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Sample records for psychological defense styles

  1. Exploring relationships over time between psychological distress, perceived stress, life events and immature defense style on disordered eating pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Phillipa; Williams, Sarah Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Perceived stress, immature defense style, depression and anxiety and negative life events all are known to be associated with eating disorders. The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between these factors and their relative strength of association with eating disorder symptoms over time. This research was embedded in a longitudinal study of adult women with varying levels of eating disorder symptoms and who were initially recruited from tertiary educational institutions in two Australian states. Four years from initial recruitment, 371 participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination- Questionnaire (EDE-Q) for eating disorder symptoms. Kessler-10 Psychological Distress Scale (K-10) as a measure of depression and anxiety, a Life Events Checklist as a measure of previous exposure to potentially traumatic events, the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) to determine perceived stress. One year later, in year 5, 295 (878.7%) completed follow-up assessments including the EDE-Q. The questionnaires were completed online or returned via reply paid post. All four independent factors were found to correlate significantly with the global EDE-Q score in cross-sectional analyses (all Spearman rho (rs) >0.18, p  0.15, all p stress and psychological distress scores were significantly associated with year 5 global EDE-Q scores (p = 0.046 and stress had the strongest association with eating disorder symptoms over time The findings support further investigation of interventions to reduce distress and perceived stress in adult females with disordered eating.

  2. Phenomenon of Psychological Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena T. Sokolova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses the controversial issues of formation and functioning of psy¬chological defense mechanisms in ontogenesis and in personality disorders as they are represented in classical and contemporary psychoanalysis, in cognitivism and communication theory. The paper emphasizes the role of cognitive organi¬zation (style, sign-symbolic mediation, representative system of object relations and attachments in individual typological variability of the level organization of ciency of personal and social adaptation, in maturity and mental health of personality

  3. Italian version of the defense style questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martini, Pietro; Roma, Paolo; Sarti, Sara; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Bond, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) assesses defensive behavior by empirically evaluating conscious derivatives of defense and coping mechanisms in everyday life. It was developed on the assumption that defenses can be ordered along a maturity-immaturity continuum and tend to group into clusters, or defensive styles. The original factor analytical study, by Bond et al. (1983) identified four styles, called maladaptive, image-distorting, self-sacrifice, and adaptive styles. Successive studies only partially confirmed this factor structure. We present the factor structure and the main psychometric features of the Italian version of the questionnaire. The DSQ was translated into Italian by the back-translation method and administered to a sample of 294 men (mean age, 33.33 years) and 333 women (mean age, 32.38 years). An exploratory factor analysis identified three factors largely corresponding to Bond's maladaptive, image-distorting, and adaptive defensive styles and to analogous factors identified by other authors. Accordingly, three defense style scales were constructed, containing respectively 37, 17, and 12 items. These scales showed intercorrelations compatible with the hierarchical model of defensive functioning at the base of the questionnaire, acceptable, though ameliorable, test-retest reliabilities (r's = .79, .63, and .81, respectively) and, with the exception of the Adaptive Style scale, sufficient internal consistencies (alphas: .85, .72, .57). However, only the Maladaptive Style scale, probably due to its greater length, showed values of reliability and internal consistency high enough to warrant clinical use in its present form. Further investigation is required to find new items that may improve the reliability of the Image-Distorting and the Adaptive Style scales.

  4. Happiness and Defense Styles in Psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Leonardo; Tavares, Hermano; Petribú, Kátia; Pinto, Tiago; Cantilino, Amaury

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure happiness in a sample of Brazilian psychiatrists and correlate it with the defense styles used by them and sociodemographic data. This study was observational, cross-sectional, and analytical. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires by Brazilian psychiatrists who participated in the XXXII Brazilian Congress of Psychiatry, 2014. In this sample of psychiatrists, happiness levels were high (scoring 5.69 of a total of 7), and mature defense styles prevailed, especially humor and anticipation. In a multivariate analysis, having children, good sleep quality, increased sexual interest, and use of defense styles such as humor, anticipation, and idealization all showed a positive relationship with happiness; on the other hand, using defense style such as acting out or annulment demonstrated a negative relationship with happiness. Despite the well-known professional burden that they bear, Brazilian psychiatrists surveyed presented, in general, high levels of subjective well-being and happiness.

  5. Defense styles explain psychiatric symptoms: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holi, M M; Sammallahti, P R; Aalberg, V A

    1999-11-01

    To examine the relation between psychiatric symptoms and defense mechanisms, we administered two questionnaires, the Symptom Check-list 90 (SCL-90) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) to 122 psychiatric out-patients and to a community sample of 337 subjects. Using regression analysis, we found that 51.8% of the variation in subject's Global Severity Index value could be explained by his defense style. Of the three defense styles, the immature style explained most of the variation in the symptoms. We found little overall evidence for specific connections between particular defenses and symptoms. Projection and dissociation were central in most of the symptom dimensions. We compared patients and controls with the same level of general symptom severity and found that patients used significantly more devaluation and splitting, and controls used significantly more altruism and idealization. Whether defenses predispose to certain symptomatology or are one of its aspects is discussed.

  6. The relationship between personality, defense styles, internet addiction disorder, and psychopathology in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floros, Georgios; Siomos, Konstantinos; Stogiannidou, Ariadni; Giouzepas, Ioannis; Garyfallos, Georgios

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess any underlying links between personality, defense styles, Internet addiction disorder (IAD), and psychopathology in a college student sample. This is a cross-sectional study of fourth-year Greek Medical students who responded in a comprehensive test battery, which included validated questionnaires on IAD, personality traits, patterns of psychological defense styles, and psychopathology symptoms. A path model that was tested using Partial Least Squares (PLS) methodology showed that the defense styles employed by the students and certain personality traits (Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, Neuroticism/Anxiety, and Aggression-Hostility) contributed to the prediction of variability in IAD, with IAD in turn predicting variability in overt psychopathology.

  7. Cognitive coping and defense styles in patients with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Wijk-Herbrink (Marjolein); H. Andrea (Helene); R. Verheul (Roel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates the associations between cognitive coping (as measured with the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire; CERQ), defense mechanisms (as measured with the Defense Style Questionnaire- 60; DSQ-60) and personality disorders (PDs; as measured with the SIDP-IV

  8. Toward an Integrative Theory of Psychological Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    According to theories of "psychological defense," humans are motivated to protect themselves against various types of psychological threat, including death awareness, uncertainty, and other inherently anxiety-provoking experiences. Protective mechanisms include strengthening close relationships; maintaining appraisals of self-worth, accomplishment, and agency; and cultivating meaningful views of the world. Thus, defensiveness theories incorporate research from many areas of psychology (e.g., information-processing biases, attitudes, and interpersonal and intergroup relations), to help explain why people think, feel, and act in the diverse ways that they do. Currently, the study of psychological defense is hindered by contradictory empirical results and a proliferation of theories that make very similar predictions. This article examines a cross-section of defensiveness theories and research, highlighting conclusions that can be drawn and areas where conceptual and research problems linger. It suggests that the field needs methodological innovation (e.g., more reliable and valid manipulations and measures of unconscious constructs, more diverse methodological approaches), a more complete and reliable body of data, and some fresh new ideas from psychological scientists across disciplines. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. The Comparison of Defense Mechanism Styles and Personality Characteristics in Addicts and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ahmadi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to comprise of psychological defense mechanism styles and personality characteristics in addicts and healthy individuals. Method: In this causal-comparative study, 70 addicts person (with an average age of 37.29±9.81and the age range 23 to 58 years were selected via accessible sampling method of clinics and Hamadan’s addicted self-representing center during the Autumn of 2011, The number of 70 relatives of these people that demographic variables were matched as possible with the comparison group were selected. Both groups were asked to respond to the defense mechanism style and Eysenk personality Questionnaires. Results: The result of this study showed that the scores mean of addicts were higher than healthy people on immature defense mechanism style, neourotism, and neurotic and extraversion personality characteristics and lower than in mature defense style variables. Conclusion: Based on the result of this study there was a significant difference between addict individuals and healthy people in defense mechanism and personality characteristics.

  10. [Study of defense styles, defenses and coping strategies in alcohol-dependent population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadier, A; Varescon, I

    2017-05-01

    Defense mechanisms have been seen to greatly change over time and across different definitions made by different theoretical currents. Recently with the definition provided by the DSM IV, defense mechanisms have integrated the concept of coping as a defensive factor. These mechanisms are no longer considered just through a psychodynamic approach but also through a cognitive and behavioral one. In recent years, new theories have therefore integrated these two components of the defensive operation. According to Chabrol and Callahan (2013), defense mechanisms precede coping strategies. In individuals with psychopathological disorders, these authors indicate a relative stability of these mechanisms. Also, we asked about the presence of unique characteristics among people with alcohol dependence. Indeed, studies conducted with people with alcohol dependence highlight the presence of a neurotic defense style and some highly immature defenses (projection, acting out, splitting and somatization). In terms of coping strategies, persons with alcohol dependence preferentially use avoidant strategies and strategies focused on emotion. However, although several studies have been conducted to assess coping strategies and defense styles within a population of individuals with an alcohol problem, at the present time none of them has taken into account all these aspects of defense mechanisms. The aim of this study is therefore to study the defenses and defense styles and coping strategies in an alcohol-dependent population. This multicenter study (3 CHU, 1 center of supportive care and prevention in addiction and 1 clinic) received a favorable opinion of an Institutional Review Board (IRB Registration #: 00001072). Eighty alcohol-dependent individuals responded to a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics and elements related to the course of consumption. Coping strategies were assessed by means of a questionnaire validated in French: the Brief Cope. The Defense

  11. Psychoticism, Immature Defense Mechanisms and a Fearful Attachment Style are Associated with a Higher Homophobic Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Tuziak, Bogdan; Limoncin, Erika; Mollaioli, Daniele; Capuano, Nicolina; Martini, Alessia; Carosa, Eleonora; Fisher, Alessandra D; Maggi, Mario; Niolu, Cinzia; Siracusano, Alberto; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2015-09-01

    Homophobic behavior and a negative attitude toward homosexuals are prevalent among the population. Despite this, few researches have investigated the psychologic aspects associated with homophobia, as psychopathologic symptoms, the defensive system, and attachment styles. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychologic factors mentioned earlier and their correlation with homophobia. Five hundred fifty-one university students recruited, aged 18-30, were asked to complete several psychometric evaluation. In particular, Homophobia Scale (HS) was used to assess homophobia levels, the Symptoms Check List Revised (SCL-90-R) for the identification of psychopathologic symptoms, the Defence Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) for the evaluation of defense mechanisms and the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) for attachment styles. After a regression analysis, we found a significant predictive value of psychoticism (β = 0.142; P = 0.04) and of immature defense mechanisms (β = 0.257; P homophobia, while neurotic defense mechanisms (β = -0.123; P = 0.02) and depressive symptoms (β = -0.152; P = 0.04) have an opposite role. Moreover, categorical constructs of the RQ revealed a significant difference between secure and fearful attachments styles in levels of homophobia (secure = 22.09 ± 17.22 vs. fearful = 31.07 ± 25.09; P homophobia compared with the subjects demonstrating a fearful style of attachment. Hence, in the assessment of homophobia and in the relevant programs of prevention, it is necessary to consider the psychologic aspects described earlier. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Investigating Aggressive Styles and Defense Mechanisms in Bipolar Patients and in their Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Pezzoni, Franca; Del Puente, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a very common mental health disorder, whose etiology concerning aggressive styles and defense mechanisms is still poorly known despite the efforts dedicated to develop psychological and biological theories. After obtaining written signed informed consent, this study will recruit inpatients with a clinical diagnosis of BD, based on Structured Clinical Interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and their parents. The Bus-Perry Aggr...

  13. Investigating aggressive styles and defense mechanisms in bipolar patients and in their parents

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Luigi Bragazzi; Franca Pezzoni; Giovanni Del Puente

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a very common mental health disorder, whose etiology concerning aggressive styles and defense mechanisms is still poorly known despite the efforts dedicated to develop psychological and biological theories. After obtaining written signed informed consent, this study will recruit inpatients with a clinical diagnosis of BD, based on Structured Clinical Interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and their parents. The Bus-Perry Aggr...

  14. Investigating the Impact of Past Trauma and Defense Styles on Posttraumatic Stress Following Homicide and Psychiatric Co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xiaohua; Chung, Man Cheung; Wan, King Hung

    2017-10-30

    To examine the prevalence of PTSD following homicide and investigate the relationship between PTSD from past traumas, defense styles and PTSD following homicide and psychiatric co-morbidity. 167 male homicide perpetrators participated in the study and completed the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, the General Health Questionnaire-28 and the Defense Styles Questionnaire. 45% met the criteria for PTSD following homicide and 55% for no-PTSD. With the number of times for imprisonment adjusted, regression analyses showed that immature defense style was associated with PTSD following homicide with the severity of PTSD from past traumas as a moderator. Neurotic and immature defense styles and PTSD from past trauma were significantly and independently associated with psychiatric co-morbidity. Homicide perpetrators could develop PTSD following homicide. The severity of PTSD from past traumas could affect PTSD following homicide and other psychological problems, and influence the effect of using immature defense against PTSD from homicide. Past trauma, immature and neurotic defense styles had a unique and specific pattern of influence on psychological symptoms, other than trauma symptoms.

  15. Are identity styles important for psychological well-being?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleioras, G.; Bosma, H.A.

    A successful identity formation is related to being psychologically well (Erikson, 1963). This link seems to be lost in the identity style literature that focuses either on the maturity of the identity styles, or on adaptive and maladaptive behaviour correlates of identity styles. In this study, we

  16. Investigating aggressive styles and defense mechanisms in bipolar patients and in their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Luigi Bragazzi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is a very common mental health disorder, whose etiology concerning aggressive styles and defense mechanisms is still poorly known despite the efforts dedicated to develop psychological and biological theories. After obtaining written signed informed consent, this study will recruit inpatients with a clinical diagnosis of BD, based on Structured Clinical Interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and their parents. The Bus-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Defense Style Questionnaire 40, the Symptom check list SCL-90-R, developed by DeRogatis will be administered to the participants, together with a semi-structured questionnaire concerning demographic data (age, gender, employment, education and only for the patients clinical information (onset year of the disorder, presence of co-morbidities, alcohol and drug use, suicide tendencies, kind of treatment. All the questionnaires are in the Italian validated version. The successful completion of this study will shed light on the relationship between aggressive styles and defensive mechanisms in bipolar inpatients and in their parents, helping the clinicians to develop ad hoc psychological interventions.

  17. Investigating Aggressive Styles and Defense Mechanisms in Bipolar Patients and in their Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Pezzoni, Franca; Del Puente, Giovanni

    2014-11-06

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a very common mental health disorder, whose etiology concerning aggressive styles and defense mechanisms is still poorly known despite the efforts dedicated to develop psychological and biological theories. After obtaining written signed informed consent, this study will recruit inpatients with a clinical diagnosis of BD, based on Structured Clinical Interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and their parents. The Bus-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Defense Style Questionnaire 40, the Symptom check list SCL-90-R, developed by DeRogatis will be administered to the participants, together with a semi-structured questionnaire concerning demographic data (age, gender, employment, education) and only for the patients clinical information (onset year of the disorder, presence of co-morbidities, alcohol and drug use, suicide tendencies, kind of treatment). All the questionnaires are in the Italian validated version. The successful completion of this study will shed light on the relationship between aggressive styles and defensive mechanisms in bipolar inpatients and in their parents, helping the clinicians to develop ad hoc psychological interventions.

  18. Psychological defensive profile of sciatica patients with neuropathic pain and its relationship to quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutoglu, A; Boyaci, A; Karababa, I F; Koca, I; Kaya, E; Kucuk, A; Yetisgin, A

    2015-09-01

    To identify differences between defense styles and mechanisms in sciatica patients with or without neuropathic pain and their relationship to quality of life. The study included 37 sciatica patients with neuropathic pain (SNP), 36 sciatica patients without neuropathic pain and 38 healthy subjects. Pain severity was measured using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Psychological condition was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Defense mechanisms were assessed using a 40-item Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) and quality of life was assessed using Short Form-36 (SF-36). BDI and BAI scores were significantly higher in the SNP group (p < 0.001). Idealization and immature defense styles, as well as isolation, displacement and somatization were significantly higher in the SNP group (p < 0.05). SF-36 parameters also differed significantly between the groups, with controls having the best scores and the SNP group the worst. In linear regression analysis, acting out and BDI were found to affect the pain domain of the SF-36 (p < 0.001). The acting out defensive style and BDI were independently associated with pain-related quality of life. In the SNP group, significant differences were found in the immature and neurotic styles of the defense mechanisms.

  19. Predictive value of self-reported and observer-rated defense style in depression treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van, H.L.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Abraham, R.E.; Schoevers, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the predictive value of observer-rated and self-reported defensive functioning on the outcome of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Defense styles were measured according to the Developmental Profile (DP) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in 81 moderately

  20. Disability status, disease parameters, defense styles, and ego strength associated with psychiatric complications of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas N; Christou, Konstantinos; Kontoudaki, Stavroula; Mantas, Christos; Papamichael, George; Goulia, Panagiota; Konitsiotis, Spyros; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify disease parameters, defensive styles and ego strength measurements associated with various forms of psychiatric complications in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Seventy-nine patients with MS participated in the study and 158 healthy subjects matched for age and sex served as controls. A wide range of clinical information was collected and the following self-report instruments were used: General Health Questionnaire, Symptom Distress Check List, Defense Style Questionnaire, MMPI Ego Strength Scale and Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire. The odds of being assessed with a psychiatric diagnosis upon interview were 6.7 times greater among patients compared to controls and 9.3 times greater among patients with recent-onset MS compared to patients with long-term disease. Psychiatric complications of MS were closely associated with age of the disease onset and the degree of disability due to MS. Additionally, higher rates of introverted hostility, adoption of maladaptive ego defenses and weakened ego strength were also closely associated with several forms of psychological distress, especially depressive symptoms. MS patients experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress, especially depressive symptoms, which are most closely associated with disease parameters. However, the crucial role of various personality traits such as ego defenses and hostility features in the psychiatric symptom formation also appear to contribute to the development of depressive symptoms. Clinicians involved in the clinical management of patients with MS should identify and modify treatment if these specific personality markers that indicate the exhaustion of the patient's resources to cope with the physical and psychological stress of the illness are present.

  1. Gender differences in self-reported defense mechanisms: a study using the new Defense Style Questionnaire-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, Jonathan; Thygesen, Kylie Louise; Lecours, Serge; Drapeau, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that men and women differ in their use of defense mechanisms (e.g. Cramer, 1991; Watson and Sinha, 1998). However, how and why this difference exists is still open to debate. The present study explores the relationship between gender and defenses using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-60; Trijsburg Bond, & Drapeau, 2003). As expected, no significant differences were found in Overall Defensive Functioning (ODF); however, men and women differed in their choice of defense style, defense level, and individual defense mechanisms. Evidence is provided to support the notion that while overall adaptivity of defenses is comparable, men and women rely on different defensive organizations during conflict-laden situations. We discuss the clinical relevance of these results in light of previous findings.

  2. Predictive value of self-reported and observer-rated defense style in depression treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Van, H.L.; Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Abraham, R.E.; Schoevers, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the predictive value of observer-rated and self-reported defensive functioning on the outcome of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Defense styles were measured according to the Developmental Profile (DP) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in 81 moderately severely depressed patients. All patients were treated with Short-term Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy (SPSP). At baseline, women appeared to have a more mature level of overall defensive functi...

  3. Faculty application of the American Psychological Association style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Gwen Goetz

    2009-10-01

    This article explores current faculty methods with the application and evaluation of the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Specific aims were to determine concerns related to APA style, review faculty grading practices, identify institutional resources, and report potential solutions for improving application of APA style. A survey with an exploratory descriptive research design was developed and distributed online to academic chairs and deans, requesting their support in distributing the survey to their faculty. Responses (N = 704) were grouped into five categories: departmental and personal concerns; faculty grading practices; institutional resources; format, writing style, and grammar; and suggestions and potential solutions. Sixty percent reported that application and evaluation of APA style is a concern in their department. Content analysis identified four categories as proposed solutions: consistency, education, resources, and dialogue. On the basis of the feedback of the participants, the CRED program is proposed for the issues that were identified. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Vaginal orgasm is associated with less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Costa, Rui Miguel

    2008-05-01

    Freud implied a link between inability to have a vaginal orgasm and psychosexual immaturity. Since Kinsey, many sexologists have asserted that no such link exists. However, empirical testing of the issue has been lacking. The objective was to determine the relationship between different sexual behavior triggers of female orgasm and use of immature psychological defense mechanisms. Women reported their past month frequency of different sexual behaviors and corresponding orgasm rates and completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). The association between ability to have vaginal intercourse orgasm (versus clitoral orgasm) and the use of DSQ-40 immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) was examined. In a sample of 94 healthy Portuguese women, vaginal orgasm (triggered solely by penile-vaginal intercourse) was associated with less use of DSQ-40 immature defenses. Vaginal orgasm was associated with less somatization, dissociation, displacement, autistic fantasy, devaluation, and isolation of affect. Orgasm from clitoral stimulation or combined clitoral-intercourse stimulation was not associated with less use of immature defenses, and was associated with more use of some immature defenses. In one regression analysis, more masturbation and less vaginal orgasm consistency made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. In another regression analysis, any use of extrinsic clitoral stimulation for intercourse orgasm, and lack of any vaginal orgasm, made independent contributions to the statistical prediction of immature defenses. Vaginally anorgasmic women had immature defenses scores comparable to those of established (depression, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) outpatient psychiatric groups. Results were not confounded by social desirability responding or relationship quality. The results linking penile-vaginal orgasm with less use of immature

  5. Immature psychological defense mechanisms are associated with greater personal importance of junk food, alcohol, and television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart

    2013-10-30

    Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Forensic Psychology Exercise: Role Playing and the Insanity Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a role playing exercise that provides students with an introduction to forensic psychology and the insanity defense. Reports that 87% of the students found this exercise to be an enjoyable teaching technique and useful in providing an understanding of the insanity defense. Concludes that the exercise increases student interest and…

  7. Psychological Symptoms and Stress Coping Styles in College Students with Somatization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jee Young Lee

    2014-01-01

    ...The purpose of this study was to identify stress coping styles and psychological symptoms and to examine the influences of stress coping styles and psychological symptoms on somatization in college students...

  8. [Patterns of dysfunctional parenting styles and psychological disturbances in offspring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumnig, Martin; Höfer, Stefan; Huber, Alexandra; Messner, Carmen; Renn, Daniela; Mestel, Robert; Klingelhöfer, Jürgen; Kopp, Martin; Doering, Stephan; Schüßler, Gerhard; Rumpold, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunctional parenting styles represent a risk factor for the development of psychological disturbances. The present study investigated the differential validity of the German language Fragebogen zur Erfassung dysfunktionaler Erziehungsstile (FDEB; Measurement of Parental Styles, MOPS) and determined whether different forms of psychological disorders are associated with specific patterns of parenting styles. 145 inpatients, 108 outpatients and a control group of 633 representative individuals from the general population were investigated by adapting the FDEB. A comparison of dysfunctional parenting styles showed different distress levels within the diagnostic groups: Patients suffering from depression reported high levels of maternal indifference and over protectiveness together with an abusive rearing behavior on the part of both parents. Patients with anxiety disorders reported having overprotective mothers. Bulimic patients as well as those with personality disorders significantly exhibited stress in almost all areas. However, anorexic patients did not differ significantly from the control group, which appeared to be the least affected of all. The FDEB showed a satisfactory differential validity. There was evidence that specific patterns of dysfunctional parenting styles were associated with different diagnostic groups.

  9. Predictive value of self-reported and observer-rated defense style in depression treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Henricus, L; Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap; Abraham, Robert E; Schoevers, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the predictive value of observer-rated and self-reported defensive functioning on the outcome of psychotherapy for the treatment of depression. Defense styles were measured according to the Developmental Profile (DP) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) in 81 moderately severely depressed patients. All patients were treated with Short-term Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy (SPSP). At baseline, women appeared to have a more mature level of overall defensive functioning. A lower level of defensive function was found in patients with recurrent depressions. We also found a rather modest relationship between self-reported and observer-rated defense. Remitted patients had a more mature overall defensive functioning on the DP and the DSQ. In particular, patients with a symbiotic defense style (giving up, apathetic withdrawal) were at risk for poor outcome. This exploratory study provides further evidence of the relevance of defense styles for depression. It suggests a differential predictive value of separate defense levels, which may help to tailor psychotherapeutic strategies.

  10. Personality and Defense Styles: Clinical Specificities and Predictive Factors of Alcohol Use Disorder in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribadier, Aurélien; Dorard, Géraldine; Varescon, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated personality traits and defense styles in order to determine clinical specificities and predictive factors of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in women. A female sample, composed of AUD outpatients (n = 48) and a control group (n = 50), completed a sociodemographic self-report and questionnaires assessing personality traits (BFI), defense mechanisms and defense styles (DSQ-40). Comparative and correlational analyses, as well as univariate and multivariate logistic regressions, were performed. AUD women presented with higher neuroticism and lower extraversion and conscientiousness. They used less mature and more neurotic and immature defense styles than the control group. Concerning personality traits, high neuroticism and lower conscientiousness were predictive of AUD, as well as low mature, high neurotic, and immature defense styles. Including personality traits and defense styles in a logistic model, high neuroticism was the only AUD predictive factor. AUD women presented clinical specificities and predictive factors in personality traits and defense styles that must be taken into account in AUD studies. Implications for specific treatment for women are discussed.

  11. Psychometric properties of the defense style questionnaire (DSQ-40) in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuttu, Titta; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Holi, Matti; Karlsson, Linnea; Kiviruusu, Olli; Heilä, Hannele; Tuisku, Virpi; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Marttunen, Mauri

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) in adolescents. Internal consistency, factor structure, and discriminant and concurrent validity of the DSQ-40 were studied in 211 adolescent psychiatric outpatients aged 13 to 19 years and 199 age-matched and sex-matched controls. Principal components analysis yielded four internally consistent components: mature, neurotic, image-distorting, and immature defense styles. The outpatients reported more immature, image-distorting, and neurotic styles and less mature style than did the controls, suggesting adequate discriminant validity. As a demonstration of convergent and concurrent validity, the severity of psychiatric symptoms assessed by the General Health Questionnaire and psychosocial adjustment assessed by the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale correlated theoretically meaningfully with the different defense styles. The DSQ-40 appears to be a reliable and valid instrument for adolescents.

  12. Life style: progress in measuring life style and its relation with other psychological concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Sánchez López

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on life styles ha ve driven us to consider three studies which analyse the concept and its relationship with other psychological variables. The first study presents an analysis of the activities carried out by a person, asan operational definition of life styles using ADIT self-registering (Self-Registeringof Time Distribution, SRTD, considering individuals who interact with subject in those activities. In the second study, modifications to the original self-record are suggested; eg, the sectionthat registers where and with whom are carried out the activities was eliminated. In the third study, the relationships among life styles, life satisfaction and personality variables are analysed. Therewere 84 persons in the sample assigned to 6 groups, depending on the relationships among these three concepts, as was previously suggested by other studies

  13. Revising Psychology Misconceptions by Integrating a Refutation-Style Text Framework into Poster Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassonde, Karla A.; Kolquist, Molly; Vergin, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Refutation-style texts have been considered a viable strategy for changing psychological misconceptions. The current study aims to integrate refutation-style texts into a classroom-based method of learning. Psychology students were administered a true/false misconception survey and then viewed several refutation-style poster presentations…

  14. Adult attachment styles and the psychological response to infant bereavement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Shevlin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on Bowlby's attachment theory, Bartholomew proposed a four-category attachment typology by which individuals judged themselves and adult relationships. This explanatory model has since been used to help explain the risk of psychiatric comorbidity. Objective: The current study aimed to identify attachment typologies based on Bartholomew's attachment styles in a sample of bereaved parents on dimensions of closeness/dependency and anxiety. In addition, it sought to assess the relationship between the resultant attachment typology with a range of psychological trauma variables. Method: The current study was based on a sample of 445 bereaved parents who had experienced either peri- or post-natal death of an infant. Adult attachment was assessed using the Revised Adult Attachment Scale (RAAS while reaction to trauma was assessed using the Trauma Symptom Checklist (TSC. A latent profile analysis was conducted on scores from the RAAS closeness/dependency and anxiety subscales to ascertain if there were underlying homogeneous attachment classes. Emergent classes were used to determine if these were significantly different in terms of mean scores on TSC scales. Results: A four-class solution was considered the optimal based on fit statistics and interpretability of the results. Classes were labelled “Fearful,” “Preoccupied,” “Dismissing,” and “Secure.” Females were almost eight times more likely than males to be members of the fearful attachment class. This class evidenced the highest scores across all TSC scales while the secure class showed the lowest scores. Conclusions: The results are consistent with Bartholomew's four-category attachment styles with classes representing secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissing types. While the loss of an infant is a devastating experience for any parent, securely attached individuals showed the lowest levels of psychopathology compared to fearful, preoccupied, or dismissing

  15. Adolescent psychological development, parenting styles, and pediatric decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Brian C

    2010-10-01

    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child risks harm to adolescents insofar as it encourages not only poor decision making by adolescents but also parenting styles that will have an adverse impact on the development of mature decision-making capacities in them. The empirical psychological and neurophysiological data weigh against augmenting and expression of the rights of children. Indeed, the data suggest grounds for expanding parental authority, not limiting its scope. At the very least, any adequate appreciation of the moral claims regarding the authority of parents with respect to the decision-making capacity of adolescents needs to be set within an understanding of the psychological and neurophysiological facts regarding the development of adolescent decision-making capacity.

  16. Gender and age aspects of child psychological defenses in child-mother relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanova, Maria V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The high level of stress in modern society poses a need to study family factors and resources for the development of children’s defense mechanisms in the current social environment. This study investigates correlations between maternal and child psychological defense mechanisms, using interviews, a structured clinical survey, projective drawing, and a projective game. Analysis of data from 240 people (120 children and 120 mothers revealed specifics of the formation of psychological defense mechanisms among children aged 4 to 12 years in child-mother relationships. We suggest that maternal and child defense mechanisms have some isomorphic traits, but the level and quality of isomorphism changes with each age period of the child. Certain defensive mechanisms of mother and child appear with the same frequency. The child’s gender influences the correlation between the mother’s and child’s psychological defense mechanisms. Initially, children are more likely to directly copy defense mechanisms observed from the mother’s behavior. As they grow older, they use defenses that they have learned consciously. Based on empirical data, we also found a correlation between the maturity of the maternal psychological defense mechanisms and specifics of child psychological defense mechanisms. We propose that the maturity of maternal psychological defense mechanisms has the greatest meaning for child psychological defense mechanisms at the earliest stages of ontogenesis — it provides consistency between the mother’s own psychological defense mechanisms and the psychological defense mechanisms that she teaches her child.

  17. Greater tactile sensitivity and less use of immature psychological defense mechanisms predict women's penile-vaginal intercourse orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Houde, Stephanie; Hess, Ursula

    2010-09-01

    Previous research has suggested that diminished tactile sensitivity might be associated with reduced sexual activity and function. Research has also demonstrated significant physiological and psychological differences between sexual behaviors, including immature psychological defense mechanisms (associated with various psychopathologies) impairing specifically women's orgasm from penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI). To examine the extent to which orgasm triggered by PVI (distinguished from other sexual activities) is associated with both greater tactile sensitivity and lesser use of immature psychological defenses. Seventy French-Canadian female university students (aged 18-30) had their finger sensitivity measured with von Frey type microfilaments, completed the Defense Style Questionnaire and a short form of the Marlowe-Crowne social desirability scale, and provided details of the 1 month (and ever) frequencies of engaging in, and having an orgasm from, PVI, masturbation, anal intercourse, partner masturbation, and cunnilingus. Logistic and linear regression prediction of orgasm triggered by PVI from tactile sensitivity, age, social desirability responding, and immature psychological defenses. Having a PVI orgasm in the past month was associated with greater tactile sensitivity (odds ratio=4.0 for each filament point) and less use of immature defense mechanisms (odds ratio=5.1 for each scale point). Lifetime PVI orgasm was associated only with less use of immature defense mechanisms (and lower social desirability responding score). Orgasms triggered by other activities were not associated with either tactile sensitivity or immature defense mechanisms. Tactile sensitivity was also associated with greater past month PVI frequency (inclusion of PVI frequency in a logistic regression model displaced tactile sensitivity), and lesser use of immature defenses was associated with greater past month PVI and PVI orgasm frequencies. Both diminished physical sensitivity and the

  18. Student nurses' perceptions of aggression: An exploratory study of defensive styles, aggression experiences, and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Hulya; Keser Ozcan, Neslihan; Tulek, Zeliha; Kaya, Fadime; Boyacioglu, Nur Elcin; Erol, Ozgul; Arguvanli Coban, Sibel; Pazvantoglu, Ozan; Gumus, Kubra

    2016-06-01

    Throughout the clinical learning process, nursing students' perception of aggression might have implications in terms of their future professional behavior toward patients. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, we investigated the relationships between student nurses' perceptions of aggression and their personal characteristics, defense styles, and a convenience sample of 1539 experiences of aggressive behavior in clinical practice. Information about the students' personal features, their clinical practice, and experiences of aggressive behavior was obtained by questionnaire. The Turkish version of the Perception of Aggression Scale and Defense Styles Questionnaire-40 were also used. Students were frequently exposed to verbal aggression from patients and their relatives. And perceived patient aggression negatively, perception of aggression were associated with sex, defense styles, feelings of safety, and experiences of aggressions during clinical practice. Of interest is the reality that student nurses should be prepared for untoward events during their training. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. The role of psychological factors in bipolar disorder: prospective relationships between cognitive style, coping style and symptom expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kathryn; Parker, Gordon; Manicavasagar, Vijaya

    2014-04-01

    Psychological factors contribute to bipolar disorder illness course, representing targets for psychological intervention. Research to date has focused on bipolar I disorder, extrapolating results to bipolar II disorder. The current study addresses this discrepancy by exploring cognitive and coping styles in patients diagnosed with bipolar I or II disorder. Participants were recruited from the Sydney-based Black Dog Institute. Diagnoses were derived via the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Baseline cognitive and coping style measures were completed, and mood symptoms assessed over a 6-month period. Clinician-rated mood status was assessed at follow-up to determine the predictive utility of cognitive and coping styles. The follow-up sample comprised 151 participants. Differential relationships between cognitive style, coping styles and mood symptoms emerged across the bipolar sub-types. Some key differences were that a broader set of negative cognitive styles were associated with bipolar II depression symptoms; while few relationships were observed between coping styles and bipolar II symptoms. Differences in cognitive and coping style relationships with symptom expression across bipolar I and II disorder may provide clinicians with fruitful guides for directing treatment interventions when relevant maladaptive styles are observed. Further exploration of differences in cognitive and coping styles in bipolar I and II disorder is warranted.

  20. Attachment style among outpatients with substance use disorders in psychological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidhagen, Ylva; Holmqvist, Rolf; Philips, Björn

    2018-02-05

    To explore the associations between self-rated attachment style, psychological distress and substance use among substance use disorder (SUD) outpatients in psychological treatment. In this practice-based study, 108 outpatients were asked to fill in the Experiences in Close Relationships - Short form, the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) at treatment start and end. Patients were given psychological treatments with a directive, reflective or supportive orientation. An insecure attachment style was more common among the SUD outpatients, compared to non-clinical groups. Patients with a fearful attachment style scored higher on psychological distress than patients with a secure attachment style. The associations between the attachment dimensions and psychological distress were stronger than those between attachment and SUD. Significantly more patients had a secure attachment style at treatment end. This study shows significant relations between patients' attachment style and their initial psychological distress. The causal relationship between attachment style and psychological distress is, however, not clear and can likely go in both directions. The psychological treatment of patients with SUD contributed significantly to changes from insecure to secure attachment style. We found among patients with SUD a strong relation between patients' attachment style and their psychological distress. Knowledge of the patient's attachment style may help the therapist to tailor the treatment to the patient's needs. A change from insecure to secure attachment style can be an important goal for a SUD treatment, as it may prevent the patient from using defence strategies involving substance use for regulating emotions and interpersonal relationships. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Proactive and Reactive Composite Scales for the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct composite scales for the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) from the PICTS thinking style, factor, and content scales designed to provide general estimates of criminal thinking. The Entitlement thinking style scale, Self-Assertion/Deception factor scale, and Historical content…

  2. Coping Styles and Psychological Distress among Hong Kong University Students: Validation of the Collectivist Coping Style Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Angela F. Y.; Chang, Jian Fang

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of the Collectivist Coping Style inventory (Heppner "et al." "Journal of Counseling Psychology" 53:107-125, 2006) and investigated how the effects of stress-related events on psychological distress are mediated through coping strategies. Three hundred and five Hong Kong university…

  3. Romantic Relationships, Relationship Styles, Coping Strategies, and Psychological Distress among Chinese and Australian Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Moore, Susan; Karnilowicz, Wally; Lung, C. L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between relationship styles, coping strategies, and psychological distress among 144 Anglo-Australian and 250 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. The results indicated that relationship styles (secure, clingy, and fickle) influenced psychological distress through their association with coping strategies…

  4. The psychological defensive profile of hemodialysis patients and its relationship to health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, André F; Ramírez, Susana P; Macêdo, Danielle S; Sales, Paulo Marcelo G; Rebouças, Juliana C; Daher, Elizabeth F; Hyphantis, Thomas N

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary data suggest that defensive profile of hemodialysis (HD) patients might influence adaptation to the disease. However, the association of defense mechanisms with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of HD patients remains unknown. In this cross-sectional investigation, 170 HD patients and 170 age- and sex-matched healthy participants had their psychological profile assessed with the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Furthermore, the HD patients had their HRQoL measured with the World Health Organization Quality of Life instrument-abbreviated version. The HD patients had a more neurotic and immature defensive profile. Splitting, projection, reaction formation, and denial were significantly associated with impaired HRQoL, independent of psychological distress. Somatization was an independent correlate of worse overall and physical HRQoL. These findings suggest that, apart from the treatment of psychological distress symptoms, clinicians should also consider the defensive profile of HD patients because it is independently associated with HRQoL and may be amenable to treatment.

  5. Defense Styles Influencing Career Choice of Visually Challenged Students at Undergraduate Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. Raja

    2016-01-01

    Visually challenged students' career choice is influenced by many factors, including life context, personal aptitudes, and educational attainment. This study focuses the defense styles of visually challenged students and also study about their career choice. Survey method has been adopted in this investigation. Totally 77 samples were collected…

  6. Psychological reality of cross-media artistic styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenfus, N; Martindale, C; Birnbaum, D

    1983-12-01

    The sensitivity of artistically naive people to cross-media styles (baroque, neoclassic, and romantic) and to period styles (works composed by artists born during the same epoch) in four media (painting, poetry, music, and architecture) was assessed. In two studies, adult subjects tended spontaneously to sort stimuli according to both cross-media styles and period styles. In a third study, nursery school children were shown to be able to sort pictures of paintings and architectural facades on the basis of cross-media styles. Other experiments using rating scales again demonstrated that artistically naive adults are sensitive to both cross-media styles and period styles even when they are not implicitly urged to disregard medium. These and other studies using rating scales suggested that the bases for discrimination of both cross-media styles and period styles are the dimensions of realistic versus unrealistic and of overall arousal potential.

  7. The determination of contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predicts positive psychological components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hosein Ebrahimi moghadam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since the essential of positive psychological components, as compliment of deficiency oriented approaches, has begun in recent days,we decided to take into account this new branch of psychology which scientifically considers studying forces of human, as well as because of the importance of this branch of psychology, we also tried to search the contribution of emotional intelligence and parenting styles components to predict positive psychological components. Materials and Methods:In this cross sectional study 200 psychological students of Azad university (Rudehen branch selected using cluster sampling method. Then they were estimated by Bradbery and Grivers emotional intelligence questionnaire , Bamrind parenting styles and Rajayi et al positive psychological components questionnaire. Research data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation, inferential statistics (multiple regression and Pierson correlation coefficient and SPSS software. Results:Among the components of emotional intelligence, the component of emotional self consciousness (β=0.464 had the greatest predictable , and reaction leadership showed no predictability in this research between parenting styles , authority parenting styles had positive significance relationship with positive psychological components. And no significant relationship was found between despot parenting styles and positive psychological components. Conclusion: Regarding the results of this research and importance of positive psychological components, it is suggested to treat the emotional intelligence from childhood and to learn it to parents and remind them the parenting way to decrease the satisfaction of individuals which leads to promotion of society mental health.

  8. Effects of Spectrum Teaching Styles on College Students' Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Self-Determined Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Stephanie; Byra, Mark; Readdy, Tucker; Wallhead, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of two landmark spectrum styles, practice and inclusion, on students' basic psychological needs satisfaction and self-determined motivation. Twelve classes of college-aged students (n = 149) participated in two badminton lessons taught under the conditions of the practice and inclusion styles.…

  9. [Epidemiological study of preferable life style for psychological health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tetsuya; Nakamura, Chikako; Imano, Hironori; Okada, Takeo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kiyama, Masahiko; Nakagawa, Yuko; Sato, Shinichi; Nakamura, Masakazu; Naito, Yoshihiko; Kurokawa, Michinori; Nakashita, Yumiko; Yamamoto, Masayo; Kamei, Kazuyo; Horii, Yuko; Shimamoto, Takashi

    2007-04-01

    We sought to examine relationships of lifestyle factors, including diet, physical activity, sleep, alcohol consumption and smoking, with perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Between 2001 and 2002, 7,947 men and women (mean 52.4 years) took part in examinations at the Osaka Medical Center for Health Science and Promotion. Lifestyle factors were determined by structured interview or by self-administered questionnaire. Associations of life style factors with perceived stress and depressive symptoms were tested by stepwise logistic regression analyses. Higher proportions of persons with depressive symptoms tended to be associated with higher proportions of persons with perceived stress. Among both men and women, low physical activity, lack of regular physical exercise, short sleeping time, to skip breakfast frequently, and having dinner within a couple of hours before going to bed were associated with both perceived stress and depressive symptoms. Men reporting between-meal or midnight snacks and having eating until they were full had higher odds ratios for perceived stress, while men conducting regular physical exercise and consuming 3 or more dishes of vegetables per day had lower odds ratios for depressive symptoms. For women, high odds ratios for depressive symptoms and perceived stress were observed among those who tended to have salty foods (or frequent use of soy sauce) and a lower odds ratio for perceived stress was noted among persons who had soy products every day. Lifestyle facets such as skipping breakfast, low physical activity, and short sleeping time, appear to be associated with psychological health status of Japanese men and women.

  10. A Psychological Study of Relationship between Life-Style and Stress in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    高橋, 恵子

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the role of psychological factors in influencing life-style. We examined the relationships among emotion, stress-coping, and life-style. A survey of the health consciousness of university students reveals that most of the students feel that their life-style is undesirable and suffer much stress. However they are not conscious of their life-style. Students who have negative emotions (depression, anxiety, anger and languor) report that they do not sleep v...

  11. Study of the Cognitive Style of students of two careers: Psychology and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Yacusa, Mauricio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study relates university students cognitive styles with their university profile. A total of 311 students either beginning or ending their career at the faculties of Engineering and Psychology from Universidad de la República (Uruguay participated. The Embedded Figures Test (EFT was collectively applied to them, thus identifying their degree of field dependence and field independence. Results show significant differences between Engineering and Psychology students towards their cognitive styles. In Engineering students the independence field cognitive style prevails, and this increases in those students who are finishing their career. In Psychology students there are no significant differences in their cognitive styles regarding those who are either beginning or ending their career, and field dependence prevails in all of them.

  12. Effects of an Interteaching Probe on Learning and Generalization of American Psychological Association (APA) Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Jonathan M.; Faas, Caitlin

    2017-01-01

    This study implemented the components of interteaching as a probe to teach American Psychological Association (APA) Style to undergraduate university students in a psychology research methods and statistics course. The interteaching method was compared to the traditional lecture-based approach between two sections of the course with the same…

  13. Sexual attraction and psychological adjustment in Dutch adolescents: coping style as a mediator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.; van Beusekom, G.; Sandfort, T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from

  14. Sexual attraction and psychological adjustment in Dutch adolescents: coping style as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Sandfort, Theo

    2014-11-01

    This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from 1,546 high school students (802 boys and 744 girls; M age = 13.57 years) by means of standardized measurements. SSA was found to predict lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of psychological distress. Further analyses showed that passive coping style partly mediated these associations. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. The findings suggest that in understanding and addressing mental health disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexual youth attention should be paid to intrapersonal psychological factors such as coping styles.

  15. Psychological Type and the Matching of Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Robert R.; Hoover, Randy L.

    1984-01-01

    Carl Jung's theory of psychological type is explored and related to education in this article. A model of the interaction between teacher, student, subject matter, and instructional alternatives is examined and the educational implications are discussed. This theory is used to illustrate how psychological-type influences teaching and learning…

  16. Children with cancer with different survival perspectives: defensiveness, control strategies, and psychological adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootenhuis, M. A.; Last, B. F.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether children with cancer with different survival perspectives differ in their psychological adjustment, defensiveness and their use of cognitive control strategies. Furthermore, the study investigated which variables predict emotional

  17. A Description of Psychological Type at the Defense Systems Management College

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    AD-A251 873 A DESCRIPTION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TYPE AT THE DEFENSE SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT COLLEGE ISTJ ENFP I- Carl Bryant, Ph.D. w_=_ William H. Cummings...DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING... ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION (If applicable) Defense Systems Mgmt. College FD-MD Defense Systems Management College 6c

  18. Psychological defense mechanisms in patients with syphilis at different stages of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filonova A.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the study of psychological defense mechanisms in patients with syphilis at different stages of the disease. Material and methods. We used questionnaire Plutchik-Kellerman-Comte "life style Index". The study involved 257 people (118 women (46% and 139 men (54% aged 18 to 67 years (mean age — 23,5±8,9years. Results. In patients with primary syphilis primary mecha-protection scheme is "denying"; secondary syphilis of skin and mucus-purity membranes— "replacement"; syphilis latent early — "projection"; in patients with late syphilis — intellectualization. Thus, in patients with late forms of syphilis is dominated by more Mature mechanisms of protection (projection, rationalization. Patients with early forms use more primitive mechanisms (denial, substitution. Conclusion. The obtained data may be useful in the choice of methods of psychotherapy, the formation of patients more realistic (ADAP-tive installations for the treatment, restoration of family and other social relations, the prevention of distress and improving the quality of life of patients.

  19. The Predictive Strength of Perceived Parenting and Parental Attachment Styles on Psychological Symptoms among Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körük, Serdar; Öztürk, Abdülkadir; Kara, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting, parental attachment styles and psychological symptoms among Turkish university students and it also aims to find out which perceived parenting and parental attachment styles predict psychological symptoms which were measured. This study is a quantitative research and…

  20. Psychological state, quality of life, and coping style in patients with digestive cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Toshiko; Matsushima, Eisuke; Maruyama, Michio

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between psychological characteristics such as anxiety and depression, quality of life (QOL) and coping style among patients with digestive cancer. The subjects were 85 in-patients who were scheduled to undergo initial surgery for gastrointestinal cancer. The following psychological tests were administered: Japanese versions of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ C30 and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. The first 3 tests were performed on three occasions: before surgery, before discharge and 6 months after discharge. The results showed that there was no change over the 3 test administration days for the average scores of anxiety and that the scores of depression increased from before surgery to before discharge and did not return to presurgery levels at 6 months after discharge. Changes in each subscale score of the EORTC QLQ C30 across the 3 days displayed two typical trends. Relationships between the abovementioned trends and individual coping styles showed that the higher the score of "emotion-oriented coping style," the greater the deterioration in QOL subscales. It was suggested that focusing on a patient's coping style, particularly emotion-oriented coping style, is important and that patients likely to adopt a more emotion-oriented coping style should receive special consideration.

  1. Mediating effect of coping styles on the association between psychological capital and psychological distress among Chinese nurses: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H; Peng, J; Wang, D; Kou, L; Chen, F; Ye, M; Deng, Y; Yan, J; Liao, S

    2017-03-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Studies show that psychological capital (PsyCap) is a protective factor against psychological distress, such as depressive symptoms. However, few have attempted to address the role of coping styles in the relationship between PsyCap and psychological distress. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study found moderate levels of PsyCap among nurses in China. Among the subcategories of PsyCap, optimism and hope were most highly correlated with psychological distress. Psychological distress was positively associated with negative coping and negatively associated with positive coping. This study confirmed the partial mediating effect of coping styles in PsyCap and psychological distress among Chinese nurses. In other words, this study found direct and indirect effects of PsyCap on psychological distress mediated via coping styles. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The significant mediating effect of negative and positive coping styles between PsyCap and psychological distress has implications for hospital administrators, especially nurse leaders. Effective strategies should be implemented to improve PsyCap and coping styles among Chinese nurses, and alleviate psychological distress. Optimism and hope should be emphasized in PsyCap investment. Different styles of coping are influenced and modified by teaching and experience. Therefore, it is essential that nurse managers organize educational and training programmes to provide nurses with relative coping knowledge and techniques, and improve their coping ability. Several studies suggest that coping styles are affected by social support. Thus, nurse managers should assist nurses with social support and enhance coping strategies to reduce psychological distress. Introduction PsyCap includes four categories namely self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience. Research has demonstrated that PsyCap and coping styles affect current psychological distress. Nevertheless, few

  2. Leadership Style and Communication Process: An Experiment Using the Psychological Isotope Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemers, Martin M.; And Others

    The "psychological isotope" technique was used to study the effect of leadership style on group process and productivity, by planting identifiable units of information with specific group members. Data indicated that the movement of these traceable bits provides data on the flow of information in the group, the relative influence and impact of…

  3. The Contributions of Attachment Styles, Irrational Beliefs and Psychological Symptoms to the Prediction of Cognitive Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunduz, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    In this research, the contributions of styles of attachment, irrational beliefs and psychological symptoms to the prediction of cognitive flexibility were analysed. The sample consists of 436 students studying in various departments and faculties in Mersin University. The Cognitive Flexibility Scale, Relationships Scale, Irrational Beliefs Scale…

  4. The Effect of Gender and Attachment Styles on the Relationship between Marital Adjustment and Psychological Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruk, Serdar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the moderating effects of attachment styles and gender on the predictive strength of marital adjustment on psychological symptoms among Turkish married individuals. Correlational model was used and the sample consisted of 178 married individuals. The data was gathered through online survey. The Turkish form…

  5. Religious orientation and personality styles in psychology students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between religion and personality has often been debated in psychology with some theorists advocating the inclusion of religion in models of personality and others advocating that religion is a separate entity from personality. Other research also debates whether religion impacts positively or negatively on ...

  6. Psychological defense in anticipation of anxiety: eliminating the potential for anxiety eliminates the effect of mortality salience on worldview defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jeff; Martens, Andy; Jonas, Eva; Eisenstadt, Donna; Pyszczynski, Tom; Solomon, Sheldon

    2003-09-01

    A large body of research has shown that when people are reminded of their mortality, their defense of their cultural worldview intensifies. Although some psychological defenses seem to be instigated by negative affective responses to threat, mortality salience does not appear to arouse such affect. Terror management theory posits that the potential to experience anxiety, rather than the actual experience of anxiety, underlies these effects of mortality salience. If this is correct, then mortality-salience effects should be reduced when participants believe they are not capable of reacting to the reminder of mortality with anxiety. In a test of this hypothesis, participants consumed a placebo purported to either block anxiety or enhance memory. Then we manipulated mortality salience, and participants evaluated pro- and anti-American essays as a measure of worldview defense. Although mortality salience intensified worldview defense in the memory-enhancer condition, this effect was completely eliminated in the anxiety-blocker condition. The results suggest that some psychological defenses serve to avert the experience of anxiety rather than to ameliorate actually experienced anxiety.

  7. Psychological defenses against death anxiety: integrating Terror Management Theory and Firestone's Separation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Jonathan F

    2007-09-01

    The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing behaviors, addictive couple bonds, and adopting an anti-sexual approach to life. TMT offers a strong base of experimentally validated ideas and the experimental paradigms to test the broad array of defenses enumerated in Firestone's Separation Theory. Therefore, an integration of the two theories would be beneficial to a fuller understanding of psychological defenses against death anxiety.

  8. [The mediating role of the interpersonal schemas between parenting styles and psychological symptoms: a schema focused view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soygüt, Gonca; Cakir, Zehra

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived parenting styles and interpersonal schemas. The second purpose was to investigate the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms. University students (N=94), ages ranging between 17-26, attending to different faculty and classes, have completed Interpersonal Schema Questionnaire, Young Parenting Inventory and Symptom Check List-90. A series of regression analyses revealed that perceived parenting styles have predictive power on a number of interpersonal schemas. Further analyses pointed out that the mediator role of Hostility situation of interpersonal schemas between psychological symptoms and normative, belittling/criticizing, pessimistic/worried parenting styles on the mother forms (Sobel z= 1.94-2.08, p parenting styles (Sobel z= 2.20-2.86, p parenting styles on interpersonal schemas. Moreover, the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms was also observed. Excluding pessimistic/anxious parenting styles, perceived parenting styles of mothers and fathers differed in their relation to psychological symptoms. In overall evaluation, we believe that, although schemas and parental styles have some universalities in relation to their impacts on psychological health, further research is necessary to address their implications and possible paternal differences in our collectivistic cultural context.

  9. INDIVIDUAL STYLE OF ACTIVITY: THE HISTORY OF THE CONCEPT AND ITS PLACE IN THE MODERN PSYCHOLOGY OF EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Pakhmutova, Marina; Bakhtina, Svetlana; Andreeva, Svetlana; Golovanova, Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    The article examines severalapproaches to studying the phenomenon of "style", that exist inmodern psychology. Some researchers associate the concept of "style"with the adaptive mechanisms of the human psyche (A. Adler, R. Stagner), othersconsider "style" as part of the system of interaction of the subjectwith the environment (V. Tolochek, B. Vyatkin).The article describes thedevelopment of the semantics of the concept of "style" inpsychological research...

  10. Psychological Well-being and Parenting Styles as Predictors of Mental Health among Students: Implication for Health Promotion

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    Mohammad reza khodabakhsh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The lack of mental health interferes with one's individual achievement and ability for undertaking the responsibilities of everyday life. Researches show that psychological well-being and parenting styles have an important role in ones' increasing general health. The current study examined the relationship between psychological well-being and parenting styles with students' mental health. Methods: This study was carried out on 278 students (124 boys and 154 girls of Boukan's high schools. The participants were asked to complete psychological well-being inventory and mental health parenting style questionnaire. Data was analyzed using of Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The results showed that psychological well-being and authoritative parenting styles were significantly related with mental health; also, Permissive parenting styles has significant positive relationship with mental health. The regression analysis indicated that mental health is predictable by psychological well-being and parenting styles. Conclusion: The knowledge of parenting styles and psychological well-being and their relationships with general well-being can provide the significant implications on the provision of students' health. Parenting styles and psychological well-being, as significant variables in general well-being, needs more clinical research.

  11. Relationship between transformational leadership style and organizational commitment: Mediating effect of psychological empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Ayyub, Samia; Bashir, Muhammad Khawar

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment of employees with mediating role of psychological empowerment in the textile sector Punjab Pakistan. Data was collected using tools from 250 employees. The transformational leadership questionnaire, MLQ-Multifactor leadership Questionnaire [1] was used to verify the perception of the employees towards transformational leadership style in two dimensions i.e. idealized influence and inspirational motivation. The organizational commitment questionnaire designed by [2] was used to verify the affective organizational commitment. Further, psychological empowerment questionnaire was developed by [3] which was used to examine the state of psychological empowerment of textile sector employees. Pearson Correlation revealed that there exists a positive significant relationship between idealized influence and affective organizational commitment, Inspirational motivation and affective organizational commitment, affective organizational commitment and psychological empowerment. The results from the study put forward that there is a significant relationship between style of transformational leadership and organizational commitment. The mediating variable which one is suitable in the model i.e. psychological empowerment and the model is good fit as the F value is significant.

  12. Virtual Leadership: The Influence of Transformational Leadership Style on Employee Satisfaction at the Defense Contract Management Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to examine the possible relationship between transformational leadership style behaviors and the influence it had on employee satisfaction. The information presented in this study involved virtual team members at the Defense Contract Management Agency, Navy Special Emphasis Operations. The…

  13. Parenting styles and bullying. The mediating role of parental psychological aggression and physical punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ortiz, Olga; Romera, Eva María; Ortega-Ruiz, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Studies concerning parenting styles and disciplinary practices have shown a relationship between both factors and bullying involvement in adolescence. The scarce available evidence suggests that abusive disciplinary practices increase teenagers' vulnerability to abuse in school or the likelihood of them becoming abusers of their peers in the same context. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the indirect effect of parenting styles in adolescents' bullying involvement through disciplinary practices, although a relationship between parenting styles and disciplinary practices has been shown. The aim of this research was to determine the mediating role of punitive parental discipline (physical punishment and psychological aggression) between the dimensions of parents' parenting styles and their children's involvement in bullying victimization and aggression. We used a sample comprising 2060 Spanish high school students (47.9% girls; mean age=14.34). Structural equation modeling was performed to analyze the data. The results confirmed the mediating role of parental discipline between the parenting practices analyzed and students' aggression and victimization. Significant gender-related differences were found for aggression involvement, where boys were for the most part linked to psychological aggression disciplinary practices and girls to physical punishment. Victimization directly correlated with parental psychological aggression discipline behavior across both sexes. In conclusion, the results seem to suggest that non-democratic parenting styles favor the use of punitive discipline, which increases the risk of adolescents' bullying involvement. Therefore, intervention programs must involve parents to make them aware about the important role they play in this process and to improve their parenting styles. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parental Expressivity and Parenting Styles in Chinese Families: Prospective and Unique Relations to Children's Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children's psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. DESIGN: The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children's adjustment was measured with parents', teachers', and peers' or children's reports. RESULTS: Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children's externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. CONCLUSIONS: Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child's adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes.

  15. Effects of Bullying Experience on Psychological Well-Being Mediated by Conflict Management Styles and Psychological Empowerment among Nursing Students in Clinical Placement: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liping; Kim, Hyunli

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to test a proposed structural equation model in which bullying experience, conflict management styles and psychological empowerment predict psychological well-being among Chinese nursing students in clinical placement. Three hundred and sixty-six nursing students recruited from five hospitals in J city and Y city were assessed with self-report questionnaires on bullying experience, conflict management styles, psychological empowerment and psychological well-being including depression, self-esteem, and academic major satisfaction. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and AMOS version 22.0. The evaluation parameters included the comparative fit index at .90, the goodness of fit index at .93, the root mean square error of approximation at .07, and χ²/df ratio at 2.66, indicating that the proposed structural equation model provided a good fit to the data. Experience of being bullied during clinical placement, conflict management styles and psychological empowerment explained 93.0% of the variance and had significant effects on psychological well-being, with conflict management styles and psychological empowerment mediating the association between bullying and psychological well-being. The findings indicated that mediation by conflict management styles and psychological empowerment alleviated the negative influence of bullying on psychological well-being. To limit bullying and its negative effects, development of effective guidelines to deal with bullying will be a critical tool for both Chinese nursing students and their instructors. Further research should incorporate conflict management styles and psychological empowerment into the specific intervention strategies for handling bullying behaviors among nursing students and staff nurses and promoting nursing students' psychological well-being.

  16. Association of coping style and psychological well-being in hospital nurses

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    Ziba Loukzadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing jobs are among the occupations experiencing high levels of stress. Level of psychological well-being and coping style with stressful situations among nurses has large impact on their job performance. Limited information exists about the relationship between coping styles and psychological well-being among nurses, so the present study examined the way of coping and the level of psychological well-being as well as their relationships among nurses. Methods: In this correlational study, 100 nurses from Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences were selected by multi-stage random sampling in 2012. Lazarus and Folkman's coping styles and Ryff's psychological well-being Questionnaires were completed by self-report method. Collected data were entered software SPSS ver. 13 and then analyzed using Pearson correlation test. Results: The results showed EFCSwere more used but PFCSstyle was less used with a little difference by mean (SD of 87.91 (10.76 vs. 73.12 (12.15. Between EFCSand some psychological well-being dimensions such as purpose in life (P=0.01, r= - 0.28 and personal development (P= 0.03, r= - 0.024, a significant negative association and between PFCSstyle and purpose in life, a significant positive relationship was found (P=0.006, r= 0.31. Conclusion: Considering that PFCSstyle is more effective in solving problems and job stress, as well as, the increased use of EFCSis associated with adverse health consequences, improvement of nurses' coping strategies to cope better with stressful events by skill training and promotion of nurses' psychological well-being level is recommended.

  17. Changes in BSc Business Administration and Psychology Students' Learning Styles over One, Two and Three Years of Study

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    Nielsen, Tine

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge on general or discipline-specific changes in the learning styles of university students can be utilised in the design and execution of courses, but little is known of such changes. The study examined the changes in the learning styles of three year groups of BSc Business Administration and Psychology students from admittance to one, two…

  18. Comparison of psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normally-hearing children

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    Abdollah Ghasempour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Families who have a child with hearing deficiency deal with different challenges, and mothers have a greater responsibility towards these children because of their traditional role of caregiver; so, they deal with more psychological problems. The aim of this study was to compare the psychological well-being and coping styles in mothers of deaf and normal children.Methods: In this cross-sectional and post event study (causal-comparative method, 30 mothers of deaf students and 30 mothers of normal students from elementary schools of Ardabil, Iran, were selected using available sampling. The Ryff psychological well-being (1989 and Billings and Moos coping styles (1981 questionnaires were used in this study. The data were analyzed using MANOVA test.Results: We found that in mother's of deaf children, psychological well-being and its components was significantly lower than mothers of normal children (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. There was a significant difference between two groups in terms of cognitive coping style, too (p<0.01. However, mothers of deaf children used less cognitive coping style.Conclusions: It seems that child's hearing loss affects on mothers psychological well-being and coping styles; this effect can be visible as psychological problems and lower use of adaptive coping styles.

  19. Stress resiliency, psychological empowerment and conflict management styles among baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Eula W; Rauschhuber, Maureen L; Norgan, Gary H; Cook, Jennifer D; Canchola, Leticia; Richardson, Cynthia; Jones, Mary Elaine

    2012-07-01

    This article is a report of a Neuman Systems Model-guided correlational study of the relations of stress resiliency, psychological empowerment, selected demographic characteristics (age, ethnicity, semester in school) and conflict management styles. Emerging evidence suggests that stress resiliency and psychological empowerment can strengthen student nurses in academic achievement and coping with stress. Little is known about conflict management styles of students and the relationship to empowerment, resiliency and the implications for managing workplace conflict. A correlational study was conducted in Spring 2010 with 166 baccalaureate students. Most participants were female, single, Hispanic and 25 years old. The data collection instruments included the Stress Resiliency Profile, the Psychological Empowerment Instrument, the Conflict Mode Instrument and a demographic inventory. Descriptive and inferential correlational statistics were used to analyse the data. Students scored in the high range for focusing on their deficiencies in conflict situations; they scored above the 60th percentile for avoiding and accommodating behaviours and were less likely to use competing or collaborating strategies to manage conflict. Empowerment scores were significantly correlated with stress resiliency scores. Students with high scores on empowerment had high scores on the skill recognition subscale of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting more resilience; high scores on empowerment were related to high necessitating subscale scores of the Stress Resiliency Profile suggesting a predisposition to stress. Neuman Systems Model may provide guidance for educators to strengthen student nurses' management of stressors in the workplace. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. [Psychological femininity and masculinity, self-appeal, attachment styles, coping styles and strategies of self-presentation among women with suicide attempts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Eugenia; Zalewska, Karolina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to diagnose particular personality characteristics of women with suicide attempts: psychological femininity and masculinity, self-appeal, attachment styles, self-presentation strategies and coping styles. A group of 35 adult women who attempted suicide and the control group (35 women) were submitted to a research. The following measures were used: Inventory of Gender Identity (IPP), Strategies of Self-presentation Questionnaire (KSA), Attachment Style Test, Sense of Self-Appeal Scale (SPWA), Coping Inventory of Stressful Situations (CISS). Female suicide-attempters had a lower index of psychological masculinity and a lower sense of self-appeal than women in the control group. They were characterised by an avoidant attachment style, used a strategy of self-depreciation in self-presentation and an emotion-oriented style of coping. The predictors of risk of suicide behaviours that mainly showed: avoidant-attachment style and strategy of self-depreciation in self-presentation. Parasuicides were characterised by lower self-esteem and weak interpersonal skills, which reduced their ways of coping in difficult situations.

  1. Acculturation, psychological adjustment, and parenting styles of Chinese immigrant mothers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Cheah, Charissa S L; Calvin, Grace

    2016-10-01

    This study examined whether acculturation to American culture, maintenance of Chinese culture, and their interaction predicted Chinese immigrant parents' psychological adjustment and parenting styles. We hypothesized that American orientation would be associated with more positive psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms in immigrant mothers, which in turn would be associated with more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. The examination of the roles of Chinese orientation and the interaction of the 2 cultural orientations in relation to psychological adjustment and parenting were exploratory. Participants were 164 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers in the United States (Mage = 37.80). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of acculturation on psychological adjustment and parenting. Bootstrapping technique was used to explore the conditional indirect effects of acculturation on parenting as appropriate. American orientation was strongly associated with positive psychological well-being, which was in turn related to more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. Moreover, American and Chinese orientations interacted to predict depressive symptoms, which were in turn associated with more authoritarian parenting. Specifically, American orientation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms only at mean or high levels of Chinese orientation. Results suggest acculturation as a distal contextual factor and psychological adjustment as 1 critical mechanism that transmits effects of acculturation to parenting. Promoting immigrant parents' ability and comfort in the new culture independently or in conjunction with encouraging biculturalism through policy intervention efforts appear crucial for the positive adjustment of Chinese immigrant parents and children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Acculturation, Psychological Adjustment, and Parenting Styles of Chinese Immigrant Mothers in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Calvin, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined whether acculturation to American culture, maintenance of Chinese culture, and their interaction predicted Chinese immigrant parents’ psychological adjustment and parenting styles. We hypothesized that American orientation would be associated with more positive psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms in immigrant mothers, which in turn would be associated with more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. The examination of the roles of Chinese orientation and the interaction of the two cultural orientations in relation to psychological adjustment and parenting were exploratory. Methods Participants were 164 first-generation Chinese immigrant mothers in the U.S. (Mage = 37.80). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the direct and indirect effects of acculturation on psychological adjustment and parenting. Bootstrapping technique was used to explore the conditional indirect effects of acculturation on parenting as appropriate. Results American orientation was strongly associated with positive psychological well-being, which was in turn related to more authoritative parenting and less authoritarian parenting. Moreover, American and Chinese orientations interacted to predict depressive symptoms, which were in turn associated with more authoritarian parenting. Specifically, American orientation was negatively associated with depressive symptoms only at mean or high levels of Chinese orientation. Conclusions Results suggest acculturation as a distal contextual factor and psychological adjustment as one critical mechanism that transmits the effects of acculturation to parenting. Promoting immigrant parents’ ability and comfort in the new culture independently or in conjunction with encouraging biculturalism through policy intervention efforts appear crucial for the positive adjustment of Chinese immigrant parents and children. PMID:27077796

  3. Structural organization of psychological defenses and coping strategies of preschool teachers with different levels of professional burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тетяна Анатоліївна Колтунович

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the actual problem of modern education system – preschool teachers’ professional burnout. Assumptions about the existence of the relationship between professional burnout, coping strategies and mechanisms of psychological defenses; about the determination of burnout at different stages of its formation according to the structural organization of coping and psychological defenses were empirically proven, and their leading and basic components were defined

  4. Using the Defensive Style Questionnaire to evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on defensive mechanisms in transsexual patients Aplicação do Defensive Style Questionnaire para avaliar o impacto da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de pacientes transexuais

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    Maria Inês Lobato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the impact of sex reassignment surgery on the defense mechanisms of 32 transsexual patients at two different points in time using the Defensive Style Questionnaire. Method: The Defensive Style Questionnaire was applied to 32 patients upon their admission to the Gender Identity Disorder Program, and 12 months after they had undergone sex reassignment surgery. Results: There were changes in two defense mechanisms: anticipation and idealization. However, no significant differences were observed in terms of the mature, neurotic and immature categories. Discussion: One possible explanation for this result is the fact that the procedure does not resolve gender dysphoria, which is a core symptom in such patients. Another aspect is related to the early onset of the gender identity disorder, which determines a more regressive defensive structure in these patients. Conclusion: Sex reassignment surgery did not improve the defensive profile as measured by the Defensive Style Questionnaire.Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito da cirurgia de redesignação sexual nos mecanismos de defesa de 32 pacientes transexuais em dois momentos do estudo usando o Defensive Style Questionnaire. Método: O Defensive Style Questionnaire foi aplicado a 32 pacientes quando ingressaram no Programa de Transtorno de Identidade de Gênero e 12 meses após a cirurgia de redesignação sexual. Resultados: Houve modificações em dois mecanismos de defesa: antecipação e idealização; porém, sem mudanças significativas nos fatores maduro, neurótico e imaturo. Discussão: Uma possibilidade para esse resultado é o fato de a intervenção cirúrgica não resolver a disforia de gênero (principal sintoma desses pacientes. Outro aspecto está relacionado com o fato de o transtorno de identidade de gênero ser instalado precocemente, o que determina uma estrutura defensiva mais regressiva para esses pacientes. Conclusão: A cirurgia de redesignação sexual não foi

  5. A preliminary study of the psychological differences in infertile couples and their relation to the coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Ramli; Ramli, Roszaman; Yazmie, Abdul Wahab Azantee; Khadijah, Mohd Bustaman Siti; Hayati, Mohd Yatim; Midin, Marhani; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Das, Srijit; Sidi, Hatta; Ravindran, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Studies from Western countries have observed that couples undergoing infertility treatment suffer various physical and psychological difficulties at a higher frequency than the comparable general population. These relate to treatment challenges and other psychosocial stressors, often influenced by coping style, personality factors and available support systems. There is paucity of studies in non-Western populations. The aim of this pilot investigation was to evaluate characteristics and gender differences in perceived psychological difficulties reported by infertile Malaysian couples. In particular, depression, anxiety and stress, along with correlated coping styles, were examined between spouses. Demographic information, including age, ethnicity and duration and causes of infertility, were collected from participants treated within a fertility clinic. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situation (CISS) were completed to measure psychological distress and coping styles. Depression, anxiety and stress-related difficulties were reported at significantly higher frequency by wives than husbands (pcoping styles between wives and husbands. However, emotional-oriented coping style was associated with significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety and stress (pemotional coping style was associated with greater distress in both genders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Positive Psychological Capital and Parenting Styles among adolescents: Khasi and Non-Khasi Scenario

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    Rita Karmakar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The psychological capital (PsyCap, an individual’s positive psychological state of development, is characterized by four components. These four components are (1 Hope (commonly associated with one’s positive expectancy towards the future, (2 Self-efficacy (confidence to put in considerable effort to succeed at challenging task, (3 Resilience (individual’s capability to successfully cope with adverse circumstances, uncertainty and conflict and (4 Optimism (a cognitive process directed at positive outcomes or expectancies of a bright and prosperous future. The sample consists of 160 Khasi (75 boys and 85 girls selected from East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya and 185 non-Khasi (100 boys and 85 girls selected from Kolkata district of West Bengal adolescents studying at high schools of East Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya and Kolkata district of West Bengal. Parental Authority Questionnaire and Psychological Capital Scale were used to assess the parenting style and positive PsyCap, respectively. The results revealed that dimensions of positive PsyCap vary with respect to culture and the effect of culture is prominent among adolescent boys. Non-Khasi adolescent boys are significantly higher on positive PsyCap dimensions than their Khasi counterparts. Adolescents who perceive their parents as high on authoritarian dimension display lower level of Positive PsyCap and its dimensions while those perceive their parents as high on authoritative style score higher on Positive PsyCap and its dimensions. Implications for parental practices and positive PsyCap in families and schools are discussed.

  7. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence. PMID:20182647

  8. The Predictive Strength of Perceived Parenting and Parental Attachment Styles on Psychological Symptoms among Turkish University Students

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    Serdar Körük

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationships between perceived parenting, parental attachment styles and psychological symptoms among Turkish university students and it also aims to find out which perceived parenting and parental attachment styles predict psychological symptoms which were measured. This study is a quantitative research and uses causal comparative research design. The sample of this study consists of 400 university students. Young Parenting Inventory, Parental Bonding Instrument and Brief Symptom Inventory were used for gathering data. The depressive, hostility and anxiety symptoms were determined as the most prevalent psychological symptoms among the sample. The conditional/achievement-oriented and ruling/former mother perceptions were found as the most prevalent perceived parenting styles for mother and the conditional/achievement-oriented and close/repressed feelings perceived as parenting styles for father. Pessimistic/fearful mother, belittling/captious mother and overprotective/worrywart father were found as the most predictive perceived parenting styles which predict the psychological symptoms in a significant level and in a positive way

  9. The Associations among Psychological Distress, Coping Style, and Health Habits in Japanese Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Akio

    2017-11-22

    Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with "Avoidance coping" (β = 0.39, p psychological distress (active: β = -0.25, p psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.

  10. The relationship between coping style and psychological distress in people with head and neck cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nicolle; Moghaddam, Nima; Tickle, Anna; Biswas, Sanchia

    2017-07-27

    Individuals diagnosed with head and neck cancer (HNC) are at elevated risk of psychological distress and reduced quality of life. This review aimed to systematically examine and critically assess the quality of empirical evidence for associations between coping mechanisms and psychological distress among people with HNC. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched. Studies were included if they used reliable and valid measures to investigate the relationship between coping style and psychological distress. Study quality was assessed according to pre-set criteria. Twelve studies (8 cross-sectional and 4 longitudinal designs) involving 1281 patients were reviewed. There was considerable heterogeneity in study samples and coping measures. Moderate-to-large associations between disengagement coping mechanisms (eg, avoidance) and psychological distress were observed. Engagement coping strategies (eg, direct action) were not consistently associated with psychological distress. Several studies observed a significant relationship between coping styles aimed at disengaging and distancing from cancer and increased psychological distress in people with HNC. To understand directionality of these associations and develop understanding of temporal features of the relationship between coping styles and distress, longitudinal designs could be used. This would enable evidence-based recommendations regarding psychological interventions (eg, encouraging helpful coping strategies) for individuals along their HNC care pathway. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Comparing two self-report measures of coping--the Sense of Coherence Scale and the Defense Style Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammallahti, P R; Holi, M J; Komulainen, E J; Aalberg, V A

    1996-09-01

    Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) and Bond's Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) were compared in a sample of 334 community controls and 122 psychiatric outpatients. The major question was, whether the two coping inventories with different theoretical backgrounds-stress research vs. psycho-analysis-tap similar phenomena. The affinity of the two coping measures was evident: in multiple regression analysis defenses explained 68% of the variance in sense of coherence. Not surprisingly, the SOC scale-emerging out of the salutogenic orientation-showed more expertise in measuring how people manage when they do well, whereas the DSQ-with its theoretical roots deep in psychopathology-was most sensitive to how people manage when they do rather poorly.

  12. The Associations among Psychological Distress, Coping Style, and Health Habits in Japanese Nursing Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Akio Tada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing students in many countries have been reported to experience high levels of stress and psychological distress. Health habits could potentially mediate the association between coping styles and psychological status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mediation effect of health habits in the relationship between stress coping styles and psychological distress in Japanese nursing students. Methods: A total of 181 nursing students completed anonymous self-reported questionnaires comprised of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12, the Brief Coping Orientation questionnaire, and an additional questionnaire on health behavior. A mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. Results: Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that psychological distress was significantly and positively associated with “Avoidance coping” (β = 0.39, p < 0.001, and was negatively associated with “Active coping” (β = −0.30, p < 0.001, “exercise habit” (β = −0.25, p = 0.001, and “sleeping” (β = −0.24, p = 0.002. In the path model, “Active coping” and “Avoidance coping” had significant or marginally significant associations with “exercise habits” (active: β = 0.19, p = 0.008, avoidance: β = −0.12, p = 0.088, and psychological distress (active: β = −0.25, p < 0.001, avoidance: β = 0.363, p < 0.001. However, these coping style variables did not have a significant association with “sleep”. In general, the size of the correlations was below 0.4. Conclusions: Exercise habits mediated the relationship between coping styles and psychological distress to a greater extent than sleep. The present study suggests the possibility that complex interactions between health habits and coping styles may influence the psychological status of nursing students.

  13. Attachment styles and demographic factors as predictors of sociocultural and psychological adjustment of Eastern European immigrants in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polek, Elżbieta; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Ten Berge, Jos M F

    2008-10-01

    The present study examined the relationship between adult attachment styles and psychological and sociocultural adjustment of Polish, Russian, and Hungarian immigrants (N = 631) to Dutch society. In addition, it also examined the relationship between demographic factors and adjustment and compared the predictive value of attachment styles and demographic factors for immigrants' adjustment. The Attachment Style Questionnaire was used to assess respondents' attachment. Psychological adjustment was measured with the Psychological Health Scale and the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Sociocultural adjustment was measured with the Social Support List - Interactions scale. Two scales for measuring identification and contact with the native and with the Dutch culture were developed and used as indicators of cultural adjustment. We found relations between attachment styles and psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Secure attachment was positively related (ppsychological and sociocultural adjustment, fearful attachment was negatively (ppsychological adjustment, and more negatively with identification with the Dutch culture than with identification with the native culture. Preoccupied attachment was negatively related (ppsychological adjustment and to identification with the Dutch culture. Dismissing attachment was weakly negatively related (padjustment. Correlation patterns across the three immigrants' samples indicate that dismissing individuals remain relatively indifferent towards their native and the Dutch culture. Regarding demographic factors we found that education and age at immigration were positively associated with psychological and sociocultural adjustment, and length of residence appeared to be positively related to sociocultural adjustment. In general, demographic factors showed a stronger association with sociocultural than with psychological adjustment. Regression analysis revealed that attachment styles were better predictors of immigrants' psychological

  14. Psychology is social: exploring universals in performance capacity and performance style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathali M. Moghaddam

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Our goal in this discussion is to map out a scientifically legitimate and practical path toward internationalizing the social psychology curriculum. Toward developing an appropriate conceptual framework, we distinguish between the study of two different types of performance: performance capacity, how well isolated individuals can perform tasks as determined bytheir physical characteristics, and performance style, the way things are done through collaborative meaning making. Whereas performance capacity can be explained causally, performance style is best explained through normative accounts. Social psychology has largely approachedquestions of performance style by applying a reductionist and causal framework. We highlight the alternative approach reflected in the cultural-narrative turn and identifysub-research areas that need to be strengthened in order to internationalize psychology. -- La psicología es social: explorando universales en la capacidad y el estilo del desempeño Nuestro objetivo es proponer un camino científicamente legítimo y práctico hacia la internacionalizacióndel currículo de la psicología social. Al desarrollar una estructura conceptual apropiada, distinguimos entre el estudio de dos tipos de desempeño: la capacidad de desempeño,es decir, cuán bien los individuos aislados pueden llevar a cabo tareas determinadas por sus características físicas, y el estilo de desempeño, es decir, el modo en que las cosas serealizan a partir de tener un significado colaborativo. Mientras que la capacidad de desempeño puede ser explicada causalmente, el estilo de desempeño es mejor explicado a través de justificaciones narrativas. La psicología social se ha aproximado principalmente a las cuestiones del estilo de desempeño aplicando una estructura reduccionista y causal. Destacamos el enfoque alternativo reflejado en el turno cultural-narrativo e identificamos subáreas de investigación que necesitan ser reforzadas para

  15. Estilos de defensa predominantes en relación con experiencias anómalo/paranormales (Predominant Defenses Styles in Relation to Abnormal / Paranormal Experiences

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    Alejandro Parra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El concepto de mecanismos de defensa tiene sus orígenes en la teoría psicoanalítica, que se centra más en el proceso de las defensas que en el objetivo de las defensas. El presente estudio examinó las diferencias entre individuos que tienen experiencias anómalo/paranormales y tres estilos defensivos (factor maduro, neurótico e inmaduro y quienes no han tenido tales experiencias. Estudiantes universitarios (60 % mujeres y 40 % varones, Edad promedio = 33.87 años recibieron el Cuestionario de Estilos de Defensa (DSQ-40 y diez preguntas que exploran varias experiencias anómalo/paranormales. Las personas reportaron una alta frecuencia de experiencias, tales como déjà-vu, sueños de percepción extrasensorial (PES, telepatía y recuerdos de vidas pasadas. Los resultados también mostraron mayor nivel de experiencias paranormales y defensas maduras, así como defensas neuróticas, en comparación con individuos sin experiencias. Aunque la naturaleza del estudio es francamente exploratoria, el autor sugiere que algunas de estas experiencias atribuidas a causas paranormales parecen servir como un mecanismo de protección a potenciales eventos traumáticos, mejorar el bienestar subjetivo del individuo o – al menos– evitar o disminuir las consecuencias perturbadoras de los eventos negativos de la vida. Por lo tanto, las experiencias paranormales podrían corresponder a rasgos no patológicos que producen cambios en la «homeostasis» psicológica. ABSTRACT: The concept of defense mechanisms has its origins in psychoanalytic theory, which focuses more on the defenses´process than on the objective of defenses. The present study examined the differences between individuals who have abnormal/paranormal experiences – and three defensive styles (mature, neurotic, and immature factor, and those who have not had such experiences. College students (60 % women and 40 % men, mean age = 33.87 years old received the Defense Styles

  16. [Psychological types and learning styles of students entering medical school at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitran, Marcela; Zúñiga, Denisse; Lafuente, Montserrat; Viviani, Paola; Mena, Beltrán

    2003-09-01

    Psychological type and learning style influence the way students perceive and process information. However, research in medical education in Chile still does not put enough emphasis in the study of these variables. To characterize the psychological types and learning styles of the students admitted to a Medical School. The Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Kolb's Learning Styles Inventory (IEA) were administered to the 270 students admitted from 2000 to 2002 to the medical school of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Fifty five percent of our students are concentrated in 4 of the 16 psychological types described. These students are characterized by the ability to base their decisions upon logical and objective reasoning (Thinking [T]) and to face life in a structured and decided way (Judging [J]). Only 10% of the students have preferences opposite to T and J. These students base their decisions on the preservation of harmony and teamwork (Feeling [F]) and have a flexible attitude towards life (Perceiving [P]). The remaining 35% have types with pairs of preferences TP and FJ. With regard to learning styles, more than two thirds of our students are Assimilators or Convergers. These learners tend to assimilate large amounts of information and abstract the main concepts, rather than to pay attention to concrete details. In general, our students are more reflective than active; they evaluate thoroughly all alternatives before making a decision. The psychological types and learning styles of medical students cluster around specific patterns whose features may either favor or hamper a specific learning. Knowledge of the differences in psychological types and learning styles of students may provide teachers with a new and valuable tool for improving learning and contributing to the academic success of students.

  17. Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2017-01-01

    Defined as the tropes, figures, and grammar of the text, style is quite concrete, quite analyzable. Pure detection and identification of the tropes and figures of a text is not very interesting to literary studies, though, unless it is combined with interpretation, that is, unless you ask: What...... is the effect of those tropes and figures, how do they contribute to the signification of the text?...

  18. The Evolutionary Psychology of War: Offense and Defense in the Adapted Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Anthony C

    2017-01-01

    The study of warfare from an evolutionary perspective has expanded rapidly over the last couple of decades. However, it has tended to focus on the ancestral origins, prevalence, and instruments of war rather than adaptationist analyses of its underlying psychology. I argue that our evolved coalitional psychology may contain a set of distinct evolved heuristics designed specifically for offensive and defensive coalitional aggression. Data from two survey experiments are presented, in which subjects were given scenarios depicting offensive or defensive aggression and were told to make decisions, for example, regarding their willingness to participate in the conflict, their opinions of others who did not choose to participate, and their expectations benefit. The results indicate that humans do indeed distinguish readily between these two domains and that their willingness to participate, as well as their emotional responses toward others, is highly contingent upon this informational cue in adaptively relevant ways. In addition, and consistent with parental investment theory, data reveal a range of sex differences in attitudes toward coalitional aggression in the two conflict domains. Beyond the study of warfare, this project has implications for our understanding of the relationship between individual behavior and group dynamics, as well as for our understanding of the mechanisms by which the psychological framing of political events can lead to important social outcomes.

  19. Effect of stress inoculation training on coping styles and psychological well-being status of mothers with mental retard children

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    Jahanshir Tavakolizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental retardation is one of the most significant problems of human society among children and adolescents. It puts families, especially mothers, under a lot of stress and threatens their mental health. The initial purpose of this study was to determine the effect of stress inoculation training on coping styles and psychological well-being status in women who have children with mental retardation. In this quasi-experimental study, 30 participants were randomly were selected by simple sampling method that were assigned into the experimental and control groups. The statistical population comprised the mothers who have children with mental retardation at the training center. Ryff scales of psychological well-being and coping inventory for stressful situations and psychological well-being scale were implemented before and after the stress inoculation training (presented only for the experimental group in eight sessions. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the training increased the problem-oriented coping style and decreased the avoidant and emotional coping styles. Thus, the results demonstrated that stress inoculation training was effective in stress coping and improving psychological well-being in mothers. According to the obtained finding, psychological well-being scores in the experimental group were remarkably different from those in the control group. Based on these results, it is recommended for the experts in the field to use stress inoculation training to decrease stress and enhance psychological well-being of mothers.

  20. Transformational and Transactional Leadership Styles as They Predict Constructive Culture and Defensive Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Eppard, Randy G.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a predictive model of several components of organizational and leadership Culture in a large sample of municipal employees using three sets of predictors: demographic/employment status of employees, measures of employeesâ judgments of their supervisorâ s transactional leadership styles, and measures of employeesâ judgments of their supervisorâ s transformational leadership style. To what extent does transformational and transactional leadership (bot...

  1. Breastfeeding duration and postpartum psychological adjustment: role of maternal attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Ipek; Kuscu, M Kemal; Yurdakul, Ziya; Ozdemir, Nihal; Solakoğlu, Mine; Orhon, Lale; Karabekiroğlu, Aytül; Ozek, Eren

    2008-06-01

    Depressive and anxiety symptoms are common in new mothers. The aim of this study is to explore the link between postpartum psychological adjustment and feeding preferences of the mothers. Sixty mothers and newborns were enrolled in this prospective, longitudinal study. Maternal depressive symptoms were screened by the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS), and maternal anxiety level was assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory at 1 month postpartum. The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was used for the assessment of maternal social support. The Adult Attachment Scale was used to determine the attachment style of the mother. Infants were examined and evaluated at 1 and 4 months of life. All mothers started breastfeeding their infants postpartum; 91% and 68.1% continued exclusive breastfeeding at 1 and 4 months, respectively. The first-month median EPDS score of mothers who breastfeed at the fourth month was statistically significantly lower than those who were not breastfeeding (6 and 12, respectively) (P = 0001). The first-month median EPDS score of mothers with secure attachment was lower than the median score of mothers with insecure attachment (5 and 9, respectively) (P breastfeeding rate was not statistically different among mothers with secure and insecure attachment styles. The median state and trait anxiety scores and social support scores of mothers were not different between groups according to breastfeeding status. This study has shown an association between higher EPDS scores and breastfeeding cessation by 4 months after delivery.

  2. Teacher Subject Specialisms and Their Relationships to Learning Styles, Psychological Types and Multiple Intelligences: Implications for Course Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chris; Ball, Ian

    2004-01-01

    This study explores issues in teacher education that increase our understanding of, and response to, the individual differences displayed by learners. A large undergraduate teacher education cohort provided evidence of the range and distribution of preferences in learning styles, psychological types and multiple intelligences. This information…

  3. Attachment styles and demographic factors as predictors of sociocultural and psychological adjustment of Eastern European immigrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polek, Elzbieta; van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; ten Berge, Jos M. F.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between adult attachment styles and psychological and sociocultural adjustment of Polish, Russian, and Hungarian immigrants (N=631) to Dutch society. In addition, it also examined the relationship between demographic factors and adjustment and compared the

  4. Variability in emotional responsiveness and coping style during active avoidance as a window onto psychological vulnerability to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Adam X; LaBar, Kevin S; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-05-01

    Individual differences in coping styles are associated with psychological vulnerability to stress. Recent animal research suggests that coping styles reflect trade-offs between proactive and reactive threat responses during active avoidance paradigms, with proactive responses associated with better stress tolerance. Based on these preclinical findings, we developed a novel instructed active avoidance paradigm to characterize patterns of proactive and reactive responses using behavioral, motoric, and autonomic measures in humans. Analyses revealed significant inter-individual variability not only in the magnitude of general emotional responsiveness but also the likelihood to specifically express proactive or reactive responses. In men but not women, individual differences in general emotional responsiveness were linked to increased trait anxiety while proactive coping style was linked to increased trait aggression. These patterns are consistent with preclinical findings and suggest that instructed active avoidance paradigms may be useful in assessing psychological vulnerability to stress using objective behavioral measures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Moderating effects of coping styles on anxiety and depressive symptoms caused by psychological stress in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C-X; Tse, L-A; Ye, X-Q; Lin, F-Y; Chen, Y-M; Chen, W-Q

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to assess possible interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes. Three hundred and four patients with Type 2 diabetes underwent a face-to-face interview by trained research staff according to a standardized questionnaire including information on socio-demographic characteristics, psychological stress, coping styles and anxiety and depressive symptoms. The interactive effects of coping styles and psychological stress on depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed by hierarchical multiple regression analyses. There were significant associations of the four domains of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms, except for the relationship between 'reduced economic condition' and depressive symptoms. 'Negative coping style' significantly increased the level of both anxiety and depressive symptoms; whereas, 'active coping style' and 'avoidant coping style' decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The interactions of 'negative coping style' with 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' and 'reduced economic condition' significantly increased the risk of anxiety and depressive symptoms, and the interaction of 'social/family crisis caused by the disease' with 'avoidance coping style' and 'worrying about decline in body/physical function' with 'active coping style' significantly decreased the risk of depressive symptoms. The results of this study suggest that certain coping styles might moderate the association of psychological stress with anxiety and depressive symptoms in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  6. A social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Arab

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being among third year high school female students in city of Khomeinishahr, Iran during the year of 2012. The study selects a sample of 300 students from 1260 female students who were enrolled in third year high school education, randomly. The study uses the Baumrind’s questionnaire on parenting style, which consists of 30 questions which equally measure three parenting styles including authoritarian, indulgent and authoritative in Likert scale. The survey also uses Gottfredson’s questionnaire to examine occupational aspirations. The study examines whether there is any relationship between parenting style from one side and three personal characteristics including gender, career aspiration and wishes type on the other side. Using Chi-Square technique, the survey examines three hypotheses and the results confirm all three hypotheses of the survey.

  7. Maternal Alexithymia and Attachment Style: Which Relationship with Their Children’s Headache Features and Psychological Profile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuela Tarantino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionA growing body of literature has shown an association between somatic symptoms and insecure “attachment style.” In a recent study, we found a relationship between migraine severity, ambivalent attachment style, and psychological symptoms in children/adolescents. There is evidence that caregivers’ attachment styles and their way of management/expression of emotions can influence children’s psychological profile and pain expression. To date, data dealing with headache are scarce. Our aim was to study the role of maternal alexithymia and attachment style on their children’s migraine severity, attachment style, and psychological profile.Materials and methodsWe enrolled 84 consecutive patients suffering from migraine without aura (female: 45, male: 39; mean age 11.8 ± 2.4 years. According to headache frequency, children/adolescents were divided into two groups: (1 high frequency (patients reporting from weekly to daily attacks, and (2 low frequency (patients having ≤3 episodes per month. We divided headache attacks intensity into two groups (mild and severe pain. SAFA “Anxiety,” “Depression,” and “Somatization” scales were used to explore children’s psychological profile. To evaluate attachment style, the semi-projective test SAT for patients and ASQ Questionnaire for mothers were employed. Maternal alexithymia traits were assessed by TAS-20.ResultsWe found a significant higher score in maternal alexithymia levels in children classified as “ambivalent,” compared to those classified as “avoiding” (Total scale: p = 0.011. A positive correlation has been identified between mother’s TAS-20 Total score and the children’s SAFA-A Total score (p = 0.026. In particular, positive correlations were found between maternal alexithymia and children’s “Separation anxiety” (p = 0.009 and “School anxiety” (p = 0.015 subscales. Maternal “Externally-oriented thinking” subscale

  8. The Interaction of Perceived Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles and Their Relation with the Psychological Distress and Offending Characteristics of Incarcerated Young Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Julie; Power, Kevin; Loucks, Nancy; Swanson, Vivien

    2001-01-01

    The Parental Bonding Instrument was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental…

  9. Psychological predispositions of teachers for encouraging the pluralist cognitive style in teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurišić-Bojanović Mirosava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented research was to determine in which measure teachers possess the psychological predispositions for democratic functioning as a condition for education for democracy. Two groups of personal characteristics were singled out: (a predispositions for anti-democratic behavior, arbitrarily labeled weak ego characteristics, and (b strong ego characteristics as predispositions for democratic behavior. The readiness of teachers to develop the democratic style of teaching was tested via their readiness to accept plurality of ideas, as the acceptance of legitimacy of the existence of different explanations of many phenomena and readiness to consider the argumentation for disagreeing or opposed views within controversial issues. The research was conducted on the purposeful, convenient sample during the school year 2006/2007 in primary and secondary schools in several towns in Serbia (N=158. The scales in accordance with Likert's procedure were applied for each individual characteristic. The results show that the majority of teachers have a positive attitude towards the acceptance of plurality of ideas. The assumptions about a significant negative correlation between the acceptance of plurality of ideas and weak ego characteristics were confirmed, as well as about a significant positive correlation with strong ego characteristics. This paper discusses the pedagogical implications of the obtained findings.

  10. Predicting recidivism in sex offenders with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Deming, Adam; Casbon, Todd

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was capable of predicting recidivism in 322 male sex offenders released from prison-based sex offender programs in a Midwestern state. The Static-99R and PICTS General Criminal Thinking (GCT), Reactive (R), and Entitlement (En) scores all correlated significantly with general recidivism, the Static-99R correlated significantly with violent recidivism, and the Static-99R score and PICTS GCT, Proactive (P), and En scores correlated significantly with failure to register as a sex offender (FTR) recidivism. Area under the curve effect size estimates varied from small to large, and Cox regression analyses revealed that the PICTS En score achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting general recidivism and the PICTS GCT, P, and En scores achieved incremental validity relative to the Static-99R in predicting FTR recidivism. It is speculated that the PICTS in general and the En scale in particular may have utility in risk management and treatment planning for sex offenders by virtue of their focus on antisocial thinking. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. The Mediating Role of Coping Style in the Relationship between Psychological Capital and Burnout among Chinese Nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Yongqing Ding; Yanjie Yang; Xiuxian Yang; Tiehui Zhang; Xiaohui Qiu; Xin He; Wenbo Wang; Lin Wang; Hong Sui

    2015-01-01

    Background Burnout is recognized as an occupational hazard, and nursing has a high risk of burnout. This study aims to explore the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap) and burnout among Chinese nurses and the mediating role of coping style in this relationship. Methods A total of 1,496 nurses (effective response rate: 80.11%) from two large general hospitals in Daqing City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMB...

  12. Determinants of Weight Loss following Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: The Role of Psychological Burden, Coping Style, and Motivation to Undergo Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Figura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The amount of excess weight loss (%EWL among obese patients after bariatric surgery varies greatly. However, reliable predictors have not been established yet. The present study evaluated the preoperative psychological burden, coping style, and motivation to lose weight as factors determining postoperative treatment success. Methods. The sample included 64 morbidly obese patients with a preoperative BMI of 51±8 kg/m2 who had undergone laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG. Well-established questionnaires were applied before surgery to assess the psychological burden in terms of “perceived stress” (PSQ-20, “depression” (PHQ-9, “anxiety” (GAD-7, and “mental impairment” (ISR as well as coping style (Brief COPE and motivation to lose weight. %EWL as an indicator for treatment success was assessed on average 20 months after surgery. Results. Based on the %EWL distribution, patients were classified into three %EWL groups: low (14–39%, moderate (40–59%, and high (60–115%. LSG patients with high %EWL reported significantly more “active coping” behavior prior to surgery than patients with moderate and low %EWL. Patients’ preoperative psychological burden and motivation to lose weight were not associated with %EWL. Conclusion. An “active coping” style might be of predictive value for better weight loss outcomes in patients following LSG intervention.

  13. Mediating effects of coping style on associations between psychological factors and self-harm among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Elaine M.; Corcoran, Paul; McAuliffe, Carmel; Keeley, Helen S.; Perry, Ivan J.; Arensman, Ella

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence for an association between suicidal behaviour and coping style among adolescents. The aims of this study were to examine associations between coping style, mental health factors and self-harm thoughts and acts among Irish adolescents, and to investigate whether coping style mediates associations between mental health factors (depression, anxiety and self-esteem) and self-harm. A cross-sectional school-based survey was carried out. Information was obtained on h...

  14. The Mediating Role of Coping Style in the Relationship between Psychological Capital and Burnout among Chinese Nurses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqing Ding

    Full Text Available Burnout is recognized as an occupational hazard, and nursing has a high risk of burnout. This study aims to explore the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap and burnout among Chinese nurses and the mediating role of coping style in this relationship.A total of 1,496 nurses (effective response rate: 80.11% from two large general hospitals in Daqing City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI, the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24, the Chinese Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ and demographic and caregiver-patient relationship. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of positive coping and negative coping, and we used the Bootstrap method to confirm the mediating effect.Self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism of nurses were all negatively related with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment among Chinese nurses. Positive coping partially mediated the relationship between hope/optimism and emotional exhaustion and between self-efficacy/optimism and reduced personal accomplishment. Negative coping fully mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and emotional exhaustion, and in the regression model self-efficacy was positively correlated with emotional exhaustion. And negative coping also partially mediated the relationship between hope/optimism and emotional exhaustion and between optimism and depersonalization.PsyCap had effects on burnout and coping style was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Nurses who had a strong sense of self-efficacy adopted more negative coping style, which in turn would lead to higher levels of emotional exhaustion. These findings shed light on the influence of negative coping on burnout, and positive coping was a positive resource for fighting against nurses' burnout. Hence, in order to avoid negative coping style

  15. The Mediating Role of Coping Style in the Relationship between Psychological Capital and Burnout among Chinese Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongqing; Yang, Yanjie; Yang, Xiuxian; Zhang, Tiehui; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Xin; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Lin; Sui, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Burnout is recognized as an occupational hazard, and nursing has a high risk of burnout. This study aims to explore the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap) and burnout among Chinese nurses and the mediating role of coping style in this relationship. A total of 1,496 nurses (effective response rate: 80.11%) from two large general hospitals in Daqing City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI), the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), the Chinese Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) and demographic and caregiver-patient relationship. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of positive coping and negative coping, and we used the Bootstrap method to confirm the mediating effect. Self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism of nurses were all negatively related with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment among Chinese nurses. Positive coping partially mediated the relationship between hope/optimism and emotional exhaustion and between self-efficacy/optimism and reduced personal accomplishment. Negative coping fully mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and emotional exhaustion, and in the regression model self-efficacy was positively correlated with emotional exhaustion. And negative coping also partially mediated the relationship between hope/optimism and emotional exhaustion and between optimism and depersonalization. PsyCap had effects on burnout and coping style was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Nurses who had a strong sense of self-efficacy adopted more negative coping style, which in turn would lead to higher levels of emotional exhaustion. These findings shed light on the influence of negative coping on burnout, and positive coping was a positive resource for fighting against nurses' burnout. Hence, in order to avoid negative coping style, improve skill

  16. The Mediating Role of Coping Style in the Relationship between Psychological Capital and Burnout among Chinese Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yongqing; Yang, Yanjie; Yang, Xiuxian; Zhang, Tiehui; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Xin; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Lin; Sui, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Burnout is recognized as an occupational hazard, and nursing has a high risk of burnout. This study aims to explore the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap) and burnout among Chinese nurses and the mediating role of coping style in this relationship. Methods A total of 1,496 nurses (effective response rate: 80.11%) from two large general hospitals in Daqing City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI), the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), the Chinese Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) and demographic and caregiver-patient relationship. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of positive coping and negative coping, and we used the Bootstrap method to confirm the mediating effect. Results Self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism of nurses were all negatively related with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment among Chinese nurses. Positive coping partially mediated the relationship between hope/optimism and emotional exhaustion and between self-efficacy/optimism and reduced personal accomplishment. Negative coping fully mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and emotional exhaustion, and in the regression model self-efficacy was positively correlated with emotional exhaustion. And negative coping also partially mediated the relationship between hope/optimism and emotional exhaustion and between optimism and depersonalization. Conclusion PsyCap had effects on burnout and coping style was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Nurses who had a strong sense of self-efficacy adopted more negative coping style, which in turn would lead to higher levels of emotional exhaustion. These findings shed light on the influence of negative coping on burnout, and positive coping was a positive resource for fighting against nurses’ burnout. Hence, in order to

  17. Parental Expressivity and Parenting Styles in Chinese Families: Prospective and Unique Relations to Children’s Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H.; Zhou, Qing; Eisenberg, Nancy; Valiente, Carlos; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objectives Parents from different cultures differ in how frequently they express emotions. However, the generalizability of the relations between parental expressivity and child adjustment in non-Western cultures has not been extensively studied. The goal of the present study was to investigate prospective relations between parental expressivity within the family (positive, negative dominant, and negative submissive expressivity) and Chinese children’s psychological adjustment, above and beyond parenting styles. Design The study used two waves (3.8 years apart) of longitudinal data from a sample (n= 425) of children in Beijing (mean ages = 7.7 years at T1 and 11.6 years at T2). Parental expressivity and parenting styles were self-reported. To reduce the potential measurement overlap, items that tap parental expression of emotions toward the child were removed from the parenting style measure. Children’s adjustment was measured with parents’, teachers’, and peers’ or children’s reports. Results Consistent with findings with European American samples, parental negative dominant expressivity uniquely and positively predicted Chinese children’s externalizing problems controlling for prior externalizing problems, parenting styles, and family SES. Neither parental expressivity nor parenting styles uniquely predicted social competence. Conclusions Despite previously reported cultural differences in the mean levels of parental expressivity, some of the socialization functions of parental expressivity found in Western countries can be generalized to Chinese families. Although parental expressivity and parenting styles are related constructs, their unique relations to child’s adjustment suggest that they should be examined as distinct processes. PMID:23226715

  18. Attachment Styles and Psychological Profiles of Child Sex Offenders in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsa, Fiona; O'Reilly, Gary; Carr, Alan; Murphy, Paul; O'Sullivan, Maura; Cotter, Anthony; Hevey, David

    2004-01-01

    When 29 child sex offenders, 30 violent offenders, 30 nonviolent offenders, and 30 community controls were compared, a secure adult attachment style was 4 times less common in the child sex offender group than in any of the other three groups. Ninety-three percent of sex offenders had an insecure adult attachment style. Compared with community…

  19. Attachment style and its relationship to working alliance in the supervision of British clinical psychology trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Joanne M; Moberly, Nicholas J; Marshall, Yehuda; Reilly, James

    2011-01-01

    Although the supervisory relationship is thought to be critical in training clinical psychologists, little is known about factors affecting the supervisory alliance. We conducted an Internet survey of British clinical doctoral trainees (N = 259) in which participants rated their supervisory working alliance, parental style during childhood, pathological adult attachment behaviours and attachment style for themselves and their supervisors. Trainees' ratings of the working alliance were associated with perceptions of supervisors' attachment style, but not with perceptions of trainees' own attachment styles. Path analysis supported a causal chain linking parental indifference, compulsive self-reliance, insecure supervisor attachment style and lower ratings of the working alliance. Our results broadly replicate data from a US sample and suggest that attachment theory is helpful in understanding clinical supervisory processes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Relationship between McGregor's X-Y Theory Management Style and Fulfillment of Psychological Contract: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Kumar Moona Haji Mohamed; Che Supian Mohamad Nor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to trace McGregor’s X-Y theory and its relationship with fulfillment of psychological contract. This is a review article relying on literature reviews and synthesizing concepts and ideas from related sources. McGregor’s X-Y theory is a natural rule for managing people. McGregor’s ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Theory X management style generally get poor results compare with managers use theory Y, which produces better ...

  1. Social and psychological climate of educational institution as a measure of consistency of leadership style and type of organizational culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Kotlyar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe process and results of a study conducted on the basis of state educational institutions of Moscow (a secondary school and a school with advanced study of foreign languages. We demonstrate the possibility of using the analysis of social and psychological environment as an indicator of leadership style consistency and type of organizational culture of educational institution. We revealed an educational trend that the real organizational culture with a predominance of one type of its elements, the desired profile will tend to the mixed type. We mapped out a plan for further research on the topic.

  2. Self-Regulation and Dimensions of Parenting Styles Predict Psychological Procrastination of Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Habibeh Mortazanajad; Faride mostafafi; Shahram Vahedi

    2009-01-01

    "n Objective: "n "nPrevious research has linked self regulation and parenting styles separately to academic procrastination. This article investigates the impact of the dimensions of parenting styles, behavioral self regulation and short term self regulation on procrastination of students. "nMethod: A sample of 249 adolescents (174 females and 75 male) aged 19 - 21 years completed measures of Parent as Social Context Questionnaire- Adolescent Report, Self-regulation Questionnaire (SRQ), ...

  3. The Comparison of Hardiness and Coping Styles with Psychological Stress in Addicted and Normal People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Molazadeh, E

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the hardiness and coping styles with stress in addicted and normal people in the city of Rasht. Method: The method of this study was causal comparative research. In sampling one hundred addicts were selected by multistage cluster sampling and one hundred normal ones selected by available sampling, then the Kobasa personal views survey and Moos and Billings coping styles questionnaires were administered among both groups. The Pearson correlation coefficients, independent samples t-test and regression analysis were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences between the mean scores of hardiness and emotion focused coping style in addicted and normal people, but there was no significant difference on problem focused coping style. Regression analysis also showed that hardiness can be a significant predictor for emotion focused coping style. Conclusion: The findings of this research show the important role of some of the personality characteristics such as hardiness and coping styles with stress that may correlate with the tendency to addiction and substance abuse in people.

  4. COGNITIVE-STYLE APPROACH TO PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF THE GIFTED PUPILS MOUNTAIN SCHOOLS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Paliy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The differential-cognitological point of view, giftedness is “a systemic quality of a personality that develops throughout life and determines their abilities to achieve exceptionally high results in one or more activities compared to those of other people”. Herewith, it is the fundamental concept of general aptitude, under which “the level of general abilities development that determines the range of activities in which a person can achieve great success” is understood. Within the structure of general aptitude intellectual giftedness is singled out as the level of development, as well as the type of organization of individual mental experience, which ensure an opportunity of creative intellectual activity, i. e. an activity, related to the creation of subjectively and objectively new ideas, to the use of innovative approaches to solving problems and openness to controversial aspects of the situation and so on. In order to identify talented children and adults the value of intellectual quotient (IQ is still most commonly used. Psychometric approach (the measurement of psychic phenomena with the help of standardized IQ tests to the diagnosis of intellectual giftedness, which is dominant in psychological diagnostics today, by definition, cannot “measure” the phenomena of an individual psyche, since the modern level of psychological science does not allow to proceed to psychological diagnosis, let alone prediction of a certain person`s behavior, on the basis of individual results in performing a psychological test (psychometric test of intelligence, personality questionnaire, projective methods etc. In our opinion, many problems in psychological and pedagogical support of gifted children could be avoided by making use of cognitive-style approach to diagnosis of intellectual giftedness, creative abilities, propensities and peculiar mental traits of a separate individuality. Objectivity of such an approach is corroborated by the results

  5. The Interrelations among the Perception of Parental Styles and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHAHIMI, Farnaz; HEAVEN, Patrick; CIARROCHI, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal study aims to examine the relationships between the perception of parental style, hope, self-esteem and Eysenck’s psychoticism dimension throughout the span of four years. Methods: The sample was composed of 884 students from the Wollongong Youth Study, which commenced when students entered high school. During the course of the 4 years of the study, each participant completed the test booklets each time data was collected. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Post-hoc test, Repeated Measurement, Pearson and Partial Correlation and General Linear Model in order to provide the aims of the study. Results: The mean score of hope and self-esteem among adolescents from authoritative parents were higher from permissive and authoritarian families while the hope with a permissive perception were lower than those with authoritarian, and self-esteem was lower in the authoritarian group compared to the permissive group. Children with a permissive perception reported higher psychoticism compared to the two other. Significant correlations were found between authoritative perception and hope, self-esteem and psychoticism. Finally, hope, self-esteem and psychoticism showed a significant inter correlation in all of the parental styles. Conclusion: Adolescents with the perception of each kind of parental style showed significant between group differences in psychological well-being throughout the four years of the study. PMID:23967424

  6. The Interrelations among the Perception of Parental Styles and Psychological Well-Being in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahimi, Farnaz; Heaven, Patrick; Ciarrochi, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study aims to examine the relationships between the perception of parental style, hope, self-esteem and Eysenck's psychoticism dimension throughout the span of four years. The sample was composed of 884 students from the Wollongong Youth Study, which commenced when students entered high school. During the course of the 4 years of the study, each participant completed the test booklets each time data was collected. Data was analyzed using one way ANOVA, Post-hoc test, Repeated Measurement, Pearson and Partial Correlation and General Linear Model in order to provide the aims of the study. The mean score of hope and self-esteem among adolescents from authoritative parents were higher from permissive and authoritarian families while the hope with a permissive perception were lower than those with authoritarian, and self-esteem was lower in the authoritarian group compared to the permissive group. Children with a permissive perception reported higher psychoticism compared to the two other. Significant correlations were found between authoritative perception and hope, self-esteem and psychoticism. Finally, hope, self-esteem and psychoticism showed a significant inter correlation in all of the parental styles. Adolescents with the perception of each kind of parental style showed significant between group differences in psychological well-being throughout the four years of the study.

  7. Développement d'un Gestionnaire Automatisé de Bibliographies selon les normes de l'American Psychological Association (GABI APA Style)

    OpenAIRE

    Thirion, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Nowadays, there are plenty of complete and user-friendly database management systems. However, most of them only produce poorly organized raw data, generally lacking of internal consistency. This situation remains awkward, especially for scientists who have regularly to report references in an extremely ruled international format. GABI APA Style was built in titis context. GABl APA Style is a reference manager software using the presentation rules of the American Psychological Association ...

  8. Religious Coping Styles, General Health, and Psychological Well-Being Among Mothers of Mentally Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nikmanesh

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: The results of the current study suggest that the religious coping styles affect the general health among the mothers of mentally disabled children. This study also indicated that paying attention to the type of religious coping used by these mothers is essential.

  9. Repressive Adaptive Style and Self-Reported Psychological Functioning in Adolescent Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Gerstle, Melissa; Montague, Erica Q.

    2008-01-01

    Low levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and psychosocial distress have been reported in pediatric cancer survivors. One explanation is the relatively high prevalence of the repressive adaptive style (low distress, high restraint) in this population. We investigated the relationship between this…

  10. Intellectual ability, learning style, personality, achievement motivation and academic success of psychology students in higher education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busato, V.V.; Prins, F.J.; Elshout, J.J.; Hamaker, C.

    2000-01-01

    This study is directed towards an integration of intellectual ability, learning style, personality and achievement motivation as predictors of academic success in higher education. Correlational analyses partly confirmed and partly disconfirmed our expectations in a sample of 409 first-year

  11. Psychological Defenses against Death Anxiety: Integrating Terror Management Theory and Firestone's Separation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Jonathan F.

    2007-01-01

    The author attempts to integrate Terror Management Theory (TMT) and R. W. Firestone's Separation Theory (1984, 1994). Both theories emphasize defense against death anxiety as a key human motive. Whereas TMT focuses extensively on self-esteem and cultural worldview, Firestone posited additional defenses such as gene survival, self-nourishing…

  12. Role of the Attachment Style in Determining the Association Between Headache Features and Psychological Symptoms in Migraine Children and Adolescents. An Analytical Observational Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Samuela; De Ranieri, Cristiana; Dionisi, Cecilia; Gagliardi, Valentina; Paniccia, Maria Francesca; Capuano, Alessandro; Frusciante, Roberto; Balestri, Martina; Vigevano, Federico; Gentile, Simonetta; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to study the role of attachment style on headache severity and psychological symptoms in migraineurs children/adolescents. Moreover, we investigated the association between attachment style, migraine severity, and psychological symptoms. Attachment theory suggests that early interpersonal relationships may be important determinants of psychopathology and pain management. In particular, individuals with insecure attachment styles have been shown to experience more pain than people with secure attachment style. Few studies focused on headache and data on attachment style in pediatric headache are scarce. We studied 90 migraineurs (mean age 12.2 ± 2.6 years; female: 54, male: 36). Patients were divided in two groups according to headache attack frequency: (1) high frequency (HF) patients, having from weekly to daily episodes and (2) low frequency (LF) patients, showing ≤3 episodes per month. According to headache attack intensity, patients were classified in two groups: (1) mild pain (MP), allowing the patient to continue his/her daily activities and (2) severe pain (SP), leading to interruption of patient activities or forcing the child to go to bed. The psychological screening was assessed by SAFA Anxiety, Depression, and Somatization questionnaires. Attachment style was measured by the semi-projective test Separation Anxiety Test. Patients were divided into "secure," "avoidant," "ambivalent," and "disorganized/confused" attachment patterns. We found a significant relationship between the attachment style and migraine features. The ambivalent attachment was the most common style among patients reporting high attack frequency (51%) and severe pain intensity (50%). Anxiety (SAFA-A Tot: F = 23.3, P Headache Society.

  13. Self-Regulation and Dimensions of Parenting Styles Predict Psychological Procrastination of Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibeh Mortazanajad

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nPrevious research has linked self regulation and parenting styles separately to academic procrastination. This article investigates the impact of the dimensions of parenting styles, behavioral self regulation and short term self regulation on procrastination of students. "nMethod: A sample of 249 adolescents (174 females and 75 male aged 19 - 21 years completed measures of Parent as Social Context Questionnaire- Adolescent Report, Self-regulation Questionnaire (SRQ, Adolescent Self- Regulatory Inventory (ASRI and Procrastination Tendency scale. Correlation coefficient indicted that in contrast to harsh or unsupportive parenting (rejection, chaos, and coercion, authoritative parenting (warmth, structure, and autonomy support was inversely related with procrastination. "nResults: The results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed a clear negative relationship between a students' short term self regulation, dimensions of parenting styles (structure and warmth and procrastination consistent with the literature. "nConclusions: Surprisingly, in contrast to behavioral self regulation of Miler& Brown, short term self regulation was found to be negatively related to procrastination.

  14. An item response theory analysis of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles: comparing male and female probationers and prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-09-01

    An item response theory (IRT) analysis of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was performed on 26,831 (19,067 male and 7,764 female) federal probationers and compared with results obtained on 3,266 (3,039 male and 227 female) prisoners from previous research. Despite the fact male and female federal probationers scored significantly lower on the PICTS thinking style scales than male and female prisoners, discrimination and location parameter estimates for the individual PICTS items were comparable across sex and setting. Consistent with the results of a previous IRT analysis conducted on the PICTS, the current results did not support sentimentality as a component of general criminal thinking. Findings from this study indicate that the discriminative power of the individual PICTS items is relatively stable across sex (male, female) and correctional setting (probation, prison) and that the PICTS may be measuring the same criminal thinking construct in male and female probationers and prisoners. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Predicting recidivism with the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) in community-supervised male and female federal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Glenn D; Lowenkamp, Christopher T

    2016-06-01

    Higher order scores derived from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; Walters, 1995) have been found to predict recidivism in released prison inmates with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The current study sought to determine whether the PICTS is capable of predicting general recidivism in a sample of 81,881 male and 14,519 female offenders on federal probation or supervised release. Results indicated that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking, Proactive, and Reactive scores and 6 of the 7 thinking style scales predicted recidivism in follow-ups of 6 or more months, 12 or more months, and 24 or more months with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The effect sizes were reduced to small and low-moderate, respectively, when age and prior arrests were controlled for in a series of partial correlations. It was also noted that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking score contributed significant diagnostic information to recidivism prediction in both males and females above and beyond the information provided by a comprehensive risk assessment procedure. These results indicate that the PICTS may be a useful adjunct to other risk assessment procedures in providing comprehensive risk prediction and management services to offenders under community supervision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The learning type makes the difference – the interrelation of Kolb's learning styles and psychological status of preclinical medical students at the University of Erlangen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Pascal H.; Scholz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Theories on learning styles and types have been integral to discussions on the basics of teaching for nearly 40 years. The learning style typology of Kolb divides learners into four groups (Diverger, Assimilator, Converger and Accomodator), which differ both in terms of their learning behaviour as well as personality and preferences. We studied the sense of coherence and burnout symptoms in medical students of the preclinical semesters (1st to 4th semester) at the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen within the context of the observed learning styles. A total of 530 students were interviewed in winter semester 2012/13 using standardized psychometric questionnaires. Our students showed a significant correlation between the respective learning styles and expression of a sense of coherence, as well as cognitive and emotional burnout symptoms. The learning styles of the students differed significantly within these same parameters. We also demonstrated that learning styles and types not only influence study performance, but that there are also relationships to sense of coherence and psychological ailments. A more forward-looking integration of the theory of learning types in the medical education curriculum could positively influence both the performance and psychological well-being of the students. PMID:25489342

  17. The learning type makes the difference - the interrelation of Kolb's learning styles and psychological status of preclinical medical students at the University of Erlangen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Pascal H; Scholz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Theories on learning styles and types have been integral to discussions on the basics of teaching for nearly 40 years. The learning style typology of Kolb divides learners into four groups (Diverger, Assimilator, Converger and Accomodator), which differ both in terms of their learning behaviour as well as personality and preferences. We studied the sense of coherence and burnout symptoms in medical students of the preclinical semesters (1(st) to 4(th) semester) at the Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen within the context of the observed learning styles. A total of 530 students were interviewed in winter semester 2012/13 using standardized psychometric questionnaires. Our students showed a significant correlation between the respective learning styles and expression of a sense of coherence, as well as cognitive and emotional burnout symptoms. The learning styles of the students differed significantly within these same parameters. We also demonstrated that learning styles and types not only influence study performance, but that there are also relationships to sense of coherence and psychological ailments. A more forward-looking integration of the theory of learning types in the medical education curriculum could positively influence both the performance and psychological well-being of the students.

  18. Different Approaches to Teaching the Mechanics of American Psychological Association Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Timothy M.; Spitzer, Tam M.

    2006-01-01

    Students have to learn two distinctly different tasks when writing research papers: a) creating and organizing prose, and b) formatting a manuscript according to the nuances and mechanics of a pre-determined format, such as Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. Two studies examined different…

  19. Analysis of college students' online life-styles and their psychological profiles in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sujin

    2010-12-01

    This study examines the relationships between the online life-styles of South Korean students as Internet users and Internet use, their tendency toward Internet addiction, and the level of cyber ethics. A sample of 324 students, aged between 18 and 23 years, from a medium-sized university in South Korea was asked to complete a survey. They were categorized into three groups depending on their online life-styles: a Social group (SG), an Individual group (IG), and a Loner group (LG). In the following analyses, no group difference was found in hours of Internet use on either weekdays or weekends, but the SG reported higher engagement in interaction-oriented activities (e.g. blogging, games, and instant messenger services) than the LG. As for tendency toward Internet addiction, all three groups belonged to the first phase of the "at-risk" classification in Korea. Interestingly, the IG characteristics of sensation seeking and independence reported the lowest scores in cyber ethics, while the LG characteristics of apathetic attitude toward the Internet reported the highest scores in cyber ethics. This preliminary study showed that Internet users impose different meanings and values on their Internet experiences, which contribute to their use of Internet services, their tendency toward Internet addiction, and their level of cyber ethics.

  20. Versão em português do Defense Style Questionaire (DSQ-40 para avaliação dos mecanismos de defesa: um estudo preliminar Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 for defense mechanisms measure: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Blaya

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo é o de descrever o processo de tradução e adaptação do Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 versão em português e avaliar a validade de conteúdo dessa versão do instrumento. MÉTODOS: A primeira versão da escala foi apresentada para cinco indivíduos, com graus diferentes de escolaridade, que efetuaram pequenos ajustes de linguagem. Posteriormente, a escala foi apresentada para três "experts", que avaliaram a validade de conteúdo do instrumento. A versão final foi retraduzida e apresentada para o autor do instrumento original que aceitou essa versão do DSQ-40. RESULTADOS: Houve necessidade de pequenos ajustes no vocabulário em nove questões e modificações na linguagem em quatro questões, resultando na versão final do instrumento. A média de correlação dos "experts" com cada defesa foi de 89%, e dos fatores maduros, imaturos e neuróticos foi de 100%. CONCLUSÕES: A adaptação do DSQ-40 por diferentes indivíduos com diferentes graus de escolaridade e pelo grupo de experts possibilitou o ajuste à realidade sociocultural brasileira.The aim of this study is to describe the translation and adaptation process of the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 into Brazilian-Portuguese version. The instrument has also contended validation evaluation. METHODS: The first version of the scale was presented to five individuals with different schooling for language adaptation. Afterwards the instrument was presented to three experts that evaluated its content validation. The final version was back-translated and accepted by the original author. RESULTS: Vocabulary adjustments were needed in 9 items and language adaptation in 4 items in order to render the final DSQ-40 Brazilian-Portuguese version. The mean of experts' correlation to each defense was 89%, being 100% to mature, neurotic and immature factors. CONCLUSION: The adaptation of DSQ-40 by different individuals and the group of experts enabled the necessary

  1. [Psychological features and cognitive styles of students entering medicine and other careers at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitran, Marcela; Zúñiga, Denisse; Lafuente, Montserrat; Viviani, Paola; Mena, Beltrán

    2004-07-01

    The similarity between the psychological features of medical school freshmen of different cohorts suggests that Medicine attracts students with specific psychological types. However, it is also possible that medical students are similar to the students admitted to any other career with high admission requirements. To determine if medical school freshmen are different from those of Engineering, Architecture, Psychology and Journalism. The Spanish version of the Myers Briggs Psychological Type Indicator (MBTI) was applied to two cohorts of Medical School freshmen (90 students of the 2000 cohort and 91 students of the 2001 cohort) and to a sample of 669 freshmen from the careers of Engineering, Psychology, Architecture and Journalism. Students entering Medical School are similar to the students admitted to Engineering and different from those that entered Architecture, Psychology and Journalism in the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile in 2000 and 2001. Medicine attracts a larger proportion of concrete and practical students that have an objective and systematic approach to study and to life in general. Unlike Medicine, Psychology and Architecture attract more students that have a cognitive style characterized by an intuitive perception, and that face life with an open and flexible attitude. This study reveals that the psychological features of undergradutate students are associated to their career choice. These psychological variables, therefore, may be relevant to the students' vocational preferences and possibly to their future specialty choice.

  2. A social work study on relationship between parenting styles and career aspirations as well as psychological well-being

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atefeh Arab; Najmeh Sedrpoushan; Afsaneh Javadzade

    2013-01-01

    .... The study uses the Baumrind’s questionnaire on parenting style, which consists of 30 questions which equally measure three parenting styles including authoritarian, indulgent and authoritative in Likert scale...

  3. Autobiographical Memory Phenomenology and Content Mediate Attachment Style and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Gillath, Omri

    2009-01-01

    In two studies, the present research tested the phenomenology and content of autobiographical memory as distinct mediators between attachment avoidance and anxiety and depressive symptoms. In Study 1, participants (N = 454) completed measures of attachment and depressive symptoms in one session, and retrieved and rated two self-defining memories of romantic relationships in a separate session. In Study 2, participants (N = 534) were primed with attachment security, attachment insecurity, or a control prime and then retrieved and rated a self-defining relationship memory. Memory phenomenology, specifically memory coherence and emotional intensity, mediated the association between attachment avoidance and depressive symptoms, whereas the negative affective content of the memory mediated the association between attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms. Priming attachment security led to retrieval of a more coherent relationship memory, whereas insecurity led to the retrieval of a more incoherent relationship memory. Discussion focuses on the construction and recollection of memories as underlying mechanisms of adult attachment and psychological distress, the importance of memory coherence, and the implications for counseling research and practice. PMID:20706555

  4. Family function, Parenting Style and Broader Autism Phenotype as Predicting Factors of Psychological Adjustment in Typically Developing Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohammadreza; Zarafshan, Hadi

    2014-04-01

    Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and "broader autism phenotype" (BAP), while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children's behavioral and psychosocial adjustment are overlooked. The aim of the present study was to reveal how parenting style and family function as well as BAP effect psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism. The Participants included 65 parents who had one child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and one typically developing child. Of the children with ASDs, 40 were boys and 25 were girls; and they were diagnosed with ASDs by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). The Persian versions of the six scales were used to collect data from the families. Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis were used to determine which variables were related to the psychological adjustment of sibling of children with ASDs and which variables predicted it better. Significant relationships were found between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties, prosocial behaviors and ASDs symptoms severity, parenting styles and some aspects of family function. In addition, siblings who had more BAP characteristics had more behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Behavioral problems increased and prosocial behavior decreased with permissive parenting style. Besides, both of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles led to a decrease in behavioral problems and an increase in prosocial behaviors. Our findings revealed that some aspects of family function (affective responsiveness, roles, problem solving and behavior control) were significantly

  5. Family function, Parenting Style and Broader Autism Phenotype as Predicting Factors of Psychological Adjustment in Typically Developing Siblings of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Mohammadi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs, behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and "broader autism phenotype" (BAP, while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children's behavioral and psychosocial adjustment are overlooked. The aim of the present study was to reveal how parenting style and family function as well as BAP effect psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism.The Participants included 65 parents who had one child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and one typically developing child. Of the children with ASDs, 40 were boys and 25 were girls; and they were diagnosed with ASDs by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R. The Persian versions of the six scales were used to collect data from the families. Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis were used to determine which variables were related to the psychological adjustment of sibling of children with ASDs and which variables predicted it better.Significant relationships were found between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ total difficulties, prosocial behaviors and ASDs symptoms severity, parenting styles and some aspects of family function. In addition, siblings who had more BAP characteristics had more behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Behavioral problems increased and prosocial behavior decreased with permissive parenting style. Besides, both of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles led to a decrease in behavioral problems and an increase in prosocial behaviors. Our findings revealed that some aspects of family function (affective responsiveness, roles, problem solving and behavior control were

  6. The Mediator Relationship/Effect of Subsets of Applied Parenting Styles and Self ـ Efficacy on Psychological Well ـ Being in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    لیدا ملک‌زاده

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the moderator relationship of dimensions of parenting styles and self-efficacy with psychological wellbeing in teenagers. The statical population of this study is all female students in first grade of high school in Tehran.Four hundred and fifty students were selected through cluster sampling method form 5 areas (north, south, west, east and center in Tehran. For measuring the factors in this study parenting styles (Shiffer,1965, psychological wellbeing scale (ryff, 1989 and self-efficacy scale (Sherer & Adams, 1982 were used. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and path analysis. Results show that the moderator effect of self-efficacy and perceived Acceptance-Rejection significantly predict psychological wellbeing and subscales of Environmental mastery, Personal growth, Positive relations with others, Purpose in life and Self- acceptance. Self-efficacy and perceived demandingness-Freedom, separately and significantly predicts subscale of Autonomy. In conclusion, results show that the moderator effect of self-efficacy­ and perceived Acceptance-Rejection and the moderator effect of self-efficacy and perceived demandingness-Freedom significantly predicts subscale of self-acceptance. In subscale of positive relations with others, in addition to the moderator effect between self-efficacy and perceived Acceptance-Rejection, these later two variables separately are significant predictor variables.

  7. [Relationship between defense mechanism and therapeutic alliance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laconi, S; Cailhol, L; Pourcel, L; Thalamas, C; Lapeyre-Mestre, M; Chabrol, H

    2015-10-01

    The therapeutic alliance can be defined as a collaborative relationship between the patient and the practitioner. It represents an essential component of the psychotherapeutic process (Ambresin et al., 2007; Cungi, 2006; Martin et al., 2000). Some authors suggest that a good alliance can have a favorable impact on the therapeutic success (Barber et al., 2000; Hubble, Duncan, & Miller 1999; Horvath & Luborsky, 1993; Horvath & Symonds, 1991). This alliance can be influenced by psychological and behavioral factors (Cungi, 2006) Thus, some defense mechanisms could prevent change or, on the contrary could facilitate adaptation (Ambresin et al., 2007) and have an impact on the therapeutic success (Muris & Merckelbach, 1996). However, the relationship between therapeutic alliance and defense mechanisms represents an insufficiently explored field (Ambresin et al., 2007; Cungi, 2006). The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between therapeutic alliance and twenty defense mechanisms in a sample of French psychiatric patients, by differentiating results in men and women. We also examined the positive and the negative therapeutic alliance. Sixty patients aged from 18 to 58 (M=41.50; SD=11.03) completed the French versions of the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40) and the Helping Alliance questionnaire-II (HAq-II). Therapeutic alliance was significantly associated with each defense style: mature (0.62), neurotic (0.45) Ptherapeutic alliance (R(2) adj=36, F=12.39, β=0.65, Ptherapeutic alliance (R(2) adj=36, F=12.34, β=0.62, Ptherapeutic alliance was significantly associated with all mature defenses, three neurotic defenses (reaction formation, pseudo-altruism, idealization) and four immature defenses (splitting, denial, somatization, passive aggression). Among men, three mature defenses were associated (anticipation, humor, sublimation), four neurotic (reaction formation, pseudo-altruism, idealization and undoing) and two immature (somatization and

  8. [Relationships between defense mechanisms and coping strategies, facing exam anxiety performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebot, E; Paty, B; Girarddephanix, N

    2006-01-01

    Defence mechanisms and coping strategies rely on different theoretical backgrounds and describe distinct psychological processes. Cramer has based a distinction on the following dimensions: conscious processes vs. not; intentionality vs. not; hierarchical conception vs. not. On the contrary to these distinctions, the two notions of defense mechanisms and coping strategies are defined as similar in the Diagnostical and Statistical Manual (DSM IV). This assimilation between coping and defenses in the DSM IV is not confirmed by some researches, namely the one by Callahan and Chabrol. It indeed proves a relationship between adaptive coping and mature defenses, as well as between maladaptive coping and immature defenses. Similarly, Plutchik offered theoretical correspondences between eight defense mechanisms and eight coping strategies: (a) Defenses: repression, isolation, introjection and Coping escape; (b) Defense denial and Coping minimalization; (c) Defense undoing and coping substitution; (d) Defenses: regression, acting out and coping social support; (e) Defenses: compensation, identification, fantasy and coping replacement; (f) Defenses: intellectualization, sublimation, annulation, rationalisation and coping: planification; (g) Defense projection and coping blame; (h) Defense: reactional formation and coping inversion. this research aims at testing the relations observed by Callahan and Chabrol and some theoretical correspondences proposed by Plutchik between defences and coping strategies in a population of students similar to the one used by Callahan and Chabrol. It also aims at studying the relationships between coping strategies and conscious derives of defense mechanisms, such as defined by Bond (1995). Defenses were evaluated the first day of the examination week. the population includes 184 women students in human sciences (sociology and psychology). defenses were evaluated with the Defense Style Questionnaire by Bond (DSQ 40). Its French version is made

  9. Estilos de aprendizaje y metacognición en estudiantes de psicología de Arequipa (Learning and Metacognition Styles in Psychology Students from Arequipa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lizandro Arias Gallegos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En este estudio se presenta la correlación de los estilos de aprendizaje según el modelo de Kolb (divergente, asimilador, convergente y acomodador con la metacognición y sus tres dimensiones (autoconocimiento, autorregulación y evaluación. Para ello, se utilizó el Inventario de Estilos de Aprendizaje de Kolb (α = 0.8 y el Inventario de Estrategias Metacognitivas de O’Neil y Abedi (α = 0.90. La muestra estuvo conformada por 273 estudiantes de psicología de tres universidades de Arequipa, seleccionados mediante la técnica de grupos intactos. Los resultados indican que el estilo divergente es el predominante en las tres universidades y que existen altos porcentajes de estudiantes con niveles bajos de metacognición, autoconocimiento, autorregulación y evaluación. Para el caso de la Universidad Nacional de San Agustín (UNSA y la Universidad Católica de Santa María (UCSM, se hallaron relaciones entre el estilo de aprendizaje convergente y la metacognición. Hubo relaciones inversas entre este estilo y el estilo divergente. El análisis de varianza indica que los estilos de aprendizaje no tienen efecto sobre la metacognición ni sus dimensiones. Abstract In this study, learning styles were correlated according to Kolb’s model (divergent, assimilator, convergent and usher with metacognition and its three dimensions (self-knowledge, self-regulation and evaluation. For this purpose, Kolb’s Styles of Learning Inventory was used (α = 0.87 and O’Neil and Abedi’s Metacognitive Strategies Inventory (α = 0.90. The sample was made-up of 273 psychology students from three universities in Arequipa that were selected through the intact group technique. The results indicated that the divergent style is prevalent in the three universities, and there are high percentages of students with low levels of metacognition, self-knowledge, self-regulation and evaluation. In the case of the Universidad Nacional de San Agustin (UNSA and the

  10. Inflexible Parents, Inflexible Kids: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study of Parenting Style and the Development of Psychological Flexibility in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn E.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Heaven, Patrick C. L.

    2012-01-01

    Parenting behaviors have been linked to children's self regulation, but it is less clear how they relate to adolescent psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility is a broad construct that describes an individual's ability to respond appropriately to environmental demands and internal experiences in the service of their goals. We examined…

  11. Coping styles and locus of control as predictors for psychological adjustment of adolescents with a chronic illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, SA; Sinnema, G; Bijstra, JO; Mellenbergh, GJ; Wolters, WHG

    This study examines the way coping styles and locus of control contribute to the prediction of psychosocial adjustment in adolescents with a chronic illness. Psychosocial adjustment of 84 adolescents aged 13-16 years with a chronic illness was assessed with measures of social adjustment. global

  12. Do Coping Styles Moderate or Mediate the Relationship between Internalized Heterosexism and Sexual Minority Women's Psychological Distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test tenets of both minority stress and lesbian feminist/sexual identity development theories by examining the potential moderating and mediating roles of individual coping styles (i.e., problem-solving and avoidant coping) in the relationship between internalized heterosexism and lesbian and bisexual (sexual…

  13. Connection of boxers’ combat styles with psycho-physiological characteristics

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    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: By dominating physical characteristics boxers’ combat styles are divided into “strongmen”, “paced in hold” and “players”. However, connection of combat style with psycho-physiological characteristics of elite boxers has been remained not determined. Material: in the research 28 elite sportsmen (master of sports and international masters of sports participated. Psycho-physiological characteristics were studied with the help of hardware and software psycho-diagnostic complex “Multi-psycho-meter 05”. Results: it was found that attacking combat style is accompanied by presence of high workability, reduced tiredness and anxiety, presence of psychological comfort. It was also found that defensive combat style is characterized by better quickness and processing of information. It happens at the account of worsening of qualitative characteristics: efficiency and effectiveness. We also detected presence of more rigid organization of psycho-physiological status of boxers, having attacking combat style (strongmen in comparison with boxers of defensive style (players and paced in hold.

  14. Design and Validation of a Rubric to Assess the Use of American Psychological Association Style in Scientific Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merma Molina, Gladys; Peña Alfaro, Hilda; Peña Alfaro González, Silvia Rosa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the "American Psychological Association" (APA). The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific…

  15. Can the Factor Structure of Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 Contribute to Our Understanding of Parental Acceptance/Rejection, Bullying, Victimization and Perceived Well-Being in Greek Early Adolescents?

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    Theodoros Giovazolias

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ is a self-report instrument designed to measure defense mechanisms. Although commonly used, the DSQ-40 has not been validated in early adolescent populations. The present study sought to determine the factor validity of the DSQ-40 in a sample of Greek primary school students (N = 265. Further, it aimed to investigate the relationship between defense mechanisms and perceived parental acceptance/rejection, the participation in bullying (either as bully or victim as well as self-reported well being. Participants completed the Greek version of DSQ-40, adapted for use by this particular age group as well as measures in order to examine its convergent and discriminant validity. The findings support a four-factor solution as the most adequate for our data. Further, it was found that defense mechanisms are related to perceived parental acceptance and rejection. Finally, the results showed that the DSQ-40 can effectively discriminate participants with high/low bullying/victimization and perceived well-being. Our results indicate that the DSQ-40 is appropriate for use in late childhood. Implications for clinical practice and future studies that would confirm the appropriateness of the scale’s use in younger populations are also discussed.

  16. Attachment style, relationship quality, and psychological distress in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures versus epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Becky; Norman, Paul; Reuber, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Psychopathology levels are elevated in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and those with epilepsy. However, patients with PNES report higher rates of trauma and neglect, poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and an increased prevalence of insecure attachment. We examined to what extent attachment style and relationship quality with their main informal carer impact on levels of HRQoL, depression, and anxiety in patients with PNES versus those with epilepsy. Consecutive patients with PNES (N=23) and epilepsy (N=72) completed questionnaires about attachment style, quality of their relationship with their main informal carer, seizure severity, HRQoL, depression, and anxiety. Patients with PNES reported higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower HRQoL than those with epilepsy. PNES: No significant correlations were found with HRQoL but depression correlated positively with attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and relationship conflict. Anxiety correlated positively with attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and relationship conflict, and negatively with relationship depth and support. Epilepsy: HRQoL correlated negatively with seizure severity, depression, anxiety, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety. Depression correlated positively with attachment avoidance, attachment anxiety, and relationship conflict. Anxiety correlated positively with seizure severity, attachment avoidance, and attachment anxiety. Correlations between measures of relationship quality and anxiety were stronger in patients with PNES versus those with epilepsy (zs=2.66 to 2.97, psrelationship quality explained larger amounts of variance in depression (45%) and anxiety (60%) in the patients with PNES than those with epilepsy (16% and 13%). Levels of anxiety and depression were higher in patients with PNES than those with epilepsy. Interpersonal problems were much more closely associated with anxiety and depression in patients with PNES than those

  17. FY96 Support to the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), Center for Standards (CFS) for continuing improvement of the DoD HCI Style Guide. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, L.W.; Donohoo, D.T.; Sanchez, J.A.; Gellert, D.A.

    1996-09-30

    PNNL successfully completed the three tasks: Task 1 - This task provided DISA with an updated set of design checklists that can be used to measure compliance with the Style Guide. These checklists are in Microsoft{reg_sign}Word 6.0 format. Task 2 - This task provided a discussion of two basic models for using the Style Guide and the Design Checklist, as a compliance tool and as a design tool.

  18. Sexual Stigma, Coping Styles, and Psychological Distress: A Longitudinal Study of Men Who Have Sex With Men in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Steward, Wayne T; Miège, Pierre; Hudes, Esther; Gregorich, Steven E

    2016-08-01

    The direct link between stigma against sexual minorities and psychological distress is well established. However, few studies have examined the potential mediating roles of avoidant and social support coping in the relationships between internalized and anticipated stigma associated with homosexuality and depressive symptoms and anxiety among Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM). We recruited a longitudinal sample of 493 MSM in Beijing, China from 2011 to 2012. Participants completed computer-based questionnaires at baseline, 6, and 12 months. We found significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on symptoms of both depression and anxiety via avoidant coping: anticipated MSM stigma at baseline was significantly associated with avoidant coping (B = 0.523, p stigma, avoidant coping had a significant positive effect on depressive symptoms and anxiety at 12 months (B = 0.069, p = 0.001 and B = 0.071, p = 0.014). In contrast, no significant indirect effects of anticipated MSM stigma on either psychological distress outcome via social support coping were found. No significant indirect effects of internalized MSM stigma via either avoidant or social support coping were found. These results underscore the need for interventions that address anticipations of stigma and the use of avoidant coping techniques to manage such anticipations.

  19. Design and Validation of a Rubric to Assess the Use of American Psychological Association Style in scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Merma Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the American Psychological Association (APA. The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific article is coherent with these rules. Overall, the rubric will concentrate on General Aspects of the article and on the Citation System. To do this, 10 articles that were published within 2012-2016 and included in the Journal Citation Report will be analyzed using technical expertise. After doing 5 pilot studies, the results showed the validity and the reliability of the instrument. Furthermore, the process showed the evidence of the possibilities of the rubric to contribute to uniform criteria that can be used as a didactic tool in different scenarios.

  20. Leadership Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Jo Ann; Smith, Stuart C.

    Chapter 2 of a revised volume on school leadership, this chapter reviews theories of leadership style--the way a leader leads. Although most experts agree that leadership style is important, they disagree concerning style components, leaders' capabilities for changing styles, the effects of personality traits on style, and the desirability of…

  1. Changes in Psychological Adjustment of Female Students During the First Year of Study: Analysis of Defense Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo Spelic

    2014-01-01

    The beginning of a study represents for freshmen a difficult period of adjustment. Observations obtained in student counseling centers as well as in investigations of students' adjustment indicate that the beginning of a study represents for students a specific crisis period determined by dealing with the experiences of ‘psychological separation’. Therefore, the aim of the investigation was to prove the existence of a crisis period at the beginning of a study by investigating ...

  2. Style and creativity in design

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Chiu-Shui

    2015-01-01

    This book looks at causative reasons behind creative acts and stylistic expressions. It explores how creativity is initiated by design cognition and explains relationships between style and creativity. The book establishes a new cognitive theory of style and creativity in design and provides designers with insights into their own cognitive processes and styles of thinking, supporting a better understanding of the qualities present in their own design.  An explanation of the nature of design cognition begins this work, with a look at how design knowledge is formulated, developed, structured and utilized, and how this utilization triggers style and creativity. The author goes on to review historical studies of style, considering a series of psychological experiments relating to the operational definition, degree, measurement, and creation of style. The work conceptually summarizes the recognition of individual style in products, as well as the creation of such styles as a process before reviewing studies on cr...

  3. The Role of Defense Mechanisms, Personality and Demographical Factors on Complicated Grief following Death of a loved one by Cancer

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    Isaac Rahimian-Boogar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Identification of the risk factors and psychological correlates of prolonged grief disorder is vital for health promotions in relatives of persons who died of cancer. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of defense mechanisms, character dimension of personality and demographic factors on complicated grief following a loss of a family member to cancer .Method: A number of 226 persons who had lost a family member to cancer in a cancer institute at Tehran University of Medical Science were selected through compliance sampling and completed the Inventory of complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R, the Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ, the Character dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI, and the Demographical questionnaire. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis, using the PASW version 18 .Results: Findings revealed that neurotic defense style had a significant positive predictive role in the complicated grief; and cooperativeness, age of the deceased person, self-transcendence and mature defense style had a significant negative predictive role in complicated grief (p<0.001. R2 was 0.73 for the final model (p<.001.Conclusion: The results revealed that two character dimensions (low cooperativeness and self-transcendence, high neurotic defense style and young age of the deceased person were involved in the psychopathological course of the complicated and prolonged grief. It was concluded that personality characteristics of the grieving persons and demographics of the deceased person should be addressed in designing tailored interventions for complicated grief.

  4. Motivation to Learn Science and Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyer, Albert

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between cognitive style and motivation to learn science. The concept of cognitive style proposes the interplay of two core psychological dimensions, empathizing and systemizing. The cognitive style is defined as the interplay between the two abilities. We used the so-called EQ score (empathy quotient) and the…

  5. A comparison of stress levels, coping styles and psychological morbidity between graduate-entry and traditional undergraduate medical students during the first 2 years at a UK medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvauya, R; Oyebode, F; Day, E J; Thomas, C P; Jones, L A

    2017-02-13

    Stress levels and psychological morbidity are high among undergraduate medical students (UGs), but there is a lack of research into the psychological health of UK graduate-entry medical students (GEs). GEs are likely to experience different (perhaps more severe) stressors and to cope with stress differently. We compared stress levels, psychological morbidity and coping styles in GE versus UG medical students studying at the same UK medical school in the same academic year. A cross-sectional self-rated questionnaire study of all first- and second-year GE and UG medical students was conducted. Perceived stress, psychological morbidity, recent adverse life events, stress-related personality traits and coping styles were assessed using standard questionnaires. 75% GEs and 46% UGs responded to the questionnaire. Both groups reported equally high levels, and similar profiles of, perceived stress and psychological morbidity. Levels of recent adverse life events and stress-related personality traits were similar in both groups. Compared to UGs, GEs were more likely to use active coping (p = 0.02) and positive reframing (p = 0.03), but were also more likely to use substances (alcohol and other drugs; p cope. Unlike UGs, second-year GEs showed less perceived stress (p = 0.007) and psychological morbidity (p = 0.006) than first-year GEs although levels of both were still high. Our results show that both GE students and their younger UG counterparts on a traditional medical course have similar profiles of stress symptoms. They do, however, cope with stress differently. GEs are more likely to use active problem-focused coping strategies, and they are also more likely to cope by using substances (alcohol or other drugs). GE students need interventions to prevent maladaptive coping styles and encourage adaptive coping that are tailored to their needs. Such interventions should be targeted at first-year students. It is vital that these students develop positive coping

  6. Memories of paternal relations are associated with coping and defense mechanisms in breast cancer patients: an observational study

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    Chiara Renzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. Methods One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood. Results High levels of paternal overprotection were associated with less mature defenses, withdrawal and fantasy and less adaptive coping mechanisms, such as hopelessness/helplessness. Low levels of paternal care were associated with a greater use of repression. No association was found between maternal care, overprotection, coping and defense mechanisms. Immature defenses correlated positively with less adaptive coping styles, while mature defenses were positively associated to a fighting spirit and to fatalism, and inversely related to less adaptive coping styles. Conclusions These data suggest that paternal relations in childhood are associated with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation in adjusting to cancer immediately after surgery. Early experiences of bonding may constitute a relevant index for adaptation to cancer, indicating which patients are at risk and should be considered for psychological interventions.

  7. Memories of paternal relations are associated with coping and defense mechanisms in breast cancer patients: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, Chiara; Perinel, Giada; Arnaboldi, Paola; Gandini, Sara; Vadilonga, Valeria; Rotmensz, Nicole; Tagini, Angela; Didier, Florence; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2017-11-09

    Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood. High levels of paternal overprotection were associated with less mature defenses, withdrawal and fantasy and less adaptive coping mechanisms, such as hopelessness/helplessness. Low levels of paternal care were associated with a greater use of repression. No association was found between maternal care, overprotection, coping and defense mechanisms. Immature defenses correlated positively with less adaptive coping styles, while mature defenses were positively associated to a fighting spirit and to fatalism, and inversely related to less adaptive coping styles. These data suggest that paternal relations in childhood are associated with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation in adjusting to cancer immediately after surgery. Early experiences of bonding may constitute a relevant index for adaptation to cancer, indicating which patients are at risk and should be considered for psychological interventions.

  8. Demystifying APA style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddy, Claudia M

    2002-01-01

    Many nursing schools and health care journals have adopted the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA stylebook) as their guide to achieve uniformity and consistency in manuscript preparation as well as in usage and writing style. Published in 2001, the fifth edition of the APA stylebook contains 440 pages and can overwhelm someone who tries to use it for the first time. This article delineates main points in the areas of manuscript preparation, reference lists, in-text citations, and style choices.

  9. Defensive coping and health-related quality of life in chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonomou Margarita

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping with the stresses of chronic disease is considered as a key factor in the perceived impairment of health related quality of life (HRQL. Little is known though about these associations in chronic kidney disease (CKD. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship of defensive coping and HRQL among patients in different CKD stages, after adjusting for psychological distress, sociodemographic and disease-related variables. Methods The sample consisted of 98 CKD patients, attending a university nephrology department. Seventy-nine (79 pre-dialysis patients of disease stages 3 to 4 and 19 dialysis patients were included. HRQL was assessed by the 36-item Short-Form health survey (SF-36, defensive coping by the Rationality/Emotional Defensiveness (R/ED scale of the Lifestyle Defense Mechanism Inventory (LDMI and psychological distress by the depression and anxiety scales of the revised Hopkins Symptom CheckList (SCL-90-R. Regression analyses were carried out to examine the association between SF-36 dimensions and defensive coping style. Results Patients on dialysis had worse scores on SF-36 scales measuring physical aspects of HRQL. In the fully adjusted analysis, a higher defensive coping score was significantly associated with a lower score on the mental component summary (MCS scale of the SF-36 (worse mental health. In contrast, a higher defensive score showed a small positive association with the physical component summary (PCS scale of the SF-36 (better health, but this was marginally significant. Conclusions The results provided evidence that emotional defensiveness as a coping style tends to differentially affect the mental and the physical component of HRQL in CKD. Clinicians should be aware of the effects of long-term denial and could examine the possibility of screening for defensive coping and depression in recently diagnosed CKD patients with the aim to improve both physical and mental health.

  10. Mediating the relation between workplace stressors and distress in ID support staff: comparison between the roles of psychological inflexibility and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, A Solomon; Bethay, J Scott; Ladner-Graham, Jennifer M

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined how different patterns of coping influence psychological distress for staff members in programs serving individuals with intellectual disabilities. With a series of path models, we examined the relative usefulness of constructs (i.e., wishful thinking and psychological inflexibility) from two distinct models of coping (i.e., the transactional model and the psychological flexibility models, respectively) as mediators to explain how workplace stressors lead to psychological distress in staff serving individuals with intellectual disabilities. Analyses involved self-report questionnaires from 128 staff members (84% female; 71% African American) from a large, state-funded residential program for individuals with intellectual and physical disabilities in the southern United States of America. Cross-sectional path models using bootstrapped standard errors and confidence intervals revealed both wishful thinking and psychological inflexibility mediated the relation between workplace stressors and psychological distress when they were included in separate models. However, when both variables were included in a multiple mediator model, only psychological inflexibility remained a significant mediator. The results suggest psychological inflexibility and the psychological flexibility model may be particularly useful for further investigation on the causes and amelioration of workplace-related stress in ID settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of an Intervention to Improve Newly Qualified Teachers' Interpersonal Style, Students Motivation and Psychological Need Satisfaction in Sport-Based Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Damien; Sarrazin, Philippe; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in self-determination theory research in the educational setting (e.g., Reeve, Deci, & Ryan, 2004), suggest that teachers' interpersonal style should be considered as consisting of three dimensions: autonomy support, structure and interpersonal involvement. Based on this theoretical proposition, the purpose of the present study…

  12. Effects of parenting style upon psychological well-being of young adults: Exploring the relations among parental care, locus of control, and depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taris, T.W.; Bok, I. A.

    1997-01-01

    The current study explores the relations among parenting styles and depression among a representative longitudinal sample of 642 young Dutch adults. We assumed that if parents show their involvement during the first sixteen years of the lives of their children, these children are more likely to

  13. Adult attachment styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Žvelc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory of attachment primarily described early relationships between a child and his caretakers. In the last twenty years there is a growing interest in adult attachment research. Theories and research findings of adult attachment stem from two different methodological approaches. The first approach measures adult attachment through Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, 1991 where the attachment is assessed through the narratives of adult people of their early child experiences with their primary caretakers. The second approach measures adult attachment with the help of self-evaluative questionnaires, developed by (a Hazan and Shaver (1987 who started this approach in the field of personality and social psychology, and (b Bartholomew and Horowitz (1991. Research shows that there is significant correlation between early and adult attachment style. Attachment styles are passed from generation to generation. Basic adult attachment styles are: securely attached, preoccupied, fearful-avoidant, dismissing-avoidant and disorganized. Previous research using Barholomew and Horowitz (1991 Relationship Questionnaire on 176 Slovenian students showed that 48% students are securely attached, 29% are fearful-avoidant, 10% are dismissing-avoidant, and 13% have preoccupied attachment style. Theory of attachment is very useful for understanding the behavior and subjective experiences of children and adults. It is applicable to different contexts (psychotherapy, counseling, education .... The paper proposes further research focused on integration of adult attachment styles and types of object relations measured by Test of object relations (Žvelc, 1998 and Pictorial test of Separation and Individuation (Žvelc, 2003.

  14. The Matter of Style: Manifestations of Personality in Cognition, Learning, and Teaching. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, Samuel

    The historical roots of cognitive styles are traced in differential psychology, psychoanalytic ego psychology, gestalt and cognitive-developmental psychology to illuminate the varied theoretical issues that energize (and fragment) style research. Optimal measurement of cognitive styles as information-processing regularities and as intra-individual…

  15. Intercultural conflict styles: literature review

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    Batkhina A.A.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analytical review of foreign psychological research on the international conflict styles is presented in this article. Intercultural conflict is understood as an interpersonal conflict between representatives of different cultures. The main models describing the intercultural conflict styles are analyzed: the dual concern model, the intercultural conflict styles inventory model, the face negotiation model. The publication provides a brief review of modern studies’ results of behavior predictors in the intercultural conflict; special attention is paid to the analysis of the influence of culture and intercultural communication apprehension on the choice of conflict styles. The importance of assessing the conflict styles effectiveness used in the situation of intercultural interaction is noted. In conclusion, unresolved problems and actual trends in the study of behavior in the intercultural conflict are designated.

  16. Leadership Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Carlin; Kemp, Jess

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how a group's dynamic changes under the influence of different leadership styles, and determines what leadership style works best in a large group expedition. The main question identified was "What roles can a leader play in affecting the dynamic of a large group while partaking in a field expedition?" The following…

  17. Origins of homophobia in males. Psychosexual vulnerabilities and defense development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, J; Kleis, B

    1998-01-01

    To better understand the origins of homophobia among males. Literature review and clinical illustration. Data suggest that there is a range of homophobic attitudes. We illustrate how homophobic attitudes can be associated with a hierarchy of defensive styles. We propose that these defensive styles are used to manage a range of psychosexual developmental anxieties in boys and men.

  18. Psychological Aspects of Responding to Feedback in the Coaching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Fornalczyk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses ways in which individuals respond to feedback received in the coaching process. In the first part, the author discusses different response styles to feedback and their consequences. She focuses especially on the defensive, dominating, manipulative, and improvement-oriented behaviors of the coached. In the second part, she addresses psychological determinants of effective feedback reception by the coaching participants, including their dispositional determinants. The author concludes emphasizing that for the coached to correct their behavior, the provision of feedback by coaches must be founded on the knowledge of the mechanisms and the dispositional determinants of human functioning.

  19. The Role of Defense Mechanisms, Personality and Demographical Factors on Complicated Grief following Death of a loved one by Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian Boogar, Isaac; Talepasand, Siavash

    2015-04-01

    Identification of the risk factors and psychological correlates of prolonged grief disorder is vital for health promotions in relatives of persons who died of cancer. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of defense mechanisms, character dimension of personality and demographic factors on complicated grief following a loss of a family member to cancer. A number of 226 persons who had lost a family member to cancer in a cancer institute at Tehran University of Medical Science were selected through compliance sampling and completed the Inventory of complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R), the Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ), the Character dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Demographical questionnaire. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis, using the PASW version 18. Findings revealed that neurotic defense style had a significant positive predictive role in the complicated grief; and cooperativeness, age of the deceased person, self-transcendence and mature defense style had a significant negative predictive role in complicated grief (pgrief. It was concluded that personality characteristics of the grieving persons and demographics of the deceased person should be addressed in designing tailored interventions for complicated grief.

  20. Examining the Influence of Perceptions of a Supervisor's Leadership Style on Levels of Psychological Ownership among Entry Level Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouse, Reggie L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between the perceived leadership behaviors of upper-level student affairs officers and levels of psychological ownership among entry-level employees working in student services roles in higher education in the United States. Specifically, this study identified whether there are leadership…

  1. Motivation to learn science and cognitive style

    OpenAIRE

    Zeyer, A

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between cognitive style and motivation to learn science. The concept of cognitive style proposes the interplay of two core psychological dimensions, empathizing and systemizing. The cognitive style is defined as the interplay between the two abilities. We used the so-called EQ score (empathy quotient) and the SQ score (systemizing quotient) to measure the empathizing and the systemizing dimension respectively. The motivation to learn science was measu...

  2. Adaptive style and physiological reactivity during a laboratory stress paradigm in children with cancer and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Natalie A; Allen, Michael T; Phipps, Sean

    2011-10-01

    Repressive adaptation has been conceptualized as one pathway to psychological resilience in children with cancer, but the physiological costs of maintaining a repressive adaptive style are currently unknown. The goal of this study was to examine physiological functioning as a function of adaptive style in children with cancer (N = 120) and healthy controls (N = 120). Children completed self-report measures of state anxiety and defensiveness prior to participating in three verbal stress tasks while monitoring blood pressure, electrocardiogram, and electrodermal response, and rated their anxiety following each task. Findings indicated no consistent differences in baseline indices and physiological reactivity as a function of adaptive style or health status (cancer vs. control). In addition, children identified as having a repressive adaptive style did not exhibit greater verbal-autonomic discrepancy than low-anxious children. In contrast to findings with adults, children with a repressive adaptive style do not appear to experience adverse effects of this coping style in terms of physiological reactivity.

  3. Analytic information processing style in epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonfiglio, Marzia; Di Sabato, Francesco; Mandillo, Silvia; Albini, Mariarita; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Giallonardo, Annateresa; Avanzini, Giuliano

    2017-08-01

    Relevant to the study of epileptogenesis is learning processing, given the pivotal role that neuroplasticity assumes in both mechanisms. Recently, evoked potential analyses showed a link between analytic cognitive style and altered neural excitability in both migraine and healthy subjects, regardless of cognitive impairment or psychological disorders. In this study we evaluated analytic/global and visual/auditory perceptual dimensions of cognitive style in patients with epilepsy. Twenty-five cryptogenic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients matched with 25 idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) sufferers and 25 healthy volunteers were recruited and participated in three cognitive style tests: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C. Cornoldi test series called AMOS, and the Mariani Learning style Questionnaire. Our results demonstrate a significant association between analytic cognitive style and both IGE and TLE and respectively a predominant auditory and visual analytic style (ANOVA: p values style and its neurophysiological correlates in epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Revisiting the concept of 'style match'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-fang; Sternberg, Robert J; Fan, Jieqiong

    2013-06-01

    Intellectual style, an encompassing term for such constructs as learning style, teaching style, teaching approach, and thinking style, refers to one's preferred way of processing information. For the past several decades, whether or not there is a need for a match between teachers' teaching styles and students' learning styles has been the focal point for debate among researchers, educators, and the general public. The preliminary objective of this research was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Preferred Teaching Approach Inventory (PTAI). The research's primary objective was to re-examine the concept of 'style match' through testing the predictive power of students' thinking styles for their preferred teaching approaches. Data were collected from two samples of university students, one each from Shanghai, mainland China (N = 236), and Hong Kong (N = 123). Participants provided the required demographic information and responded to two self-report inventories: the Thinking Styles Inventory - Revised II and the PTAI. Acceptable reliability and good validity were found for the PTAI. All of the eight multiple regressions indicated that students' thinking styles significantly contributed to their preferences for teachers' teaching approaches. These contributions varied by gender among the Shanghai students and by academic discipline among the Hong Kong students. Students, especially Shanghai female students and Hong Kong natural science students, are open to teaching approaches that do not precisely match their thinking styles. The concept of 'style match' requires new understanding. Findings have implications for research and education. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Transforming Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Christopher J; Bunn, M. E; Lutes, Charles; Cavoli, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    .... Despite the resources and attention consumed by the war on terror, and recent decisions by the White House to curtail the growth of defense spending, the senior leadership of the Department of Defense (DoD...

  6. Teaching APA Style Documentation: Discovery Learning, Scaffolding and Procedural Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, Thomas; Zafonte, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Students struggle with learning correct documentation style as found in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association and teachers are often at a loss for how to best instruct students in correct usage of APA style. As such, the first part of this paper discusses the current research on teaching documentation styles as well as…

  7. The Relationship between Communicator Style, Argumentativeness, and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaguro, Ellen W.; Pearson, Judy C.

    A study determined the relationship between communicator style and argumentativeness and clarified the relationship between psychological gender and communicator style. Three hundred and fourteen college students enrolled in introductory health and communication courses responded to the Communicator Style Measure, the Argumentativeness Scale, and…

  8. Parenting Styles and Youth Well-Being across Immigrant Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Anne K.; Russell, Stephen T.; Crockett, Lisa J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines generational patterns of parenting styles, the relationships between parenting styles and adolescent well-being among youth of Mexican origin, and the role of generational parenting style patterns in explaining generational patterns in youth behavior (delinquency and alcohol problems) and psychological well-being (depression…

  9. [Clinical, neurophysiological and psychological characteristics of neurosis in patients with panic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuter, N V

    2008-01-01

    Forty-eight patients with panic disorders (PD), aged 31,5 years, 17 men, 31 women, were studied. The results were analyzed in comparison to a control group which comprised 16 healthy people, 6 men, 10 women, mean age 29,5 years. A traditional clinical approach, including somatic, neurologic and psychiatric examination, was used in the study. Also, a neurophysiological study using compression and spectral analyses, EEG, cognitive evoked potentials, skin evoked potentials, was conducted. A psychological examination included assessment of personality traits (Cattell's test), MMPI personality profile, mechanisms of psychological defense, the "Life style index" and Sondy test. A decrease of - and -rhythms was found that implied the reduction of activation processes. The psychological data mirror as common signs characteristic of all PD, as well as psychological features characteristic of neurotic disorders. The results obtained confirm the heterogeneity of PD in nosological aspect that demands using differential approach to the problems of their diagnostics and treatment.

  10. Attachment styles, personality, and Dutch emigrants ' intercultural adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W; Van Oudenhoven, JP; Van Der Zee, KI

    2004-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship of adult attachment styles with personality and psychological and sociocultural adjustment. A sample of 847 first-generation Dutch emigrants filled out measures for attachment styles, the Big Five, and indicators of psychological and sociocultural

  11. Future Issues for Cross-Cultural Psychology: Research on Parenting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    The present article reviews historical characteristics of cross-cultural psychology and cultural psychology, and then reviews cross-cultural psychology parenting research on gender-roles in parenting and parenting style...

  12. Feminist Identity Styles, Sexual and Non-Sexual Traumatic Events, and Psychological Well-Being in a Sample of Polish Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharska, Justyna

    2015-08-19

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relations between the development of a feminist identity and effects of traumatic stress in a sample of Polish women. The distinction between non-sexual and sexual traumatic events was made. It was hypothesized that individuals scoring high on the Synthesis and Active Commitment scales of the Feminist Identity Development Model would present a higher self-esteem and lower level of depression as compared with individuals having low scores on those scales and high scores on the Passive Acceptance scale. It was also assumed that the relation between the feminist identity styles and self-esteem and depression would be stronger in women who had experienced sexual traumatic events as compared with those who had experienced other kinds of trauma. A total of 273 women participated in the questionnaire research. Regression analyses were performed to test the interaction model, and the obtained results support all of the hypotheses. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. The physician's quality of life: Relationship with ego defense mechanisms and object relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Benedito; Louzã, Mário Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    To assess whether ego defense mechanisms and object relations (the way an individual subjectively experiences his/her relationships with others) are related to quality of life among physicians. In this cross-sectional mail survey, 602 physicians from Botucatu, SP, Brazil, were sent a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory-Form O (BORRTI-O), the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40), and the World Health Organization Abbreviated Instrument for Quality of Life Assessment (WHOQOL-BREF). 198 questionnaires (33%) with valid responses were obtained. High BORRTI-O scores (indicative of pathology) on the alienation, egocentricity and insecure attachment subscales were associated with reduced WHOQOL-BREF scores for the psychological health and social relationship domains. Immature ego defense mechanisms were associated with lower WHOQOL-BREF scores for all domains. No significant associations of WHOQOL-BREF scores with working hours, workplace or monthly income were observed in the study population WHOQOL-BREF scores correlated with mature defense mechanisms and normal object relations, suggesting an association between psychological maturity and quality of life among physicians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Style Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Postmodernismen er kommet på museum i Victoria and Alberts stort anlagte udstilling Postmodernism. Style and Subversion 1970-1990. Reportage fra en udstilling, der spænder fra filosofi til firserpop og tager den nære fortid på museum....

  15. Do changes in coping style explain the effectiveness of interventions for psychological morbidity in family carers of people with dementia? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryan; Cooper, Claudia; Austin, Allana; Livingston, Gill

    2013-02-01

    Observational studies find that family carers of people with dementia who use more emotional support and acceptance-based coping, and less dysfunctional coping, are less depressed and anxious. We hypothesized that interventions effective in reducing psychological symptoms would increase emotional support and acceptance-based coping, or decrease dysfunctional coping. We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials published up to July 2011, of interventions for carers of people with dementia measuring coping and psychological morbidity. We rated study validity and reported findings. We conducted fixed-effect meta-analyses for interventions where possible. Eight of 433 papers identified by the search met inclusion criteria. All measured coping immediately after intervention. Two interventions significantly decreased depressive or anxiety symptoms: the smaller study found no change in dysfunctional coping. Neither measured emotional support and acceptance-based coping. Meta-analysis found that both group coping skills interventions alone (SMD = -0.39, 95% CI = -0.75 to -0.03, p = 0.04) and with behavioral activation (SMD = -0.26, 95% CI = -0.48 to -0.04, p = 0.02) significantly increased dysfunctional coping, while significantly reducing depressive symptoms. Positive coping (a mix of emotional and solution-focused strategies) increased (SMD = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.05-0.51, p = 0.02) with group coping skills interventions and behavioral activation. Contrary to our hypothesis, dysfunctional coping increased when carer depressive symptoms improved. There was preliminary evidence that emotional support and acceptance-based coping increased, as positive coping increased although solution-focused coping alone did not. More research is needed to elucidate whether successful interventions work through changing coping strategies immediately and in the longer term.

  16. Proceedings of the Symposium: Psychology in the Department of Defense (9th) Held at Colorado Springs, Colorado on 18-20 April 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    vertical and translational instrument flight: Phase I interim scientific report. Las Cruces, NM: New Mexico State University, Department of Psychology...networks, personal computers, videogame technology, secure encryption, and electronic billing are all available today. The high powered multi-channel

  17. Adult Attachment Style, Hardiness, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Maddi, S. R. (2004). Hardiness: An operationalization of existential cour- age. Journal of Humanistic Psychology , 44, 279–298. doi: 10.1177...but not challenge, predict positive mood. These results suggest that more secure attachment style and psychological hardiness serve as resilience...S. (1978). Pat- terns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hill- sdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Ainsworth, M. D. S., & Wittig, B. A

  18. Parenting styles and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Lobera, I; Bolaños Ríos, P; Garrido Casals, O

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the parental bonding profiles in patients with eating disorders (ED), as well as the relationship among the different styles of parenting and some psychological and psychopathological variables. In addition, the association between the perceived parental bonding and different coping strategies was analysed. Perception of parenting styles was analysed in a sample of 70 ED patients. The Parental Bonding Instrument, Self-Esteem Scale of Rosenberg, Coping Strategies Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Eating Disorders Inventory-2 were used. Kruskal-Wallis test (comparisons), Spearman correlation coefficients (association among different variables) and χ(2)-test (parental bonding profiles differences) were applied. The stereotyped style among ED patients is low care-high control during the first 16 years, and the same can be said about current styles of the mothers. Between 8.6% and 12.9% of the patients perceive their parents' styles as neglectful. The neglectful parenting is the style mainly involved in the specific ED symptoms as drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction and bulimia. In order to achieve a better balanced parents' role during the treatment, it would be necessary to improve the role of the mothers as caregivers, decreasing their role mainly based on the overprotection. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  19. Proceedings of the Symposium on Psychology in the Department of Defense (8th) Held in Colorado Springs, Colorado on 21-23 April 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    or support. These " norma !" reactions are separated -from "abnormal" reactions by a continum based on the severity, number and duration of these...Force Psychologist. Profes- sional Psychology, Summer 1970, 1(4), 383-387. Rosenbach, W. E., and Gregory, R. A., Job Attitudes of APA Military...distinct profiles when compared to their civilian norma - tive groups. Comparison of male and female attritee’s profiles with the whole class indicated

  20. Decision-making style, nicotine and caffeine use and dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2015-11-01

    As therapeutic interventions are being developed utilising telehealth and mobile phones, it is important to understand how substance-dependent individuals will respond to offers of online assistance. The present paper considered the following: (1) how decision-making style is associated with use and dependence upon commonly used stimulants and (2) how it influences behavioural responses to electronic offers of further information about these drugs. An online survey examined patterns of nicotine and caffeine use, administered Severity of Dependence Scales for caffeine and nicotine and assessed decision-making style using the Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire and mood using the Kessler Distress Scale. Upon completing these scales, the 181 participants with a mean age of 28.14 years were offered further information online. Stimulant dependence was associated with psychological distress. Caffeine dependence was linked to hypervigilance (panic). Decisional self-esteem varied with stimulant dependence and Kessler Distress Scale score. Participants with high decisional self-esteem declined electronic offers of further information. Confidence rather than defensive avoidance was a factor in reducing information-seeking behaviours on the Internet. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Battered woman syndrome defense in Canadian courts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regehr, C; Glancy, G

    1995-04-01

    As a result of a 1990 Supreme Court of Canada decision, battered woman syndrome defense is now accepted as a legitimate extension of self-defense in Canadian courts. This defense hinges on the expert testimony that a battered woman who is accused of murder or aggravated assault suffers from the psychological sequelae of abuse and that this psychological distress contributes to her apprehension of danger and ultimately her apprehension of death during a particular battering episode. The authors present a brief overview of the history of battered woman syndrome defense, the role of the expert in assessing the applicability of this defense in any particular situation, and the pitfalls of using battered woman syndrome defense.

  2. Defense Science Board Summer Study on Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    detect and recover from an obvious disruption- style attack that is attempting to disable critical platform subsystems. Subsequent competitions might...use, although cyberspace is one notorious counter example. Many DoD applications will need autonomy capabilities that are robust enough to cope with...effort into shaping their ever- evolving instantiation, but will ultimately be better customized to their mission, style , and behaviors. Defense Science

  3. Leadership: Four Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Four Styles narrative of Leadership is written in three sections: (1) Overview of Leadership Styles; (2) Analysis of Leadership Styles; and (3) Applications of Leadership Styles. While the primary foundation for its development was generated from more than 30 years of research and studying leadership styles in education, the secondary…

  4. Affective Style, Humor Styles and Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Ford

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relationships between dispositional approach and avoidance motives, humor styles, and happiness. In keeping with previous research, approach motives and the two positive humor styles (self-enhancing and affiliative positively correlated with happiness, whereas avoidance motives and the two negative humor styles (self-defeating and aggressive negatively correlated with happiness. Also, we found support for three new hypotheses. First, approach motives correlated positively with self-enhancing and affiliative humor styles. Second, avoidance motives correlated positively with self-defeating humor style, and third, the positive relationship between approach motives and happiness was mediated by self-enhancing humor style.

  5. Undergraduate Psychological Writing: A Best Practices Guide and National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Shaziela; Salter, Nicholas P.

    2017-01-01

    There is no comprehensive guide for teaching psychological writing, and little is known about how often instructors teach the topic. We present a best practices guide for teaching psychological writing beyond just American Psychological Association style, discuss psychology-specific writing assignments, and examine psychological writing…

  6. Cognitive style in bipolar disorder sub-types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kathryn; Parker, Gordon; Manicavasagar, Vijaya

    2013-04-30

    Clearer understanding of psychological processes and mechanisms such as cognitive style inform more targeted psychological treatments for mood disorders. Studies to date have focused on bipolar I disorder or combined bipolar sub-types, precluding identification of any distinctive cognitive style profiles. We examined cognitive style separately in the bipolar sub-types, contrasted with unipolar and non-clinical controls. A total of 417 participants (94 bipolar I, 114 bipolar II, 109 unipolar, 100 healthy controls) completed cognitive style measures including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale, Inferential Styles Questionnaire, Stress Appraisal Measure and the Behavioural Inhibition System/Behavioural Activation System Scale. Overall, cognitive styles were similar in unipolar and bipolar participants, but with styles relevant to the Behavioral Activation System differentiating bipolar I disorder in particular. State anxiety influenced negative inferential style in unipolar participants and appraisal of stress in bipolar II participants. Analyses restricted to bipolar I vs. II comparisons revealed subtle differences in terms of dispositional stress appraisal, with higher scores on two stress appraisal sub-scales in the bipolar I group. Further exploration of cognitive style in bipolar sub-types is indicated in order to determine whether there are specific psychological vulnerabilities that would benefit from more targeted psychological interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    extraterrestrial objects. Such an organization might be an efficient way to pool capital from the many governments of the world and perhaps even from the...4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world. Millions of asteroids and...private sector. A second path would be the development of technology required for planetary defense for other objectives such as asteroid mining

  8. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P P; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-08-01

    The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n=57) in a cross-sectional study. We found that (i) awareness of symptoms and problems correlated with greater distress, (ii) 'preference for positive reinterpretation and growth' coping style correlated with lower distress and with lower symptom awareness (re-labelling), (iii) 'preference for mental disengagement' coping style correlated with greater distress and lower awareness of problems, and (iv) 'social support-seeking' coping style correlated with greater awareness of illness, but not distress. No relationship occurred between the use of 'denial' as a coping style and insight or distress. Our findings demonstrate that awareness of illness and related problems is associated with greater distress in schizophrenia. However, this investigation has not supported a simple psychological denial explanation for this relationship, as complex relationships emerged between different dimensions of insight and coping styles. The negative association between 'positive reinterpretation and growth' and distress suggests that adopting this style may lead to re-labelling symptoms in a less distressing way. Avoidant and isolating styles of coping both appear unhelpful. Psychological interventions should aim to promote more active coping such as discussing a mental health problem with others.

  9. Social cognition and the manic defense: attributions, selective attention, and self-schema in bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, H M; Startup, M; Bentall, R P

    1999-05-01

    Manic patients, depressed bipolar patients, and normal controls were compared on measures of social cognition. Manic patients showed a normal self-serving bias on the Attributional Style Questionnaire, but depressed patients attributed negative events more than positive events to self. On an implicit test of attributional style, both patient groups attributed negative events more than positive events to self. Both patient groups showed slowed color naming for depression-related but not euphoria-related words. Manic patients, like normal controls, endorsed mainly positive words as true of self but, like the depressed patients, recalled mainly negative words. Findings from the implicit tests indicate a common form of psychological organization in manic and depressed patients, whereas the contrasts between the scores on the implicit and explicit measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a manic defense.

  10. relationship between parenting styles and marital adjustment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    collection were Marital Adjustment Scale and Parenting Styles Questionnaire which were validated by four experts in Psychology, ... positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary .... manner in which parents raise their children. Parenting is a ...

  11. Learning Style of Students and Practitioners in Five Health Professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Noomi; Heimann, Nanci

    1991-01-01

    An Israeli sample of 378 students and 251 practitioners in occupational therapy (OT), social work, nursing, physical therapy, and clinical psychology completed Kolb's Learning Style Inventory. Findings suggest greater variance in learning style among students. OT students were least abstract. Both OT students and practitioners were predominantly…

  12. Structural evaluation of multifunctional flood defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorendt, M.Z.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    style="margin: 0cm 0cm 10pt;">Flood risk reduction aims to minimize losses in low-lying areas. One of the ways to reduce flood risks is to protect land by means of flood defenses. The Netherlands has a long tradition of flood protection and, therefore, a wide variety of technical reports written

  13. 32 CFR 324.13 - Access to medical and psychological records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to medical and psychological records. 324.13 Section 324.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF... to medical and psychological records. Individual access to medical and psychological records should...

  14. Psychopathological symptoms, defense mechanisms and time perspectives among subjects with alcohol dependence (AD) presenting different patterns of coping with stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanicka, Katarzyna; Gerhant, Aneta; Olajossy, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    The problem of coping with stress is an important one in the context of development and persistence of alcohol dependence. In the literature to date very little attention has been paid to coping patterns construed as a configuration of specific coping styles, particularly as regards the functioning of addicted individuals. The aim of the study was to verify whether individuals with alcohol dependence characterized by different coping patterns differ with respect to the severity of psychopathological symptoms, defense mechanisms and time perspectives. Participants were given a battery of psychological tests-Coping Inventory for Stresfull Situations (CISS), Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ 40), Syndrom Checklist (SCL-90) and Short Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (SZPTI-PL). The sample comprised 112 individuals with alcohol dependence, aged 20 to 63 years old, the average age was 37.86; 78 percent were men. There were identified three sub-groups of individuals characterized by a distinctive patterns of coping with stress -"emotional-avoidant", "task oriented" and a "mixed one". Individuals with the predominant emotional-avoidant coping pattern are characterized by significantly higher severity of psychopathological symptoms, less mature defense mechanisms and past time perspectives. Subjects reliant on task-oriented coping pattern were characterized by the highest level of adaptation and the most constructive way of functioning in the face of difficulties. It is worth regarding the examination of patterns of coping as an indispensable element of collecting medical history from alcohol dependent individuals.

  15. Comprehending APA Style through Manuscript Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gabie E.; Eggleston, Tami J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity designed to enhance undergraduate student comprehension of the American Psychological Association (APA) manual and style where students examined a poorly written paper for errors in relation to the APA guidelines. Reports the results of a study that tested the effectiveness of the activity. (CMK)

  16. Dispositional Optimism as a Correlate of Decision-Making Styles in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Magnano; Anna Paolillo; Barbara Giacominelli

    2015-01-01

    Despite the numerous psychological areas in which optimism has been studied, including career planning, only a small amount of research has been done to investigate the relationship between optimism and decision-making styles. Consequently, we have investigated the role of dispositional optimism as a correlate of different decision-making styles, in particular, positive for effective styles and negative for ineffective...

  17. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Ahmed; Rehman, Abdul; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-09-30

     Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual's personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students.  This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants' most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression.  A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P academic performance.  There was a significant association between academic performance and ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression levels in our

  18. A Program for Improving Undergraduate Psychology Students' Basic Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Wood, Rebecca M.; Austad, Carol Shaw; Fallahi, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of in-class writing instruction, practice, peer review, and feedback on writing skills of undergraduates enrolled in a general psychology course. We rated writing for grammar, writing style, mechanics, and American Psychological Association referencing style. Significant differences emerged on the 4 writing skill domains (p…

  19. AVIATION PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    PSYCHOLOGY , AERONAUTICS, FLIGHT, PILOTS, PERCEPTION, ATTENTION, READING, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, EMOTIONS, FATIGUE(PHYSIOLOGY), AVIATION SAFETY, AVIATION ACCIDENTS, PSYCHOMOTOR TESTS, PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, TRAINING.

  20. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  1. Film Noir Style Genealogy

    OpenAIRE

    Dita Rietuma

    2012-01-01

    Annotation for the Doctoral Work Film Noir Style Genealogy (The Genealogy of the Film Noir Style) The doctoral work topic Film Noir Style Genealogy encompasses traditionally approved world film theory views on the concept of film noir and its related cinematographic heritage, and an exploration of its evolution and distinctive style, including – the development of film noir in the USA, Europe, and also in Latvia, within the context of both socio-political progression and the paradigm of m...

  2. Adolescent Learning Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Thomas G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from a study of the learning styles of 306 high school students. The study examined learning style characteristics (abstraction, concreteness, reflection, activity); comparisons between adolescent and adult learning styles; and differences between freshmen and seniors, males and females, and slow-track and fast-track learners.…

  3. The onset, development, basic patterns and empirical norms of DSQ-40 psychological test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Milanko M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological defence mechanisms represent relatively stable aspect of personality, while character and frequency of defence mechanisms which a person uses, points to the character structure of personality. Measuring psychological defence mechanisms is very difficult and very unreliable, so that only several instruments have been developed for the estimation of such characteristics. The most notable instrument of this kind in the world is DSQ-40 (Defense Style Questionnaire, which has lately been more often used in our country. As DSQ-40 is still not widely known in our environment, the aim of this study was to represent the onset and the development of this test, its basic characteristics and empirical norms acquired on our population. Examination included two examined groups in military population of male sex only: soldiers of adolescent age (n=400 and officers of the adult age (n=165. Statistical analysis and the comparison of the results with corresponding standards obtained in foreign researches showed that defence style and structure of psychological defence mechanisms were connected with socio-demographic and cultural characteristics of examinees. It was concluded that norms of the test DSQ-40 must be adjusted to the concrete population, which hasn't diminished its practical values and employment in diagnostic and selection purposes.

  4. [Development, basic characteristics and empirical norms of the DSQ-40 psychological test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabarkapa, Milanko; Dedić, Gordana

    2002-01-01

    Psychological defence mechanisms represent relatively stable aspect of personality, while character and frequency of defence mechanisms which a person uses, points to the character structure of personality. Measuring psychological defence mechanisms is very difficult and very unreliable, so that only several instruments have been developed for the estimation of such characteristics. The most notable instrument of this kind in the world is DSQ-40 (Defense Style Questionnaire), which has lately been more often used in our country. As DSQ-40 is still not widely known in our environment, the aim of this study was to represent the onset and the development of this test, its basic characteristics and empirical norms acquired on our population. Examination included two examined groups in military population of male sex only: soldiers of adolescent age (n = 400) and officers of the adult age (n = 165). Statistical analysis and the comparison of the results with corresponding standards obtained in foreign researches showed that defence style and structure of psychological defence mechanisms were connected with socio-demographic and cultural characteristics of examinees. It was concluded that norms of the test DSQ-40 must be adjusted to the concrete population, which hasn't diminished its practical values and employment in diagnostic and selection purposes.

  5. Antioxidative defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals occur constantly during metabolism and take part in numerous physiological processes, such as: intra-cellular and inter-cellular signalization, gene expression, removal of damaged or senescent cells, and control of the tone of blood vessels. However, there is an increased quantity of free radicals in situations of so-called oxidative stress, when they cause serious damage to cellular membranes (peroxidation of their lipids, damage of membrane proteins, and similar, to interior cellular protein molecules, as well as DNA molecules and carbohydrates. This is precisely why the organism has developed numerous mechanisms for removing free radicals and/or preventing their production. Some of these are enzyme-related and include superoxide-dismutase, catalase, glutathione-peroxidase, and others. Other, non-enzyme mechanisms, imply antioxidative activities of vitamins E and C, provitamin A, coenzyme Q, reduced glutation, and others. Since free radicals can leave the cell that has produced them and become dispersed throughout the body, in addition to antioxidative defense that functions within cellular structures, antioxidant extra-cellular defense has also been developed. This is comprised by: transferrin, lactoferrin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, ceruloplasmin, albumins, extra-cellular isoform SOD, extracellular glutathione-peroxidase, glucose, bilirubin, urates, and many other molecules.

  6. Starlink Document Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawden, M. D.

    This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

  7. Creativity, visualization abilities, and visual cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Kozhevnikov, Michael; Yu, Chen Jiao; Blazhenkova, Olesya

    2013-06-01

    Despite the recent evidence for a multi-component nature of both visual imagery and creativity, there have been no systematic studies on how the different dimensions of creativity and imagery might interrelate. The main goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between different dimensions of creativity (artistic and scientific) and dimensions of visualization abilities and styles (object and spatial). In addition, we compared the contributions of object and spatial visualization abilities versus corresponding styles to scientific and artistic dimensions of creativity. Twenty-four undergraduate students (12 females) were recruited for the first study, and 75 additional participants (36 females) were recruited for an additional experiment. Participants were administered a number of object and spatial visualization abilities and style assessments as well as a number of artistic and scientific creativity tests. The results show that object visualization relates to artistic creativity and spatial visualization relates to scientific creativity, while both are distinct from verbal creativity. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that style predicts corresponding dimension of creativity even after removing shared variance between style and visualization ability. The results suggest that styles might be a more ecologically valid construct in predicting real-life creative behaviour, such as performance in different professional domains. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  8. POSITIVE STYLES OF HUMOR AS A CHARACTERISTIC OF OPTIMAL PERSONALITY FUNCTIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. B. Opyhaylo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of the modern research results in the ?eld of Personality Psychology concerning different styles of humor manifestation is given, the veri?cation results of the connection of the positive styles of humor manifestation as a characteristic of optimal personality functioning with some psychological factors are considered, the prospects of the further research of the problem connected with studying humor as a method of implicit diagnostics of psychological health and well-being are discussed.

  9. Association of Ego Defense Mechanisms with Academic Performance, Anxiety and Depression in Medical Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Ahmed; Malik, Aamenah; Muhammad, Umer; Khan, Sarah; Mahmood, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ego defense mechanisms are unconscious psychological processes that help an individual to prevent anxiety when exposed to a stressful situation. These mechanisms are important in psychiatric practice to assess an individual’s personality dynamics, psychopathologies, and modes of coping with stressful situations, and hence, to design appropriate individualized treatment. Our study delineates the relationship of ego defense mechanisms with anxiety, depression, and academic performance of Pakistani medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done at CMH Lahore Medical College and Fatima Memorial Hospital Medical and Dental College, both in Lahore, Pakistan, from December 1, 2014 to January 15, 2015. Convenience sampling was used and only students who agreed to take part in this study were included. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: 1) Demographics, documenting demographic data and academic scores on participants’ most recent exams; 2) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); and 3) Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The data were analyzed with SPSS v. 20. Mean scores and frequencies were calculated for demographic variables and ego defense mechanisms. Bivariate correlations, one-way ANOVA, and multiple linear regression were used to identify associations between academic scores, demographics, ego defense mechanisms, anxiety, and depression. Results: A total of 409 medical students participated, of whom 286 (70%) were females and 123 (30%) were males. Mean percentage score on the most recent exams was 75.6% in medical students. Bivariate correlation revealed a direct association between mature and neurotic ego defense mechanisms and academic performance, and an indirect association between immature mechanisms and academic performance. One-way ANOVA showed that moderate levels of anxiety (P anxiety, and depression levels in our sample of Pakistani medical students. PMID:26543695

  10. Parenting style and practices in stepfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassoni C

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia Cassoni,1 Regina HL Caldana21Graduate School in Psychology, 2Department of Psychology and Education, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP BrazilAbstract: There are several studies on the best way to raise a child, ie, what would be the consequences of our actions for our children. We tend to think of how to educate children in a traditional family, but society has undergone many changes and, hence, family structures have undergone changes too. Today, we find a large number of stepfamilies facing the same issues concerning how to educate a child. Stepfamily configuration often entails more than just the addition of a new parent figure. The objective of this study was to shed some light on how these stepfamilies deal with issues of parenting style and practices. We reviewed the Brazilian and international literature concerning parenting styles and practices in stepfamilies. The papers identified were organized and submitted to analysis. We identified very few papers addressing parenting styles and practices, pointing to an important but unaddressed social change as reflected in new family structures. There is a need for longitudinal studies aimed at understanding not only a particular moment in time, but also moments within a context, ie, an analysis with a holistic approach without preconceived ideas.Keywords: parenting styles, parenting practices, stepfamilies

  11. Leadership styles and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltinane, Charlotte Louise

    It is useful for healthcare professionals to be able to identify the leadership styles and theories relevant to their nursing practice. Being adept in recognising these styles enables nurses to develop their skills to become better leaders, as well as improving relationships with colleagues and other leaders, who have previously been challenging to work with. This article explores different leadership styles and theories, and explains how they relate to nursing practice.

  12. Reservations About the Labovian Paradigm of Style Shifting and Its Extension to the Study of Interlanguage. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Leslie M.

    An examination of the social psychological basis of style shifting suggests that, contrary to Labovian theory, many style shifts are not a function of shifts in attention to speech and that there are other more explanatory ways of analyzing style shifts. Some reasons for this view are: (1) attention to speech is sometimes negatively correlated…

  13. ENGINEERING PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAN MACHINE SYSTEMS, APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY ), INFORMATION THEORY, ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ...PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY, AUTOMATION, BRAIN, AUDITORY PERCEPTION, VISUAL PERCEPTION, MEMORY( PSYCHOLOGY ), MOTOR REACTIONS, NOISE, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), USSR

  14. Brief report: The defense mechanisms of homophobic adolescent males: A descriptive discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrew J; White, Jennifer

    2009-04-01

    The study examined the role of defense mechanisms in homophobic attitudes of older male adolescents aged 17-18 years. A cross-sectional survey collected data from final year high school students (N=86) attending an all male school in a regional centre in Victoria, Australia. The school was identified by teachers as having a problematic culture of homophobic intolerance. Participants were divided into homophobic and non-homophobic groups based on their scores on the Homophobia Scale Questionnaire. Discriminant analysis was conducted to identify the predictors that would best categorise students into those two groups on the basis of defense styles derived from the Defense Style Questionnaire-40 (DSQ-40). The strongest predictors of homophobia amongst defense styles were idealisation, denial, somatisation and devaluation accounting for 18.31%, 17.64%, 13.10% and 11.35% of the variance, respectively. Results generally supported the larger contribution of more immature defenses to higher levels of homophobia.

  15. Parents' and Children's Cognitive Style: The Role of Parents' Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Limor; Scharf, Miri; Edelstein, Maya; Havshush, Yaara

    2015-12-01

    Depression among children is a prevalent, distressing phenomenon. Children's hope and negative attributional style are significant precursors for children's depressive symptoms. Thus, the aim of the current study is to examine parents' characteristics that contribute to children's attributional style and hope in a sample of 85 Israeli young elementary school age children (mean [SD] age, 6.70 [0.49] years) and their parents. Results demonstrated positive associations between both mothers' and fathers' positive attributional style and children's hope and positive attributional style; however, parents' hope was not associated with children's hope or with children's positive attributional style. Mothers' overprotectiveness and psychological control were negatively associated with children's hope and positive attributional style, whereas fathers' overprotectiveness was positively associated with these variables. Moreover, few parent and child sex effects were found with fathers' criticism associating negatively with boys' attributional style and hope and positively with girls' attributional style. Finally, our study demonstrated a possible advantage of the fit between mothers' and fathers' practices to children's positive attributional style and hope. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  16. Cognitive styles and mental rotation ability in map learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Francesca; Moè, Angelica

    2013-11-01

    In inspecting, learning and reproducing a map, a wide range of abilities is potentially involved. This study examined the role of mental rotation (MR) and verbal ability, together with that of cognitive styles in map learning. As regards cognitive styles, the traditional distinction between verbalizers and visualizers has been taken into account, together with a more recent distinction between two styles of visualization: spatial and object. One hundred and seven participants filled in two questionnaires on cognitive styles: the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (Richardson in J Ment Imag 1:109-125, 1977) and the Object-Spatial Imagery Questionnaire (Blajenkova et al. in Appl Cogn Psych 20:239-263, 2006), performed MR and verbal tests, learned two maps, and were then tested for their recall. It was found that MR ability and cognitive styles played a role in predicting map learning, with some distinctions within cognitive styles: verbal style favoured learning of one of the two maps (the one rich in verbal labels), which in turn was disadvantaged by the adoption of spatial style. Conversely, spatial style predicted learning of the other map, rich in visual features. The discussion focuses on implications for cognitive psychology and everyday cognition.

  17. Military Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MILITARY FORCES(FOREIGN), *MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , *TEXTBOOKS, USSR, ORGANIZATIONS, COMBAT READINESS, PSYCHOMOTOR FUNCTION, REASONING, SURVEYS...TRANSLATIONS, MILITARY TRAINING, OFFICER PERSONNEL, PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), PERSONALITY, COMMUNISM, INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS, EMOTIONS.

  18. Implementing and Evaluating a Writing Course for Psychology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Perilou

    2003-01-01

    In this article, I describe Writing in Psychology, a semester-length 3-credit elective course designed to improve students' writing skills, familiarize them with psychology's writing conventions, and teach them American Psychological Association (APA) style. Students produced a case report, a report of an empirical study, a conference abstract,…

  19. Humor styles and personality: A meta-analysis of the relation between humor styles and the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiburo-Seguel, Andrés; Páez, Darío; Martínez-Sánchez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    This research summarizes the knowledge generated in social psychology and positive psychology about the relationship between humor styles, personality and wellbeing. Specifically, a meta-analysis was performed with the results of 15 studies on humor styles measured by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir, 2003) in correlation with the personality traits measured by the Big Five Personality model (measured with different scales). Following the steps presented by Rosenthal (1991) for meta-analysis in the case of correlational research, we calculated the total mean r as an indicator of effect size. Results show that affiliative humor has a strong and homogeneous relation to neuroticism and extraversion. The homogeneity and heterogeneity found between variables and possible explanations are discussed in the conclusion. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Style as Supplement - Supplement as Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    , and to aim for an almost Brechtian Verfremdung-effect, but the film also uses this device as a stylistic trait to characterize something ‘essential' about Derrida and his style. Derrida strikes the same chord by insisting on drawing attention to the artificiality of the making of the film, where questions...... and deferrals. This is of course another link in the infinite Derridean chain of supplements to supplements of supplements - in his writings, his persona and the legacy of images of him left behind in the archives. How does this perpetual deferral reflect itself in Derrida's visual and verbal style...

  1. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George N.

    2017-11-01

    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  2. Library Automation Style Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord Bros., Liverpool, NY.

    This library automation style guide lists specific terms and names often used in the library automation industry. The terms and/or acronyms are listed alphabetically and each is followed by a brief definition. The guide refers to the "Chicago Manual of Style" for general rules, and a notes section is included for the convenience of individual…

  3. Style and Sociolinguistic Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Penelope, Ed.; Rickford, John R., Ed.

    This collection of papers by leading experts from a range of disciplines is divided into four sections. Section 1, "Anthropological Approaches," includes: (1) "'Style' as Distinctiveness: The Culture and Ideology of Linguistic Differentiation" (Judith T. Irvine); (2) "Variety, Style-Shifting, and Ideology" (Susan…

  4. Is Cognitive Style Bipolar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David H.

    This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…

  5. Page Styles on steroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Designing a page style has long been a pain for novice users. Some parts are easy; others need strong LATEX knowledge. In this article we will present the memoir way of dealing with page styles, including new code added to the recent version of memoir that will reduce the pain to a mild annoyance...

  6. The role of parenting styles and teacher interactional styles in children's reading and spelling development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Torppa, Minna; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Viljaranta, Jaana; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Leskinen, Esko; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the associations between parenting styles, teacher interactional styles, and children's reading and spelling skills. The sample consisted of 864 Finnish-speaking children and their parents (864 mothers, 864 fathers) and teachers (N=123). Children's risk for reading disabilities and reader status were assessed in kindergarten. Children were also tested on reading and spelling skills in Grades 1 and 2. Parenting styles and teacher interactional styles were measured using parents' and teachers' self-reports in Grade 1. First, the results indicated that both an authoritative parenting style and authoritative teacher interactional style positively predicted children's spelling skill development. Second, authoritative parenting was particularly beneficial for the spelling skill development of children who were at risk for reading disabilities. Third, authoritative teaching promoted spelling skill development particularly among children who were nonreaders in kindergarten but had no risk for reading disabilities. Finally, some evidence was found that authoritative teaching could compensate for the negative impact of nonauthoritative parenting on reading development among kindergarten nonreaders. Copyright © 2012 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. AUTOMATIC ARCHITECTURAL STYLE RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mathias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Procedural modeling has proven to be a very valuable tool in the field of architecture. In the last few years, research has soared to automatically create procedural models from images. However, current algorithms for this process of inverse procedural modeling rely on the assumption that the building style is known. So far, the determination of the building style has remained a manual task. In this paper, we propose an algorithm which automates this process through classification of architectural styles from facade images. Our classifier first identifies the images containing buildings, then separates individual facades within an image and determines the building style. This information could then be used to initialize the building reconstruction process. We have trained our classifier to distinguish between several distinct architectural styles, namely Flemish Renaissance, Haussmannian and Neoclassical. Finally, we demonstrate our approach on various street-side images.

  8. Relationship between attachment styles and happiness in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzyeh Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attachment theory is one of the most important achievements of contemporary psychology. Role of medical students in the community health is important, so we need to know about the situation of happiness and attachment style in these students. Objectives: This study was aimed to assess the relationship between medical students′ attachment styles and demographic characteristics. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected students of Medical Sciences in Kurdistan University, in 2012. To collect data, Hazan and Shaver′s attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the  SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA and statistical analysis was performed via t-test, Chi-square test, and multiple regression tests. Results: Secure attachment style was the most common attachment style and the least common was ambivalent attachment style. Avoidant attachment style was more common among single persons than married people (P = 0.03. No significant relationship was observed between attachment style and gender and grade point average of the studied people. The mean happiness score of students was 62.71. In multivariate analysis, the variables of secure attachment style (P = 0.001, male gender (P = 0.005, and scholar achievement (P = 0.047 were associated with higher happiness score. Conclusion: The most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.

  9. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...... to the style. We focus on grammars for representing and generating styles of design and review the use of grammar transformations for modelling changes in style and design language. We identify a gap in knowledge in the representation of style in grammars and in driving strategic style change using grammar...

  10. Associations between psychologists' thinking styles and accuracy on a diagnostic classification task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, A.A.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Souren, P.M.; Egger, J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether individual differences between psychologists in thinking styles are associated with accuracy in diagnostic classification. We asked novice and experienced clinicians to classify two clinical cases of clients with two co-occurring psychological disorders. No

  11. Adolescents’ Conflict Resolution Styles Toward Mothers : The Role of Parenting and Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, Lies Christine; Luyckx, Koen; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Klimstra, Theo; Branje, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, we examined associations between contextual and individual factors and adolescents’ conflict resolution with mothers. In Study 1, we explored links between maternal responsiveness and psychological control and adolescent conflict resolution styles (positive problem solving,

  12. Adolescents’ conflict resolution styles toward mothers : The role of parenting and personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, L.C.; Luyckx, K.; Van Leeuwen, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Branje, S.T.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present research, we examined associations between contextual and individual factors and adolescents’ conflict resolution with mothers. In Study 1, we explored links between maternal responsiveness and psychological control and adolescent conflict resolution styles (positive problem solving,

  13. Thinking Styles: Teaching and Learning Styles in Graduate Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Tricia A.; Lesh, Jennifer J.; Trocchio, Jennie S.; Wolman, Clara

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between two intellectual styles approaches: Sternberg's thinking styles of teachers and Felder and Silverman's learning styles. Ninety-five graduate students majoring in special education, reading, educational leadership and curriculum, and elementary education completed the Thinking Styles in Teaching…

  14. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Coping Styles in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Rezaei; Shayesteh Salehi

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a report of a study of The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Coping Styles in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Iran. Hemodialysis patients face with multiple physical and psychological stressful factors; they use coping styles in order to cope with the challenges. A descriptive-correlation study was conducted based on the data collected from patients undergoing hemodialysis by census method in the city of Kerman using the Endler and Parker coping style, Self-es...

  15. Self-esteem, coping styles, and quality of life in polish adolescents and young adults with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisula, Ewa; Lukowska, Ewa; Fudalej, Piotr S

    2014-05-01

    Objectives : To evaluate self-esteem, coping styles, and health-related quality of life and their relationships in Polish adolescents and young adults with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate and related sex differences. Design and Participants : Self-report questionnaires measuring self-esteem (Multidimensional Self-Esteem Inventory), coping styles (Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations), and health-related quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were completed by 48 participants with cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 31 males, 17 females) and 48 controls without cleft lip and palate (age, 16 to 23 years; 28 males, 20 females) matched for age, place of residence, and socioeconomic status. Results : Regarding self-esteem, individuals with cleft lip and palate scored higher on body functioning (P self-esteem and coping styles, and quality of life (P adolescents and young adults with and without cleft lip and palate differed little in terms of psychological adjustment measures. The higher scores in defensive self-enhancement of individuals with cleft lip and palate suggest the need for instruments measuring social approval in psychosocial adjustment research involving this group.

  16. Stress and coping among psychology students

    OpenAIRE

    Cassaretto, Mónica; Chau, Cecilia; Oblitas, Haydeé; Valdéz, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The relations among stress, problems and coping styles among 123 psychology  students. in aprivate university in Lima, were analyzed. Four instruments were used: a) Demographic Sheet (Cassaretto, Oblitas & Valdez, 2000), b) Stress Response Questionnaire (Valdez, 1999), e) Co ping Inventory (Carver, Scheier & Weintraub, 1989), d) Problem Questionnaire (Seiffge­ Krenke, 1995). Variables as age, sex, job, stress responses, problems and coping styles were considered. The results showed that older...

  17. Mediating and Moderating Role of Attributional Style in the Association between Victimisation and Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmid, Susan; Howie, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether attributional style for negative events plays a mediating or moderating role in the association between victimisation by bullying and psychological distress in young adults. A total of 127 undergraduate students completed the Attributional Style Questionnaire, a newly developed Victimisation and Bullying Inventory and…

  18. Nonresident Fathers' Parenting Style and the Adjustment of Late-Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Jennifer K.; Mounts, Nina S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…

  19. Attachment styles and majority members' attitudes towards adaptation strategies of immigrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, J; van Oudenhoven, JP; Buunk, BP; Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    The present study examined the relationship between attachment styles and majority members' attitudes towards adaptation strategies of immigrants. A second purpose was to determine the construct validity and the stability of the Attachment Styles Questionnaire. A group of 177 first-year psychology

  20. Supervision: Substance and Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellerman, Saul W.

    1976-01-01

    Argues that managerial style and substance are inextricably intertwined, illustrating the discussion with excerpts from an extensive study and job analysis of first-line supervisors in a food packaging plant. (JG)

  1. Coping styles among adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Bjørg; Bru, Edvin

    2002-01-01

    This is an electronic version of an article published in Psychology, Health & Medicine © 2002 Copyright Taylor & Francis; Psychology, Health & Medicine is available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13548500220139403. This study identified and compared different coping styles among adults with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. A sample comprising 534 Norwegian adults with both types of diabetes aged between 25–70 participated in the study. Diabetes-related coping styles...

  2. Children's Responses to Literary Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, Mary Vance

    This study undertook to determine (1) whether teaching sixth grade children elements of style would increase their pleasure in listening to "The Hobbit," (2) whether children who learned the most about style would respond the most positively to Tolkien's style, and (3) what children's preferences would be for selected examples of Tolkien's style.…

  3. Measuring Lifestyle and Attachment: An Empirical Investigation Linking Individual Psychology and Attachment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Paul R.; Peluso, Jennifer P.; Buckner, Janine P.; Kern, Roy M.; Curlette, William

    2009-01-01

    P. R. Peluso, J. P. Peluso, J. F. White, and R. M. Kern (2004) reviewed the theoretical constructs underlying the similarities between lifestyle and attachment style. Specifically, they suggested that the individual psychology construct of lifestyle (or style of life) and attachment style should be empirically investigated. The present research…

  4. Remembered Parenting Styles and Adjustment in Middle and Late Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Teresa M.; An, Jeong Shin

    2009-01-01

    Background Authoritative parenting is the parenting style often associated with positive outcomes for children and adolescents. This study considers whether remembered parenting styles in childhood predict multiple dimensions of functioning in adulthood. Methods We used the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States data set (N = 2,232) to assess the association between parenting behaviors remembered from childhood—classified as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved—and psychological well-being, depressive symptoms, and substance abuse, in a subsample of mid- and later-life adults. Differences in outcomes by sex, race, and childhood socioeconomic status were also examined across parenting styles. Results Adults who remembered authoritative compared with authoritarian and uninvolved parents reported greater psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms, and those with uninvolved parents noted greater substance abuse. No outcome differences were found between remembered authoritative and indulgent parenting styles. A few sex and race interactions were identified: Authoritative parenting (compared with uninvolved) was more strongly associated with men's psychological well-being than women's, and authoritative parenting (compared with authoritarian) predicted reduced depressive symptoms for Whites more than non-Whites. Conclusions There is some support that remembered parenting styles continue to be related to functioning across the lifespan. There is also evidence of resiliency, flexibility, and malleability in human development. PMID:19176484

  5. Remembered parenting styles and adjustment in middle and late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrauff, Tanja C; Cooney, Teresa M; An, Jeong Shin

    2009-01-01

    Authoritative parenting is the parenting style often associated with positive outcomes for children and adolescents. This study considers whether remembered parenting styles in childhood predict multiple dimensions of functioning in adulthood. We used the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States data set (N = 2,232) to assess the association between parenting behaviors remembered from childhood-classified as authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved-and psychological well-being, depressive symptoms, and substance abuse, in a subsample of mid- and later-life adults. Differences in outcomes by sex, race, and childhood socioeconomic status were also examined across parenting styles. Adults who remembered authoritative compared with authoritarian and uninvolved parents reported greater psychological well-being and fewer depressive symptoms, and those with uninvolved parents noted greater substance abuse. No outcome differences were found between remembered authoritative and indulgent parenting styles. A few sex and race interactions were identified: Authoritative parenting (compared with uninvolved) was more strongly associated with men's psychological well-being than women's, and authoritative parenting (compared with authoritarian) predicted reduced depressive symptoms for Whites more than non-Whites. There is some support that remembered parenting styles continue to be related to functioning across the lifespan. There is also evidence of resiliency, flexibility, and malleability in human development.

  6. Dispositional emotion coping styles and physiological responses to expressive writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamagawa, Rie; Moss-Morris, Rona; Martin, Alexandra; Robinson, Elizabeth; Booth, Roger J

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of these two studies was to assess how repressors and defensive, high-anxious individuals exhibit their psychological and health characteristics subjectively through self-reports and objectively through physiological markers and ratings of emotional expression. Cross-sectional descriptive design (study one) and randomized controlled design (study two). In the first descriptive study, repressors, defensive, high-anxious individuals and low-anxious individuals were identified from a pool of 748 undergraduates. Participants were asked to complete questionnaires assessing psychological and health characteristics. In the second experimental study, the three groups were randomized into either emotional or non-emotional writing conditions. Participants were asked to write three essays on either an emotional or a non-emotional topic in a single day. In the first study, defensive, high-anxious individuals reported significantly more distress, symptoms, sickness behaviours and difficulty expressing anger relative to repressors. In the second study, there was a significant difference in salivary cortisol concentrations between the two writing conditions regardless of the emotional coping grouping. Analysis of the writing showed no significant differences among repressors, defensive, high-anxious and low-anxious individuals in their cognitive and affective expression. Whereas self-reports of health outcomes and psychological traits clearly distinguish repressors and defensive, high-anxious individuals, more objective indices of emotional expressiveness and physiology do not appear to do so. The results also indicate that expressive writing may be helpful to reduce physiological arousal towards emotionally charged memories. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Personality structure and social style in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark James; Majolo, Bonaventura; Ostner, Julia; Schülke, Oliver; De Marco, Arianna; Thierry, Bernard; Engelhardt, Antje; Widdig, Anja; Gerald, Melissa S; Weiss, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Why regularities in personality can be described with particular dimensions is a basic question in differential psychology. Nonhuman primates can also be characterized in terms of personality structure. Comparative approaches can help reveal phylogenetic constraints and social and ecological patterns associated with the presence or absence of specific personality dimensions. We sought to determine how different personality structures are related to interspecific variation in social style. Specifically, we examined this question in 6 different species of macaques, because macaque social style is well characterized and can be categorized on a spectrum of despotic (Grade 1) versus tolerant (Grade 4) social styles. We derived personality structures from adjectival ratings of Japanese (Macaca fuscata; Grade 1), Assamese (M. assamensis; Grade 2), Barbary (M. sylvanus; Grade 3), Tonkean (M. tonkeana; Grade 4), and crested (M. nigra; Grade 4) macaques and compared these species with rhesus macaques (M. mulatta; Grade 1) whose personality was previously characterized. Using a nonparametric method, fuzzy set analysis, to identify commonalities in personality dimensions across species, we found that all but 1 species exhibited consistently defined Friendliness and Openness dimensions, but that similarities in personality dimensions capturing aggression and social competence reflect similarities in social styles. These findings suggest that social and phylogenetic relationships contribute to the origin, maintenance, and diversification of personality. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Analytic information processing style in migraineurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Sabato, Francesco; Buonfiglio, Marzia; Mandillo, Silvia

    2013-07-01

    Despite great advances in pathophysiological facets of migraine that have been made during recent years, as of today, migraine etiology is still not completely understood; moreover, to date the relationship between psychological factors and this primary headache must be further elucidated. However, abnormal information processing, as measured by evoked and event-related potentials, has been considered a key feature in migraine pathogenesis. The aim of this work was to study the relationships between analytic/global style of information processing and migraine, hypothesizing an analytic style, as highlighted by our previous study on cluster headache. This study applied three cognitive style tests never previously used in the context of migraine: "Sternberg-Wagner Self-Assessment Inventory", the C. Cornoldi test series called AMOS, and Brain-Dominance Questionnaire. 280 migraneurs with and without aura were tested and matched with two control groups: healthy subjects and tension-type headache patients. Our results demonstrated a strong correlation between analytic information processing style and migraine, indicating a preference toward a visual sensory approach in migraine without aura, in line with known neuroelectrophysiological data. These findings may suggest a role for this specific cognitive behavior in migraine pathogenesis, leading us to further investigate the neuroelectrophysiological, neurobiological, and epigenetic correlates.

  9. Learning Styles of African American Children: Instructional Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Janice Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This article offers examples of valiant efforts to develop meaningful instructional implications from learning styles scholarship. Additionally, an example is given of an advance in the public policy arena that merges the efforts of psychological scholars with that of lawmakers to apply their research to effect change for children. The…

  10. Mastering the APA Style of Referencing with Ease | Omotosho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is in an effort to alleviate this problem to some extent that the author of this article has documented a panoptic, albeit common sense, way to help the reader master the major rules of APA referencing style. Keywords: American Psychological Association (APA); citing references in text; guidelines for referencing; journal ...

  11. Psychometric Properties of Decision-Making Style Inventory for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the applicability of “Decision Making Style Inventory (DMS)” for Turkish guidance and counselling students as a psychological means of survey and determine the psychometric features of this scale. The research conducted based on survey model was administered to 229 students at ...

  12. Cognitive Styles and Instructional Design in University Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patrick R.; McKay, Jacinta B.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in conceptualization and measurement of the verbalizer-visualizer dimension led us to re-examine the hypothesis that students learn best when instructional material matches their cognitive style. First-year psychology university students (n = 41) studied information on three personality theories presented in text only, text+picture, or…

  13. APA, Meet Google: Graduate Students' Approaches to Learning Citation Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Note Chism, Nancy; Weerakoon, Shrinika

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by Perkins' Theories of Difficulty concept, this exploratory study examined the learning patterns of graduate students as they grappled with using the style sheet of the American Psychological Association (APA). The researchers employed task performance analysis of three APA formatting tasks, interviews, and observation during a "think…

  14. Preparing Special Education Research Articles in APA Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algozzine, Bob; Spooner, Fred; Karvonen, Meagan

    2002-01-01

    This article addresses key considerations in preparing special education research articles for submission to professional journals in which the preferred style guide is the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association." The guidelines are drawn from special education literature, from editors, and from authors experienced in…

  15. Psychological Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ... Low FODMAP Diet Complementary or Alternative Treatments Medications Psychological Treatments Online Studies News You Can Use Living ...

  16. EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE IN TRAFFIC POLICE OFFICERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.

  17. Validation of the Humor Style Questionnaire with university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Cassaretto B.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study validates the Humor Style Questionnaire in a group of 315 university students of both genders from Lima, Peru, with an average age of 19,7. The Humor Style Questionnaire (HSQ by Martin, Puhlik-Doris, Larsen, Gray & Weir (2003, the Psychological Well-Being Scale (BIEPS-A by Casullo (2002 and the Hope Scale by Herth (1991 were used. After the neutralization of four items, results show reliability coefficients between 0,64 to 0,78 and a factorial structure confirming the existence of four factors (42,94% of the total variance.Results show positive associations between psychological well-being and hope with affiliation and self-enhancing styles, and negative associations between aggression and self-defeating humor. Results support the convergence validity and the construct of the scale.

  18. Defense mechanisms and morality: a link between isolation and moralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, F

    2000-03-01

    The relationship between morality and perceptual defense mechanisms was studied. Three new scales were constructed to measure different aspects of morality: moralism (the tendency to evaluate everything in terms of right and wrong), conscience (strength of feelings of right and wrong) and reparation (inclination to repair the damage one has caused). Perceptual defense mechanisms were measured with Kragh's Defense Mechanism Test (DMT). Three hypotheses about relationships between morality and defense mechanisms, derived from psychoanalytical literature, were tested on 54 male University students. Results show positive correlations between the defense mechanism isolation of affect and moralism, and between identification with the aggressor and reparation. Total amount of perceptual defense correlated positively with moralism. It is argued that the psychological study of morality should take unconscious processes into consideration.

  19. Investigative psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Canter, David V.

    2010-01-01

    The domain of Investigative Psychology covers all aspects of psychology that are relevant to the conduct of criminal or civil investigations. Its focus is on the ways in which criminal activities may be examined and understood in order for the detection of crime to be effective and legal proceedings to be appropriate. As such Investigative Psychology is concerned with psychological input to the full range of issues that relate to the management, investigation and prosecution of crime

  20. Estilo-subjetividade: o tema da criação nos estudos da psicologia da linguagem Style-subjectivity: the theme of creation in the psychology of language studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tedesco

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho localiza-se no campo de estudos da Psicologia da Linguagem e objetiva discutir a natureza do elo, tradicionalmente afirmado, entre linguagem e subjetividade. Distante da visão tradicional, defensora da natureza representacionalista do elo, o texto propõe reconhecê-lo nos procedimentos estilísticos, pelos quais ambos os termos exercem sua natureza mais íntima, esclarecida no processo de criação contínua de si e de mundos.This paper on psychology of language has the purpose to discuss the nature of the bond, traditionally acclaimed, between language and subjectivity. Far from the traditional view, which defends the representational nature of this bond, the text proposes to recognize it in the stylistics procedures, by which both terms exert its innermost nature, elucidated by the continuous process of creation of worlds and itself.

  1. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  2. Attachment Style and Chronic Pain: Toward an Interpersonal Model of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Annunziata; Tesio, Valentina; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Castelli, Lorys

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain (CP) is a burdensome symptom. Different psychological models have been proposed to explain the role of psychological and social factors in developing and maintaining CP. Attachment, for example, is a psychological construct of possible relevance in CP. The first studies on the role of attachment in CP did not investigate the partner's psychological factors, thus neglecting the influence of the latter. The main aim of this mini-review was to examine the more recent literature investigating the relationship between CP and attachment style. In particular, whether or not more recent studies assessed the psychological variables of a patient's partner. The articles were selected from the Medline/PubMed database using the search terms "attachment" AND "pain"; "CP" AND "attachment style," which led to nine papers being identified. The results showed that, even though the key point was still the hypothesis that an insecure attachment style is associated with CP, in recent years researchers have focused on the possible psychological aspects mediating between attachment style and CP. In particular, worrying, coping strategies, catastrophizing and perceived spouse responses to pain behavior were taken into account. Only one study considered the role of the reciprocal influence of attachment style of both patient and partner, underlining the role of real significant others' responses to pain behaviors. In conclusion, the results of the present mini-review highlight how in recent years researchers have moved toward investigating those psychological aspects that could mediate the relationship between attachment and CP, while only partially evaluating the interpersonal perspective.

  3. [Path causal analysis of a model of a functional organization between defense mechanisms and coping strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvernet, B; Mouchard, J; Combaluzier, S

    2015-10-01

    In the psychological literature, two concepts are often used to approach psychological and social adaptation: defense mechanisms and coping strategies. Many empirical studies deal with these strategies independently of each other. However, the nature of their relationship is still debated, making empirical studies necessary jointly evaluating these two types of strategies to better reflect the adaptive process. To test Chabrol and Callahan's theoretical model of the relationship between defence mechanisms and coping strategies. According to theses authors, defence mechanisms and coping strategies are distinct mechanisms, functionally organized: defenses appear first and modulate the emergence of coping strategy defenses through threat representation. Ninety-four young adult volunteers completed the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS14). The data were treated according to the structural equation modeling method. Overall, the results support the theoretical model proposed by Chabrol and Callahan. The statistical model provides a good fit to the data (chi(2)/df=18.62/22=.85, P=.67, RMSEA=.00 (90% CI: .00-.07), CFI=1, TLI=1.04). It explains from 7 to 24% of coping variability scores (Avoidant Coping: R(2)=.07, Pcoping and problem-focused coping: R(2)=24, Pmechanisms and copings strategies are mediated by perceived distress and perceived controllability. Defence impact on coping strategies is not the same whether one considers problem-focused coping or emotional and avoidant coping. Immature and mature defences' impact on problem-focused coping is underpinned by a simple mediation: perceived controllability. Defences' impact on emotional coping and avoidant coping is more complex and underpinned by a double mediation: first by the perceived controllability and then, in a second time, the perceived distress. Finally, the results show the existence of a feedback loop from emotional

  4. Management styles and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers.

  5. PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT VIOLATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Rozhan Othman; Rasidah Arshad; Noor Azuan Hashim; Rosmah Md Isa

    2005-01-01

    A psychological contract is an implicit understanding between a group of employees and their employer that arose as a result of a particular leadership style. Psychological contract violation (PCV) is said to occur when there is a perceived breach of promise that leads to an emotional and affective response. The literature on PCV posits a number of antecedents and outcomes of PCV. This study seeks to develop a model of PCV by linking it with justice and organizational citizenship behavior (OC...

  6. Leadership styles in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Vicki; Murray, Melanie

    2017-06-21

    Nurses are often asked to think about leadership, particularly in times of rapid change in healthcare, and where questions have been raised about whether leaders and managers have adequate insight into the requirements of care. This article discusses several leadership styles relevant to contemporary healthcare and nursing practice. Nurses who are aware of leadership styles may find this knowledge useful in maintaining a cohesive working environment. Leadership knowledge and skills can be improved through training, where, rather than having to undertake formal leadership roles without adequate preparation, nurses are able to learn, nurture, model and develop effective leadership behaviours, ultimately improving nursing staff retention and enhancing the delivery of safe and effective care.

  7. Example based style classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welnicka, Katarzyna; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Aanæs, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of analysis of families of shapes which can be classified according to two categories: the main one corresponding usually to the coarse shape which we call the function and the more subtle one which we call the style. The style and the function both contribute to the overal...... this similarity should be reflected across different functions. We show the usability of our methods first on the example of a number of chess sets which our method helps sort. Next, we investigate the problem of finding a replacement for a missing tooth given a database of teeth....

  8. Identifying learning styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Grace

    2016-12-14

    What was the nature of the CPD activity, practice-related feedback and/or event and/or experience in your practice? The article explored different learning styles and outlined some of the models that can be used to identify them. It discussed the limitations of these models, indicating that although they can be helpful in identifying a student's preferred learning style, this is not 'fixed' and might change over time. Learning is also influenced by other factors, such as culture and age.

  9. Parenting styles and mental health of Palestinian-Arab adolescents in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan

    2004-06-01

    The relationship between three parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative) and the mental health of Arab adolescents was tested. It was hypothesized that parenting style toward boys would differ from that towards girls, psychological adjustment of girls would differ from that of boys, and that the authoritarian style applied within the authoritarian Arab society is not associated with poor psychological adjustment. The Parental Authority Questionnaire, Child Attitude Toward Parents, Lipsitt's Self-Concept Scale for Children, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Psychological State Scale were administered to 431 Arab adolescents. Sex comparison revealed that the parenting style with regard to girls tends to be more authoritative and less authoritarian than with regard to boys. Girls scored higher than boys on identity disorder, anxiety disorder, and depression scales, whereas boys scored higher than girls on the behavior disorder scale. There was no significant relationship between the authoritarian parenting style and the mental health measures. A significant positive relationship exists between the authoritative parenting style and the mental health of children. Among boys, the permissive parenting style was associated with negative attitudes towards parents, lower self-esteem and increased identity, anxiety, phobia, depressive, and conduct disorders. It seems, therefore, that the effect of parenting style is culturally and gender dependent rather than universal.

  10. An empirical study of defensive avoidance in paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutoussis, Michael; El-Deredy, Wael; Bentall, Richard P

    2015-03-01

    There is controversy as to whether psychological defensive avoidance is associated with paranoia. To elucidate whether "Poor-me" paranoid patients, who believe that the persecution they perceive is undeserved, show more prominent avoidance of negative thoughts about themselves than healthy and clinical controls. The act of avoidance of aversive mental contents was assessed in 27 healthy controls and 48 patients with poor-me, bad-me (perceived to be deserved) or no paranoia. Defensive avoidance was assessed via established questionnaires, a novel task based on self-discrepancy theory and research-clinician ratings. Participants in all groups showed substantial levels of verbal defensive avoidance. Paranoia was associated with reduced self-reported tolerance of negative mental contents (high Experiential Avoidance, EA). Contrary to our hypotheses, poor-me and bad-me patients showed similar EA. All participant groups showed similar levels of verbal defensive avoidance. The findings do not support an association of psychological avoidance with paranoia.

  11. The relationship of individual psychological and individual-typological characteristics in individuals with personality disorders, committed socially dangerous acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubinsky A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between individual psychological and individually-typological characteristics of patients with personality disorders who committed socially dangerous acts were studied, taking into account the severity of the organic factor and the degree of their social dangerousness. 121 males were surveyed, 70 of them were diagnosed with "organic personality disorder" and 33 - personality disorder. The types of personality disorders were diagnosed. The individual variables, the ratio of processes of system activation of behavior and its inhibition, protective styles, especially coping behaviours that constitute aggression, styles of self-regulation were analyzed. It was revealed that low settings of the system activation behavior found in the group of persons with a high degree of social dangerousness, determines the formation of individual psychological treats related to the rigidity behavior, the instability of the motives, impulsivity, negative emotionality, disinhibition. During comparison of samples of individuals with medium and high degree of social dangerousness it has been discovered that self-centeredness, as a component of self-control, high levels of affective components of aggression – anger and immature defense mechanisms significantly distinguish individuals with a high degree of public danger.

  12. Workshops Increase Students' Proficiency at Identifying General and APA-Style Writing Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Terrence D.; Marek, Pam

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of 20- to 30-min workshops on recognition of errors in American Psychological Association-style writing, 58 introductory psychology students attended one of the three workshops (on grammar, mechanics, or references) and completed error recognition tests (pretest, initial posttest, and three follow-up tests). As a…

  13. Humor Styles and Leadership Styles: Community College Presidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrica, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership styles (transformational, transactional, laissez-faire) and humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, self-defeating) of community college presidents. Research has shown that humor and leadership styles are related and that humor may enhance interpersonal…

  14. Leadership Style: Attitudes and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Paul; Blanchard, Kenneth H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses significant differences between the Grid and Situational leadership styles. Examines the difference between attitudes and behaviors, gives examples, and explores the relationship between self-perception and leadership style. (CT)

  15. Identity style and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.

  16. Does learning style influence academic performance in different forms of assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Tracey; Boohan, Mairead; Stevenson, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Educational research on learning styles has been conducted for some time, initially within the field of psychology. Recent research has widened to include more diverse disciplines, with greater emphasis on application. Although there are numerous instruments available to measure several different dimensions of learning style, it is generally accepted that styles differ, although the qualities of more than one style may be inherent in any one learner. But do these learning styles have a direct effect on student performance in examinations, specifically in different forms of assessment? For this study, hypotheses were formulated suggesting that academic performance is influenced by learning style. Using the Honey and Mumford Learning Style Questionnaire, learning styles of a cohort of first year medical and dental students at Queen's University Belfast were assessed. Pearson correlation was performed between the score for each of the four learning styles and the student examination results in a variety of subject areas (including anatomy) and in different types of assessments - single best answer, short answer questions and Objective Structured Clinical Examinations. In most of the analyses, there was no correlation between learning style and result and in the few cases where the correlations were statistically significant, they generally appeared to be weak. It seems therefore from this study that although the learning styles of students vary, they have little effect on academic performance, including in specific forms of assessment. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  17. Styles and Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkle, Sherry; Papert, Seymour

    1993-01-01

    Case studies of elementary school and college students are used to examine the different styles of approach taken to computer programing. Introduces the term "bricoleur" to describe programers who do not take a structured approach to programing. Discusses gender differences among programers. (MDH)

  18. Styles of success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens Jørn; Nørgaard, Anders; Jakobsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    Corporate success stories tend to emphasize the "great men" theory of history. But now a European research project established the managerial attributes that can turn an ordinary leader into one ideal for the pursuit of business excellence. The emergence of five leadership styles as crucial drivers...

  19. Policy in style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, Dave; Van Snellenberg, Ton

    Environmental policy directed at industry is changing course. 'Shared responsibility' and related concepts reflect the idea that industry and government can now work together to solve environmental problems. In our view, this change implies a shift towards a more consensual policy style. This is

  20. Policy in style

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, D.; van Snellenberg, A.H.L.M.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental policy directed at industry is changing course. 'Shared responsibility' and related concepts reflect the idea that industry and government can now work together to solve environmental problems. In our view, this change implies a shift towards a more consensual policy style. This is

  1. Cultural Styles of Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E. S.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Offers an alternative methodology for studying persuasive strategies by examining the persuasive strategies selected by professional persuaders representing those cultures being studied. Analyzes the persuasive styles of United States, Soviet Union and Arab diplomats involved in international negotiations in the Security Council of the United…

  2. Creating a Leadership Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Many articles about school improvement talk about data-driven instruction and statistics. In the barrage of evaluative numbers, school leaders can forget that teaching and leading are arts, not sciences. Positive outcomes depend on the ambience of the school, which is a direct result of the leadership style of its principal and assistant…

  3. Perspective: Louisville Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Louisville, Kentucky is an eclectic town of architectural styles from Greek revival to Renaissance Revival to Post modernism, not to mention an entire street dedicated to artsy mom and pop stores. Louisville is second only to the New York City Soho district in terms of the number of its cast-iron facades. Many of these building's fronts have…

  4. Tigers with Artistic Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used with sixth-grade students in which they painted their school mascot (a tiger) in the style of a famous artist. Explains that students selected an artist, such as Andrew Wyeth or Edvard Munch. Describes how the students created their tigers. (CMK)

  5. Styles of Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia M. Cmeciu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Styles of Communicationeste o nouărevistăinternaţionalăcare va fipublicatăanual de Facultatea detiinţe ale Comunicării, Universitatea„Danubius” din Galaţi, în colaborare cu Comitetul de Filologie al Academieidetiinţe din Polonia, filiala Wroclaw.

  6. Growing for wine style

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of grape metabolites from anabolism and catabolism during berry development, and their significance to different wine styles. For example, grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and wine, but more recen...

  7. Psychological Vulnerability and Gambling in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Cory B; Davis, Thomas D; Chang, Janet; McAllister, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Because behavioral problems often emerge from maladaptive coping methods, we investigated whether unmet basic psychological needs evolve toward a level of psychological vulnerability that puts older adults who gamble at risk for becoming problem gamblers. Data from a community sample of 379 adults ages 60 and above were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Participants responded to items regarding their demographics, gambling frequency, engagement in at-risk gambling behaviors, and the extent to which their basic psychological needs were met. Satisfaction of basic psychological needs among older adults who gamble was negatively associated with their being at risk for developing a gambling problem. Satisfaction of basic psychological needs also mediated the negative effect of socioeconomic status on at-risk gambling behavior. Social workers should become mindful of how older adults, who are confronting psychological vulnerabilities in later life, might well turn to gambling as a maladaptive coping mechanism.As per journal style, abstract must not exceed100 words. Please amend accordingly.

  8. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  9. Dynamic defense workshop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, Sean Michael; Doak, Justin E.; Haas, Jason Juedes.; Helinski, Ryan; Lamb, Christopher C.

    2013-02-01

    On September 5th and 6th, 2012, the Dynamic Defense Workshop: From Research to Practice brought together researchers from academia, industry, and Sandia with the goals of increasing collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and external organizations, de ning and un- derstanding dynamic, or moving target, defense concepts and directions, and gaining a greater understanding of the state of the art for dynamic defense. Through the workshop, we broadened and re ned our de nition and understanding, identi ed new approaches to inherent challenges, and de ned principles of dynamic defense. Half of the workshop was devoted to presentations of current state-of-the-art work. Presentation topics included areas such as the failure of current defenses, threats, techniques, goals of dynamic defense, theory, foundations of dynamic defense, future directions and open research questions related to dynamic defense. The remainder of the workshop was discussion, which was broken down into sessions on de ning challenges, applications to host or mobile environments, applications to enterprise network environments, exploring research and operational taxonomies, and determining how to apply scienti c rigor to and investigating the eld of dynamic defense.

  10. Anxiety, depression and defense mechanisms associated with treatment decisional preferences and quality of life in non-metastatic breast cancer: a 1-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Almyroudi, Augoustina; Paika, Vassiliki; Degner, Lesley F; Carvalho, André F; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2013-11-01

    Treatment decisional preferences impact breast cancer patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and may relate to psychological variables, although many aspects of this relationship remain unknown. This prospective study aimed to assess psychological correlates of treatment decisional preferences and predictors of HRQoL in women with early non-metastatic breast cancer. Of the 124 women initially assessed for anxiety (Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and depressive (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D)) symptoms, HRQoL (WHOQOL-BREF), and defense mechanisms (Life Style Index), 82 (66.1%) completed the 1-year follow-up. Mean age was 54.6 years (SD = 9.76), and mean disease duration was 19.4 months (SD = 25.55); 19.5% had stage I, 63.4% stage II and 17.1% stage III disease. The predictive power and moderator effects of psychological variables were tested using multiple and hierarchical regression models. Depressive symptoms and physical HRQoL improved significantly, state anxiety and mental and environment HRQoL remained stable, and social relations HRQoL deteriorated over the 1-year period. Older age (p = 0.021) and higher scores in repression defense (p = 0.044) were independently associated with passive decisional preferences. Earlier stage of cancer (p = 0.043), lower state anxiety (p = 0.039), lower repression scores (p = 0.021) and improvement in depressive symptoms (p cancer. Clinicians should address the patients' anxiety and depressive symptoms and refer patients with high repression tendencies for psychological evaluation and management. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. To what extent does parenting style predict behavioural changes in a first-born child following the birth of a sibling?

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhan, Z.

    2007-01-01

    This literature review provides a summary of a number of published studies which examine parenting styles and their impact on children's development. The paper considers the classification of parenting style the antecedents of parenting style and reviews studies investigating the impact of parenting style on children's social and developmental outcomes including: conscience development, academic achievement and psychological adjustment. Different factors that might impact on the association b...

  12. Leadership Styles and Their Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses leadership style theories and offers an integration of the theories by describing typical characteristics, skills, philosophies, and consequences associated with each major style. An experiential exercise is described which portrays the major styles and the productivity and satisfaction each is likely to produce. Nine figures accompany…

  13. Learning styles in otolaryngology fellowships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, David A Diaz Voss; Malik, Mohammad U; Laeeq, Kulsoom; Pandian, Vinciya; Brown, David J; Weatherly, Robert A; Cummings, Charles W; Bhatti, Nasir I

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have identified a predominant learning style in trainees from different specialties, more recently in otolaryngology residents. The purpose of our study was to determine a predominant learning style within otolaryngology fellowships and to identify any differences between otolaryngology fellows and residents. We conducted a survey of otolaryngology fellows at 25 otolaryngology fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. We emailed Kolb's Learning Style Index version 3.1 to 16 pediatric otolaryngology (PO) and 24 otology/neurotology (ON) fellows. This index is a widely used 12-item questionnaire. The participants answered each item in the questionnaire as it applied to their preferred learning style: accommodating, converging, diverging, or assimilating. Results were then analyzed and compared between each subspecialty and the previously reported preferred styles of otolaryngology residents. Ten PO and 20 ON fellows completed the survey, with an overall response rate of 75%. PO and ON fellows (60% of each group) preferred a learning style that was "balanced" across all four styles. For ON fellows, 35% preferred converging and 5% preferred accommodating styles. For PO fellows, converging and accommodating styles accounted for 20% each. It was previously reported that 74.4% of otolaryngology residents prefer either converging or accommodating styles. We believe that the fellowship training environment calls for fellows to use more than one learning style to become proficient physicians, hence the trend toward potentially developing a balanced style when at this level. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Strategies for Bridging Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchman, J. A.; Sadowski, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Regardless of the instrument used to determine learning styles, it is commonly accepted that people learn in different ways. As Professors, we tend to teach in a style that matches the way we ourselves learn. Tis may or may not match the learning styles of the students in our classroom. As Graphics educators, we cannot meet every student's…

  15. Parenting Style Transitions and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ryan D.; Mowen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Parenting style has been extensively analyzed as a contributor to juvenile delinquency in the criminological literature, but no research to date has assessed the prevalence of parenting style changes during adolescence or the influence of such parenting style changes on juvenile delinquency. Drawing from the life course theory, the results show…

  16. Style drift in private equity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumming, D.; Fleming, G.; Schwienbacher, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the concept of style drift to private equity investment. We present theory and evidence pertaining to style drifts in terms of a fund manager's stated focus on particular stages of entrepreneurial development. We develop a model that derives conditions under which style drifts are less

  17. Attachment style and interpersonal trauma in refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morina, Naser; Schnyder, Ulrich; Schick, Matthis; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Refugees can suffer many experiences that threaten their trust in others. Although models of refugee mental health have postulated that attachment securities may be damaged by refugee experiences, this has yet to be empirically tested. This study aimed to understand the relationship between the nature of traumatic experiences sustained by refugees and attachment styles. In a cross-sectional study, treatment-seeking refugees (N = 134) were assessed for traumatic exposure using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale. Attachment style was assessed using the Experiences in Close Relationship Scale. Whereas gender and severity of interpersonal traumatic events predicted avoidant attachment style (accounting for 11% of the variance), neither these factors nor non-interpersonal trauma predicted anxious attachment. Exposure to interpersonal traumatic events, including torture, is associated with enduring avoidant attachment tendencies in refugees. This finding accords with attachment theories that prior adverse interpersonal experiences can undermine secure attachment systems, and may promote avoidance of attachment seeking. This finding may point to an important process maintaining poor psychological health in refugees affected by interpersonal trauma. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  18. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  20. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  1. German Military Psychology 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, *WEST GERMANY, MILITARY PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS, APTITUDE TESTS, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , PSYCHIATRY, MILITARY PROCUREMENT, CLASSIFICATION, SELECTION, PILOTS, AVIATION MEDICINE.

  2. The features of perception and processing of visual information in boxers with different style of match.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korobeynikov G.V.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined 22 boxers qualifications aged 18-23 years, divided into two groups by their style of fight: attack and defensive. Revealed that the attacking style of the fight in boxing is accompanied by the presence of high-level performance, decrease fatigue, anxiety and dependence on the autonomic functions. The lowering of autonomy and growth heteronomnosti in the structure of psycho-physiological condition of boxers from attacking style of match, indicating the presence compromise prevention and external failure.

  3. Defense Technology Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    through the insertion of advanced jamming techniques. Progress in Digital RF Memory ( DRFM ) technology ( DRFM on a chip) is the basis for advanced, low cost...DoD Department of Defense DoE Department of Energy A-2 DoT Department of Transportation DRFM Digital RF Memory DSPO Defense Support Project Office E

  4. The effects of explanatory style on concussion outcomes in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapcott, Erin J B; Bloom, Gordon A; Johnston, Karen M; Loughead, Todd M; Delaney, J Scott

    2007-01-01

    Individuals with an optimistic explanatory style have generally been linked with improved mental and physical health across a variety of chronic and serious conditions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of explanatory style on recovery time and number of sport-related concussions suffered in the last 12 months. University varsity athletes (n=170) suffering from at least one concussion over the last 12 months from six contact or collision team sports completed both the Attributional Style Questionnaire and the Sport History Questionnaire. The results indicated that athletes with an optimistic explanatory style took longer to recover than athletes with a pessimistic or average explanatory style. More specifically, optimistic athletes who suffered a complex concussion (requiring more than 7 days to recover) took significantly longer to return to play. However, the results showed that explanatory style did not influence whether an athlete suffered subsequent concussions. Overall, the current results can be used to better understand the psychology of concussions, as well as concussion prevention efforts and management strategies.

  5. Put Your Style at Stake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Christian Garmann; Olaison, Lena; Meier Sørensen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    This article uses the concept of style to rethink sustainable entrepreneurship. Our point of departure is the conceptual distinction between organization as style made durable and entrepreneurship as the disruption of style. We show that style is not simply an aesthetic category, but rather what...... that sustainable entrepreneurship consists of making an environmentally friendly and socially conscious style durable, but also of disrupting such a style. In order to illustrate our argument, we use the example of the sustainable smartphone producer Fairphone. In conclusion, we argue that the concept of style may...... ties different social practices together. While organization makes the connections between social practices durable, entrepreneurship disrupts such patterns. We further elucidate how organization and entrepreneurship are two intermingled processes – those of durability and disruption – that together...

  6. Role of Air Force Special Operations in Foreign Internal Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    can detract from the menta.’ legitimacy of the state. The Salvadoran The necessity to maintain the fragile Organizacion DemocratIca Nacionallsta...supplement the regular forces while civil defense: or psychological opera- providing the people with a reason to tions.2 The flexibility required in...countries with (R&S). airlift, close air support (CAS), in- rudimentary infrastructure. In these terdiction, and psychological operations. cases, airlift

  7. Managerial style in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  8. New Oxford style manual

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The New Oxford Style Manual brings together two essential reference works in a single volume: New Hart's Rules and the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. New Hart's Rules, Oxford's definitive guide to style, consists of 20 chapters that provide authoritative and expert advice on how to prepare copy for publication. Topics covered include how to use italic, roman, and other type treatments, numbers and dates, law and legal references, illustrations, notes and references, and bibliographies. The guidelines are complemented by the New Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors, which features 25,000 alphabetically arranged entries giving authoritative advice on those words and names which raise questions time and time again because of spelling, capitalization, hyphenation, or cultural and historical context. Entries give full coverage of recommended spellings, variant forms, confusable words, hyphenation, capitalization, foreign and specialist terms, proper names, and abbreviations. The dictionary a...

  9. Defense Industry Clusters in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Alpaslan Demir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available All countries strive for a capable national defense supported by a strong national defense industry. Supporting national defense with imported defense systems has many limitations and risks because the terms of arms trade agreements between countries may easily be influenced by the political climate of the signatories. As a result, establishing an independent national defense requires a strong national defense industry. Furthermore, exporting defense systems may be an important source of national income. National defense industries mostly consist of large-scale defense firms that have the resources required for big defense contracts. However, small to medium enterprises (SMEs do not have the necessary resources, therefore they are at a disadvantage. To overcome this handicap and be part of the business, defense industry clusters mostly consisting of SMEs are being established. Provided that there is good national planning and support in this area, defense clusters consisting of SMEs may play a significant role in industry. SMEs have a chance to offer specialized services, special or customized products when needed. As a result, large defense firms subcontract certain portions of defense projects to SMEs. Since 2010, Turkey has shown signs of continuous improvement in defense industry clustering. In parallel with these developments, this study discusses the importance of clustering in the defense industry, briefly presents the state of the Turkish defense industry as highlighted by national statistics, and presents the current status of defense clusters in Turkey. The novelty of this article consists in its assessment of Turkish defense clusters.

  10. The psychological profile and affective response of women diagnosed with unexplained infertility undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg Romano, Gabi; Ravid, Hila; Zaig, Inbar; Schreiber, Shaul; Azem, Foad; Shachar, Izhak; Bloch, Miki

    2012-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that unexplained infertility may be related to specific personality and coping styles. We studied two groups of women with explained infertility (EIF, n = 63) and unexplained infertility (UIF, n = 42) undergoing an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle. Women completed personality and coping style questionnaires prior to the onset of the cycle, and state depression and anxiety scales before and at two additional time points during the cycle. Almost no in-between group differences were found at any of the measured time points in regards to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 validity and clinical scales, Illness Cognitions and Life Orientation Test, or for the situational measures. The few differences found suggest a more adaptive, better coping, and functioning defensive system in women with EIF. In conclusion, we did not find any clinically significant personality differences or differences in depression or anxiety levels between women with EIF and UIF during an IVF cycle. Minor differences found are probably a reaction to the ambiguous medical situation with its uncertain prognosis, amplifying certain traits which are not specific to one psychological structure but rather to the common experience shared by the group. The results of this study do not support the possibility that personality traits are involved in the pathophysiology of unexplained infertility.

  11. Defense Management Challenges Facing DOD in Implementing Defense Reform Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warren, David

    1998-01-01

    .... Specifically, it is proposing to: reengineer many of its business processes; consolidate and reorganize DOD'S headquarters elements and defense agencies, including the Office of the Secretary of Defense...

  12. XML Style Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Transfer Standard URI uniform resource identifier W3C World Wide Web Consortium XML extensible markup language XSD XML schema definition XML Style...XML Overview The XML standard is a specification produced by the World Wide Web Consortium ( W3C ), whose original intent was to provide a machine...15, July 2015 10 Figure 7. IHAL Use Schema Modularity and Composability 4.2 Schema Format Define the schema according to the W3C XML schema

  13. Parenting styles and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Does the economy influence the way people bring up their children? How can we determine and measure a child’s utility? How can parenting styles be categorized in an economic model? These are the questions that Professor Fabricio Zilibotti of the University of Zurich addressed in his honorary lecture ‘Parenting with Style’, which he delivered at the April International Academic Conference during the 5th LCSR international workshop ‘Social and Cultural Changes in Cross-National Perspective: Sub...

  14. Rondocubism versus National Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnídková, Vendula

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a range of various terms used to refer to architectural production from the period after the First World War, among the most common being 'Rondocubism' and the 'National Style'. The terminological ambiguity clearly points to the problem with the very character of the style of expression that lies behind these diverse labels. In the 1920s, figures of the interwar avant-garde were already sharply critical of the post-war decorative style, the leading figures of which were the architects Pavel Janák and Josef Gočár. While this negative stigma was later overcome, following several thematic studies, it is still possible to look for other inspiring sources outside aesthetic categories that were directed at clarifying this theme. Extensive social projects had architects employed in all sorts of artistic activities, and therefore a possible answer to what the essence of the style was is offered by the wider political and cultural context. After the foundation of the Czechoslovak Republic, the former protagonists of architectural Cubism and their colleagues from the Czechoslovak Workshop Association, Artěl and the School of Decorative Arts attained such social standing that they could effectively influence local artistic development. Through the individual conception applied to official commissions they created a visual identity of the new state system. As is apparent from their theoretical writings, they found their sources of information for ornamental decoration of buildings and craft artefacts by bonding with local tradition. This did not of course mean directly borrowing from folk-art prototypes. Advanced forms of national art were intended to help establish Czechoslovakia in the international scene and were also a conscious attempt through a more folkish form of expression to appeal to the wider strata of the population.

  15. Coping Styles: A Better Understanding of Stress and Anxiety in Individuals With Autism Spectrum Conditions Through Sport and Exercise Models

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Roncaglia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an understanding of the coping mechanisms and coping styles adopted by individuals on the Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) by looking to draw parallels with sports performance psychology and how different sources of stress and anxiety can lead to the adoption of different coping styles. Firstly, an overview of current understanding of what constitute a stressor and how this can affect an individual is presented from sport and exercise psychology literature....

  16. Framing Gangnam Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsun Catherine Yoon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the way in which news about Gangnam Style was framed in the Korean press. First released on 15th July 2012, it became the first video to pass two billion views on YouTube. 400 news articles between July 2012 and March 2013 from two South Korean newspapers - Chosun Ilbo and Hankyoreh were analyzed using the frame analysis method in five categories: industry/economy, globalization, cultural interest, criticism, and competition. The right-left opinion cleavage is important because news frames interact with official discourses, audience frames and prior knowledge which consequently mediate effects on public opinion, policy debates, social movement and individual interpretations. Whilst the existing literature on Gangnam Style took rather holistic approach, this study aimed to fill the lacuna, considering this phenomenon as a dynamic process, by segmenting different stages - recognition, spread, peak and continuation. Both newspapers acknowledged Gangnam Style was an epochal event but their perspectives and news frames were different; globalization frame was most frequently used in Chosun Ilbo whereas cultural interest frame was most often used in Hankyoreh. Although more critical approaches were found in Hankyoreh, reflecting the right-left opinion cleavage, both papers lacked in critical appraisal and analysis of Gangnam Style’s reception in a broader context of the new Korean Wave.

  17. Simulating autonomous driving styles: Accelerations for three road profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karjanto Juffrizal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new experimental approach to simulate projected autonomous driving styles based on the accelerations at three road profiles. This study was focused on the determination of ranges of accelerations in triaxial direction to simulate the autonomous driving experience. A special device, known as the Automatic Acceleration and Data controller (AUTOAccD, has been developed to guide the designated driver to accomplish the selected accelerations based on the road profiles and the intended driving styles namely assertive, defensive and light rail transit (LRT. Experimental investigations have been carried out at three different road profiles (junction, speed hump, and corner with two designated drivers with five trials on each condition. A driving style with the accelerations of LRT has also been included in this study as it is significant to the present methodology because the autonomous car is predicted to accelerate like an LRT, in such a way that it enables the users to conduct activities such as working on a laptop, using personal devices or eating and drinking while travelling. The results demonstrated that 92 out of 110 trials of the intended accelerations for autonomous driving styles could be achieved and simulated on the real road by the designated drivers. The differences between the two designated drivers were negligible, and the rates of succeeding in realizing the intended accelerations were high. The present approach in simulating autonomous driving styles focusing on accelerations can be used as a tool for experimental setup involving autonomous driving experience and acceptance.

  18. Cognitive Style as Environmentally Sensitive Individual Differences in Cognition: A Modern Synthesis and Applications in Education, Business, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Evans, Carol; Kosslyn, Stephen M

    2014-05-01

    The key aims of this article are to relate the construct of cognitive style to current theories in cognitive psychology and neuroscience and to outline a framework that integrates the findings on individual differences in cognition across different disciplines. First, we characterize cognitive style as patterns of adaptation to the external world that develop on the basis of innate predispositions, the interactions among which are shaped by changing environmental demands. Second, we show that research on cognitive style in psychology and cross-cultural neuroscience, on learning styles in education, and on decision-making styles in business and management all address the same phenomena. Third, we review cognitive-psychology and neuroscience research that supports the validity of the concept of cognitive style. Fourth, we show that various styles from disparate disciplines can be organized into a single taxonomy. This taxonomy allows us to integrate all the well-documented cognitive, learning, and decision-making styles; all of these style types correspond to adaptive systems that draw on different levels of information processing. Finally, we discuss how the proposed approach might promote greater coherence in research and application in education, in business and management, and in other disciplines. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. [Relationship between characteristic behaviors of children with AD/HD and mothers' parenting styles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Shoko; Uno, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) have an authoritarian parenting style. However, the psychological process of developing an authoritarian parenting style has yet to be clearly defined. To clarify this psychological process, the present study examined the hypothesis that the characteristic behaviors of children with AD/HD initially increase the mothers' parenting stress, which influences their parenting style. Thirty-six mothers of children with AD/HD (children's mean age: 8.1 years) and the same number of controls (children's mean age: 8.4 years) participated in the present study. The mothers' parenting stress was assessed using the Japanese Parenting Stress Index. Parenting styles were assessed using the TK-style scale for evaluating the relationships between parents and children. The results indicated that the mothers of children with AD/HD had significantly higher scores than controls for all parenting stress items and negative parenting style variables (dissatisfaction, reproach, strictness, interference, inconsistency and disagreement of 10 attitudes). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the characteristic behaviors of children with AD/HD were associated with the degree of attachment in mothers, which was related to the strict and reproachful parenting style in the AD/HD group. These results suggest that mothers of children with AD/HD are likely to have a strict and reproachful parenting style as a result of a lack of attachment with the child.

  20. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas. PMID:28360715

  1. Nursing Students’ Preferred Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salehi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Learning style is the processing of information and comprehension. If teachers present contents in a style that matches a student’s preferred learning style, academic performance and success will improve. If content retention improves it will result in an increase in thetest scores. It is also important to determine if students, as a group, fit into a particular style or a particular cycle as they move through an educational program.Methods: The study is a descriptive analytical research. Nursing Students at Isfahan Medical Sciences University completed a questionnaire  formulated to assess learning styles. Analysis of variance was used to investigate the possible relationship between learning cycle and student’s grades in the curriculum (i.e. freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior. Cross tabulation was used to test for a relationship between learning style and student academic year of study in the curriculum.Results: 294 students received the Kolb LSI questionnaire. The data demonstrated that juniors preferred a converger learning style and the senior students were in the abstract conceptualization cycle of learning. There were no relationships demonstrated between other groups in the study.Conclusion: The junior and senior students appear to prefer the stage of learning involving thinking and problem analysis. When a group of students demonstrate a preference for particular learning style teachers can develop their curriculum along their learning styleKey words: LEARNING STYLES, NURSING STUDENTS, FRESHMAN, SOPHOMORE, JUNIOR, SENIOR

  2. Entrepreneurs` Cognitive and Decision Making Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Motvaseli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to explore the relation between decision-making styles which are measured by the General decision-making style (GDMS test and information processing styles which are often termed cognitive styles and are, in this study, measured by Cognitive Style Inventory. The authors directed a survey research on 162 Iranian students. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to measure the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles. The authors found that cognitive styles have a positive impact on decision-making styles. In spite of the abundant research on factors that affect decision-making styles, few researches have tested the relationship between cognitive styles and decision-making styles. This study examines the impact of cognitive styles on decision-making styles in Iran. This study, like most research paper studies, cannot easily be generalized. Furthermore, the results of this study could be affected by economic conditions.

  3. Sport Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotee, March L.

    1980-01-01

    Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)

  4. [Psychophysiological correlates of individual styles of professional operator's work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokhodova, A G; Boritko, Ia S; Chekalina, A I; Gushchin, V I; Dudukin, A V

    2013-01-01

    One of the prioritized objectives of psychophysiological support for long-duration space missions is to strengthen professional reliability of cosmonauts. Operator's reliability is dependent as on skillfulness, so individual work style. PILOT-1 and VIRTU methods were used to study individual psychological characteristics and operator's strategy during project MARS500. The established two individual work styles (IWSs), i.e. control and search, reflect different types of reacting to stress. Combined analysis of these data and results of the "Mirror coordinograph" test showed invariance of IWSs no matter whether a task is complicated or simple. Operators demonstrating the "control" strategy are characterized by high initial mobilization readiness. Their reliability demands great physiological resources (high "cost"). Initial mobilization and physiological "cost" are lower in operators demonstrating the "search" work style. Dependent on the level of mobilization and motivation, their efficacy, in terms of quality and reliability specifically, is unstable in nature.

  5. Prediction of Addiction Potential in Youth According to Attachment Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Adroom

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aim is to predict the psychological inclination to drug use in youths by studying their attachment styles. Materials and Methods: The research sample includes male and female students of Zahedan Medical Science University with the average age of 19-24. The proportional cluster random sampling was used for selection of participant. The hypotheses were analyzed, using Pearson correlation method, regression analysis, one way variance analysis and t-test for two independent groups4T. Results: The results indicated positive relationships among addiction aptitude and insecure-avoidant attachment style and negative relationship between addiction aptitude and secure attachment style4T. Conclusion: It is necessary to focus training intervention and prevention on all students4T.

  6. Parenting style dimensions as predictors of adolescent antisocial behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Álvarez-García

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007 to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12 to 18 years of age from Asturias (Spain. Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships. Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  7. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-García, David; García, Trinidad; Barreiro-Collazo, Alejandra; Dobarro, Alejandra; Antúnez, Ángela

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescents 12-18 years of age from Asturias (Spain). Regarding construct validity, the results show that the model that best represents the data is composed of six dimensions of parenting style, just as in the original scale, namely affection and communication; promotion of autonomy; behavioral control; psychological control; self-disclosure; and humor. The psychological control factor negatively correlates with the other factors, with the exception of behavioral control, with which it positively correlates. The remaining correlations among the factors in the parenting style questionnaire are positive. Regarding internal consistency, the reliability analysis for each factor supports the suitability of this six-factor model. With regard to criterion validity, as expected based on the evidence available, the six dimensions of parenting style correlate in a statistically significant manner with the three antisocial behavior measures used as criteria (off-line school aggression, antisocial behavior, and antisocial friendships). Specifically, all dimensions negatively correlate with the three variables, except for psychological control. In the latter case, the correlation is positive. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  8. Whither Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Diane F

    2017-07-01

    Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants. In thinking about the way we want psychology to evolve, psychologists need to pay more than lip service to the idea that complex questions in psychology require multiple levels of analysis with contributions from biological (brain, hormones, and genetics), individual differences and social and cultural perspectives. Early career psychologists who can attain a breadth of knowledge will be well-positioned for a team approach to psychological inquiry. Finally, I offer the belief that an emphasis on enhancing critical thinking skills at all levels of education offers the best hope for the future.

  9. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ALEXITHYMIA, PARENTING STYLE, AND PARENTAL CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Barberis, Nadia; Costa, Sebastiano; Larcan, Rosalba

    2015-10-01

    Research on the relationship between parental alexithymia and parenting is relatively scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between parental alexithymia and three styles of parenting (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the relationships between parental alexithymia and two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The participants were 946 parents ages 29-60 years (mothers: n = 473, M age = 44.6 yr., SD = 4.7; fathers: n = 473, M age = 48.1 yr., SD = 5.1) of children ages 11-18 years. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 (TAS-20), the Parental Authority Questionnaire-Revised (PAQ-R), and the Dependency-Oriented and Achievement-Oriented Psychological Control Scale (DAPCS). Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to examine whether alexithymia could predict the three parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive) and the two domains of psychological control (dependency and achievement). The first model showed that alexithymia was a positive predictor of authoritative and permissive parenting and a negative predictor of authoritarian parenting in both paternal and maternal data. The second model showed that, in both paternal and maternal data, alexithymia was a positive predictor of both dependency-oriented psychological control (DPC) and achievement-oriented psychological control (APC).

  10. Developing Confidence within Girls through Self-Defense Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Aaron L.

    2012-01-01

    Through physical activity, physical educators have long sought to improve the self-efficacy and self-esteem in girls and young woman. Current research indicates that self-defense education may have a positive psychological impact on female participants, specifically regarding the development of self-efficacy and self-esteem. Through participation…

  11. Unfolding Green Defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Knus

    2015-01-01

    to inform and support the further development of green solutions by unfolding how green technologies and green strategies have been developed and used to handle current security challenges. The report, initially, focuses on the security challenges that are being linked to green defense, namely fuel...... consumption in military operations, defense expenditure, energy security, and global climate change. The report then proceeds to introduce the NATO Green Defence Framework before exploring specific current uses of green technologies and green strategies for defense. The report concludes that a number...... of political, military, organizational, and technological challenges and possibilities are related to the development of green solutions for defense. Based on this conclusion the report argues that it is essential to comprehensively describe how a green solution is linked to a security challenge to develop...

  12. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  13. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  14. Adult Attachment Style and Stress as Risk Factors for Early Maternal Sensitivity and Negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Appleyard, Karen; Barnett, Melissa; Deng, Min; Putallaz, Martha; Cox, Martha

    2011-05-01

    The current study examined the individual and joint effects of self-reported adult attachment style, psychological distress, and parenting stress on maternal caregiving behaviors at 6 and 12 months of child age. We proposed a diathesis-stress model to examine the potential deleterious effects of stress for mothers with insecure adult attachment styles. Data from 137 mothers were gathered by the longitudinal Durham Child Health and Development Study. Mothers provided self-reports using Hazan and Shaver's (1987) Adult Attachment Style measure, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the Parent Stress Inventory; observations of parenting data were made from 10-minute free play interactions. Consistently avoidant mothers were less sensitive with their infants than consistently secure mothers; however, this effect was limited to avoidant mothers who experienced elevated levels of psychological distress. Results suggest that the association between insecure adult attachment style and insensitive parenting behavior is moderated by concurrent psychosocial stress. Clinical implications for these findings are discussed.

  15. Process modeling style

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2014-01-01

    Process Modeling Style focuses on other aspects of process modeling beyond notation that are very important to practitioners. Many people who model processes focus on the specific notation used to create their drawings. While that is important, there are many other aspects to modeling, such as naming, creating identifiers, descriptions, interfaces, patterns, and creating useful process documentation. Experience author John Long focuses on those non-notational aspects of modeling, which practitioners will find invaluable. Gives solid advice for creating roles, work produ

  16. Getting Defense Acquisition Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    as a carrot and a stick. In the balance of this article, I want to focus on this second principle. How do we use profit effectively to obtain better...low), cost ($), performance (a composite scaled metric) and degree of small business utilization (with its own scale). Think how this would have...the Department of Defense went through a period of transition that included major chang­ es in defense budgets and force composition . But today we are

  17. New technology favors defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herolf, G. (Univ. of Stockholm (Sweden))

    1988-09-01

    Many new technological developments thus serve offensive plans. But in most cases the new technology can serve both offensive and defensive purposes. In fact, the technological trends actually favor the defense overall, partly because of some inherent weaknesses in an offensive military posture. Not only is the technology itself versatile, but some components and even some weapons now under development or in operation are suitable for strictly defensive activities. Moreover, some technologies would work much better in a defensive context than they would in the offensive missions for which they were designed. Not all proponents of nonoffensive defense would agree that defensive plans should take advantage of new technologies. The Study Group on Alternative Security Policy, for one, has warned against technical fetishism and recommends extreme caution in accepting the products of modern technology. Some analysts also prefer simple, sturdy systems to complicated, high-tech ones which tend to be fragile. Some of the technologies now under development are considered expensive, vulnerable, and easy to counteract.

  18. 76 FR 28757 - Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... of the Secretary Defense Logistics Agency Revised Regulation 1000.22, Environmental Considerations in Defense Logistics Agency Actions AGENCY: Defense Logistics Agency, Department of Defense. ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA) of Revised Defense Logistics Agency Regulation. SUMMARY: The Defense Logistics...

  19. 75 FR 76423 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of...

  20. 76 FR 28960 - Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... of the Secretary Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of Visitors Closed Meeting AGENCY: National Defense Intelligence College, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of... a closed meeting of the Defense Intelligence Agency National Defense Intelligence College Board of...

  1. Defense Acquisitions Acronyms and Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Defense Industrial Base DID Data Item Description DIEA Department of Defense Information Enterprise Architecture DIPEC Defense Industrial Plant...CJCSI 6212.01F). Department of Defense Information Enterprise Architecture ( DIEA ) A federation of descriptions that provide context and rules for

  2. The psychological boundary of nurses separating professional and maternal roles

    OpenAIRE

    Laušmanová, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Author: Alexandra Laušmanová Institute: Institute of social medicine FM CU in Hradec Králové Nursing department Title: The Psychological Boundary of Nurses separating Professional and Maternal Roles Supervisor: Bc. Eva Prchalová Number of pages: 131 Number of attachments: 4 Year of defense: 2007 Keywords: psychological boundary, social role, family, child needs, psychological strain on nurses, work conditions of nurses, realistic options in compatibility of professional and parent role This b...

  3. Adult Attachment Style and Stress as Risk Factors for Early Maternal Sensitivity and Negativity

    OpenAIRE

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Appleyard, Karen; Barnett, Melissa; Deng, Min; Putallaz, Martha; Cox, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the individual and joint effects of self-reported adult attachment style, psychological distress, and parenting stress on maternal caregiving behaviors at 6 and 12 months of child age. We proposed a diathesis-stress model to examine the potential deleterious effects of stress for mothers with insecure adult attachment styles. Data from 137 mothers were gathered by the longitudinal Durham Child Health and Development Study. Mothers provided self-reports using Hazan a...

  4. Sources of Nursing Clinical Education Stressors and Students’ Coping Styles Against Them

    OpenAIRE

    Orujlu S; Hemmati Maslak Pak M; Ghavipanjeh S

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Unlike many other student groups, the nursing students, due to their educational field and profession, are facing with many stressful factors, while they should adapt themselves with such conditions. In addition, based on the psychological theories, the coping styles play an important role to reduce stress and therefore, they affect general health of persons. The aim of this study was to determine the stressful sources of clinical education and coping styles in the nursing students. ...

  5. Style in science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchi, Massimiano

    2013-11-01

    There is little doubt that during the past few decades science communication efforts aimed at non-expert audiences have increased in quantity and intensity on a global scale. Public engagement and outreach activities have now become a routine - when not a prominent - feature for several research institutions in Europe. However, it would be difficult for both scholars and those involved in science communication to agree on the impact of these activities, on the long-term implications of the 'science communication movement' and on the indicators we should develop and employ in order to assess impact. The paper argues that quality is a relevant issue and challenge for contemporary science communication. Style is relevant to addressing that challenge, insofar as it relates to discussions about how to strengthen the quality of science communication, suggesting a different perspective other than the traditional normative/prescriptive framework. The notion of style also fruitfully connects the debate on science communication with a rich tradition of studies in the history and sociology of science.

  6. Ward leadership styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, G

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to devise a leadership style scale based in the authoritarian/democratic concept of leadership and to test it with a group of nurses. The working hypothesis was that nurses, working by primary nursing methods, would have a more democratic attitude to leadership than those nurses working in a traditional task allocation system. Recent papers such as that of Henry & Tuxill (1) plead for the caring professions to take on board the concept of the 'person'. Not only is the traditional model of nursing care seen as bad for the patient; it is seen also as harmful to the nurses. Fretwell (2) describes the task system as essentially an industrial model rather than a professional one which tends to satisfy the needs of the doctor rather than the patient or nurse. Kinston (3) describes nursing decision-making and work as Level I work (tradesmen). Current models of care that individualize the nurse's response to work and decision-making become Level II type (professional). Primary nursing fulfils the need for professionalizing nursing and meeting the need for more independence as well as respecting the patient as a 'person' with the organisation there to facilitate interaction between qualified nurse and patient. Changes in attitude and relationships are essential if work is to change from task to person-centred. Styles of leadership in nurses need to alter as our orientation to care issues change (4).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Psychological Spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Gideon Conway

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been an accepted scientific fact in physics for almost 100 years that time speeds up and slows down for an observer based on factors—such as motion and gravity—that affect space. Yet this fact, drawn from the theory of relativity, has not been widely integrated into the study of the psychology of time. The present article helps to fill in this gap between physics and psychology by reviewing evidence concerning what a psychological spacetime processor—one that accounted for the theory of relativity’s empirically validated predictions of the compensatory relationship between time and space—would look like. This model of the spacetime processor suggests that humans should have a psychological mechanism for slowing time down as motion speeds up, a prediction that already has widespread research support. We also discuss several novel hypotheses directly suggested by the spacetime model and a set of related speculations that emerge when considering spacetime (some of which have already received empirical support. Finally, we compare and contrast three very different potential reasons why we might have developed a spacetime processor in the first place. We conclude that the spacetime model shows promise for organizing existing data on time perception and generating novel hypotheses for researchers to pursue. Considering how humans might process spacetime helps reduce the existing gap between our understanding of physics and our understanding of human psychology.

  8. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Traduction automatique et style (Machine Translation and Style).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffler-Laurian, Anne-Marie

    1985-01-01

    Machine translation has been criticized for its inability to provide language style, but for specialized or technical texts, of which there are increasing numbers, machine translation with its obligatory post-editing may be effective, and the "style" of these translations may be a reflection of the error patterns caught in post-editing. (MSE)

  10. Influence of Parenting Styles on Psychological Well-Being and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    being and school adjustment of secondary school adolescents in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. It made use of descriptive survey design. The simple sampling technique was used to select 300 Senior Secondary School one (SSS 1) student comprising ...

  11. Specificities of defense mechanisms in bipolar affective disorder: relations with symptoms and therapeutic alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ueli; de Roten, Yves; Perry, J Christopher; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2009-09-01

    Defense mechanisms as a central notion of psychoanalysis have inspired various levels of interest in research in psychotherapy and psychopathology. Defense specificities have only recently been investigated systematically with regard to several clinical diagnoses, such as affective and personality disorders. For the present study, 30 inpatients diagnosed with Bipolar Affective Disorder I (BD) were interviewed. An observer-rater method, the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scales (DMRS), applied to session-transcripts, of assessment of defenses was used. A matched, nonclinical control group was introduced. Defense specificities in BD encompass a set of 5 immature defenses, of which omnipotence is linked with symptom level. The level of the therapeutic alliance is predicted by mature defenses. These results are discussed with regard to the psychological vulnerability of BD, and treatment implications for psychodynamic psychotherapy with such challenging patients are evoked.

  12. Psychological IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Stine Willum

    2015-01-01

    During ethnographic fieldwork at a fertility clinic in Denmark, I became intrigued by emotions. In particular, I found an incidence labelled ‘psychological IVF’ theoretically provocative as it challenged my views on materializations, which I was preparing to study. This paper centres on the story...... of psychological IVF, and I use this narrative to consider emotions and materialization methodologically. I also ask how emotions at fertility clinics can be conceptualized to enable analysis of their materialization, change, and effects. In order to do so, I develop the term ‘emotional choreography......’. This theoretical work has three aims. First, it seeks to illustrate how the story of psychological IVF offers a rich range of materializations of emotions. Secondly, this work proposes a feminist materialist conceptualization of emotions that is both non-representational and posthuman. This conceptualization draws...

  13. Client and Therapist Attachment Styles and Working Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, Sandra; Seymour-Hyde, Annily; Harris, Alison; Berry, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Working alliance has been shown to be important in influencing the outcome of therapy. Research evidence suggests that characteristics of both clients and therapists impact on the development of the working alliance. Although attachment theory is well researched, there is relatively limited research on the relationship between both therapist and client attachment style and the working alliance; traditionally, research has placed greater emphasis on client characteristics. The current study examines the extent to which both client and therapist self-reported attachment styles are related to the working alliance. Thirty clients and 42 therapists were recruited from primary care psychology services. Thirty client-therapist dyads were examined. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety and depression, attachment style and working alliance at a single time point. Client and therapist attachment security were not independently related to working alliance. However, there was a significant association between therapist insecure attachment and alliance in more symptomatic clients. There was also some evidence that therapists and clients with oppositional attachment styles reported more favourable alliances. The study suggests that the relationship between therapist attachment style and alliance is not straightforward. It is likely that the complexity of clients' presenting problems, coupled with interaction between client-therapist attachment styles, influences the therapeutic alliance. Therapist insecure attachment may negatively affect the therapeutic alliance in more symptomatic clients. It is important to consider the interaction between client and therapist attachment and how these interactions influence the therapeutic alliance. Therapists should be aware of their own personal attachment style and reflect on how this might manifest during the therapeutic process. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. [Control or involvement? Relationship between parenting style and adolescent depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikó, Bettina; Balázs, Máté Ádám

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have pointed out that parenting style has a longstanding impact on psychological health. Besides parental/familial risk factors certain aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship may serve as a protective factor and help prevent adolescent depression such as the authoritative parenting style. The aim of the present study has been to analyze interrelationships between adolescent depressive symptomatology, authoritative parenting style, negative and positive parental links. The study was carried out on in all primary and secondary schools in Mako and the surrounding region in the spring of 2010, students of grades 7-12 (N = 2072), 49.2% of the sample were males and 50.8% females; 38.1% primary school pupils and 61.9% high school students. Self-administered questionnaires contained items of measuring depressive symptoms (CDI) and parental variables beyond sociodemographics. After descripive statistics, correlation and multiple linear regression analyses have been used to detect interrelationships. Data support the protective effect of authoritative parenting style in relation to adolescent depression, particularly among girls. Among boys, only mother's responsive behavior proved to be a protective factor. Among girls, however, both elements of the father's authoritative parenting style were decisive; not only responsiveness but also demandingness. The parenting style of the opposite-sex parent was prevailing in both sexes. Negative family interactions served as a risk factor, whereas positive parental identification was a protective factor during adolescence as well. There is a need to strengthen the role of the authoritative parenting style and to guarantee the presence of the opposite-sex parents in the adolescents' lives. Nowadays there are family-oriented interventions which put forward the effectiveness of parenting and problem-solving and aiming at harmonizing the parent-adolescent relationship.

  15. The “Depressive” Attributional Style Is Not That Depressive for Buddhists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T. Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that depression-prone people are characterized by a chronic style of attributing failures to internal, stable, and global causes, sometimes labeled as the “depressive attributional style.” Much less is known, however, about how social-cultural factors such as religious beliefs might modulate these processes. In the current study, we hypothesized that Buddhism’s view of ultimate internal controllability plays a buffering role against the depressive attributional style and reduces its negative impacts. We administrated measures of attributional styles and psychological adjustments to a sample of Chinese Buddhists as well as a control group recruited in China. Data analyses showed that Buddhists were more likely to attribute bad outcomes to internal, stable, and global causes, but their well-being was less affected by it. Thus, these results indicate that the “depressive” attributional style is not that depressive for Buddhists, after all.

  16. Role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorer, Maayan; David, Ravit; Schoenberg-Taz, Michal; Levavi-Lavi, Ifat; Phillip, Moshe; Meyerovitch, Joseph

    2011-08-01

    To examine the role of parenting style in achieving metabolic control and treatment adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Parents of 100 adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed assessments of their parenting style and sense of helplessness. Parents and patients rated patient adherence to the treatment regimen. Glycemic control was evaluated by HbA(1c) values. An authoritative paternal parenting style predicted better glycemic control and adherence in the child; a permissive maternal parenting style predicted poor adherence. A higher sense of helplessness in both parents predicted worse glycemic control and lesser adherence to treatment. Parental sense of helplessness was a significant predictor of diabetes control after correcting for other confounders (patient age, sex, and treatment method). An authoritative nonhelpless parenting style is associated with better diabetes control in adolescents. Paternal involvement is important in adolescent diabetes management. These results have implications for psychological interventions.

  17. Life Style Assessment: So What!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, William E.

    The construct life style was used by Alfred Adler to describe the characteristic way in which individuals act and think. Followers of his theories are now collecting evidence to support or validate his contentions. The assessment of client life styles serves: (1) to make the client aware of his misconceptions, (2) as a reference point for therapy,…

  18. Learning Styles and Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Dauna Bell

    1990-01-01

    Reviews 5 models of learning or cognitive styles and the concept of brain hemispheric functions. Discusses the right hemisphere dominant learning style of many Native American children. Presents points to consider when modifying curricula or designing a reading program aimed at all learners. Contains 19 references. (SV)

  19. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  20. The psychology of computer programming

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Gerald Marvin

    1998-01-01

    This landmark 1971 classic is reprinted with a new preface, chapter-by-chapter commentary, and straight-from-the-heart observations on topics that affect the professional life of programmers. Long regarded as one of the first books to pioneer a people-oriented approach to computing, The Psychology of Computer Programming endures as a penetrating analysis of the intelligence, skill, teamwork, and problem-solving power of the computer programmer. Finding the chapters strikingly relevant to today's issues in programming, Gerald M. Weinberg adds new insights and highlights the similarities and differences between now and then. Using a conversational style that invites the reader to join him, Weinberg reunites with some of his most insightful writings on the human side of software engineering. Topics include egoless programming, intelligence, psychological measurement, personality factors, motivation, training, social problems on large projects, problem-solving ability, programming language design, team formati...

  1. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed.

  2. Social class in childhood and general health in adulthood: questionnaire study of contribution of psychological attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bosma (Hans); H. van de Mheen (Dike); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of psychological attributes (personality characteristics and coping styles) to the association between social class in childhood and adult health among men and women. DESIGN: Partly retrospective, partly cross sectional study

  3. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  4. Deployment psychology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    breaking fashion, brings into a single compendium the growing body of literatures, since Yerkes's work, which point to the ... [they] reflect on how they have changed”.3 From the outset of this text, there is a very real and palpable sense .... embedded and enmeshed. At times, Deployment psychology appears to ignore the.

  5. The Beginning of Wisdom Is Never Calling a Patient a Borderline; or, The Clinical Management of Immature Defenses in the Treatment of Individuals With Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Vaillant, George E.

    1992-01-01

    In individual psychotherapy of personality disorders, patients’ uses of the less mature ego mechanisms of defense can detrimentally affect the intersubjective field. The diagnostic epithet "borderline" often reflects unconscious countertransference more than it does diagnostic precision. Psychotherapists can avoid the deleterious effects of such countertransference by being attentive to the ways their patients’ defensive styles affect the therapeutic dyad and by learning ...

  6. Working towards academic knowledge integration : Facilitating integral design of multifunctional flood defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kothuis, B.L.M.; Kothuis, Baukje; Kok, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    style="margin: 0cm 0cm 10pt;">The MFFD research program aims for integral design of multifunctional flood defenses. A team of academic researchers from multiple disciplinary backgrounds would integrate their knowledge to reach this goal. The aim of the current research project was to design and

  7. E-mail, decisional styles, and rest breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, James R; Phillips, James G

    2007-10-01

    E-mail is a common but problematic work application. A scale was created to measure tendencies to use e-mail to take breaks (e-breaking); and self-esteem and decisional style (vigilance, procrastination, buck-passing, hypervigilance) were used to predict the self-reported and actual e-mail behaviors of 133 participants (students and marketing employees). Individuals who were low in defensive avoidance (buck-passing) engaged in more e-mailing per week, both in time spent on e-mail and message volume. E-breakers were more likely to engage in behavioral procrastination and spent more time on personal e-mail.

  8. LEARNING THEORY AND CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY , *ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), LEARNING, LEARNING, BEHAVIOR, PERSONALITY, ANXIETY, ATTITUDES( PSYCHOLOGY ), NEUROSES, MENTAL DISORDERS...PERCEPTION( PSYCHOLOGY ), VERBAL BEHAVIOR, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , DIAGNOSIS(MEDICINE), THERAPY.

  9. Strategic Framework for the Defense Acquisition System Understanding Defense Consolidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Potts, Anthony W

    2007-01-01

    The 1993 policy to promote the consolidation of the United States defense industry began a series of acquisitions and mergers that went beyond the intent of the policy and left the Department of Defense (DoD...

  10. Hostage (crisis) negotiation: the potential role of negotiator personality, decision-making style, coping style and emotional intelligence on negotiator success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amy; Brown, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the potential role of hostage negotiator characteristics and the impact of psychological constructs on negotiator success. It explores the role of Personality, Decision-Making Style, Coping Style, Cognitive Coping Style and Emotion Regulation and Emotional Intelligence within high stress environments and occupations. The findings suggest that certain individual traits and characteristics may play a role in negotiator success, via the mediation of specific styles, which are conducive to effective crisis negotiation skills. It is proposed that these findings have application within the field of hostage/crisis negotiation in the format of guidance regarding the recruitment and selection of hostage negotiators and the identification of potential training needs within individual negotiators in order to maximize their efficacy within the field. In line with this, it is argued that a psychometric tool that assesses these constructs is developed in order to aid the process of hostage negotiation selection.

  11. Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linden, Carol D

    2001-01-01

    Partial contents; Medical Chemical/Biological Defense Research, Chemical/Biological Defense Rationale for Rationale for Investment,Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research Program Mission, Medical Chemical...

  12. The association of leadership styles and empowerment with nurses' organizational commitment in an acute health care setting: a cross-sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asiri, Samirah A; Rohrer, Wesley W; Al-Surimi, Khaled; Da'ar, Omar O; Ahmed, Anwar

    2016-01-01

    .... This study intends to measure the effects of nurses' overall perception of the leadership style of their managers, and psychological empowerment on their organizational commitment in acute care units...

  13. Induction of defensive enzymes (isozymes) during defense against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... related to mitigating pathogen-induced oxidative damage which result in the decrease of calli decay, and this implies that antioxidant defense response may be involved in the mechanisms of plant against fungal pathogen. Keywords: Pear callus, fungi infection, defense enzyme, isozyme, biochemical defense mechanism ...

  14. Psychological barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    of lifestyle changes and pharmacological therapy in preventing future complications. Negative emotions and preconceptions about treatment can also discourage adherence to treatment plans. 'Psychological Insulin resistance' caused by fear and concerns about insulin and daily insulin injections can discourage...... many patients from starting insulin therapy, even if oral agents have failed. Depression, stress and anxiety represent further obstacles to optimum self-care and the attainment of glucose goals. Healthcare professionals should endeavour to understand and accommodate these issues when setting personal...

  15. Center for Infrastructure Defense

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Includes an image of the main page on this date and compressed file containing additional web pages. The Center for Infrastructure Defense (CID) focuses on the continued operation of critical military and civilian infrastructure in the presence of accident, failure, and attack. Operations Research (OR) Department in the Graduate School of Operational and Information Sciences at the Naval Postgraduate School.

  16. Cyber Defense Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    to the United States as a result of cyber espionage and cybercrime is over$100 billion dollars per year.13,14The DoD faces a cyber defense investment...that cost continues 17 L. Ablon, M.C. Libicki, and A.A. Golay. Markets for Cybercrime Tools and Stolen Data: Hackers’ Bazaar. Santa Monica, CA: RAND

  17. Defense Spending and Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Budget; Finance Reform; Military Spending ; Defense Spending; Budget Cuts 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...global military spending is China with 7 percent, and United Kingdom comes in a distant third with 4 percent (see Table 2).8 Table 1 Adjusted

  18. [Learning styles in medical residents and their professors of a pediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Muñoz, Irina Elizabeth; Gómez-Negrete, Alonso; Varela-Ruiz, Margarita; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Mercado-Arellano, José Agustín; Sciandra-Rico, Martha Minerva; Matute-González, Mario Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Background: the learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and psychological characteristics, which function as relatively stable indicators of how teachers and students perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. Knowing students' styles allows teachers to have tools to improve medical education. Our objective was to identify learning styles in pediatric residents and professors from a pediatric hospital. Methods: a learning styles questionnaire was applied to residents and theirs professors; data was analyzed in SPSS 12 software. Results: the dominant learning style in pediatric residents was reflexive and for professors was theoretical. There wasn't any difference between sexes or between medical or surgical specialities. There was more correlation between professors and residents when there was an increase in training time. Conclusions: the learning styles between professors and residents are different, especially at the beginning of the medical specialty courses; that's why it is necessary to realize a confrontation between the students' learning styles and teaching methods used by professors to improve significant learning. To know learning styles gives residents an important alternative to find a better study strategy.

  19. Psychological Theories of Acculturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozer, Simon

    2018-01-01

    of acculturation also include cognate disciplines such as cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, and anthropology.The expansion of psychological theories of acculturation has led to advancements in the field of research as well as the bifurcation of epistemological and methodological approaches...... advancements, together with greater mobility. Acculturation psychology aims to comprehend the dynamic psychological processes and outcomes emanating from intercultural contact. Acculturation psychology has been a growing field of research within cross-cultural psychology. Today, psychological theories...

  20. Defense Logistics Agency Revenue Eliminations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The issue of revenue eliminations was identified during our work on the Defense Logistics Agency portion of the Audit of Revenue Accounts in the FY 1996 Financial Statements of the Defense Business Operations Fund...

  1. Do defense mechanisms vary according to the psychiatric disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaya Carolina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the defense mechanisms used by depressive and anxious patients without comorbidities compared to those used by controls and to determine whether these patterns differ between diagnoses. METHOD: The sample was composed of 167 psychiatric patients and 36 controls that were evaluated using the Defense Style Questionnaire 40. All subjects were evaluated through a clinical interview, and each evaluation was confirmed through the application of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured psychiatric interview. We used ANOVA and discriminant analysis to assess differences between groups. RESULTS: Neurotic defense mechanisms discriminated controls from all patients except those with social anxiety. Immature defense mechanisms differentiated controls from all patients, as well as distinguished depressive patients from panic disorder and obsessive disorder patients. The discriminant analysis indicated that depressive patients are characterized by projection, panic disorder patients by sublimation and obsessive-compulsive patients by acting out. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive and anxious patients differ from other individuals in their use of defense mechanisms, and each diagnosis has a particular pattern. These findings could lead to the development of specific psychotherapeutic interventions.

  2. The neural correlates of visual and verbal cognitive styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, David J M; Rosenberg, Lauren M; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2009-03-25

    It has long been thought that propensities for visual or verbal learning styles influence how children acquire knowledge successfully and how adults reason in everyday life. There is no direct evidence to date, however, linking these cognitive styles to specific neural systems. In the present study, visual and verbal cognitive styles are measured by self-report survey, and cognitive abilities are measured by scored tests of visual and verbal skills. Specifically, we administered the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ) and modality-specific subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) to 18 subjects who subsequently participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment. During the imaging session, participants performed a novel psychological task involving both word-based and picture-based feature matching conditions that was designed to permit the use of either a visual or a verbal processing style during all conditions of the task. Results demonstrated a pattern of activity in modality-specific cortex that distinguished visual from verbal cognitive styles. During the word-based condition, activity in a functionally defined brain region that responded to viewing pictorial stimuli (fusiform gyrus) correlated with self-reported visualizer ratings on the VVQ. In contrast, activity in a phonologically related brain region (supramarginal gyrus) correlated with the verbalizer dimension of the VVQ during the picture-based condition. Scores from the WAIS subtests did not reliably correlate with brain activity in either of these regions. These findings suggest that modality-specific cortical activity underlies processing in visual and verbal cognitive styles.

  3. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system to enhance our capability against Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles . We are currently sustaining 30...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-362 Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Program Name Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) DoD Component DoD Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Planning Estimate) National Security

  4. Defense Institution Building: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    MoDA and DIILS Support of DIB Activity Objectives . . . . . . . 26 2.8. Overlapping Program Objectives...Wales Initiative Fund–Defense Institution Building (WIF-DIB), the Ministry of Defense Advisors ( MoDA ) program, and the Defense Insti- tute of...other events and activities related to a partner nation’s defense institution capabilities and capacity. One exception is MoDA , where engagements are

  5. Breaking the Rules in Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Tom

    1988-01-01

    Describes how allowing students to break the rules of standard writing can increase students' creativity in their written expression. Discusses several traits of this alternate style, or "Grammar B," including sentence fragments, double voice, lists, and spelling variations. (MM)

  6. Attachment Styles and Risky Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Mohammadalipoor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Current challengeable life, faces young with varied damages. The Purpose of this research was appointment of role of attachment styles in the risky behaviors of students. Method: the method of the project was attachment in descriptive ones. 273 people of students were selected via several stage cluster sample, and answered to questionner of adult attachment and risky behaviors. Results: Results of analyses of data showed that secure attachment style related with risky behaviors negatively and ambivalence attachment style and avoidant attachment style related with risky behaviors positively. Conclusion: Therefore is emphasized on the importance of instruction of families in the field of creation of secure relationship with children and also importance of plans for heighten secure attachment by counseling centers of university.

  7. German Memo and Letter Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Arthur H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes German correspondence styles in order to assist American managers. Explains typical conventions of both letter and memo formats, emphasizing the need to appreciate differences between formal and informal modes of communication. (RS)

  8. Advertising styles in different cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasulja Nevena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.

  9. Attachment styles and self-concept: basis for positive adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria S. Martínez Festorazzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The nature and characteristics of the primary bonds and attachment styles wwhich are established with parental figures and / or their surrogates in the first years of life, without doubt are one of the basis and models for later relationships. Intense changes will be produce particularly during adolescence in the parental bonds and the scenario, which defines and reinforces personal autonomy to be extended. In this way, self-concept is probably one of the most researched constructs in psychological tradition if we compare it with other psychological and contextual variables. Nevertheless, a few studies explore especially the relationship between attachment and self-concept in adolescents. The aim of this empirical study was to analyze the relationship between attachment styles and self-concept dimensions in adolescents, from a salutogenic approach in order to identify if certain attachment characteristics are associated with more positive aspects of self-concept. A sample of 583 adolescents aged 15- 18 years from public and private schools in Mar del Plata completed the AF5 and IPPA scales. Significant positive relationships were confirmed between secure attachment style and self- concept dimensions. These results provide empirical support to advance in the research about which characteristics are specifically related to positive and healthy development in adolescents. 

  10. Belowground herbivory and plant defenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dam, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Belowground-feeding herbivores may be very destructive to plants. Roots are known to produce various defense compounds to protect themselves against these herbivores, both with direct and indirect—inducible—defense compounds. Recent literature reviews reveal no overall pattern for root-shoot defense

  11. [Life style and affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboch, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Life style significantly affects the health status of each person. Life style medicine is an evidence based practice, which is trying to develop patterns of healthy behavior. Most evidence exists about the effect of suitable diet (eg. unsaturated fatty acids) and adequate aerobic exercise. Combination of lifestyle modification to standard psychopharmacologic and psychotherapeutic techniques can improve the results of preventive and therapeutic programs for people with depressive issues.

  12. A cognitive theory of style

    OpenAIRE

    C-S Chan

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this research is to set up a theory about style in architectural design from a cognitive point of view. It has been observed that the constant application of certain factors in a design process constitutes the formation of a style. Those factors include design constraints, search methods, goals, and the sequential order of applying them. Because of the constant application of these factors, constant cognitive phenomena appear and, consequently, produce constant forms by which a sty...

  13. Style and ideology in translation

    CERN Document Server

    Munday, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.

  14. Intercultural Communication and Speech Style

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Fee-Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    In her article, "Intercultural Communication and Speech Style," Fee-Alexandra Haase discusses intercultural communication as a concept for the production and analysis of speeches and written texts. Starting with a theoretical and historical perspective, Haase exemplifies selected intercultural patterns found in different cultures. Further, based on definitions of style in rhetoric from different cultural backgrounds from the ancient Greek culture up to modern approaches of rhetoricians, Haase...

  15. Overestimation of heterosexually attributed AIDS deaths is associated with immature psychological defence mechanisms and clitoral masturbation during penile-vaginal intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, S; Costa, R M

    2009-12-01

    Research shows that (1) greater use of immature psychological defence mechanisms (associated with psychopathology) is associated with lesser orgasmic consistency from penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), but greater frequency of other sexual behaviours and greater condom use for PVI, and (2) unlike the vectors of receptive anal intercourse and punctures, HIV acquisition during PVI is extremely unlikely in reasonably healthy persons. However, the relationship between overestimation of AIDS deaths due to 'heterosexual transmission' (often misunderstood as only PVI), sexual behaviour and mental health has been lacking. Two hundred and twenty-one Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire, reported past month frequencies of their various sexual activities, and estimated the total number of women who died from AIDS in Scotland nominally as a result of heterosexual transmission in the UK from a partner not known to be an injecting drug user, bisexual or infected through transfusion. The average respondent overestimated by 226,000%. Women providing lower estimates were less likely to use immature psychological defences, and had a lower frequency of orgasms from clitoral masturbation during PVI and from vibrator use. The results indicate that those who perceive 'heterosexual transmission' led to many AIDS deaths have poorer psychological functioning, and might be less able to appreciate PVI.

  16. Defense Centers of Excellence for Psychological Health & Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month In November, the military community recognizes the strength and resilience – physically, mentally, and spiritually – of our wounded, ill, and injured service members, and their families and caregivers. Warrior Care Month ... of Strength.” This strength is represented in the physical, mental, ...

  17. Some students learning style particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana PETRUS-VANCEA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The investigation aimed two objectives, namely to study the relationship between the learning styles, strategies, motivation, orientations and opinions with regard to learning, of Biology Domain students, comparative with those from double domain Biology – Chemistry, and particular learning styles of students from different specialties, which are in the first year of study, comparative with those which are in the last year of cycle I (age III of study, under the Bologna system. A version adapted by Trif, in 2007 [1], of the Learning Style Inventory (ILS, designed by Vermunt and Rijswijk (1998, was administrated to the total number of 77 students. Students of Biology specialization (Bologna system were largely learning style oriented to understanding and at those of the Biology-Chemistry (last generation of the old system we identified a style based on reproduction, but the differences of learning strategies and motivations, orientations and opinions were not statistically significant between the two groups of students. The second hypothesis formulated by us proved to be true, identifying significant statistically differences between the strategies, motives and opinions about learning of first academic year students, who prefer step by step learning or external guidance, learning orientation being to note, to obtain a degree, wishing much more support from teachers or colleagues (expressing an undirected learning style, compared with third academic year students, which use concrete processing of information, with getting a job motivation.

  18. Original article Identifying indicators of defensive activity in narration about important interpersonal relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Soroko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the main components of psychological conversation that influence communication is psychological defensiveness. 
In the paper I propose processual – situational understanding of defensiveness, and its measurement based on coding system. Preliminary results on link between personality traits and defensiveness in people’s narratives are presented as well. Participants and procedure To test proposed coding system, study was conducted with participants presenting different levels of personality organization’s (borderline: n = 35, 20 women, M = 26.09, SD = 4.82, neurotic: n = 29, 24 women, M = 25.90, SD = 5.25, integrated: n = 31, 26 women, M = 21.94, SD = 1.69. Correlation method was applied (Borderline Personality Inventory, Neuroticism Scale, Emotion Control Inventory, as well as narrative’s interviews. Participants’ statements were coded by competent judges (defensiveness and coherence of narratives, and by automatic lexical analyses (descriptive indicators. Results Results indicate that proposed defensiveness coding system is a set of heterogeneous indicators, and four groups of indicators could be extracted. Correlations between those indicators and expression control (positive relation, and coherence of narratives (negative relation. Moreover, differences between borderline participants and neurotic ones emerged. Conclusions Proposed coding system seems to be a heterogeneous but useful tool for assessing defensiveness during psychological interviews. It could be applied as an element of a procedural control measures, directed to test the reliability of psychological conversation.

  19. Defense on the Move: Ant-Based Cyber Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Glenn A.; Haack, Jereme N.; McKinnon, Archibald D.; Fulp, Errin W.

    2014-04-15

    Many common cyber defenses (like firewalls and IDS) are as static as trench warfare allowing the attacker freedom to probe them at will. The concept of Moving Target Defense (MTD) adds dynamism to the defender side, but puts the systems to be defended themselves in motion, potentially at great cost to the defender. An alternative approach is a mobile resilient defense that removes attackers’ ability to rely on prior experience without requiring motion in the protected infrastructure itself. The defensive technology absorbs most of the cost of motion, is resilient to attack, and is unpredictable to attackers. The Ant-Based Cyber Defense (ABCD) is a mobile resilient defense providing a set of roaming, bio-inspired, digital-ant agents working with stationary agents in a hierarchy headed by a human supervisor. The ABCD approach provides a resilient, extensible, and flexible defense that can scale to large, multi-enterprise infrastructures like the smart electric grid.

  20. Psychology Faculty Perceptions of Abnormal Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapport, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    The problem. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the perceptions and opinions of psychology professors regarding the accuracy and inclusiveness of abnormal psychology textbooks. It sought answers from psychology professors to the following questions: (1) What are the expectations of the psychology faculty at a private university of…

  1. Psychology of religion: perspectives from cultural psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief introduction, this paper tries to establish what type of psychology the psychology of religion is. Having introduced cultural psychology in general, some theories applicable in research on religion are presented, and some examples of cultural psychological research of religious

  2. Stress and coping styles in Japanese nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kanae; Saito, Miwa; Takao, Toshihiro

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the stress and coping styles in Japanese nursing students. The principal measures of the stress and coping styles were the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 and Brief Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced scale. In a cross-sectional analysis, 1324 students completed the anonymous self-administered questionnaires including the scales earlier. Feeling stress, living with family, not eating breakfast every day, having no regular exercise and poor sleep were associated with GHQ responder (psychological distressed group). The most commonly reported source of stress was taking examinations, followed by relationships with friends, engaging in clinical practice and presenting reports. The three most common coping styles adopted by the nursing students were acceptance, self-distraction and using instrumental support. By logistic regression analysis of coping styles with GHQ responder, self-blame, active coping, acceptance and behavioural disengagement were highly associated with GHQ responder. The nursing school educators as well as students should be aware of stress management strategies (e.g. using active coping and avoiding self-blame) that may help prevent depression. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Internet Teaching By Style: Profiling the On-line Professor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Strand

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to offer the results of a pilot study which examined the personality type and teaching style preferences of faculty who elected to teach an on-line course. The article will present a description of personality assessments, including the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI and Anthony Gregorc's Transaction Ability Inventory used to determine teaching tendencies and styles. In addition, a structured written questionnaire developed by the researchers was used to assess teacher satisfaction with worldwide web-based instruction. Utilizing the results of these psychological assessments, a preliminary analysis of the personal characteristics of college professors who chose to teach on line will be presented. This pilot study found that some preferred teaching styles may be more compatible with the dynamics of distance learning formats. By determining successful teaching styles for on-line courses, we can develop more effective faculty development programs to assist others in successfully transitioning into the cyber-teaching and learning environment.

  4. Criminal thinking styles and emotional intelligence in Egyptian offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M

    2013-02-01

    The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) has been applied extensively to the study of criminal behaviour and cognition. Increasingly growing evidence indicates that criminal thinking styles vary considerably among individuals, and these individual variations appear to be crucial for a full understanding of criminal behaviour. This study aimed to examine individual differences in criminal thinking as a function of emotional intelligence. A group of 56 Egyptian male prisoners completed the PICTS and Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i). The correlations between these assessments were examined using a series of Pearson correlations coefficients, with Bonferroni correction. General criminal thinking, reactive criminal thinking and five criminal thinking styles (mollification, cutoff, power orientation, cognitive indolence and discontinuity) negatively correlated with emotional intelligence. On the other hand, proactive criminal thinking and three criminal thinking styles (entitlement, superoptimism and sentimentality) did not associate with emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence is an important correlate of individual differences in criminal thinking, especially its reactive aspects. Practical implications of this suggestion were discussed. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Relationship of sleep quality with coping and life styles in female Moroccan immigrants in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Tuin, Inka

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in Western societies show poorer sleep quality in women compared with men. Socioeconomic and stress-related psychological variables have been shown to influence sleep, but not much is known about sociological and psychological influences on the sleep of women in general and non-Western women in particular. The present study reports on sociodemographic and coping variables in relation to sleep quality in female Moroccan immigrants living in Germany. Participants took part in a structured personal interview on Pittsburg Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) sleep quality, coping style preferences, and information related to the degree of identification with Western life style. Sleep quality was poor (PSQI > 6) in 39% of women. Surprisingly, women who had identified with a more Western lifestyle had poorer sleep quality than women who had retained their traditional Moroccan life style. An unusually large proportion of women preferred monitoring (i.e., information-seeking coping style) and adaptive coping (48% and 19%, respectively), regardless of sleep quality. Monitoring was more frequent in women who were less integrated into German culture. Results on sleep quality suggest that for Moroccan immigrant women in Germany, adopting a Western life style may be more stressful than retaining their native life style. The high preference for an information seeking approach in coping may reflect the desire for information rather than actual coping behavior.

  6. Gene-environment interaction influences attachment-like style in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, G; Tucci, V

    2017-07-01

    Attachment styles are established soon after birth and form the basis for a healthy psychological life during adulthood. Here, we investigated whether genetic background (i.e. isogenic strains: C57BL/6N and BALB/c) and parent-of-origin (i.e. reciprocal hybrids) epigenetic effects influence attachment-like styles in mice. We discovered that a specific genetic and epigenetic assortment exerts a role on the development of a secure or insecure attachment-like style. In particular, when biological mothers raise their pups, the attachment-like style is mainly secure, independently of the genetic background. However, when foster mothers raise pups, the attachment-like style can be either secure or insecure, depending on the particular genetic background, and this effect is paternally transmitted. Finally, we observed that secure attachment-like in mice leads to greater sociability during adulthood, while insecure attachment-like leads to reduced sociability. Our study sheds light on gene-environment interactions that shape the attachment-like style early in development and pave the way for a healthy psychological life. © 2017 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior published by International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Psychological characteristics of BDSM practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismeijer, Andreas A J; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2013-08-01

    It has been generally thought that the practice of bondage-discipline, dominance-submission, sadism-masochism (BDSM) is in some form associated with psychopathology. However, several more recent studies suggest a relative good psychological health of BDSM practitioners. The aim of this study was to compare scores of BDSM practitioners and a control group on various fundamental psychological characteristics. For this aim, 902 BDSM and 434 control participants completely filled out online questionnaires. Associations were examined using χ(2) tests of independence with φ and Cramer's V as effect size measures and eta or Pearson's correlation. Group differences were tested using analysis of covariance, with partial η(2) as effect size measure. A priori contrasts were tested using α = 0.01 to correct for multiple testing; for all other tests we used α = 0.05, two tailed. The study used Big Five personality dimensions (NEO Five-Factor Inventory), attachment styles (Attachment Styles Questionnaire), rejection sensitivity (Rejection Sensitivity Questionnaire), and subjective well-being (World Health Organization-Five Well-being Index). The results mostly suggest favorable psychological characteristics of BDSM practitioners compared with the control group; BDSM practitioners were less neurotic, more extraverted, more open to new experiences, more conscientious, less rejection sensitive, had higher subjective well-being, yet were less agreeable. Comparing the four groups, if differences were observed, BDSM scores were generally more favorably for those with a dominant than a submissive role, with least favorable scores for controls. We conclude that BDSM may be thought of as a recreational leisure, rather than the expression of psychopathological processes. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  8. Narcissism and defense mechanisms in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Bele

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine how the level of covert and overt narcissism is connected to the frequency of the use of defense mechanisms such as denial, repression, regression, projection, compensation, projection, intellectualization, reaction formation, displacement, dissociation, and somatoform dissociation. We can distinguish healthy narcissism, an appropriate self-evaluation, from pathological narcissism, unrealistic self-evalutaion hiding sense of one's own unworthiness with self-idealization and grandiose thinking. When combined with low/no empathy and exploiting of others, one is diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder. In this research we focused on narcissism as a personality trait, keeping in mind that we can differentiate between more covert or overt form of narcissism. We also focused on defense mechanisms protecting an individual from stimuli that are either endangering self-esteem or produce anxiety. Although their use is often unconscious, recent findings support the thesis that an individual can observe and report them. Our sample comprised 203 women. We used Narcissistic Personality Inventory, The Hypersensitive Narcissism Scale, The Life Style Index, The Dissociative Experience Scale, and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire. Results indicated that women with higher levels of covert narcissism as a personality trait use defense mechanisms, especially regression on earlier developmental stage, compensation deficits on other areas, projection unwanted or unacceptable aspects, reaction formation, and dissociation (absorption, depersonalization and derealization more often than women with higher levels of overt narcissism. The later use more compensation as a way of dealing with loss, intellectualization as a rational response instead of emotional one, and regression.

  9. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  10. [Adolescent psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemerle, Sophie

    2005-05-31

    Adolescence is a transitional period dominated by puberty modifications. These modifications must come with a psychological work leading towards increased self containing from parents and also towards the choice of an own life orientation. In order to do so, adolescent must satisfy his needs to be able to change. This process will not run smoothly. The troubled adolescent will express himself with groans or acting out more than with words. This modus operandi is typical of that age. The general practitioner will be in the front line in being attentive to the adolescent and his parents needs.

  11. Self-reported and physiologically measured dental anxiety, coping styles and personality traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, C.; Schuurs, A.H.B.; Kooreman, T.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1996-01-01

    Studied the relationship between verbal-cognitive and physiological measures of dental anxiety, coping styles, and personality traits among 53 undergraduate psychology students (aged 18-31 yrs). Data were collected during 2 separate sessions. The 1st (stress) session involved continuous and

  12. Self-Esteem and Body Dissatisfaction in Young Children: Associations with Weight and Perceived Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene; Slater, Amy; Mohr, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Background: Parenting style has been associated with weight-related outcomes in children, but relationships between parenting, weight, and overweight-related psychological outcomes remain largely unstudied. The aim of the present study was to determine whether parenting was a moderator of the relationship between overweight and psychological…

  13. The Effect of Teacher Training on the Learning Styles of Prospective Teachers of Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Nevin; Kesten, Alper; Iskin, Pinar

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of four-year-long undergraduate education on the learning styles of prospective teachers of social studies. This study was conducted in accordance with longitudinal method, which is one of the research designs used in developmental psychology researches. The study was conducted with the…

  14. A Children's Form of Your Style of Learning and Thinking: Preliminary Norms and Technical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The development of a children's form of Your Style of Learning and Thinking (a self report inventory designed to estimate the relative psychological dependence of an individual on the right or left brain hemisphere) is briefly described. Equivalent forms, reliability coefficients from several samples generally are seen to prove satisfactory.…

  15. Relation of toddler temperament and perceived parenting styles to adult resilience

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva; Blatný, Marek; Kebza, V.; Jelínek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2016), s. 61-70 ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : adult resilience * early temperament * parenting style * demandingness * responsiveness Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.242, year: 2016

  16. Maternal Parenting Styles, School Involvement, and Children's School Achievement and Conduct in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Yeo, Kim Lian

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the roles of children's perceptions of maternal parenting styles (warmth, psychological control, and behavioral control) and maternal involvement in school-focused parenting practices (home-based involvement, home-school conferencing, and school-based involvement) predicting children's school achievement and conduct in…

  17. Parenting, Marital Conflict and Adjustment from Early- To Mid-Adolescence: Mediated by Adolescent Attachment Style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy

    2005-01-01

    Contributions of 3 dimensions of parenting (psychological control, warmth, and behavioural control), marital conflict, and attachment style (anxiety and avoidance) to adjustment from early to middle adolescence were assessed. Mediation of marital conflict effects by parenting, and of parenting effects by attachment were examined. Adolescents (n =…

  18. Prioritizing Improvements in Internet Instruction Based on Learning Styles and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Carol A.; Lee, Donald J.; Hain, Patricia M.

    2006-01-01

    How can various features of internet-based instruction be adapted to help students with different learning styles to grasp important science concepts? Are there ways of defining and measuring these differences that instructors without much background in educational psychology might find easier to apply than some of the better-known examples? How…

  19. Leadership Profiles: An Instrument to Assess Leadership Styles of School Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Donald B.; And Others

    An instrument was developed to assess principal leadership. Two studies were then conducted to assess the reliability, validity, and utility of the instrument. Leadership style is the relative intensity of the presence of four modes of authority (traditional, charismatic, legal, and expert authority) and four modes of power (moral, psychological,…

  20. Does Experiential Avoidance Mediate the Effects of Maladaptive Coping Styles on Psychopathology and Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…

  1. Symbolism--The Main Artistic Style of Katherine Anne Porter's Short Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ru

    2010-01-01

    The paper takes Katherine Anne Porter's two short stories: "Flowering Judas", "The Grave" as objects of study. It will try to analyze Porter's writing style through her imaginary conception, vivid psychological description and multiple symbolisms so that we can understand her studies and her attitudes to female psychological…

  2. Learned Helplessness: Shifts in Affect Following Uncontrollability and the Relationship to Attributional Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Allison

    This study investigated the reformulated theory of learned helplessness, centering around attributional style in the cause of cognitive and emotional deficits. Subjects (N=58) were undergraduate and graduate psychology students at the University of Alabama at Huntsville. Subjects were divided into an experimental group (N=30) who received…

  3. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the institution of social services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakhtar Valentina Vizitorіvna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the essence of the concepts “socio-psychological climate”, “climate” and “organizational culture”. The author analyses approaches to understanding the socio-psychological climate: the socio-psychological phenomenon, the general emotional and psychological mood, the style of people's relationships with direct contact with each other, the social and psychological compatibility of the members of the group. The features of the formation of the socio-psychological climate in the establishment of the social service, factors affecting the state of the socio-psychological climate in the team are considered.

  4. Cognitive-style characteristics as criteria for differential diagnosis of delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Kuznetsov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a psychological study of the relationship of cognitive styles with the development of delusional formations, overvalued ideas and simulative products in order to develop criteria of delirium differential diagnosis. We examined 118 men, ordered at forensic psychological and psychiatric examination, among them delusional symptoms were found in 68 people, and overvalued ideas in 26 people, 24 people simulated delirium. As a method of research, we used pathopsychological experiment and projective techniques and methods that identify particular cognitive style (TAT, Rorschach, Torrance. We found that delusional patients, unlike those simulating a mental disorder, show field independence cognitive style combined with the rigidity that is characteristic also for patients with endogenous overvalued ideas. In personality disorders, we found combination of field independence with the flexibility or with rigidity.

  5. Allergic Host Defenses

    OpenAIRE

    Palm, Noah W.; Rosenstein, Rachel K.; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2012-01-01

    Allergies are generally thought to be a detrimental outcome of a mistargeted immune response that evolved to provide immunity to macro-parasites. Here we present arguments to suggest that allergic immunity plays an important role in host defense against noxious environmental substances, including venoms, hematophagous fluids, environmental xenobiotics and irritants. We argue that appropriately targeted allergic reactions are beneficial, although they can become detrimental when excessive. Fur...

  6. A Defense Budget Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-09

    budget practices. See Appendix D for the actual timetable of congressional action on the FY1999 budget.65 See James V. Saturno , The Appropriations...details, see James V. Saturno , The Appropriations Process and the Congressional69 Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. Table 6. Milestone Votes on the Defense...James V. Saturno , The74 Appropriations Process and the Congressional Budget Act, CRS Report 97-947. The Budget Enforcement Act of 1990 and subsequent

  7. Action Identity in Style Simulation Systems: Do Players Consider Machine-Generated Music As of Their Own Style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatchatourov, Armen; Pachet, François; Rowe, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The generation of musical material in a given style has been the subject of many studies with the increased sophistication of artificial intelligence models of musical style. In this paper we address a question of primary importance for artificial intelligence and music psychology: can such systems generate music that users indeed consider as corresponding to their own style? We address this question through an experiment involving both performance and recognition tasks with musically naïve school-age children. We asked 56 children to perform a free-form improvisation from which two kinds of music excerpt were created. One was a mere recording of original performances. The other was created by a software program designed to simulate the participants' style, based on their original performances. Two hours after the performance task, the children completed the recognition task in two conditions, one with the original excerpts and one with machine-generated music. Results indicate that the success rate is practically equivalent in two conditions: children tended to make correct attribution of the excerpts to themselves or to others, whether the music was human-produced or machine-generated (mean accuracy = 0.75 and = 0.71, respectively). We discuss this equivalence in accuracy for machine-generated and human produced music in the light of the literature on memory effects and action identity which addresses the recognition of one's own production.

  8. Plant Defense against Insect Herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenberg-Hägg, Joel; Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been interacting with insects for several hundred million years, leading to complex defense approaches against various insect feeding strategies. Some defenses are constitutive while others are induced, although the insecticidal defense compound or protein classes are often similar. Insect herbivory induce several internal signals from the wounded tissues, including calcium ion fluxes, phosphorylation cascades and systemic- and jasmonate signaling. These are perceived in undamaged tissues, which thereafter reinforce their defense by producing different, mostly low molecular weight, defense compounds. These bioactive specialized plant defense compounds may repel or intoxicate insects, while defense proteins often interfere with their digestion. Volatiles are released upon herbivory to repel herbivores, attract predators or for communication between leaves or plants, and to induce defense responses. Plants also apply morphological features like waxes, trichomes and latices to make the feeding more difficult for the insects. Extrafloral nectar, food bodies and nesting or refuge sites are produced to accommodate and feed the predators of the herbivores. Meanwhile, herbivorous insects have adapted to resist plant defenses, and in some cases even sequester the compounds and reuse them in their own defense. Both plant defense and insect adaptation involve metabolic costs, so most plant-insect interactions reach a stand-off, where both host and herbivore survive although their development is suboptimal. PMID:23681010

  9. Low-Wage Maternal Employment and Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Bentler, Peter M.; Franke, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study investigated whether low-wage employment was associated with improved psychological and parenting outcomes in a sample of 178 single mothers who were employed and nonemployed current and former welfare recipients both before and subsequent to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Participation in employment predicted fewer depressive symptoms and less negative parenting style over time. Employment at time 1 was associated with a reduced likelihood of receiving welfare in the interim between Time 1 and Time 2, less financial strain at Time 2, and (through these) a decrease in mothers’ depressive symptoms at Time 2. Fewer depressive symptoms at Time 2, in turn, predicted less negative parenting style, net of the mothers’ earlier demographic, mental health, and parenting characteristics. Mothers with higher educational attainment were more likely to be employed (and to earn more) at both time points. Implications of these findings for welfare policies are discussed. PMID:19275122

  10. The cross-cultural perspective in Romanian psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. R. Van de VIJVER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An overview is presented of issues relevant for cross-cultural research in Romanian psychology. It is first observed that Romania is not well presented in large-scale cross-cultural studies such as studies on (workrelated values and that the scarce data do not present a consistent picture. The paper then continues by presenting relevant topics for the fledgling cross-cultural research in psychology in Romania. The first is the need to go beyond the emic—etic dichotomy; the second is the seemingly ubiquitous presence of response styles in self-reports in cross-cultural studies; the third refers to acculturation psychology. It is concluded that cross-cultural psychology is relevant for three domains in cross-cultural psychology in Romania: the place of Romania in the psychological map of the world, Romanians in the Diaspora, and diversity (multiculturalism within Romania.

  11. [Evolution in styles of romantic and interpersonal attachment in depressed adult women during hospitalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, M; Chahraoui, K; Vinay, A; Jebrane, A; Bonin, B; Gisselmann, A; Larome, A

    2012-10-01

    Bowlby (1984) regarded attachment as a model of psychological vulnerability to depression. Since then, a large number of studies have considered vulnerability to depression in light of the idea of attachment style. Attachment styles correspond to two dimensions observed in relationships (anxiety and avoidance) evoking ideally the internal operating models of self and other respectively, as first described by Bowlby (1984). Two types of adult attachment styles are evaluated in our study: romantic attachment (Hazan and Shaver, 1987) and interpersonal attachment (Bartholomew and Horowitz, 1991). The existing literature indicates that depression is associated with the insecure attachment styles, in both romantic an interpersonal relationships. Nevertheless, a question remains concerning the nature of the link between attachment style and depression: are attachment styles stable and independent of the depression or are they modified as the depression evolves? The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between attachment and depression in adult women hospitalized for depression; following up the evolution in their romantic and interpersonal attachment styles from the beginning to the end of their hospitalization. The study population consisted of 50 women hospitalized for an episode of major depression (Axis I, DSM IV). Individuals exhibiting bipolar disorders and other pathologies linked to depression were not included in the population. Sixty-eight percent of the depressed women in our population had previously experienced depressive episodes and 42% of them also exhibited a personality disorder (Axis II, DSM IV). The clinical group participated in two psychological investigations, one at the beginning (T1) and one at the end of the hospitalization (T2), including each time a clinical interview during which the depression as well as the romantic (ECR, 1998) and interpersonal (RQ, 1991) attachment styles were evaluated. Our findings showed that

  12. Reading Processes and Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreteiro, Rui Manuel; Justo, João Manuel; Figueira, Ana Paula

    2016-08-01

    Home literacy environment explains between 12 and 18.5 % of the variance of children's language skills. Although most authors agree that children whose parents encourage them to read tend to develop better and earlier reading skills, some authors consider that the impact of family environment in reading skills is overvalued. Probably, other variables of parent-child relationship, like parenting styles, might be relevant for this field. Nevertheless, no previous studies on the effect of parenting styles in literacy have been found. To analyze the role of parenting styles in the reading processes of children. Children's perceptions of parenting styles contribute significantly to the explanation of statistical variance of children's reading processes. 110 children (67 boys and 43 girls), aged between 7 and 11 years (M [Formula: see text] 9.22 and SD [Formula: see text] 1.14) from Portuguese schools answered to a socio-demographic questionnaire. To assess reading processes it was administered the Portuguese adaptation (Figueira et al. in press) of Bateria de Avaliação dos Processos Leitores-Revista (PROLEC-R). To assess the parenting styles Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran-parents (EMBU-P) and EMBU-C (children version) were administered. According to multiple hierarchical linear regressions, individual factors contribute to explain all reading tests of PROLEC-R, while family factors contribute to explain most of these tests. Regarding parenting styles, results evidence the explanatory power about grammatical structures, sentence comprehension and listening. Parenting styles have an important role in the explanation of higher reading processes (syntactic and semantic) but not in lexical processes, focused by main theories concerning dyslexia.

  13. Transformational Leadership Style as Predictor of Decision Making Styles: Moderating Role of Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Rashid Rehman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study examines the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles. It also determines the moderating role of emotional intelligence in predicting this relationship. Three hypotheses are generated for the study i.e., twohypotheses are to measure the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles whereas third hypothesis is to assess the moderating effect of emotional intelligence. Questionnaire method is used to collect data from 113respondents. Regression analysis is utilized to study the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles and step-wise regression analysis is used to study moderating effect of emotional intelligence. The study foundthat transformational leadership style strongly predicts rational and dependant decision making styles and weakly predict intuitive and spontaneous decision making styles while no association founds with avoidant decision making styles. Present research also foundthat emotional intelligence moderates the relationship among transformational leadership style and decision making styles.

  14. Defense Profiles in Adaptation Process to Sport Competition and Their Relationships with Coping, Stress and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Nicolas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the potentially distinct defense profiles of athletes in order to provide insight into the complex associations that can exist between defenses and other important variables tied to performance in sports (e.g., coping, perceived stress and control and to further our understanding of the complexity of the adaptation process in sports. Two hundred and ninety-six (N = 296 athletes participated in a naturalistic study that involved a highly stressful situation: a sports competition. Participants were assessed before and after the competition. Hierarchical cluster analysis and a series of MANOVAs with post hoc comparisons indicated two stable defense profiles (high and low defense profiles of athletes both before and during sport competition. These profiles differed with regards to coping, stress and control. Athletes with high defense profiles reported higher levels of coping strategies, perceived stress and control than athletes with low defense profiles. This study confirmed that defenses are involved in the psychological adaptation process and that research and intervention should not be based only on coping, but rather must include defense mechanisms in order to improve our understanding of psychological adaptation in competitive sports.

  15. Mediational role of parenting styles in emotional intelligence of parents and aggression among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batool, Syeda Shahida; Bond, Rod

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between parents' emotional intelligence and adolescents' aggression, through the mediation of parenting styles. Two hundred and twenty five undergraduate students (113 boys & 112 girls; age 17-18 years), from four universities in Pakistan, participated with their parents. The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (Robinson, Mandleco, Olsen, & Hart, 1995), and the Scale of Emotional Intelligence (Batool & Khalid, 2011) were completed by parents. The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) was completed by their adolescent offspring. Mediational path analysis supported our hypothesised model. Results indicate that emotional intelligence of parents indirectly links to aggression among offspring, through parenting styles. It was concluded that emotional intelligence training will help parents to improve their parenting styles, and it will lower the risk of aggression in their children. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Learning style, judgements of learning, and learning of verbal and visual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Abby R; Otani, Hajime; Skeel, Reid L; Van Horn, K Roger

    2017-08-01

    The concept of learning style is immensely popular despite the lack of evidence showing that learning style influences performance. This study tested the hypothesis that the popularity of learning style is maintained because it is associated with subjective aspects of learning, such as judgements of learning (JOLs). Preference for verbal and visual information was assessed using the revised Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire (VVQ). Then, participants studied a list of word pairs and a list of picture pairs, making JOLs (immediate, delayed, and global) while studying each list. Learning was tested by cued recall. The results showed that higher VVQ verbalizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for words, and higher VVQ visualizer scores were associated with higher immediate JOLs for pictures. There was no association between VVQ scores and recall or JOL accuracy. As predicted, learning style was associated with subjective aspects of learning but not objective aspects of learning. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  17. [Parenting style in Spanish parents with children aged 6 to 14].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Geta, Petra María

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to establish which parenting style of Spanish families is associated with optimum children's outcomes. A random Spanish sample of 1,103 parents of children and teenagers from 6 to 14 years of age, of whom 47% were females, reported on their child-rearing practices. Families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) based on the parents' answers. Socialization outcomes were 6 indicators of interpersonal relationship quality, 9 indicators of psychological adjustment, 7 indicators of personal competence, and 12 indicators of behavior problems. Results showed that indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting. Overall, our results supported the idea that, in Spain, the optimum parenting style is the indulgent one, as scores in the four sets of socialization outcomes among children and teenagers from indulgent families were always equal to, or even better than, the authoritative parenting style.

  18. Extreme response style as a cultural response to climato-economic deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Van de Vliert, Evert; Van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2016-06-03

    We investigated the effects of climato-economic harshness on extreme response style. Climato-economic theorising postulates that a more threatening climate in poorer countries, in contrast to countries with a more comforting climate and richer countries with a more challenging climate, triggers intolerance of ambiguity and uncertainty avoidance inherent to conservatism, in-group favouritism and autocracy. Scores of extreme response style at country level, a proxy of this cluster of cultural characteristics, were extracted from students' responses in the Programme for International Student Assessment to test the hypothesis. In a series of hierarchical regression analysis across 64 countries, cold demands, heat demands and GDP per capita showed a highly significant interaction effect on extreme response style, predicting in total 30.7% of the variance. Extreme response style was highest in poorer countries with higher climatic demands, and lowest in richer countries with lower climate demands. Implications are discussed. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Speak up! Enhancing risk performance with enterprise risk management, leadership style and employee voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sax, Johanna; Torp, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of psychological safety and participative leadership style on risk performance as well as its interaction with enterprise risk management (ERM) processes to evaluate if a decentralisation in the form of a safe environment and participative......: – The paper finds that not only do both ERM and participative leadership style enhance risk performance but a positive interaction effect is also found. In addition, the findings suggest that a safe environment precede participative leadership style indicating this as a prerequisite for management...... to introduce participative leadership style. These findings underpin that an effective risk management system should include both a holistic, formalised ERM system and organisational initiatives that enhance a strategic responsiveness through employee involvement. Originality/value: – The current study...

  20. Fatherhood and Managerial Style

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Michael S.; Dezsö, Cristian; Ross, David Gaddis

    2012-01-01

    , and families of CEOs in all but the smallest Danish firms between 1996 and 2006. We find that (a) a male CEO generally pays his employees less generously after fathering a child, (b) the birth of a daughter has a less negative influence on wages than does the birth of a son and has a positive influence...... if the daughter is the CEO’s first, and (c) the wages of female employees are less adversely affected than are those of male employees and positively affected by the CEO’s first child of either gender. We also find that male CEOs pay themselves more after fathering a child, especially after fathering a son....... These results are consistent with a desire by the CEO to husband more resources for his family after fathering a child and the psychological priming of the CEO’s generosity after the birth of his first daughter and specifically toward women after the birth of his first child of either gender....

  1. Coverage of Milgram's Obedience Experiments in Social Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.; Whitehead, George I., III

    2015-01-01

    Past studies of the treatment of Milgram's obedience experiments in social psychology textbooks from the 1960s to the 1990s discovered an evolving "Milgram-friendly" coverage style (dealing with criticisms of his experiments either summarily, in a pro-Milgram manner, or not at all). We examined 10 current social textbooks to determine…

  2. Psychological Profile of Male and Female Animal Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca L.; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L.

    2012-01-01

    This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who…

  3. Psychological Determinants of University Students' Academic Performance: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebka, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    This study utilises an integrated conceptual model of academic performance which captures a series of psychological factors: cognitive style; self-theories such as self-esteem and self-efficacy; achievement goals such as mastery, performance, performance avoidance and work avoidance; study-processing strategies such as deep and surface learning;…

  4. Psychological determinants of career development in a changing labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation in four studies psychological factors are investigated that may affect the development of careers of employees. On the one hand, it was found that experiences of people in early childhood might affect their career. People may differ in their attachment styles with the

  5. Promoting Resilience in Schools: A View from Occupational Health Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers teacher resilience from the viewpoint of a discipline concerned with the interactions between work design, management style and employee health and well-being: occupational health psychology. It will be suggested that there are strong parallels between interventions designed to promote resilience and those designed to reduce…

  6. An Introduction to Adlerian Psychology for the School Counsellor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Alan M.

    The life and work of Alfred Adler is outlined with a listing and explanation of the five principles of his Individual Psychology: (1) social interest, (2) self-determinism, (3) goal directed behavior, (4) subjectively interpreted perception, and (5) holism. The Adlerian terms, life style and family constellation are likewise explained. There is…

  7. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed.

  8. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Stillwell, David J.; Kosinski, Michal; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S) theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891) indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320) indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz). Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353) replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., ‘brain types’). Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing) preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres) compared to type S (bias towards systemizing) who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock). Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes), negative valence (depressing and sad), and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful), while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling), and aspects of positive valence (animated) and cerebral depth (complexity). The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S) are discussed. PMID:26200656

  9. Musical Preferences are Linked to Cognitive Styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Greenberg

    Full Text Available Why do we like the music we do? Research has shown that musical preferences and personality are linked, yet little is known about other influences on preferences such as cognitive styles. To address this gap, we investigated how individual differences in musical preferences are explained by the empathizing-systemizing (E-S theory. Study 1 examined the links between empathy and musical preferences across four samples. By reporting their preferential reactions to musical stimuli, samples 1 and 2 (Ns = 2,178 and 891 indicated their preferences for music from 26 different genres, and samples 3 and 4 (Ns = 747 and 320 indicated their preferences for music from only a single genre (rock or jazz. Results across samples showed that empathy levels are linked to preferences even within genres and account for significant proportions of variance in preferences over and above personality traits for various music-preference dimensions. Study 2 (N = 353 replicated and extended these findings by investigating how musical preferences are differentiated by E-S cognitive styles (i.e., 'brain types'. Those who are type E (bias towards empathizing preferred music on the Mellow dimension (R&B/soul, adult contemporary, soft rock genres compared to type S (bias towards systemizing who preferred music on the Intense dimension (punk, heavy metal, and hard rock. Analyses of fine-grained psychological and sonic attributes in the music revealed that type E individuals preferred music that featured low arousal (gentle, warm, and sensual attributes, negative valence (depressing and sad, and emotional depth (poetic, relaxing, and thoughtful, while type S preferred music that featured high arousal (strong, tense, and thrilling, and aspects of positive valence (animated and cerebral depth (complexity. The application of these findings for clinicians, interventions, and those on the autism spectrum (largely type S or extreme type S are discussed.

  10. Dentist-assistant interaction styles in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Y S; Abu-Sharbain, G

    2009-05-01

    To assess dentist-assistant interaction and communication styles and their associated factors in Jordan. Three different areas in Amman where private dental clinics heavily cluster were chosen. The researcher visited all dental clinics in these areas and invited dentists to participate in this study. A structured self-administered questionnaire was designed and included the 22 items on staff communication that were used by Gorter and Freeman to assess communication styles. The culturally adapted items were analysed in such a way to reflect the structure that is used in the original study. There was a significant interaction between dentist's gender and communication styles (F = 3.8, P = 0.022). The only significant difference between men and women was for professional leadership style (P = 0.011) where men were more likely to adopt professional leadership style than women. For men, the average score for friendly leadership style was significantly lower than that for other styles. For women, the average score was the highest for gender interacting style which was significantly higher than that for friendly leadership style and professional interacting style, but not business leadership style. Communication and interaction styles between Jordanian dentists and their assistants differ according to gender. Jordanian dentists are less likely to adopt friendly leadership communication style compared with other styles.

  11. ETS Research on Cognitive, Personality, and Social Psychology: I. Research Report. ETS RR-13-01. ETS R&D Scientific and Policy Contributions Series. ETS SPC-13-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    This is an account of a portion of the research on cognitive, personality, and social psychology at ETS since the organization's inception. The topics in cognitive psychology are the structure of abilities; in personality psychology, response styles and social and emotional intelligence; and in social psychology, prosocial behavior and stereotype…

  12. Polycultural psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Chiu, Chi-yue; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-03

    We review limitations of the traditional paradigm for cultural research and propose an alternative framework, polyculturalism. Polyculturalism assumes that individuals' relationships to cultures are not categorical but rather are partial and plural; it also assumes that cultural traditions are not independent, sui generis lineages but rather are interacting systems. Individuals take influences from multiple cultures and thereby become conduits through which cultures can affect each other. Past literatures on the influence of multiple cultural identities and cultural knowledge legacies can be better understood within a polyculturalist rubric. Likewise, the concept elucidates how cultures are changed by contact with other cultures, enabling richer psychological theories of intercultural influence. Different scientific paradigms about culture imply different ideologies and policies; polyculturalism's implied policy of interculturalism provides a valuable complement to the traditional policy frames of multiculturalism and colorblindness.

  13. Disgust sensitivity predicts defensive responding to mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Crowell, Adrienne L; Tang, David; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Disgust protects the physical self. The present authors suggest that disgust also contributes to the protection of the psychological self by fostering stronger defensive reactions to existential concerns. To test this idea, 3 studies examined the link between disgust sensitivity and defensive responses to mortality salience or "terror management" processes (Greenberg, Solomon, & Pyszczynski, 1997). Each study included an individual difference measure of disgust sensitivity, a manipulation of mortality salience, and a dependent measure of defensive responding. In Study 1, disgust sensitivity predicted increases in worldview defense in the mortality salience condition but not in the control condition. In Study 2, disgust sensitivity predicted increases in optimistic perceptions of the future in the mortality salience condition but not in the control condition. In Study 3, disgust sensitivity predicted reductions in delay discounting for those in the mortality salience condition such that those higher in disgust sensitivity discounted the future less. This pattern did not occur in the control condition. These findings highlight disgust sensitivity as a key to understanding reactions to mortality salience, and they support the view that disgust-related responses protect against both physical (e.g., noxious substances) and psychological threats. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Correlation research on psychological health impact on nursing students against stress, coping way and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Wang, Honghong

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors affecting nurse students' psychological status, and the interactions between mental symptoms and stressful factors, coping style and social support in their early clinical experiences. We assessed clinically 288 college nurse students during their first period by adopting College Seniors Stress Scale (CSSS), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), Support Questionnaire and Symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90). The result of this study was that (1) positive correlations were found between stressful events, negative coping style and the total scores of SCL-90 (r=0.487, 0.462, pcoping style, social support and the total scores of SCL-90 (r=-0.192, -00.135, pstressful factors, negative coping style and social support all have main effects on mental symptoms (F=34.062, 16.090, 20.898, Pcoping style has no main effect on mental symptoms (F=1.853, P>0.05), but interactions relate to stressful factors and positive coping style (F=14.579, Pcoping style and social support. In order to improve the psychological condition of nursing students, aside from reducing the stress incidents and avoiding negative coping, it is very necessary to enhance the social support systems and to encourage them to adopt the positive coping styles.

  15. Parenting Styles and Adolescents’ School Adjustment: Investigating the Mediating Role of Achievement Goals within the 2 × 2 Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Shiyuan Xiang; Yan Liu; Lu Bai

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the multiple mediating roles of achievement goals based on a 2 × 2 framework of the relationships between parenting styles and adolescents’ school adjustment. The study sample included 1061 Chinese adolescent students (50.4% girls) between the ages of 12 and 19, who completed questionnaires regarding parenting styles (parental autonomy support and psychological control), achievement goals (mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance...

  16. Parenting Styles and Children’s Emotional Development during the First Grade: The Moderating Role of Child Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Zarra-Nezhad, Maryam; Aunola, Kaisa; Kiuru, Noona; Mullola, Sari; Moazami-Goodarzi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the associations between parenting styles (affection, behavioral control, and psychological control) and children’s emotional development (emotion expression) during the first grade of primary school, and the moderating role of children’s temperament (easy, difficult, and inhibited) in these associations. Mothers and fathers of 152 children responded to a questionnaire concerning their parenting styles and their child’s temperament at the beginning of their child’s fir...

  17. Shyness in late childhood: relations with attributional styles and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S M; Wong, A K Y

    2013-03-01

    Shyness in late childhood is related to social and psychological problems. The present study examined the relations among shyness, attributional styles and self-esteem. It was hypothesized that self-esteem mediated the effects of attributional styles on shyness. Self-reported data on degree of shyness, attributional styles and self-esteem were obtained from 326 Chinese children with mean age of 10.85 years. It was found that positive attributional styles predicted shyness in the negative direction and the effects were fully mediated by self-esteem, and negative attributional styles predicted shyness in the positive direction both directly and through self-esteem. The results imply that how children attribute positive and negative outcomes affect both self-esteem and shyness. It is suggested that practitioners should conduct attribution-retraining workshops for shy children and help teachers and parents learn how to mitigate negative attributional style and foster positive attributional styles in children. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Coping Styles in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Rezaei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a report of a study of The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Coping Styles in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Iran. Hemodialysis patients face with multiple physical and psychological stressful factors; they use coping styles in order to cope with the challenges. A descriptive-correlation study was conducted based on the data collected from patients undergoing hemodialysis by census method in the city of Kerman using the Endler and Parker coping style, Self-esteem and demographic information questionnaires. The mean age of patients was 56.21 ± 1.45 years and 58.5% were male. The statistically positive relationship between self-esteem and problem-oriented coping style (p=0.05 and inverse relationship between self-esteem and emotion-oriented style (p<0.001. The patients with higher and lower self-esteem used problem-oriented and emotion-oriented styles, respectively. According to the results, it is necessary for nurses to enhance their role in promoting self-esteem and help patients undergoing hemodialysis while using problem-oriented style.

  19. Ego defense mechanisms in Pakistani medical students: a cross sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Roha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ego defense mechanisms (or factors, defined by Freud as unconscious resources used by the ego to reduce conflict between the id and superego, are a reflection of how an individual deals with conflict and stress. This study assesses the prevalence of various ego defense mechanisms employed by medical students of Karachi, which is a group with higher stress levels than the general population. Methods A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted on 682 students from five major medical colleges of Karachi over 4 weeks in November 2006. Ego defense mechanisms were assessed using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 individually and as grouped under Mature, Immature, and Neurotic factors. Results Lower mean scores of Immature defense mechanisms (4.78 were identified than those for Neurotic (5.62 and Mature (5.60 mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. Immature mechanisms were more commonly employed by males whereas females employed more Neurotic mechanisms than males. Neurotic and Immature defenses were significantly more prevalent in first and second year students. Mature mechanisms were significantly higher in students enrolled in Government colleges than Private institutions (p Conclusions Immature defense mechanisms were less commonly employed than Neurotic and Mature mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. The greater employment of Neurotic defenses may reflect greater stress levels than the general population. Employment of these mechanisms was associated with female gender, enrollment in a private medical college, and students enrolled in the first 2 years of medical school.

  20. The chemists' style of thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensaude-Vincent, Bernadette

    2009-12-01

    This paper discusses the relevance of the notion of "styles of scientific thinking" introduced by Alistair Crombie and revisited by Ian Hacking, for understanding how chemistry shaped its identity. Although neither Crombie nor Hacking applied this notion to individual disciplines, it seems appropriate to use it in the case of chemistry because it helps to address a puzzling issue: how did chemists manage to shape an identity of their own, despite shifting territories and theoretical transformations? Following a presentation of the notion of style, I will argue that the stable identity of chemistry is rooted in laboratory practices, which determined the specific questions that chemists put to nature as well as the answers to their questions. The "chemical style of thinking" is characterized by (i) a specific way of knowing through making, (ii) the concern with individual materials rather than matter in general and (iii) a specific commitment to nature.

  1. Learning style preferences of undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, Goolam Hussein; Rawaf, Salman

    To determine the predominant learning style preferences of undergraduate nursing students. A demographic questionnaire and Honey and Mumford's (2000a) learning styles questionnaire were administered to a purposive sample of 136 students. A response rate of 81% (110) was obtained. The results are congruent with U.K. studies, which show that the reflector is the preferred learning style of undergraduate nursing students. A 'dual' learning style category was also identified. A mismatch between teaching style and the learning styles of students has been found to have serious consequences. A variety of modes of teaching and learning should be used to meet the learning needs of students.

  2. Synthetic Plant Defense Elicitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin eBektas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of the some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection.

  3. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ANTARCTIC LIVING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    POLAR REGIONS, ECOLOGY), (*ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY ), POLAR REGIONS), (*NAVAL PERSONNEL, ADJUSTMENT( PSYCHOLOGY )), LEADERSHIP, SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY , EMOTIONS , PERFORMANCE(ENGINEERING), ACCLIMATIZATION, STRESS( PSYCHOLOGY )

  4. Self Defense Module

    OpenAIRE

    Shibi k john

    2014-01-01

    Self Defense module is like a Smart Watch For Women .It has the potential to help women with technologies that are embedded. It is specially designed for women safety. It has a control button that will be used by women to inform nearby police when they are in danger. This watch directly gets connected to the satellite through GPS when activated. Then the location is transferred through the GSM and it is also provided with a system that produces 60 shockwaves in 1 second in emergency situations.

  5. Nanomaterials for Defense Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turaga, Uday; Singh, Vinitkumar; Lalagiri, Muralidhar; Kiekens, Paul; Ramkumar, Seshadri S.

    Nanotechnology has found a number of applications in electronics and healthcare. Within the textile field, applications of nanotechnology have been limited to filters, protective liners for chemical and biological clothing and nanocoatings. This chapter presents an overview of the applications of nanomaterials such as nanofibers and nanoparticles that are of use to military and industrial sectors. An effort has been made to categorize nanofibers based on the method of production. This chapter particularly focuses on a few latest developments that have taken place with regard to the application of nanomaterials such as metal oxides in the defense arena.

  6. Coping and its effect on psychological distress of parents of pediatric cancer patients : a longitudinal prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Wijnberg-Williams, Barbara J.; Jaspers, Jan P. C.; Kamps, Willem A.; van de Wiel, Harry B. M.

    Objective This prospective 5-year longitudinal study examined the use of coping styles of fathers and mothers of pediatric cancer patients over time and the prospective effects of coping on distress. Methods Psychological distress (General Health Questionnaire) and the use of seven coping styles

  7. Defense mechanisms and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingiardi, V; Lonati, C; Delucchi, F; Fossati, A; Vanzulli, L; Maffei, C

    1999-04-01

    The evaluation of defense mechanisms represents one of the most promising fields in the psychodynamic-oriented empirical research on personality disorders (PDs). This study examines the association between DSM-IV PDs and defense mechanisms. We evaluated a sample of 50 adult outpatients seeking personality assessment and psychotherapeutic treatment. PDs have been assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorder, version 2.0. Defense mechanisms have been evaluated by a group of trained clinical psychologists and psychiatrists (interrater reliability from .61 to .95) using Perry's Defense Mechanism Rating Scale. Our results support the hypothesis that some defense mechanisms underlie PDs and that defenses call for further attention as we assess PDs.

  8. Individual Learning Style and the Learning Style Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffler, Bo

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the experience learning theory (ELT) that views learning as a process, explaining that it entails a four-stage process that includes four learning modes. Presents the results of a study that used the learning style inventory (LSI) that examines one's approach to learning situations. Includes references. (CMK)

  9. [The influence of leadership experience on the style of resolving management decisions by executives of healthcare institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezhnovets', T A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the influence of age and management experience of executives in healthcare institutions at the style of decision-making. The psychological study of 144 executives was conducted. We found out that the age of executives in healthcare institutions does not affect the style of managerial decision making, while experience in leadership position does. Also it was established that the more experienced leader is, the more often he will make decision in authoritative, autonomous, marginal style and the less management experience is, the more likely is the usage of indulgent and situational style. Moreover, the authoritarian style is typical for younger executives, marginal and autonomous is typical for elder executives.

  10. Empowering self-defense training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Martha E

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of self-defense training is to expand people's options, yet it is often framed as a solely physical, and limiting, response to violence. I draw on my own experience as a self-defense instructor and that of others in the self-defense movement to argue that an empowerment approach to self-defense training contributes to the anti-violence movement in multiple ways: providing a pathway to increase women's and girls' safety and their potential for becoming powerful and effective social change agents right now, providing an informed and embodied understanding of violence, and offering comprehensive options to recognize, prevent, and interrupt violence.

  11. The Dialectic Psychology perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveros M., Ricardo; Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    The present paper exposes the dialectic psychology perspectives in the twentieth first century Peru. We ponder about the dialectics psychology denomination, connecting them to other denominations used in the materialist psychology trend. We analyze the relations between dialectics psychology and social neuroscience, delimiting both the psychological sciences field and the neuroscience field. We develop issues from the emancipator project of dialectics psychology, precising personal developmen...

  12. Psychology of male and female communicative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyura, Svetlana A

    2008-05-01

    The article features a brief overview of theoretical and empirical studies in communication psychology and sociability of men and women, boys and girls. Russian and foreign studies are summarized to point out that girls and women place greater emphasis on communication and interpersonal relations than do boys and men. Moreover, female communication is more emotional. The article presents the results of the author's own empirical study of male and female communicative activity. Communicative activity is viewed as a complex psychological phenomenon, a degree of the subject's willingness to interact. Communicative activity was studied with the test proposed by the Russian psychologist, Krupnov, and designed to detect the following components of communicative activity: dynamic (natural), emotional, motivational, cognitive, regulatory, productive, and two sorts of communication difficulties (operational and personal). Gender differences in communicative activity are shown on a sample of 480 participants aged 18-40 (240 men and 240 women). The article then describes communicative styles of adolescents (130 boys and 130 girls, aged 19-24). Various communicative styles are featured, including "energetic, businesslike," "conformal, emotional," "diplomatic, externally oriented" for boys and "energetic, sociable," "emotional, difficult," and "complaisant, expressive" for girls. Every person's individuality and gender identity are shown to impact their communicative style.

  13. Psychology Ethics in Introductory Psychology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchero, Renee' A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed that introductory psychology textbooks included limited information about psychology ethics. This study reviewed 48 current introductory psychology textbooks for research and other APA ethics content. These textbooks included slightly more total ethics content and were more thorough in their review of research ethics…

  14. Psychology's Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Leif D; Simmons, Joseph; Simonsohn, Uri

    2018-01-04

    In 2010-2012, a few largely coincidental events led experimental psychologists to realize that their approach to collecting, analyzing, and reporting data made it too easy to publish false-positive findings. This sparked a period of methodological reflection that we review here and call Psychology's Renaissance. We begin by describing how psychologists' concerns with publication bias shifted from worrying about file-drawered studies to worrying about p-hacked analyses. We then review the methodological changes that psychologists have proposed and, in some cases, embraced. In describing how the renaissance has unfolded, we attempt to describe different points of view fairly but not neutrally, so as to identify the most promising paths forward. In so doing, we champion disclosure and preregistration, express skepticism about most statistical solutions to publication bias, take positions on the analysis and interpretation of replication failures, and contend that meta-analytical thinking increases the prevalence of false positives. Our general thesis is that the scientific practices of experimental psychologists have improved dramatically.

  15. Evolutionary developmental psychology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    King, Ashley C; Bjorklund, David F

    2010-01-01

    The field of evolutionary developmental psychology can potentially broaden the horizons of mainstream evolutionary psychology by combining the principles of Darwinian evolution by natural selection...

  16. Perceived Relationship Between Leadership Style and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived Relationship Between Leadership Style and Organizational Commitment at Defence University. ... Thus, the study suggested different approaches to improve the existing leadership skills and employees' organizational commitment in the university under study. Keywords: Leadership style, leadership behaviour, ...

  17. Improving Technical Instruction Using Personality Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomal, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Incorporating personality styles into technical instruction can enhance student learning. Four personality styles based on Jung--intuitor, feeler, thinker, and doer--have implications for individualizing technical instruction. (JOW)

  18. Reorienting Leadership Styles for Sustainable Education

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oyetunji, Christianah Oluwatoyin

    2011-01-01

    .... The data suggests that the head-teacher's leadership style affects teachers' and pupils' attitude towards a job and studies and that a participatory leadership style promotes sustainable education in schools...

  19. Francis Bacon and the Technology of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    Examines Francis Bacon's intentionally devised style for scientific writings and the theoretical basis of that style. Discusses his emphasis on a truly objective point of view, and his use of aphorisms to adapt to his audience. (HTH)

  20. Managment Styles to Avoid: Some Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttschalk, George E.; Cangemi, Joseph P.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes management styles of numerous leaders who failed. Presents these categories of styles not associated with success: dictator, blocker, withholder, brownnoser, butcher, non-delegator, worrier, troublemaker, malcontent, weakling, jealous executive, and no-conscience administrator. (Author/ABL)