attacking style of the fight in boxing is accompanied by the presence of high-level performance, decrease fatigue, anxiety and dependence on the autonomic functions. The lowering of autonomy and growth heteronomnosti in the structure of psycho-physiological condition of boxers from attacking style of match, indicating the presence compromise prevention and external failure.

  6. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cognitive-behavioral therapy ), relaxation therapy , hypnotherapy , and biofeedback therapy . Psychological treatments can also be combined. Review of well- ... Antidepressant Medications Newer IBS Medications Probiotics and Antibiotics ... Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Relaxation Techniques for IBS Take Part in Online ...

  7. [Psychological harassment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puech, Paloma; Pitcho, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Two types of harassment are distinguished: sexual and psychological. In the private sector, according to French labour laws and the penal code, psychological harassment is actionable. It is up to the employer to prove the absence of harassment. The sanctions incurred can be up to 5 years imprisonment and a 150,000 euro fine and various measures of compensation for damages can be envisaged.

  8. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  9. The Structural Model in Parenting Style, Attachment Style, Self-regulation and Self-esteem for Smartphone Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Hoi Ching

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Excessive smartphone usage has become a highly controversial and substantial worldwide issue. This paper explores the complexities and challenges of smartphone addiction with a particular focus on parenting styles, attachment, and self-regulation. Convenience sampling was used to gather data from 211 university students in Hong Kong (138 females/74 males through their responses to four questionnaires. One structural equation model was formed successfully which indicated that parenting style (authoritative or permissive could be a reasonable predictor of attachment style (secure or dismissive and self-regulation (impulse control or goal setting for smartphone addictions (positive anticipation, withdrawal, cyberspace relationship or overuse. Parenting style was a positive correlate to predict attachment, while the attachment positive correlated to predict self-regulation. Self-regulation was a negative correlate to smartphone addiction. It was revealed that a positive parenting style and positive attachment style could form a significant model with self-regulation and smartphone addiction. Furthermore, secure attachment had higher mediation effect, while impulse control and goal setting behavior had a fair mediation power over influencing addiction tendency. This model helped explore the relationships between smartphone addiction and other constructs in educational psychology. Based on findings, educators can gain insights into how parenting and self-regulation can influence the tendency towards excessive smartphone usage. More educational programs which aim at promoting adequate parenting skills, motivating children through self-regulation and goal setting, is proposed through this study.

  10. Simulating autonomous driving styles: Accelerations for three road profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karjanto Juffrizal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new experimental approach to simulate projected autonomous driving styles based on the accelerations at three road profiles. This study was focused on the determination of ranges of accelerations in triaxial direction to simulate the autonomous driving experience. A special device, known as the Automatic Acceleration and Data controller (AUTOAccD, has been developed to guide the designated driver to accomplish the selected accelerations based on the road profiles and the intended driving styles namely assertive, defensive and light rail transit (LRT. Experimental investigations have been carried out at three different road profiles (junction, speed hump, and corner with two designated drivers with five trials on each condition. A driving style with the accelerations of LRT has also been included in this study as it is significant to the present methodology because the autonomous car is predicted to accelerate like an LRT, in such a way that it enables the users to conduct activities such as working on a laptop, using personal devices or eating and drinking while travelling. The results demonstrated that 92 out of 110 trials of the intended accelerations for autonomous driving styles could be achieved and simulated on the real road by the designated drivers. The differences between the two designated drivers were negligible, and the rates of succeeding in realizing the intended accelerations were high. The present approach in simulating autonomous driving styles focusing on accelerations can be used as a tool for experimental setup involving autonomous driving experience and acceptance.

  11. Nursing Students’ Preferred Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salehi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire  formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR

  12. Defense Mechanisms: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    This bibliography includes studies of defense mechanisms, in general, and studies of multiple mechanisms. Defense mechanisms, briefly and simply defined, are the unconscious ego defendants against unpleasure, threat, or anxiety. Sigmund Freud deserves the clinical credit for studying many mechanisms and introducing them in professional literature.…

  13. Defense Business Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Defense Business Transformation by Jacques S. Gansler and William Lucyshyn The Center for Technology and National...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Business Transformation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...vii Part One: DoD Business Transformation

  14. Entrepreneurs` Cognitive and Decision Making Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Motvaseli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.

  15. [Relationship between characteristic behaviors of children with AD/HD and mothers' parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Shoko; Uno, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) have an authoritarian parenting style. However, the psychological process of developing an authoritarian parenting style has yet to be clearly defined. To clarify this psychological process, the present study examined the hypothesis that the characteristic behaviors of children with AD/HD initially increase the mothers' parenting stress, which influences their parenting style. Thirty-six mothers of children with AD/HD (children's mean age: 8.1 years) and the same number of controls (children's mean age: 8.4 years) participated in the present study. The mothers' parenting stress was assessed using the Japanese Parenting Stress Index. Parenting styles were assessed using the TK-style scale for evaluating the relationships between parents and children. The results indicated that the mothers of children with AD/HD had significantly higher scores than controls for all parenting stress items and negative parenting style variables (dissatisfaction, reproach, strictness, interference, inconsistency and disagreement of 10 attitudes). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the characteristic behaviors of children with AD/HD were associated with the degree of attachment in mothers, which was related to the strict and reproachful parenting style in the AD/HD group. These results suggest that mothers of children with AD/HD are likely to have a strict and reproachful parenting style as a result of a lack of attachment with the child.

  16. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas. PMID:28360715

  17. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya Tezel, Fulya; Tutarel Kişlak, Şennur; Boysan, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  18. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many states have developed and implemented green solutions for defense. Building on these initiatives NATO formulated the NATO Green Defence Framework in 2014. The framework provides a broad basis for cooperation within the Alliance on green solutions for defense. This report aims...... to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...

  19. School Psychological Services and Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Mary Jo, Ed.

    1972-01-01

    A variety of court decisions and laws relevant to malpractice and liability of school psychologists are presented. Terms are defined and examples of faulty psychological testing, defamation, withholding information, and inferred imcompetence are provided. Suggestions regarding litigation and legal defenses are made and issues related to…

  20. [Language is not neutral. Commentary about APA style].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Sánchez-Mateos, Juan

    2007-05-01

    Some basic characteristics, not always explicit, of the editorial style proposed by the American Psychological Association (APA), and from the objections posed by some authors who maintain critical positions towards the use of this style, are reviewed, starting with the work of Madigan, Johnson, and Linton (1995) and the subsequent controversy. Starting with this review, problems related to underlying assumptions of the style, with ethical aspects of research, and with the epistemological positions defended by the different traditions of research are discussed. In the conclusions, a simpler differentiation between the scientific-technical and communicative-practical systems of enquiry is proposed, and an explicit commitment, in the text of the report, to the ethical responsibilities derived from the authorship and the development of the research.

  1. Prediction of Addiction Potential in Youth According to Attachment Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Adroom

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aim is to predict the psychological inclination to drug use in youths by studying their attachment styles. Materials and Methods: The research sample includes male and female students of Zahedan Medical Science University with the average age of 19-24. The proportional cluster random sampling was used for selection of participant. The hypotheses were analyzed, using Pearson correlation method, regression analysis, one way variance analysis and t-test for two independent groups4T. Results: The results indicated positive relationships among addiction aptitude and insecure-avoidant attachment style and negative relationship between addiction aptitude and secure attachment style4T. Conclusion: It is necessary to focus training intervention and prevention on all students4T.

  2. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12-18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  3. Parenting style dimensions as predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Álvarez-García

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007 to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12 to 18 years of age from Asturias (Spain. Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships. Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  4. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12–18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:27679591

  5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALEXITHYMIA, PARENTING STYLE, AND PARENTAL CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Barberis, Nadia; Costa, Sebastiano; Larcan, Rosalba

    2015-10-01

    Research on the relationship between parental alexithymia and parenting is relatively scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parental alexithymia and three styles of parenting (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the relationships between parental alexithymia and two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The participants were 946 parents ages 29-60 years (mothers: n = 473, M age = 44.6 yr., SD = 4.7; fathers: n = 473, M age = 48.1 yr., SD = 5.1) of children ages 11-18 years. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), the Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R), and the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine whether alexithymia could predict the three parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The first model showed that alexithymia was a positive predictor of authoritative and permissive parenting and a negative predictor of authoritarian parenting in both paternal and maternal data. The second model showed that, in both paternal and maternal data, alexithymia was a positive predictor of both dependency-oriented psychological control (DPC) and achievement-oriented psychological control (APC).

  6. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  7. Leadership Styles Promote Teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Khater Aldoshan

    2015-01-01

    This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential c...

  8. Leadership Styles Promote Teamwork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khater Aldoshan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper will evaluate the importance of learning leadership styles and the explanation of when and how each one is used in the workforce. In this paper many experts have been cited that are well-known in the field of leadership. Also this paper will concentrate on the importance of teamwork in the workforce and there are many examples of how teamwork is effective for creating the best possible outcomes for creativity and productivity. In the television industry creativity is an essential component of the job description and inspirational leadership that promotes teamwork is essential.

  9. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The behavior style of coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijanović Mihajlo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the sample by 121 perspective young athletes was carried out the researching in the aim to establish the behavior style of coaches. The relevant information was obtained through the validated questionnaires of Chelladura and Saleha (1980. The questionnaire contains 40 questions which directly determine 5 behavior styles of coaches. All questions possess the scale by 5 levels with possible statements: (always, often, periodically, rarely and never. The true answer is only one statement on one question. It is word about five degrees 'Likert's scale'. It was carried out extensive and complex statistics processing of date, where the input qualitative categorical variables were transformed into quantitative. In the next step, transformed categorical variables were exposed in classical and neoclassical statistical methodology. On the base of exact indications which were obtained by using relevant invariant and multivariate statistical methods and tests, dominant behavior style of coaches is 'Instructive'. This behavior style of coach is the most desirable. According to this researching at the last position is behavior style which is the autocratically and it is also at the same time the least desirable. The results of Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Canonic discriminative analysis show the general statistical significant difference in the representation of the behavior styles. Instructive and Autocratic behavior style of coach mostly influences on the total (general discrimination i.e. difference. For above mentioned styles, it could be said that they are paradigm of contrasts in every way. Values of Tukey - HSD test explicitly shows that there are not statistical significant difference between Instructive Style and style Awarded - Feedback as well as between Democratically and style of Social Support. The other combinations i.e. couples of behavior styles are statistical significantly different.

  11. Learning styles and courseware design

    OpenAIRE

    Valley, Karen

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we examine how (courseware) can accommodate differences in preferred learning style. A review of the literature on learning styles is followed by a discussion of the implications of being able to accurately classify learners, and key issues that must be addressed are raised. We then present two courseware design solutions that take into account individual learning‐style preference: the first follows on from traditional research in this area and assumes that learners can be class...

  12. Advertising styles in different cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Krasulja Nevena

    2003-01-01

    Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and st...

  13. Mastering style – Effects of explicit style-related information, art knowledge and affective state on appreciation of abstract paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENNO BELKE

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Leder, Belke, Oeberst, and Augustin (2004 have proposed a model of aesthetic experience in which stylistic processing is central for aesthetic experiences of art. Here we present an empirical study which investigates predictions derived from the model. Using modern and contemporary abstract paintings we investigated how their appreciation is affected by style information generalized onto new exemplars of paintings by the same artists. In accordance with the model’s predictions, effects of style processing depend on the affective states of the viewers as well as their ability for cognitive mastery, measured by amount of expertise. The experiment reveals that the examination of style-related cognitive processes is important to psychologically understand the affective, cognitive and presumably self-rewarding aspects of aesthetic experiences.

  14. Parenting styles perceived by teenagers and school achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Mónica; Paz, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Parenting styles (PS) are parents’ attitudes towards their child overall development and education. By setting family climate and parents’ behaviors, PS have been a focus on development psychology and family studies, namely, in relation to child outcomes. This cross-sectional study analyzes the impact of perceived PS by adolescents on their school achievement. 110 boys and 118 girls from the 5th to 9th school level, (M= 12.60, SD= 1.82) from a public school...

  15. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 19, Number 1, Issue 61, January 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    librarian in completing citation of government documents because standard formulas of citations may provide incomplete information in reference to...that a mentor be selected who has been previously published or has expertise in the manuscript’s subject. Authors should be familiar with the style ...and format of previous Defense ARJs and adhere to the use of endnotes versus footnotes, formatting of reference lists, and the use of designated style

  16. Excelling at selling: The charming personality style predicts occupational activities, sales performance, and persuasive competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazén, Miguel; Kuhl, Julius; Boermans, Sylvie; Koole, Sander L

    2013-08-01

    The present research investigates how individual differences in charming personality are related to occupational activities, sales performance, and persuasive competence. Study 1 showed that sales representatives had higher scores on the charming personality style than executive managers. Study 2 showed that the charming personality style predicted actual sales performance among branch managers of a large German insurance company over a period of 2 years; the explicit power motivation served as a mediator in this relation. Finally, Study 3, carried out in a laboratory setting, confirmed the hypothesis that a charming personality is associated with persuasive competence, which suggests that this style is more relevant for sales representatives than for executive managers. The authors conclude that the charming personality style represents an important psychological resource for organizations. © 2013 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Ward leadership styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to devise a leadership style scale based in the authoritarian/democratic concept of leadership and to test it with a group of nurses. The working hypothesis was that nurses, working by primary nursing methods, would have a more democratic attitude to leadership than those nurses working in a traditional task allocation system. Recent papers such as that of Henry & Tuxill (1) plead for the caring professions to take on board the concept of the 'person'. Not only is the traditional model of nursing care seen as bad for the patient; it is seen also as harmful to the nurses. Fretwell (2) describes the task system as essentially an industrial model rather than a professional one which tends to satisfy the needs of the doctor rather than the patient or nurse. Kinston (3) describes nursing decision-making and work as Level I work (tradesmen). Current models of care that individualize the nurse's response to work and decision-making become Level II type (professional). Primary nursing fulfils the need for professionalizing nursing and meeting the need for more independence as well as respecting the patient as a 'person' with the organisation there to facilitate interaction between qualified nurse and patient. Changes in attitude and relationships are essential if work is to change from task to person-centred. Styles of leadership in nurses need to alter as our orientation to care issues change (4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Teaching Styles, Learning Styles and the ESP Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Ph’ng Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Learner diversity that exists in the classroom plays a role in influencing the teaching and learning process in the classroom. It should be acknowledged in order for the teaching and learning process to be a meaningful and effective process. Thus, this study examined the learning styles preference of engineering students and the teaching styles preferences of their Technical Communication lecturers. The study also looked at whether the students’ learning styles preferences were influenced by their field of study, gender and ethnic backgrounds. Felder and Solomon’s Index of Learning Styles was administered to 588 engineering students while Grasha and Riechmann-Hruska’s Teaching Style Survey was administered to 10 Technical Communication lecturers. The findings revealed that the students have a marked preference for the visual learning style but balanced preferences for the other learning styles dimensions. The students’ field of study, gender and ethnic backgrounds did not seem to influence the students’ learning styles preferences. As for their Technical Communication lecturers, they seem to favour the student-centered teaching approach. All the data support the notion of adopting a balanced teaching approach in the Technical Communication classroom.

  19. Profiling and Utilizing Learning Style. NASSP Learning Style Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, James W., Ed.

    In 1986, the National Association of Secondary School Principals, with the assistance of a national task force, published the NASSP Learning Style Profile (LSP) for diagnosis of the cognitive styles, perceptual response tendencies, and instructional preferences of middle level and senior high school students. This monograph offers a short course…

  20. Department of Defense perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines radiation instrumentation from the Department of Defense perspective. Radiation survey instruments and calibration, or RADIAC, as it is called in the services, while administratively falling under the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy, has generally been managed at a lower level. The Naval Electronics Systems Command and Army Signal Corp are the two principles in the Department of Defense for RADIAC. The actions of the services are coordinated through the tri-service RADIAC working group, which meets about every year and a half. Several points from this organization are highlighted

  1. The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    Haspelmath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Generic Style Rules for Linguistics provide a style sheet that can be used by any linguistics journal or edited book, or for teaching purposes. They regulate aspects of text-structure style such as typographic highlighting, citation style, use of capitalization, and bibliographic style (based on the LSA's Unified Stylesheet for linguistics).

  2. Impacts of Different Culture on Management Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国君

    2015-01-01

    cultural differences affect the management behavior and management style.Participatory management style in the United States and instructional management style in China has a deep cultural roots.In terms of the type of management style,they are equal.As long as management style is consistent with its culture accordingly,the leadership will be effective.

  3. Style popularity and the comovement of stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, T.; Plantinga, A.

    2006-01-01

    We examine to what extent the popularity of an investment style can be attributed to style investing. The style investing hypothesis predicts that assets in the same style show strong comovement with respect to their underlying fundamentals and that reclassifying assets into a new style raises its

  4. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A.; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-01-01

    Background Given the increasing elderly population worldwide, the identification of potential determinants of successful ageing is important. Many studies have shown that parenting style and mental resilience may influence mental health; however, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underpin this relationship. The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents? parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwe...

  5. Balanced parenting style and its impact on the development of child personality

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey A. Kapustin

    2015-01-01

    The paper includes research results of families, who have never applied to psychological counselling. To assess the normality and abnormality of parent and child personality existential criterion was used. In these families a so-called balanced style of parenting was revealed. This style indicates the compromising parental position in the education of their children concerning the existential dichotomies help and autonomy, nature and culture, self-actualization and conditional values, determi...

  6. Developing Confidence within Girls through Self-Defense Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Aaron L.

    2012-01-01

    Through physical activity, physical educators have long sought to improve the self-efficacy and self-esteem in girls and young woman. Current research indicates that self-defense education may have a positive psychological impact on female participants, specifically regarding the development of self-efficacy and self-esteem. Through participation…

  7. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    ’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  8. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  9. The psychology of computer programming

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Gerald Marvin

    1998-01-01

    This landmark 1971 classic is reprinted with a new preface, chapter-by-chapter commentary, and straight-from-the-heart observations on topics that affect the professional life of programmers. Long regarded as one of the first books to pioneer a people-oriented approach to computing, The Psychology of Computer Programming endures as a penetrating analysis of the intelligence, skill, teamwork, and problem-solving power of the computer programmer. Finding the chapters strikingly relevant to today's issues in programming, Gerald M. Weinberg adds new insights and highlights the similarities and differences between now and then. Using a conversational style that invites the reader to join him, Weinberg reunites with some of his most insightful writings on the human side of software engineering. Topics include egoless programming, intelligence, psychological measurement, personality factors, motivation, training, social problems on large projects, problem-solving ability, programming language design, team formati...

  10. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  11. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  12. Defense Transportation; The Army

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... The statement of managers in the conference report on the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1997, directed us to validate the results and savings achieved from this and any other personal property pilot program...

  13. [Control or involvement? Relationship between parenting style and adolescent depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikó, Bettina; Balázs, Máté Ádám

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have pointed out that parenting style has a longstanding impact on psychological health. Besides parental/familial risk factors certain aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship may serve as a protective factor and help prevent adolescent depression such as the authoritative parenting style. The aim of the present study has been to analyze interrelationships between adolescent depressive symptomatology, authoritative parenting style, negative and positive parental links. The study was carried out on in all primary and secondary schools in Mako and the surrounding region in the spring of 2010, students of grades 7-12 (N = 2072), 49.2% of the sample were males and 50.8% females; 38.1% primary school pupils and 61.9% high school students. Self-administered questionnaires contained items of measuring depressive symptoms (CDI) and parental variables beyond sociodemographics. After descripive statistics, correlation and multiple linear regression analyses have been used to detect interrelationships. Data support the protective effect of authoritative parenting style in relation to adolescent depression, particularly among girls. Among boys, only mother's responsive behavior proved to be a protective factor. Among girls, however, both elements of the father's authoritative parenting style were decisive; not only responsiveness but also demandingness. The parenting style of the opposite-sex parent was prevailing in both sexes. Negative family interactions served as a risk factor, whereas positive parental identification was a protective factor during adolescence as well. There is a need to strengthen the role of the authoritative parenting style and to guarantee the presence of the opposite-sex parents in the adolescents' lives. Nowadays there are family-oriented interventions which put forward the effectiveness of parenting and problem-solving and aiming at harmonizing the parent-adolescent relationship.

  14. The Significance of Leadership Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Elise

    1998-01-01

    In a learning environment, leadership style reflects a leader's deeply held educational beliefs, which are mirrored in the school's culture. Case studies illustrate how the leadership styles of three principals affect school ambience. Good leadership practice means acknowledging each person's differing gifts, strengths, and concerns, and utilizing…

  15. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  16. Life Style Assessment: So What!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, William E.

    The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

  17. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  18. Defense Primer: DOD Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    functions, from intelligence analysis or software development to landscaping or food service. Why does DOD use individual contractors? Going back to...that provide professional services, from research to management support. The bulk of contractors—more than 70%—provide products, and these include...10 U.S.C. Part IV: Service, Supply, and Procurement. CRS Products CRS In Focus IF10548, Defense Primer: U.S. Defense Industrial Base, by Daniel

  19. Ballistic Missile Defense

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    At the 2010 NATO summit in Lisbon, the alliance decided to move forward on the development of a territorial ballistic missile defense (BMD) system and explore avenues for cooperation with Russia in this endeavor. Substantial progress on BMD has been made over the past decade, but some questions remain regarding the ultimate strategic utility of such a system and whether its benefi ts outweigh the possible opportunity costs. Missile defense has been a point of contention between the US and its...

  20. Styles of success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Corporate success stories tend to emphasize the "great men" theory of history. But now a European research project established the managerial attributes that can turn an ordinary leader into one ideal for the pursuit of business excellence. The emergence of five leadership styles as crucial drivers...... of business excellence points to a clear agenda for success. Setting clear strategic goals and the ability to take a long-term view of an organization's direction, combined with other leadership attributes such as creativity, teambuilding and learning, are principal keys to creating an excellent organization....... Leaders seeking to achive business excellence must view the high-level attainment of these sets of leadership competencies as their paramount objective. In striving for business excellence, European leaders may encounter resistance among their employees. Crucially, European employees place a markedly...

  1. Language, Communication and Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stăncuţa Ramona DIMA-LAZA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural language and communication skills vary across culture. Blunders are the result of an improper understanding of other nation’s language, non-verbal communication or customs and traditions. The present paper represents an incursion into the world of inaccurate translations and misinterpretations caused by a lack of ability to overcome cultural and language barriers. It also provides solutions for such problems, exemplifying with relevant situations. It informs the reader about writing principles and style, examining the outcome of conveying an inaccurate message. People write, deliver speeches or communicate for different purposes: to learn something, to entertain or to make money. Whether it is about one reason or another, the basic idea is to comply with certain language codes in order to avoid cultural conflicts.

  2. Role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorer, Maayan; David, Ravit; Schoenberg-Taz, Michal; Levavi-Lavi, Ifat; Phillip, Moshe; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    To examine the role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control and treatment adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Parents of 100 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of their parenting style and sense of helplessness. Parents and patients rated patient adherence to the treatment regimen. Glycemic control was evaluated by HbA(1c) values. An authoritative paternal parenting style predicted better glycemic control and adherence in the child; a permissive maternal parenting style predicted poor adherence. A higher sense of helplessness in both parents predicted worse glycemic control and lesser adherence to treatment. Parental sense of helplessness was a significant predictor of diabetes control after correcting for other confounders (patient age, sex, and treatment method). An authoritative nonhelpless parenting style is associated with better diabetes control in adolescents. Paternal involvement is important in adolescent diabetes management. These results have implications for psychological interventions.

  3. The “Depressive” Attributional Style Is Not That Depressive for Buddhists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T. Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that depression-prone people are characterized by a chronic style of attributing failures to internal, stable, and global causes, sometimes labeled as the “depressive attributional style.” Much less is known, however, about how social-cultural factors such as religious beliefs might modulate these processes. In the current study, we hypothesized that Buddhism’s view of ultimate internal controllability plays a buffering role against the depressive attributional style and reduces its negative impacts. We administrated measures of attributional styles and psychological adjustments to a sample of Chinese Buddhists as well as a control group recruited in China. Data analyses showed that Buddhists were more likely to attribute bad outcomes to internal, stable, and global causes, but their well-being was less affected by it. Thus, these results indicate that the “depressive” attributional style is not that depressive for Buddhists, after all.

  4. A study on family communication pattern and parenting styles with quality of life in adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanavi, Fariba Shahhraki; Baghbanian, Abdolvahab; Shovey, Mehdi Faraji; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between parenting styles and family communication patterns with adolescent's quality of life. The cross-sectional study was carried out on 439 randomly selected adolescents in the city of Zahedan, Iran, from January to July 2011.The subjects were asked to complete the KIDSCREEN-52 health-related quality of life questionnaire, while their parents were asked to complete the Diana Brinder's Test to show their parenting styles. SPSS 15 was used to analyse data. Most parents had 'authoritative' parenting style (n = 380; 86.6%). Pluralistic (n = 170; 38.7%) and consensual (n = 152; 34.6%) patterns were the most frequent styles of communication in families. Data suggested a significant relationship between parenting style and some dimensions of quality of life, including physical well-being, psychological well-being, social support and peers, and autonomy (p parent relation and home life (p parents while raising their children.

  5. Humor and creative life styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper is based upon the writings of William James in the late 19th century, and Alfred Adler and Sigmund Freud in the 20th, enriched by the contributions of later personality and role theorists. The self is defined as the unique organization of each person; a style is the self in action. Different life styles and their components are expressed in different situations. I posit that humor and positive thinking, combined with meaning and purpose, are vital components of all constructive life styles. The knowledge of life styles cuts through diagnostic labels to reveal our universal humanity. It can be fruitfully applied to patients and nonpatients alike and, I found, for the self-understanding of therapist. The clinical application of life styles is illustrated through numerous vignettes.

  6. 76 FR 72391 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary [Docket ID DOD-2011-OS-0055] Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Revised Defense Logistics Agency...

  7. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  8. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Closed Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  9. African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues - Vol 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychological factors influencing self-disclosure in marital relationships · EMAIL FULL ... influence of social support, self-esteem, health locus of control and gender ... Parenting style in a changing society and identity formation among Nigerian ...

  10. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed.

  11. Style popularity and the comovement of stocks

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, T.; Plantinga, A.

    2006-01-01

    We examine to what extent the popularity of an investment style can be attributed to style investing. The style investing hypothesis predicts that assets in the same style show strong comovement with respect to their underlying fundamentals and that reclassifying assets into a new style raises its correlation with that style. We test this prediction by studying how comovement varies with proxies of popularity. We use different kinds of data, such as data on stocks, mutual funds, IPO?s and fin...

  12. Improvement of Requirement Elicitation Process through Cognitive Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Fatima

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Proper requirement elicitation is necessary for client satisfaction along with the overall project success, but requirement engineers face problems in understanding user requirements and the users of the required system fail to make requirement engineering team understand what they actually want. It is then responsibility of requirement engineers to extract proper requirements. This paper discusses how to use cognitive psychology and learning style models (LSM to understand the psychology of clients. Moreover, it also discusses usage of proper elicitation technique according to one’s learning style and gather the right requirements.

  13. E-mail, decisional styles, and rest breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R; Phillips, James G

    2007-10-01

    E-mail is a common but problematic work application. A scale was created to measure tendencies to use e-mail to take breaks (e-breaking); and self-esteem and decisional style (vigilance, procrastination, buck-passing, hypervigilance) were used to predict the self-reported and actual e-mail behaviors of 133 participants (students and marketing employees). Individuals who were low in defensive avoidance (buck-passing) engaged in more e-mailing per week, both in time spent on e-mail and message volume. E-breakers were more likely to engage in behavioral procrastination and spent more time on personal e-mail.

  14. Personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Genise

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between the personal style of the therapist, attachment style and personality trait. It was used the personal style of the therapist questionnaire (PST – Q, the Argentinean attachment inventory and the big five inventory. The study sample consisted of 120 psychotherapists average age of 36.28 years (SD = 9.65, and the average years of experience was 7.90 years (SD = 8.04. The analysis of the results showed that there is a positive, significant and low intensity between the personality factor of openness to experience and personal style of involvement, a negative correlation, significant and of medium intensity between low extraversion factor correlation and mode not anxious romantic attachment and a significant positive relationship between the low–intensity factor neuroticism personality and how anxious romantic attachment. 

  15. COP21: defense stakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coldefy, Alain; Hulot, Nicolas; Aichi, Leila; Tertrais, Bruno; Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre; Piodi, Jerome; Regnier, Serge; Volpi, Jean-Luc; Descleves, Emmanuel; Garcin, Thierry; Granholm, Niklas; Wedin, Lars; Pouvreau, Ana; Henninger, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The 21. Conference of the Parties (COP21) from the UN Framework Convention took place in Paris between November 30 and December 11, 2015. The challenge is to reach a universal agreement of fight against global warming and to control the carbon footprint of human activities. This topic is in the core of the Defense Ministry preoccupations. This special dossier takes stock of the question of defense issues linked with global warming. The dossier comprises 13 papers dealing with: 1 - COP21: defense stakes (Coldefy, A.); 2 - Warfare climate, a chance for peace (Hulot, N.); 3 - COP21 and defense (Aichi, L.); 4 - A war climate? (Tertrais, B.); 5 - Challenges the World has to face in the 21. century (Paillard, C.A.); 6 - Desertification: a time bomb in the heart of Sahel (Piodi, J.); 7 - The infrastructure department of defense in the fight against climate disturbance (Regnier, S.); 8 - Fight against global warming, a chance for the forces? (Volpi, J.L.); 9 - Sea and sustainable development (Descleves, E.); 10 - Rationales of Arctic's surrounding powers (Garcin, T.); 11 - Arctic: strategic stake (Granholm, N.; Wedin, L.); 12 - Strategic impact of Turkey's new energy choices (Pouvreau, A.); 13 - Climate and war: a brief historical outlook (Henninger, L.)

  16. Parenting style and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Kristin Koetting; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C

    2002-06-01

    To investigate whether parenting style is an independent risk factor of smoking initiation and experimentation among adolescents, and whether there is a relationship between parenting style and readiness to quit, or nicotine dependence among smokers. The 84-item Health and Smoking Questionnaire, which assesses demographics, smoking status and smoking history, perceptions of risk and risk reduction, risk factors for tobacco use, and parenting style, was administered to 816 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 (mean age, 15.1 years) of whom 22.6% (n = 182) were smokers. Parenting style was measured by the brief, non-retrospective version of the Family of Origin Scale (FOS). Higher scores on the FOS indicated more positive perceived parenting style with high levels of intimacy and autonomy, characteristics of healthy parent-child relationships. Data were analyzed using a model-building approach to logistic regression with demographic and other psychosocial variables in the first two steps, and with parenting style as the last step. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that although parenting style is not a significant risk factor for smoking experimentation [odds ratio (OR) =.998; confidence interval (CI) =.977-1.019; p =.820], it is a significant independent risk factor for smoking initiation (OR =.950; CI =.930-.970; p =.000). Smokers who were more ready to quit had higher parenting style scores than those who were not ready to quit, and smokers who had made a serious quit attempt (an indicator of nicotine addiction) had higher parenting style scores than those who had not made a quit attempt. Moreover, nonsmokers who reported they would smoke a cigarette if their best friend offered had significantly lower parenting style scores than those who reported they would not smoke a cigarette. Additional research on parenting style and its impact on adolescent smoking with a more economically and ethnically diverse sample is warranted. If future research confirms

  17. Hostage (crisis) negotiation: the potential role of negotiator personality, decision-making style, coping style and emotional intelligence on negotiator success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amy; Brown, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the potential role of hostage negotiator characteristics and the impact of psychological constructs on negotiator success. It explores the role of Personality, Decision-Making Style, Coping Style, Cognitive Coping Style and Emotion Regulation and Emotional Intelligence within high stress environments and occupations. The findings suggest that certain individual traits and characteristics may play a role in negotiator success, via the mediation of specific styles, which are conducive to effective crisis negotiation skills. It is proposed that these findings have application within the field of hostage/crisis negotiation in the format of guidance regarding the recruitment and selection of hostage negotiators and the identification of potential training needs within individual negotiators in order to maximize their efficacy within the field. In line with this, it is argued that a psychometric tool that assesses these constructs is developed in order to aid the process of hostage negotiation selection.

  18. Defense waste management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    Defense high-level waste (HLW) and defense transuranic (TRU) waste are in interim storage at three sites, namely: at the Savannah River Plant, in South Carolina; at the Hanford Reservation, in Washington; and at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in Idaho. Defense TRU waste is also in interim storage at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in Tennessee; at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in New Mexico; and at the Nevada Test Site, in Nevada. (Figure E-2). This document describes a workable approach for the permanent disposal of high-level and transuranic waste from atomic energy defense activities. The plan does not address the disposal of suspect waste which has been conservatively considered to be high-level or transuranic waste but which can be shown to be low-level waste. This material will be processed and disposed of in accordance with low-level waste practices. The primary goal of this program is to utilize or dispose of high-level and transuranic waste routinely, safely, and effectively. This goal will include the disposal of the backlog of stored defense waste. A Reference Plan for each of the sites describes the sequence of steps leading to permanent disposal. No technological breakthroughs are required to implement the reference plan. Not all final decisions concerning the activities described in this document have been made. These decisions will depend on: completion of the National Environmental Policy Act process, authorization and appropriation of funds, agreements with states as appropriate, and in some cases, the results of pilot plant experiments and operational experience. The major elements of the reference plan for permanent disposal of defense high-level and transuranic waste are summarized

  19. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  20. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  1. Advertising styles in different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulja Nevena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.

  2. Personal Change and Intervention Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, John D. W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents a theory of personal change and analyzes growth-producing interventions using examples from the film, "Three Approaches to Psychotherapy". Compares the styles of Carl Rogers, Frttz Perls, and Albert Ellis to illustrate the theory. (Editor/RK)

  3. Asian-Style Chicken Wraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/asianstylechickenwraps.html Asian-Style Chicken Wraps To use the sharing features on this ... Tbsp lime juice (or about 2 limes) For chicken: 1 Tbsp peanut oil or vegetable oil 1 ...

  4. Instructional Style Meets Classroom Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Joan

    1991-01-01

    Nine elementary teachers explain how they design their classrooms to match and support their instructional styles. The teachers focus on whole language programs, student portfolios, science activity set-ups, technology transformation, learning center strategies, and space utilization. (SM)

  5. Defensive Federal Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-20

    requires that all affirmative defenses be pleaded in the answer. The rule lists 19 specific affirmative defenses, such as estoppel , laches, res judicata...Brown, 22 F.3d 516 (2d Cir. 1994); Poole v. Rourke, 779 F. Supp. 1546 (E.D. Cal. 1991). 3-40 potential collateral estoppel .4. effect of the district...the back pay claim, which was over $10,000, to the Court of Claims. The court of appeals found that ൸Collateral estoppel prohibits relitigation of

  6. [Learning styles in medical residents and their professors of a pediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Muñoz, Irina Elizabeth; Gómez-Negrete, Alonso; Varela-Ruiz, Margarita; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Mercado-Arellano, José Agustín; Sciandra-Rico, Martha Minerva; Matute-González, Mario Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background: the learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and psychological characteristics, which function as relatively stable indicators of how teachers and students perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. Knowing students' styles allows teachers to have tools to improve medical education. Our objective was to identify learning styles in pediatric residents and professors from a pediatric hospital. Methods: a learning styles questionnaire was applied to residents and theirs professors; data was analyzed in SPSS 12 software. Results: the dominant learning style in pediatric residents was reflexive and for professors was theoretical. There wasn't any difference between sexes or between medical or surgical specialities. There was more correlation between professors and residents when there was an increase in training time. Conclusions: the learning styles between professors and residents are different, especially at the beginning of the medical specialty courses; that's why it is necessary to realize a confrontation between the students' learning styles and teaching methods used by professors to improve significant learning. To know learning styles gives residents an important alternative to find a better study strategy.

  7. Style and ideology in translation

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  8. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    The 1993 policy to promote the consolidation of the United States defense industry began a series of acquisitions and mergers that went beyond the intent of the policy and left the Department of Defense (DoD...

  9. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    ...% of defense product sales annually. Defense consolidation has diminished the flexibility required for surge capacity, diminished competitive innovations in products, and reduced competitive pricing based on multiple sources for products...

  10. Perceived parenting dimensions and identity styles: exploring the socialization of adolescents' processing of identity-relevant information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Ilse; Soenens, Bart; Luyckx, Koen; Duriez, Bart; Berzonsky, Michael; Goossens, Luc

    2008-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between crucial dimensions of perceived parenting (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and the three identity styles defined by Berzonsky [Berzonsky, M. D. (1990). Self-construction over the life span: A process perspective on identity formation. Advances in Personal Construct Psychology, 1, 155-186.]. Each identity style was hypothesized to relate to a specific pattern of perceived parenting dimensions. Hypotheses were examined in a sample of middle and late adolescents (n=674). An information-oriented style was positively predicted by parental support. Contrary to expectations, however, an information-oriented style was also positively predicted by psychological control. A normative identity style was positively predicted by support and behavioral control. In line with expectations, a diffuse-avoidant identity style was positively predicted by psychological control and negatively by maternal (but not paternal) behavioral control. Findings are discussed in light of the literature on the socialization of identity formation and directions for future research are outlined.

  11. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  12. Defense Acquisition Review Journal. Volume 17, Number 1, Issue 53, January 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    especially citations (endnotes instead of footnotes), in the format specified in two specific style manuals. The ARJ follows the author (date) form of... citation . We expect you to use the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition) and the Chicago Manual of Style (15th...Edition). Contributors are encouraged to seek the advice of a reference librarian in completing citation of government documents because standard

  13. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 20, Number 1, Issue 65, April 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    the Chicago Manual of Style (15th Edition). Contributors are encouraged to seek the advice of a reference librarian in completing citation of... citation ) as outlined in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th Edition). For all other style questions, please refer to...d) Shared Visions, and (e) Team Learning. Learning vs. Training Misunderstanding the distinction between formal learning and training can derail

  14. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 18, Number 2, Issue 58, April 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    submit your manuscript with references in APA format (author- date-page number form of citation) as outlined in the Publication Manual of the American...Psychological Association ( 6th Edition ). For all other style questions, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th Edition ). Contributors are...Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour

  15. Defense Acquisition Research Journal. Volume 20, Number 2, Issue 66, July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    your manuscript with references in APA format (author-date-page number form of citation) as outlined in the Publication Manual of the American...Psychological Association ( 6th Edition ). For all other style questions, please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style (15th Edition ). Contributors are...1 7/8/2013 11:11:37 AM Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is

  16. Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Deployments inTransition Support for Caregivers Support for Children Guard and Reserve Locating Health Care Media & Resources Media Relations News Room Social Media Graphics Videos and Podcasts External Links Continuing ...

  17. Overestimation of heterosexually attributed AIDS deaths is associated with immature psychological defence mechanisms and clitoral masturbation during penile-vaginal intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, S; Costa, R M

    2009-12-01

    Research shows that (1) greater use of immature psychological defence mechanisms (associated with psychopathology) is associated with lesser orgasmic consistency from penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), but greater frequency of other sexual behaviours and greater condom use for PVI, and (2) unlike the vectors of receptive anal intercourse and punctures, HIV acquisition during PVI is extremely unlikely in reasonably healthy persons. However, the relationship between overestimation of AIDS deaths due to 'heterosexual transmission' (often misunderstood as only PVI), sexual behaviour and mental health has been lacking. Two hundred and twenty-one Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire, reported past month frequencies of their various sexual activities, and estimated the total number of women who died from AIDS in Scotland nominally as a result of heterosexual transmission in the UK from a partner not known to be an injecting drug user, bisexual or infected through transfusion. The average respondent overestimated by 226,000%. Women providing lower estimates were less likely to use immature psychological defences, and had a lower frequency of orgasms from clitoral masturbation during PVI and from vibrator use. The results indicate that those who perceive 'heterosexual transmission' led to many AIDS deaths have poorer psychological functioning, and might be less able to appreciate PVI.

  18. Dr. John H. Hopps Jr. Defense Research Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-16

    Aparecio Peggins (Psychology) Past Research Experience • Attachment Styles in Romantic Relationships, University of New Hampshire (Summer 2011...2014 at the Ray Charles Performing Arts Center on the campus of Morehouse College. The banquet consisted of a reception and dinner for parents...auditorium of the Ray Charles Performing Arts Center, highlighting the graduates’ majors, honors/awards and their acceptance to a graduate program. The

  19. Criminal thinking styles and emotional intelligence in Egyptian offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M

    2013-02-01

    The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) has been applied extensively to the study of criminal behaviour and cognition. Increasingly growing evidence indicates that criminal thinking styles vary considerably among individuals, and these individual variations appear to be crucial for a full understanding of criminal behaviour. This study aimed to examine individual differences in criminal thinking as a function of emotional intelligence. A group of 56 Egyptian male prisoners completed the PICTS and Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The correlations between these assessments were examined using a series of Pearson correlations coefficients, with Bonferroni correction. General criminal thinking, reactive criminal thinking and five criminal thinking styles (mollification, cutoff, power orientation, cognitive indolence and discontinuity) negatively correlated with emotional intelligence. On the other hand, proactive criminal thinking and three criminal thinking styles (entitlement, superoptimism and sentimentality) did not associate with emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is an important correlate of individual differences in criminal thinking, especially its reactive aspects. Practical implications of this suggestion were discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Defensive Passivity in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, Eliyahu; Gaoni, Bracha

    1977-01-01

    There are potentially healthy adolescents who display excessive reluctance to move toward independent decision and action. This research presents a clinical description of this "syndrome", conceptualizes it as a defensive maneuver against mourning over cherished childhood dreams and offers steps for therapeutic intervention. (Editor/RK)

  1. Defense radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindman, T.B. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Office of Defense Programs (DP), U.S. Department of Energy, is responsible for the production of nuclear weapons and materials for national defense. Pursuant to this mission, DP operates a large industrial complex that employs over 60,000 people at various installations across the country. As a byproduct of their activities, these installations generate radioactive, hazardous, or mixed wastes that must be managed in a safe and cost-effective manner in compliance with all applicable Federal and STate environmental requirements. At the Federal level such requirements derive primarily from the Atomic Energy Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). Responsibility for DP activities in connection with the disposal of defense wastes is consolidated within the Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). This paper discusses these activities which consist of five principal elements: the environmental restoration of inactive DP facilities and sites, the processing storage and disposal of wastes associated with ongoing operations at active DP facilities, research and development directed toward the long-term disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed wastes, technology development directly supporting regulatory compliance, and the development of policies, procedures, and technologies for assuring the safe transportation of radioactive and hazardous materials

  2. Auxins in defense strategies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čarná, Mária; Repka, V.; Skůpa, Petr; Šturdík, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 10 (2014), s. 1255-1263 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01011802 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : auxin * defense responses * JA Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection Impact factor: 0.827, year: 2014

  3. Hanford defense waste studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, B.A.; Zimmerman, M.G.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    PNL is assisting Rockwell Hanford Operations to prepare a programmatic environmental impact statement for the management of Hanford defense nuclear waste. The Ecological Sciences Department is leading the task of calculation of public radiation doses from a large matrix of potential routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to the environment

  4. Rethinking Defensive Information Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Countless studies, however, have demonstrated the weakness in this system.15 The tension between easily remembered passwords and suffi...vulnerabilities Undiscovered flaws The patch model for Internet security has failed spectacularly. Caida , 2004 Signature-Based Defense Anti virus, intrusion

  5. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  6. Relationship of sleep quality with coping and life styles in female Moroccan immigrants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Tuin, Inka

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in Western societies show poorer sleep quality in women compared with men. Socioeconomic and stress-related psychological variables have been shown to influence sleep, but not much is known about sociological and psychological influences on the sleep of women in general and non-Western women in particular. The present study reports on sociodemographic and coping variables in relation to sleep quality in female Moroccan immigrants living in Germany. Participants took part in a structured personal interview on Pittsburg Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) sleep quality, coping style preferences, and information related to the degree of identification with Western life style. Sleep quality was poor (PSQI > 6) in 39% of women. Surprisingly, women who had identified with a more Western lifestyle had poorer sleep quality than women who had retained their traditional Moroccan life style. An unusually large proportion of women preferred monitoring (i.e., information-seeking coping style) and adaptive coping (48% and 19%, respectively), regardless of sleep quality. Monitoring was more frequent in women who were less integrated into German culture. Results on sleep quality suggest that for Moroccan immigrant women in Germany, adopting a Western life style may be more stressful than retaining their native life style. The high preference for an information seeking approach in coping may reflect the desire for information rather than actual coping behavior.

  7. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the institution of social services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakhtar Valentina Vizitorіvna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the concepts “socio-psychological climate”, “climate” and “organizational culture”. The author analyses approaches to understanding the socio-psychological climate: the socio-psychological phenomenon, the general emotional and psychological mood, the style of people's relationships with direct contact with each other, the social and psychological compatibility of the members of the group. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the establishment of the social service, factors affecting the state of the socio-psychological climate in the team are considered.

  8. Maternal Parenting Styles, School Involvement, and Children's School Achievement and Conduct in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Yeo, Kim Lian

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the roles of children's perceptions of maternal parenting styles (warmth, psychological control, and behavioral control) and maternal involvement in school-focused parenting practices (home-based involvement, home-school conferencing, and school-based involvement) predicting children's school achievement and conduct in…

  9. Learned Helplessness: Shifts in Affect Following Uncontrollability and the Relationship to Attributional Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Allison

    This study investigated the reformulated theory of learned helplessness, centering around attributional style in the cause of cognitive and emotional deficits. Subjects (N=58) were undergraduate and graduate psychology students at the University of Alabama at Huntsville. Subjects were divided into an experimental group (N=30) who received…

  10. Does Experiential Avoidance Mediate the Effects of Maladaptive Coping Styles on Psychopathology and Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…

  11. Teacher-Centered Management Style of Public School Principals and Job Satisfaction of Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ki-Suck

    A concept of teacher-centered management was proposed as a style of leadership behavior for school administrators to reduce the incompatibility between social/psychological needs of teachers and monocratic/bureaucratic management patterns in educational organizations. Data obtained from self-report questionnaires distributed to teachers in 21…

  12. Overt and Relational Aggression in Russian Nursery-School-Age Children: Parenting Style and Marital Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Craig H.; Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; McNeilly-Choque, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior in Western psychological literature were measured in 207 ethnic Russian families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Greater marital conflict (for boys only), greater maternal…

  13. Self-Esteem and Body Dissatisfaction in Young Children: Associations with Weight and Perceived Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene; Slater, Amy; Mohr, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parenting style has been associated with weight-related outcomes in children, but relationships between parenting, weight, and overweight-related psychological outcomes remain largely unstudied. The aim of the present study was to determine whether parenting was a moderator of the relationship between overweight and psychological…

  14. Symbolism--The Main Artistic Style of Katherine Anne Porter's Short Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ru

    2010-01-01

    The paper takes Katherine Anne Porter's two short stories: "Flowering Judas", "The Grave" as objects of study. It will try to analyze Porter's writing style through her imaginary conception, vivid psychological description and multiple symbolisms so that we can understand her studies and her attitudes to female psychological…

  15. Relation of toddler temperament and perceived parenting styles to adult resilience

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Blatný, Marek; Kebza, V.; Jelínek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2016), s. 61-70 ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : adult resilience * early temperament * parenting style * demandingness * responsiveness Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.242, year: 2016

  16. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  17. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes treatment outcomes ultimately depend on patients and their ability to make long-term behavioural changes that support good self-care and metabolic control. Patients' perceptions about diabetes and diabetes-related complications can have a strong influence on their emotional well...... of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  18. Action Identity in Style Simulation Systems: Do Players Consider Machine-Generated Music As of Their Own Style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatchatourov, Armen; Pachet, François; Rowe, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The generation of musical material in a given style has been the subject of many studies with the increased sophistication of artificial intelligence models of musical style. In this paper we address a question of primary importance for artificial intelligence and music psychology: can such systems generate music that users indeed consider as corresponding to their own style? We address this question through an experiment involving both performance and recognition tasks with musically naïve school-age children. We asked 56 children to perform a free-form improvisation from which two kinds of music excerpt were created. One was a mere recording of original performances. The other was created by a software program designed to simulate the participants' style, based on their original performances. Two hours after the performance task, the children completed the recognition task in two conditions, one with the original excerpts and one with machine-generated music. Results indicate that the success rate is practically equivalent in two conditions: children tended to make correct attribution of the excerpts to themselves or to others, whether the music was human-produced or machine-generated (mean accuracy = 0.75 and = 0.71, respectively). We discuss this equivalence in accuracy for machine-generated and human produced music in the light of the literature on memory effects and action identity which addresses the recognition of one's own production.

  19. Action Identity in Style Simulation Systems: Do Players Consider Machine-Generated Music As of Their Own Style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatchatourov, Armen; Pachet, François; Rowe, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The generation of musical material in a given style has been the subject of many studies with the increased sophistication of artificial intelligence models of musical style. In this paper we address a question of primary importance for artificial intelligence and music psychology: can such systems generate music that users indeed consider as corresponding to their own style? We address this question through an experiment involving both performance and recognition tasks with musically naïve school-age children. We asked 56 children to perform a free-form improvisation from which two kinds of music excerpt were created. One was a mere recording of original performances. The other was created by a software program designed to simulate the participants' style, based on their original performances. Two hours after the performance task, the children completed the recognition task in two conditions, one with the original excerpts and one with machine-generated music. Results indicate that the success rate is practically equivalent in two conditions: children tended to make correct attribution of the excerpts to themselves or to others, whether the music was human-produced or machine-generated (mean accuracy = 0.75 and = 0.71, respectively). We discuss this equivalence in accuracy for machine-generated and human produced music in the light of the literature on memory effects and action identity which addresses the recognition of one's own production. PMID:27199788

  20. Cognitive-style characteristics as criteria for differential diagnosis of delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Kuznetsov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a psychological study of the relationship of cognitive styles with the development of delusional formations, overvalued ideas and simulative products in order to develop criteria of delirium differential diagnosis. We examined 118 men, ordered at forensic psychological and psychiatric examination, among them delusional symptoms were found in 68 people, and overvalued ideas in 26 people, 24 people simulated delirium. As a method of research, we used pathopsychological experiment and projective techniques and methods that identify particular cognitive style (TAT, Rorschach, Torrance. We found that delusional patients, unlike those simulating a mental disorder, show field independence cognitive style combined with the rigidity that is characteristic also for patients with endogenous overvalued ideas. In personality disorders, we found combination of field independence with the flexibility or with rigidity.

  1. Low-wage maternal employment and parenting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P; Bentler, Peter M; Franke, Todd M

    2008-07-01

    This three-year longitudinal study investigated whether low-wage employment was associated with improved psychological and parenting outcomes in a sample of 178 single mothers who were employed and unemployed current and former welfare recipients both before and subsequent to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Participation in employment predicted fewer depressive symptoms and less negative parenting style over time. Employment at time 1 was associated with a reduced likelihood of receiving welfare in the interim between times 1 and 2, less financial strain at time 2, and (through these) a decrease in mothers' depressive symptoms at time 2. Fewer depressive symptoms at time 2, in turn, predicted less negative parenting style, net of the mothers' earlier demographic, mental health, and parenting characteristics. Mothers with higher education attainment were more likely to be employed (and to earn more) at both time points. Implications of these findings for welfare policies are discussed.

  2. Romantic Attachment, Conflict Resolution Styles, and Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonache, Helena; Gonzalez-Mendez, Rosaura; Krahé, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    Although research on dating violence has increased in the last decades, little is known about the role of romantic attachment and conflict resolution in understanding victimization by an intimate partner among adolescents. This study examined the relationships between insecure attachment styles, destructive conflict resolution strategies, self-reported and perceived in the partner, and psychological and physical victimization by a dating partner in 1298 adolescents (49% girls). Anxious attachment was related to both forms of victimization via self-reported conflict engagement and conflict engagement attributed to the partner among boys and girls. Moreover, both insecure attachment styles were also indirectly linked to victimization via self-reported withdrawal and conflict engagement perceived in the partner, but only among boys. The implications of the findings for promoting constructive communication patterns among adolescents for handling their relationship conflicts are discussed.

  3. Transformational Leadership Style as Predictor of Decision Making Styles: Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Rashid Rehman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to collect data from 113respondents. Regression analysis is utilized to study the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles and step-wise regression analysis is used to study moderating effect of emotional intelligence. The study foundthat transformational leadership style strongly predicts rational and dependant decision making styles and weakly predict intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles while no association founds with avoidant decision making styles. Present research also foundthat emotional intelligence moderates the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles.

  4. Diverse Pathways of Psychology Majors: Vocational Interests, Self-Efficacy, and Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottinghaus, Patrick J.; Gaffey, Abigail R.; Borgen, Fred H.; Ralston, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examine the differences in vocational interests and self-efficacy of 254 undergraduate psychology majors organized by 7 career intention groups (e.g., psychological research). The explanatory power of individual General Occupational Themes (GOTs), Basic Interest Scales (BISs), and Personal Style Scales (PPSs) of the Strong Interest…

  5. Antecedents and Behavior-Problem Outcomes of Parental Monitoring and Psychological Control in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Laird, Robert D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Criss, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control during early adolescence. Found that monitoring was anteceded by proactive parenting style and advantageous family-ecological characteristics. Psychological control was anteceded by harsh parenting and mothers' report of earlier child…

  6. Promoting Resilience in Schools: A View from Occupational Health Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers teacher resilience from the viewpoint of a discipline concerned with the interactions between work design, management style and employee health and well-being: occupational health psychology. It will be suggested that there are strong parallels between interventions designed to promote resilience and those designed to reduce…

  7. Psychological Determinants of University Students' Academic Performance: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebka, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…

  8. Psychological Profile of Male and Female Animal Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…

  9. An Introduction to Adlerian Psychology for the School Counsellor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Alan M.

    The life and work of Alfred Adler is outlined with a listing and explanation of the five principles of his Individual Psychology: (1) social interest, (2) self-determinism, (3) goal directed behavior, (4) subjectively interpreted perception, and (5) holism. The Adlerian terms, life style and family constellation are likewise explained. There is…

  10. Academic Behavioural Confidence: A Comparison of Medical and Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Lalage; Sander, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. Sander, Stevenson, King and Coates (2000) identified differences between medical students in a conventional university and psychology students in a post-1992 university in their responses to different styles of learning and teaching. Method. It had been hypothesised that differing levels of confidence explained why the former felt…

  11. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greenberg

    Full Text Available Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891 indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320 indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz. Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353 replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'. Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres compared to type S (bias towards systemizing who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock. Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes, negative valence (depressing and sad, and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful, while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling, and aspects of positive valence (animated and cerebral depth (complexity. The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S are discussed.

  12. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J.; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., ‘brain types’). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed. PMID:26200656

  13. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed.

  14. Narcissism and defense mechanisms in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Bele

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine how the level of covert and overt narcissism is connected to the frequency of the use of defense mechanisms such as denial, repression, regression, projection, compensation, projection, intellectualization, reaction formation, displacement, dissociation, and somatoform dissociation. We can distinguish healthy narcissism, an appropriate self-evaluation, from pathological narcissism, unrealistic self-evalutaion hiding sense of one's own unworthiness with self-idealization and grandiose thinking. When combined with low/no empathy and exploiting of others, one is diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder. In this research we focused on narcissism as a personality trait, keeping in mind that we can differentiate between more covert or overt form of narcissism. We also focused on defense mechanisms protecting an individual from stimuli that are either endangering self-esteem or produce anxiety. Although their use is often unconscious, recent findings support the thesis that an individual can observe and report them. Our sample comprised 203 women. We used Narcissistic Personality Inventory, The Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, The Life Style Index, The Dissociative Experience Scale, and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire. Results indicated that women with higher levels of covert narcissism as a personality trait use defense mechanisms, especially regression on earlier developmental stage, compensation deficits on other areas, projection unwanted or unacceptable aspects, reaction formation, and dissociation (absorption, depersonalization and derealization more often than women with higher levels of overt narcissism. The later use more compensation as a way of dealing with loss, intellectualization as a rational response instead of emotional one, and regression.

  15. Speak up! Enhancing risk performance with enterprise risk management, leadership style and employee voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sax, Johanna; Torp, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of psychological safety and participative leadership style on risk performance as well as its interaction with enterprise risk management (ERM) processes to evaluate if a decentralisation in the form of a safe environment and participative......: – The paper finds that not only do both ERM and participative leadership style enhance risk performance but a positive interaction effect is also found. In addition, the findings suggest that a safe environment precede participative leadership style indicating this as a prerequisite for management...... to introduce participative leadership style. These findings underpin that an effective risk management system should include both a holistic, formalised ERM system and organisational initiatives that enhance a strategic responsiveness through employee involvement. Originality/value: – The current study...

  16. Mediational role of parenting styles in emotional intelligence of parents and aggression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Syeda Shahida; Bond, Rod

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between parents' emotional intelligence and adolescents' aggression, through the mediation of parenting styles. Two hundred and twenty five undergraduate students (113 boys & 112 girls; age 17-18 years), from four universities in Pakistan, participated with their parents. The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen, & Hart, 1995), and the Scale of Emotional Intelligence (Batool & Khalid, 2011) were completed by parents. The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) was completed by their adolescent offspring. Mediational path analysis supported our hypothesised model. Results indicate that emotional intelligence of parents indirectly links to aggression among offspring, through parenting styles. It was concluded that emotional intelligence training will help parents to improve their parenting styles, and it will lower the risk of aggression in their children. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  17. [Parenting style in Spanish parents with children aged 6 to 14].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Geta, Petra María

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish which parenting style of Spanish families is associated with optimum children's outcomes. A random Spanish sample of 1,103 parents of children and teenagers from 6 to 14 years of age, of whom 47% were females, reported on their child-rearing practices. Families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) based on the parents' answers. Socialization outcomes were 6 indicators of interpersonal relationship quality, 9 indicators of psychological adjustment, 7 indicators of personal competence, and 12 indicators of behavior problems. Results showed that indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting. Overall, our results supported the idea that, in Spain, the optimum parenting style is the indulgent one, as scores in the four sets of socialization outcomes among children and teenagers from indulgent families were always equal to, or even better than, the authoritative parenting style.

  18. Identifying Mother-Child Interaction Styles Using a Person-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jackie A; O'Brien, Marion; Grimm, Kevin J; Leerkes, Esther M

    2014-05-01

    Parent-child conflict in the context of a supportive relationship has been discussed as a potentially constructive interaction pattern; the current study is the first to test this using a holistic analytic approach. Interaction styles, defined as mother-child conflict in the context of maternal sensitivity, were identified and described with demographic and stress-related characteristics of families. Longitudinal associations were tested between interaction styles and children's later social competence. Participants included 814 partnered mothers with a first-grade child. Latent profile analysis identified agreeable , dynamic , and disconnected interaction styles. Mothers' intimacy with a partner, depressive symptoms, and authoritarian childrearing beliefs, along with children's later conflict with a best friend and externalizing problems, were associated with group membership. Notably, the dynamic style, characterized by high sensitivity and high conflict, included families who experienced psychological and relational stressors. Findings are discussed with regard to how family stressors shape parent-child interaction patterns.

  19. Learning style, judgements of learning, and learning of verbal and visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Abby R; Otani, Hajime; Skeel, Reid L; Van Horn, K Roger

    2017-08-01

    The concept of learning style is immensely popular despite the lack of evidence showing that learning style influences performance. This study tested the hypothesis that the popularity of learning style is maintained because it is associated with subjective aspects of learning, such as judgements of learning (JOLs). Preference for verbal and visual information was assessed using the revised Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ). Then, participants studied a list of word pairs and a list of picture pairs, making JOLs (immediate, delayed, and global) while studying each list. Learning was tested by cued recall. The results showed that higher VVQ verbalizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for words, and higher VVQ visualizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for pictures. There was no association between VVQ scores and recall or JOL accuracy. As predicted, learning style was associated with subjective aspects of learning but not objective aspects of learning. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Defense Primer: Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Usually, incremental funding is used to mitigate peaks and valleys in annual budgets caused by the cost of one item significantly changing the...base defense budget . DOD uses these funds to buy several different types of materiel, including  new items easily recognizable as military...pursues a policy of full funding for procurement, meaning that the total estimated cost of each unit must be funded in the year it is budgeted . In a

  1. Quadrennial Defense Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    medicine , and computer network operations. While we continue to employ a mix of programs and incentives to recruit quality personnel, we are also...Lithuania* Singapore Australia Finland Luxembourg* Slovakia* Austria France* Macedonia Slovenia* Azerbaijan Georgia Montenegro Spain* Belgium...20,000 positions by 2015. We will continue to significantly enhance Secretary of Defense Robert M. Gates meets with plant workers during a tour of an

  2. Whither Ballistic Missile Defense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-30

    important that technology today is placing enormous power in the many camps-not only information that enables timely decision-making, but also the...WHITHER BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE? BY AMBASSADOR HENRY F. COOPER NOVEMBER 30,1992 TECHNICAL MARKETING SOCIETY OF AMERICA WASHINGTON, DC...Conference on Technical Marketing 2000: Opportunities and Strategies for a Changing World) I intend to discuss the prospects for SDI in a changing

  3. Psychology and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Nancy M.

    1985-01-01

    Considers recent efforts within the field of psychology to understand issues involving gender. Demonstrates patterns of development within feminist psychology and its relation to mainstream psychology. Examines status of the field, two case studies, and new research. (Author/SA)

  4. ETS Research on Cognitive, Personality, and Social Psychology: I. Research Report. ETS RR-13-01. ETS R&D Scientific and Policy Contributions Series. ETS SPC-13-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    This is an account of a portion of the research on cognitive, personality, and social psychology at ETS since the organization's inception. The topics in cognitive psychology are the structure of abilities; in personality psychology, response styles and social and emotional intelligence; and in social psychology, prosocial behavior and stereotype…

  5. Plant defense against insect herbivores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    , defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce......Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar...... defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects...

  6. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Coping Styles in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Rezaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a report of a study of The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Coping Styles in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Iran. Hemodialysis patients face with multiple physical and psychological stressful factors; they use coping styles in order to cope with the challenges. A descriptive-correlation study was conducted based on the data collected from patients undergoing hemodialysis by census method in the city of Kerman using the Endler and Parker coping style, Self-esteem and demographic information questionnaires. The mean age of patients was 56.21 ± 1.45 years and 58.5% were male. The statistically positive relationship between self-esteem and problem-oriented coping style (p=0.05 and inverse relationship between self-esteem and emotion-oriented style (p<0.001. The patients with higher and lower self-esteem used problem-oriented and emotion-oriented styles, respectively. According to the results, it is necessary for nurses to enhance their role in promoting self-esteem and help patients undergoing hemodialysis while using problem-oriented style.

  7. Parenting Styles and Adolescents’ School Adjustment: Investigating the Mediating Role of Achievement Goals within the 2 × 2 Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Shiyuan; Liu, Yan; Bai, Lu

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the multiple mediating roles of achievement goals based on a 2 × 2 framework of the relationships between parenting styles and adolescents’ school adjustment. The study sample included 1061 Chinese adolescent students (50.4% girls) between the ages of 12 and 19, who completed questionnaires regarding parenting styles (parental autonomy support and psychological control), achievement goals (mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance...

  8. Teacher Uses of Learning Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Among all the various learning style models, the Dunn & Dunn Learning Style Model (DDLSM) in particular has become a widely used method transforming teaching practice. Dunn & Dunn research literature is scarce when it comes to how the model is used by teachers in general. This is an issue since...... the model is a research-based prescriptive model of teaching. Employing observations and interviews to collect data, the present study investigates teachers’ use of the model. Findings indicate that the DDLSM is used for a number of purposes, some of which are in contradiction to the model prescriptions....

  9. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  10. Defense Profiles in Adaptation Process to Sport Competition and Their Relationships with Coping, Stress and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the potentially distinct defense profiles of athletes in order to provide insight into the complex associations that can exist between defenses and other important variables tied to performance in sports (e.g., coping, perceived stress and control and to further our understanding of the complexity of the adaptation process in sports. Two hundred and ninety-six (N = 296 athletes participated in a naturalistic study that involved a highly stressful situation: a sports competition. Participants were assessed before and after the competition. Hierarchical cluster analysis and a series of MANOVAs with post hoc comparisons indicated two stable defense profiles (high and low defense profiles of athletes both before and during sport competition. These profiles differed with regards to coping, stress and control. Athletes with high defense profiles reported higher levels of coping strategies, perceived stress and control than athletes with low defense profiles. This study confirmed that defenses are involved in the psychological adaptation process and that research and intervention should not be based only on coping, but rather must include defense mechanisms in order to improve our understanding of psychological adaptation in competitive sports.

  11. Defense Profiles in Adaptation Process to Sport Competition and Their Relationships with Coping, Stress and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Michel; Martinent, Guillaume; Drapeau, Martin; Chahraoui, Khadija; Vacher, Philippe; de Roten, Yves

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the potentially distinct defense profiles of athletes in order to provide insight into the complex associations that can exist between defenses and other important variables tied to performance in sports (e.g., coping, perceived stress and control) and to further our understanding of the complexity of the adaptation process in sports. Two hundred and ninety-six ( N = 296) athletes participated in a naturalistic study that involved a highly stressful situation: a sports competition. Participants were assessed before and after the competition. Hierarchical cluster analysis and a series of MANOVAs with post hoc comparisons indicated two stable defense profiles (high and low defense profiles) of athletes both before and during sport competition. These profiles differed with regards to coping, stress and control. Athletes with high defense profiles reported higher levels of coping strategies, perceived stress and control than athletes with low defense profiles. This study confirmed that defenses are involved in the psychological adaptation process and that research and intervention should not be based only on coping, but rather must include defense mechanisms in order to improve our understanding of psychological adaptation in competitive sports.

  12. History of development and modern condition of Chinese military psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr G. Karayani

    2017-12-01

    are analyzed. Psychological war is considered as a component of an information psychological antagonism, along with legal and media-wars. Such types of psychological war as operation-coercion, operation-deceit, operation-dissociation, operation-defense are identified. Methods of psychological war are highlighted. The general review of other trends of military psychological research is given: studying combat influence on soldier mental condition, stress resistance, post combat frustration and posttraumatic growth; collaborating on methods of psychological training and psychological resilience in military men; studying psychological aspects of «man-technics» system, etc. Results. To conclude, the Chinese military psychology is becoming an essential creative force in the PLA’s combat preparedness system and its experience is worthy of careful and in-depth study.

  13. A Comparison of Coping Styles and Quality of Life in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease and Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT Salehi omran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the medical world one of the most interaction between body and mind are related to coronary heart disease and it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. For this reason, identifying psychological risk factors in this context is necessary. In this regard, this study was performed with aimed to coping styles and quality of life in CHD patients and healthy individuals. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional performed on 100 patients with coronary heart disease and 100 healthy subjects. Data was collected through Lazarus and Folkman coping styles questionnaires that included four problematic coping and  four emotion-focused coping style and quality of life of the World Health Organization in four aspects of  physical, psychological, environmental and social relationship with demographic characteristics were collected and compared. FINDINGS: The mean of direct confrontive coping style in patients (8.75±2.81 were significantly more than healthy individuals (7.95±2.86 (p=0.036, the mean of escape-avoidance coping style in patients (9.80±4.59 were significantly more than healthy individuals (8.38±4.25 (p=0.045, and was not found significant difference between two groups in Problem-focused coping style, Also there was a significant difference in quality of life between two groups, in the physical health domain (p=0.000, psychological domain(p=0.001, social relationship domain (p=0.007 and environmental domain (p=0.003. CONCLUSION: Result showed that the quality of life in CHD patients were lower than healthy individuals and CHD patients used direct confrontive coping style and escape-avoidance coping style, more than healthy individuals. Therefore this two styles can be considered as risk factors for CHD.

  14. Children's psychological responses to hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessey, Judith A

    2003-01-01

    The data-based literature addressing children's psychological responses to hospitalization was reviewed using methods outlined by Cooper (1989). Using a developmental science perspective, early research was reviewed and a model of variables that contribute to children's responses was constructed. This model consists of three major foci, including maturational and cognitive variables (developmental level, experience, coping style), ecological variables (family and hospital milieu), and biological variables (inborn factors and pathophysiology). Coping serves as the overarching framework for examining these variables and their contributions to children's responses to hospitalization. A variety of theoretical perspectives from the social sciences have been used, with psychoanalytic and stress and adaptation theories predominating. The majority of the research used simple case study, descriptive, or pre- and post-test designs. Methodologic issues were common. Little qualitative work has been done. Future research directions call for studies to adopt new theoretical and empirical models that are methodologically rigorous and clinically relevant and that embrace the precepts of developmental science.

  15. Improving Technical, Tactical and Psychological Preparation of Freestyle Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakulin Serhij

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 to justify the ways of improvement of training free style wrestlers to improve the results of their activities and competitive sports skills; 2 to identify the areas of improvement of psychological preparation and the structure of complex psycho-pedagogical methods for optimizing mental condition of free style wrestlers. Material and methods: The following methods were used in the study: analysis and synthesis of the scientific data of methodological literature; pedagogical supervision; survey (interview, questionnaire; analysis of freestyle wrestlers competitive activity; testing of physical and psychological fitness; pedagogical experiment; methods of mathematical and statistical analysis of research results. Results: it has been demonstrated that there is a necessity to improve technical, tactical and psychological preparation of freestyle fighters; the basic problems of the process have been defined. Conclusion: 1 the method of preparation of freestyle wrestlers has been grounded and the feasibility of its use for rapid making the best technical and tactical decisions in a competitive activity has been proved. It is proposed to include specific tactical training methods for each action and various combinations of basic actions into the coach program of wrestling; 2 the directions of improving psychological preparation and the structure of complex psychological and pedagogical methods of optimizing the mental condition of free style wrestlers are substantiated.

  16. [The influence of leadership experience on the style of resolving management decisions by executives of healthcare institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezhnovets', T A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the influence of age and management experience of executives in healthcare institutions at the style of decision-making. The psychological study of 144 executives was conducted. We found out that the age of executives in healthcare institutions does not affect the style of managerial decision making, while experience in leadership position does. Also it was established that the more experienced leader is, the more often he will make decision in authoritative, autonomous, marginal style and the less management experience is, the more likely is the usage of indulgent and situational style. Moreover, the authoritarian style is typical for younger executives, marginal and autonomous is typical for elder executives.

  17. Dimensions of school climate: teachers' or principals' power styles and subjects' propensities to be climate vigilant as related to students' perceptions of satisfaction and of peers' abusive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoek-Miller, Nancy; Miller, Duane I; Shirachi, Miyoko; Hoda, Nicholas

    2002-08-01

    Two studies investigated teachers' and principals' power styles as related to college students' retrospective ratings of satisfaction and peers' abusive behavior. One study also investigated retrospective self-perception as related to students' sensitivity to the occurrence of physical and psychological abuse in the school environment. Among the findings were positive correlations between subjects' perceptions that their typical elementary school teacher used referent, legitimate, or expert power styles and subjects' reported satisfaction with their elementary school experience. Small but statistically significant correlations were found suggesting that principals' power style was weakly associated with ratings of psychological abuse in elementary school and physical abuse in middle school. Also, students who rated themselves as intelligent, sensitive, attractive, and depressive had higher ratings of perceived psychological and physical abuse at school. It was concluded that parameters of leaders' power styles and subjects' vigilance might be useful for understanding school climates. Experimentally designed studies are required.

  18. DEFENSE PROGRAMS RISK MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin PREDA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For the past years defense programs have faced delays in delivering defense capabilities and budget overruns. Stakeholders are looking for ways to improve program management and the decision making process given the very fluid and uncertain economic and political environment. Consequently, they have increasingly resorted to risk management as the main management tool for achieving defense programs objectives and for delivering the defense capabilities strongly needed for the soldiers on the ground on time and within limited defense budgets. Following a risk management based decision-making approach the stakeholders are expected not only to protect program objectives against a wide range of risks but, at the same time, to take advantage of the opportunities to increase the likelihood of program success. The prerequisite for making risk management the main tool for achieving defense programs objectives is the design and implementation of a strong risk management framework as a foundation providing an efficient and effective application of the best risk management practices. The aim of this paper is to examine the risk management framework for defense programs based on the ISO 31000:2009 standard, best risk management practices and the defense programs’ needs and particularities. For the purposes of this article, the term of defense programs refers to joint defense programs.

  19. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  20. Individual Learning Styles and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitar, Aleša Saša; Cerne, Matej; Aleksic, Darija; Mihelic, Katarina Katja

    2016-01-01

    Business schools are in need of developing creative graduates. This article explores how creativity among business students can be stimulated. Because a considerable amount of knowledge is required for creative ideas to emerge, the learning process has a significant impact on creativity. This, in turn, indicates that learning style is important…

  1. Accommodating Elementary Students' Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James

    1995-01-01

    Examines the perceptual learning style preferences of sixth- and seventh-grade students in the Philippines. Finds that the visual modality was the most preferred and the auditory modality was the least preferred. Offers suggestions for accommodating visual, tactile, and kinesthetic preferences. (RS)

  2. Attention & Cognitive Style, FY 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, John C.

    A study is presented which concentrates on the development of a cognitive style assessment instrument for 3- to 8-year-olds and on a series of studies designed to evaluate the role of stylistic and attentional processes in the development of various competencies in young children. This report incorporates a manual for users, a technical report on…

  3. Style and Variables in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shopen, Timothy, Ed.; Williams, Joseph M., Ed.

    A collection of articles on the kinds of variation in English that one finds within the language of one group or one person includes: "The English Language as Rule-Governed Behavior" (Timothy Shopen); "The English Language as Use-Governed Behavior" (Joseph M. Williams); "Styles" (Ann D. Zwicky); "The Organization…

  4. Ego defense mechanisms in Pakistani medical students: a cross sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Roha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ego defense mechanisms (or factors, defined by Freud as unconscious resources used by the ego to reduce conflict between the id and superego, are a reflection of how an individual deals with conflict and stress. This study assesses the prevalence of various ego defense mechanisms employed by medical students of Karachi, which is a group with higher stress levels than the general population. Methods A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted on 682 students from five major medical colleges of Karachi over 4 weeks in November 2006. Ego defense mechanisms were assessed using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 individually and as grouped under Mature, Immature, and Neurotic factors. Results Lower mean scores of Immature defense mechanisms (4.78 were identified than those for Neurotic (5.62 and Mature (5.60 mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. Immature mechanisms were more commonly employed by males whereas females employed more Neurotic mechanisms than males. Neurotic and Immature defenses were significantly more prevalent in first and second year students. Mature mechanisms were significantly higher in students enrolled in Government colleges than Private institutions (p Conclusions Immature defense mechanisms were less commonly employed than Neurotic and Mature mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. The greater employment of Neurotic defenses may reflect greater stress levels than the general population. Employment of these mechanisms was associated with female gender, enrollment in a private medical college, and students enrolled in the first 2 years of medical school.

  5. Francis Bacon and the Technology of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Examines Francis Bacon's intentionally devised style for scientific writings and the theoretical basis of that style. Discusses his emphasis on a truly objective point of view, and his use of aphorisms to adapt to his audience. (HTH)

  6. Managment Styles to Avoid: Some Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttschalk, George E.; Cangemi, Joseph P.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes management styles of numerous leaders who failed. Presents these categories of styles not associated with success: dictator, blocker, withholder, brownnoser, butcher, non-delegator, worrier, troublemaker, malcontent, weakling, jealous executive, and no-conscience administrator. (Author/ABL)

  7. Fashion Forward: Forecasting Visual Style in Fashion

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Halah, Ziad; Stiefelhagen, Rainer; Grauman, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    What is the future of fashion? Tackling this question from a data-driven vision perspective, we propose to forecast visual style trends before they occur. We introduce the first approach to predict the future popularity of styles discovered from fashion images in an unsupervised manner. Using these styles as a basis, we train a forecasting model to represent their trends over time. The resulting model can hypothesize new mixtures of styles that will become popular in the future, discover styl...

  8. Military psychology and police psychology: mutual contributions to crisis intervention and stress management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Like siblings separated at birth, military psychology and police psychology have each independently addressed the cognitive, perceptual, emotional, and behavioral aspects of men and women performing extreme service in defense of their neighborhood or their country. This article reviews the major areas of commonality in the work of military and police psychologists in the areas of crisis intervention and stress management, and provides practical strategies for handling these operational and clinical challenges. The article makes specific recommendations for how police and military psychologists can cross-contribute to each other's fields for the overall enhanced provision of services to the men and women who wear uniforms of all kinds.

  9. Patient needs and medication styles in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Osman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Patient self-care in illnesses such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is influenced by "trade-offs" that patients make between their social and psychological needs, and the "best practice" clinical management of their illness. Patients weigh the benefits of taking medication against the costs, such as symptoms. Personal styles of medication use and decision-making also affect how well COPD patients respond to treatment plans and their acceptance of particular treatments, including inhalers. The large amount of information now available may have made patients more autonomous than before, but the actual locus of control varies widely between patients. Patients seem to take a pragmatic approach when assessing inhaler devices, basing preference on how effective they perceive the device to be. Patients with COPD show loyalty to devices and, in the main, try to comply with instructions given by the healthcare provider. The health path for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which describes the course the disease typically takes, is a progressive deterioration. Patients therefore adopt a conservative attitude to their health goals and what they expect to gain from treatment and management plans. An understanding of these influences will help healthcare providers support the patient better and give the appropriate advice at each phase of a patient's health path.

  10. Radif in Iraqi’s Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mah Nazari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The most exquisite and the greatest manifestations of our culture in our turbulent historical periods are the magnificent works in Persian literature reflecting all historical, cultural, social, psychological, aesthetic, and other aspects. To appreciate the value of these invaluable gems, we must scrutinize over the delicate and witty points and distinguish between the good as well as bad aspects because our contemporary literature is the logical continuation of the past literature. In this regard, knowledge of different genres, history of literature, prosody, stylistics, mysticism, history of language, grammar, rhyme and rhythm, Radif, etc each provides a way for better understanding of literary works. Rhythmical language has a greatly significant role in assigning Prominence to the images present in the mind of the poets, similar to mysticism being an interpretation of attraction. These all, from all litrary perspectives, particularly Radif need to be repeated. It is noteworthy that Radif has been welcomed from ancient times. In the present article, contrary to the ideas proposed with most of the scholors, attempts to present the aduantages of using poetic Radifs in the forms of words, nouns, adjectives, advebs, vebs and sentence – wise in the works of famous poets of Iraqi’s style.

  11. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  12. On Some Tendencies in Defense Policy of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia K. Meden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the newest trends in the German defense policy, caused by the aggravation of European geopolitical situation. The author analyzes various sources, among them official reports presented to the Ministry of Defense and the Bundestag; speeches by the Minister of Defense and by supreme commanders of the Bundeswehr; published in mass media information on condition and problems of the military forces, as well as modernization of the equipment. Officially it is deemed, that the reform of the Bundeswehr which started in 2011, so far has turned into an amorphous process of renewal (Neuausrichtung, intended to improve the military organization. Since the acting Cabinet was farmed, Ursula von der Leyen - the first woman Minister of Defense of Germany - directs these activities, and her style of work affects all the work in the Ministry. Meanwhile, the revision of the main parameters of the defensive activity and the whole German politics is caused not by a fresh leadership, but by the most sharp after the end of the "cold war" geopolitical crisis in Europe. The author comes to conclusion, that a turning point in the Defensive Policy of Germany is taking shape, so that all the aspects of military organization are now affected: command stuff training, military equipment, strengthening of ties with allies. Anti-Russian propaganda in mass-media reanimates an image of an enemy and prepares public opinion to the future growth of military expenses; it even overcomes certain pacifism, so usual in modern society. Here in Russia, one must take all this into account, as an idea of the low fighting capacity of the Bundeswehr, which was formed in the last years, is getting obsolete, and could became a dangerous illusion.

  13. Parenting style, resilience, and mental health of community-dwelling elderly adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xue; Wu, Daxing; Nie, Xueqing; Xia, Jie; Li, Mulei; Lei, Feng; Lim, Haikel A; Kua, Ee-Heok; Mahendran, Rathi

    2016-07-08

    Given the increasing elderly population worldwide, the identification of potential determinants of successful ageing is important. Many studies have shown that parenting style and mental resilience may influence mental health; however, little is known about the psychological mechanisms that underpin this relationship. The current study sought to explore the relationships among mental resilience, perceptions of parents' parenting style, and depression and anxiety among community-dwelling elderly adults in China. In total, 439 community-dwelling elderly Chinese adults aged 60-91 years completed the Personal and Parents' Parenting Style Scale, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. Elderly adults whose parents preferred positive and authoritative parenting styles had higher levels of mental resilience and lower levels of depression and anxiety. Elderly adults parented in the authoritarian style were found to have higher levels of depression and anxiety, with lower mental resilience. The findings of this study provide evidence related to successful ageing and coping with life pressures, and highlight the important effects of parenting on mental health. The results suggest that examination of the proximal determinants of successful ageing is not sufficient-distal factors may also contribute to the 'success' of ageing by modifying key psychological dispositions that promote adaptation to adversity.

  14. Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.J.; Kohen, M.D.; Rivers, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Defense Treaty Inspection Readiness Program (DTIRP) was established by the Department of Defense in 1990 to assist defense facilities in preparing for treaty verification activities. Led by the On-Site Inspection Agency (OSIA), an element of the Department of Defense, DTIRP''s membership includes representatives from other Department of Defense agencies, the Department of Energy (DOE), the Central Intelligence Agency, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Commerce, and others. The Office of Safeguards and Security has a significant interest in this program, due to the number of national defense facilities within its purview that are candidates for future inspections. As a result, the Office of Safeguards and Security has taken a very active role in DTIRP. This paper discusses the Office of Safeguards and Security''s increasing involvement in various elements of the DTIRP, ranging from facility assessments to training development and implementation

  15. The Relationship between Decision Making Styles and Leadership Styles among Public Schools Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Aieman Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between leadership styles and decision-making styles among public schools principals. A total of 108 principals returned questionnaires from Russaifa Education District in Jordan. The Decision Style Inventory and the Administrative Styles Questionnaire were used in this study. "Directive decision…

  16. Assessing Experiential Learning Styles: A Methodological Reconstruction and Validation of the Kolb Learning Style Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Chris; Burns, David J.; Assudani, Rashmi; Chinta, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    To understand experiential learning, many have reiterated the need to be able to identify students' learning styles. Kolb's Learning Style Model is the most widely accepted learning style model and has received a substantial amount of empirical support. Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (LSI), although one of the most widely utilized instruments to…

  17. Key characteristics of different management styles

    OpenAIRE

    AGADZHANYAN A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The article reveals main management styles practiсed by managers all over the world. The author considers key characteristics of management styles, conditions of their using. The paper analyzes cultural differences in management styles in the West and in the East.

  18. An Intelligent System for Determining Learning Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ali; Alaybeyoglu, Aysegul; Mulayim, Naciye; Uysal, Muhammed

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an intelligent system which determines learning style of the students is developed to increase success in effective and easy learning. The importance of the proposed software system is to determine convenience degree of the student's learning style. Personal information form and Dunn Learning Style Preference Survey are used to…

  19. Learning Styles: Do They Differ by Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kara; Bates, Derald; Manikowske, Linda; Amundsen, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory describes how learners see and interpret information. Past studies have analyzed learning styles of certain professions and majors. This study evaluated whether student learning styles differ by major. The Marshall and Merritt Learning Style Inventory was completed by 531 students. Differences were found in…

  20. Learning Styles and Continuing Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Curtis; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Gregorc Style Delineator--Word Matrix was administered to 2,060 physicians in order to gain a better understanding of their participation in continuing medical education. The study showed that 63 percent preferred the concrete sequential learning style. Different style preferences may account for some of the apparent disparity between…

  1. Behavioral Style, Culture, and Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Asa G., III

    1992-01-01

    Argues that unique behavioral styles can be identified among African-American populations and that behavioral style may help explain differences in test performance for white and African-American students. Implications for all students of providing stylistic diversity in the schools and student ability to use multiple learning styles are…

  2. Are Students' Learning Styles Discipline Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cheryl; Reichard, Carla; Mokhtari, Kouider

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which community college students' learning style preferences vary as a function of discipline. Reports significant differences in students' learning style preferences across disciplines, but not by gender. Adds that student learning style preferences varied by academic performance as measured by gender. Discusses…

  3. Parent Predictors of Adolescents' Explanatory Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Krause, Elizabeth D.; Brunwasser, Steven M.; Freres, Derek R.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Gillham, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested the prospective relations (6-month lag) between three aspects of the parent-child relationship at Time 1 (T1) and adolescents' explanatory styles at Time 2 (T2): caregiving behaviors, parents' explanatory style for their own negative events, and parents' explanatory style for their children's negative events. The sample…

  4. LIFE-STYLE SEGMENTATION WITH TAILORED INTERVIEWING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMAKURA, WA; WEDEL, M

    The authors present a tailored interviewing procedure for life-style segmentation. The procedure assumes that a life-style measurement instrument has been designed. A classification of a sample of consumers into life-style segments is obtained using a latent-class model. With these segments, the

  5. Conceptualizing On-the-Job Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berings, Marjolein G. M. C.; Poell, Rob F.; Simons, P. Robert-Jan

    2005-01-01

    The broad aims of this study are to gain insight into employees' on-the-job learning activities to help them improve their on-the-job learning. The authors define on-the-job learning styles and operationalize the concept to include both mental and overt learning styles and both interpersonal and intrapersonal learning styles. Organizations and…

  6. Mainstreaming Culture in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Fanny M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the "awakening" to the importance of culture in psychology in America, international psychology has remained on the sidelines of psychological science. The author recounts her personal and professional experience in tandem with the stages of development in international/cross-cultural psychology. Based on her research in cross-cultural…

  7. A direct comparison of the defense mechanisms of nondepressed people and depressed psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, G M; Greenberg, R P; Fisher, S; Dewan, M

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a direct comparison of defensive styles (as measured by the Defense Mechanisms Inventory [DMI]) in a sample of depressed psychiatric inpatients and samples of nondepressed male and female normative groups. Consistent with the "depressive realism" literature, nondepressed men and women were more likely than their depressed counterparts to bias their perceptions in an overly cheerful, optimistic direction. Counternormative sex differences were also found. Depressed men were more likely to use internalizing defenses and depressed women were more likely to use externalizing defenses than their respective nondepressed comparison groups. Overall, as has been speculated, there was a relationship within depressed subjects between depression severity and the amount of negatively biased self-perception.

  8. Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Sarihan, Ali; Bush, Amy; Summers, Lawrence; Thompson, Brent; Tomasszewski, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This paper will build on ballistic missile defense in Europe. In the first part, a brief historical overview will place the current public management issue into light. This is followed by a discussion of the main actors in the international debate, the problems that arise and the available options and recommendations to address missile defense. In the second part, differences between George W. Bush and Barack H. Obama will analyze under the title “Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe: Evolving...

  9. Correlates of Psychological Abuse Perpetration in College Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the contributions of gender, adult romantic attachment orientations (i.e., avoidance, anxiety), defense mechanisms (i.e., narcissism, other-splitting), and stressors to college student psychological abuse perpetration (dominance). Men with higher levels of attachment avoidance, narcissistic entitlement, and stressful problems…

  10. Defense Programs and Budget Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Troutman, Mark D

    2006-01-01

    .... Therefore the Defense Department has set before itself a requirement to modernize a large conventional force structure engaged in ongoing combat operations while simultaneously developing deeper...

  11. Affect intensity and individual differences in informational style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R J; Billings, D W; Cutler, S E

    1996-03-01

    Although individuals differ widely in the typical intensity of their affective experience, the mechanisms that create or maintain these differences are unclear. Larsen, Diener, and Cropanzano (1987) examined the hypothesis that individual differences in affect intensity (AI) are related to how people interpret emotional stimuli. They found that high AI individuals engaged in more personalizing and generalizing cognitions while construing emotional stimuli than low AI individuals. The present study extends these findings by examining cognitive activity during a different task-the generation of information to communicate about life events. Participants provided free-response descriptions of 16 life events. These descriptions were content coded for five informational style variables. It was found that the descriptive information generated by high AI participants contained significantly more references to emotional arousal, more focus on feelings, and more generalization compared to participants low in AI. These results are consistent with the notion that specific cognitive activity may lead to, or at least be associated with, dispositional affect intensity. In addition, the informational style variables identified in this study were stable over time and consistent across situations. Although men and women differ in AI, this difference becomes insignificant after controlling for informational style variation. Overall results are discussed in terms of a model of various psychological mechanisms that may potentially create or maintain individual differences in affect intensity.

  12. On psychological growth and vulnerability: basic psychological need satisfaction and need frustration as an unifying principle

    OpenAIRE

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Ryan, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Humans have a potential for growth, integration, and well-being, while also being vulnerable to defensiveness, aggression, and ill-being. Self-determination theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000, Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development and well-being, American Psychologist, Vol. 55, pp. 68–78) argues that satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness both fosters immediate well-being and strengthens i...

  13. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF STYLISTIC FEATURES MANIFESTATION IN PEDAGOGICAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I V Arendachuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the contemporary theoretical approaches to defining such concepts as “pedagogical communication” and “the style of pedagogical communication”, the substantial features of pedagogical communication in the system of the teachers’ attitude to their students, their professional work and themselves are revealed. The results of the empirical research conducted on a sample of Saratov secondary school teachers ( n = 67; average age of 42 years old; average length of service of 18 years, intended to identify the relationships between the style of pedagogical communication and its psychological factors (personal and practical are demonstrated in the article. We used the methods of determining the style of interpersonal interaction (S.V. Maksimov, Yu.A. Lobeiko, diagnostics of dominant emotional modality in teachers (L.A. Rabinovich in T.G. Syritso’s modification, satisfaction evaluation of the profession of a teacher and identification of crisis factors and factors of overcoming the professional crisis of teachers (O.M. Chorosova, R.E. Gerasimova; the method of “psychological portrait of a teacher” (Z.V. Rezapkina, G.V. Rezapkina. The article demonstrates that the more constructive the style of pedagogical communication is, the larger number of psychological factors it has, and the system of these factors is dominated by the factors that characterize the individual features of the teacher’s personality.

  14. The Relationship between Parenting Styles and Adult Attachment Styles from Jordan University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad M. Mahasneh; Zohair H. Al-Zoubi; Omar T. Batayenh; Mohammad S. Jawarneh

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between parenting styles and adult attachment styles. A random sample of (564) male and female students at the faculty of educational sciences was chosen selected. Two questionnaires on attachment styles and parenting styles were administered to the selected sample population during the academic year of 2012-2013. Results indicated significant positive correlations between the authoritative, negligent and authoritarian parenting styles...

  15. Associations of parenting dimensions and styles with externalizing problems of children and adolescents: An updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinquart, Martin

    2017-05-01

    The present meta-analysis integrates research from 1,435 studies on associations of parenting dimensions and styles with externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Parental warmth, behavioral control, autonomy granting, and an authoritative parenting style showed very small to small negative concurrent and longitudinal associations with externalizing problems. In contrast, harsh control, psychological control, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful parenting were associated with higher levels of externalizing problems. The strongest associations were observed for harsh control and psychological control. Parental warmth, behavioral control, harsh control, psychological control, autonomy granting, authoritative, and permissive parenting predicted change in externalizing problems over time, with associations of externalizing problems with warmth, behavioral control, harsh control, psychological control, and authoritative parenting being bidirectional. Moderating effects of sampling, child's age, form of externalizing problems, rater of parenting and externalizing problems, quality of measures, and publication status were identified. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Nurses' perceptions of leadership style in hospitals: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-Fen; Jenkins, Mary; Liu, Po-Erh

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the leadership style of hospital managers. Leadership has been widely studied in nursing from the perspective of nurses' psychological strain caused by nursing leadership. There is, however, little contained in the Western and Eastern literatures on the leadership style of hospital managers and certainly no study has explored managers' leadership style in Taiwanese hospitals from the nurses' stance. Grounded theory. A sample of 28 nurses from seven teaching hospitals in Taiwan, Republic of China was selected through theoretical sampling. A multi-step analytic procedure based on the grounded theory approach was used to analyse the qualitative data. The Chinese culture was found to affect the leadership style of Taiwanese hospital managers. They had extreme power and led nurses in a hierarchical manner. Nurse managers followed the autocratic leadership style of their hospital managers. The main category found in this study was thus hierarchical leadership. The Confucian principles of authoritarianism and obedience were found to be part of the Taiwanese hospitals' organisational cultures and strongly impacted on the managers' leadership style. Hospital managers' treatment of doctors and nurses was dependent on their social rankings. Nurses' lowly ranking fed into these enculturated managerial tendencies of using power and obedience thus increasing psychological strain on nurses. Managers of the hospitals demonstrate power and misuse obedience through their leadership style, resulting in deterioration of nurses' work environment. Nurses' managers are not given enough power by the hospitals in Taiwan. Subsequently, nurses feel themselves the lowest and most powerless subordinates. This study reveals that the Chinese cultural burdens are embedded in the leadership of Taiwanese hospitals. These findings enhance the knowledge of leadership and add to the understanding of managerial attitudes in Chinese hospitals located worldwide. © 2011 Blackwell

  17. Defense.gov Special Report: Defense Officials Release Operational Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    , DOD Operational Energy Strategy DOD's Operational Energy Strategy will guide the Defense Department to operations are among the goals of the Defense Department's operational energy strategy, a senior Pentagon operational energy footprint, experts in solar power, microgrids and "smart" generators recently

  18. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-09-06

    Sep 6, 2012 ... defense against two different fungal pathogens in pear calli ... study the biochemical changes in relation to plant defense ... relatively easy to manipulate by empirical means, allowing for a ... earlier phase, and the degree of rot was significantly ..... resistance of fruit, and they play an important role in the.

  19. Attachment Styles of Dermatological Patients in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabó, Csanád; Altmayer, Anita; Lien, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Attachment styles of dermatological outpatients and satisfaction with their dermatologists were investigated within the framework of a multicentre study conducted in 13 European countries, organized by the European Society for Dermatology and Psychiatry. Attachment style was assessed with the Adult......, and experienced similar rates of anxiety in relationships as did the controls. Participants who had secure attachment styles reported stressful life events during the last 6 months significantly less often than those who had insecure attachment styles. Patients with secure attachment styles tended to be more...... satisfied with their dermatologist than did insecure patients. These results suggest that secure attachment of dermatological outpatients may be a protective factor in the management of stress....

  20. Psychological control by parents is associated with a higher child weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P J; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike

    2011-10-01

    In this examination of the association between parenting style and child weight, the neglected concept of 'psychological control' has been added to the generally accepted parenting dimensions 'support' and 'behavioural control'. Also explored is whether the potential association between parenting and child weight is moderated by socio-demographic variables (child's age/ethnicity, and parent's education level). A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,665 parent-child dyads. The children's mean age was 8 years. Their height and weight were measured to calculate their body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure the three parenting dimensions. Based on these dimensions, five parenting styles were defined: the authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, neglecting and rejecting parenting style. Child BMI z-scores were regressed on parenting style, adjusting for parental BMI, child ethnicity, and parent's education level. Rejecting parenting, characterized by high psychological control, low support and low behavioural control, is the only parenting style significantly related to child BMI z-scores (β = 0.074, p parenting, this study has further elucidated the mechanisms whereby parenting may affect child weight. Demonstrating that 'rejecting parenting' is associated with a higher child weight, emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies in which parenting style is measured three-dimensionally. Potential mediating effects of parental feeding style and children's eating style, as well as age moderation, should be included in these studies.