Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra; Chanandchidadussadee Toonsiri; Suwanna Junprasert
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, fa...
Kusuma Wijaya Ridi Putra
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the leading causes of death and it is caused by genetics, nutrition, and unhealthy behaviors. Therefore, changes in lifestyle associated with eating behaviors in diabetes mellitus patients greatly impact on their quality of life. There are many factors related with changes in lifestyle of diabetes mellitus patients, especially eating behaviors. Purpose: This study aims to examine the relationships between self-efficacy, psychological stress, family support, and eating behaviors among type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. Method: A total of 117 T2DM patients from the Sidoarjo Community Health Center were included in the analysis. Using SPSS IBM 21.0 program, Pearson product moment correlation was performed to analyze data. Results: The findings showed that self-efficacy and family support had positive relationship with eating behaviors (r = .692, p < .001; r = .683, p < .001, respectively. Psychological stress had negative relationship with eating behaviors (r = -.327, p < .001. Conclusion: Self-efficacy, family support, and psychological stress had relationship with eating behaviors. Nurses should pay attention to the factors to make T2DM patients into a long-term commitment toward healthy eating behaviors.
Lockwood, Adam B.; Mcclure, John; Sealander, Karen; Baker, Courtney N.
There is an ever-increasing need for school psychology training programs to demonstrate their ability to produce competent practitioners. One method of addressing this need is through the assessment of self-efficacy. However, little research on self-efficacy in school psychology exists likely due to the lack of a psychometrically sound measure of…
The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between exercise and general self-efficacy, depression, and psychological well-being of college students. Five hundred and twenty-two university students (n[subscript male] = 273; X[subscript age] = 23.33 ± 4.36 and n[subscript female] = 279; X[subscript age] = 25.91 ± 7.11) have participated…
Maja Fesel Martinčevič
Full Text Available The article outlines the concept of self-efficacy and its applications in context of work and organizational behavior. Self-efficacy stems from the social cognitive theory of A. Bandura and is believed to be an important determinant of behavior. Numerous studies have confirmed its connection to actual effectiveness. First, the article focuses on definition of self-efficacy in general and on its theoretical background. It continues by reviewing the concept's cases of use within organizational psychology either in connection with consequences of self-efficacy on employees (work effectiveness, absenteeism, work satisfaction and burn-out, in relation to sources of employee's self-efficacy (application of the self-efficacy concept in leadership and training, or in connection with counseling of organizations or individuals (application in selection and work-team formation. It is concluded, that the application of the concept in connection with work and organizational behavior is useful and perspective. Finally, a critical review of the concept is given and guidelines for its further use and studies are outlined.
Veselska, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
Background: Research on health-related behaviors confirms the contribution of self-efficacy and affective factors to the initiation and continuation of smoking behavior. The aim was to assess the degree to which affectivity contributes to the association between self-efficacy and smoking behavior in
This research presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of "self-efficacy". (Editor/RK)
Hsu, Michael L. A.; Hou, Sheng-Tsung; Fan, Hsueh-Liang
Creativity research on the personality approach has focused on the relationship between individual attributes and innovative behavior. However, few studies have empirically examined the effects of positive psychological traits on innovative behavior in an organizational setting. This study examines the relationships among creative self-efficacy,…
Gökçe Bulgan; Ayse Çiftçi
...s: academic self-efficacy, life satisfaction, marital satisfaction, married international students, psychological well-being, university According to the Institute of International Education (IIE, 2015...
Eklund, Jakob; Loeb, Carina; Hansen, Eric M.; Andersson-Wallin, Ann-Charlotte
Two studies tested associations among self-efficacy and prosocial behavior. In Study 1 we measured academic self-efficacy, emotional self-efficacy and self-reported prosocial behavior. The study showed that academic but not emotional self-efficacy was positively correlated with prosocial behavior. Study 1 included only self-oriented emotions, and…
Chan, David W.
The relationships among adjustment problems, self-efficacy, and psychological distress were investigated in a sample of 207 Chinese gifted students in Hong Kong. A mediation-effect model specifying that adjustment problems had an effect on psychological distress mediated by self-efficacy was hypothesized and tested using structural equation…
Bulgan, Gökçe; Çiftçi, Ayse
The authors investigated marital satisfaction and academic self-efficacy in relation to psychological adaptation (i.e., psychological well-being, life satisfaction) in a sample of 198 married international students. Results of multiple regression analyses indicated that marital satisfaction and academic self-efficacy accounted for 45.9% of…
Chan, David W.
Examines teacher stress, self-efficacy, social support, and psychological distress in a sample of Chinese prospective teachers (n=83) in Hong Kong. Reports that the teachers experienced higher levels of symptoms in somatic problems followed by anxiety and dysphoria. Discusses self-efficacy and social support as protective factors for teacher…
Høigaard, Rune; Kovac, Velibor Bobo; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Haugen, Tommy
This study investigated the effects of proximal and distal constructs on adolescent's academic achievement through self-efficacy. Participants included 482 ninth-and tenth-grade Norwegian students who completed a questionnaire designed to assess school-goal orientations, organizational citizenship behavior, academic self-efficacy, and academic…
Barbaranelli, Claudio; Ghezzi, Valerio; Fida, Roberta; Vecchione, Michele
Since its introduction in 1977, self-efficacy has proven to be a fundamental predictor of positive adjustment and achievement in many domains. In problem gambling studies, self-efficacy has been defined mainly as an individual's ability to avoid gambling in risky situations. The interest in this construct developed mainly with regard to treatment approaches, where abstinence from gambling is required. Very little is known, however, regarding self-efficacy as a protective factor for problem gambling. This study aims to fill this gap, proposing a new self-efficacy scale which measures not only the ability to restrain oneself from gambling but also the ability to self-regulate one's gambling behavior. Two studies were conducted in which the data from two Italian prevalence surveys on problem gambling were considered. A total of about 6,000 participants were involved. In the first study, the psychometric characteristics of this new self-efficacy scale were investigated through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The results indicated the presence of two different factors: self-efficacy in self-regulating gambling behavior and self-efficacy in avoiding risky gambling behavior. The second study confirmed the replicability of the two-factor solution and displayed high correlations among these two self-efficacy dimensions and different measures of gambling activities as well as other psychological variables related to gambling (gambling beliefs, gambling motivation, risk propensity, and impulsiveness). The results of logistic regression analyses showed the particular importance of self-regulating gaming behavior in explaining problem gambling as measured by Problem Gambling Severity Index and South Oaks Gambling Screen, thus proving the role of self-efficacy as a pivotal protective factor for problem gambling. PMID:28676781
Full Text Available Since its introduction in 1977, self-efficacy has proven to be a fundamental predictor of positive adjustment and achievement in many domains. In problem gambling studies, self-efficacy has been defined mainly as an individual's ability to avoid gambling in risky situations. The interest in this construct developed mainly with regard to treatment approaches, where abstinence from gambling is required. Very little is known, however, regarding self-efficacy as a protective factor for problem gambling. This study aims to fill this gap, proposing a new self-efficacy scale which measures not only the ability to restrain oneself from gambling but also the ability to self-regulate one's gambling behavior. Two studies were conducted in which the data from two Italian prevalence surveys on problem gambling were considered. A total of about 6,000 participants were involved. In the first study, the psychometric characteristics of this new self-efficacy scale were investigated through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The results indicated the presence of two different factors: self-efficacy in self-regulating gambling behavior and self-efficacy in avoiding risky gambling behavior. The second study confirmed the replicability of the two-factor solution and displayed high correlations among these two self-efficacy dimensions and different measures of gambling activities as well as other psychological variables related to gambling (gambling beliefs, gambling motivation, risk propensity, and impulsiveness. The results of logistic regression analyses showed the particular importance of self-regulating gaming behavior in explaining problem gambling as measured by Problem Gambling Severity Index and South Oaks Gambling Screen, thus proving the role of self-efficacy as a pivotal protective factor for problem gambling.
Liu, Neng; Liu, Shaohui; Yu, Nan; Peng, Yunhua; Wen, Yumei; Tang, Jie; Kong, Lingyu
We investigated the influencing factors of the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion. Eighty-eight participants were enrolled. Psychological resilience, self-efficacy, and negative emotion were assessed with the Psychological Resilience Scale, Self-Efficacy Scale, Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), respectively. Furthermore, the relationships of psychological resilience and self-efficacy with negative emotion were investigated. The average scores of psychological resilience, self-efficacy, anxiety, and depression were 70.08 ± 13.26, 21.56 ± 9.66, 53.68 ± 13.10, and 56.12 ± 12.37, respectively. The incidences of anxiety and depression were 23.90% (21/88) and 28.40% (25/88), respectively. The psychological resilience and self-efficacy scores of AMI patients after PCI varied significantly with age and economic status. SAS scores and SDS scores were significantly negatively correlated with psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Negative emotions in AMI patients after PCI are closely related to psychological resilience and self-efficacy. Therefore, anxiety and depression could be alleviated by improving the psychological resilience and self-efficacy of patients undergoing PCI, thus improving patients' quality of life.
Objective: The present study aimed to review the relationships between procrastination and two self-factors self-efficacy and self-esteem. Methods: Participants were 140 undergraduates Psychology students enrolled in Mohagheg Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran. Instruments used for collecting the required data were the student-version of the General Procrastination Scale (GP-S), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) and Rosenberg?s Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Results: Using causal modeling, two mode...
Sperry, J M; Nicki, R M
In the context of a nicotine-fading/self-monitoring cigarette smoking cessation program, three groups were compared: high self-efficacy, low self-efficacy, and a no-treatment control group. Self-efficacy strength was enhanced by manipulating cognitive appraisal using the guidelines of Goldfried and Robbins (1982). Furthermore, throughout the study, self-efficacy values were correlated with various indices of smoking activity. Yet no between-group differences in abstinence rates at end of treatment, 1-month, and 6-month follow-up periods were found.
The present study aimed to review the relationships between procrastination and two self-factors self-efficacy and self-esteem. Participants were 140 undergraduates Psychology students enrolled in Mohagheg Ardabili University, Ardabil, Iran. Instruments used for collecting the required data were the student-version of the General Procrastination Scale (GP-S), General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (SES). Using causal modeling, two models were compared; a model with self-esteem as a mediator versus a model with procrastination as a mediator. The self-esteem mediator model accounted for 21% of the variance in procrastination. The significance of the mediation effect was found by bootstrapping method. The relationship of procrastination with self-esteem and self-efficacy was revealed among undergraduate psychology students.
Perry, Alison; Casey, Erica; Cotton, Sue
Background: Quality of life (QoL) is an important construct when assessing treatment outcomes. Aims: To examine the relative contributions of functioning, psychological well-being and self-efficacy on self-perceived QoL with a sample of total laryngectomy patients in Australia who had surgery for advanced laryngeal cancer. Methods &…
Wright, Bradley James; O'Halloran, Paul Daniel; Stukas, Arthur Anthony
Purpose: We assessed how 6 psychological performance enhancement techniques (PETs) differentially improved self-efficacy (SE) and skill performance. We also assessed whether vicarious experiences and verbal persuasion as posited sources of SE (Bandura, 1982) were supported and, further, if the effects of the 6 PETs remained after controlling for…
Kim, Myung Ah; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Eun Jung
Senior nursing students are faced with various types of stressful events such as taking the national licensure exam or finding employment. Such stress can generate maladaptive behaviors as well as physical and psychological symptoms. There is evidence supporting the use of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) for reducing disruptive behaviors and negative emotions as well as improving self-efficacy and stress-coping strategies. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) on stress coping strategies and self-efficacy for senior nursing students. Thirty-four senior nursing students in a nursing college were assigned randomly to an experimental group (n=18) and a control group (n=16). The REBT program consisted of 8 sessions, and it was implemented for a 4-week period. Outcome measures assessed stress-coping strategies and self-efficacy before and after intervention. After intervention with REBT, the mean difference scores for self-efficacy (p=.032) were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. However, the mean difference scores for seeking social support (p=.166), problem solving (p=.126), and avoidance (p=.154) in stress-coping strategies were not significantly different between the two groups. The results imply that group counseling based on REBT enhances the self-efficacy among senior nursing students before graduation. As regards stress coping strategies, a longer intervention period is suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Royston, Natalie Steele
The purposes of this study were to describe collegiate band members' preferred teacher interpersonal behaviors and perceptions of self-efficacy based on the gender, year in college, instrument, and major and to measure the relationship between preferences of interpersonal teacher behavior and self-efficacy scores. The sample (N = 1,020) was…
Differences in students' academic self-efficacy and motivation were examined in predicting preferred teacher traits. Undergraduates (261) completed the Teaching Behavior Checklist, Academic Self-Concept scale, and Academic Motivation scale. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that academic self-efficacy and extrinsic motivation explained…
Thornberg, Robert; Jungert, Tomas
The aim of the present study was to investigate how basic moral sensitivity in bullying, moral disengagement in bullying and defender self-efficacy were related to different bystander behaviors in bullying. Therefore, we examined pathways that linked students' basic moral sensitivity, moral disengagement, and defender self-efficacy to different…
Lim, HanNa; Heckman, Stuart J.; Letkiewicz, Jodi C.; Montalto, Catherine P.
Financial stress and self-efficacy are examined in relationship to college students' financial help-seeking behavior utilizing Grable and Joo's (1999) framework. A cognitive approach is taken by focusing on the moderating role of financial self-efficacy on the relationship between financial stress and financial help-seeking. Data from the 2010…
Gerards, Sanne M P L; Hummel, Karin; Dagnelie, Pieter C; de Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J
Evaluating whether parental challenges and self-efficacy toward managing children's lifestyle behaviors are successfully addressed by interventions requires valid instruments. The Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC) has recently been developed in the Australian context. It consists of two subscales: the Problem scale, which measures parental perceptions of children's behavioral problems related to overweight and obesity, and the Confidence scale, measuring parental self-efficacy in dealing with these problems. The aim of the current study was to systematically translate the questionnaire into Dutch and to evaluate its internal consistency, construct validity and test-retest reliability. The LBC was systematically translated by four experts at Maastricht University. In total, 392 parents of 3-to13-year-old children were invited to fill out two successive online questionnaires with a two-week interval. Of these, 273 parents responded to the first questionnaire (test, response rate = 69.6%), and of the 202 who could be invited for the second questionnaire (retest), 100 responded (response rate = 49.5%). We assessed the questionnaire's internal consistency (Cronbach's α), construct validity (Spearman's Rho correlation tests, using the criterion measures: restrictiveness, nurturance, and psychological control), and test-retest reliability (Spearman's Rho correlation tests). Both scales had high internal consistency (Cronbach's α ≥ 0.90). Spearman correlation coefficients indicated acceptable test-retest reliability for both the Problem scale (rs = 0.74) and the Confidence scale (rs = 0.70). The LBC Problem scale was significantly correlated to all criterion scales (nurturance, restrictiveness, psychological control) in the hypothesized direction, and the LBC Confidence scale was significantly correlated with nurturance and psychological control in the hypothesized direction, but not with restrictiveness. The Dutch translation of the LBC was found to be a reliable and
Chase, Melissa A; Magyar, Michelle T; Drake, Brent M
The aim of this study was to examine female gymnasts' fear of injury, their sources of self-efficacy and the psychological strategies used to overcome their fears. The participants were 10 female gymnasts aged 12 - 17 years. They had all taken part in competitive gymnastics and had experienced some type of injury during their careers. Individual interviews were conducted using a structured interview guide. Data were analysed using an inductive content analysis. The results indicated that gymnasts were most fearful of injuries because of the difficulty in returning from an injury and being unable to participate in practices and competitions while injured. Gymnasts described aspects of their past performance experience, such as success, consistency and communication with significant others, as important sources of self-efficacy. Some examples of psychological strategies used to overcome their fear of injury were mental preparation (e.g. imagery, relaxation), just "going for a skill" and the coaches' influence.
Concept Analysis: Self-efficacy and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors of Adolescents This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the concept of self-efficacy and adolescent sexual risk-taking behaviors Using the Walker and Avant framework of concept analysis, the concept of self-efficacy has shown to be an important part in changing unhealthy behaviors. It has also shown that the concept of self-efficacy can be pivotal in health promotion activities of adolescents in a variety of settings, especially as it relates to adolescent sexual risk-taking behaviors. The concept of self-efficacy as it relates to adolescent sexual risk-taking behaviors has clear nursing implications and usage among the adolescent population. Self-efficacy is a key concept to be used in health promotion. Health promotion activities are pivotal in the prevention of sexually transmitted infections in the adolescent population. Knowledge of the self-efficacy level of the adolescent patient can give the nurse greater insight in the meaning of the patient's response in a given situation. This also helps the nurse identify which adolescents would benefit from early intervention with regard to sexual health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Logsdon, M Cynthia; Foltz, Melissa Pinto; Scheetz, James; Myers, John A
Based upon the Self-Efficacy Theory, this study examined the relationship between self-efficacy, self-efficacy-related variables, and postpartum depression teaching behaviors of hospital-based perinatal nurses. Findings revealed that teaching new mothers about postpartum depression is related to a perinatal nurse's self-efficacy in postpartum-depression teaching, self-esteem, and the following self-efficacy-related variables: social persuasion (supervisor's expectations for teaching); mastery (postpartum depression continuing education and teaching experience); and vicarious experience (observing other nurses teach new mothers about postpartum depression). Teaching new mothers about postpartum depression can assist mothers in overcoming barriers to depression treatment. Nurse educators and managers play an important role in encouraging postpartum depression education for perinatal nurses.
A behavior-analytic critique of self-efficacy theory is presented. Self-efficacy theory asserts that efficacy expectations determine approach behavior and physiological arousal of phobics as well as numerous other clinically important behaviors. Evidence which is purported to support this assertion is reviewed. The evidence consists of correlations between self-efficacy ratings and other behaviors. Such response-response relationships do not unequivocally establish that one response causes another. A behavior-analytic alternative to self-efficacy theory explains these relationships in terms of environmental events. Correlations between self-efficacy rating behavior and other behavior may be due to the contingencies of reinforcement that establish a correspondence between such verbal predictions and the behavior to which they refer. Such a behavior-analytic account does not deny any of the empirical relationships presented in support of self-efficacy theory, but it points to environmental variables that could account for those relationships and that could be manipulated in the interest of developing more effective treatment procedures. PMID:22477956
Sugiyama, K; Matsui, H; Satoh, C; Yoshimi, Y; Takeuchi, M
The purpose of the present study was to examined the hypothesis that the effects of observational learning of altruistic behavior are related to personal viewpoint, self-efficacy, outcome expectation, and other factors...
Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate self - efficacy and stage of exercise behavior change in students who were studying in school of physical education and sport (PES and students who were studying in other faculty and departments (OFD in Akdeniz University and to evaluate their sport participation habits. Par ticipants were 360 students who were studying in Akdeniz University. Stage of Exercise Behavior Change Questionnaire and Exercise Self - Efficacy Questionnaire were applied to the participants in classroom environment. Results: Results of statistical analyse s revealed that , 27.5 % of men and 19.2% of women were in preparation stage of exercise behavior. There were no significant differences between genders ( p>.05. According to the result of exercise self - efficacy analyses, there were no significant differen ces between male and female students ( p>.05. When examining exercise self - efficacy in student studying different department, there were significant differences between the PES and OFD students (p<.05. Discussion and According to the results o f present study, it was conclude that there were no significant gender differences in both exercise self - efficacy and stage of exercise behavior change. It was found that, PES students had significantly higher score in exercise self - efficacy and in highe r stage of exercise behavior than OFD students.
Faghri, Pouran; Buden, Jennifer
Obesity is a public health concern with significant economic costs affecting employers. Worksite wellness programs benefit from developing tailored interventions that consider employees? health-related knowledge and self-efficacy to change behavior. Correction is a high stress occupation with elevated rates of overweight and obesity. Poor stress management and barriers to achieve optimal health in the work environment increases the need for adequate knowledge and self-efficacy, or the level o...
Wingo, Brooks C; Desmond, Renee A; Brantley, Phillip; Appel, Lawrence; Svetkey, Laura; Stevens, Victor J; Ard, Jamy D
Determine whether self-efficacy independently predicted weight loss in a behavioral intervention and explore factors that influence the path between self-efficacy and weight change. Secondary analysis of the PREMIER trial, a randomized controlled trial testing effects of lifestyle interventions on blood pressure. Four academic medical centers. PREMIER recruited adults (n = 810) with pre-hypertension/stage 1 hypertension, not currently receiving medication. This analysis excluded participants in the control arm, resulting in n = 537. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: advice only, established lifestyle recommendations, or established lifestyle recommendations plus Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern. Self-efficacy (dietary self-efficacy [DSE], exercise self-efficacy [ESE]), dietary intake, fitness. Pearson correlations, 1-way analysis of variance, mediation analyses. Despite an overall decrease in DSE/ESE, change in DSE/ESE significantly predicted weight change at 6 (β = -.21, P self-efficacy and adoption of behaviors that influence weight loss. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Anabolic steroids (AS abuse is spreading increasingly among professionals and amateur athletes taking part in gym halls. Healths educators' awareness of why athletes and gym users take such substances may help them to develop appropriate intervention. In this regard, perceived behavioral control (PBC is defined as “a person’s estimate of how easy or difficult it will be for him or her to carry out the behavior”, and Self-efficacy (SE is defined as “people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce performances that influence events affecting their lives”. Both concepts refer to people's beliefs that they are capable of performing a given behavior. The aim of this study was to determine the role of SE and PBC in predicting AS use among male body builders. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, totally three hundred male body builders in Hamadan were randomly selected. The data was gathered using a self-report questionnaire included: demographic characteristics, self-efficacy for not using AS, and PBC for not using AASs. Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess association between SE and PBC with AASs use.Results: Based on the results, 24.3% (n=73 of athletes reported that they had used AS and 38% of them reported the history of using AS in the past. Logistic regression model showed SE (OR=0.851 P=0.000 and PBC (OR= 0.711 & P=0.000 that indicate association between low PBC and Low SE to use AS. Conclusion: High self-efficacy for not using AS and high perceived behavioral control have effective potential to protect adolescents against high risk behaviors. Comprehensive preventative health education programs need to emphasize on psychological factors that mediate and predict adolescents’ and youths' health-related behaviors(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(1:45-52
Pérez-Jiménez, David; Santiago-Rivas, Marimer; Serrano-García, Irma
Self-efficacy has been defined as one of the factors that may facilitate or impede safer sex. Studies reveal that peoples in steady relationships practice safer sex less often that those in casual relationships. We conducted a study with 447 sexually active heterosexual adults. A self-administered questionnaire was designed to study the sexual behavior, the male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation, and the self-efficacy toward these practices. Results show that most men are sexually active and that there is a low frequency of male condom use and the practice of mutual masturbation as safer sex. The majority of those who use the male condom are engage in casual relationships. However, participants have high levels of self-efficacy toward these practices. Although self-efficacy is one of the factors that influence in deciding to practice safer sex, it is not sufficient to reach this goal.
Mical Kay Shilts
Full Text Available The efficacy of a youth development intervention on improving eating and physical activity(PA self-efficacy, goal attainment scaling, goal effort, and behaviors was examined in a repeated measures, quasi-experimental field trial. Ethnically diverse students (n=64 from a low-income middle school participated in the 10-session intervention driven by the Social Cognitive Theory with a Goal Setting Theory emphasis. Participants, 13-14 years old, made significant changes in dietary behaviors (P=0.03 and PA self-efficacy (P=0.02 after receiving the intervention. Self-efficacy did not mediate dietary behavior change but did mediate the small changes made in PA. Goal effort was not a mediator of behavior change. After the intervention, more participants rated themselves as making one lasting improvement in eating (P
Guerra-Ordoñez, Jesús Alejandro; Benavides-Torres, Raquel A; Onofre-Rodríguez, Dora Julia; Márquez-Vega, María Aracely; Guerra-Rodríguez, Gloria Maricela; Wall, Kristin M
Along the Mexico/United States border, migrants are at increased risk of HIV. The objective of our study was to investigate the relationship between two process indicators (self-efficacy to prevent HIV and coping with sexual risk) and safe sexual behaviors in migrants. A correlational design was used. Migrants were recruited from two cities on the northern border of Mexico. Transition theory informed the measurement of self-efficacy and coping process indicators. Three generalized linear models were built for each safe sexual behavior outcome: (a) partner communication, (b) use of condoms, and (c) safe sex. Of 311 migrants, indicators of self-efficacy and coping with sexual risk were associated with all three outcome measures of safe sexual behavior (p coping ability are important correlates of migrant sexual risk behavior. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nam, Soohyun; Nam, Soohyun; Song, Youngshin
Psychological insulin resistance (PIR) affects patients' self-care behaviors and quality of life due to the delay of insulin treatment for optimal glycemic control. Although effective patient-provider communication and relationships have been shown to improve patients' overall treatment adherence and attitude toward treatment, little is known about the potential mechanisms by which effective patient-provider communication and relationships decrease PIR and whether these relationships are mediated by diabetes self-efficacy. The purpose of this study is to examine whether diabetes self-efficacy among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) mediates the relationships between PIR and perceived patient-provider relationships. A total of 178 patients with T2D participated in a cross-sectional study. Data were obtained by patient interview using validated measures of diabetes attitude, diabetes knowledge, self-efficacy, and patient-provider communication. PIR was measured by using a validated measure, Barriers to Insulin Treatment. A structural equation model was developed to estimate direct and indirect effects of patient-provider relationship on PIR when self-efficacy was controlled as a mediator. Diabetes knowledge and attitude were not significantly associated with PIR. Better patient-provider relationship was directly associated with lower PIR (β = -.40, p = 0.008). When diabetes self-efficacy was included as a mediator, the direct effect between patient-provider relationship and PIR changed (β = -.27, p = 0.034), indicating that better patient-provider relationship that reduces PIR is due to greater diabetes self-efficacy. The findings suggest that development of intervention programs aimed at improving diabetes self-efficacy-which may be positively correlated with better patient-provider relationship-is needed to reduce PIR.
Gutiérrez-Doña, Benicio; Lippke, Sonia; Renner, Britta; Kwon, Sunkyo; Schwarzer, Ralf
Dietary planning is supposed to mediate between intentions and dietary behaviors. However, if a person lacks self-efficacy, this mediation might fail. A cross-sectional study in Costa Rica and a longitudinal study in South Korea were designed to examine the moderating role of self-efficacy in the intention planning behavior relationship. Intentions, planning, self-efficacy, dietary behaviors, and baseline diet were assessed. Study 1 included 245 women; Study 2 included 358 women. Moderated me...
Valois, Robert F.; Zullig, Keith J.; Revels, Asa A.
Background: In this cross-sectional study we explored relationships between aggressive and violent behaviors and emotional self-efficacy (ESE) in a statewide sample of public high school adolescents in South Carolina (N = 3836). Methods: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey items on aggressive and violent…
Cigarette smoking is a growing problem among adolescents. This correlational study tested theoretical relationships between the dependent variable (smoking behavior) and the independent variables (depression and smoking resistance self-efficacy) in a convenience sample of 364 college students ages 18 to 21 years recruited from a large urban public college. An a priori mediational model tested the role of smoking resistance self-efficacy as a mediator in the relationship between smoking behavior and depression. Findings showed there was a statistically significant positive relationship between depression and smoking behavior (r = 0.122, p = 0.01). There was a statistically significant negative relationship between smoking resistance self-efficacy and smoking behavior (r = -0.744, p = 0.01). Additionally, smoking resistance self-efficacy was a mediator of the relationship between depression and smoking behavior (beta = -0.757, p = 0.001). This study identifies a need for further theory-driven study of the relation of adolescent depression and smoking behavior. The findings of this study have implications for nursing interventions targeted to both current smokers and smoking initiation prevention programs.
Gutiérrez Sanmartín, Melchor; Escartí Carbonell, Amparo; Pascual Baños, Carminal
The aim of this study was, on the one hand, to present/display the Spanish version of diverse instruments that assess Empathy, Prosocial behavior, Aggressiveness, Self-efficacy and Personal and social responsibility, and, on the other hand, to analyze which of these variables could predict responsibility. Participants were 822 pupils, ages 8 to 15 years, who studied in 11 educational centres of the Valencian Community. Measures include Spanish versions of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents, Prosocial Behaviour, and Physical and Verbal Aggression, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Self-Efficacy, and the Contextual Self-Responsibility Questionnaire. Through structural equation modelling (SEM), the results showed positive relationships between Prosocial behaviour, Empathy, Self-efficacy, and Responsibility; and negative relationships between Aggressiveness and Responsibility. The results and implications for education are discussed.
Pauline, Jeffrey S.
Despite the well documented benefits of an active lifestyle, lack of physical activity is a significant health problem in college students. The purpose of this descriptive study was to attain baseline physical activity behaviors, motivation factors, and self-efficacy levels to assist with developing tailored physical activity programs and…
Kassem, Awatef Hassan
Background: Nursing students who experienced bullying behaviors feel anger and missing their concentration, their capability to achieve a desired outcome. Also self-efficacy, often referred to as self-confidence, is essential to nursing students' ability and performance in the clinical setting. Aim: Study aimed to examine relation between bullying…
Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Huang, Yong; Deng, Minying; Chen, Li; Dwan, Chuanwei; Bridges, Dwan
This study aimed to examine southern Chinese college student (N = 1983) stage of exercise behavior changes (SEBC) and their exercise self-efficacy (ESE). The SEBC and ESE scales were used to collect data. ANOVA was performed to investigate the differences in ESE by SEBC. Post Hoc Tukey tests were employed to determine which variables contributed…
Maher, Robynne A.; Rickwood, Debra
Used the theory of planned behavior in a sample of 15- and 16-year-old students (N=285), to create a comprehensive model for predictors of adolescent smoking. Students with lower conduct/morality self-efficacy had more positive attitudes toward smoking. Discusses results in terms of potential interventions to discourage adolescent smoking. (RJM)
Middelkamp, P.J.C.; Rooijen, M. van; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.
Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited
Middelkamp, J.; van Rooijen, M.; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.
Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited
The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between teachers' instructional efficacy and their organizational citizenship behavior. Questionnaires were sent to a sample of 1,100 French Canadian high school teachers. A response rate of 44.36% was obtained (279 women and 208 men whose mean age was 40.4 yr.) Teachers' instructional efficacy was assessed with a French Canadian version of the Teacher Efficacy Scale and organizational citizenship behavior was assessed with a questionnaire constructed for the study. Analysis yielded positive and significant correlations (rs ranging from .19 and .34, porganizational citizenship behaviors such as altruism, courtesy, conscientiousness, and civic virtue. General teaching efficacy was only related to sportsmanship (r=.15, p <.01). So the predictions were partially supported by the results.
Full Text Available This research is a semi-experimental study ( pretest-posttest and follow-up design with a nonequivalent control group and aims to investigate the impact of two evaluation models for students’ educational performance on their self-efficacy and self-regulation behavior. The statistical population consists of all the students in the second period of primary school in the academic year 2014-15, who amounted to three million people and 360 individuals were selected as the sample through multi-stage cluster sampling from District 1 of Mashhad. The students were assigned into six groups using stratified allocation method. After taking the pretest of Wheeler and Ladd Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children (SEQC and Zimmerman and Pons Self-Regulation Inventory for Students (SRLIS and assessment of educational and behavioral performance of all groups, each of the three experimental groups randomly received 360 and 720 degree educational performance appraisal program for two months. Afterwards, a posttest was taken from the experimental and controlgroups and after two months, a follow-up test was conducted. In the end, the data was analyzed through single factor analysis of variance with repeated measures. The results of this study revealed that the effect of 720 degree appraisal method on self-efficacy and educational performance has been significant, but it had no influence on selfregulation. Further, 360 degree appraisal method has had an impact on self-efficacy and self-regulation, but had no effect on educational performance.
Costello, Carla A.; Stone, Sharon L. M.
In this article, the authors examine strategies for supporting college students with learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from the conceptual frameworks of positive psychology and self-efficacy theory. Higher education professionals can use principles taken from the relatively new field of positive…
Cho, YoonJung; Harrist, Steve; Steele, Misty; Murn, Lindsay T.
We investigated basic need satisfaction and leadership self-efficacy as psychological antecedents of college students' motivation to lead (MTL), while controlling for individual differences by gender and academic class. Preliminary analyses revealed significant gender differences with males scoring higher than females on calculative MTL and…
Wright, Bradley James; O'Halloran, Paul Daniel; Stukas, Arthur Anthony
We assessed how 6 psychological performance enhancement techniques (PETs) differentially improved self-efficacy (SE) and skill performance. We also assessed whether vicarious experiences and verbal persuasion as posited sources of SE (Bandura, 1982 ) were supported and, further, if the effects of the 6 PETs remained after controlling for achievement motivation traits and self-esteem. A within-subject design assessed each individual across 2 trials for 3 disparate PETs. A between-groups design assessed differences between PETs paired against each other for 3 similar novel tasks. Participants (N = 96) performed 2 trials of 10 attempts at each of the tasks (kick, throw, golf putt) in a counterbalanced sequence using their nondominant limb. Participants completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and General Self-Efficacy Scale and were randomly allocated to either the modeling or imagery, goal-setting or instructional self-statement, or knowledge-of-results or motivational feedback conditions aligned with each task. An instructional self-statement improved performance better than imagery, modeling, goal setting, and motivational and knowledge-of-results augmented feedback. Motivational auditory feedback most improved SE. Increased SE change scores were related to increased performance difference scores on all tasks after controlling for age, sex, achievement motivation, and self-esteem. Some sources of SE may be more influential than others on both SE and performance improvements. We provide partial support for the sources of SE proposed by Bandura's social-cognitive theory with verbal persuasion but not vicarious experiences improving SE.
Staats, Arthur W.
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175
Staats, A W
Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.
Mical Kay Shilts; Townsend, Marilyn S
The efficacy of a youth development intervention on improving eating and physical activity(PA) self-efficacy, goal attainment scaling, goal effort, and behaviors was examined in a repeated measures, quasi-experimental field trial. Ethnically diverse students (n=64) from a low-income middle school participated in the 10-session intervention driven by the Social Cognitive Theory with a Goal Setting Theory emphasis. Participants, 13-14 years old, made significant changes in dietary behaviors (P...
Zhang, Yingzi; Kwekkeboom, Kristine; Petrini, Marcia
Treatment for breast cancer causes uncertainty in the face of new and distressing experiences and often results in the need for self-care. Identifying how uncertainty influences self-care behavior is essential to design interventions that enhance self-care capacity and improve patient outcomes. The aims of this study were to describe the levels of uncertainty, self-efficacy, and self-care behavior in Chinese women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer and to determine if self-efficacy mediates the relationship between uncertainty and self-care behavior. A cross-sectional descriptive correlational design was used. Ninety-seven participants completed the Generalized Self-efficacy Scale, the Mishel Uncertainty in Illness Scale, and the Appraisal of Self-care Agency Scale-Revised. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the levels of uncertainty, self-efficacy, and self-care behaviors in the sample. Multiple regression was used to test the mediating effect of self-efficacy in the relationship between uncertainty and self-care behavior. Mean ratings of uncertainty (76.70), self-efficacy (27.15), and self-care behavior (53.96) all fell in the moderate range. Both uncertainty and self-efficacy independently predicted self-care behavior, explaining 18.2% of the variance, but self-efficacy did not mediate the relationship between uncertainty and self-care behavior. Research is needed to further evaluate the proposed relationships using instruments specific to/related to cancer and evaluate change over time. Self-care interventions that have been efficacious in Western populations could be revised to assist Chinese women to reduce uncertainty and enhance self-efficacy in coping with breast cancer. Self-care intervention programs should include strategies to reduce uncertainty and enhance self-efficacy in coping with breast cancer treatment.
Mahat, Ganga; Scoloveno, Mary Ann; Scoloveno, Robert
The purpose of this study was to explore HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy for sexual risk behaviors, and parental monitoring in a sample of 140 7th and 9th grade adolescents studying in an urban high school in the United States. Further, the study examined differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy and parental monitoring by grade and gender. This study also investigated the effectiveness of an HIV/AIDS peer education program, Teens for AIDS Prevention (TAP), on improving adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. A quasi-experimental design was used to examine effects of the peer education program (TAP) on adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge. Pearson-product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationships among the variables. Independent t-tests were used to compare adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy, and parental monitoring scores by grade and gender. Paired t-tests were used to determine differences in pre-intervention and post-intervention HIV/AIDS knowledge. The results showed that HIV/AIDS knowledge improved significantly in both 7th and 9th grade students after the intervention. HIV/AIDS knowledge was associated with self-efficacy; however it was not associated with parental monitoring. There were no significant differences in HIV/AIDS knowledge and self-efficacy by gender. However, there was a significant difference in parental monitoring by gender. Pediatric nurses are well-positioned to develop and implement evidence-based programs for adolescents. It is essential that pediatric nurses, in conjunction with other professionals and parent groups, take the initiative in implementing peer education programs in schools and community centers to promote healthy behaviors among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Archiopoli, Ashley; Ginossar, Tamar; Wilcox, Bryan; Avila, Magdalena; Hill, Ricky; Oetzel, John
Despite devastating effects on health outcomes and disease progression, many people living with HIV (PLWH) are non-adherent to their medications. Medication self-efficacy is a pivotal factor in medication adherence, yet its formation and relationship with other factors are understudied. This study examines a model that considers the role of three communicative factors (patient-provider communication, social support, and social undermining) and two behavioral health factors (depression and alcohol abuse) and medication self-efficacy impacting medication adherence. Methods included a cross-sectional design using a survey questionnaire of 344 PLWH. Findings indicated that 25% of variance in medication adherence can be explained by a mediation model where depression (B = -.18) and provider-patient communication (B = .21) affect medication self-efficacy, which in turn impacts medication adherence (B = .64). Other variables, including demographics, did not add any explanatory power. These findings demonstrate the complex nature of medication adherence and the formation of medication self-efficacy.
Lockwood, Park; Wohl, Roy
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a lifetime wellness course on changing students' global self-efficacy, physical self-efficacy, and wellness behavior. Methods: Seventy-one college students from a lifetime wellness course completed the TestWell Wellness Inventory--Standard Edition (National Wellness Institute,…
Hunt, Gary L.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the gender composition of a laboratory group and student behaviors, self-efficacy, and quiz performance, within the college physics laboratory. A student population was chosen and subdivided into two groups, which were assigned either same-sex or coed laboratory teams while executing identical laboratory activities and instruction. Assessments were carried out prior to instruction, during the course, and at the end of one semester worth of instruction and laboratory activities. Students were assessed in three areas: behaviors exhibited during laboratory activities, self-efficacy, and scores on laboratory quizzes. Analyses considered the differences in outcomes after a single semester of physics laboratories that differed only in team gender organization. The results indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in behavior variable, self-efficacy or laboratory quiz scores between same sex teams and coed teams. There were also no statistically significant differences between genders, and no interaction effect present. In a post-hoc analysis of the individual behaviors data, it was noted that there is present a practical difference in the individual behaviors exhibited by males and females. This difference implies a difference in how males and females successfully engage in the laboratory activities.
Martha Ornelas Contreras
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to characterize students who choose to study any of the undergraduate degree programs offered by the Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua [Autonomous University of Chihuahua] in terms of the perceived self-efficacy of their academic performance. The sample consisted of 1,187 male college students, with an average age of 18.29 (DE=0.76. The approach adopted for the research was quantitative with a survey-type descriptive design. The results show that the profiles of perceived self-efficacy are very similar for students from different fields of study, and that communication-related behaviors represent an area of opportunity for incoming freshmen.
Gallagher, Matthew W.; Payne, Laura A.; White, Kamila S.; Shear, Katherine M.; Woods, Scott W.; Gorman, Jack M.; Barlow, David H.
The present study examined temporal dependencies of change of panic symptoms and two promising mechanisms of change (self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity) during an 11-session course of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for Panic Disorder (PD). 361 individuals with a principal diagnosis of PD completed measures of self-efficacy, anxiety sensitivity, and PD symptoms at each session during treatment. Effect size analyses indicated that the greatest changes in anxiety sensitivity occurred early in treatment, whereas the greatest changes in self-efficacy occurred later in treatment. Results of parallel process latent growth curve models indicated that changes in self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity across treatment uniquely predicted changes in PD symptoms. Bivariate and multivariate latent difference score models indicated, as expected, that changes in anxiety sensitivity and self-efficacy temporally preceded changes in panic symptoms, and that intraindividual changes in anxiety sensitivity and self-efficacy independently predicted subsequent intraindividual changes in panic symptoms. These results provide strong evidence that changes in self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity during CBT influence subsequent changes in panic symptoms, and that self-efficacy and anxiety sensitivity may therefore be two distinct mechanisms of change of CBT for PD that have their greatest impact at different stages of treatment. PMID:24095901
Seçil BAL TAŞTAN
Full Text Available PSİKOLOJİK GÜÇLENDİRME ALGISI VE PSİKOLOJİK İYİ HİSSETME HALİ ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİ: ÖZ-YETERLİLİK ALGISI VE SOSYAL DESTEK ALGISININ ROLÜÖzet: Bu çalışmanın amacı, bireylerin psikolojik güçlendirme algısı ile işle ilgili iyi hissetme hali arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemektir. Bununla birlikte çalışmanın amacı, işyerinde psikolojik güçlendirme algısı ile psikolojik iyi hissetme hali arasındaki ilişkide bireylerin öz-yeterlilik inancının ara değişken rolüne ve sosyal destek algısının düzenleyici değişken rolüne ilişkin bulgular elde edebilmektir. Bu bağlamda, psikolojik güçlendirme algısı ve iyi hissetme hali arasındaki ilişkiyi ve algılanan öz-yeterlilik duygusu ve sosyal desteğin rolünü incelemeye yönelik tasarlanan yapılandırılmış saha araştırması, İstanbul ili Kadıköy ilçesine bağlı devlet ilköğretim okullarında görev yapmakta olan öğretmenler üzerinde uygulanmıştır. Araştırma modelinde ön görülen bir dizi hipotez, katılımcılardan elde edilen ampirik verilere dayanarak test edilmiştir. Araştırma sonuçları, psikolojik güçlendirme algısının dört boyutunun da psikolojik iyi hissetme hali ile pozitif ve anlamlı şekilde ilişkili olduğunu göstermiştir. Bununla birlikte, elde edilen istatistiksel bulgulara gore, bireylerin öz-yeterlilik algısının psikolojik güçlendirme ve iyi hissetme hali arasındaki ilişkide kısmi seviyede ara değişken rolüne sahip olduğu ve amir sosyal desteğinin bu ilişkide düzenleyici bir etkiye sahip olduğu görülmüştür. Bütün bu sonuçlar, çalışanlarının işyerindeki psikolojik iyi hissetme halini ve çalışma yaşamıyla ilgili olumlu duygulanımlarını güçlendirmeyi amaçlayan ve farklı sektörlerde yer alan özel ve kamu kurumlarına bakış açısı sunmaya yardımcı olmaktadır.THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PSYCHOLOGICAL EMPOWERMENT AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL BEING: THE ROLE OF SELF-EFFICACY
Kingery, Paul M.
Results from a study of 85 college students indicate that self-efficacy is a moderately strong predictor of self-monitored performance of dietary and exercise behaviors when measured following a self-monitored performance attempt. (IAH)
Full Text Available The problem studied in this research is whether self-efficacy has direct effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior. The research method was done by using quantitative approach through survey method by collecting data through research instrument, and spreading questionnaire to the employee which the result then processed through SPSS program to know the influence between variables. The population in this study amounted to 103 people and a sample of 82 employees and lecturers who received additional duties as structural officials IAIN Kendari. Based on the results of this study, it is found that there is a direct positive effect of self-efficacy on IAIN Kendari organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB of 0.471 or self-efficacy had an effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB IAIN employees Kendari with 47.1%. Therefore, it is concluded that empowerment and self-efficacy have a direct positive and significant impact on IAIN Kendari Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB.
Açıkgöz Çepni, Serap; Kitiş, Yeter
To investigate the relationship between the healthy lifestyle behaviors and the health locus of control and health-specific self-efficacy in university students. The study included 572 undergraduate students of a university in the central Anatolia region of Turkey. The data were collected with the General Characteristics Form, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Perceived Health Competence Scale and investigated with the structural equation model. Health-specific self-efficacy was an important predictor of healthy lifestyle behaviors. The Internal health locus of control influenced the healthy lifestyle behaviors through health-specific self-efficacy. The other dimension was the Powerful Others health locus of control that affected healthy lifestyle behaviors, both directly and indirectly, through health-specific self-efficacy. There was a chance that the health locus of control had a negative effect on healthy lifestyle behaviors through self-efficacy. Health-specific self-efficacy is an important prerequisite for changes in healthy lifestyle behaviors, which supports Pender's model. The subscales of the health locus of control vary in their effects on healthy lifestyle behaviors, which partly supports Pender's model. Nurses, by using this model, can examine ways of improving these cognitive-perceptual factors and implement health education programs that are directed towards improving them in young persons. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Rominov, Holly; Giallo, Rebecca; Whelan, Thomas A
Fathers' postnatal distress has been associated with subsequent emotional and behavioral problems for children; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs have received less attention. One potential pathway could be via the negative effects that father mental health problems and parenting self-efficacy (PSE) in the postnatal period have on later parenting behaviors. Using a nationally representative cohort of Australian father-child dyads (N = 3,741), the long-term relationships between fathers' psychological distress and PSE in the postnatal period, parenting behavior when children were aged 4-5 years, and emotional-behavioral outcomes for children aged 8-9 years were explored. Path analysis indicated that high distress and low PSE in the postnatal period was associated with higher levels of hostile parenting and lower parenting consistency when children were aged 4-5 years; in turn, these were associated with poorer child outcomes at 8-9 years. These results remained significant after controlling for socioeconomic position, couple relationship quality, mothers' and fathers' mental health, and fathers' concurrent parenting behavior. The pathways among PSE, parenting hostility, parenting consistency, and children's outcomes at age 8-9 years differed for fathers of boys compared with fathers of girls. Results highlight the importance of father-inclusive assessments of postnatal mental health. Support programs targeting new fathers' perceptions of parenting competence may be particularly important for fathers experiencing postnatal distress. For fathers, building a stronger sense of parenting competence in the postnatal period is important for later parenting behavior, which relates to children's emotional and behavioral outcomes during middle childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Martin, Michelle Y; Person, Sharina D; Kratt, Polly; Prayor-Patterson, Heather; Kim, Young; Salas, Maribel; Pisu, Maria
While self-efficacy plays an important role in physical activity, relatively little research has examined this construct in minorities. This study identified theoretical correlates associated with self-efficacy among insufficiently active, hypertensive Black women. Correlates of self-efficacy to: (1) overcoming barriers to physical activity; (2) making time for activity; and (3) "sticking with" physical activity were studied. Sixty-one women (M=50.48+/-4.2 years) participated. We accounted for 32% of the variance in confidence in overcoming barriers. Women confident in overcoming barriers reported less worry about physical activity. The TTM processes of change were also in the model: consciousness raising, environmental reevaluation, counter conditioning, and self-liberation. We accounted for 16% of the variance in "making time" self-efficacy. An aversiveness barrier (e.g., physical activity is boring, physical activity is hard work) was the dominant variable in the model. Confidence to 'stick with' physical activity was associated with self-reevaluation (i.e., reflection on how personal values correspond to behavior). Social support and competing demands were not associated with self-efficacy. Consistent with Social Cognitive Theory, results suggest that self-efficacy is behavior specific and each measure likely provides unique information. Interventions should be tailored to address specific self-efficacy types.
April L. McGrath
Full Text Available In this study we assessed the usefulness of a multifaceted teaching framework in an advanced statistics course. We sought to expand on past findings by using this framework to assess changes in anxiety and self-efficacy, and we collected focus group data to ascertain whether students attribute such changes to a multifaceted teaching approach. Statistics anxiety significantly decreased and students’ current statistics self-efficacy increased. Further, course performance was positively correlated with self-efficacy and a strong negative relationship between statistics anxiety and self-efficacy was documented. Focus group data suggested students appreciated aspects of this teaching framework and that they thought it served to reduce anxiety. In addition to this teaching framework, two instructional techniques were used to teach two specific statistical concepts. These techniques did not result in significant performance differences; however, students reported enjoying the activities and encouraged their use in future classes. Overall, this study suggests a multifaceted teaching framework may be useful in helping graduate students overcome anxiety and increase self-efficacy when completing an advanced statistics course. The research presented here adds to the growing literature concerning the importance of non-cognitive factors when teaching statistics. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
Meunier, Jean Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle; Browne, Dillon T.
The present study explores the bidirectional associations between parental behavior and child externalizing behavior in the context of two intervening variables: child's personality as a moderator of the effect of parental behavior on later child behavior; and parental self-efficacy as a mediator of the effect of child behavior on later parental…
Full Text Available Background This study aimed to assess the effects of maternal self-efficacy and oral health-related knowledge on pre-school children oral hygiene behavior. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 301 mothers with children aged 2–6 years old randomly selection from health centers of Tabriz, Iran. Data were collected using self-report questionnaires including demographic characteristics, maternal self-efficacy, oral health-related knowledge, and children’s oral hygiene behavior. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 using one-way ANOVA, Independent samples t-test, and multiple linear regressions at 95% significant level. Results The mean age of children was 4.1(standard deviation [SD] =1.4; range: 2–6 years. The mean score (SD of children oral hygiene behavior was 5.4 (1.9. The mean score (SD of mothers knowledge and self-efficacy were 4.9 (1.8 and 46.6 (14.8, respectively. 44.2% (133/301 of mothers had low self-efficacy and 55.8% (168/301 high self-efficacy. The children oral hygiene behavior was significantly and positively associated with maternal self-efficacy (r = 0.517, P < 0.001 and oral health-related knowledge (r = 0.363, P < 0.001. Conclusion According to the results of this study, mothers’ self-efficacy and knowledge was the strongest predicator of children oral hygiene behavior. So, educational interventions to improve maternal self-efficacy and knowledge may be beneficial for children oral health habits.
This study is aimed at analyzing the influence of the worker perception about the leadership behavior which is relationship-oriented and task-oriented from the leader or the supervisor towards the work through organizational commitment and self-efficacy. The results of the research show: 1) the tendency of the leaders in applying leadership behaviour with relationship-oriented and task-oriented is high, and so are the self-efficacy, organizational commitment, and extra-role (OCB) workship (ei...
Den Hartog, Deanne N; Belschak, Frank D
Two multisource studies address the interactive effects of personal and contextual variables on employees' proactive behavior. In line with previous work, we find positive main effects of transformational leadership, role breadth self-efficacy, and job autonomy on employee proactive behavior (personal initiative in Study 1 and prosocial proactive behavior in Study 2). As expected, a 3-way interaction qualifies these main effects: In situations of high autonomy, transformational leadership relates positively to proactive behavior for individuals high (but not low) on self-efficacy. Vice versa, in situations low on job autonomy, transformational leadership relates positively to proactive behavior for individuals low (but not high) on self-efficacy. This pattern is found both for self-ratings and peer-ratings of employees' proactive behavior in Study 1 and for supervisor ratings of such behavior in Study 2.
McGrath, April L.; Ferns, Alyssa; Greiner, Leigh; Wanamaker, Kayla; Brown, Shelley
In this study we assessed the usefulness of a multifaceted teaching framework in an advanced statistics course. We sought to expand on past findings by using this framework to assess changes in anxiety and self-efficacy, and we collected focus group data to ascertain whether students attribute such changes to a multifaceted teaching approach.…
Schopp, Laura H; Bike, Denise H; Clark, Mary J; Minor, Marian A
Chronic health conditions and multiple health risk factors afflict Americans and burden employers, but effective, affordable, workplace-based health promotion interventions have not been widely implemented. This is the first study to adapt the empirically validated Chronic Disease Self-Management Program for a general employee population in a workplace setting with an emphasis on disease prevention and health promotion. A quasi-experimental, wellness standard of care comparison, prospective cohort design was used among employee participants at a large University employer. Ninety-one individuals participated in the program. Participants reported significantly increased health behavior frequency and self-efficacy after the intervention, compared with their pre-intervention scores, and improvements were sustained at 3-month follow-up [self-rated abilities for health practices scale (SRA): F = 30.89, P self-efficacy and health behaviors compared with the wellness standard of care comparison group at post intervention (SRA: F = 12.45, P < 0.001; HPLP-II: F = 25.28, P < 0.001). Adapting lay-facilitated self-management for the workplace offers promise as a replicable, scalable, affordable model for culture change in organizations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Jang, Su Ahn; Cho, Namauk; Yoo, Jina
The current study examined the factors that influence Korean adolescents' drinking refusal self-efficacy, which is known to be associated with alcohol use and drinking intentions. Specifically, this study considered parental monitoring, parent-child communication satisfaction, peer influence, and prior alcohol use as possible antecedents of Korean high school students' drinking refusal self-efficacy. High school students (n = 538) in South Korea responded to the current study. The data revealed that parent-child communication satisfaction facilitated parental monitoring, and these factors indirectly predicted adolescents' drinking behavior through peer influence. We also found that prior drinking, parental monitoring, and peer influence were directly associated with drinking refusal self-efficacy, and the self-efficacy, in turn, was associated with drinking intentions. These results not only suggest that drinking refusal self-efficacy are related to drinking behavior and intentions, but they also provide a theoretical explanation for how parental and peer influences are associated with adolescents' drinking refusal self-efficacy.
As organizations have become more dependent on networked information systems (IS) to conduct their business operations, their susceptibility to various threats to information security has also increased. Research has consistently identified the inappropriate security behavior of the users as the most significant of these threats. Various factors…
Bastami, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar
Addicts account for approximately 68.15% of AIDS cases in Iran and injection drug users are considered as a major factor in the spread of AIDS in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on the perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and barriers concerning AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts in Khorramabad, Iran. This is a quasi-experimental study carried out in 2013 on 88 addicts kept in rehabilitations center in Khorramabad. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire on self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding HIV. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi-square and analysis of covariance. Paired t-test showed that the mean scores for perceived benefits and barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group after the intervention than before the intervention. But the increase in self-efficacy score was not statistically significant. The results of this study showed that training and education based on the health belief model led to an increase in knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, performance and reduction in perceived barriers in addicts. It is recommended that future studies should include strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and perceived benefits as well as strategies for reducing barriers to the adoption of preventive behaviors.
Kulakçi, Hülya; Emiroğlu, Oya Nuran
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of tailored individualized nursing care services on the self-efficacy perceptions and healthy lifestyle behaviors of older adults living in a nursing home in Turkey. This outcomes evaluation research used a quasi-experimental study design in which outcomes evaluations were repeated within time intervals in a single group. The study sample included 30 older adults. Nursing diagnoses and interventions were identified using the Omaha System. The impact of implemented nursing care services was evaluated using the Self-Efficacy Scale and Healthy Life-Style Behaviours Scale II. A total of 3,024 nursing interventions were performed, and self-efficacy perceptions and healthy lifestyle behaviors of older nursing home residents were significantly increased in a positive manner (p healthy lifestyle behaviors of older adults and that nursing care services directed at health promotion of older adults should be maintained. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
den Hartog, D.N.; Belschak, F.D.
Two multisource studies address the interactive effects of personal and contextual variables on employees' proactive behavior. In line with previous work, we find positive main effects of transformational leadership, role breadth self-efficacy, and job autonomy on employee proactive behavior
Full Text Available Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI is an effective treatment for children with autism. However, it is known that some parents struggle to fully implement the program, and providers are not always able to identify the specifics of each family’s individualized challenges. The purpose of this pilot study was to begin the process of developing a new instrument, the EIBI Parental Self-Efficacy (EPSE Scale, to help providers better assess and assist parents in regard to EIBI implementation. The methodology included four phases: scale construction, expert review, pretest administration, and a large sample pilot study (N = 192. The final 29-item EPSE Scale contained strong reliability properties (Cronbach’s alpha = .900. Factor analysis established five subscales: Family Well-Being, Preparing for Successful Sessions, Team Participation, Not Giving Up, and Working with your Child. Following this pilot study, future research is recommended to refine and validate the EPSE Scale as a useful clinical tool for EIBI providers.
Glatz, Terese; Cotter, Allison; Buchanan, Christy M
Based on theory that parents with higher levels of self-efficacy (PSE) should find it easier to parent effectively in the face of challenging child behaviors than should parents with lower levels of PSE, this study examines the link between PSE and parenting using children's behaviors as potential moderators. Participants were 130 parents who had an older adolescent ( M age = 17.58) in addition to the target adolescent ( M age = 11.79), and both adolescents' externalizing behaviors were used as moderators for the link between PSE and parenting of the target adolescent. Path analysis in Mplus showed that higher PSE was linked to more promotive parenting but only among parents who had an older adolescent with lower levels of externalizing behaviors. Among parents of adolescents with higher levels of externalizing behaviors, whose promotive parenting was significantly lower than other parents overall, PSE did not predict promotive parenting. The link between PSE and parenting did not differ depending on the target adolescents' behavior. Findings suggest that the link between parents' beliefs and parenting depends on the broader family context. More specifically, how PSE is linked to parenting practices depends at least partly on the experiences that parents bring from parenting an older adolescent to their interactions with a later-born adolescent. From a clinical perspective, parents might need guidance in how to think about their earlier parenting experiences when parenting a younger adolescent.
Neupert, Shevaun D; Lachman, Margie E; Whitbourne, Stacey B
The current study examined exercise self-efficacy and exercise behavior during and after a strength-training intervention program with older adults. A model with cross-lagged and contemporaneous paths was tested with structural equations. Within testing occasions, higher physical resistance was related to greater beliefs in efficacy and control over exercise. At 3 months into the intervention, those who had higher physical resistance were less likely to show subsequent changes in beliefs. Those who had higher self-efficacy and control beliefs at 6 months were more likely to report that they were still exercising at 9 and 12 months after the intervention. Findings indicate that exercise self-efficacy and exercise behavior are associated with one another and that beliefs developed during an intervention are important for maintenance of an exercise regimen.
Guntzviller, Lisa M; King, Andy J; Jensen, Jakob D; Davis, LaShara A
Public health goals have emphasized healthy nutrition and exercise behaviors, especially in underserved populations. According to social cognitive theory (SCT), self-efficacy and capability (e.g., health literacy) may interact to predict preventative behaviors. We surveyed 100 low-income, native Spanish-speakers living in the United States who were low in English proficiency and predominantly of Mexican heritage. Participants reported their nutritional and exercise self-efficacy, Spanish health literacy, and nutrition and physical activity behaviors. Consistent with SCT, the interaction of self-efficacy and health literacy significantly predicted fruit and vegetable consumption and weekly exercise, and marginally predicted avoidance of high fat foods. For all three interactions, higher health literacy levels strengthened the positive relationship between self-efficacy and health behaviors. The results offer support for the tenets of SCT and suggest-for low-income, Spanish-speaking adults-that a combination of behavioral confidence and literacy capability are necessary to enact appropriate health behaviors.
Lim, Vivien K. G.; Loo, Geok Leng
Structural equation modeling results from data on 178 undergraduates and their parents in Singapore indicated that paternal job insecurity was associated positively and maternal job insecurity negatively with authoritarian parenting. Mothers' authoritarian parenting was related to young adults' self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was positively…
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to determine the predictive power of physical and psychological disorders by occupational self-efficacy and safety consciousness among the staff. Methods: This research is a correlation study, in which 189 individuals of Isfahan Steel Company in 2011 and 2012 were selected based on the stratified random sampling method. The data were collected using questionnaire, containing questions regarding demographic characteristics, safety consciousness, occupational self-efficacy, and physical and psychological disorders. Later the data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and Multivariate regression analysis. Results: The results showed that both safety consciousness and occupational self-efficacy were significantly related to physical and psychological disorders (p<0.01. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that safety consciousness variable significantly predicted respectively, 9% and 17% of the variance of physical and psychological disorders (p<0.05. Also, occupational self-efficacy variable significantly predicted respectively, 21% and 12% of the variance of physical and psychological disorders (p<0.05. Conclusion: These results emphasize the importance of psychological variables in order to predict reporting physical and psychological disorders among workers.
Bland, Angela D; Kegler, Michelle C; Escoffery, Cam; Halinka Malcoe, Lorraine
Understanding individual and social influences on behaviors commonly recommended to prevent lead poisoning in children can guide more effective educational interventions. In-person interviews were conducted with primary caregivers (n = 380) of American Indian and White children aged 1 to 6 living in or near the Tar Creek Superfund site in northeastern Oklahoma. Caregivers' perceived health benefits, self-efficacy, and subjective norms were assessed for four lead poisoning prevention behaviors (i.e., annual blood lead testing, playing in safe areas, washing hands before eating, and dusting with a damp cloth). Caregivers spoke with their own mothers, spouses, and other female family members most often when they had concerns or worries about taking care of their children. In multivariate models, subjective norms, perceived benefits, and self-efficacy were positively associated with the hand-washing and damp-dusting behaviors, while only self-efficacy was associated with playing in safe areas. None of the variables were found to have significant influence on the blood lead testing behavior. Education programs should address individual level factors such as self-efficacy and perceived health benefits but also consider new strategies that incorporate a normative dimension to lead poisoning prevention.
Snitker-Magin, Mikael C.
The purpose of the study was to apply Bandura's self-efficacy theory to understanding the behavior of college students with disabilities in requesting accommodations. Students with disabilities were recruited from 20 two-year and four-year postsecondary institutions by asking student disabilities services staff to forward an email invitation to…
Yzer, MC; Fisher, JD; Bakker, AB; Siero, FW; Misovich, SJ
Female college students' perceived vulnerability to AIDS and their perceived self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behavior (APB), were manipulated in a 2 x 2 design. Consistent with protection motivation theory (e.g.. Rogers, 1983), the results showed that intention to engage in APE was highest
Goldin, Philippe R.; Ziv, Michal; Jazaieri, Hooria; Werner, Kelly; Kraemer, Helena; Heimberg, Richard G.; Gross, James J.
Objective: To examine whether changes in cognitive reappraisal self-efficacy (CR-SE) mediate the effects of individually administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (I-CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD) on severity of social anxiety symptoms. Method: A randomized controlled trial in which 75 adult patients (21-55 years of age; 53% male; 57%…
Bullock-Yowell, Emily; Katz, Sheba P.; Reardon, Robert C.; Peterson, Gary W.
The respective roles of social cognitive career theory and cognitive information processing in career exploratory behavior were analyzed. A verified path model shows cognitive information processing theory's negative career thoughts inversely predict social cognitive career theory's career problem-solving self-efficacy, which predicts career…
Lowinger, Robert Jay; He, Zhaomin; Lin, Miranda; Chang, Mei
This study examined the role of academic self-efficacy, acculturation difficulties, and language abilities on procrastination behavior using a convenience sample of 264 Chinese international students studying at three public universities in the United States. While there were no significant mean gender differences on any of the measures, results…
Zee, M.; de Jong, P.F.; Koomen, H.M.Y.
The present study examined teachers’ domain-specific self-efficacy (TSE) in relation to individual students with a variety of social–emotional behaviors in class. Using a sample of 526 third- to sixth-grade students and 69 teachers, multilevel modeling was conducted to examine students’
Schönfeld, P; Preusser, F; Margraf, J
Encounters with stressors induce diverse idiosyncratic neuroendocrine, behavioral and psychological reactions across people. Perceived self-efficacy can alter autonomic responses and their effects on mental health. The beneficial effects of self-efficacy in buffering physiological arousal, enhancing performance, and diminishing psychopathological symptoms have been observed in diverse contexts. We show that the role of self-efficacy is not uniformly beneficial, and that higher levels of self-efficacy can sometimes lead to increases in neuroendocrine and psychological stress responses and decreases in performance, a phenomenon that has been widely neglected. We discuss specific conditions under which self-efficacy effects do not uniformly ameliorate or prevent the consequences of stress. These conditions suggest that therapeutic interventions need not always promote self-efficacy in principal. Simultaneously, they to do suggest that keeping self-efficacy high might be disadvantageous or detrimental. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Glatz, Terese; Buchanan, Christy M
Parental self-efficacy (PSE) is defined as parents' beliefs about their abilities to influence their children in a way that fosters their children's positive development. Research has shown links among PSE, parenting, and children's behavior (Jones & Prinz, 2005), but there are still questions concerning the associations over time. Theory predicts 3 types of processes relevant to these associations: a PSE-driven process, a parent-behavior-driven process, and a child-driven process. In this study, we tested these processes during early to middle adolescence using reports from 401 parents (286 mothers, 115 fathers) from 305 families, and their adolescents (Mage = 11.5 years), at 3 time points. Cross-lagged panel models were used to examine the associations among PSE, promotive parenting practices, and adolescents' externalizing. Results supported a PSE-driven process for mothers within early adolescence. In addition, evidence for parent-behavior-driven and child-driven processes emerged at different times within this developmental period. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Garnefski, N; Kraaij, V; Benoist, M; Bout, Z; Karels, E; Smit, A
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new cognitive-behavioral self-help program with minimal coaching could improve psychological well-being (depression, anxiety, and coping self-efficacy) in people with rheumatic disease and depressive symptoms. In total, 82 persons with a rheumatic disease enrolled in a randomized controlled trial were allocated to either a group receiving the self-help program or a waiting list control condition group. For both groups, measurements were done at baseline, posttest, and followup. The outcome measures were the depression and anxiety scales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and an adaptation of the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale. Repeated-measures analyses of covariance were performed to evaluate changes in outcome measures from pretest to posttest and from posttest to followup. The results showed that the self-help program was effective in reducing symptoms of depression and anxiety and in strengthening coping self-efficacy. The positive effects remained after a followup period of 2 months. This cost-effective program could very well be used as a first step in a stepped care approach or as one of the treatment possibilities in a matched care approach. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship of self-efficacy, impulsivity, behavioral activation-inhibition system (through of the effect on social skills with substance abuse in high school students. Method: Population of present research was all of boy high schools in first and second grades of Ardabil city that 616 students selected of them randomly. Self-efficacy scale, impulsivity scale, behavioral activation-inhibition scale, Matson social skills and substance abuse were administered among selected sample. Results: Based on the resulting of Path analysis, self- efficacy, impulsivity, behavioral activation-inhibition and social skills variables directly and self-efficacy, impulsivity, behavioral activation variables indirectly related significantly to students’ substance abuse scores. Conclusion: The result are in keeping with findings of other studies, and indicated that high levels of impulsivity, and behavioral activation system, and low level of self-efficacy, behavioral inhibition and social skills increases substance abuse in students.
Norman, Åsa; Bohman, Benjamin; Nyberg, Gisela; Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte
Background: According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is central to behavior change. Consequently, parental self-efficacy (PSE) for influencing children's dietary, physical activity (PA), sedentary, and screen time behaviors is important for child obesity prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an…
Vinayak K. Nahar
Full Text Available There are slightly over one million workers in the landscape service industry in the US. These workers have potential for high levels of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure, increasing their risk of skin cancer. A cross-sectional sample of 109 landscapers completed a self-administered questionnaire based on Health Belief Model (HBM. The participants correctly answered 67.1% of the knowledge questions, 69.7% believed they were more likely than the average person to get skin cancer, and 87.2% perceived skin cancer as a severe disease. Participants believed that the use of wide-brimmed hats, long sleeved shirts/long pants, and sunscreen was beneficial but reported low usage of these and other sun protective strategies. The primary barriers to using sun protection were “I forget to wear it” and “it is too hot to wear.” Of the HBM variables, perceived benefits outweighing perceived barrier (, and self-efficacy (, were correlated with sun protection behaviors. The reasons for absence of the relationship between perceived skin cancer threat and sun protection behaviors could be lack of skin cancer knowledge and low rate of personal skin cancer history.
The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived psychological benefits and explore the mechanisms underlying the link between exercise and psychological well-being for a group of older adults (65-72 years; 6 women; 4 men) who participated in a 12-week program of moderate-to-high intensity resistance training. They were interviewed in-depth at 1 week preintervention, 1 month after commencement, and 1 week after completion. The participants believed that resistance training enhanced their well-being, and they gave various physical, mental, and social reasons to explain this link. In particular, self-efficacy and social interaction were found to be key mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study exposed meaningful perceived improvements in psychological wellbeing that have not been uncovered in quantitative studies of healthy older people undertaking resistance training. The findings highlight the importance of using qualitative methods to enrich understandings of the positive effect of exercise on psychological well-being. The findings also have implications for designing effective resistance training interventions for older people.
Full Text Available This study is aimed at analyzing the influence of the worker perception about the leadership behavior which is relationship-oriented and task-oriented from the leader or the supervisor towards the work through organizational commitment and self-efficacy. The results of the research show: 1 the tendency of the leaders in applying leadership behaviour with relationship-oriented and task-oriented is high, and so are the self-efficacy, organizational commitment, and extra-role (OCB workship (either the employee or the employer. 2 The influence of leadership behaviour with relationship-oriented and task-oriented towards extra role (OCB workship is not significant. The correlations among those variables undergo changes after they were intefered by self-efficacy and organizational variable as the moderator variable. 3 The result of this research shows that self-efficacy variable mediates the influence of leadership behaviour with relationship-oriented towards extra-role workship (OCB, rather than mediates leadership behaviour with task-oriented. While, the organizational commitment mediates leadership behaviour with task-oriented towards extra-role (OCB workship, rather than mediates leadership behaviour with task-oriented towards the employee of OCB.
Kroll, Thilo; Kratz, Anna; Kehn, Matthew; Jensen, Mark P; Groah, Suzanne; Ljungberg, Inger H; Molton, Ivan R; Bombardier, Charles
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesized association between exercise self-efficacy and exercise behavior, controlling for demographic variables and clinical characteristics, in a sample of individuals with spinal cord injuries. A cross-sectional national survey of 612 community-dwelling adults with spinal cord injury in the United States ranging from 18 to 89 yrs of age was conducted. Sample consisted of 63.1% men with a mean (SD) duration of 15.8 (12.79) yrs postinjury; 86.3% reported using a wheelchair. Self-efficacy was the only independent variable that consistently predicted all four exercise outcomes. Self-efficacy beliefs were significantly related to frequency and intensity of resistance training (R(2) change = 0.08 and 0.03, respectively; P resistance exercise. Self-efficacy beliefs play an important role as predictors of exercise. Variations in exercise intensity along the age continuum have implications for exercise prescription and composition. Future research should replicate findings with objective activity measures.
Lee, Ling-Ling; Arthur, Antony; Avis, Mark
Only a fifth of older people undertake a level of physical activity sufficient to lead to health benefit. Misconceptions about the ageing process and beliefs about the costs and benefits of exercise in late life may result in unnecessary self-imposed activity restriction. Thus, adhering to a physical activity can be difficult particularly when the benefits of exercise are often not immediate. Many of the barriers to engaging in physical activity among older people are attitudinal. It is therefore important to take account of the non-physical aspects of physical activity intervention programmes, such as increasing confidence. Self-efficacy is a widely applied theory used to understand health behaviour and facilitate behavioural modification, such as the increase of physical activity. This paper aims to examine the ways in which self-efficacy theory might be used in intervention programmes designed to overcome psychological barriers for increasing physical activity among older people. A number of studies have demonstrated that exercise self-efficacy is strongly associated with the amount of physical activity undertaken. Evidence from some trials supports the view that incorporating the theory of self-efficacy into the design of a physical activity intervention is beneficial. Physical activity interventions aimed at improving the self perception of exercise self-efficacy can have positive effects on confidence and the ability to initiate and maintain physical activity behaviour. There are a number of ways for nurses to facilitate older people to draw on the four information sources of self-efficacy: performance accomplishments, vicarious learning, verbal encouragement, and physiological and affective states. Research challenges that future studies need to address include the generalisability of exercise setting, the role of age as an effect modifier, and the need for more explicit reporting of how self-efficacy is operationalised in interventions.
Full Text Available Background. Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed form of cancer in the United States (US. However, knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes regarding sun protection vary among the general population. The purpose of this study is to examine sun protection behaviors of low-income primary care patients and assess the association between these health behaviors and the self-efficacy, susceptibility, and skin cancer awareness. Methods. Uninsured primary care patients utilizing a free clinic (N=551 completed a self-administered survey in May and June 2015. Results. Using sunscreen was the least common tactic among the participants of this study. Skin cancer awareness and self-efficacy are important to improve sun protection behaviors. Spanish speakers may have lower levels of skin care awareness compared to US born and non-US born English speakers. Male and female participants use different sun protection methods. Conclusion. It is important to increase skin cancer awareness with self-efficacy interventions as well as education on low-cost sun protection methods. Spanish speaking patients would be a target population for promoting awareness. Male and female patients would need separate gender-specific sun protection education. Future studies should implement educational programs and assess the effectiveness of the programs to further promote skin cancer prevention among underserved populations.
King, Diane K.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Toobert, Deborah J.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Osuna, Diego; Faber, Andrew J.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations between psychosocial and social-environmental variables and diabetes self-management, and diabetes control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Baseline data from a type 2 diabetes self-management randomized trial with 463 adults having elevated BMI (M = 34.8 kg/m2) were used to investigate relations among demographic, psychosocial, and social-environmental variables; dietary, exercise, and medication-taking behaviors; and biologic outcomes. RESULTS Self-efficacy, p...
Neupert, Shevaun D.; Lachman, Margie E.; Whitbourne, Stacey B.
The present study examined exercise self-efficacy and exercise behavior during and after a strength training intervention program with older adults. A model with cross-lagged and contemporaneous paths was tested with structural equations. Within testing occasions, higher physical resistance was related to greater beliefs in efficacy and control over exercise. At 3 months into the intervention, those who had higher physical resistance were less likely to show subsequent changes in beliefs. Tho...
Roskam, Isabelle; Brassart, Elise; Loop, Laurie; Mouton, Bénédicte; Schelstraete, Marie-Anne
This research aimed at determining which of two types of parenting variable, self-efficacy beliefs and verbal responsiveness, cause significant decreases in preschoolers' externalizing behavior - in particular motor activity, non compliance, irritability, aggressiveness and inattention - and to what extent. Two micro-trials were used to achieve this goal. The 45 parents participating were randomly assigned to an 8-week waiting list followed by an 8-week intervention condition focusing on self-efficacy stimulation, or to an 8-week intervention condition focusing on verbal responsiveness stimulation. It can be concluded from the results that the two manipulations were effective in decreasing aggressive behavior and non compliance. However, the improvement of self-efficacy beliefs has an effect on children's externalizing behavior across a slightly larger spectrum than the enhancement of verbal responsiveness since it was also effective in reducing irritability. Neither of the two manipulations resulted in a decrease of attention problems or motor activity. The results are discussed for their research and clinical implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this study was to investigate individual students' learning from the perspectives of self-efficacy and cognitive learning expressions in multidisciplinary project teams. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected to address the major research questions, which are aimed at understanding individual students'…
Bohman, Benjamin; Rasmussen, Finn; Ghaderi, Ata
Parental self-efficacy (PSE) refers to beliefs of parents to effectively engage in behaviors that result in desired outcomes for their children. There are several instruments of PSE for promoting healthy dietary or physical activity (PA) behaviors in children. These measures typically assess PSE in relation to some quantity or frequency of behavior, for example, number of servings or times per week. However, measuring PSE in relation to contextual circumstances, for example, psychological states and situational demands, may be a more informative approach. The purpose of the present study was to develop and psychometrically evaluate a context-based PSE instrument. Swedish mothers of five-year-old children (n = 698) responded to the Parental Self-Efficacy for Healthy Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors in Preschoolers Scale (PDAP) and a questionnaire on dietary and PA behaviors in children. Interviews were conducted to explore participant perceptions of the quality of the PDAP items. Psychometric evaluation was conducted using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Spearman correlations between PSE and child behaviors were examined. Twenty-seven interviews were conducted with participants, who perceived the items as highly comprehensible, relevant and acceptable. A four-factor model of a revised 21-item version of the PDAP fitted the data, with different factors of PSE for promoting healthy dietary or PA behaviors in children depending on whether circumstances were facilitating or impeding successful performance. Internal consistency was excellent for total scale (Cronbach's α = .94), and good for factors (α = .84-.88). Correlations were in the expected direction: positive correlations between PSE and healthy behaviors, and negative correlations between PSE and unhealthy behaviors (all r ss ≤ .32). Psychometric evaluation of the PDAP provided preliminary support of construct validity and internal consistency.
Perkins, S; Jenkins, L S
To describe levels of self-efficacy expectation and performance of selected cardiac recovery behaviors and mood state in patients recovering from percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and to describe the nature of the relationships among these variables. Descriptive, correlational. Hospital (postprocedure, predischarge) and home (2 weeks postdischarge). Jenkins Self-Efficacy Expectation Scales and Activity Checklists for Walking Various Distances, Following a Dietary Restriction, Maintaining Health, Resuming Roles and Working; and the Profile of Mood States (POMS) Inventory (McNair, Lorr, and Doppleman). Adult patients (N = 90; 79% men; mean age = 61 years; 50% working preprocedure) who had undergone a PTCA (first procedure 71.1% and elective procedure 77.8%). Mean hospital stay was 3.9 days. Mean self-efficacy expectation scores were moderately high postprocedure for all behaviors and all, except scores for role resumption, increased significantly (p POMS) scores improved significantly (p POMS. Clinical implications drawn from these findings support the individualization of patient teaching needed for this population and point to the need for further research, including development of more clinically useful instruments for assessing these variables.
Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of self-efficacy in relation to condom use. A sample of 87 female college students completed self-report measures related to their sexual history, attitudes towards condoms and past condom use, as well as their outcome expectancy and intention to use condoms in the future. The results showed a positive correlation between self-efficacy and positive attitudes towards condom use, as well as correlations between past behavior, self-efficacy and intention to use condoms in the future. Multiple linear regression models were used to further explore the relationship between self-efficacy, past condom use, outcome expectancy and attitudes toward condoms, with the intention to use condoms in the future. The results demonstrated that both self-efficacy and past condom use are significant predictors of an individual’s intention to use condoms in the future.
Zhang, Mei-fen; Zheng, Mei-chun; Liu, Wei-yan; Wen, Yong-shan; Wu, Xiao-dan; Liu, Qian-wen
To explore the influence of self-efficacy and demographic, disease-related, and psychological factors on symptom distress among Chinese colorectal cancer patients receiving postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Two-hundred and fifty-two colorectal cancer patients who had undergone postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy completed Chinese versions of M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI-GI), Stanford Inventory of Cancer Patient Adjustment (SICPA), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Associations between patients' self-efficacy and demographic, disease-related, psychological factors and symptom distress were examined. Patients' overall symptom distress level was mild; MDASI median subscale scores showed mild symptom severity and symptom interference. Anxiety and depression were positively associated with symptom distress. Multivariable analysis showed that more severe symptoms were associated with age ≥60 years, female gender, suburban residence, body mass index 60 years, female gender, body mass index <18.5, suburban residence and stage III disease. Nurse-administered self-efficacy interventions may help to improve self-efficacy and reduce symptom distress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Verdi, Genevieve; Weyandt, Lisa L; Zavras, Brynheld Martinez
The objective of this study was to examine graduate students' non-medical use of prescription stimulant medication, and the relationship between non-medical use of prescription stimulants with academic self-efficacy, psychological factors (i.e., anxiety, depression, and stress), and internal restlessness. The sample consisted of 807 graduate students from universities located in five geographic regions of the United States. Past-year rates of self-reported non-medical use were determined to be 5.9%, with overall lifetime prevalence of 17.5%. Observed self-reported non-medical use of prescription stimulant medications was significantly correlated with self-reported levels of anxiety and stress, various aspects of internal restlessness, and perceived safety of the medications. Findings support graduate students' motivations of non-medical prescription stimulant use to be both academic and social in nature. Effective prevention and education efforts are needed to help address the non-medical use of prescription stimulants by graduate students on university campuses. © The Author(s) 2014.
Classroom management is a common concern for educators. Teachers with high self-efficacy are strongly linked with having successful characteristics regarding their classroom management styles and strategies. With this in mind, the current study examined classroom teachers' perceived self-efficacy, specifically regarding their behavior…
Full Text Available Chronic pain is one of the most common reasons for visit to primary medical centers. Evidences show that cognitive-behavioral therapy is the effective therapy in chronic pains. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy on alexithymia and pains self-efficacy of patients with chronic pain. For this purpose, in a quasi-experimental plan and pre-test and post-test kind with control group, 45 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain who visited to the therapeutic-sanitary centers in Ahwaz city were selected by using the available sampling method and they were assigned randomly in two experimental and control groups. Groups were tested in terms of alexithymia and self-effectiveness of pain at first. Then behavioral-cognitive training was presented in the time of 8 sessions of 90 minutes to the group and after ending the training program and three month consistency period, both groups were tested in terms of alexithymia and self-efficacy of pain. analyzing data by multivariate covariance method showed that the behavioral-cognitive therapy has been effective on alexithymia and pain intensity of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain and these effects remain on patients in the high amount in the consistency stage, too. According to the results, behavioral-cognitive therapy causes to increasing the self-efficacy of pain and reducing the alexithymia and harmful effects of pain to the least level by changing nonefficiency behaviors, correction of adverse cognitions and destructive emotions related to pain.
Mitchell, Christina M; Kaufman, Carol E; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Beals, Janette; Keane, Ellen M
For adolescents, normative development encompasses learning to negotiate challenges of sexual situations; of special importance are skills to prevent early pregnancy, HIV, and other sexually transmitted diseases. Disparities in sexual risk among American Indian youth point to the importance of intervening to attenuate this risk. This study explored the impact of Circle of Life (COL), an HIV prevention intervention based on social cognitive theory, on trajectories of self-efficacy (refusing sex, avoiding sexual situations) among 635 students from 13 middle schools on one American Indian reservation. COL countered a normative decline of refusal self-efficacy among girls receiving the intervention by age 13, while girls participating at age 14 or older, girls in the comparison group, and all boys showed continuing declines. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a discipline-based career course on perceptions of career barriers, career search self-efficacy, and career preparation behavior of nursing students. Differences in career search self-efficacy and career preparation behavior by the students' levels of career barriers were also examined. Methods: The study used a modified one-group, pretest–posttest design. The convenience sample consisted of 154 undergraduate nursin...
Macneil, Laura; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Mehlenbeck, Robyn; Weismoore, Julie
The present study employed a series of stress-diathesis models to examine whether avoidance coping and poor coping self-efficacy contribute to disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in a sample of college students. The sample included one hundred fifteen undergraduate students (28.7% male; 71.3% female). Participants completed self-report measures to assess daily stressors, coping style, coping self-efficacy, and eating disorder attitudes and behaviors. As predicted, among students with an avoidance coping style, those who reported more daily stressors exhibited higher eating disorder attitudes and behaviors than those with less daily hassles. Contrary to study hypothesis, number of daily hassles did not moderate the association between coping self-efficacy and eating disorder attitudes and behaviors. However, there was a significant main effect for coping self-efficacy, suggesting that students who lack confidence in their coping abilities are more likely to have problematic eating attitudes and behaviors, regardless of their level of daily stress. Clinically, results suggest that students who enter college with an avoidance coping style and poor coping self-efficacy may be at risk for disordered eating, particularly with the onset of associated stress. Teaching students active problem-focused coping skills to deal with daily hassles associated with college life, and providing opportunities for repeated practice to bolster self-efficacy, may help prevent and/or reduce disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
De Las Cuevas, Carlos; Peñate, Wenceslao; Sanz, Emilio J
Although non-adherence to antidepressant medications is a significant barrier to the successful treatment of depression in clinical practice, few potentially modifiable predictors of poor adherence to antidepressant treatment are known. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of psychological reactance, health locus of control and the sense of self-efficacy on adherence to treatment regimen among psychiatric outpatients with depression. One hundred and forty-five consecutive psychiatric outpatients suffering from depressive disorders were invited to participate in a cross-sectional study and 119 accepted. Patients completed a series of self-reported questionnaires assessing psychological reactance, health locus of control, self-efficacy, and adherence to prescribed medication in addition to socio-demographic and clinical variables. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors better correlate to treatment adherence. Age was found to be the best correlate of adherence to prescribed treatment. As regards psychological dimension studied, medication adherence was negatively associated with both cognitive and affective psychological reactance; patients with higher psychological reactance were more likely to be noncompliant than patients showing a low level of psychological reactance. Regarding health locus of control, only the external dimension of doctor-attributed health locus of control was positively associated with medications adherence. No effect on adherence was observed for the self-efficacy scale. Psychological reactance is an important correlate of adherence to treatment in patients with depressive disorders and this needs to be considered when giving clinical advice in order to avoid inducing reactance and thus non-adherence to prescribed treatments. Mental health professionals need to learn about communication techniques and counseling skills that enable them to deal with the psychological reactance of their patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Theoretically, increased levels of physical activity self-efficacy (PASE should lead to increased physical activity, but few studies have reported this effect among youth. This failure may be at least partially attributable to measurement limitations. In this study, Item Response Modeling (IRM was used to develop new physical activity and sedentary behavior change self-efficacy scales. The validity of the new scales was compared with accelerometer assessments of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods New PASE and sedentary behavior change (TV viewing, computer video game use, and telephone use self-efficacy items were developed. The scales were completed by 714, 6th grade students in seven US cities. A limited number of participants (83 also wore an accelerometer for five days and provided at least 3 full days of complete data. The new scales were analyzed using Classical Test Theory (CTT and IRM; a reduced set of items was produced with IRM and correlated with accelerometer counts per minute and minutes of sedentary, light and moderate to vigorous activity per day after school. Results The PASE items discriminated between high and low levels of PASE. Full and reduced scales were weakly correlated (r = 0.18 with accelerometer counts per minute after school for boys, with comparable associations for girls. Weaker correlations were observed between PASE and minutes of moderate to vigorous activity (r = 0.09 – 0.11. The uni-dimensionality of the sedentary scales was established by both exploratory factor analysis and the fit of items to the underlying variable and reliability was assessed across the length of the underlying variable with some limitations. The reduced sedentary behavior scales had poor reliability. The full scales were moderately correlated with light intensity physical activity after school (r = 0.17 to 0.33 and sedentary behavior (r = -0.29 to -0.12 among the boys, but not for girls. Conclusion New
Lee, Kwan Min
Proposes a theoretical framework for analyzing the effect of MUD (Multi-User Dungeons) playing on users' self-efficacy by applying Bandura's social learning theory, and introduces three types of self-efficacy: computer self-efficacy; social self-efficacy; and generalized self-efficacy. Considers successful performance, vicarious experience,…
Su, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Liu, Jiling; Thornton, Michael A.
This study examined at-risk boys' social self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy within Bandura's self-efficacy framework. A total of 97 boys, aged between 10 and 13 years, attending a summer sports camp completed questionnaires assessing their social self-efficacy, physical activity self- efficacy, prosocial behaviors, and effort.…
Sheeran, Paschal; Maki, Alexander; Montanaro, Erika; Avishai-Yitshak, Aya; Bryan, Angela; Klein, William M P; Miles, Eleanor; Rothman, Alexander J
Several health behavior theories converge on the hypothesis that attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy are important determinants of intentions and behavior. However, inferences regarding the relation between these cognitions and intention or behavior rest largely on correlational data that preclude causal inferences. To determine whether changing attitudes, norms, or self-efficacy leads to changes in intentions and behavior, investigators need to randomly assign participants to a treatment that significantly increases the respective cognition relative to a control condition, and test for differences in subsequent intentions or behavior. The present review analyzed findings from 204 experimental tests that met these criteria. Studies were located using computerized searches and informal sources and meta-analyzed using STATA Version 11. Experimentally induced changes in attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy all led to medium-sized changes in intention (d+ = .48, .49, and .51, respectively), and engendered small to medium-sized changes in behavior (attitudes-d+ = .38, norms-d+ = .36, self-efficacy-d+ = .47). These effect sizes generally were not qualified by the moderator variables examined (e.g., study quality, theoretical basis of the intervention, methodological characteristics, and features of the targeted behavior), although effects were larger for interventions designed to increase (vs. decrease) behavioral performance. The present review lends novel, experimental support for key predictions from health behavior theories, and demonstrates that interventions that modify attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy are effective in promoting health behavior change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Fentz, Hanne N; Arendt, Mikkel; O'Toole, Mia S; Hoffart, Asle; Hougaard, Esben
Cognitive models of panic disorder (PD) with or without agoraphobia have stressed the role of catastrophic beliefs of bodily symptoms as a central mediating variable of the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Perceived ability to cope with or control panic attacks, panic self-efficacy, has also been proposed to play a key role in therapeutic change; however, this cognitive factor has received much less attention in research. The aim of the present review is to evaluate panic self-efficacy as a mediator of therapeutic outcome in CBT for PD using descriptive and meta-analytic procedures. We performed systematic literature searches, and included and evaluated 33 studies according to four criteria for establishing mediation. Twenty-eight studies, including nine randomized waitlist-controlled studies, showed strong support for CBT improving panic self-efficacy (criterion 1); ten showed an association between change in panic self-efficacy and change in outcome during therapy (criterion 2); three tested, and one established formal statistical mediation of panic self-efficacy (criterion 3); while four tested and three found change in panic self-efficacy occurring before the reduction of panic severity (criterion 4). Although none of the studies fulfilled all of the four criteria, results provide some support for panic self-efficacy as a mediator of outcome in CBT for PD, generally on par with catastrophic beliefs in the reviewed studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hwang, Pin-Chyuan; Han, Ming-Chuan; Chiu, Su-Fen
This study aims to identify the interactive effect of role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE) and the three levels of self-concept (collective, relational, and individual) in predicting of different foci of proactive behaviors. Results from 259 matched responses from an airline company in Taiwan showed that RBSE had a positive effect on (1) pro-organizational proactive behavior among those with higher collective self-concept, (2) pro-supervisor proactive behavior among those with higher relational self-concept, and (3) pro-self proactive behavior among those with higher individual self-concept. Our findings provide insights into the moderating role of different levels of self-concept on RBSE-proactive behavior process in terms of specific targets or beneficiaries. Further implications for organizational research and practice are discussed.
Molla Jafar, Hamdam; Salabifard, Seddigheh; Mousavi, Seyedeh Maryam; Sobhani, Zahra
Admission to university is a very sensitive period of life for efficient, active, and young workforces in any country, and it is mostly associated with many changes in social and human relationships. These changes lead to anxiety in students. Moreover, humans need certain functions in order to adaptively deal with different life situations and challenges. By training stress management, these functions can help human acquire the required abilities. The present study was aimed at investigating the effectiveness of stress management training in anxiety, psychological hardiness, and general self-efficacy among university students. The study was a quasi-experimental intervention (pretest-posttest-follow-up) including a control group, it was a fundamental applied study. The statistical population consisted of all students of Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran. Convenient sampling was employed to select 30 students who were divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). Before stress management training, both groups filled out Beck Anxiety Inventory, Long and Goulet scale of psychological hardiness, and General Self-efficacy Scale (GSE-10). Afterwards, the experimental group was provided with stress management training. And after the experiment, the abovementioned questionnaires and scales were responded by the two groups. Finally the collected data were analyzed and compared using one-way MANOVA. The results of MANOVA indicated that there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of anxiety, hardiness, and general self-efficacy (pstress management among university students cause anxiety to drop; moreover, it enhances their psychological hardiness and self-efficacy. In regard with the role and importance of stress management, training this skill should be included in educational plans of university.
Full Text Available Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, a prevalent progressively disabling disease affecting one or both knee joints requires extensive self-management. Self-efficacy, a psychological attribute generally denoting one’s perceived belief about their ability to successfully perform a particular behavior, including health behaviors, is a significant predictor of psychological well-being, adherence to prescribed treatments, and pain coping mechanisms in persons with various forms of chronic disease, including arthritis. This paper examines the available peer-reviewed research published over the last 35 years detailing: i the concept of self-efficacy, ii the relationship between self-efficacy and adjustment to arthritis, iii the research concerning self-efficacy in the context of knee osteoarthritis disability, and iv some promising approaches for promoting the wellbeing of adults with knee osteoarthritis through the application of self-efficacy theory and other approaches. Based on this data, directions for future research and practice are offered.
Clark, Matthew M; Bradley, Karleah L; Jenkins, Sarah M; Mettler, Emily A; Larson, Brent G; Preston, Heather R; Liesinger, Juliette T; Werneburg, Brooke L; Hagen, Philip T; Harris, Ann M; Riley, Beth A; Olsen, Kerry D; Vickers Douglas, Kristin S
Purpose . This project examined potential changes in health behaviors following wellness coaching. Design . In a single cohort study design, wellness coaching participants were recruited in 2011, data were collected through July 2012, and were analyzed through December 2013. Items in the study questionnaire used requested information about 11 health behaviors, self-efficacy for eating, and goal-setting skills. Setting . Worksite wellness center. Participants . One-hundred employee wellness center members with an average age of 42 years; 90% were female and most were overweight or obese. Intervention . Twelve weeks of in-person, one-on-one wellness coaching. Method . Participants completed study questionnaires when they started wellness coaching (baseline), after 12 weeks of wellness coaching, and at a 3-month follow-up. Results . From baseline to week 12, these 100 wellness coaching participants improved their self-reported health behaviors (11 domains, 0- to 10-point scale) from an average of 6.4 to 7.7 (p self-efficacy from an average of 112 to 142 (on a 0- to 180-point scale; p wellness coaching.
Richards, Rickelle; Brown, Lora Beth; Williams, D Pauline; Eggett, Dennis L
Develop a questionnaire to measure students' knowledge, attitude, behavior, self-efficacy, and environmental factors related to the use of canned foods. The Knowledge-Attitude-Behavior Model, Social Cognitive Theory, and Canned Foods Alliance survey were used as frameworks for questionnaire development. Cognitive interviews were conducted with college students (n = 8). Nutrition and survey experts assessed content validity. Reliability was measured via Cronbach α and 2 rounds (1, n = 81; 2, n = 65) of test-retest statistics. Means and frequencies were used. The 65-item questionnaire had a test-retest reliability of .69. Cronbach α scores were .87 for knowledge (9 items), .86 for attitude (30 items), .80 for self-efficacy (12 items), .68 for canned foods use (8 items), and .30 for environment (6 items). A reliable questionnaire was developed to measure perceptions and use of canned foods. Nutrition educators may find this questionnaire useful to evaluate pretest-posttest changes from canned foods-based interventions among college students. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Gebel, Klaus; Lubans, David Revalds
According to social-cognitive theory (SCT), self-efficacy affects health behavior both directly and indirectly by influencing how individuals perceive their environment. This study examines whether perceptions of home and school environment mediate the association between self-efficacy and physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior in adolescent girls. Baseline data from the Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT) was used for this study. Grade 8 female students (n = 357) were recruited from 12 secondary schools located in low-income communities in the Hunter Region, New South Wales, Australia. PA was assessed using accelerometers, and sedentary behavior by self-report and accelerometers. Self-reported measures were used for perceived home and school environment and self-efficacy. Multilevel regression models were calculated to determine if the perceived environment mediated the relationship between self-efficacy with both PA and sedentary behavior. The perceptions of the school and home environment did not mediate the relationship between PA self-efficacy and PA behavior or sedentary behavior. The mediated models were not supported for PA or sedentary behavior. However, other results of this paper may be helpful for future theory development and practice. More research is needed to understand behaviors in unique populations such as this.
Aydogdu, Bilge Nuran; Celik, Hilal; Eksi, Halil
Purpose: In the face of adverse and traumatic events throughout their lives, individuals respond in different ways depending on their degree of resilience, factors of which include their individual resources for coping with those events. This study examined the predictive role of emotional self-efficacy and interpersonal sensitivity on…
Vayre, Emilie; Vonthron, Anne-Marie
The aim of this study is to test a model of online learners' engagement, which integrates social support (from teachers, peers, and family members) and sense of community as direct and indirect factors, with academic self-efficacy playing a mediating role. Survey results based on a questionnaire administered to 255 students enrolled in an online…
A multilevel study on the relationships between work characteristics, self-efficacy, collective efficacy, and organizational citizenship behavior: the case of Taiwanese police duty-executing organizations.
Chen, Chun-Hsi Vivian; Kao, Rui-Hsin
Public security, traffic management, and service for the people are the 3 major functions of policing in Taiwan. This definition encompasses not only the traditional job characteristics, but also the level of contextual characteristics and social characteristics because of police work's characteristics and its frequent interaction with the public. Thus, the present study conducted a multilevel model analysis by taking self-efficacy and collective efficacy as the mediating variables. The purpose was to investigate the influences of motivational work characteristics (knowledge-oriented) and social work characteristics (socially and contextually oriented) of work-design model on the police officers' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), by using first-line police officers in Taiwan as the research objects. The study showed not only that knowledge characteristics will influence the self-efficacy of a police officer and that self-efficacy can in turn influence individual police officers' OCB, but also the contextual effect of social characteristics, contextual characteristics, and collective efficacy on self-efficacy and individuals' OCB. Additionally, there was a crosslevel moderating effect from contextual characteristics on the relationship between knowledge characteristics and self-efficacy and the relationship between self-efficacy and the individuals' OCB. The authors conclude the article with research implications.
Marcu, Amber Diane
In this research, it was proposed that self-efficacy is the missing underlying psychological factor in innovation diffusion models of higher education. This is based upon research conducted in the fields of innovation-diffusion in higher education, technology adoption, self-efficacy, health and behavioral change. It was theorized that if…
Full Text Available Background. This study determines the effects of a behavioral program on exercise adherence (step counts and level of exercise self-efficacy (ESE in community-dwelling older persons. Methods. Sixty-three participants (age = 63.8±4.5 years were enrolled in this controlled quasi-experimental study. They were divided into 3 groups: (1 EBG performed a 6-week exercise intervention followed by a 5-week behavioral program, (2 EG performed exercise intervention similar to EBG, and (3 control group (CG did not receive any interventions. Step counts were measured based on the scores recorded by a pedometer while ESE was measured by a self-reported ESE scale. Results. Data analysis showed significant differences due to time effect (F(1,2=39.884, P<0.01, and η=.399; time and group interactions (F(2,60=112.683, P<0.01, and η=.790; and between-group effect (F(2,60=12.524, P<0.01, and η=.295 for step counts. As for ESE, significant differences were also found for time effect (F(2,4=66.628, P<0.05, and η=.526; time and group interactions (F(2,60=4.562, P=0.014, and η=.132; and between-group effect (F(2,60=13.632, P<0.05, and η=.312. EBG presented with significantly higher mean changes for both step counts and ESE compared to other groups (all P<0.05. Conclusion. This study suggests that the addition of a behavioral program is superior as compared to exercising alone on increasing exercise adherence and level of self-efficacy in older persons.
To examine the impact of ageing-related stereotypic beliefs on self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviours and to test the mediating effect of self-efficacy on the relationship between ageing-related stereotypic beliefs and health-promoting behaviours in older Korean people. Despite the growing attention given to ageing-related beliefs that can lead to better health outcomes in old age, little is known about the associations between ageing-related stereotypic beliefs, self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviours. A cross-sectional, descriptive study. A total of 123 community-dwelling older women were recruited from three cities in south-east Korea. Direct and indirect effects of ageing-related stereotypic beliefs on self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviours were examined using path analyses. Ageing-related stereotypic beliefs significantly predicted self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviours. A significant indirect effect of ageing-related stereotypic beliefs on health-promoting behaviours through self-efficacy was detected, indicating that self-efficacy mediated the detrimental impact of ageing-related stereotypic beliefs on health-promoting behaviours. Ageing-related stereotypic beliefs function as a factor lowering self-efficacy as well as decreasing health-promoting behaviours. Self-efficacy mediates the influence of ageing-related stereotypic beliefs on health-promoting behaviours, indicating that ageing-related stereotypic beliefs decrease self-efficacy which, in turn, could lead to fewer health-promoting behaviours. The findings demonstrate the significance of ageing-related stereotypic beliefs and self-efficacy in guiding the health-promoting behaviours of older people. Healthcare providers should play an active role in understanding ageing-related stereotypic beliefs and decreasing the perceptual barriers to health-promoting behaviours of older people. The development of nursing interventions to improve positive attitudes towards old age and self-efficacy
Claudio Barbaranelli; Valerio Ghezzi; Roberta Fida; Michele Vecchione
Since its introduction in 1977, self-efficacy has proven to be a fundamental predictor of positive adjustment and achievement in many domains. In problem gambling studies, self-efficacy has been defined mainly as an individual's ability to avoid gambling in risky situations. The interest in this construct developed mainly with regard to treatment approaches, where abstinence from gambling is required. Very little is known, however, regarding self-efficacy as a protective factor for problem ga...
Marr, Joni; Wilcox, Sara
Background: Internal health locus of control has been associated with positive health outcomes and behaviors. Understanding the mechanisms of this relationship are key to designing and implementing effective health behavior intervention programs. Purpose: The purpose was to examine whether self-efficacy and social support mediate the relationship…
Pace, Rolanda T; Boykins, Anita D; Davis, Sheila P
The aims of this project were to determine teachers' self-efficacy levels at baseline and after participating in a proactive classroom management model intervention. Teachers (N = 26) were recruited from a rural middle school in a south central state. Data required for analysis were drawn from the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (long form). A statistically significant difference (t = 7.68, p classroom management training for teachers as well as the need for psychiatric and mental health nurse consultants within the school system. Teacher classroom management strategies should also include appropriate response to individual student's needs, effective communication, and insight regarding the behaviors of students from diverse backgrounds. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Geng, Zhaohui; Ogbolu, Yolanda; Wang, Jichuan; Hinds, Pamela S; Qian, Huijuan; Yuan, Changrong
Better self-management control in cancer survivors would benefit their functional status, quality of life, and health service utilization. Factors such as self-efficacy, social support, and coping style are important predictors of self-management behaviors of cancer survivors; however, the impact of these factors on self-management behaviors has not yet been empirically tested in Chinese cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to examine how self-efficacy, social support, and coping style affect specific self-management behaviors. A secondary data analysis was completed from a cross-sectional study. A total of 764 cancer survivors were recruited in the study. Validated instruments were used to assess patients' self-efficacy, social support, and coping style. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the hypothesis. The SEM model fits the data very well, with root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of 0.034; close-fit test cannot reject the hypothesis of root mean square error of approximation of 0.05 or less, comparative fit index of 0.91, Tucker-Lewis index of 0.90, and weighted root mean square residual of 0.82. For the measurement models in the SEM, all items loaded highly on their underlying first-order factors, and the first-order factors loaded highly on their underlying second-order factors (self-efficacy and social support, respectively). The model demonstrated that self-efficacy and social support directly and indirectly, via coping style, affect 3 self-management behaviors (ie, communication, exercise, and information seeking). Our results provide evidence that self-efficacy and social support impose significant direct effects, as well as indirect effects via copying style, on the self-management of cancer survivors. Our findings may help nurses to further improve their care of cancer survivors in terms of their self-management behaviors, specifically communication, exercise, and information seeking.
Eisenberg, Miriam H.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Dempster, Katherine; Liu, Aiyi; Nansel, Tonja R.
Purpose Among adolescents with type 1 diabetes, disordered eating behaviors (DEB) are more prevalent and have more serious health implications than in adolescents without diabetes, necessitating identification of modifiable correlates of DEB in this population. This study hypothesized that 1) autonomous motivation and 2) controlled motivation for healthy eating (i.e., eating healthfully because it’s important to oneself versus important to others respectively) are associated with DEB among adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The third hypothesis was that baseline healthy eating self-efficacy moderates these associations. Methods Adolescents with T1D (n = 90; 13–16 years) participating in a behavioral nutrition intervention efficacy trial reported DEB, controlled and autonomous motivation, and self-efficacy at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Linear mixed models estimated associations of controlled and autonomous motivation with DEB, adjusting for treatment group, BMI, socio-economic status, age, and gender. Separate models investigated the interaction of self-efficacy with each motivation type. Results Controlled motivation was positively associated with DEB (B=2.18±.33, pAutonomous motivation was not associated with DEB (B=−.70± .43, p=.11). Conclusions Findings identify controlled motivation for healthy eating as a novel correlate of DEB among adolescents with type 1 diabetes and show that self-efficacy can modify this association. Motivation and self-efficacy for healthy eating represent potential intervention targets to reduce DEB in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. PMID:27567063
Eisenberg, Miriam H; Lipsky, Leah M; Dempster, Katherine W; Liu, Aiyi; Nansel, Tonja R
Among adolescents with type 1 diabetes, disordered eating behaviors (DEBs) are more prevalent and have more serious health implications than in adolescents without diabetes, necessitating identification of modifiable correlates of DEB in this population. This study hypothesized that (1) autonomous motivation and (2) controlled motivation for healthy eating (i.e., eating healthfully because it is important to oneself vs. important to others, respectively) are associated with DEB among adolescents with type 1 diabetes. The third hypothesis was that baseline healthy eating self-efficacy moderates these associations. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (n = 90; 13-16 years) participating in a behavioral nutrition intervention efficacy trial reported DEB, controlled and autonomous motivation, and self-efficacy at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months. Linear-mixed models estimated associations of controlled and autonomous motivation with DEB, adjusting for treatment group, body mass index, socioeconomic status, age, and gender. Separate models investigated the interaction of self-efficacy with each motivation type. Controlled motivation was positively associated with DEB (B = 2.18 ± .33, p Autonomous motivation was not associated with DEB (B = -.70 ± .43, p = .11). Findings identify controlled motivation for healthy eating as a novel correlate of DEB among adolescents with type 1 diabetes and show that self-efficacy can modify this association. Motivation and self-efficacy for healthy eating represent potential intervention targets to reduce DEB in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hall, Elisha; Chai, Weiwen; Albrecht, Julie A
The Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) is a widely used theory for nutrition education programming. Better understanding the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among children of various income levels can help to form and improve nutrition programs, particularly for socioeconomically disadvantaged youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior among fifth grade students attending Title I (≥40% of students receiving free or reduced school meals) and non-Title I schools (Title I and 122 from non-Title I schools. Differences in knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior scores between groups were assessed using t test and adjusted for variations between participating schools. Regression analysis was used to determine the relationships between knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior. In adjusted models, the Title I group had significantly lower scores on several knowledge items and summary knowledge (P = 0.04). The Title I group had significantly lower scores on several behavior variables including intakes of fruits (P = 0.02), vegetables (P = 0.0005), whole grains (P = 0.0003), and lean protein (P = 0.047), physical activity (P = 0.002) and summary behavior (P = 0.001). However the Title I group scored higher on self-efficacy for meal planning (P = 0.04) and choosing healthy snacks (P = 0.036). Both self-efficacy (β = 0.70, P Title I group (self-efficacy, β = 0.82, P = 0.0003; knowledge, β = 0.11, P = 0.59). Results demonstrate disparities in nutrition knowledge and behavior outcomes between students surveyed from Title I and non-Title I schools, suggesting more resources may be necessary for lower income populations. Findings suggest that future nutrition interventions should focus on facilitating the improvement of children's self-efficacy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Middelkamp, P.J.C.; van Rooijen, M.; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.
The transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) is often used to understand changes in health-related behavior, like exercise. Exercise behavior in fitness clubs is an understudied topic, but preliminary studies showed low frequencies and large numbers of drop-out. An initial 12-week self-efficacy intervention reported significant effects on exercise behavior. The objective of this follow up study is testing effects on exercise behavior over 52 weeks and the long-term relationships of all...
.... psychological determinants of self-care and metabolic control must be explored. Self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977) has demonstrated its importance in behavioral modification but has been minimally investigated in diabetes...
Perez-Blasco, Josefa; Viguer, Paz; Rodrigo, Maria F
Several pilot studies have provided evidence that mindfulness-based intervention is beneficial during pregnancy, yet its effects in mothers during the early parenting period are unknown. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in breast-feeding mothers. We developed and tested an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention aimed at improving maternal self-efficacy, mindfulness, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness, and at reducing psychological distress. A randomized controlled, between-groups design was used with treatment and control groups (n = 26) and pretest and posttest measures. ANCOVA results indicated that, compared to the control group, mothers in the treatment group scored significantly higher on maternal self-efficacy, some dimensions of mindfulness (observing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), and self-compassion (self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification, and total self-compassion). In addition, mothers who received the treatment exhibited significantly less anxiety, stress, and psychological distress. The results supported previous research findings about the benefits of mindfulness-based intervention in women from the perinatal and postpartum periods through the early parenting period. Additional research is needed to validate our findings in non-breast-feeding mothers and to examine the intervention's indirect benefits in terms of family relationships and child development.
Chen, Ying; Zhou, Xiaohu
...) and firms' innovation behavior. We analyzed the data from 193 entrepreneurs in China, and the results showed that ESE positively affected firms' innovation behavior, and the entrepreneur's internal social capital played a negative...
Fentz, Hanne Nørr; Arendt, Mikkel; OToole, Mia Skytte
Cognitive models of panic disorder (PD) with and without agoraphobia have stressed the role of catastrophic beliefs of bodily symptoms as a central mediating variable of the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Perceived ability to cope with or control panic attacks, panic self......-efficacy, has also been proposed to play a key role in therapeutic change; however, this cognitive factor has received much less attention in research. The aim of the present review is to evaluate panic self-efficacy as a mediator of outcome in CBT for PD using descriptive and meta-analytic procedures. We...
Heath, Corey L; Curtis, David F; Fan, Weihua; McPherson, Robert
We examined parenting stress (PST) and self-efficacy (PSE) following participation in behavioral parent training (BPT) with regard to child treatment response. Forty-three families of children diagnosed with ADHD participated in a modified BPT program. Change in PST and PSE was evaluated using a single group, within-subjects design. Parenting outcomes based on child treatment response were evaluated based upon (1) magnitude and (2) clinical significance of change in child symptom impairment. Parents reported significant improvements in stress and self-efficacy. Parents of children who demonstrated clinically significant reduction in ADHD symptoms reported lower stress and higher self-efficacy than those of children with continued impairments. Magnitude of child impairment was not associated with parent outcomes. Clinical implications for these results include extending treatment duration to provide more time for symptom amelioration and parent-focused objectives to improve coping and stress management.
Kim, Myoungsuk; Song, Misoon
The purpose of this study was to develop a self-management program applying Dongsasub training based on self-efficacy theory, and to verify the program effectiveness on self-esteem as well as self-efficacy, self-management behaviors, and blood pressure. The study design was a non-equivalent, pre-post controlled quasi-experiment study. Thirty-eight patients aged 65 and older from a senior welfare center in Seoul participated in this study (20 patients in the experimental group and 18 patients in the control group). The self-management program applying Dongsasub training consisted of eight sessions. After development was complete the program was used with the experimental group. Outcome variables included self-efficacy, self-esteem, self-management behaviors measured by questionnaires, and blood pressure measured by electronic manometer. Self-efficacy (t=2.42, p=.021), self-esteem (t=2.57, p=.014) and self-management behaviors (t=2.21, p=.034) were significantly higher and systolic blood pressure (t=-2.14, p=.040) was significantly lower in the experimental group compared to the control group. However, diastolic blood pressure (t=-.85, p=.400) was not significantly different between the two groups. The results indicate that the self-management program applying Dongsasub training can be used as a nursing intervention in community settings for improving self-management behaviors for older adults with hypertension.
Ennis, Robin Parks; Jolivette, Kristine
The Common Core State Standards Initiative includes an emphasis on teaching writing and related skills in all subject areas. This study sought to improve the persuasive writing skills and self-efficacy skills of students with emotional and behavioral disorders by implementing self-regulated strategy development with pairs of students in a high…
Reisi, Mahnoush; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Javadzade, Homamodin; Mahaki, Behzad; Tavassoli, Elahe; Sharifirad, Gholamreza
Diabetic patients with higher health literacy (HL) may feel more confident in their ability to perform self-care behaviors and may have strong beliefs that diabetes-related behaviors will lead to specific outcomes. Our study aimed to document the relationships between HL, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and diabetes self-care of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Iran. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 187 patients with T2DM. Participants completed the Functional Communicative and Critical Health Literacy scale, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale, Outcome Expectations Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Participants who received diabetes education (t = 5.79, pcritical HL (r = 0.297, peducation and marital status accounted for 16.9% of the variance in diabetes self-care. Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, communicative, and critical HL explained 28.0%, 1.5%, 3.7%, and 1.4% of the variance, respectively. This study revealed that the potential impact of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, communicative, and critical HL should be considered in the education program for patients with diabetes. We found self-efficacy to be the most important predictor of diabetes self-care. Therefore, the use of self-efficacy theory when designing patient education interventions could enhance diabetes self-care. It is essential that health care providers assess patient's HL levels to tailor health-related information specific to a domain of HL. This would fully inform patients and promote empowerment rather than simple compliance.
Full Text Available Customer's perception of service quality presentation is becoming an increasingly important issue in preservation of exclusive strong-tie relationships between organization and customer. The quality of service is assessed according to the customer's expectation about the perceived service quality. Due to this, promoting the quality of presented services, with appearance of voluntary and willingly behaviors that are known as Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB, provides employees with behaviors in order to go above and beyond the call of duty. This study investigates the features of employees' OCB and the relationship of these features with variables, namely occupational self-efficacy, political skills, and organizational commitment. For this end, a questionnaire was distributed among the employees of Ardabil Gas Company. The data analysis revealed that it is important to improve employees' OCB, which would result in their remarkable ability in meeting people's demands and providing high quality services for customers. It can be argued that for improving the organizational commitment and political skills of employees, managers can take steps to create motivation among employees by rewarding and encouraging them to become highly involved in their work.
Peterson, Gunnel; O’Leary, Shaun; Dedering, Åsa; Peolsson, Anneli
Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect on self-rated pain, disability, and self-efficacy of 3 interventions for the management of chronic whiplash-associated disorders: physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise (NSE), physiotherapist-led NSE with the addition of a behavioral approach, or Prescription of Physical Activity (PPA). Materials and Methods: A total of 216 volunteers with chronic whiplash-associated disorders participated in this randomized, assessor blinded, clinical trial of 3 exercise interventions. Self-rated pain/pain bothersomeness (Visual Analogue Scale), disability (Neck Disability Index), and self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy Scale) were evaluated at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Results: The proportion of patients reaching substantial reduction in pain bothersomness (at least 50% reduction) was more evident (Pneck-specific groups and 28% in the PPA group reported substantial pain reduction. Reduction of disability was also larger in the 2 neck-specific exercise groups at both 3 and 6 months (P<0.02). Self-efficacy was only improved in the NSE group without a behavioral approach (P=0.02). However, there were no significant differences in any outcomes between the 2 physiotherapist-led NSE groups. Discussion: NSE resulted in superior outcomes compared with PPA in this study, but the observed benefits of adding a behavioral approach to the implementation of exercise in this study were inconclusive. PMID:24918474
Qian, Ling; Hu, Tao; Newman, Ian M; Hou, Pei-Sen
To explore the relationships between alcohol expectancy,cultural orientation, self-efficacy and drinking behavior to provide theoretical support for the development of education programs aimed at preventing alcohol abuse among adolescents. An anonymous quantitative survey of 2756 tenth and eleventh grade students in six senior high schools in Zhengzhou and Xinyang city of Henan province was conducted in November 2005 and data was analyzed by SPSS 13.0 software. The overall rate of drinking alcohol among participants was 56.5%. The median score of cultural orientation was 3.25 (3.09, 3.42); of alcohol expectancy was 3.02 (2.81, 3.23); and 79.64 (60.36, 93.21) of alcohol self-efficacy. Direct or indirect relationships were found between Chinese traditional cultural orientation, western cultural orientation, alcohol positive expectancy, alcohol negative expectancy, alcohol self-efficacy and alcohol drinking behavior. Lower monthly drinking habit was directly associated with higher self-efficacy and higher negative expectancies,lower positive expectancies and lower western cultural orientation (coefficients = -0.346, -0.282, 0.234 and 0.162 respectively), but not with Chinese cultural orientation variables. The current situation of alcohol drinking among the participants was critical. Drinking behavior seemed most affected by drinking beliefs and cultural orientation, suggesting that the development of education programs should focus on students' beliefs.
Kuo, Li-Min; Huang, Huei-Ling; Hsu, Wen-Chuin; Shyu, Yea-Ing L
Little is known about the differences in patients' behavioral problems and health outcomes of family caregivers of patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A secondary analysis of baseline data on a subsample of caregiver-dementia patient dyads in a randomized clinical trial. Family caregivers of VaD patients reported higher self-efficacy than caregivers of AD patients in handling verbally nonaggressive and verbally aggressive behaviors. Caregivers of VaD patients had poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than caregivers of AD patients considering role disability due to physical health problems, bodily pain, social function, and physical component summary. Greater self-efficacy was associated with better mental health-related outcomes for family caregivers of VaD patients, and better self-care ability of VaD patients was associated with better caregiver mental health-related outcomes. Caring for a patient with more severe dementia predicted poor physical health-related outcomes in role disability due to physical health problems, but better overall mental health (mental component summary) for caregivers. This study is the first to examine and compare the behavioral problems of AD and VaD patients in a Chinese population, along with their family caregivers' self-efficacy and health outcomes. Family caregivers of patients with VaD might warrant specific attention to their HRQoL, with interventions developed to enhance their self-efficacy.
Dennison-Farris, Michelle; Sisson, Susan B; Stephens, Lancer; Morris, Amanda S; Dickens, R D
American Indian (AI) children suffer from high rates of obesity, obesity-related disease, obesogenic behaviors, and depressive symptoms. Study was designed to determine the associations between depressive symptoms and obesogenic behaviors in school-aged AI children in Oklahoma. Study design was cross-sectional. Depressive symptoms, beverage intake, fruit and vegetable intake, meal frequency, physical activity, and screen time were self-reported. Mean participant age was 10.5 ± 1.6 years (n = 121); 64% were overweight/obese. Depressive symptoms were associated with dieting and screen time. AI chronic disease prevention efforts will benefit by including measures for depression and associations of obesogenic behaviors and depressive symptoms in treatment planning.
Full Text Available Objectives: Diabetic patients with higher health literacy (HL may feel more confident in their ability to perform self-care behaviors and may have strong beliefs that diabetes-related behaviors will lead to specific outcomes. Our study aimed to document the relationships between HL, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and diabetes self-care of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in Iran. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 187 patients with T2DM. Participants completed the Functional Communicative and Critical Health Literacy scale, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale, Outcome Expectations Questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire. Results: Participants who received diabetes education (t = 5.79, p<0.001 and were married (F = 3.04, p<0.050 had better diabetes self-care behavior. There was a significant positive correlation between self-care behaviors and communicative HL (r = 0.455, p<0.010, critical HL (r = 0.297, p<0.010, self-efficacy (r = 0.512, p<0.010 and outcome expectations (r = 0.387, p<0.010. Diabetes education and marital status accounted for 16.9% of the variance in diabetes self-care. Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, communicative, and critical HL explained 28.0%, 1.5%, 3.7%, and 1.4% of the variance, respectively. Conclusions: This study revealed that the potential impact of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, communicative, and critical HL should be considered in the education program for patients with diabetes. We found self-efficacy to be the most important predictor of diabetes self-care. Therefore, the use of self-efficacy theory when designing patient education interventions could enhance diabetes self-care. It is essential that health care providers assess patient’s HL levels to tailor health-related information specific to a domain of HL. This would fully inform patients and promote empowerment rather than simple compliance.
Mahoney, C A
A sample of 879 undergraduate students were recruited from a public university in western New York state during the 1993-94 academic year in order to study condom use among sexually active young people 18-24 years old. A 104-item questionnaire was administered consisting of 5 instruments and single-item measures of sexual behavior and demographics. The instruments were: the Condom Use Self-Efficacy Scale (CUSES), the Perceived Barriers to Condom Use, the Perceived Susceptibility to HIV/AIDS and other STDs, the Cues to Condom Action Scale, and the Perceived Norms scale. 92% of students reported having had sexual intercourse in the past, while 86.75 reported having sexual intercourse in the previous year. About 61% reported having 1 sex partner in the previous 12 months, whereas 35.2% reported having 3 or more partners. 22.4% reported 2 or more 1-night stands. 54.5% reported worrying about HIV/AIDS occasionally, while 23.1% reported doing so frequently. 17.2% (99) of the students were classified as non-users of condoms, 50.2% (289) as sporadic users, and 32.6% (188) as consistent users. 78 (12%) could not be classified. A multiple discriminant function analysis was also conducted to distinguish among the 3 condom user groups totalling 576 cases. The variables were age, gender, frequency of drunkenness during sexual intercourse, number of sex partners, and number of 1-night stands in the past 12 months, perceived barriers, worrying about HIV/AIDS, perceived susceptibility, condom use self-efficacy, and cues to condom action. Two significant functions emerged. Function 1 clearly separated the sporadic users from the consistent users (p 0.001), while Function 2 clearly separated the sporadic users from the non-users (p 0.001). The discriminating variables correctly classified 64.58% of the respondents into the 3 condom user groups. The variables were most effective at correctly classifying non-users (68.7%), consistent users (67.8%), and sporadic users (61.2%). Sporadic
Didarloo, A R; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Habibzadeh, H; Niknami, Sh; Pourali, R
Continuous performing of diabetes self-care behaviors was shown to be an effective strategy to control diabetes and to prevent or reduce its- related complications. This study aimed to investigate predictors of self-care behavior based on the extended theory of reasoned action by self efficacy (ETRA) among women with type 2 diabetes in Iran. A sample of 352 women with type 2 diabetes, referring to a Diabetes Clinic in Khoy, Iran using the nonprobability sampling was enrolled. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the variables of interest (diabetes knowledge, personal beliefs, subjective norm, self-efficacy and behavioral intention along with self- care behaviors). Reliability and validity of the instruments using Cronbach's alpha coefficients (the values of them were more than 0.70) and a panel of experts were tested. A statistical significant correlation existed between independent constructs of proposed model and modelrelated dependent constructs, as ETRA model along with its related external factors explained 41.5% of variance of intentions and 25.3% of variance of actual behavior. Among constructs of model, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions among women with type 2 diabetes, as it lonely explained 31.3% of variance of intentions and 11.4% of variance of self-care behavior. The high ability of the extended theory of reasoned action with self-efficacy in forecasting and explaining diabetes mellitus self management can be a base for educational intervention. So to improve diabetes self management behavior and to control the disease, use of educational interventions based on proposed model is suggested.
Flickinger, Tabor E; Saha, Somnath; Roter, Debra; Korthuis, P Todd; Sharp, Victoria; Cohn, Jonathan; Eggly, Susan; Moore, Richard D; Beach, Mary Catherine
We examined associations of clinicians' empathy with patient-clinician communication behaviors, patients' rating of care, and medication self-efficacy. We analyzed 435 adult patients and 45 clinicians at four outpatient HIV care sites in the United States. Negative binomial regressions investigated associations between clinician empathy and patient-clinician communication, assessed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Logistic regressions investigated associations between clinician empathy and patient ratings of clinician communication, overall satisfaction, and medication self-efficacy. Clinicians in the highest vs. lowest empathy tertile engaged in less explicitly emotional talk (IRR 0.79, pempathy clinicians disclosed more psychosocial and biomedical information. Patients of clinicians in both the middle and highest (vs. lowest) empathy tertiles had greater odds of reporting highest medication self-efficacy (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.16-2.80; OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.37-3.32). Clinician empathy may be expressed through addressing patient engagement in care, by fostering cognitive, rather than primarily emotional, processing. Clinicians should consider enhancing their own empathic capacity, which may encourage patients' self-efficacy in medication adherence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hamilton, Kyra; Bonham, Mikaela; Bishara, Jason; Kroon, Jeroen; Schwarzer, Ralf
Although poor oral hygiene practices can have serious health consequences, a large number of adults brush or floss their teeth less than the recommended time or not at all. This study examined the mediating effect of two key self-regulatory processes, self-efficacy and planning, as the mechanisms that translate dental flossing intentions into behavior. Participants (N = 629) comprised young adults attending a major university in Queensland, Australia. A longitudinal design guided by sound theory was adopted to investigate the sequential mediation chain for the effect of dental flossing intentions (time 1) on behavior (time 3) via self-efficacy and planning (time 2). A latent variable structural equation model with standardized parameter estimates revealed the model was a good fit to the data. Controlling for baseline flossing, the effect of intentions on behavior was mediated via self-efficacy and planning, with 64 % of the flossing variance accounted for by this set of predictors. Controlling for age and sex did not change the results. The results extend previous research to further elucidate the mechanisms that help to translate oral hygiene intentions into behavior and make a significant contribution to the cumulative empirical evidence about self-regulatory components in health behavior change.
Kaye, Linda K.; Brewer, Gayle
The current study examined approaches to teaching in a postgraduate psychology sample. This included considering teaching-focused (information transfer) and student-focused (conceptual changes in understanding) approaches to teaching. Postgraduate teachers of psychology (N = 113) completed a questionnaire measuring their use of a teacher- or…
Current research on cigarette smoking has largely been focused on identifying the relationship between psychological attributes and the onset or initiation of smoking behavior. Few data are available on the psychological predictors of smoking behavior among Korean adolescents. This study examined the prevalence of smoking behavior among Korean adolescents, revealed factors affecting their smoking behavior, and identified the relationship between smoking behavior and psychological variables. Four Korean-version questionnaires were used to assess adolescents' smoking behavior and their psychological attributes: Smoking Habit Scale, Multidimensional Health Locus of Scale, Self-efficacy Scale, and Self-esteem Scale. Frequency, Chi-square, ANOVA, correlation, and regression analyses were performed to analyze the data obtained in the study. The results indicate that smoking problem in the Korean adolescents is a crucial factor that might adversely affect their overall health. Forty-three percent of adolescents responded that they had smoked a cigarette in their lifetime and 26% are current smokers. Male adolescents were more likely to smoke in their lifetime and have currently smoked a cigarette than females. The adolescents aged 17-18 years had smoked more cigarette than those in other age groups. Among the five psychological variables, IHLC and self-efficacy significantly differentiated adolescents at different smoking status. Furthermore, IHLC, self-esteem, and self-efficacy were significantly correlated with smoking behavior and those psychological constructs had a significant linear relation to account for smoking behavior. Psychological variables have a meaningful influence on smoking behavior of adolescents.
Nielsen, Tine; Makransky, Guido; Vang, Maria Louison
Self-efficacy is an important and much used construct in psychology and social science studies. The validity of the measurements used is not always sufficiently evaluated. The aim was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Danish translation of the self-efficacy subscale of The Motivated...... academic learning self-efficacy (SAL-SE) and specific academic exam self-efficacy (SAE-SE), each scale being measurement invariant relative to age, Gender, admission method and specific course targeted. Furthermore, significant and relevant differences between the SAL-SE and SAE-SE scores dependent...... on university and admission method were found, and these results were replicated with two further samples. The SAL-SE and SAE-SE scales hold promise for more detailed studies of student self-efficacy....
Schunk, Dale H.
The theory of self-efficacy (beliefs concerning one's capabilities to learn or perform behaviors at designated levels), has developed since A. Bandura's work (1977) and continues to be applied to a variety of educational settings and grade levels. This paper addresses various issues pertaining to self-efficacy in settings involving academic…
A Hussein Fattah
Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine the effect of organizational culture, leader behaviour, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction on the job performance of the employees of the Department of Education, Youth and Sport in Palembang city. The sample size was 120 employee and selected by random sampling techniques. The data were analyzed by path-analysis. The findings of the research show that leader behaviour, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction have the direct effect on job performance. Meanwhile, organizational culture has no direct effect on the job performance of the employees of the Department Education, Youth, and Sport in Palembang City.
Terp, Ulrik; Hjärthag, Fredrik; Bisholt, Birgitta
Nursing students' exposure to stress negatively affects both academic and clinical performance and potentially their future as professional nurses. This pilot study measured the effects of a 10-week cognitive behavioral therapy-based stress management program, using a quasi-experimental design. Independent t tests showed positive effects of the training program compared with a control group. Students' perceived stress management competency, self-efficacy, and self-esteem were higher 1 year after the intervention.
Hoge, Gretchen L; Stylianou, Amanda M; Hetling, Andrea; Postmus, Judy L
Experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) and financial hardship are often intertwined. The dynamics of an abusive relationship may include economic abuse tactics that compromise a survivor's ability to work, pursue education, have access to financial resources, and establish financial skills, knowledge, and security. An increasingly common goal among programs serving IPV survivors is increasing financial empowerment through financial literacy. However, providing financial education alone may not be enough to improve financial behaviors. Psychological factors also play a role when individuals make financial choices. Economic self-efficacy focuses on the individual's perceived ability to perform economic or financial tasks, and may be considered a primary influence on one's ability to improve financial decisions and behaviors. The current study tests the reliability and validity of a Scale of Economic Self-Efficacy with a sample of female survivors of IPV. This study uses a calibration and validation analysis model including full and split-sample exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, assesses for internal consistency, and examines correlation coefficients between economic self-efficacy, economic self-sufficiency, financial strain, and difficulty living with income. Findings indicate that the 10-item, unidimensional Scale of Economic Self-Efficacy demonstrates strong reliability and validity among this sample of IPV survivors. An ability to understand economic self-efficacy could facilitate individualized service approaches and allow practitioners to better support IPV survivors on their journey toward financial empowerment. Given the increase in programs focused on assets, financial empowerment, and economic well-being, the Scale of Economic Self-Efficacy has potential as a very timely and relevant tool in the design, implementation, and evaluation of such programs, and specifically for programs created for IPV survivors.
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy on increasing of self efficacy and improving of addiction symptoms among drug dependency patients. Method: For this purpose, 90 substance abusers were selected of private addiction center, Central Prison and drop in center by using of random sampling, and they were divided into two experimental (45 subjects and witness groups (45 subjects randomly. The members of experimental group were under 12 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy by Carol method, and control group only have taken Methadone and other physical drugs. All participants at the beginning of research, during the study (after three months and three months after treatment completed self-efficacy questionnaire and Maudsley addiction profile (Map by a psychologist were assessed. The symptoms of addiction recovery and addiction treatment process. Results: Analysis of covariance indicated the treatment effectiveness and its maintenance on increasing of efficacy and reducing of the symptoms of Maudsley addiction profile. Conclusion: Cognitive behavior therapy is effective to increase self-efficacy and improve symptoms in substance abusers.
Jan Middelkamp, Maaike van Rooijen, Peter Wolfhagen, Bert Steenbergen
Full Text Available The transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM is often used to understand changes in health-related behavior, like exercise. Exercise behavior in fitness clubs is an understudied topic, but preliminary studies showed low frequencies and large numbers of drop-out. An initial 12-week self-efficacy intervention reported significant effects on exercise behavior. The objective of this follow up study is testing effects on exercise behavior over 52 weeks and the long-term relationships of all TTM constructs. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females were recruited and randomly assigned to group 1 (control, group 2 (self-set activities and group 3 (self-set goals coaching. All participants were monitored 52-weeks. Measurements at baseline, 4, 8, 12, 26 and 52 weeks, using validated scales for stages of change, self-efficacy, decisional balance and processes of change. Exercise behavior and drop-outs were registered. An ANOVA revealed that group 3 significantly (p < 0.05 differed in exercise sessions from group 1 and 2 during the 12 weeks. A chi-square test indicated significant differences for continuing exercising after the intervention: 7 of group 1; 6 of group 2; 19 of group 3. In total 5 demonstrated regular exercise behavior at 26 weeks, and 3 at 52 weeks. Self-efficacy, decisional balance, and processes of change showed limited long-term changes over the later stages of change. At all measurements, participants reported more pros than cons and used more behavioral than cognitive processes. Exercise behavior of members in fitness clubs demonstrated dramatic developments in 52 weeks. The frequencies of sessions were so low that health effects will be minimal. The integrative character of the TTM appears to be weak; the data indicated limited relationships. More research is needed to understand exercise behavior and define optimal strategies to increase exercise attendance and decrease drop-outs in the long term.
Paula Cristina Medeiros
Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa é avaliar as relações entre o desempenho acadêmico, o senso de auto-eficácia e os aspectos comportamentais, em 52 criançasde ambos os sexos, na faixa etária de oito anos a onze anos e onze meses, alunos de primeira a quarta série, com nível intelectual pelo menos médio inferior, divididas em: G1-26 crianças com queixa de dificuldade de aprendizagem, encaminhadas a um Ambulatório de Psicologia vinculado a um Hospital Escola; e G2-26 crianças com bom desempenho acadêmico avaliado por teste de Desempenho Escolar. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: Roteiro de Avaliação de Auto-eficácia e Escala Comportamental Infantil A2 de Rutter, além do teste de desempenho escolar. Observou-se que as crianças do G1 apresentaram uma avaliação significativamente mais baixa quanto ao senso de auto-eficácia e seus pais caracterizaram-nas com mais dificuldades comportamentais, comparativamente ao G2. O desempenho acadêmico mostrou-se relacionado ao senso de auto-eficácia e a indicadores de dificuldade comportamentais.The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship among school performance, sense of self-efficacy, and behavioral aspects in 52 children of both sexes, aged from eight to 11 years and 11 months. The children were enrolled in the first to fourth grade and their intelligence level was assessed as of lower medium level at least. Subjects were divided in two groups: G1-26 children with learning difficulties referred to a Psychology Ambulatory of a School Hospital, and G2-26 children with good achievement, assessed by an academic performance test. The instruments used were: Self-Efficacy Assessment Form and Rutter Child Behavior Scale, as well as a school achievement test. G1 showed a significantly lower score for self-efficacy sense, compared to G2. A significant difference was also observed in the assessment made by parents, who characterized G1 children as having more behavioral difficulties. Academic
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify opportunities to learn for teachers’ motivational orientations. Motivational orientations are relevant characteristics of psychological functioning, which are important for the behavior of a teacher and mandatory for effective teaching. We focus on three domains: self-efficacy, subject-specific enthusiasm, and enthusiasm for teaching the subject. Self-efficacy covers the belief of an individual that he or she is capable of performing required behaviors to produce a desired outcome. Teacher enthusiasm is an affective teacher orientation that is related to a specific subject and to teaching this specific subject. Different opportunities to learn are considered for teachers’ motivational orientations. Since teacher education particularly focuses on the acquisition of professional knowledge, we added a further exploratory focus to the study and investigated the relationships between motivational orientations and professional knowledge (content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. 134 biology teachers participated in the study. The results reveal that teacher education at university, the attendance in professional development courses, and self-study provide opportunities to learn for self-efficacy and enthusiasm for teaching the subject. Moreover, we found self-efficacy and subject-specific enthusiasm to be positively related to pedagogical content knowledge.
Glasofer, Deborah R.; Haaga, David A.F.; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E.; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian
Objective To examine the relationship between self-related agency beliefs and observed eating behavior in adolescent girls with loss of control (LOC) eating. Method One-hundred eleven adolescent girls (14.5±1.7y; BMI: 27.1±2.6 kg/m2) were administered the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle Questionnaire (WEL). Adolescents then participated in a laboratory test meal. Results Greater general and eating self-efficacy were associated with fewer episodes of LOC eating. General self-efficacy was inversely related to total intake at the meal (p dessert intake (ps < 0.05). Discussion General self-related agency beliefs may be important in relation to energy consumption. Among girls susceptible to disordered eating and obesity, the domain-specific belief in one’s ability to refrain from eating when food is widely available may be especially salient in determining overeating in the current food environment. Further research is therefore needed to assess the predictive validity of these beliefs on eating and weight outcomes. PMID:23881587
Morris, Edward K.; And Others
Examines relationships between the fields of behavior analysis and developmental psychology, surveying the influence of behavior-analytic research within developmental psychology and investigating the integration of the two approaches with respect to metatheory and methodology. (Author/MP)
Viola, Maria Maddalena; Musso, Pasquale; Ingoglia, Sonia; Lo Coco, Alida; Inguglia, Cristiano
Although different studies have investigated career choices as cognitive acts of decision-making, non-cognitive components also play an important role. The study tries to develop an empirically based model of career decision-making process linking cognitive (search for work self-efficacy - SWSE) and non-cognitive (psychological well-being - PWB) components. In particular, the study investigates, among 148 never-employed Italian young adults, to what extent the relationship between SWSE and career indecision in terms of lack of readiness (LoR) can be explained by their common relationship with PWB. Results highlighted that SWSE is negatively associated with LoR when considered in absence of PWB. However, when PWB was included in one comprehensive model, it was positively associated with SWSE and negatively related to LoR. Moreover, the presence of PWB nullified the negative association between SWSE and LoR, meaning that PWB shares a large extent of variance with these variables. Implications are discussed in the light of theoretical expectations and limitations. PMID:28580024
Maria Maddalena Viola
Full Text Available Although different studies have investigated career choices as cognitive acts of decision-making, non-cognitive components also play an important role. The study tries to develop an empirically based model of career decision-making process linking cognitive (search for work self-efficacy - SWSE and non-cognitive (psychological well-being - PWB components. In particular, the study investigates, among 148 never-employed Italian young adults, to what extent the relationship between SWSE and career indecision in terms of lack of readiness (LoR can be explained by their common relationship with PWB. Results highlighted that SWSE is negatively associated with LoR when considered in absence of PWB. However, when PWB was included in one comprehensive model, it was positively associated with SWSE and negatively related to LoR. Moreover, the presence of PWB nullified the negative association between SWSE and LoR, meaning that PWB shares a large extent of variance with these variables. Implications are discussed in the light of theoretical expectations and limitations.
Viola, Maria Maddalena; Musso, Pasquale; Ingoglia, Sonia; Lo Coco, Alida; Inguglia, Cristiano
Although different studies have investigated career choices as cognitive acts of decision-making, non-cognitive components also play an important role. The study tries to develop an empirically based model of career decision-making process linking cognitive (search for work self-efficacy - SWSE) and non-cognitive (psychological well-being - PWB) components. In particular, the study investigates, among 148 never-employed Italian young adults, to what extent the relationship between SWSE and career indecision in terms of lack of readiness (LoR) can be explained by their common relationship with PWB. Results highlighted that SWSE is negatively associated with LoR when considered in absence of PWB. However, when PWB was included in one comprehensive model, it was positively associated with SWSE and negatively related to LoR. Moreover, the presence of PWB nullified the negative association between SWSE and LoR, meaning that PWB shares a large extent of variance with these variables. Implications are discussed in the light of theoretical expectations and limitations.
Mixed reports have shown that different variables account for differences in the psychological wellbeing of bank employees in Nigeria. Based on this premise, the study examined the contributions of perceived organizational target selling, self-efficacy, sexual harassment and job insecurity on psychological wellbeing among ...
This study will explore how science self-efficacy among college students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields in Nigeria predicts their innovation. Several reports on African development argue that science, technology and innovation underpin targets for dramatically reducing poverty in its many dimensions---income poverty, hunger, disease, exclusion, lack of infrastructure and shelter---while promoting gender equality, education, health, and environmental sustainability (UN Millennium Project, 2005). If African countries in general, including Nigeria, are to move from the exploitation of natural resources to technological innovation as the foundation for development, stakeholders in these countries must encourage development of individual ability to innovate products, services and work processes in crucial organizations (DeJong & DenHartog, 2010). The common denominator in the scientific and technological development of any country or organization is the individuals that make up these entities. An individual's engagement is the foundation for group motivation, innovation and improvement. These ideas inform the purpose of this study: to investigate how science self-efficacy among college students in various engineering fields in Nigeria predicts self-reported innovative behavior (IB), also referred to as Innovative Work Behavior (IWB). IB involves initiating new and useful ideas, processes, products or procedures, as well as the process of implementing these ideas (Farr & Ford, 1990; Scott & Bruce, 1994). The general findings of this study align with the dictates of social cognitive theory. Specifically, research indicates self-efficacy has the most predictive power for performance when it is measured at a level specific to the expected task (Bandura, 1997; Pajares, 1996). The findings from the hierarchical multiple regressions confirm that individuals' perceived science efficacy plays an important role in their perceived self
Sidman, Cara L.; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Hritz, Nancy
University basic studies courses provide a valuable opportunity for facilitating the knowledge, skills, and beliefs that develop healthy behaviors to last a lifetime. Belief in one's ability to participate in physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, is a psychological construct that has had a documented impact on physical activity. Although…
Jerant, Anthony; To, Patricia; Franks, Peter
Interventions tailored to psychological factors such as personal and vicarious behavioral experiences can enhance behavioral self-efficacy but are complex to develop and implement. Information seeking theory suggests tailoring acquisition of health knowledge (without concurrent psychological factor tailoring) could enhance self-efficacy, simplifying the design of tailored behavior change interventions. To begin to examine this issue, the authors conducted exploratory analyses of data from a randomized controlled trial, comparing the effects of an experimental colorectal cancer screening intervention tailoring knowledge acquisition with the effects of a nontailored control on colorectal cancer screening knowledge and self-efficacy in 1159 patients comprising three ethnicity/language strata (Hispanic/Spanish, 23.4%, Hispanic/English, 27.2%, non-Hispanic/English, 49.3%) and 5 recruitment center strata. Adjusted for study strata, the mean postintervention knowledge score was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Adjusted experimental intervention exposure (B = 0.22, 95% CI [0.14, 0.30]), preintervention knowledge (B = 0.11, 95% CI [0.05, 0.16]), and postintervention knowledge (B = 0.03, 95% CI [0.01, 0.05]) were independently associated with subsequent colorectal cancer screening self-efficacy (p < .001 all associations). These exploratory findings suggest that tailoring knowledge acquisition may enhance self-efficacy, with potential implications for tailored intervention design, but this implication requires confirmation in studies specifically designed to examine this issue.
Chew, Boon-How; Shariff-Ghazali, Sazlina; Fernandez, Aaron
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) need psychological support throughout their life span from the time of diagnosis. The psychological make-up of the patients with DM play a central role in self-management behaviors. Without patient's adherence to the effective therapies, there would be persistent sub-optimal control of diseases, increase diabetes-related complications, causing deterioration in quality of life, resulting in increased healthcare utilization and burden on healthcare systems. However, provision of psychosocial support is generally inadequate due to its challenging nature of needs and demands on the healthcare systems. This review article examines patient's psychological aspects in general, elaborates in particular about emotion effects on health, and emotion in relation to other psychological domains such as cognition, self-regulation, self-efficacy and behavior. Some descriptions are also provided on willpower, resilience, illness perception and proactive coping in relating execution of new behaviors, coping with future-oriented thinking and influences of illness perception on health-related behaviors. These psychological aspects are further discussed in relation to DM and interventions for patients with DM. Equipped with the understanding of the pertinent nature of psychology in patients with DM; and knowing the links between the psychological disorders, inflammation and cardiovascular outcomes would hopefully encourages healthcare professionals in giving due attention to the psychological needs of patients with DM.
Loeb, Carina; Stempel, Christiane; Isaksson, Kerstin
Research has shown that self-efficacy is often one of the most important personal resources in the work context. However, because this research has focused on cognitive and task-oriented self-efficacy, little is known about social and emotional dimensions of self-efficacy at work. The main aim of the present study was to investigate social and emotional self-efficacy dimensions at work and to compare them to a cognitive and task-oriented dimension. Scales to measure social and emotional self-efficacy at work were developed and validated and found to be well differentiated from the cognitive task-oriented occupational self-efficacy scale. Confirmatory factor analyses of data from 226 Swedish and 591 German employees resulted in four separate but correlated self-efficacy dimensions: (1) occupational; (2) social; (3) self-oriented emotional; and (4) other-oriented emotional. Social self-efficacy explained additional variance in team climate and emotional self-efficacy in emotional irritation and emotional exhaustion, over and above effects of occupational self-efficacy. Men reported higher occupational self-efficacy, whereas social and emotional self-efficacy revealed no clear gender differences. The scales have strong psychometric properties in both Swedish and German language versions. The positive association between social self-efficacy and team climate, and the negative relationships between self-oriented emotional self-efficacy and emotional irritation and emotional exhaustion may provide promising tools for practical applications in work settings such as team-building, staff development, recruitment or other training programs aiming for work place health promotion. The next step will be to study how social and emotional self-efficacy relate to leadership, well-being and health over time. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
MacDonald, Paul S
Francis Bacon offers two accounts of the nature and function of the human mind: one is a medical-physical account of the composition and operation of spirits specific to human beings, the other is a behavioral account of the character and activities of individual persons. The medical-physical account is a run-of-the-mill version of the late Renaissance model of elemental constituents and humoral temperaments. The other, less well-known, behavioral account represents an unusual position in early modern philosophy. This theory espouses a form of behavioral psychology according to which (a) supposed mental properties are "hidden forms" best described in dispositional terms, (b) the true character of an individual can be discovered in his observable behavior, and (c) an "informed" understanding of these properties permits the prediction and control of human behavior. Both of Bacon's theories of human nature fall under his general notion of systematic science: his medical-physical theory of vital spirits is theoretical natural philosophy and his behavioral theory of disposition and expression is operative natural philosophy. Because natural philosophy as a whole is "the inquiry of causes and the production of effects," knowledge of human nature falls under the same two-part definition. It is an inquisition of forms that pertains to the patterns of minute motions in the vital spirits and the production of effects that pertains both to the way these hidden motions produce behavioral effects and to the way in which a skillful agent is able to produce desired effects in other persons' behavior. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This study is carried out due to less of students understanding about future career planning, whereas those students have enough self belief about their potential. Therefore this study aims to know the strength of relation between self efficacy and students’ career planning. This study used quantitative approach that emphasize on numerical data of behavior which is processed by statistics method. This study used correlational statistic design. Product moment was employed in this research. The result shows positive correlation between self efficacy and career planning of the tenth grade students of Senior High School Yasmida Ambarawa, in even semester 2014/2015. Based on the result, this research contribution consists of career planning 65.52% was influenced by self efficacy and the rest 34.34% was influenced by others. In conclusion, if someone improve self efficacy in career, their career planning will improve too.Key Words: Correlation, sefl efficacy, and career plannning.
This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the Leadership Behavior Description Question (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969), the Science Efficacy and Belief Expectations for Science Teaching (SEBEST) by Ritter, Boone, and Rubba (2001, January). Students' scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) measured fifth-grade science achievement. At the teacher level of analysis multiple regressions showed the following relationships between teachers' science self-efficacy and teacher classroom leadership behaviors and the various teacher and school demographic variables. Predictors of teacher self efficacy beliefs included teacher's level of education, gender, and leadership initiating structure. The only significant predictor of teacher self-efficacy outcome expectancy was gender. Higher teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted higher leadership initiating structure. At the school level of analysis, higher school levels of percentage of students from low socio-economic backgrounds and higher percentage of limited English proficient students predicted lower school student mean science achievement. These findings suggest a need for continued research to clarify relationships between teacher classroom leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and student achievement especially at the teacher level of analysis. Findings also indicate the importance of developing instructional methods to address student demographics and their needs so that all students, despite their backgrounds, will achieve in science.
efficacité personnelle des enseignants. ... Etudiant à temps partiel, ces enseignants étaient dans leur deuxième année de cursus pour obtenir un diplôme d'enseignement. .... teachers' sense of self-efficacy and learner achievement (Armor et.
van der Bijl, J J; Shortridge-Baggett, L M
Self-efficacy is the major concept of Bandura's social cognitive theory. Self-efficacy is influenced by four important sources of information: performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological information. Other determinants of self-efficacy are internal personal factors and external environmental factors. The degree of change in self-efficacy is partly a function of the variability and the controllability of its determinants. Level of self-efficacy predicts how people are functioning in terms of choice of behavior, effort expenditure and persistence, thought patterns and emotional reactions. Measurement of self-efficacy is related to three dimensions: magnitude, strength and generality. Self-efficacy should be measured in terms of particularized judgments of capability that may vary across realms of activity, different levels of task demands within a given activity domain, and different situational circumstances.
Full Text Available Introduction: To introduce Bayesian method in validation of transtheoretical model’s Self-Efficacy and Decisional Balance for nutritional behavior improvement among Prediabetes with ordinal data. Methods: This is an Experimental trial with parallel design and sample was included 220 Prediabetes who Participated in screening program and had over 30 years old, fasting blood glucose ranged 100-125 and at least elementary Education. We used OpenBugs 3.2.3 to fit Bayesian ordinal factor analysis to achieve validation of TTM’s decisional balance and self-efficacy. Results: All of the factor loadings corresponded to mentioned constructs was significant at α= 0.05%. That support validation of the Constructs. Correlation between Pros and Cons was not significant(-0.076, 0.007.Furthermore a specific statistical model for ordinal data created that can estimate odds ratios and marginal Probabilities for each choice of any item in questionnaire. Conclusion: Thanks to benefits of Bayesian method in use of prior information such as Meta-analysis and other resources, In comparison to similar studies that used standard or other factor analysis for ordinal data, our results had good accuracy(with aspect to standard deviation even with lower sample size.so the results can be used in future clinical researches.
Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Mannan, Mahafuz; Rahman, Mohammad Mahboob
Purpose: From the perspective of developing countries, studies regarding the behavioral effects of quitting tobacco consumption on emerging psychological determinants are limited. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of emotional intelligence (EI), social norms, susceptibility and self-efficacy on the behavioral effects of…
Swanson, Vivien; Nicol, Helen; McInnes, Rhona; Cheyne, Helen; Mactier, Helen; Callander, Elizabeth
Developing maternal self-efficacy offsets negative psychological consequences of premature birth, improving maternal well-being. We investigated women's experiences in a neonatal unit (NNU) in Scotland in semistructured interviews with 19 primiparous mothers of preterm babies. We explored their experience of preterm birth and development of self-efficacy in infant feeding behaviors, identifying emergent and a priori themes. Women reported experiencing loss and biographical disruption in relation to mothering, loss of autonomy, and searching for normality after premature birth. Providing breast milk symbolized embodied contact with their baby and increased maternal confidence. They developed motivation, knowledge, and perseverance and perceived success from positive feedback, primarily from their baby and health professionals' support and encouragement. Women actively constructed opportunities to develop ownership, control, and confidence in relation to interactions with their baby. We linked sources of self-efficacy with potential behavior change techniques to be used in practice to improve maternal confidence in the NNU.
Warner, Lisa M; Stadler, Gertraud; Lüscher, Janina; Knoll, Nina; Ochsner, Sibylle; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte
assumptions on how self-efficacy is built formulated by Bandura two decades ago, there is only little empirical evidence on the origins of self-efficacy. The open research questions for these two studies were whether mastery experiences (experiencing success with the new behavior) and vicarious experiences (seeing others succeed) facilitate the smoking cessation process, whether mastery experiences and self-efficacy affect one another reciprocally and whether intimate partners serve as role models for each other. What does this study add? Mastery experiences and self-efficacy are mutually depended on a day-to-day basis within the smoking cessation process. Effects of mastery experiences fade rapidly, indicating that constant successes are needed to keep up self-efficacy. Dual-smoker couples show similar changes in a contagious way - if mastery experiences increase in one person, mastery experiences increase in the partner; if self-efficacy increases in one person, self-efficacy increases in the partner, too. No support for vicarious experiences (mastery experiences in one person affecting self-efficacy in the partner and vice versa) as sources of self-efficacy in the quitting process was found. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Helms-Lorenz, Michelle; Maulana, Ridwan
In this study, the path of influence of support programmes for beginning teachers (BTs) is examined. Longitudinal relationships between self-efficacy and stress causes experienced by BTs and their job tension and discontent are investigated. Differential effects are explored in the relationships
Rosenkoetter, Eileen; Loman, Deborah G
Over one third of U.S. adolescents are overweight. A descriptive, cross-sectional study examined the relationship between student dietary self-efficacy (SE), sugar-sweetened beverages, and low-nutrient energy-dense food consumption, and exposure to a healthy school food environment without competitive foods. The sample consisted of 292 urban, primarily African American students aged 11 to 16 years. Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) analyses revealed a significant but weak linear trend for girls between number of school meals and SE to drink less soda, χ(2)(1) = 6.882, p = .008, and between semesters attended with SE to eat more fruits and vegetables, χ(2)(1) = 5.908, p = .015. Obese students had significantly higher scores for two SE items than nonobese students, that is, plan better nutrition, χ(2)(1) = 3.998, p = .045, and eat healthy at a fast-food restaurant, χ(2)(1) = 4.078, p = .043. Further study of adolescent SE for healthy eating and school-based, food-focused obesity prevention interventions is needed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Daniel J. Loton
Full Text Available Preliminary studies of strength-based parenting (SBP, a style of parenting that seeks to build strengths knowledge and strengths use in one’s child, have reported benefits such as higher life satisfaction, subjective wellbeing, and positive emotions together with lower stress in children and teens. Two proximal mediators conveying these effects have been identified: teen’s own use of strengths and strength-based coping, along with a small moderating effect of growth mindsets relating to strengths. The current study tests the potential mediating effect of self-efficacy, a sense of agency in life, in the relationship between SBP and mental health (wellbeing and illbeing in teens. Self efficacy has been linked to wellbeing and strengths processes in past studies and is classed as a basic human need and form of eudaimonic happiness. This study reconfirmed the adaptive benefits of SBP in a large sample of Australian adolescents (N = 11,368; 59% male; Mage = 14.04, SDage = 1.99 sourced from 28 schools. Using structural equation modeling, SBP significantly and directly predicted higher happiness and lower depression, with direct effects falling into the 85th and 95th percentile of meta-analytically derived individual differences effect sizes. In addition, self-efficacy was a significant partial mediator, accounting for 40.0% of the total effect on happiness and 52.7% of the total effect on distress. Self-efficacy was also a full mediator in the case of anxiety, with a strong indirect effect. Results suggest that building strengths in teens can also build self-efficacy, and given the large effect sizes, that SBP is a promising leverage point for increasing teen wellbeing.
Zhang, Shuying; Edwards, Helen; Yates, Patsy; Guo, Qihao; Li, Chunbo
We explored the mediation effect of caregiver self-efficacy on the influences of behavioral and psychological symptoms (BPSD) of dementia care recipients (CRs) or family caregivers’ (CGs) social supports (informational, tangible and affectionate support and positive social interaction) on CGs’ mental health. We interviewed 196 CGs, using a battery of measures including demographic data of the dyads, CRs’ dementia-related impairments, and CGs’ social support, self-efficacy and the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Short-Form (SF-36) Health Survey. Multiple regression analyses showed that gathering information on self-efficacy and managing CG distress self-efficacy were the partial mediators of the relationship between positive social interaction and CG mental health. Managing caregiving distress self-efficacy also partial mediated the impact of BPSD on CG mental health. We discuss implications of the results for improving mental health of the target population in mainland China. PMID:24386178
Olivier, Terry A.; Shapiro, Faye
Presents a conceptual analysis of self-efficacy and reviews the literature on self-efficacy in the microcomputer environment. Topics addressed include self-efficacy versus other theories; efficacy versus outcome expectations; and sources of efficacy information, including performance accomplishments, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and…
Ek, Anna; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Nyman, Jonna; Marcus, Claude; Nowicka, Paulina
The development of family-based programs for child weight management requires an understanding of parents' difficulties in managing children's eating and physical activity behaviors; however, knowledge about the specific behaviors that parents find most difficult to address is still limited. The Lifestyle Behavior Checklist (LBC) is an Australian instrument that assesses parents' perceptions of children's obesity-related behaviors (the Problem scale), and parents' self-efficacy in dealing with these behaviors (the Confidence scale). Our aims were 1) to examine the psychometric properties (the factor structure, internal reliability, construct and discriminative validity) of the LBC in parents of preschoolers in Sweden, using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) as a criterion measure, 2) to study associations between the LBC and socio-demographic factors. The LBC and the CFQ (measuring parental feeding practices) were distributed to parents from 25 schools/preschools and to parents starting a childhood obesity intervention. To test the fit of the original four-factor model (misbehavior in relation to food, overeating, emotional correlates of being overweight, physical activity (24 items)) to the data, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. Structural equation modelling was used to examine associations between the LBC and the CFQ and socio-demographic factors. In a sample of 478 parents, a five-factor structure proved best fit to data, after excluding 6 items and allowing two pairs of error terms to correlate (TLI = 0.899; CFI = 0.918; RMSEA = 0.042; SRMR = 0.055). The Confidence scale indicated unidimensionality, therefore a hierarchical CFA with 5 first order factors and one second order factor was tested showing good fit. The validity of the LBC was proven by relevant associations with the CFQ and child weight status; parental responses differed depending on child weight status. The Confidence scale was not associated with any child or
Nam, Soohyun; Song, Youngshin
Psychological insulin resistance (PIR) affects patients’ self-care behaviors and quality of life due to the delay of insulin treatment for optimal glycemic control. Although effective patient-provider communication and relationships have been shown to improve patients’ overall treatment adherence and attitude toward treatment, little is known about the potential mechanisms by which effective patient-provider communication and relationships decrease PIR and whether these relationships are medi...
The mediating effects of team and self-efficacy on the relationship between transformational leadership, and job satisfaction and psychological well-being in healthcare professionals: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey.
Nielsen, Karina; Yarker, Joanna; Randall, Raymond; Munir, Fehmidah
The importance of transformational leadership for the health and well-being of staff in the healthcare sector is increasingly acknowledged, however, there is less knowledge about the mechanisms that may explain the links between transformational leaders and employee health and well-being. To examine two possible psychological mechanisms that link transformational leadership behaviours to employee job satisfaction and well-being. Cross-sectional study design. The study took place in two elderly care centers in large Danish local government. Staff were predominantly healthcare assistants but also nurses and other healthcare-related professions participated in the study. 274 elderly care employees completed the questionnaire. Surveys were sent to all employees working at the centers. 91% were female, the average age was 45 years. A questionnaire was distributed to all members of staff in the elderly care centers and where employees were asked to rate their line manager's leadership style and were asked to evaluate their own level of self-efficacy as well as the level of efficacy in their team (team efficacy) and their job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Both team and self-efficacy were found to act as mediators, however, their effects differed. Self-efficacy was found to fully mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and well-being and team efficacy was found to partially mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and job satisfaction and fully mediate the relationship between transformational leadership and well-being. Within the pressurised environment faced by employees in the healthcare sector today transformational leaders may help ensure employees' job satisfaction and psychological well-being. They do so through the establishment of a sense of being in control as individuals but also as being part of a competent group.
Elizabeth Anderson Steeves
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are an estimated 9.4 million cases of foodborne illness each year. Consumers have a key role in preventing foodborne illness, but differences in the practice of food safety behaviors exist, increasing risk for certain groups in the population. Identifying groups who are more likely to practice risky food safety behaviors can assist in development of interventions to reduce the disease burden of foodborne illnesses. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships of health indicators and psychosocial factors with self-reported food safety behaviors. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were collected via questionnaire from 153 African Americans who attend churches in Baltimore City. Individuals reported high overall concern with food safety (mean score: 0.80±0.49 on a scale of -1 to +1 and practiced food safety behaviors with moderate overall frequency (mean score: 5.26±4.01 on a scale of -12 to +12, with considerable variation in reported frequencies depending on the food safety behavior. After adjusting for demographic variables, food safety behaviors were significantly associated with BMI and psychosocial variables. Riskier food safety behaviors were associated with higher body mass index (BMI (β = -0.141 95%CI (-0.237, -0.044, p = 0.004. Self-efficacy for healthy eating (standard β [std. β] = 0.250, p = 0.005 and healthy eating intentions (std. β = 0.178, p = 0.041 were associated with better food safety behaviors scores. CONCLUSIONS: These results show important relationships between weight-related health indicators, psychosocial factors and food safety behaviors that have not previously been studied. Interventions tailored to higher-risk populations have the potential to reduce the burden of food-related illnesses. Additional studies are needed to further investigate these relationships with larger and more diverse samples.
Gómez-Zúñiga, Beni; Pousada, Modesta; Hernandez, Manny M; Colberg, Sheri; Gabarrón, Elia; Armayones, Manuel
Recent articles have documented the influence of self-efficacy and social support on exercising. Simultaneously, insulin use is also related to the perception of self-efficacy and social support in patients with diabetes. We combine these two ideas through the Big Blue Test experience in a social networking site and propose to analyze whether a change in blood sugar levels after completion of the Big Blue Test and insulin use are related to the perception of self-efficacy and social support in patients with diabetes. To undergo the Big Blue Test, 3,926 participants voluntarily joined the Diabetes Hands Foundation. Responses were analyzed using descriptive analysis. The participants who reduced their blood glucose after exercise the least were those with lower self-efficacy and also with lower perceived social support. There seems to have been no relationship between changes in blood sugar level and the explicit intention of doing exercise in the future. Insulin-dependent participants demonstrated a lower perception of self-efficacy and social support than non-insulin-dependent participants. Change in blood glucose level or being insulin-dependent or not do not explain completely a health behavior such as exercise. Hence, self-efficacy and social support have an impact on behavioral change such as exercise to become a habit in people with diabetes, and this experience through a social networking site is an important tool for this behavioral change. For exercise to become a habit in people with diabetes, it is necessary to consider not only the crucial physiological variables, but also those psychological variables that clearly have an impact on behavioral change.
Comparison of Self-Efficacy and Self-Regulation between the Students with School Refusal Behavior (SRB) and the Students without (SRB), and the Relationships of These Variables to Academic Performance
Khanehkeshi, Ali; Ahmedi, Farahnaz Azizi Tas
The purpose of this study was to compare self-efficacy and self-regulation between the students with SRB and students with NSRB, and the relationship of these variables to academic performance. Using a random stratified sampling technique 60 girl students who had school refusal behavior (SRB) and 60 of students without SRB were selected from 8…
Peng, Ann C; Schaubroeck, John M; Xie, Jia Lin
Inconsistent published findings regarding a proposed buffering role of self-efficacy in stress coping led us to develop a model in which within-person variability in self-efficacy over time affects how individuals' mean levels of self-efficacy moderate the relationship between demands and psychological symptoms. Results from two independent samples (manufacturing workers and college students) supported the hypothesized interaction between demands, self-efficacy mean level, and self-efficacy variability. Demands were more positively associated with psychological strain among those with high and stable self-efficacy than those with high and variable self-efficacy. We discuss the implications of intrapersonal variability in self-efficacy for research on stress coping. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Raising a child with disruptive behaviors is taxing. It is trying. It is exhausting. Due to this, parents may begin to doubt their own effectiveness, or begin to think of their child as being defective in either personality or character (Whitman & Smith, 1991). Coping with such behaviors can precipitate a number of reactions in the family,…
Ludvigsson, Maria L; Peterson, Gunnel; O'Leary, Shaun; Dedering, Åsa; Peolsson, Anneli
The aim of this study was to compare the effect on self-rated pain, disability, and self-efficacy of 3 interventions for the management of chronic whiplash-associated disorders: physiotherapist-led neck-specific exercise (NSE), physiotherapist-led NSE with the addition of a behavioral approach, or Prescription of Physical Activity (PPA). A total of 216 volunteers with chronic whiplash-associated disorders participated in this randomized, assessor blinded, clinical trial of 3 exercise interventions. Self-rated pain/pain bothersomeness (Visual Analogue Scale), disability (Neck Disability Index), and self-efficacy (Self-Efficacy Scale) were evaluated at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. The proportion of patients reaching substantial reduction in pain bothersomness (at least 50% reduction) was more evident (Pneck-specific groups and 28% in the PPA group reported substantial pain reduction. Reduction of disability was also larger in the 2 neck-specific exercise groups at both 3 and 6 months (P<0.02). Self-efficacy was only improved in the NSE group without a behavioral approach (P=0.02). However, there were no significant differences in any outcomes between the 2 physiotherapist-led NSE groups. NSE resulted in superior outcomes compared with PPA in this study, but the observed benefits of adding a behavioral approach to the implementation of exercise in this study were inconclusive.
Spek, V.R.M.; Lemmens, F.; Chatrou, M.; van Kempen, S.C.; Pouwer, F.; Pop, V.J.M.
Background Self-efficacy beliefs are an important determinant of (changes in) health behaviors. In the area of smoking cessation, there is a need for a short, feasible, and validated questionnaire measuring self-efficacy beliefs regarding smoking cessation. Purpose The purpose of this study is to
Malm, Esther Kweiki; Henrich, Christopher; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel
This study investigated associations of general and specific parental self-efficacy factors with bullying and peer victimization behaviors among 142 fourth and fifth graders and their parents. Using structural equation modeling, exploratory factor analysis was used to examine one general parenting self-efficacy measure and a bullying-specific…
Marilyn Giroux; Frank Pons; Lionel Maltese
The authors investigate what motivates consumers to express sustainable goals. The results demonstrate that pro-environmental attitude directly impacted such low-cost behaviors as turning off lights...
Hmieleski, Keith M; Corbett, Andrew C
... to have important implications for the performance of their new ventures. Although improvisation appears to be an important component of the entrepreneurial process, we know little about why some entrepreneurs are more effective improvisers than others. Similarly, it is not known what effects that improvisational behavior has on the work satisfact...
Schutte, Nicola S; Bhullar, Navjot
This paper describes a model focused on the role of self-efficacy and belief in changeability of behavior in motivating environmentally sustainable behavior. The model was tested in two studies. The first study found that participants who had greater self-efficacy for sustainability behavior and a greater belief in their changeability of sustainability behavior had a higher level of approach motivation toward sustainability behavior and reported more such actual behavior. The second study investigated the effect of brief interventions intended to increase perception of self-efficacy for sustainability-related purchasing and changeability of sustainability-related purchasing. The intervention that focused on enhancing self-efficacy for making sustainability-related purchases had the strongest impact on intention to purchase. These findings have implications for interventions intended to change behavior related to environmental sustainability.
Masalah kaki diabetik di Indonesia masih merupakan masalah besar dan masih memerlukan perhatian yang optimal. Edukasi perawatan kaki adalah salah satu upaya yang harus dilakukan dalam mencegah masalah kaki untuk pasien diabetes melitus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis efektivitas program pendidikan perawatan kaki dalam meningkatkan pengetahuan, efikasi diri, dan perilaku perawatan kaki pasien diabetes di wilayah Banjarbaru. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah quasi experimental dengan prepost test, dilakukan di puskesmas wilayah Banjarbaru tahun 2013. Kelompok intervensi diberikan program pendidikan perawatan kaki. Sampel berjumlah 48 pasien (32 orang kelompok intervensi dan 16 orang kelompok kontrol menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Variabel yang diukur adalah pengetahuan, efikasi diri, dan perilaku perawatan kaki pasien diabetes melitus. Perlakuan yang diberikan pada responden berupa pendidikan kesehatan tentang perawatan kaki sebanyak dua kali. Setiap variabel diukur dua kali sebelum dan setelah intervensi. Uji pengetahuan diukur menggunakan Diabetic Foot Care Knowledge Questionnaire, efikasi diri diukur menggunakan Foot Care Confident Scale Self-Efficacy, dan perilaku perawatan kaki dinilai menggunakan Behavior Foot Care Questionnaire. Analisis data menggunakan Manova. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan pada tingkat pengetahuan (nilai p = 0,001, efikasi diri (nilai p = 0,000 dan perilaku perawatan kaki (nilai p = 0,000 sebelum dan setelah intervensi.
Concept analysis and self-efficacy. This article analyzes the concept self-efficacy and its relationship to nursing education using Walker and Avant's methodology. Published literature. Nursing literature suggests increasing students' perceived self-efficacy will help to narrow the theory-practice gap. Self-efficacy is a cognitive variable that affects performance behaviors and affective processes. Perceived self-efficacy can be influenced by a direct experience, vicarious experience, or verbal persuasion. Individuals with high levels of self-efficacy demonstrate the defining attributes of confidence, perceived capability, and perseverance. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jackson, Andrew M.
Engineering design activities are frequently included in technology and engineering classrooms. These activities provide an open-ended context for practicing critical thinking, problem solving, creativity, and innovation---collectively part of the 21st Century Skills which are increasingly needed for success in the workplace. Self-efficacy is a perceptual belief that impacts learning and behavior. It has been shown to directly impact each of these 21st Century Skills but its relation to engineering design is only recently being studied. The purpose of this study was to examine how instructional considerations made when implementing engineering design activities might affect student self-efficacy outcomes in a middle school engineering classroom. Student responses to two self-efficacy inventories related to design, the Engineering Design Self-Efficacy Instrument and Creative Thinking Self-Efficacy Inventory, were collected before and after participation in an engineering design curriculum. Students were also answered questions on specific factors of their experience during the curriculum which teachers may exhibit control over: teamwork and feedback. Results were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, paired and independent t-tests, and structural equation modeling to better understand patterns for self-efficacy beliefs in students. Results suggested that design self-efficacy and creative thinking self-efficacy are significantly correlated, r(1541) = .783, p creative thinking self-efficacy: strategies encouraging self-efficacy in these domains may be transferrable. Instructors are made aware of the significant impact of classroom strategies for increasing self-efficacy and given specific recommendations related to teamwork and feedback to support students. Finally, although there were weaknesses in the study related to the survey administration, future research opportunities are presented which may build from this work.
Mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic low back pain: similar effects on mindfulness, catastrophizing, self-efficacy, and acceptance in a randomized controlled trial
Turner, Judith A.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Balderson, Benjamin H.; Cook, Andrea J.; Sherman, Karen J.; Cherkin, Daniel C.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is believed to improve chronic pain problems by decreasing patient catastrophizing and increasing patient self-efficacy for managing pain. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is believed to benefit chronic pain patients by increasing mindfulness and pain acceptance. However, little is known about how these therapeutic mechanism variables relate to each other or whether they are differentially impacted by MBSR versus CBT. In a randomized controlled trial comparing MBSR, CBT, and usual care (UC) for adults aged 20-70 years with chronic low back pain (CLBP) (N = 342), we examined (1) baseline relationships among measures of catastrophizing, self-efficacy, acceptance, and mindfulness; and (2) changes on these measures in the 3 treatment groups. At baseline, catastrophizing was associated negatively with self-efficacy, acceptance, and 3 aspects of mindfulness (non-reactivity, non-judging, and acting with awareness; all P-values <0.01). Acceptance was associated positively with self-efficacy (P < 0.01) and mindfulness (P-values < 0.05) measures. Catastrophizing decreased slightly more post-treatment with MBSR than with CBT or UC (omnibus P = 0.002). Both treatments were effective compared with UC in decreasing catastrophizing at 52 weeks (omnibus P = 0.001). In both the entire randomized sample and the sub-sample of participants who attended ≥6 of the 8 MBSR or CBT sessions, differences between MBSR and CBT at up to 52 weeks were few, small in size, and of questionable clinical meaningfulness. The results indicate overlap across measures of catastrophizing, self-efficacy, acceptance, and mindfulness, and similar effects of MBSR and CBT on these measures among individuals with CLBP. PMID:27257859
Self-efficacy is the belief in one's capacity to perform and accomplish goals. Specifically, academic self-efficacy refers to a student's perception of their ability to engage and successfully complete academic tasks. Self-efficacy affects students' behavioral choices, motivation, thought patterns and responses, perception of control, and…
Lin, Yi-Jiun; Flores, Lisa Y.
Using a sample of 86 East Asian international graduate students, this study examined Bandura's perceived self-efficacy model (1986) in the domain of job search self-efficacy and tested the mediating effects of job search self-efficacy in the relationship between efficacy source variables and job search behaviors. Results show that both performance…
Dentler, Donna J.
A study examined the relationship between the self-efficacy and career aspirations of 37,942 11th-grade students across the state of Pennsylvania. Using Albert Bandura's theory of self-efficacy, which states that the level and strength of self-efficacy of an individual will determine (1) whether or not the individual will initiate coping behavior,…
“Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.
AJRH Managing Editor
psychological resilience and partner trust to increase understanding of trust towards one's intercourse partner. Mediation analyses, stratified by gender, reveal that condom usage is predicted by self-efficacy and partner trust among females but not males. Higher psychological resilience predicts lower partner trust among ...
O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Strauser, David R.; Wong, Alex W. K.
With the continued lower employment rate for persons with disabilities, researchers are focusing more on barriers to employment that reach beyond functional impairment. Personality and self-efficacy have consistently been important factors when considering employment outcomes for persons without disability; less is known about these factors as…
Full Text Available Self-efficacy beliefs do not reflect a generic sense of competence, but are instead context-specific. Therefore, self-efficacy should be assessed by using an ad hoc scale measuring individual behaviors that allows social workers to exercise influence over events that affect their work life. The present study describes the development and initial validation of the self-efficacy scale for social workers (SESSW. Items were generated through the Critical Incident Technique. Sixteen social workers with at least 10 years of service participated in two focus groups; they were asked to recall critical incidents in their work and to indicate the most effective behaviors to manage the incidents. Content analysis of the focus group transcripts provided 13 key self-efficacy beliefs. The 13-item scale was validated with a sample of 805 social workers. Data were analyzed using a split-sample technique. Exploratory factor analysis on the first split sample (n = 402 revealed three dimensions of self-efficacy, corresponding to emotion regulation, support request, and procedural self-efficacy. The three-factor structure of the scale was further confirmed with confirmatory factor analysis on the second split sample (n = 403. Our results show that SESSW is an adequate instrument for assessment of self-efficacy beliefs in social work.
Neergaard, Helle; Mauer, René; Kirketerp Linstad, Anne
Research that has sought to identify the underlying determinants of self-efficacy is sparse. This chapter seeks to identify antecedents of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and the processes that produce and reinforce self-efficacy. It seeks to broaden our understanding of the self-efficacy concept t...
Krista K. Fritson, PsyD
Full Text Available While considerable research has examined the academic and cognitive value of journaling, little has examined the psychological impact of journaling on the personal development of college students. Research on cognitive-behavioral therapy indicates that journaling can have a positive impact on individuals’ self-growth and intrapersonal characteristics. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of classroom-based journaling on students’ self-efficacy and locus of control. Students in two undergraduate courses were required to complete weekly journal assignments; one class received targeted information on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT and one class did not. Students completed pre-, mid-, and postcourse assessments on self-efficacy, locus of control, and learning. Results revealed that self-efficacy scores for both groups significantly improved after the early journaling assignments; however, there were no differences between those who received direct CBT instruction and those who did not. These findings indicate that journaling may have important psychological benefits above and beyond its expected academic and cognitive outcomes.
Krista K. Fritson
Full Text Available While considerable research has examined the academic and cognitive value of journaling, little has examined the psychological impact of journaling on the personal development of college students. Research on cognitive-behavioral therapy indicates that journaling can have a positive impact on individuals’ self-growth and intrapersonal characteristics. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of classroom-based journaling on students’ self-efficacy and locus of control. Students in two undergraduate courses were required to complete weekly journal assignments; one class received targeted information on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT and one class did not. Students completed pre-, mid-, and post-course assessments on self-efficacy, locus of control, and learning. Results revealed that self-efficacy scores for both groups significantly improved after the early journaling assignments; however, there were no differences between those who received direct CBT instruction and those who did not. These findings indicate that journaling may have important psychological benefits above and beyond its expected academic and cognitive outcomes.
Nielsen, Tine; Dammeyer, Jesper; Vang, Maria Louison
Academic Self-Efficacy Scale (GASE) – were analyzed using Rasch measurement models, with data from 1018 Danish university students (psychology and technical), focusing on gender invariance and the sufficiency of the score. The short 4-item GASE scale was found to be essentially objective and construct...... valid and satisfactorily reliable, though differential item functioning was found relative to gender and academic discipline, and can be used to assess students’ general academic self-efficacy. Research on gender and self-efficacy needs to take gender into account and equate scores appropriately......Studies have reported gender differences in academic self-efficacy. However, how and if academic self-efficacy questionnaires are gender-biased has not been psychometrically investigated. The psychometric properties of a general version of The Physics Self-Efficacy Questionnaire – the General...
Mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic low back pain: similar effects on mindfulness, catastrophizing, self-efficacy, and acceptance in a randomized controlled trial.
Turner, Judith A; Anderson, Melissa L; Balderson, Benjamin H; Cook, Andrea J; Sherman, Karen J; Cherkin, Daniel C
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is believed to improve chronic pain problems by decreasing patient catastrophizing and increasing patient self-efficacy for managing pain. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is believed to benefit patients with chronic pain by increasing mindfulness and pain acceptance. However, little is known about how these therapeutic mechanism variables relate to each other or whether they are differentially impacted by MBSR vs CBT. In a randomized controlled trial comparing MBSR, CBT, and usual care (UC) for adults aged 20 to 70 years with chronic low back pain (N = 342), we examined (1) baseline relationships among measures of catastrophizing, self-efficacy, acceptance, and mindfulness and (2) changes on these measures in the 3 treatment groups. At baseline, catastrophizing was associated negatively with self-efficacy, acceptance, and 3 aspects of mindfulness (nonreactivity, nonjudging, and acting with awareness; all P values mindfulness (P values mindfulness and similar effects of MBSR and CBT on these measures among individuals with chronic low back pain.
Self-efficacy was found as a strong predictor of sport performance in many researches. In this paper we focus on self-efficacy in children doing sport and we observe the relationship between self-efficacy, competitive anxiety and sport performance in children. In theoretical part we define self-efficacy, its sources and types of self-efficacy measurements in sport and physical activity. We summarize knowledge from previous researches and we also give some information about sport in children, ...
Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, Syed W.; Iantaffi, Alex; Grey, Jeremy; Rosser, B. R. Simon
This study tests the following three hypotheses: 1) there is a direct association between consumption of sexually explicit media (SEM) depicting non-condom use and STI-related sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), 2) The association between SEM consumption and STI-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men’s sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011. The results confirmed hypothesis 1 and 3 while hypothesis 2 was rejected. Accordingly, a significant association between the use of SEM picturing condom use and STI related sexual risk behavior among MSM was found. Likewise, we found that the association between the use of SEM and sexual risk behavior was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts. PMID:24904709
Træen, Bente; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, Syed W; Iantaffi, Alex; Grey, Jeremy; Rosser, B R Simon
This study tests the following three hypotheses: 1) there is a direct association between consumption of sexually explicit media (SEM) depicting non-condom use and STI-related sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM), 2) The association between SEM consumption and STI-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men's sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011. The results confirmed hypothesis 1 and 3 while hypothesis 2 was rejected. Accordingly, a significant association between the use of SEM picturing condom use and STI related sexual risk behavior among MSM was found. Likewise, we found that the association between the use of SEM and sexual risk behavior was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts.
Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Falese, Lavinia; Mancone, Stefania; Purromuto, Francesco
The study aimed to identify factors predicting self-efficacy in a sample of 248 Italian handball referees. The main hypothesis was that perception of teamwork efficacy would be a significant predictor of self-efficacy in handball referees. Participants completed an online questionnaire including Referee Self-Efficacy Scale (α = 0.85), Self-Determination Scale (α = 0.78), and an adaptation for Referees of the Sport Commitment Model (α = 0.80). Two hierarchical regression analyses have identified: (1) Enjoyment (β = 0.226), Couple Efficacy (β = 0.233), and Personal Awareness (β = 0.243), as predictors of Self-Efficacy; (2) Span of Co-Refereeing (β = 0.253), Perceived Quality of the Relationship (β = 0.239), and Mutual Agreement (β = 0.274), as predictors of Couple Self-Efficacy. A further SEM analysis confirmed the fit of a structural model of Self-efficacy considering the reciprocal influence of Couple Efficacy, Enjoyment and Awareness (χ2: 5.67; RMSEA: 0.000; SRMR: 0.019). The study underlines the importance of teamwork (or co-refereeing) as it relates to enjoyment and awareness in officiating and how it enhances the psychological well-being of handball referees. Future studies should investigate the relationship between factors influencing perceived teamwork efficacy and officiating performance outcome. PMID:28572783
Fang, Mingzhu; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Xian; Huang, Xianhong; Gu, Fang; Qu, Xuping; Xu, Liangwen
To learn the dietary fat intake behavior status and influencing psychological factors in teenagers. According to the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method, students were recruited from middle and high schools in Hangzhou, Wuhan and Xi'an from March to May, 2012. Chinese version of adolescent dietary fat intake behavior of psychological measurement scales was utilized in field investigations with 3 448 effective questionnaires. Under the transtheoretical model, the status quo of teenagers fat intake behavior was analyzed and it shows the relationship between stages and psychological variables, including strategy of change, decision balance and self-efficacy. In the 3 448 participants, the proportion of girls were 52.4% (1 806/3 448) and boys were 47.6% (1 642/3 448), while the mean age was (14.85 ± 1.46). There are significant differences among distributed stages of behavior change, grouped by gender, grade and region (χ(2) values were 33.59, 20.53, 27.92, P behavior change, which showed a significant difference (F values were 155.12, 19.86, 44.59, 94.27, P behavioral stage (from 14.7 ± 4.4 to 12.2 ± 3.9). Post hoc comparison also found that the score of process of change, decision balance (pros) and self-efficacy after action stages were higher than those before action, while the score of decisional balance (cons) in the precontemplation stage was higher than that in the other 4 stages. Fat intake behavior in teenagers showed different stages, whose psychological factors had significant influences, with decision balance (pros) hindered the progress of stages of behavior change, while other three factors played a positive role.
Sol, Berna G M; van der Graaf, Yolanda; van Petersen, Rutger; Visseren, Frank L J
It is important that patients with vascular diseases adopt a healthy lifestyle so as to reduce vascular risk. Since self-efficacy is an important precondition for health behavior change in patients with chronic disease, we investigated whether self-efficacy was associated with cardiovascular lifestyle in patients with clinical manifestations of vascular diseases. In this observational cohort study, 125 patients who had recently been referred for cerebrovascular disease, coronary heart disease, or peripheral arterial disease participated in a 1-year self-management intervention. They completed a self-efficacy questionnaire and questions about their cardiovascular lifestyle at baseline and after 1 year. Logistic regression analyses were performed to quantify the impact of change in self-efficacy on physical activity, smoking behavior, alcohol consumption, and food choices. Improved self-efficacy was associated with improved adherence to guidelines for physical activity (OR 3.5, 95%CI 1.0-11.0) and food choices (B 0.15, 95%CI 0.00-0.31). No such improvement was seen regarding adherence to guidelines for smoking or alcohol intake. In patients with vascular diseases, improvements in self-efficacy are associated with an improvement in cardiovascular lifestyle, namely, more exercise and better food choices. Copyright © 2010 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
McGowan, Michael L.
Examines self-efficacy theory and how it can be utilized in describing participant change in adventure/challenge programs. Explores connection between personal experience and how people view ability to function in world around them. Discusses Bandura's theory and interaction of sources of information: performance accomplishment, vicarious…
Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot
This paper offers organizational behavior management (OBM) a behavior analytically consistent way to expand its analysis of, and methods for changing, organizational behavior. It shows how Relational Frame Theory (RFT) suggests that common, problematic, psychological processes emerge from language itself, and they produce psychological inflexibility. Research suggests that an applied extension of RFT, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, has led to new interventions that increase psychological ...
Beach, E F; Williams, W; Gilliver, M
The use of earplugs in loud music venues is confined to a small minority who wish to avoid hearing damage from excessive noise exposure. Using the framework of the health belief model (HBM), structured interviews were held with 20 earplug-wearing clubbers. Qualitative analysis revealed the HBM constructs relevant to understanding this group's motivation to protect their hearing. Personal experience of noise injury symptoms was the most common cue triggering earplug use. Awareness of the benefits of earplugs and appreciation of the long-term implications of hearing damage, affinity for music and high self-efficacy were also key variables underlying this health behaviour.
Full Text Available This article presents the psychological meaning of school-to-work transition. Transition to taking up new social roles entails numerous difficulties, and that is why young people see it as a crisis point. According to researchers one of the predictors of effective transition to the labour market is self-efficacy.
Does an online psychological intervention improve self-efficacy and disability in people also receiving Multimodal Manual Therapy for chronic low back pain compared to Multimodal Manual Therapy alone? Design of a randomized controlled trial.
Petrozzi, M John; Leaver, Andrew; Jones, Mairwen K; Ferreira, Paulo H; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Mackey, Martin G
Various interventions are available for the treatment of chronic low back pain (LBP), including Manual Therapy and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT). The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the addition of an internet-based CBT program leads to better outcomes in patients who are treated with multimodal manual therapy for chronic LBP. A randomized controlled trial comparing a combined intervention, consisting of internet-based CBT utilising MoodGYM plus multimodal manual therapy, to multimodal manual therapy alone for patients with chronic LBP. Multimodal manual therapy will be delivered by experienced chiropractors and physiotherapists. Treatment sessions will consist of a combination of joint and soft tissue mobilisation; spinal manipulation as well as muscle and fascia massage; education and reassurance; and rehabilitative exercise prescription. In total, 108 adult participants will be recruited from multiple chiropractic and physiotherapy private practices in Australia. Participants older than 18 years of age and diagnosed with chronic non-specific LBP will be included in the trial, where chronic LBP is defined as continuous or fluctuating pain for a minimum of three months. The Keele STarT Back screening tool will be used to screen for potential participants who are in the medium risk category. The primary outcomes are self efficacy and disability measured by the Patient Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (PSEQ) and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) respectively. Secondary outcome measures will assess pain, catastrophising, depression, anxiety, stress and work ability. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of two groups. Both groups will receive an upper limit of 12 multimodal manual therapy sessions over a period of 8 weeks. The intervention group will also receive five weeks of MoodGYM covering five modules in total. Assessment will be conducted at pre-treatment, post-treatment 8- and follow-up at 26- and 52 weeks. In addition
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self management is the cornerstone of effective preventive care in diabetes. Educational interventions that provide self-management skills for people with diabetes have been shown to reduce blood glucose concentrations. This in turn has the potential to reduce rates of complications. However, evidence to support type, quantity, setting and mode of delivery of self-management education is sparse. Objectives: To study the biophysical and psychological effectiveness of a brief psycho-educational intervention for type 1 diabetes in adults. Methods/Design Design: Randomised controlled clinical trial. Setting: Multidisciplinary specialist diabetes centre. Hypothesis: Our hypothesis was that the brief (2.5-day intervention would be biophysically and psychologically effective for people with type 1 diabetes. Intervention: A brief psycho-educational intervention for type 1 diabetes developed by a multi-professional team comprising of a consultant diabetologist, a diabetes specialist nurse, a specialist diabetes dietician and a clinical health psychologist and delivered in 20 hours over 2.5 days. Primary outcomes: HbA1c and severe hypoglycaemia. Secondary outcomes: Blood pressure, weight, height, lipid profile and composite psychometric scales. Participants: We shall consent and recruit 120 subjects with postal invitations sent to eligible participants. Volunteers are to be seen at randomisation clinics where independent researcher verify eligibility and obtain consent. We shall randomise 60 to BITES and 60 to standard care. Eligibility Criteria: Type 1 diabetes for longer than 12 months, multiple injection therapy for at least two months, minimum age of 18 and ability to read and write. Randomisation: An independent evaluator to block randomise (block-size = 6, to intervention or control groups using sealed envelopes in strict ascendant order. Control group will receive standard care. Assessment: Participants in both groups would
Salahshoori, Arash; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Mostafavi, Firoozeh
Paying attention to improving the nutritional status of adolescents can be one of the most effective fundamental measures for preventing chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases in later life. Identifying the predicting elements in different behaviors is one of the most effective ways that can be considered in prevention programs in different communities, particularly in developing countries. The purpose of was to determine the perceived efficacy, benefits and barriers related to a healthy nutrition pattern and the relation of these variables with a healthy diet in male and female high school students in Izeh city. In this cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study conducted throughout high schools in Izeh City, the subjects were 500 students (300 girls and 200 boys) from the 1390-91 school years who were selected through the multistage random sampling method; the acquired data was then studied and analyzed. The data for this study was gathered through a multi-sectional questionnaire (that included demographic characteristics, self-efficacy, perceived benefits and barriers). The Independent t-test, Spearman's Correlation, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient and Linear Regression were used to interpret and analyze the data. Data analysis showed that the mean age of male participants was 15.67 ± 0.95 years and females 15.86 ± 1.16 years. The mean score for healthy eating patterns in male students was 46.83 ± 14.86 and in female students 44.20 ± 14.16 respectively. The mean score for perceived benefits of healthy eating in girls was significantly higher than that in boys. There was a direct meaningful relationship between the mean score of benefits and perceived self-efficacy with the healthy eating behaviors in the two sexes, (P self-efficacy and perceived benefits respectively and that perceived barriers is not an influencing predictor in healthy eating patterns. The results of this study showed that many factors influence students' diet pattern
Stok, F Marijn; Verkooijen, Kirsten T; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Wit, John B F; de Vet, Emely
The current studies aim to show that descriptive social norms influence vegetable intake and to investigate three potentially underlying processes (self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy). In two studies, descriptive social norms regarding vegetable intake were manipulated (majority vs. minority norm). Study 1 investigated both the relation between baseline vegetable intake and self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy, as well as the effect of the norm manipulation on vegetable intake over a one-week period. Study 2 investigated potential mediation of the effect of the manipulation on vegetable intake intentions through self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy. Study 1 showed that the proposed mediators were related to a baseline measure of vegetable intake. Moreover, in participants identifying strongly with the norm referent group, majority norms led to higher vegetable consumption than minority norms. Study 2 showed that the direct effect of the social norm manipulation on vegetable intake intentions was partly mediated by self-identification, attitude, and self-efficacy. These studies shed first light on processes underlying the effect of descriptive social norms on health behavior. A norm describing the behavior of a salient social group leads people to identify more with, have more positive attitudes toward, and feel more self-efficacious regarding that behavior. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Kim, Y H
To explore the negative health behaviors of Korean adolescents, reveal factors affecting their negative health behavior, and present a substantial correlation model between the negative health behaviors and psychological factors. A total of 2124 adolescents randomly selected from junior high and high schools in Seoul were surveyed. Four Korean-version instruments were used to identify the negative health behavior and psychological construct of adolescents: Adolescent Health Survey, Health Locus of Control scale, Self-Esteem scale, and Self-Efficacy scale. Korean adolescents showed high prevalence of smoking, drinking alcohol, bad eating habits, and viewing pornography; and very low prevalence, however, of sexual intercourse and illegal drug use. In addition to this, the findings revealed that the subdomains in adolescents' negative health behavior were statistically correlated with the subdimensions of a psychological factor. A correlation model was an adequate fit to identify a possible relationship between the negative health behaviors and the psychological factors. This study provides significant and new information about the relatively unstudied Korean adolescents and has the potential to influence the development of better health education and health psychology.
Full Text Available The concept of self-efficacy, introduced by Albert Bandura, has received a lot of attention in psychological research. This comes as no surprise, as it encompasses a person's beliefs about his or her capabilities to successfully do what is necessary for desired goals, which is a central mechanism in human agency. The concept has been linked to many outcomes (e.g. motivation and performance, almost exclusively yielding positive results. Recently, however, arguments have risen that a strong sense of selfefficacy may not always be as beneficial as presumed until now. In this article, I review the core of the positive literature on self-efficacy and highlight studies that question and oppose the dominance of these positive self-efficacy associations. Implications for future research, emphasizing the need of a different research approach, are mentioned.
Thieme, Maik; Einenkel, Jens; Zenger, Markus; Hinz, Andreas
The aim of this examination was to study whether psychological resource variables (optimism and self-efficacy) decrease when cancer is present and to test the predictive power of these variables for anxiety, depression and quality of life (QoL). The patient sample was comprised of 354 German women suffering from breast cancer or gynecological cancer. Participants filled in the resource assessment tools Life Orientation Test-Revised and the General Self-Efficacy Scale as well as the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 and the QoL instrument EORTC QLQ-C30 at two time points: (t1) during patients' hospital stay and (t2) 3 months later. The mean scores for optimism (total score: M = 16.2) and self-efficacy (M = 29.8) were even somewhat higher than the corresponding means of the general population. Optimism and self-efficacy were positively correlated with QoL (r between 0.15 and 0.17, P optimism was predictive of the t2 anxiety, depression and QoL scores when statistically taking into account the baseline levels of the outcome variables. Having cancer does not generally reduce optimism and self-efficacy on the level of patients' mean scores. Cancer patients with a high level of habitual optimism will adapt to their disease better than pessimistic patients, even if the baseline levels of the outcome variables have been accounted for.
Lucas, Jennifer L.; And Others
Three instruments were completed by 345 undergraduates: Kuder Task Self-Efficacy Scale (KTSES), Self-Esteem Inventory, and Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy Scale. The construct validity of the KTSES was supported, and some relationship was found between career task self-efficacy and self-esteem/career decision-making self-efficacy. (SK)
Zuya, Habila Elisha; Kwalat, Simon Kevin; Attah, Bala Galle
Pre-service mathematics teachers' mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics teaching self-efficacy were investigated in this study. The purpose was to determine the confidence levels of their self-efficacy in mathematics and mathematics teaching. Also, the study was aimed at finding whether their mathematics self-efficacy and teaching…
Zachariae, Robert; O'Connor, Maja; Lassesen, Berit; Olesen, Martin; Kjær, Louise Binow; Thygesen, Marianne; Mørcke, Anne Mette
Patient-centered communication is a core competency in modern health care and associated with higher levels of patient satisfaction, improved patient health outcomes, and lower levels of burnout among physicians. The objective of the present study was to develop a questionnaire assessing medical student and physician self-efficacy in patient-centeredness (SEPCQ) and explore its psychometric properties. A preliminary 88-item questionnaire (SEPCQ-88) was developed based on a review of the literature and medical student portfolios and completed by 448 medical students from Aarhus University. Exploratory Principal Component analysis resulted in a 27-item version (SEPCQ-27) with three underlying self-efficacy factors: 1) Exploring the patient perspective, 2) Sharing information and power, and 3) Dealing with communicative challenges. The SEPCQ-27 was completed by an independent sample of 291 medical students from 2 medical schools and 101 hospital physicians. Internal consistencies of total and subscales were acceptable for both students and physicians (Cronbach's alpha (range): 0.74-0.95). There were no overall indications of gender-related differential item function (DIF), and a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) indicated good fit (CFI = 0.98; NNFI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.05; SRMR = 0.07). Responsiveness was indicated by increases in SEPCQ scores after a course in communication and peer-supervision (Cohen's d (range): 0.21 to 0.73; p: 0.053 to 0.001). Furthermore, positive associations were found between increases in SEPCQ-scores and course-related motivation to learn (medical students) and between SEPCQ scores and years of clinical experience (physicians). The final SEPCQ-27 showed satisfactory psychometric properties, and preliminary support was found for its construct validity, indicating that the SEPCQ-27 may be a valuable measure in future patient centered communication training and research.
Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard
Objective. To examine the relationship between self-efficacy and not wanting help to change health behaviors. Method. All employees in the Danish police department were invited to respond to an electronic questionnaire. All respondents expressing a desire to change health behaviors in relation...
Full Text Available Background The patients undergoing coronary artery angioplasty should be motivated to adhere to lifestyle modifications. One of the factors affecting this issue is cardiac self-efficacy. Cardiac self-efficacy motivates individuals to select a lifestyle related to their cardiovascular diseases through creating the desire to adjust with such behaviors. Objectives The current research aimed to determine the cardiac self-efficacy predictors after coronary artery angioplasty. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 193 patients undergoing coronary artery angioplasty in Dr. Heshmat educational therapeutic center were selected through convenience sampling. The data were collected by a questionnaire consisted of two sections, including socio-demographic factors and cardiac self-efficacy after oral consent of the subjects. Then data were analyzed via descriptive (frequency distribution, mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics (Pearson, ANOVA and independent t-test. To define cardiac self-efficacy predictors, multi-linear regression model was applied. Results Based on the obtained results, the mean age of subjects was 58.35 ± 9.97 years, the majority were male (60.6% and the underlying diseases history (57.5% and the mean time interval between repeated angioplasty was 17.48 ± 25.2 months. Also the mean score of cardiac self-efficacy among these patients was 8.43 ± 4.5. Also, based on the results of the statistical tests, there was a significant relationship between age (P < 0.001, gender (P = 0.024, education (P < 0.0001, hypertension history (P = 0.006, living conditions (P = 0.03, job (P = 0.001 and monthly income (P = 0.003 with cardiac self-efficacy. As the multi-linear regression test results suggested, age was the only cardiac self-efficacy predictor. Conclusions The current study results implied low cardiac self-efficacy score in the study units; then it is recommended to consider care plans to improve the cardiac self-efficacy.
Presnell, Katherine; Pells, Jennifer; Stout, Anna; Musante, Gerard
The aim of the current study was to examine whether weight loss self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted weight loss during treatment, and whether gender moderates these associations with prospective data from 297 participants (223 women and 74 men) enrolled in a residential obesity treatment program. Men reported higher initial levels of self-efficacy than women, whereas women reported greater pre-treatment levels of binge eating and depressive symptoms. Higher pre-treatment levels of weight control self-efficacy, binge eating, and depressive symptoms predicted greater weight loss in men, but not in women. Results suggest that certain psychological and behavioral factors should be considered when implementing weight loss interventions, and indicate a need to consider gender differences in predictors of weight loss treatment. Future research should seek to identify predictors of weight loss among women.
WILLIAMS, James D; Takaku, S.
Adaptive help seeking and self-efficacy have been examined extensively over the last 20 years, but few studies have investigated their role in writing center tutoring, which has become an important component of process-oriented writing instruction. Using data collected over an 8-year period, this study analyzes the effect of writing self-efficacy (assessed using established self-efficacy scales) and help-seeking behavior (measured by frequency of writing center visitation) on writing performa...
Keefer, Laurie; Kiebles, Jennifer L; Taft, Tiffany H
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) require self-management skills that may be influenced by self-efficacy (SE). Self-efficacy represents an individual's perception of his or her ability to organize and execute the behaviors necessary to manage disease. The goal of this study was to develop a valid and reliable measure of IBD-specific SE that can be used in clinical and research contexts. One hundred and twenty-two adults with a verified IBD diagnosis participated in the study. Data were pooled from 2 sources: patients from an outpatient university gastroenterology clinic (n=42) and a sample of online respondents (n=80). All participants (N=122) completed the IBD Self-Efficacy Scale (IBD-SES) and the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire. Additionally, online participants completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, whereas those in the clinic sample completed the Perceived Health Competence Scale, the Perceived Stress Questionnaire, and the Short Form Version 2 Health Survey. The IBD-SES was initially constructed to identify 4 distinct theoretical domains of self-efficacy: (1) managing stress and emotions, (2) managing medical care, (3) managing symptoms and disease, and (4) maintaining remission. The 29-item IBD-SES has high internal consistency (r=0.96), high test-retest reliability (r=0.90), and demonstrates strong construct and concurrent validity with established measures. The IBD-SES is a critical first step toward addressing an important psychological construct that could influence treatment outcomes in IBD.
Christoffersen, Mogens; DePanfilis, Diane
The purpose of the present paper is to shed light on the questions: Do children, who are exposed to psychological maltreatment, have an increased risk for suicide attempts or contemplation? Will children’s suicidal behavior diminish when psychological maltreatment is reduced? Suicidal behavior...... as well as child abuse and neglect were analyzed on the basis of standardized questionnaires addressed to caseworkers assigned to these cases (N=1,055). Half of the children were exposed to abuse and neglect. More than one third of the children were exposed to psychological maltreatment. These children...... showed higher rates of suicidal tendencies, compared to those children who were not exposed to psychological maltreatment....
Fatemeh Sadr Hashemi
Full Text Available Background: The breakfast is the most important meal of the day that its regular consumption is effective on individuals' physical, psychological and social health. Given the high prevalence of irregular consumption of breakfast among students, this study has been designed to investigate breakfast consumption behavior and its related factors within social cognitive theory framework.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 360 primary school students female (52.3% and 154 male (47.7% who were out schools of Isfahan using cluster-random sampling The data were collected in a self-reporting form by researcher made questionnaire with a significant reliability and validity The data were analyzed by SPSS software using independent t-test, one way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis.Results: The average breakfast consumption (in a week score of 2.4 with a standard deviation of 1.7. The 10.5% of students were eating breakfast every day. There was a significant relationship between breakfast consumption and self-efficacy, outcome expectation and outcome evaluation. There was an inverse relationship between students' age, and economic situation and breakfast consumption. The results of multiple regression test showed that there is a significant relationship between self-efficacy (0.145 beta, type of school (0.631 beta, and student age (0.402 beta and having breakfast and it predicted 24.3% of breakfast consumption variance.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that eating breakfast is not desirable in students. Self-efficacy is a predictor of breakfast consumption in students. Therefore, educational intervention seems necessary to increase self-efficacy and breakfast consumption rate.
Bandura, A; Pastorelli, C; Barbaranelli, C; Caprara, G V
This prospective research analyzed how different facets of perceived self-efficacy operate in concert within a network of sociocognitive influences in childhood depression. Perceived social and academic inefficacy contributed to concurrent and subsequent depression both directly and through their impact on academic achievement, prosocialness, and problem behaviors. In the shorter run, children were depressed over beliefs in their academic inefficacy rather than over their actual academic performances. In the longer run, the impact of a low sense of academic efficacy on depression was mediated through academic achievement, problem behavior, and prior depression. Perceived social inefficacy had a heavier impact on depression in girls than in boys in the longer term. Depression was also more strongly linked over time for girls than for boys.
Peter R A Oeij
Full Text Available This study investigated whether improving the employment relationship does more depend on negotiation selfefficacy or on task outonomy for a sample of employees from a Dutch telecom company. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy on integrative negotiation and the effect of integrative negotiation on psychological contract breach. Results indicate that employees negotiate more integratively when they have higher negotiation self-efficacy, compared to employees with more task autonomy. Empirical support was found for the prediction that higher negotiation self-efficacy and task autonomy correlates with less psychological contract breach.
Hildemar Dos Santos MD, DrPH
Full Text Available The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants’ exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants.
Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M; Montgomery, Susanne
The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants' exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants.
Daniela Alves Gastal
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a public health problem and good glycemic control is able to prevent or contain its complications. Self-efficacy is a key factor in successfully achieving behavior goals. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the insulin management diabetes self-efficacy scale (IMDSES on type 1 diabetes patients from southern Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Validation study in two cities in southern Brazil. METHODS: The psychometric properties of IMDSES were evaluated in a population of type 1 diabetes patients (n = 213, from September to December 2004, who were attended within the Brazilian public healthcare system. Principal component analysis was conducted to develop the subscales. Cronbach’s alpha was used as the reliability coefficient. RESULTS: The analysis of psychometric properties resulted in an IMDSES consisting of 20 items and three subscales: diet (alpha: 0.83, insulin (alpha: 0.92 and general management (alpha: 0.78 and accounted for 53% of the variance. Criteria validity was investigated through two parameters: glycohemoglobin, which showed significant association with self-efficacy on the insulin subscale (p = 0.04, and the variable "adherence", which was significantly associated with self-efficacy on two subscales (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the IMDSES is valid and reliable, and can be used to measure results from diabetes educational programs and to measure self-efficacy relating to diabetes management, for possible interventions.
Bond, Frank W.; Hayes, Steven C.; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot
This paper offers organizational behavior management (OBM) a behavior analytically consistent way to expand its analysis of, and methods for changing, organizational behavior. It shows how Relational Frame Theory (RFT) suggests that common, problematic, psychological processes emerge from language itself, and they produce psychological…
Effects of a nurse-led transitional care program on readmission, self-efficacy to implement health promoting behaviors, functional status and life quality among Chinese patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized controlled trial.
Zhang, Pan; Xing, Feng-Mei; Li, Chang-Zai; Lan, Wang-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Li
To examine the effectiveness of a nurse-led transitional care program on readmission, self-efficacy to implement health promoting behaviors, functional status and life quality among Chinese patients with coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease is a major cause of mortality in China. Transitional care could help to ensure improved patient outcomes. Nevertheless, our knowledge of how to perform transitional care for patients with coronary artery disease is insufficient in mainland China. Randomized controlled trial. The nurse-led transitional care intervention in the experimental group adopted the Omaha system and Pender's health promoting model as its frameworks. The control group received a comparable length routine care and follow-up contacts. Evaluations were conducted at baseline before discharge and after 7 months after discharge using hospital readmission rate, self-rated abilities for health practices scale and Seattle Angina Questionnaire for functional status and life quality. Data were collected between March 2014 and October 2014. Compared with the control group, participants in the experimental group showed greater self-efficacy to implement health promoting behaviors, more angina stability, less angina frequency, more satisfaction with treatment and better quality of life. The difference in readmission rate and physical limitations was not significant between the two groups. This study provides evidence for the effectiveness of a nurse-led transitional care program in improving the ability to implement health promoting behaviors, the functional status and life quality among Chinese patients with coronary artery disease. The nurse-led transitional care program is helpful for CAD patients to promote their effective transfer from hospital to community and provide an evidence for nursing managers to train their nurses for transitional care knowledge and skills. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected
Beauchamp, Mark R; Welch, Amy S; Hulley, Angie J
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and the self-efficacy ofparticipants involved in a structured 10-week exercise program. Three weeksinto their exercise classes 174 females (M age = 25.36 years, SD = 8.48) provided ratings of their exercise instructor's leadership behaviors as well as their personal efficacy related to scheduling, over-coming barriers and within-class capabilities. Results revealed that for exercise initiates, contingent rewards behaviors were able to explain unique variation in scheduling self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy, but not within-class self-efficacy. For experienced exercisers, none of the leadership behaviors assessed in this study were associated with participant self-efficacy.
Skirvin, W. J.; Berman, Mark L.
Article focuses upon the basic frame of reference and methodology of behavioral psychology, its relationship to architecture and the promise that synthesis of the two disciplines holds for education. (Author)
Rhee, Kyung E; Pan, Teresa Y; Norman, Gregory J; Crow, Scott; Boutelle, Kerri
Emotional eating is associated with negative eating habits and obesity. Parents may be able to decrease the risk of emotional eating in children by promoting greater self-efficacy to engage in healthy eating behaviors. Our goal was to determine the relationship between certain parenting behaviors and eating self-efficacy (ESE) to consume healthy foods during times of emotional stress in a population of overweight/obese children. Eighty children (60% female; mean BMI percentile = 98.4%; 79.2% White) completed a survey that assessed their ESE when stressed, feeling down, or bored. Children also reported on mothers' parenting behaviors coded along three factors: acceptance-based parenting (AC), psychological control (PC), and firm control (FC). Correlations and multiple linear regression models were used for analysis. AC was positively correlated with ESE when stressed. PC and FC were inversely correlated with ESE when feeling down. In the multivariate regression, only FC was significantly inversely associated with ESE when feeling down. Results suggest that overweight children who perceive their mothers to exhibit firm control have lower ESE to make healthy choices when feeling sad. These results suggest that pediatric obesity programs should place a stronger focus on decreasing firm control behaviors among parents in order to help children engage in healthier eating behaviors.
Full Text Available Educational institutions are urged to provide more enterprising individuals who will either act as entrepreneurs, or will be able to manage their careers and lives in an entrepreneurial way. The purpose of this study is to address the role of teaching at universities in maximizing entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and to examine the possibility to maximize the likelihood of entrepreneurial behavior by enhancing entrepreneurial self-efficacy with university students. The study investigates the impact that entrepreneurial self-efficacy has on the development of entrepreneurial motivation and behavior using a sample of 324 students of Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek in Croatia. The results of the research indicate that students demonstrate a higher propensity for entrepreneurial behavior and a higher probability of starting their own business if they feel more self-efficient. The research has also highlighted that teaching at universities does not significantly improve the perception of entrepreneurial self-efficacy in students and that firsthand experience has a more important role in that. An important conclusion to emerge from this research is that in order to influence entrepreneurial behavior, it is necessary to make better use of experience-based learning and supplement university courses with components of informal and/or non-formal education.
Burke, Nancy J.; Bird, Joyce A.; Clark, Melissa A.; Rakowski, William; Guerra, Claudia; Barker, Judith C.; Pasick, Rena J.
This article describes the influences of social context on women's health behavior through illustration of the powerful influences of social capital (the benefits and challenges that accrue from participation in social networks and groups) on experiences and perceptions of self-efficacy. The authors conducted inductive interviews with Latino and…
Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Wiers, Reinout; Lemmers, Lex; Overbeek, Geertjan
The current study focused on the associations between drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, and drinking behavior in a representative sample of 553 Dutch adolescents and adults. Data were gathered by means of self-report questionnaires and a 14-days drinking diary. A model was postulated in which negative expectancies and…
Pihie, Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope; Bagheri, Afsaneh
Specifying the mechanism through which perceived self-efficacy affects one's behavior has been one of the main concerns of researchers and educators particularly in entrepreneurship domain due to the critical role that entrepreneurial self-efficacy plays in motivating and enabling individuals to establish a new venture. This study examines the…
Rocchino, Gabrielle H.; Dever, Bridget V.; Telesford, Alana; Fletcher, Kristen
This study examines academic self-efficacy and gender as predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors in adolescence. In addition, the role of gender was considered as a moderator in the relationship between academic self-efficacy and internalizing/externalizing difficulties. Participants were 4,318 predominantly African American,…
Research in EFL and ESL has confirmed that self-efficacy affects language learners' choices of learning tasks, persistence, motivation and achievement. As a cognitive construct, self-efficacy can be strengthened by both outcomes of behaviors and input from the environment. This paper studies the effects of an English Bar, a self-access center for…
Melissa A. Napolitano
Full Text Available Examining behavioral and psychological factors relating to weight stability over a 1-year period is of public health importance. We conducted a physical activity (PA intervention trial for women (N=247; mean age=47.5±10.7; mean BMI=28.6±5.3 in which participants were assigned to one of three groups (two PA and one contact-control. By Month 12, participants achieved 140.4±14.82 min of PA/week, with no group differences. Weight status change from baseline to Month 12 was categorized: no change (N=154; 62.4%; increase (N=34; 13.8%; decrease (N=59; 23.9%. Discriminant function analyses indentified two statistically significant dimensions associated with weight change. Dimension 1 was positively weighted by mood (0.73 and self-efficacy (0.79; dimension 2 was positively weighted to change in physical activity (0.58 and fat consumption (0.55. Results provide further evidence for the importance of behavior in long-term weight maintenance, particularly physical activity and dietary fat. These findings also provide evidence for the importance of addressing psychosocial variables, in particular depressed mood and self-efficacy.
Full Text Available Development of self-efficacy scales allows the analysis of athletes’ perceptions and examination of the relationship between perception and performance. The aim of this paper was to: (1 develop a specific self-efficacy scale in a taekwondo task, the roundhouse kick, and (2 analyse the sport performance and its relationship with two self-efficacy scales (specific and general outcomes according to the athletes’ gender. Forty-three taekwondo athletes (33 male and 10 female participated in this study. The Physical (PSE and Specific (RKSES self-efficacy scales were administered. Performance data (impact force and total response time were acquired by athletes kicking twice to an instrumented target. Results showed that the specific self-efficacy scale has high reliability and is able to predict sport performance in males and females. Males had higher self-efficacy scores and also higher performance results than females. Females’ taekwondo psychological training should be focus on improving their self-efficacy perception in order to increase their performance in the roundhouse kick. This specific self-efficacy scale for the taekwondo roundhouse kick offers empirical information to coaches, sport psychologists and researchers that allow them to predict athletes’ sport performance in the roundhouse kick.
Howardson, Garett N.; Behrend, Tara S.
Self-efficacy is clearly important for learning. Research identifying the most important sources of self-efficacy beliefs, however, has been somewhat limited to date in that different disciplines focus largely on different sources of self-efficacy. Whereas education researchers focus on Bandura's original sources of "enactive mastery,"…
Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.
One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work…
would have the opportunity to conduct true interactionist research on leadership . Hollander’s (1978) transactional theory and Hersey and Blanchard’s...approach. In J. G. Hunt & L. L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership frontiers. Kent,OH: Kent State University Press, 1975. 47 Hersey , P., & Blanchard , K. H...Interactional psychology organizational design organization theory person x situation interaction work socialization person-environment interaction
Warren, Jared S; Salazar, Benjamin C
This study examined how youth self-efficacy in four domains--Social, Academic Diligence, Academic Proficiency, and Behavioral Regulation--was associated with youth symptoms and psychotherapy outcomes. Participants were 104 youth (aged 12-17, mean age 14.6) and their parents/guardians. Youth completed a measure of perceived self-efficacy and the Youth Outcome Questionnaire-Self-Report (YOQ-SR) regularly over the course of treatment; parents/guardians also completed the Youth Outcome Questionnaire. Although none of the self-efficacy domains significantly predicted changes in parent reports of symptoms, individual growth curve models indicated that increases in three of the four self-efficacy domains (Social, Academic Diligence, and Behavioral Regulation) over the course of treatment were associated with concurrent improvements in youth-reported symptoms. Results suggest that youth self-efficacy warrants further study in relation to change processes in youth mental health services.
Fencl, Heidi S.; Scheel, Karen R.
Self-efficacy, or a person's situation-specific belief that s/he can succeed in a given task, has been successful in a variety of educational studies for predicting behaviors such as perseverance and success (grades), and for understanding which behaviors are attempted or avoided. The focus of this study was to examine if classroom factors such as teaching strategies and classroom climate contribute to students' physics self-efficacy. 121 undergraduates in first semester, calculus-based introductory physics courses completed surveys assessing course experiences, self-efficacy and other outcome variables, and demographic information. Students in sections including a mix of teaching strategies did significantly better than students in the traditional section on outcome variables including self-efficacy. When individual strategies were examined, the strongest relationships were found between cooperative learning strategies and all sources of self-efficacy, and between climate variables and all sources of efficacy.
Middelkamp, P.J.C.; Rooijen, M. van; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.
The transtheoretical model of behavior change (TTM) is often used to understand changes in health-related behavior, like exercise. Exercise behavior in fitness clubs is an understudied topic, but preliminary studies showed low frequencies and large numbers of drop-out. An initial 12-week
Rozhan Othman; Rasidah Arshad; Noor Azuan Hashim; Rosmah Md Isa
A psychological contract is an implicit understanding between a group of employees and their employer that arose as a result of a particular leadership style. Psychological contract violation (PCV) is said to occur when there is a perceived breach of promise that leads to an emotional and affective response. The literature on PCV posits a number of antecedents and outcomes of PCV. This study seeks to develop a model of PCV by linking it with justice and organizational citizenship behavior (OC...
Intarakamhang, Ungsinun; Intarakamhang, Patrawut
The Comprehensive Lifestyle Intervention, which integrates behavioral therapy, is the main ideal management of the clients with obesity. Various socio-psychological factors can affect outcome of the program. THE PURPOSES: to determine the socio-psychological factors at the client and provider groups that affect health behavior modification (HBM) in obese clients, and to investigate the cross-level interaction of factors that affect HBM. The samples included 87 health providers and 412 clients using stratified random sampling. Hierarchical Linear Model was used to analyze in a questionnaire with reliability of 0.8-0.9. 1) for the clients: 1.1) Attitudes towards healthy behavior (AHB), health-related knowledge, and trust in the provider predicted self-efficacy at 49.40%; 1.2) AHB and support from the provider predicted self-regulation at 75.50%; and 1.3) AHB, trust in the provider and support from the provider predicted self-care at 26.6%. 2) for the health providers: 2.1) Health quotient (HQ), project management (PM), support from the team, and the team emotional quotient (EQ) predicted self-efficacy at 71.30%; 2.2) PM and HQ predicted self-regulation at 51.60%; and 2.3) PM, team EQ and HQ predicted self-care at 77.30%., 3) No cross-level interaction of factors between the clients and the providers was identified to affect HBM. the obese client's AHB is the factor that significantly influenced self-efficacy, self-regulation and self-care (3SELF). At the health provider level, both HQ and PM significantly influenced 3SELF. Behavioral.
Keller, Jan; Gellert, Paul; Knoll, Nina; Schneider, Michael; Ernsting, Anna
Fostering self-efficacy and planning in individuals can support the uptake and maintenance of regular physical activity. This study examined self-efficacy and planning as mechanisms of an online-delivered workplace health promotion intervention to enhance employees' physical activity. A special focus lay on reciprocal interrelations among self-efficacy and planning over time, as previous work predominantly accounted for only one predictive direction at a time. Data from N = 1,063 employees of a pharmaceutical company who reported an intention to increase their physical activity levels were assessed at three measurement points up to 12 weeks following the intervention. Cross-lagged panel analyses were performed to examine effects of self-efficacy and planning on physical activity as well as reciprocal interrelations between self-efficacy and planning. Findings indicated an increase in self-efficacy, planning, and physical activity following the intervention. Planning was consistently linked to subsequent physical activity, whereas self-efficacy was not associated. Also, reciprocal interrelations among self-efficacy and planning were found across both measurement lags. Planning was confirmed as a predictor of physical activity, whereas self-efficacy was not. However, cross-lagged interrelations indicated reciprocal reactivation among self-efficacy and planning over time, suggesting beneficial effects of including strategies that foster both volitional constructs in interventions. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Arlington Antonio García Padilla
Full Text Available The presence of the Burnout syndrome in professors may be regarded as a deterioration of their mental health with negative impacts on their job performance. It is known that teachers develop different activities in the areas of teaching, outreach and research. This study aims to analyze the relationship between the Burnout syndrome and self-efficacy beliefs and the academic performance in professors of the psychology and dentistry programs at a private university in the city of Barranquilla. This study is empirical and analytical with a descriptive-correlational design. The study population consisted of 93 teachers of the psychology and dentistry programs. To choose the sample, a non-probabilistic sample was used according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria that allowed selecting a total of 36 teachers who met the criteria for the study. The instruments that were used in this study was the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, 1981 adapted by Seisdedos (1997, and the Teachers’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk (2001 adapted by Covarrubias and Mendoza (2016. According to the results, it was observed that there is no significant relationship between Burnout, Self-efficacy Belief and the academic performance.
Raedeke, Thomas D.; Focht, Brian C.; King, Jenna S.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a student-led physical activity intervention that incorporated pedometers and cognitive-behavioral strategies. Undergraduate students (N = 117) enrolled in upper division exercise and sport science courses recruited participants. Participants in the cognitive-behavioral intervention condition received…
Ziner, Kim Wagler; Sledge, George W; Bell, Cynthia J; Johns, Shelley; Miller, Kathy D; Champion, Victoria L
To determine the effect that age at diagnosis has on fear of breast cancer recurrence and to identify the predictors of fear of recurrence using self-efficacy as a mediator. Cross-sectional survey. Two university cancer centers and one cooperative group in the midwestern United States. 1,128 long-term survivors. Survivors were eligible if they were aged 18-45 years (younger group) or 55-70 years (older group) at cancer diagnosis, had received chemotherapy, and were three to eight years postdiagnosis. Fear of recurrence was compared between younger and older groups. Multiple regression analyses were used to test variables' prediction of fear of recurrence and breast cancer survivor self-efficacy, as well as breast cancer survivor self-efficacy mediation effects. Fear of recurrence, breast cancer survivor self-efficacy, and age at diagnosis. Survivors diagnosed at a younger age had significantly higher fear of recurrence, as well as health, role, womanhood, death, and parenting worries. Perceived risk of recurrence, trait anxiety, and breast cancer reminders explained significant variance in fear of recurrence and breast cancer survivor self-efficacy. Breast cancer survivor self-efficacy partially mediated the effects of variables on fear of recurrence. The findings suggest that breast cancer survivor self-efficacy may have a protective effect for survivors who are younger at diagnosis and have higher perceived risk of recurrence, higher trait anxiety, and more breast cancer reminders. Oncology nurses already use the skills required to support self-efficacy. Additional research is needed to define and test breast cancer survivor self-efficacy interventions. Oncology nurses are in a key role to assess fear of recurrence and provide self-efficacy interventions to reduce it in breast cancer survivors. Strategies to efficiently address fear of recurrence to reduce psychological distress in survivorship follow-up care are warranted.
The chapters in this e-book lie firmly within Web 2.0 and deal with human aspects of interactions between consumers and between consumers and brands in digital space. The first chapter, Consumer Behavior in the Online Context, by Cummings, Peltier, Schibrowsky and Nill, provides an excellent introduction to this ebook by reviewing literature related to the consumer behavior and social network theory as they apply to the Internet, literature covering the period from 1993-2012, spanning over 900 articles across more than 85 marketing journals. The second chapter, by Kabadayi and Price, investiga
Ela Minchah Laila Alawiyah
Full Text Available The teachers are one of the determinants it is success or failure on teaching and learning process in school. One of problematics that faced by teacher is the teacher lacks confidence in their own ability to overcome the problems. Based on the phenomenon, it is interest to conduct research on teacher’s self efficacy in elementary school. The method in this research is qualitative, while the data obtained through observation, interview, and as supporter used self efficacy scale of teacher. Subject in this study research amounted to 40 elementary school teachers in Sleman, Yogyakarta. Based on the result of observation, interview and self efficacy scale analysis on teacher, it can be concluded that there are 32,5% of teachers who have low self efficacy, 47,5% teachers who have moderate self efficacy, and 20% teachers who have high self efficacy. The result shows that there are teachers who still have low self efficacy, both at the time of teaching or in helping to solve students problems.
Wang, Yi-Shun; Wang, Hsiu-Yuan
IT-related self-efficacy has been found to have a critical influence on system use. However, traditional measures of computer self-efficacy and Internet-related self-efficacy are perceived to be inapplicable in the context of mobile computing and commerce because they are targeted primarily at either desktop computer or wire-based technology contexts. Based on previous research, this study develops and validates a multidimensional instrument for measuring mobile computing self-efficacy (MCSE). This empirically validated instrument will be useful to researchers in developing and testing the theories of mobile user behavior, and to practitioners in assessing the mobile computing self-efficacy of users and promoting the use of mobile commerce systems.
Full Text Available The frame of reference in this paper is based on Bandura's concept of self-efficacy. The theory of self-efficacy is based on the importance of subjective experience of personal competence in realizing different goals and tasks, rather than on real knowledge and skills. It supports reciprocal causation according to which a person is observed holistically through dynamic effect of personal factors (cognitive, emotional and biological, factors of the environment and behavior. Development of self-efficacy strongly determines future behavior of a person in achieving goals, since it initiates action, determines the amount of required effort, persistence in facing obstacles, and resilience in unwanted situations. Many different scales are used in assessing selfefficacy (e.g. Children's Self-Efficacy Scale, Parents' Self-Efficacy Scale, Teachers' Self-Efficacy Scale, etc.. They consist of several subscales that can greatly contribute to understanding adolescents and predicting their functioning, depending on the assessed contextual area. Previous researches confirmed the influence of students' selfefficacy on their academic achievements, professional aspirations, and prosocial behavior. In the last couple of years there have been more and more researches which analyze the role of self-efficacy in behavioral disorders, such as peer aggression, cigarette smoking, drug abuse, excessive use of the Internet, etc.
Present research investigates reciprocal relations amidst computer self-efficacy, scientific research and information literacy self-efficacy. Research findings have demonstrated that according to standardized regression coefficients, computer self-efficacy has a positive effect on information literacy self-efficacy. Likewise it has been detected…
Lagerveld, Suzanne E; Brenninkmeijer, Veerle; Blonk, Roland W B; Twisk, Jos; Schaufeli, Wilmar B
To improve interventions that aim to promote return to work (RTW) of workers with common mental disorders (CMD), insight into modifiable predictors of RTW is needed. This study tested the predictive value of self-efficacy change for RTW in addition to preintervention levels of self-efficacy. RTW self-efficacy was measured 5 times within 9 months among 168 clients of a mental healthcare organisation who were on sick leave due to CMD. Self-efficacy parameters were modelled with multilevel analyses and added as predictors into a Cox regression analysis. Results showed that both high baseline self-efficacy and self-efficacy increase until full RTW were predictive of a shorter duration until full RTW. Both self-efficacy parameters remained significant predictors of RTW when controlled for several relevant covariates and within subgroups of employees with either high or low preintervention self-efficacy levels. This is the first study that demonstrated the prognostic value of self-efficacy change, over and above the influence of psychological symptoms, for RTW among employees with CMD. By showing that RTW self-efficacy increase predicted a shorter duration until full RTW, this study points to the relevance of enhancing RTW self-efficacy in occupational or mental health interventions for employees with CMD. Efforts to improve self-efficacy appear valuable both for people with relatively low and high baseline self-efficacy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
O'Neal, Catherine Walker; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A; Ferraro, Anthony J; Ross, D Bruce
In addition to facing stressors that are typical of life course development (e.g., marital struggles, balancing work/family demands), military families face additional stress attributed to their military context (e.g., deployments, relocations). Using a systems framework and stress process perspective, this study examined military couples' relational health, as a gauge for how couples collectively cope and address challenges as a united front and how their relational health influences crucial health behaviors (sleeping and eating) through the promotion or erosion of psychological resources (N = 236 couples). This study evaluated a latent variable structural equation dyadic model whereby each partner's perspective of their family's relational health was hypothesized to influence their own eating and sleeping behaviors (actor effects), as well as the eating and sleeping behaviors of their spouse (partner effects). The role of psychological resources (high self-efficacy, few depressive symptoms, and minimal anxiety) as a mechanism linking family functioning to health behaviors was also examined. Overall, the findings supported the hypothesized model, particularly for actor (intraindividual) effects. Discussion is provided pertinent to service providers and researchers, including the importance of improving, or maintaining, family relational health, as a means for encouraging positive health behaviors among active duty military members and their spouses. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Cupertino, Ana-Paula; Berg, Carla; Gajewski, Byron; Hui, Siu-kuen Azor; Richter, Kimber; Catley, Delwyn; Ellerbeck, Edward F
Although motivational interviewing (MI) has been shown to be effective in changing health behaviors, its effects on smoking cessation have been mixed. The purpose of the present study is to assess factors of motivation and self-efficacy as they mediate the relationship between MI and smoking cessation. This is a secondary analysis of an MI based smoking cessation randomized trial. MI counseling was associated with change in smoking behaviors during a 12 months intervention but was not related to autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, or self-efficacy at baseline and 6 months, the hypothesized mediators. This study confirmed the pathway to quit smoking through increase in self-efficacy.
Sparrow, Sara S.; Cicchetti, Domenic V.
Results of clinical research involving specific subtypes of psychological disorders in elementary age children are reported. Compared to controls, emotionally disturbed children manifested greatest adaptive behavior deficits in socialization and maladaptive areas of functioning, with less predictable patterns of deficit in such areas as…
King, Keith A.; Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.
Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens[R]…
Schwartz, Lianne; Toohill, Jocelyn; Creedy, Debra K; Baird, Kathleen; Gamble, Jenny; Fenwick, Jennifer
Childbirth confidence is an important marker of women's coping abilities during labour and birth. This study investigated socio-demographic, obstetric and psychological factors affecting self-efficacy in childbearing women. This paper presents a secondary analysis of data collected as part of the BELIEF study (Birth Emotions - Looking to Improve Expectant Fear). Women (n = 1410) were recruited during pregnancy (≤24 weeks gestation). The survey included socio-demographic details (such as age and partner support); obstetric details including parity, birth preference, and pain; and standardised psychological measures: CBSEI (Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory), W-DEQ A (childbirth fear) and EPDS (depressive symptoms). Variables were tested against CBSEI first stage of labour sub-scales (outcome expectancy and self-efficacy expectancy) according to parity. CBSEI total mean score was 443 (SD = 112.2). CBSEI, W-DEQ, EPDS scores were highly correlated. Regardless of parity, women who reported low childbirth knowledge, who preferred a caesarean section, and had high W-DEQ and EPDS scores reported lower self-efficacy. There were no differences for nulliparous or multiparous women on outcome expectancy, but multiparous women had higher self-efficacy scores (p childbirth self-efficacy. Few studies have investigated childbirth self-efficacy according to parity. Although multiparous women reported higher birth confidence significant obstetric and psychological differences were found. Addressing women's physical and emotional wellbeing and perceptions of the upcoming birth may highlight their level of self-efficacy for birth. Australian New Zealand Controlled Trials Registry ACTRN12612000526875 , 17(th) May 2012.
Mailey, Emily L; McAuley, Edward
Working mothers often report elevated stress, and efforts to improve their coping resources are needed to buffer the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study examined the impact of changes in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation across the course of a brief intervention on subsequent levels of stress in working mothers. Participants (N = 141) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition (2:1 ratio). The intervention was conducted in Illinois between March 2011 and January 2012 and consisted of two group-mediated workshop sessions with content based on social cognitive theory. Participants completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and perceived stress at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Stress levels declined across the 6-month period in both groups. Changes in stress were negatively associated with changes in self-efficacy and self-regulation among intervention participants only. Regression analyses revealed the intervention elicited short-term increases in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation, but only changes in self-efficacy predicted perceived stress at 6-month follow-up. These results suggest that enhancing self-efficacy is likely to improve working mothers' perceived capabilities to cope with stressors in their lives. Future interventions should continue to focus on increasing self-efficacy to promote improvements in physical activity and psychological well-being in this population.
Williams, James D.
Full Text Available Adaptive help seeking and self-efficacy have been examined extensively over the last 20 years, but few studies have investigated their role in writing center tutoring, which has become an important component of process-oriented writing instruction. Using data collected over an 8-year period, this study analyzes the effect of writing self-efficacy (assessed using established self-efficacy scales and help-seeking behavior (measured by frequency of writing center visitation on writing performance as measured by composition grades. Participants were 671 undergraduates, approximately half of whom were international students for whom English was a second or third language. Data analyses showed an inverse correlation between self-efficacy and help-seeking behavior. In addition, high levels of help-seeking behavior resulted in better performance in composition classes, especially for the ESL participants; indeed, this behavior was the strongest predictor of success.
Rhee, KE; Pan, TY; Norman, GJ; Crow, S; Boutelle, K
Background: Emotional eating is associated with negative eating habits and obesity. Parents may be able to decrease the risk of emotional eating in children by promoting greater self-efficacy to engage in healthy eating behaviors. Our goal was to determine the relationship between certain parenting behaviors and eating self-efficacy (ESE) to consume healthy foods during times of emotional stress in a population of overweight/obese children. Methods: Eighty children (60 % female; mean BMI perc...
James J. Annesi
Full Text Available Introduction. Exercise may improve one's perceived ability to control overeating related to negative emotions through psychological pathways such as reduced depression; however, the volume required is unclear. Methods. Severely obese women (=88 participated in a 24-week exercise and nutrition treatment incorporating self-regulatory skills training, and were assessed on depression, self-efficacy, self-regulatory skills usage, weight, and waist circumference, at baseline and treatment end. Results. Subjects completing low-moderate (40–149.9 minutes/week and public health (≥150 minutes/week volumes of exercise had significant and similar reductions in depression scores. No significant changes were found for those completing <40 minutes/week. For all subjects aggregated, depression change was significantly related to change in self-efficacy to control emotional eating; however, this relationship was completely mediated by changes in self-regulatory skill usage. When changes in depression, self-efficacy, and self-regulatory skills usage were entered into multiple regression equations as predictors, only self-regulatory skill changes explained significant unique portions of the overall variance in weight and weight circumference change. Discussion. Exercise of less than half the public health recommendation was associated with depression improvement, with no dose-response effect. Changes in depression, self-efficacy, and self-regulation may be salient variables to account for in behavioral weight-loss treatment research.
Sri M. Wahyuningrum
Full Text Available Hospitals are always required in order to improve the quality of service in accordance with professional standards in accordance with their code of ethics. Therefore, health workers in hospitals, especially pharmacists, are required to continuously improve its service to the community. To improve health services to the community, then the pharmacist must interact and be accepted by other professional health personnel in hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of self-efficacy pharmacist in a hospital organization that became an impact on innovative behavior. This study used an obsevational quantitative measurement using questionnaire instrument. The results measured by number consist of value, rank, and frequencies were analyzed using statistics software smartPLS to answer the research question or hypothesis to predict a particular variable affects another variable. The results showed that effect between self-efficacy of behavioral innovations in the hospital pharmacist significantly different. A pharmacist who has high self-efficacy will obviously have the higher innovation behavior in hospitals.
Graham, Jeffrey D; Bray, Steven R
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of task self-efficacy as a psychological factor involved in the relationship between self-control depletion and physical endurance. Participants (N = 37) completed two isometric handgrip endurance trials, separated by a Stroop task, which was either congruent (control) or incongruent (causing depletion). Task self-efficacy for the second endurance trial was measured following the Stroop task. Participants in the depletion condition reported lower task self-efficacy and showed a greater reduction in performance on the second endurance trial when compared with controls. Task self-efficacy also mediated the relationship between self-control depletion and endurance performance. The results of this study provide evidence that task self-efficacy is negatively affected following self-control depletion. We recommend that task self-efficacy be further investigated as a psychological factor accounting for the negative change in self-control performance of physical endurance and sport tasks following self-control strength depletion.
Prat-Sala, Mercè; Redford, Paul
The strategies students adopt in their study are influenced by a number of social-cognitive factors and impact upon their academic performance. The present study examined the interrelationships between motivation orientation (intrinsic and extrinsic), self-efficacy (in reading academic texts and essay writing), and approaches to studying (deep, strategic, and surface). The study also examined changes in approaches to studying over time. A total of 163 first-year undergraduate students in psychology at a UK university took part in the study. Participants completed the Work Preference Inventory motivation questionnaire, self-efficacy in reading and writing questionnaires and the short version of the Revised Approaches to Study Inventory. The results showed that both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation orientations were correlated with approaches to studying. The results also showed that students classified as high in self-efficacy (reading and writing) were more likely to adopt a deep or strategic approach to studying, while students classified as low in self-efficacy (reading and writing) were more likely to adopt a surface approach. More importantly, changes in students' approaches to studying over time were related to their self-efficacy beliefs, where students with low levels of self-efficacy decreased in their deep approach and increased their surface approach across time. Students with high levels of self-efficacy (both reading and writing) demonstrated no such change in approaches to studying. Our results demonstrate the important role of self-efficacy in understanding both motivation and learning approaches in undergraduate students. Furthermore, given that reading academic text and writing essays are essential aspects of many undergraduate degrees, our results provide some indication that focusing on self-efficacy beliefs amongst students may be beneficial to improving their approaches to study.
Ajoge, N. S.; Aziz, A. A.; Yusof, S. A. Mohd
This paper presents a formal analysis approach for self-efficacy model of interviewee’s mental state during a job interview session. Self-efficacy is a construct that has been hypothesised to combine with motivation and interviewee anxiety to define state influence of interviewees. The conceptual model was built based on psychological theories and models related to self-efficacy. A number of well-known relations between events and the course of self-efficacy are summarized from the literature and it is shown that the proposed model exhibits those patterns. In addition, this formal model has been mathematically analysed to find out which stable situations exist. Finally, it is pointed out how this model can be used in a software agent or robot-based platform. Such platform can provide an interview coaching approach where support to the user is provided based on their individual metal state during interview sessions.
Conclusion: With regard to the low mean score of self-efficacy of older adults residing in nursing homes, the authorities of nursing homes should pay attention to the needs of older adults and provide general education about promoting the tradition of caring older people by their families. Furthermore, all institutions and organizations that have important goals such as healthy older adults should advance toward their goals by planning, education, and consultation with families that care about their older adults. Finally, with regard to the results about the association of self-efficacy with loneliness, self-efficacy assessment should be considered one of the effective factors in psychological dimensions of the people and a way to support the self-care of older adults because promoting self-efficacy will result in managing stress and improving the mental health.
Pinciotti, Caitlin M; Orcutt, Holly K
Self-defense training is consistently linked to psychological benefits for survivors of sexual trauma, yet little is known about how training may uniquely benefit survivors compared with their nonsurvivor peers enrolled in the same course. Path analysis was used to examine how history of sexual trauma impacts pre- and post-training scores on three domains of self-efficacy using a national sample of Rape Aggression Defense (RAD) participants. All participants reported significant increases in self-efficacy domains, and sexual trauma history significantly predicted pre-training interpersonal self-efficacy and post-training self-defense self-efficacy, suggesting that self-defense training confers benefits for survivors above and beyond benefits for other participants.
Marley, Scott C; Carbonneau, Kira; Lockner, Donna; Kibbe, Debra; Trowbridge, Frederick
To examine the relationships between physical and social self-concepts, motivational interviewing (MI), and nutrition assessment skills with dimensions of counseling self-efficacy. Cross-sectional survey. Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics. Sixty-five WIC nutritionists. Counseling self-efficacy on topics related to physical activity and nutritional behaviors and in the presence of language and cultural differences. Multiple linear regression. Nutritionists' perception of their own MI skills was positively associated with their self-efficacy for counseling clients of a culture different than their own, when counseling about physical activity, and when counseling about nutrition behavior. Hispanic ethnicity and social self-concept were positively associated with counseling self-efficacy when culture differences were present. Physical self-concept was positively associated with self-efficacy related to physical activity topics. Nutrition assessment skill was negatively associated with self-efficacy for working with non-English-speaking clients. Development of MI skills and strategies to improve social and physical self-concept may increase WIC nutritionists' counseling self-efficacy, particularly when counseling clients from diverse backgrounds. Copyright © 2011 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L; Sebire, Simon J
Children's screen viewing (SV) is associated with higher levels of childhood obesity. Many children exceed the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline of 2 hours of television (TV) per day. There is limited information about how parenting styles and parental self-efficacy to limit child screen time are associated with children's SV. This study examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children and whether any effects were mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. Data were from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. Child and parent SV were reported by a parent, who also provided information about their parenting practices and self-efficacy to restrict SV. A four-step regression method examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children. Mediation by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was examined using indirect effects. On a weekday, 90% of children watched TV for <2 hours per day, decreasing to 55% for boys and 58% for girls at weekends. At the weekend, 75% of children used a personal computer at home, compared with 61% during the week. Self-reported parental control, but not nurturance, was associated with children's TV viewing. Parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was independently associated with child weekday TV viewing and mediated associations between parental control and SV. Parental control was associated with lower levels of SV among 5- to 6-year-old children. This association was partially mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. The development of strategies to increase parental self-efficacy to limit screen-time may be useful.
Salonen, Anne H; Kaunonen, Marja; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Isoaho, Hannu; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu
Parenting self-efficacy after childbirth. This paper is a report of study of parent, infant and environmental correlates of mothers' and fathers' perceptions of their parenting self-efficacy. Many parents are not confident in their ability to be good parents. Parenting self-efficacy is important for parents' sense of well-being, is a possible predictor of parenting practices and might be an indicator of risk. However, very little evidence exists on factors that influence fathers' perceptions of parenting, or comparisons between the parents. The data were collected by questionnaire in 2006-2007 in two hospitals with a convenience sample of Finnish-speaking parents (N = 1300 families) during the first postpartum week. Multiple-birth and early-discharge parents were excluded. The response rate for mothers was 66% (n = 863) and for fathers 40% (n = 525). Comparisons were made by percentages and means. Statistical significance was determined by Generalized Estimating Equations models and one-way anova. Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to determine correlations, and multiple regression analysis to clarify the effect size. Mothers scored higher than fathers on parenting self-efficacy. Parity, self-concept, depressive symptoms and state of mind on discharge contributed to parenting self-efficacy. Experiences of childbirth and life change correlated with mothers', but not with fathers', parenting self-efficacy. Perceptions of infant, family functioning, health and advice from personnel were major contributory factors. Assessments of parenting self-efficacy are recommended to identify at-risk groups and at-risk parents. More research is recommended to look into the effect of rooming-in, feeding practices, fathers' presence and social support from personnel and parenting self-efficacy and to evaluate risk scales for at-risk parents. Parent attributes had a greater effect on mothers' parenting self-efficacy, while environmental attributes had a
Giles, M; McClenahan, C; Cairns, E; Mallet, J
Given that self-efficacy has emerged as a key construct in health psychology, this study set out to explore its utility in the context of blood donation as defined within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB...
Igor ElmanDepartment of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA, USAI am grateful that about two years ago Dove Medical Press offered me the opportunity to edit the Journal of Psychology Research and Behavior Management. I find my work on the Journal to be a very gratifying experience and I particularly enjoy its eclectic multidisciplinary qualities that, by attracting contributions from a variety of perspectives and geographic locations, help to ease the artificial b...
Chew, Irene Keng-Howe; Halim, Hendrick; Matsui, Tamao
Measures of career self-efficacy and work activity self-efficacy were completed by 405 male and 346 female Singaporean university students. Men had significantly higher self-efficacy in realistic and enterprising occupations, women in artistic, investigative, and social occupations. Gender differences in career self-efficacy were predicted by…
Persson, Roger; Cleal, Bryan; Jakobsen, Mette Øllgaard
Objective. To examine the relationship between self-efficacy and not wanting help to change health behaviors. Method. All employees in the Danish police department were invited to respond to an electronic questionnaire. All respondents expressing a desire to change health behaviors in relation...... to reporting that one did not want help. Conclusion. A high belief in one's own ability to change lifestyle behaviors in relation to smoking, alcohol, eating, and physical activity may lead to avoidance of help offers in a workplace setting. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education....
Wilson, Kathryn E.; Harden, Samantha M.; Almeida, Fabio A.; You, Wen; Hill, Jennie L.; Goessl, Cody; Estabrooks, Paul A.
Self-efficacy is a commonly included cognitive variable in weight-loss trials, but there is little uniformity in its measurement. Weight-loss trials frequently focus on physical activity (PA) and eating behavior, as well as weight loss, but no survey is available that offers reliable measurement of self-efficacy as it relates to each of these targeted outcomes. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of brief, pragmatic self-efficacy scales specific to PA, healthful eating and weight-loss (4 items each). An adult sample (n=1790) from 28 worksites enrolled in a worksite weight-loss program completed the self-efficacy scale, as well as measures of PA, dietary fat intake, and weight, at baseline, 6-, and 12-months. The hypothesized factor structure was tested through confirmatory factor analysis, which supported the expected factor structure for three latent self-efficacy factors, specific to PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. Measurement equivalence/invariance between relevant demographic groups, and over time was also supported. Parallel growth processes in self-efficacy factors and outcomes (PA, fat intake, and weight) support the predictive validity of score interpretations. Overall, this initial series of psychometric analyses supports the interpretation that scores on these scales reflect self-efficacy for PA, healthful eating, and weight-loss. The use of this instrument in large-scale weight-loss trials is encouraged. PMID:26619093
Clum, Gretchen A; Rice, Janet C; Broussard, Marsha; Johnson, Carolyn C; Webber, Larry S
This article explores cross-sectional associations between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in women working in schools in the Greater New Orleans area. Self-efficacy for eating and exercise, eating styles, and exercise are examined as potential pathways. This is a secondary data analysis of 743 women who were participating in a workplace wellness randomized controlled trial to address environmental factors influencing eating and exercise behaviors using baseline data prior to the intervention. BMI was the primary outcome examined. Path analysis suggested that increased depressive symptoms were associated with increased BMI in women. Indirect effects of depressive symptoms on BMI were found for increased healthy eating self-efficacy, increased emotional eating, and decreased exercise self-efficacy. The association between greater healthy eating self efficacy and BMI was unexpected, and may indicate a suppressor effect of eating self-efficacy in the relationship between depressive symptoms and BMI in women. The findings suggest the importance of depressive symptoms to BMI in women. Targets for interventions to reduce BMI include targeting depressive symptoms and related sequelae including self-efficacy for exercise, and emotional eating. Further investigation of eating self-efficacy and BMI are recommended with particular attention to both efficacy for health eating and avoidance of unhealthy foods.
Cataldo, Rosa; John, Janice; Chandran, Latha; Pati, Susmita; Shroyer, A. Laurie W.
Lack of physical activity has contributed to the nation's childhood obesity crisis, but the impact of physical activity on self-efficacy as a mediator of behavior change has not been examined. This systematic review (SR) describes the published evidence related to the impact of physical activity intervention programs on self-efficacy among youths. From January 2000 to June 2011, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards were used to identify publications from PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochran Database of Systematic Reviews. The Cochrane Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome, Study Design (PICOS) approach guided this SR articles selection and evaluation process. Of the 102 publications screened, 10 original studies matched the SR inclusion criteria. The types of physical activity interventions and self-efficacy assessments for these 10 studies were diverse. Of the 10 included articles, 6 articles identified an improvement in post-self-efficacy assessments compared to baseline and 4 showed no effect. In conclusion, physical activity intervention programs may improve self-efficacy in youths. A standardized approach to classify and measure self-efficacy is required. Further research is needed to quantify the association of self-efficacy ratings after completing physical activity interventions with objective health improvements, such as weight loss. PMID:24555151
Alber, Julia M; Paige, Samantha; Stellefson, Michael; Bernhardt, Jay M
A growing number of public health organizations are applying the power of social media (SM) for health promotion and behavior change. This cross-sectional study of health education specialists (n = 353) examined which demographic and occupational factors were associated with SM self-efficacy, and evaluated SM self-efficacy related to each of the Seven Areas of Responsibility. A series of one-way analyses of variance were conducted to determine whether differences in SM self-efficacy existed by sex, age, years of work experience, and SM access at work. A multiple linear regression examined the relationship between SM self-efficacy and SM experience when controlling for demographic and occupational factors. Statistically significant differences in SM self-efficacy existed by age, F(2, 289) = 6.54, p = .002. SM experience (β = 1.43, t = 11.35, p < .001) was a statistically significant predictor of SM self-efficacy, even after controlling for age, sex, years of work experience, and level of SM access, F(5, 290) = 30.88, p < .001, R2 = .35. Results revealed statistically significant differences in mean SM self-efficacy scores by the Areas of Responsibility, F(4.69, 1425.46) = 22.46, p < .001. Professional health organizations should have policies in place and trainings that are conducive to learning and applying SM for health education research and practice. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.
The concept of academic self-efficacy, which refers to Albert`Bandura`s self-efficacy theory, is an important factor in students` academic achievement. In this thesis we attempted to develop a research tool for assessing academic self-efficacy. The theoretical part focuses on general definition of self-efficacy and specific characteristics of perceived academic self-efficacy. The empirical part deals with the development of the questionnaire, with verification of its psychometric characterist...
Creativity and innovation are at the core of important outcomes such as economic and sales growth, production of articles and students' learning. Thus, it is not surprising to find research articles on creativity and innovation across different disciplines such as business, psychology, and education. Given the importance of understanding creativity and innovation, we reviewed the empirical literature examining the antecedents and consequences of creative self-efficacy in the work domain. Our review used the theory of individual creative action and social cognitive theory as guiding frameworks to place creative self-efficacy in the creativity and innovation process, define creativity and innovation, explore how creative self-efficacy has been measured, examine the antecedents and consequences of creative self-efficacy, point out gaps in knowledge and offer suggestions for future research and provide some applied implications. One important finding was that creative self-efficacy has made a significant contribution as a process variable explaining how several organizational and personal factors influence creative outcomes via their influence on creative self-efficacy.
Schmitt, A.; Belschak, F.D.; Den Hartog, D.N.
This study aims to investigate the role of daily vitality as an energy-based mechanism through which sleep quantity and quality relate to proactive behavior. In addition, we propose that daily self-efficacy forms a contingency condition in that self-efficacy facilitates the translation of vitality
Larry, Triaka A.
The need for more diversity in STEM-related careers and college majors is urgent. Self-efficacy and student-teacher relationships are factors that have been linked to influencing students' pursuit of subject-specific careers and academic achievement. The impact of self-efficacy and student perceptions of teacher interpersonal behaviors on student…
Riehm, K.E.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Carrier, M.E.; Bartlett, S.J.; Malcarne, V.L.; Mouthon, L.; Nielson, W.R.; Poiraudeau, S.; Nielsen, K.; Baron, M.; Frech, T.; Hudson, M.; Pope, J.; Sauvé, M.; Suarez-Almazor, M.E.; Wigley, F.M.; Thombs, B.D.
Objective: Self-management programs for patients with chronic illnesses, including rheumatic diseases, seek to enhance self-efficacy for performing health management behaviors. No measure of self-efficacy has been validated for patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma). The objective of
McNeely Cobham, B. Afeni; Patton, Lori D.
In the following study, the authors sought to understand how self-efficacy contributed to the career success of five tenured Black women faculty employed at two predominantly White institutions. Investigating the level of self-efficacy was significant in understanding the behavior, attitudes, and strategies of study participants. The findings…
Tan, K. L.; Suhaida, S.; Leong, Y. P.
The objective of this study is to investigate empirically the extent to which self-efficacy contributes to the development of green entrepreneurial intention. The measurement constructs of self-efficacy were classified into market opportunities, innovative environment, initiating relationships, defining purpose, coping with challenges, and developing human resources. The study comprises 252 usable convenient samples through structured questionnaires. The coefficient of determination R2 shows that the variance of intention to entrepreneurship is explained by the variance of the independent variables. It was also found that the model is fit for prediction.
María Estrella LÓPEZ PÉREZ
Full Text Available Introduction. The European Higher Education Area (EHEA is supporting gain relevance of vocational guidance into the frame of University Education. In order to a better planning of this guidance we need to know his contents evaluating student vocational interests of each center. The aim of the study is to analyze the indicators of Psychology students vocational behavior and his evolution and comparing those results with data of another students population. Methodology. The 329 psychology students participants from the University of Salamanca (248 in the second year and 81 in the fifth answered the questionnaire of university biodata (Rocabert, 2005. In all cases we took a significance level of ? = 0.05 carrying out samples comparison tests using U de Mann-Whitney techniques and contingency analysis. Results: The present study found significant differences between second and fifth psychology grade students and with general university population data collected by Rocabert, Descals and Gomez (2007. In general, psychology students begin their degrees with a high level interest and motivated; they are making decisions based on the academic specialty they want to work in. However, for last year students group (fith year students we detected a lower satisfaction in their studies, more difficulties in deciding what they want to do and a greater demand of information in order to choose the advisablest option for them. Conclusions. Despite the high motivation of psychology students, the nearer is his integration into the job market the higher is the need of guidance to help them to take decisions concerning specialization or the professional world.
Schwarzer, Ralf; Antoniuk, Agata; Gholami, Maryam
The roles of self-efficacy and self-monitoring as proximal predictors of dental flossing frequency are studied in the context of an oral health intervention. A study among 287 university students, aged 19 to 26 years, compared an intervention group that received a brief self-regulatory treatment, with a passive and an active control group. Dental flossing, self-efficacy, and self-monitoring were assessed at baseline and 3 weeks later. The intervention led to an increase in dental flossing regardless of experimental condition. However, treatment-specific gains were documented for self-efficacy and self-monitoring. Moreover, changes in the latter two served as mediators in a path model, linking the intervention with subsequent dental flossing and yielding significant indirect effects. Self-efficacy and self-monitoring play a mediating role in facilitating dental flossing. Interventions that aim at an improvement in oral self-care should consider using these constructs. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? The adoption and maintenance of oral self-care can be facilitated by a number of social-cognitive variables. Interventions that include planning, action control, or self-efficacy components have been shown to improve dental flossing. In one recent study on flossing in adolescent girls, planning intervention effects were mediated by self-efficacy. What does this study add? Self-monitoring is associated with better oral self-care. A 10-min intervention improves self-efficacy and self-monitoring. Self-efficacy and self-monitoring operate as mediators between treatment and flossing. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Finch, Stacia A; Weiley, Victoria; Ip, Edward H; Barkin, Shari
To measure impact of pediatricians' perceived self-efficacy and confidence on current practices and attitudes regarding four violence prevention (VP) topics (gun storage, gun removal, limiting exposure to media violence, discipline techniques) during health supervision for children ages 2-11. Random sample survey of American Academy of Pediatrics Fellows (n = 486; 53% response rate) providing health supervision for children ages 2-11. Participants surveyed about VP issues regarding: (1) current counseling practices for 2-5 and 6-11 year olds; (2) amount of time spent addressing; (3) confidence in addressing; and (4) perceived self-efficacy at changing patients' behaviors. Multivariate analyses explored relationships between pediatricians' perceived self-efficacy and confidence versus VP counseling frequency. VP topics were not routinely discussed during health supervision. Most pediatricians (64%) reported spending too little time addressing these topics. Although most pediatricians felt confident discussing and effective at changing behaviors regarding limiting exposure to media violence (89% vs. 50%) and discipline techniques (91% vs. 76%), they were less so for safe gun storage (54% vs. 35%) and gun removal (51% vs. 17%). Perceived self-efficacy was the mediating factor on self-reported VP counseling frequencies for all topics. Pediatricians reported spending insufficient time on VP counseling. Confidence and perceived self-efficacy levels varied by VP topic, but for all topics pediatricians felt more confident discussing than effective at changing behaviors. Since pediatricians' self-efficacy was related to counseling practices, boosting self-efficacy could ultimately improve counseling frequencies. Further research is needed to identify methods to build providers' perceived self-efficacy regarding these VP areas.
Weiley, Victoria; Ip, Edward H.; Barkin, Shari
Objective To measure impact of pediatricians’ perceived self-efficacy and confidence on current practices and attitudes regarding four violence prevention (VP) topics (gun storage, gun removal, limiting exposure to media violence, discipline techniques) during health supervision for children ages 2–11. Methods Random sample survey of American Academy of Pediatrics Fellows (n = 486; 53% response rate) providing health supervision for children ages 2–11. Participants surveyed about VP issues regarding: (1) current counseling practices for 2–5 and 6–11 year olds; (2) amount of time spent addressing; (3) confidence in addressing; and (4) perceived self-efficacy at changing patients’ behaviors. Multivariate analyses explored relationships between pediatricians’ perceived self-efficacy and confidence versus VP counseling frequency. Results VP topics were not routinely discussed during health supervision. Most pediatricians (64%) reported spending too little time addressing these topics. Although most pediatricians felt confident discussing and effective at changing behaviors regarding limiting exposure to media violence (89% vs. 50%) and discipline techniques (91% vs. 76%), they were less so for safe gun storage (54% vs. 35%) and gun removal (51% vs. 17%). Perceived self-efficacy was the mediating factor on self-reported VP counseling frequencies for all topics. Conclusions Pediatricians reported spending insufficient time on VP counseling. Confidence and perceived self-efficacy levels varied by VP topic, but for all topics pediatricians felt more confident discussing than effective at changing behaviors. Since pediatricians’ self-efficacy was related to counseling practices, boosting self-efficacy could ultimately improve counseling frequencies. Further research is needed to identify methods to build providers’ perceived self-efficacy regarding these VP areas. PMID:17554613
Pasha, Hajar; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Esmailzadeh, Seddigheh; Kheirkhah, Farzan; Salmalian, Hajar
Background: The infertility is associated with psychological consequence including depression, and lack of self-efficacy. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacological and no pharmacological strategies in promotion of self-efficacy of infertile women. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 89 infertile women who were recruited from Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center and were randomized into three groups; cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), antidepressant therapy with flouxetine 20 mg daily for 3 month, and a control group. All participants completed Infertility Self-efficacy Inventory (ISE) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at the beginning and end of the study. Results: The means ISE scores among the CBT, fluoxetine, and control groups at the beginning and end of the study were 6.1±1.6 vs. 7.2±0.9, 6.4±1.4 vs. 6.9±1.3 and 6.1±1.1 vs. 5.9±1.4 respectively. Both CBT and fluoxetine increased the mean of ISE scores more than control group after intervention (pinfertility self-efficacy for women exposed to the intervention compared with those in the control group. Also, there was an improvement in depression. Both fluoxetine and CBT decreased significantly the mean of BDI scores more than the control group; decrease in the CBT group was significantly more than that in the fluoxetine group. Conclusion: CBT can serve as an effective psychosocial intervention for promoting self-efficacy of infertile women. Registration ID in IRCT: IRCT2012061710048N1 PMID:24639784
Full Text Available Background: The infertility is associated with psychological consequence including depression, and lack of self-efficacy. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacological and no pharmacological strategies in promotion of self-efficacy of infertile women. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 89 infertile women who were recruited from Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center and were randomized into three groups; cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, antidepressant therapy with flouxetine 20 mg daily for 3 month, and a control group. All participants completed Infertility Self-efficacy Inventory (ISE and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI at the beginning and end of the study. Results: The means ISE scores among the CBT, fluoxetine, and control groups at the beginning and end of the study were 6.1±1.6 vs. 7.2±0.9, 6.4±1.4 vs. 6.9±1.3 and 6.1±1.1 vs. 5.9±1.4 respectively. Both CBT and fluoxetine increased the mean of ISE scores more than control group after intervention (p<0.0001, p=0.033; respectively, but increase in the CBT group was significantly greater than flouxetine group. Finally, there was evidence of high infertility self-efficacy for women exposed to the intervention compared with those in the control group. Also, there was an improvement in depression. Both fluoxetine and CBT decreased significantly the mean of BDI scores more than the control group; decrease in the CBT group was significantly more than that in the fluoxetine group. Conclusion: CBT can serve as an effective psychosocial intervention for promoting self-efficacy of infertile women
Thomas, Megan Elizabeth
Self-efficacy theory was first introduced in a seminal article by Albert Bandura in 1977 entitled "Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change". Since its original introduction, self-efficacy has been a major focus of academic performance, anxiety, career development, and teacher retention research. Self-efficacy can be defined as the belief an individual possesses about their ability to perform a given task. Bandura proposed that self-efficacy should be measured at the highest level of specificity due to the fact that different people are efficacious in different areas. Interested in students' efficacy toward biology, Ebert-May, Baldwin, & Allred (1997) created and validated a survey to measure students' biology self-efficacy. Their survey was modeled after the guidelines for science literacy, and loaded to three sub-factors; methods of biology, generalization to other science courses, and application of the concepts. As self-efficacy theory has been related to effort expenditure and persistence (Bandura, 1977; 1997), one might think it would have some effect on students' attitudes toward the topic at hand. The current research investigated what changes in biology self-efficacy occurred after an introductory biology course with an inquiry based laboratory learning environment. In addition, changes in students' attitudes towards science were explored and how self-efficacy might affect them.
Special series on "The meaning of behavioral medicine in the psychosomatic field" establishment of a core curriculum for behavioral science in Japan: The importance of such a curriculum from the perspective of psychology.
Shimazu, Akihito; Nakao, Mutsuhiro
This article discusses the core curriculum for behavioral science, from the perspective of psychology, recommended by the Japanese Society of Behavioral Medicine and seeks to explain how the curriculum can be effectively implemented in medical and health-related departments. First, the content of the core curriculum is reviewed from the perspective of psychology. We show that the curriculum features both basic and applied components and that the basic components are closely related to various aspects of psychology. Next, we emphasize two points to aid the effective delivery of the curriculum: 1) It is necessary to explain the purpose and significance of basic components of behavioral science to improve student motivation; and 2) it is important to encourage student self-efficacy to facilitate application of the acquired knowledge and skills in clinical practice.
An Evaluation of Program M in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: An Analysis of Change in Self-Efficacy in Interpersonal Relationships, Gender Equity, and Self-Reported Risky Behaviors among Women in Two Low-Income Communities
This quantitative study examined whether Program M, an intervention targeting young women in a low-income community in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, promoted changes in gender equitable attitudes and self-efficacy in interpersonal relationships among program participants. Further, it investigated whether the program influenced these young…
Steffen, Ann M; McKibbin, Christine; Zeiss, Antonette M; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Bandura, Albert
Two samples of family caregivers (Study 1: N = 169; Study 2: N = 145) of cognitively impaired older adults were used to revise, extend, and evaluate a measure of perceived self-efficacy for caregiving tasks. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy measures 3 domains of caregiving self-efficacy: Obtaining Respite, Responding to Disruptive Patient Behaviors, and Controlling Upsetting Thoughts. The 3 subscales show strong internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Construct validity is supported by relationships between these 3 facets of perceived caregiving efficacy and depression, anxiety, anger, perceived social support, and criticism expressed in speech samples. The Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-Efficacy has potential uses for both research and clinical purposes.
Project 2061, initiated by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), developed recommendations for what is essential in education to produce scientifically literate citizens. Furthermore, they suggest that teachers teach effectively. There is an abundance of literature that focuses on the effects of a teacher's science teaching self-efficacy and a student's science self-efficacy. However, there is no literature on the relationship between the two self-efficacies. This study investigated if there is a differential change in students' science self-efficacy over an academic term after instruction from a teacher with high science teaching self-efficacy. Quantitative analysis of STEBI scores for teachers showed that mean STEBI scores did not change over one academic term. A t test indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in mean SMTSL scores for students' science self-efficacy over the course of one academic term for a) the entire sample, b) each science class, and c) each grade level. In addition, ANOVA indicated that there was no statistically significant difference in mean gain factor of students rated as low, medium, and high on science self-efficacy as measured by the SMTSL, when students received instruction from a teacher with a high science teaching self-efficacy value as measured by the STEBI. Finally, there was no statistically significant association between the pre- and post-instructional rankings of SMTSL by grade level when students received instruction from a teacher with a high science teaching self-efficacy value as measured by the STEBI. This is the first study of its kind. Studies indicated that teaching strategies typically practiced by teachers with high science teaching were beneficial to physics self-efficacy (Fencl & Scheel, 2005). Although it was unsuccessful at determining whether or not a teacher with high science teaching self-efficacy has a differential affect on students' science self-efficacy
Kent, Andrea M.; Giles, Rebecca M.
Since efficacy of experienced teachers is difficult to change (Hoy, 2000), preservice teachers' technology self-efficacy is a creditable indicator of graduates' likelihood to use instructional technology throughout their careers. A study was conducted with elementary preservice teachers (n = 62) who completed a 5-item, Likert-type survey measuring…
Career self efficacy, achievement motivation and organizational commitments are considered as predictors of lecturers‟ conflict preventive behaviours in tertiary institutions in Oyo town. 300 lecturers (149 male and 151 female) of the four tertiary institutions were randomly sampled. What is the relative contributions of each ...
In order to enhance employees work engagement, knowledge and commitment, the organization can take proactive measures such as provide effective training, counseling, effective communication and leadership skills. This study therefore looks at work engagement, organizational commitment and self-efficacy , a tool for ...
In order to enhance employees work engagement, knowledge and commitment, the organization can take proactive measures such as provide effective training, counseling, effective communication and leadership skills. This study therefore looks at work engagement, organizational commitment and self-efficacy , a tool for ...
McPherson, Gary E.; McCormick, John
This study is the second in a series of investigations attempting to clarify relationships between variables that impact on a young musician's ability to perform music (as assessed on a graded music examination). Consistent with studies on school academic subjects, our previous investigation demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy in…
L. Aben (Laurien)
textabstractMemory deficits occur frequently after stroke. In general, functional recovery of these deficits is hard to achieve. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effectiveness of a Memory Self-efficacy training for patients after chronic stroke. 153 Patients were included and radomized
Holden, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Kuppens, Sofie; Rosenberg, Gary
Purpose: The need for psychometrically sound measurement approaches to social work educational outcomes assessment is increasing. Method: The research reported here describes an original and two replication studies of a new scale (N = 550) designed to assess an individual's self-efficacy regarding social work competencies specified by the Council…
Full Text Available An examination of the influence of self-efficacy regarding anger management on psychological and physical dating aggression using an agentic perspective of individual functioning. The investigation applied both the individual perspective (Study 1 and the interactional perspective (Study 2. The sample comprised 470 Italian young adults (223 females (mean age across genders = 19.10; ds = 1.30 in study 1, and 62 couples in study 2 (mean age for males = 22.34; ds = 2.59; mean age for females = 19.58; ds = 1.50. The first study found that individuals’ efficacy regarding anger management affect dysfunctional behaviors toward the partner via couple conflict. The second study found that one partner’s efficacy regarding anger management affected couple conflict, which in turn affected the other partner’s psychological aggression. Results are discussed within an agentic framework of human development, where young adult partners are proactive agents of their own and their partners' behaviors, contributing actively to their intimate relationship adjustment rather than just re-acting to their partners’ behaviors.
Vrugt, A.J.; Langereis, M.P.; Hoogstraten, J.
In accordance with Wood and Locke's (1987) findings, the Ist study was based on the prediction that academic self-efficacy (ASE) and personal goals of psychology freshmen (N = 438) would contribute to exam performance, Although the results supported this prediction, they were less strong than those
Onyeizugbo, Euckay U.
Introduction: Test anxiety inhibits students from performing according to their full potential in academic setting. Objectives: This study investigated self-efficacy, gender and trait anxiety as moderators of test anxiety. Method: Two hundred and forty nine (249) psychology majors drawn from a university in Eastern Nigeria participated in the…
Buchanan, Tom; Joban, Sanjay; Porter, Alan
Two studies tested the hypothesis that use of learning technologies among undergraduate psychology students was associated with higher Internet self-efficacy (ISE). In Study 1, the ISE scores of 86 students were found not to be associated with either attitudes towards, or measured use of, blogs and wikis as part of an IT skills course. ISE was…
Sariçam, Hakan; Sakiz, Halis
The aim of this paper was to investigate the relationship between teacher self-efficacy and burnout among special education school teachers in Turkey. One hundred and eighteen teachers completed the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Teachers belonged to the psychological counselling and guidance programme,…
Al-Harthy, Ibrahim S.; Was, Christopher A.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between knowledge monitoring and motivation as defined by self-efficacy and goal orientations. A path model was proposed to hypothesize the causal relations among predictors of the students' total score in the Educational Psychology course. The sample consisted of undergraduate students…
Ok Kyung Ham, RN, PhD, CHES
Conclusions: The study results will provide valuable information regarding how each predictor variable is connected and path through adoption of smoking cessation behavior. By understanding mechanisms of behavior change, health professionals could develop effective smoking cessation interventions with consideration of roles of self-efficacy in the smoking cessation behavior change. [Asian Nursing Research2009;3(1:15–23
Full Text Available Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms, represent a heterogeneous group of non-cognitive symptoms and behaviors occurring in subjects with dementia. BPSD constitute a major component of the dementia syndrome irrespective of its subtype. They are as clinically relevant as cognitive symptoms as they strongly correlate with the degree of functional and cognitive impairment. BPSD include agitation, aberrant motor behavior, anxiety, elation, irritability, depression, apathy, disinhibition, delusions, hallucinations, and sleep or appetite changes. It is estimated that BPSD affect up to 90% of all dementia subjects over the course of their illness, and is independently associated with poor outcomes, including distress among patients and caregivers, long term hospitalization, misuse of medication and increased health care costs. Although these symptoms can be present individually it is more common that various psychopathological features co-occur simultaneously in the same patient. Thus, categorization of BPSD in clusters taking into account their natural course, prognosis and treatment response may be useful in the clinical practice. The pathogenesis of BPSD has not been clearly delineated but it is probably the result of a complex interplay of psychological, social and biological factors. Recent studies have emphasized the role of neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic factors underlying the clinical manifestations of BPSD. A high degree of clinical expertise is crucial to appropriately recognize and manage the neuropsychiatric symptoms in a patient with dementia. Combination of non-pharmacological and careful use of pharmacological interventions is the recommended therapeutic for managing BPSD. Given the modest efficacy of current strategies, there is an urgent need to identify novel pharmacological targets and develop new non-pharmacological approaches to improve the adverse outcomes
Burgoon, Jennifer Marie; Meece, Judith L; Granger, Noelle A
Self-efficacy is defined as a person's beliefs in his or her own abilities to successfully complete a task and has been shown to influence student motivation and academic behaviors. More specifically, anatomical self-efficacy is defined as an individual's judgment of his or her ability to successfully complete tasks related to the anatomy curriculum; these include dissecting, learning anatomical concepts, and applying anatomical knowledge to clinical situations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of anatomical self-efficacy on the academic performance of students enrolled in a medical gross anatomy course. To obtain students' anatomical self-efficacy ratings, surveys containing the same anatomical self-efficacy instrument were completed by first-year medical students at a southeastern United States allopathic medical school after each of four gross anatomy assessments. Additional data collected included student demographic information, Medical College Admission Test(®) (MCAT(®)) scores, and anatomy assessment scores, both written examination and laboratory practical. To investigate the potential predictive nature of self-efficacy for academic performance on both the written examination and the laboratory practical components of medical anatomy assessments, hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted. For these analyses, academic ability (defined as the sum of the physical sciences and biological sciences MCAT scores) was controlled. The results of the hierarchical linear regressions indicated that all four laboratory practical scores were predicted by the corresponding self-efficacy ratings, while two (i.e., thorax/abdomen and pelvis/lower limb) of the four written examination scores were predicted by the corresponding self-efficacy ratings (P ≤ 0.05). Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.
Oka, Roberta K; DeMarco, Teresa; Haskell, William L
Self-efficacy is a person's confidence in being able to successfully perform a specific activity or behavior. Self-efficacy has been shown to influence exercise capacity in patients post myocardial infarction, but has not been fully explored in patients with heart failure (HF). This study examined the impact of performance of a single treadmill exercise test and participation in a 3-month program of walking and resistance exercise on self-efficacy in HF patients. 24 patients were randomized to either a home-based walking and resistance exercise program or usual care for 3 months. Prior to enrollment into the exercise program all participants performed a single treadmill exercise test with respiratory gas analysis. Self-efficacy questionnaires were completed at 3 time points, 1) prior to performance of an exercise treadmill test; 2) immediately after completing an exercise test; and 3) at the end of a 3-month exercise program. Self-efficacy for walking (p=0.07), climbing (p=0.17), lifting (p=0.73) and general activity (p=0.15) did not improve after performance of a single treadmill exercise test and usual care. However, self-efficacy for walking increased after 3 months of a walking and resistance exercise program. (p=0.04). The findings from this study suggest that in patients with stable mild to moderate heart failure, self-efficacy is improved with participation in a home-based walking and endurance exercise program. Self-efficacy is not enhanced by performance of a single treadmill exercise test and usual care.
French, Sabine Elizabeth; Holland, Kathryn J
College students are a group at high risk of sexually transmitted infections due to inconsistent condom use and engaging in other risky sexual behaviors. This study examined whether condom use self-efficacy predicted the use of condom negotiation strategies (i.e., condom influence strategies) and whether condom influence strategies mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use within this population, as well as whether gender moderated the mediation model. Results showed a strong relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom influence strategies. Additionally, condom influence strategies completely mediated the relationship between condom use self-efficacy and condom use. Although condom use self-efficacy was related to condom use, the ability to use condom negotiation strategies was the most important factor predicting condom use. The mediation model held across genders, except for the condom influence strategy withholding sex, where it was not significant for men. For women, condom use self-efficacy promoted the use of a very assertive negotiation strategy, withholding sex, and was consequently related to increased condom use. Overall, using assertive condom negotiation strategies (e.g., withholding sex and direct request) were found to be the most important aspects of increasing condom use for both women and men. Implications and suggestions for prevention programming are discussed.
Norton, Melanie K; Smith, Megan V; Magriples, Urania; Kershaw, Trace S
This study examined the relationship between traditional masculine role norms (status, toughness, anti-femininity) and psychosocial mechanisms of sexual risk (sexual communication, sexual self-efficacy) among young, low-income, and minority parenting couples. Between 2007 and 2011, 296 pregnant adolescent females and their male partners were recruited from urban obstetrics clinics in Connecticut. Data regarding participants' beliefs in masculine role norms, frequency of general sex communication and sexual risk communication, and sexual self-efficacy were collected via computer-assisted self-interviews. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to test for actor effects (whether a person's masculine role norms at baseline influence the person's own psychosocial variables at 6-month follow-up) and partner effects (whether a partner's masculine role norms at baseline influence an actor's psychosocial variables at 6-month follow-up). Results revealed that higher actor status norms were significantly associated with more sexual self-efficacy, higher actor toughness norms were associated with less sexual self-efficacy, and higher actor anti-femininity norms were significantly associated with less general sex communication, sexual risk communication, and sexual self-efficacy. No partner effects were found. These results indicate a need for redefining masculine role norms through family centered approaches in pregnant or parenting adolescent couples to increase sexual communication and sexual self-efficacy. Further research is needed to understand partner effects in the context of a relationship and on subsequent sexual risk behavior. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Meilstrup, Charlotte; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Nielsen, Line; Koushede, Vibeke; Cross, Donna; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
Emotional symptoms are widespread among adolescents with the highest prevalence among lower socioeconomic groups. Less is known about why and how to reduce this inequality but personal control, e.g., self-efficacy may be crucial. This study examines whether self-efficacy is a mediator in the association between occupational social class (OSC) and emotional symptoms. Data stem from the cross-sectional Health Behavior in School-aged Children-Methodology Development Survey 2012 (HBSC-MDS) conducted among 11-15-year old schoolchildren in two Danish municipalities. Participation rate was 76.8 % of 5165 enrolled schoolchildren, n = 3969. Low OSC is associated with higher odds of daily emotional symptoms and low selfefficacy. Schoolchildren with low self-efficacy have higher odds for daily emotional symptoms. We find a strong and statistically significant direct effect between low OSC and daily emotional symptoms (OR = 1.55, 95 % CI: 1.33; 1.84) and a borderline statistically significant indirect effect of self-efficacy [OR = 1.17 (0.99; 1.38)]. Socioeconomic inequality in emotional symptoms exists. This inequality is partly explained by socioeconomic inequality in self-efficacy. Promotion of personal competences like self-efficacy may reduce emotional symptoms among all socioeconomic groups, thereby reducing socioeconomic inequalities in emotional symptoms.
Jacob, Mini E; Lo-Ciganic, Wei-Hsuan; Simkin-Silverman, Laurey R; Albert, Steven M; Newman, Anne B; Terhorst, Lauren; Bilt, Joni Vander; Zgibor, Janice C; Schlenk, Elizabeth A
Preventive services offered to older Americans are currently under-utilized despite considerable evidence regarding their health and economic benefits. Individuals with low self-efficacy in accessing these services need to be identified and provided self-efficacy enhancing interventions. Scales measuring self-efficacy in the management of chronic diseases exist, but do not cover the broad spectrum of preventive services and behaviors that can improve the health of older adults, particularly older women who are vulnerable to poorer health and lesser utilization of preventive services. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of a new preventive services use self-efficacy scale, by measuring its internal consistency reliability, assessing internal construct validity by exploring factor structure, and examining differences in self-efficacy scores according to participant characteristics. The Preventive Services Use Self-Efficacy (PRESS) Scale was developed by an expert panel at the University of Pittsburgh Center for Aging and Population Health - Prevention Research Center. It was administered to 242 women participating in an ongoing trial and the data were analyzed to assess its psychometric properties. An exploratory factor analysis with a principal axis factoring approach and orthogonal varimax rotation was used to explore the underlying structure of the items in the scale. The internal consistency of the subscales was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The exploratory factor analysis defined five self-efficacy factors (self-efficacy for exercise, communication with physicians, self-management of chronic disease, obtaining screening tests, and getting vaccinations regularly) formed by 16 items from the scale. The internal consistency of the subscales ranged from .81 to .94. Participants who accessed a preventive service had higher self-efficacy scores in the corresponding sub-scale than those who did not. The 16-item PRESS scale
Jago, Russell; Wood, Lesley; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L; Simon J. Sebire
Abstract Background: Children's screen viewing (SV) is associated with higher levels of childhood obesity. Many children exceed the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline of 2 hours of television (TV) per day. There is limited information about how parenting styles and parental self-efficacy to limit child screen time are associated with children's SV. This study examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children and whether any effects were mediated by parental...
Relationship between self-efficacy, academic achievement and gender in analytical chemistry at Debre Markos College of Teacher Education. ... between self-efficacy and achievement for second year students in the fall of 2012 in Analytical ...
Trontel, Haley G; Hall, Stuart; Ashendorf, Lee; O'Connor, Maureen K
The current study examined the effect of diagnosis threat on self-efficacy and neuropsychological performance in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Forty-nine participants with a history of mild TBI were randomized to a diagnosis threat or control group. The diagnosis threat group were told they were selected based on their history of TBI, while control group participants were told to perform their best. Individuals in the diagnosis threat group reported significantly lower academic self-efficacy than control participants. The groups performed differently on only one neuropsychological measure. These results suggest that diagnosis threat may have a greater impact on psychological factors than on cognitive performance.
Steffensmeier, Darrell; Kassab, Cathy
Aims To examine: (1) the relationships between self-efficacy for health management and (a) health-promoting behaviors, (b) health-monitoring behaviors, and (c) self-rated health status in older male prisoners; and (2) the variations in self-rated health status and self-efficacy for health management by inmate characteristics of older men in prison. Background The graying of the inmate population around the globe can be attributed to increases in punitive crime control practices, life expectancy; and the aging baby boom generation. Older inmates are typically not a healthy group. Therefore, the needs of burgeoning numbers of older, sicker inmates are issues of international significance. Methods A descriptive, correlational, survey was conducted from late 2007 to mid-2008 with Bandura’s self-efficacy model as the guiding framework. Results/Findings Participants were 131 male inmates, age 50 and older. A significant positive relationship was found between self-efficacy for health management and the indexes measuring health-promoting behaviors (r=0.550; Pprisons. Nurses are front line health care providers in prison, who are in a key position to implement interventions that promote greater inmate self-efficacy for healthy behaviors and chronic disease management. PMID:21198807
Full Text Available A psychological contract is an implicit understanding between a group of employees and their employer that arose as a result of a particular leadership style. Psychological contract violation (PCV is said to occur when there is a perceived breach of promise that leads to an emotional and affective response. The literature on PCV posits a number of antecedents and outcomes of PCV. This study seeks to develop a model of PCV by linking it with justice and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB. It is argued that the antecedents of PCV lead to a sense of injustice. These will then create the emotional response that is indicative of PCV. It is also argued that an outcome of this PCV experience is reduced OCB and the emergence of a new outlook towards employment relationship. Data was collected from a Malaysian company that initiated a voluntary separation scheme as part of an effort to downsize its work force. The finding of this study provides partial support for the model.
Blecharz, Jan; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Scholz, Urte; Cieslak, Roman
The relationship between perceived motivational climate and athletes' well-being may depend on personal resource factors such as self-efficacy beliefs which are expected to shield individuals from negative outcomes when environmental factors may not suffice to secure positive outcomes. We explored the roles of self-efficacy and collective efficacy by investigating whether they operated either as moderators or as mediators within this relationship. Study 1 was carried out among 56 athletes (basketball, volleyball, or soccer players), with a two-week follow-up, whereas Study 2 was conducted among 113 soccer players, with three measurement points (baseline, two-month follow-up, and nine-month follow-up). Their satisfaction with sport skills and performance served as an index of well-being. The findings of Study 1 indicated that general self-efficacy moderated the relationship between task-oriented motivational climate and satisfaction. Task-oriented climate predicted satisfaction only among athletes with low self-efficacy. Study 2 showed that self-efficacy moderated the link between task-oriented motivational climate and satisfaction at nine-month follow-up. In contrast, collective efficacy at two-month follow-up mediated the relationship between perceived motivational climate at baseline and satisfaction at nine-month follow-up. Athletes are at risk for lower well-being if they perceive a negative task-involving climate and if they harbor either low general self-efficacy or low personal-barrier self-efficacy. © 2014 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
Bonner, J E; Esserman, D; Evon, D M
Self-efficacy or confidence in one's ability to successfully engage in goal-directed behaviour has been shown to influence medication adherence across many chronic illnesses. In the present study, we investigated the psychometric properties of a self-efficacy instrument used during treatment for chronic hepatitis C viral infection (HCV). Baseline (n = 394) and treatment week 24 (n = 254) data from the prospective, longitudinal Viral Resistance to Antiviral Therapy of Chronic Hepatitis C study were examined. Baseline participants were randomly split into two equal-sized subsamples (S(1) and S(2) ). Initial exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA/CFA) were performed on S(1), while S(2) was used to validate the factor structure of the S(1) results using CFA. An additional CFA was performed on the treatment week 24 participants. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed by comparing the revised instrument with other psychosocial measures: depression, social support, quality of life and medication-taking behaviour. Our findings supported a reduced 17-item global measure of HCV treatment self-efficacy (HCV-TSE) with four underlying factors: patient communication self-efficacy, general physical coping self-efficacy, general psychological coping self-efficacy and adherence self-efficacy. The global score (0.92-0.94) and four factors (0.85-0.96) demonstrated good internal consistency. Correlations of convergent and discriminant validity yielded low to moderate associations with other measures of psychosocial functioning. The revised HCV-TSE instrument provides a reliable and valid global estimate of confidence in one's ability to engage in and adhere to HCV antiviral treatment. The four-factor structure suggests different types of efficacy beliefs may function during HCV treatment and should be explored further in relation to clinical outcomes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Cave, Paul N.; Evans, Norman W.; Dewey, Dan P.; Hartshorn, K. James
The present study investigated the relationship between student use of self-efficacy-building strategies through motivational partnerships and student levels of self-efficacy and motivation in an adult intensive English programme in the United States. The extent to which self-efficacy influenced motivation was also examined. After being organized…
... departments and 6.6 % of the variance in self-efficacy was explained by computer experience. The study concluded that self-efficacy is highly relevant in the acquisition of Java programming skills and is in line with Bandura‟s theory. Keywords: Java programming, self-efficacy, engineering students, Nigerian universities ...
Bobo, Linda; Andrews, Amanda
When a student has a high sense of self-efficacy, foreseeing success and providing positive guides and supports for performing the skill will usually occur. A low self-efficacy tends to predict failure and anticipation of what could go wrong. Videotape feedback provided to students has reported favorable outcomes. Self-efficacy could alter…
Thompson, Jon G., Jr.; Oberle, Crystal D.; Lilley, Jennifer L.
Past research consistently reveals that "self-efficacy," referring to one's perceived ability to obtain a desired outcome, in academic courses is linked to academic achievement and motivation in those courses. In particular, high self-efficacy in courses is associated with high academic performance, and low self-efficacy in courses is associated…
Bruning, Roger; Dempsey, Michael; Kauffman, Douglas F.; McKim, Courtney; Zumbrunn, Sharon
A multifactor perspective on writing self-efficacy was examined in 2 studies. Three factors were proposed--self-efficacy for writing ideation, writing conventions, and writing self-regulation--and a scale constructed to reflect these factors. In Study 1, middle school students (N = 697) completed the Self-Efficacy for Writing Scale (SEWS), along…
Gilles, Donna M; Turk, Cynthia L; Fresco, David M
Burke and Stephens (1999) [Burke, R.S., Stephens, R.S. Social anxiety and drinking in college students: A social cognitive theory analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 19, (1999) 513-530.] proposed a social cognitive theory of heavy drinking in college students. According to this theory, alcohol expectancies for social facilitation and self-efficacy for refusing heavy drinking in anxiety-producing social situations moderate the relationship between social anxiety and drinking. In the current study, a significant three-way interaction was observed among social anxiety, expectancies, and self-efficacy when amount and frequency of drinking was the dependent variable. As predicted by the model, socially anxious college students with low self-efficacy for avoiding heavy drinking in social situations and high positive expectancies for social facilitation reported more alcohol consumption than other socially anxious individuals.
Full Text Available Angelika A Schlarb1,2, Dominika Kulessa1,*, Marco D Gulewitsch1,*1Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, University of Tübingen, 2Faculty of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies on university students have shown prevalence rates between 4.7% and 36.2% for sleep difficulties, and 13.1% and 28.1% for insomnia. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health.Objective: The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, prevalence of sleep problems, insomnia, and associations with self-efficacy among German university students.Methods: A total of 2196 university students (70.9% women; mean age 24.16 years participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, insomnia, and self-efficacy were assessed using a questionnaire.Results and conclusion: Analyses revealed that more than 16% of surveyed students needed more than 30 minutes to fall asleep. About 7.7% of the students suffered from insomnia. Short sleep was significantly associated with a considerably increased rate of insomnia (20%. Insomniacs showed lower self-efficacy than students without sleep problems.Keywords: university students, sleep characteristics, sleep problems, insomnia, self-efficacy
Guo, Yu-Fang; Zhang, Xia; Plummer, Virginia; Lam, Louisa; Cross, Wendy; Zhang, Jing-Ping
Nursing students across the globe experience depressive symptoms, and many interventions have been used to alleviate their depression. However, few interventions focus on students' personal strengths and advantages. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of an 8-week group positive psychotherapy (PPT) programme on depression and self-efficacy in full-time undergraduate nursing students. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted for 76 nursing students (34 in the experimental group, 42 in the control group). The Beck Depression Inventory-II and the General Self-Efficacy Scale were used to collect data prior to, immediately after PPT, 3 months', and 6 months' post-PPT. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that the intervention significantly alleviated depression and improved self-efficacy (each P self-efficacy. We recommend that PPT is effective in alleviating depression and improving self-efficacy in undergraduate nursing students. Academic mental health nurses should appreciate the value of PPT and consider incorporating it in psychological support methods in order to facilitate nursing students' mental health. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
Full Text Available This research is aimed at investigating the correlation between selfefficacy and authoritarian parenting style toward student s’ academic procrastination. The subject of this research is 150 students of faculty of of Psychology, Medicine, and Economy of Sultan Agung Islamic University who are working on the final project. The major hypothesis proposed in the research is that there is a correlation between self-efficacy and authoritarian parenting style with students’ academic procrastination. The minor hypotheses are as follows: (1 there is a negative correlation between self-efficacy with academic procrastination; and (2 there is a positive correlation between authoritarian parenting style with academic procrastination. This research used three of scale for the data collection namely academic procrastination scale, self-efficacy scale and authoritarian parenting stale scale. The statistic analysis used in the research is regression to test major hypothesis and the parsial analysis to test minor hypothesis. The research results show that (1 there is correlation between self-efficacy and authoritarian pareting style with students’ academic procrastination; (2 there is a significant negative correla tion between self-efficacy with academic procrastination toward college students; and (3 there is a significant positive correlation between authoritarian parenting style with academic procrastination toward college sudents.
Full Text Available The concept of self-efficacy is presented in the paper, which has not been applied yet in empirical psychological research in Slovenia, and selected metric characteristics of the translated and adapted Schwarzer's generalised self-efficacy scale (LSU are analysed. The introduction focuses on self-efficacy within organisational context, the self-efficacy versus self-esteem issue and the Bandura's socio-cognitive paradigm. The psychometric analyses are based on a sample of 120 undergraduates, supplemented by comparisons with a sample of 15 employees. In addition to the LSU, a self-regulation scale was applied (another adaptation to Slovenian, a standard trait-anxiety scale and a self-confidence scale. The self-efficacy scale is analysed in detail – including the item level, while the other three instruments are only addressed on the scale level. LSU's reliability in terms of internal consistency proved to be sufficient (Cronbach α 0,77 for the students and 0,87 for the employees. Concurrent validity was verified through indicator convergence (a high positive correlation with the two related scales and a high negative correlation with the anxiety scale. Another piece of evidence in favour of construct validity of the LSU is provided by lack of significant differences between distinct groups of students on any of the scales, as well as by significant differences between the students and the employees on all the four scales.
This article describes how many modern psychological constructs and theories exist in older as well as newer Chassidic and Jewish teachings, particularly those of Chabad Lubavitch. This exploration points toward a potential benefit for a unification of psychology and Chassidic teachings. Psychological theories and constructs explored are Freudian psychoanalysis, cognitive dissonance, cognitive restructuring/reframing, self-efficacy/planned behavior, and logotherapy/existentialism. The article then concludes with a discussion of possible implications of moving toward a unified approach for clinical practitioners.
Full Text Available Orientation: Researching the impact of psychological constructs on police leadership may add value when appointing people in leadership positions or developing people for leadership roles in the police environment.Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between three constructs, namely emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness in a policing context.Motivation for this study: In the police sector, there are difficulties in linking leadership to organisational outcomes since common police-leadership measures are affected by multiple contributory factors. This study explores the psychological constructs of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy on the leadership effectiveness of the police.Research design, approach and method: This research adopted a quantitative approach to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy as attributes of leadership effectiveness. A total of 107 police personnel in commanding positions made up the sample. The measuring instruments used were the Assessing Emotions Scale, the Self-efficacy Scale and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X.Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness. The correlations were significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed.Practical/managerial implications: Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy should be considered as attributes during the selection of leaders in police organisations or used for developmental purposes to enhance these attributes in police leaders.Contribution/value-add: The insights gained from the findings may be used to guide the selection of future leaders in the policing environment, and they could also be used to establish future developmental programmes and research initiatives.
Keedy, Nicole H; Keffala, Valerie J; Altmaier, Elizabeth M; Chen, Joseph J
Chronic back pain treatments have generally been costly and/or ineffective despite advances in medical technology. Patient selection and factors intrinsic to patients, including beliefs and behaviors, have been increasingly looked upon as possible predictive factors for success following multidisciplinary intervention for chronic back pain. The current study investigated the value of using patients' perceived control over health changes (health locus of control) and their perceived ability to engage in pain management behaviors (pain-related self-efficacy) to predict physical and mental health outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed 61 patients who completed a two-week multidisciplinary chronic back pain rehabilitation program at our institution between 2007 and 2009. Patient demographics were identified and categorized. Pre- and post-intervention functional surveys, including the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Form C, Chronic Pain Self-Efficacy Scale, Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Version 2, Beck Depression Inventory-II, and Oswestry Disability Index Version 2, were used to evaluate benefit from back pain intervention and to examine patient factors that may predict physical and mental health outcomes. Participants included 28 males and 33 females, ages 28 to 72, completing chronic back pain rehabilitation. Locus of control, self-efficacy, and physical and mental health demonstrated treatment-related changes, with notable improvements in physical and mental health. Regression analyses examined the value of pre-treatment health locus of control and pain-related self-efficacy as predictors of physical and mental health one month following treatment. Higher internal and lower doctor health locus of control, and higher self-efficacy at baseline predicted higher lift scores one month after treatment (p self-efficacy also predicted better physical functioning (p self-efficacy and health locus of control may be valuable predictors of treatment benefit for
Putwain, Dave; Sander, Paul; Larkin, Derek
Academic self-efficacy, when operationalized as mastery over domain-specific knowledge, has been found to be a predictor of academic achievement and emotions. Although academic emotions are also a predictor of academic achievement, there is limited evidence for reciprocal relations with academic achievement. To examine whether academic self-efficacy, when operationalized as confidence in study-related skills and behaviours, is also a predictor of academic achievement and emotions and to test reciprocal relations between academic emotions and achievement. Two hundred and six first-year undergraduate students. Academic self-efficacy was measured at the beginning of the first semester and learning-related emotions (LREs) at the beginning of the second semester. Academic performance was aggregated across assessments in semester one and semester two. Self-efficacy in study-related skills and behaviours predicted: (1) better semester one academic performance and (2) more pleasant and fewer unpleasant LREs at the beginning of the second semester directly and (3) indirectly through semester one academic performance. Reciprocal relations between academic performance and emotions were supported, but only for pleasant emotions. Self-efficacy in study-related skills was the critical academic self-efficacy variable in this study. It may play an important role in maintaining challenge appraisals to maintain pleasant emotions and better academic performance. Accordingly, practitioners in higher education may wish to consider the value of assessing and developing students' self-efficacy in relation to their independent study skills. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Stacey Wendling, MSN, RN, FNP, CFCN
Conclusions: This study adds to the body of knowledge regarding self-efficacy and diabetic foot self-care behaviors. Further research is needed to explore the relationship of gender, diabetes education attendance, and foot self-care behaviors as influencing factors in LEA prevention.
Escartí, Amparo; Gutiérrez, Melchor; Pascual, Carmina; Marín, Diana
This study evaluated improvement in self-efficacy and personal and social responsibility among at-risk of dropping-out of school adolescents participating in a program in which Hellison's Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model was applied in physical education classes during the course of an academic year. Thirty at-risk adolescents aged 13-14 years old (23 boys, 7 girls) were assigned to an intervention group (12 boys and 3 girls) or a comparison group (11 boys, 4 girls), the latter of which did not participate in the program. Quantitative results showed a significant improvement in the students' self-efficacy for enlisting social resources and in self-efficacy for self-regulated learning. Qualitative results showed an improvement in responsibility behaviors of participants in the intervention group. This suggests that the model could be effective for improving psychological and social development in at-risk adolescents, and that physical education classes may be an appropriate arena for working with these young people.
Benight, C C; Ironson, G; Durham, R L
This brief report describes the psychometric properties of an instrument designed to measure Hurricane Coping Self-Efficacy (HCSE). Survivors of Hurricane Andrew (n = 165) and Hurricane Opal (n = 63) completed the HCSE and assessments of optimism, social support, distress, and resource loss. Principal components factor analyses revealed a unidimensional structure for the HCSE. Internal consistency of the HCSE was strong. In both samples, HCSE was positively associated with optimism and social support, but negatively associated with general psychological distress, trauma related distress, and resource loss. Finally, hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that the HCSE explained a significant amount of experimental variance for intrusive thoughts and avoidance after controlling for social support, lost resources, and optimism.
A "sense of self-efficacy" is defined as the process of linking knowledge to action, as the assessment of the ability to execute a behavior leading to a certain outcome. A person's perception of self-efficacy has behavioral and emotional implications. When people doubt their own abilities, they tend not to persevere, give up rapidly when…
Pasmatzi, E; Koulierakis, G; Giaglis, G
The way that the social stigma of mental illness is related with the self-stigma, which in turn affects self-esteem and self-efficacy of mental patients was investigated. A sample of 66 patients in the Adult Psychiatric Clinic of the Thessaloniki General Hospital "G. Papanikolaou" was participated in this descriptive association study, with cross-sectional comparisons. The sample comprised of patients who were hospitalized or visited the Clinic as out-patients during the period that the study was undertaken. A tool for measuring the basic demographic, social and clinical characteristics of the participants was designed and used. Additionally, the Self-Stigma of Mental Illness Scale, SSMIS, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, RSE and the General Self-Efficacy Sherer Scale, GSESH were used for measuring self-stigma, self-esteem and self-efficacy respectively. Results showed that self-esteem and self-efficacy were highly associated with each another. Self-esteem and self-efficacy co varied. Greater self-stigma was associated with lower self-esteem and selfefficacy confirming the power of this relationship which is connected with patients' psychological empowerment and acts as mediator between patients' self-categorization as "mentally ill" and their self-esteem and self-efficacy. Additionally, a mild negative association between self-esteem, self-efficacy and age was found while higher educational level was associated with greater selfefficacy. Greater self-stigma along with lower educational level were the most significant predictors of both self-esteem and self-efficacy of mental patients, as shown by regression analysis. Some of our results, such as the percentage of low self-esteem (30.3%), were different from previous relevant data (9.1-24%), probably due to differences in sample's cultural characteristics and composition, research tools used, and the degree of mentally ill patients' reaction to social stigma perception. Despite its methodological limitations, the
Webb, Donna Louise
Currently, STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) is a popular buzz word in P-12 education as it represents a means to advance American competitiveness in the global economy. Proponents of the engineering component of STEM advocate additional benefits in teaching engineering, such as its capacity to engage students in collaboration, and to apply critical thinking, systems thinking, negotiation, and communication skills to solve real-life contextual problems. Establishing a strong foundation of engineering knowledge at a young age will provide students with internal motivation as it taps into their curiosity toward how things work, and it also prepares them for secondary science courses. Successful STEM education is often constrained by elementary teachers' low perception of self-efficacy to teach science and engineering. Elementary teachers with low self-efficacy in science are more likely to spend less instructional time teaching science, which suggests that teachers with little to no training in engineering might avoid teaching this topic. Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the effects of engineering professional development on elementary (K-6) teachers' content and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and perceptions of self-efficacy to teach engineering, and (b) to identify and explain sources influencing self-efficacy. Professional development was conducted in a metropolitan area in the Pacific Northwest. Results revealed that after the engineering professional development, teachers experienced statistically significant gains in content, PCK, and self-efficacy to teach engineering. Increases in self-efficacy were mainly attributed to mastery experiences and cultivation of a growth mindset by embracing the engineering design process.
Rodkjaer, L; Chesney, M A; Lomborg, K
OBJECTIVES: Having effective ways to cope helps HIV-infected individuals maintain good psychological and physical well-being. This study investigated the relationship between coping self-efficacy levels, as determined by the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale (CSE), HIV status disclosure, and depression...... in a Danish cohort. METHODS: In 2008, the CSE was administered to 304 HIV-infected individuals to measure their confidence in their ability to cope with HIV infection. HIV status disclosure was assessed on a three-point scale: living openly with the disease, partly openly, or secretly. The Beck Depression....... Disclosing HIV may constitute a social stressor, and a lack of coping self-efficacy may increase the likelihood of non-disclosure and depression. Interventions that enhance self-efficacy may help in managing the demands of daily life with HIV, increase disclosure, and reduce depression....
Annesi James J
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study aimed to assess relations of self-regulatory skill use with self-efficacy for exercise and appropriate eating, and the resulting change in weight associated with participation in a nutrition and exercise treatment supported by cognitive-behavioral methods. Methods Adults with severe obesity (N = 95; mean BMI = 40.5 ± 3.9 kg/m2 participated in a 6-month exercise and nutrition treatment emphasizing self-regulatory skills. Changes in self-regulatory skills usage, self-efficacy, overall mood, and BMI were measured. Relations of changes in self-regulatory skill use and self-efficacy, for both physical activity and appropriate eating, were assessed, as was the possibility of mood change being a mediator of these relationships. Indirect effects of the variables associated with the present treatment on BMI change were then estimated. Results For both exercise and appropriate eating, changes in self-regulation were associated with self-efficacy change. Mood change partially mediated the relationship between changes in self-regulation for appropriate eating and self-efficacy for appropriate eating. Self-efficacy changes for physical activity and controlled eating, together, explained a significant portion of the variance in BMI change (R2 = 0.26, p Conclusion Findings suggest that training in self-regulation for exercise and eating may benefit self-efficacy and weight-loss outcomes. Thus, these variables should be considered in both the theory and behavioral treatment of obesity.
Martin C S Wong; Tony C M Lau; Albert Lee
... assessed their impact on the psychological well-being of program participants. This study evaluated the effectiveness of leadership training programs on self-esteem and self-efficacy among adolescents...
Ríos Rísquez, María Isabel; Sánchez Meca, Julio; Godoy Fernández, Carmen
In this study, the predictive power of hardy personality and generalized self-efficacy on general health perception was investigated in a sample of nursing personnel working in emergency and intensive care services. A cross-sectional retrospective design was used, and the following measurement instruments were applied: a sociodemographic and work questionnaire, Goldberg's GHQ-28 Health Questionnaire, the Baessler and Schwarzer General Self-efficacy Questionnaire, and the Hardy Personality Subscale of Moreno's Nursing Burnout Questionnaire (CDPE). The results revealed a positive and statistically significant relationship between the individual variables of generalized self-efficacy and hardy personality. A canonical correlation analysis carried out on the psychological distress symptoms with self-efficacy and hardy personality as predictor variables, led us to emphasize the relevance of the construct total hardy personality as a predictor and, consequently, as a protective factor against the onset of psychological distress symptoms in the sample of professionals studied. Lastly, the implications of the results for clinical practice are discussed.
Hajek, André; Hans-Helmut-König
While several cross-sectional studies have shown that self-efficacy, self-esteem and optimism are associated with the use of routine health check-ups, little is known about this relationship based on longitudinal studies. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine whether these factors are associated with routine health check-ups longitudinally. Data were retrieved from a population-based longitudinal study of individuals (≥40years of age) residing in private households in Germany (two waves: 2008 and 2011). Widely established scales were used to quantify self-efficacy, self-esteem, and optimism. Respondents reported whether they used a health check-up in the last two years. Conditional fixed-effects logistic regressions were used (n=1504), adjusting for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related variables. After adjusting for various potential confounders, regression analysis revealed that the use of routine health check-ups increased with self-efficacy [OR: 1.71 (95%-CI: 1.14-2.55)], self-esteem [OR: 1.78 (1.16-2.73)], and optimism [OR: 1.37 (1.01-1.86)]. Furthermore, the use of routine health check-ups increased with changes from employment to retirement [OR: 2.60 (1.34-5.03)], whereas it was not associated with changes in age, marital status, smoking status, the number of physical illnesses, self-rated health and body-mass index. The current study stresses the importance of an association between screening behavior and self-efficacy, self-esteem and optimism longitudinally. Interventions aiming at modifying these psychological factors might help to increase the use of routine health check-ups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kimberley A. Dawson
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an "unhappy employee" typology
Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Vecchione, Michele; Alessandri, Guido; Gerbino, Maria; Barbaranelli, Claudio
BACKGROUND. The personal determinants of academic achievement and success have captured the attention of many scholars for the last decades. Among other factors, personality traits and self-efficacy beliefs have proved to be important predictors of academic achievement. AIMS. The present study examines the unique contribution and the pathways through which traits (i.e., openness and conscientiousness) and academic self-efficacy beliefs are conducive to academic achievement at the end of junior and senior high school. SAMPLE. Participants were 412 Italian students, 196 boys and 216 girls, ranging in age from 13 to 19 years. METHODS. The hypothesized relations among the variables were tested within the framework of structural equation model. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS. Openness and academic self-efficacy at the age of 13 contributed to junior high-school grades, after controlling for socio-economic status (SES). Junior high-school grades contribute to academic self-efficacy beliefs at the age of 16, which in turn contributed to high-school grades, over and above the effects of SES and prior academic achievement. In accordance with the posited hypothesis, academic self-efficacy beliefs partially mediated the contribution of traits to later academic achievement. In particular, conscientiousness at the age of 13 affected high-school grades indirectly, through its effect on academic self-efficacy beliefs at the age of 16. These findings have broad implications for interventions aimed to enhance children's academic pursuits. Whereas personality traits represent stable individual characteristics that mostly derive from individual genetic endowment, social cognitive theory provides guidelines for enhancing students' efficacy to regulate their learning activities. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Dybowski, Christoph; Sehner, Susanne; Harendza, Sigrid
Being exposed to good teachers has been shown to enhance students' knowledge and their clinical performance, but little is known about the underlying psychological mechanisms that provide the basis for being an excellent medical teacher. Self-Determination Theory (SDT) postulates that more self-regulated types of motivation are associated with higher performance. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) focuses on self-efficacy that has been shown to be positively associated with performance. To investigate the influences of different types of teaching motivation, teaching self-efficacy, and teachers' perceptions of students' skills, competencies and motivation on teaching quality. Before the winter semester 2014, physicians involved in bedside teaching in internal medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf completed a questionnaire with sociodemographic items and instruments measuring different dimensions of teaching motivation as well as teaching self-efficacy. During the semester, physicians rated their perceptions of the participating students who rated the teaching quality after each lesson. We performed a random intercept mixed-effects linear regression with students' ratings of teaching quality as the dependent variable and students' general interest in a subject as covariate. We explored potential associations between teachers' dispositions and their perceptions of students' competencies in a mixed-effects random intercept logistic regression. 94 lessons given by 55 teachers with 500 student ratings were analyzed. Neither teaching motivation nor teaching self-efficacy were directly associated with students' rating of teaching quality. Teachers' perceptions of students' competencies and students' general interest in the lesson's subject were positively associated with students' rating of teaching quality. Physicians' perceptions of their students' competencies were significantly positively predicted by their teaching self-efficacy. Teaching quality
Bloomfield, Linda; Kendall, Sally
To explore whether changes in parenting self-efficacy after attending a parenting programme are related to changes in parenting stress and child behaviour. Adverse parenting is a risk factor in the development of a range of health and behavioural problems in childhood and is predictive of poor adult outcomes. Strategies for supporting parents are recognised as an effective way to improve the health, well-being and development of children. Parenting is influenced by many factors including the behaviour and characteristics of the child, the health and psychological well-being of the parent and the contextual influences of stress and support. Parenting difficulties are a major source of stress for parents, and parenting self-efficacy has been shown to be an important buffer against parenting stress. In all, 63 parents who had a child under the age of 10 years took part in the research. Of those, 58 returned completed measures of parenting self-efficacy, parenting stress and child behaviour at the start of a parenting programme and 37 at three-month follow-up. Improvements in parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress were found at follow-up, but there was less evidence for improvements in child behaviour. The findings clearly suggest a relationship between parenting self-efficacy and parenting stress; parents who are feeling less efficacious experience higher levels of stress, whereas greater parenting self-efficacy is related to less stress. This study adds to the evidence that parent outcomes may be a more reliable measure of programme effectiveness than child outcomes at least in the short term.
Kraus, Shane W; Rosenberg, Harold; Tompsett, Carolyn J
This study evaluated several psychometric properties of a newly developed questionnaire designed to assess individuals' self-efficacy (from 0% to 100%) to employ self-initiated cognitive-behavioral strategies intended to reduce the frequency and duration of their pornography use. Using a web-based data collection procedure, we recruited 1298 male users of pornography to complete questionnaires assessing hypersexuality, pornography use history, and general self-efficacy. Based on a principal component analysis and examination of inter-item correlations, we deleted 13 items from the initial pool of 21 strategies. The resulting 8-item questionnaire had excellent internal consistency reliability, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation considered indicative of unidimensionality. In support of criterion validity, self-efficacy to employ use-reduction strategies was significantly associated with the frequency with which participants used pornography, with scores on a measure of hypersexuality, and with the number of times one had attempted to cut back using pornography. In support of discriminant validity, we found that pornography use-reduction self-efficacy scores were not strongly correlated with general self-efficacy. Both researchers and clinicians could use this questionnaire to assess pornography users' confidence to employ self-initiated strategies intended to reduce the duration and frequency with which they use pornography. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Davis, Alan K; Osborn, Lawrence A; Rosenberg, Harold; Cross, Nicole; Lauritsen, Kirstin J; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bradbury, Stacey; Feuille, Margaret; Lackey, Jennifer H; Hawley, Anna; Leith, Jaclyn
This study evaluated the cue-reactivity and several psychometric properties of a questionnaire designed to assess marijuana users' self-efficacy to employ 21 specific cognitive-behavioral strategies to reduce their marijuana use. Using a web-based recruitment and data-collection procedure, 513 regular marijuana users completed dependent measures following marijuana-related or control cue exposure. Although exposure to marijuana-related stimuli significantly increased reported craving, mean reduction-strategy self-efficacy scores did not differ as a function of cue exposure. Reliability analyses supported retaining all 21 items as a single scale. Reduction-strategy self-efficacy was positively associated with marijuana-refusal self-efficacy and with recent past use of reduction strategies, was negatively associated with quantity and frequency of marijuana use and marijuana-related problems, and was positively but weakly associated with general self-efficacy. The most frequently reported strategies that were employed reflected restricting marijuana use to once per day, not keeping a large stash available, turning down unwanted hits, and not obtaining more marijuana right away if one's supply runs out. These findings further support the reliability and validity of the questionnaire when administered to a diverse sample of regular marijuana users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rowbotham, Melodie; Owen, Rachel M
Clinical practicum experiences for nursing students provides the students an opportunity to apply concepts learned in class, practice skills learned in lab, and interact with patients, families, and other nurses. Although students look forward to these experiences, they often feel intimated and anxious about them. Clinical instructors play an important role in this experience and can either help or hinder student learning and self-efficacy. Using Bandura's Social Learning Theory as foundation, this descriptive study examined the relationship between perceived instructor effectiveness and student self-efficacy. Data were collected from a BSN school of nursing at a Midwestern USA comprehensive masters university. The instruments used were the Nursing Clinical Teacher Effectiveness Inventory (NCTEI) and the student self-efficacy (SSE) questionnaire. Participants (n = 236) were from a traditional nursing program with 86% female and 14% male. Data was analyzed using Pearson's correlation and MANCOVA. Results indicated: Out of the five areas of attributes, one area showed significant (p Students with high self-efficacy reported faculty who suggested ways to improve, identified strengths and weaknesses, observed frequently, communicated expectations, gives positive reinforcement ad corrects without belittling. This can help faculty develop behaviors that increases student learning and student self-efficacy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Korkmaz, Özgen; Altun, Halis
Students might have different type and different level of perceptions: Positive or negative perceptions on programming; a perception on benefit of programming, perceptions related to difficulties of programming process etc. The perception of student on their own competence is defined as self-efficacy. Based on the discussions reported in…
The article is devoted to individual differences in psychological characteristics, the influence of genotype and environment on individual diff erences in evoked potential of brain related to the execution of motor action, the role of genetic and environmental factors in individual characteristics of the parameters of sensorimotor activity, genetic and environmental factors in development of psychological traits.
Yun, Young-Bae; Kim, Ji-Eun
This experiment was designed to study the Orff Approach--a child-centered, developmental approach to music education that aims to enrich the imagination through the acceleration of psychological activities. The study was conducted in children who had exhibited problematic behavior possibly due to economical or psychological issues; it aimed to determine whether the Orff Approach satisfies educational and treatment purposes and is an acceptable alternative in improving self-expression, self-efficacy, and social skills. The experiment involved 43 elementary school children in South Korean households with a monthly income of 100% below the average (according to the National Basic Living Security Act, South Korea's Ministry of Health and Welfare), and the results showed an increase of the chil-dren's self-expression, self-efficacy, and social skills after musical activities with the Orff Approach. Also, children interacted with the musical activities--according to the Orff Approach--like a game.They noted that they were able to explain their thoughts and emotions better; their relationships with friends improved, as well. Therefore, this research is significant because it shows that musical activities according to the Orff Approach have possibilities to be utilized as a program for children's psychological and emotional support.
Mileviciute, Inga; Scott, Walter D; Mousseau, Alicia C
There is a need to understand resiliency factors which can be used to inform and design interventions to prevent externalizing problems, substance use, and depressive symptoms among American Indian (AI) youth. The present study examined the role of self-efficacy in externalizing problems, alcohol use, and depressive symptoms among AI youth from the North American plains. Participants for this study included 146 (53 boys and 93 girls) adolescents, with an age range of 13-18 (M = 14.5) years of age. High self-efficacy for resisting negative peer influences predicted both lower rates of alcohol use and fewer externalizing behaviors. Furthermore, higher levels of both academic and social self-efficacy predicted fewer depressive symptoms. The hypothesis that academic self-efficacy would predict depressive symptoms was not supported. As expected, the best-fitting path model showed self-efficacy for resisting negative peer influences predicting both alcohol use and externalizing problems, and social self-efficacy (as well as being female) predicting depressive symptoms among AI youth. Therefore, this study supports the importance of self-efficacy beliefs for alcohol use and externalizing problems, as well as depressive symptoms, among AI youth.
Kalichman, Seth C; Cain, Demetria; Fuhrel, Andrea; Eaton, Lisa; Di Fonzo, Kari; Ertl, Thom
Health behavior interventions are often grounded in Social Cognitive Theory, but instruments used to assess self-efficacy rely on verbal skills and yield scores that are highly positively skewed. Based on a review of the research literature and qualitative research with key informants, a pictographic medication adherence self-efficacy scale was developed. Two studies were conducted to test the pictographic and color visual analogue scale for assessing self-efficacy for medication adherence. Study 1 (N = 81) demonstrated that the pictographic self-efficacy scale was internally consistent (alpha = 0.68), time stable (2-week test-re-test r = 0.63), and showed evidence for convergent and divergent construct validity. Study 2 (N = 64) further supported the reliability of the pictographic self-efficacy scale with additional data supporting its convergent, divergent and criterion-related validity, including associations with medication adherence and HIV viral load. Distributions of self-efficacy scores approximated normal. This newly developed pictographic scale may be useful in assessing medication adherence self-efficacy in lower-literacy populations.
The underrepresentation of women in physics has been well documented and a source of concern for both policy makers and educators. My dissertation focuses on understanding the role self-efficacy plays in retaining students, particularly women, in introductory physics. I use an explanatory mixed methods approach to first investigate quantitatively the influence of self-efficacy in predicting success and then to qualitatively explore the development of self-efficacy. In the initial quantitative studies, I explore the utility of self-efficacy in predicting the success of introductory physics students, both women and men. Results indicate that self-efficacy is a significant predictor of success for all students. I then disaggregate the data to examine how self-efficacy develops differently for women and men in the introductory physics course. Results show women rely on different sources of self-efficacy than do men, and that a particular instructional environment, Modeling Instruction, has a positive impact on these sources of self-efficacy. In the qualitative phase of the project, this dissertation focuses on the development of self-efficacy. Using the qualitative tool of microanalysis, I introduce a methodology for understanding how self-efficacy develops moment-by-moment using the lens of self-efficacy opportunities. I then use the characterizations of self-efficacy opportunities to focus on a particular course environment and to identify and describe a mechanism by which Modeling Instruction impacts student self-efficacy. Results indicate that the emphasizing the development and deployment of models affords opportunities to impact self-efficacy. The findings of this dissertation indicate that introducing key elements into the classroom, such as cooperative group work, model development and deployment, and interaction with the instructor, create a mechanism by which instructors can impact the self-efficacy of their students. Results from this study indicate that
Meilstrup, Charlotte; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Nielsen, Line
OBJECTIVES: Emotional symptoms are widespread among adolescents with the highest prevalence among lower socioeconomic groups. Less is known about why and how to reduce this inequality but personal control, e.g., self-efficacy may be crucial. This study examines whether self-efficacy is a mediator...... in the association between occupational social class (OSC) and emotional symptoms. METHODS: Data stem from the cross-sectional Health Behavior in School-aged Children-Methodology Development Survey 2012 (HBSC-MDS) conducted among 11-15-year old schoolchildren in two Danish municipalities. Participation rate was 76.......8 % of 5165 enrolled schoolchildren, n = 3969. RESULTS: Low OSC is associated with higher odds of daily emotional symptoms and low selfefficacy. Schoolchildren with low self-efficacy have higher odds for daily emotional symptoms. We find a strong and statistically significant direct effect between low OSC...
Volkmann, Tyson; Wagner, Karla D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Ompad, Danielle C; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L
Male clients of female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico engage in high levels of unprotected sex. While behavioral change theories posit that self-efficacy predicts condom use, correlates of self-efficacy for condom use remain largely unstudied. We examined these correlates among male clients of FSWs in Tijuana. Eligible male clients were at least 18 years of age, HIV-negative, lived in Tijuana or San Diego, reported unprotected sex with a Tijuana FSW at least once in the past 4 months, and agreed to be treated for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire including demographics, substance use, psychosocial and psychosexual characteristics (e.g., outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, social support, and sexual sensation seeking), and sexual behaviors. Participants also underwent HIV/STI testing. A stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analysis identified correlates of self-efficacy for condom use. Of 393 male clients, median age was 37 years. Participants were mostly Spanish-speaking and employed. Factors independently associated with higher self-efficacy for condom use were higher positive outcome expectancies for negotiation of safer sex, lower sexual sensation seeking scores, and higher social support scores. Both psychosocial and psychosexual factors may influence self-efficacy for condom use among male clients of FSWs. These factors represent central constructs in sociocognitive models that explain behavioral change and could be intervention targets for improving self-efficacy for condom use and, ultimately, safer sex behavior.
Schui, Gabriel; Fell, Clemens; Krampen, Günter
Positive Psychology (PP) is a relatively new school of thought in Psychology, focusing on human strengths and virtues, and on improving well-being and quality of life. In its aim and scope, it bears special relation to the fields of Behavioral Medicine (BM) and Health Psychology (HP). Building upon a recent bibliometric analysis (Schui & Krampen, 2010), we trace the impact, PP had on these larger fields by evaluating the corresponding literature found in the PsycINFO-database.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rising prevalence of secondary conditions among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI has focused recent attention to potential health promotion programs designed to reduce such adverse health conditions. A healthy lifestyle for people with SCI, including and specifically, the adoption of a vigorous exercise routine, has been shown to produce an array of health benefits, prompting many providers to recommend the implementation of such activity to those with SCI. Successfully adopting such an exercise regimen however, requires confidence in one's ability to engage in exercise or exercise self-efficacy. Exercise self-efficacy has not been assessed adequately for people with SCI due to a lack of validated and reliable scales, despite self efficacy's status as one of the most widely researched concepts and despite its broad application in health promotion studies. Exercise self efficacy supporting interventions for people with SCI are only meaningful if appropriate measurement tools exist. The objective of our study was to develop a psychometrically sound exercise self-efficacy self-report measure for people with SCI. Methods Based on literature reviews, expert comments and cognitive testing, 10 items were included and made up the 4-point Likert SCI Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale (ESES in its current form. The ESES was administered as part of the first wave of a nationwide survey (n = 368 on exercise behavior and was also tested separately for validity in four groups of individuals with SCI. Reliability and validity testing was performed using SPSS 12.0. Results Cronbach's alpha was .9269 for the ESES. High internal consistency was confirmed in split-half (EQ Length Spearman Brown = .8836. Construct validity was determined using principal component factor analysis by correlating the aggregated ESES items with the Generalised Self Efficacy Scale (GSE. We found that all items loaded on one factor only and that there was a
Artino, Anthony R
Self-efficacy is a personal belief in one's capability to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances. Often described as task-specific self-confidence, self-efficacy has been a key component in theories of motivation and learning in varied contexts. Furthermore, over the last 34 years, educational researchers from diverse fields of inquiry have used the notion of self-efficacy to predict and explain a wide range of human functioning, from athletic skill to academic achievement. This article is not a systematic review of the empirical research on self-efficacy; instead, its purpose is to describe the nature and structure of self-efficacy and provide a brief overview of several instructional implications for medical education. In doing so, this article is meant to encourage medical educators to consider and explicitly address their students' academic self-efficacy beliefs in an effort to provide more engaging and effective instruction.
Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405; Jilke, Sebastian; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341028274
Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing upon insights from psychology on behavior of individuals and groups. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on theories and
Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Davis, Larry; Saunders, Jeanne; Williams, Trina; Williams, James Herbert
School performance among African American youths continues to be a major concern. The promotion of self-esteem remains a major focus of school-based intervention programs designed to improve children's academic performance and behavior. Empirical data suggest that academic self-efficacy rather than self-esteem is the critical factor for school…
Nie, Youyan; Lau, Shun; Liau, Albert K.
Emphasizing task importance, which is regarded as a way of motivating engaged behavior, may increase an individual's anxiety. The present research investigated whether academic self-efficacy could moderate the maladaptive relation between task importance and test anxiety. 1978 and 1670 Grade 9 Singaporean students participated in a survey related…
McCusker, Jane; Lambert, Sylvie D.; Cole, Martin G.; Ciampi, Antonio; Strumpf, Erin; Freeman, Ellen E.; Belzile, Eric
Objectives: In a sample of primary care participants with chronic physical conditions and comorbid depressive symptoms: to describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of activation and self-efficacy with demographic, physical and mental health status, health behaviors, depression self-care, health care utilization, and use of…
Zullig, Keith J.; Teoli, Dac A.; Valois, Robert F.
This study examined relationships between emotional self-efficacy (ESE) and alcohol and tobacco use in a statewide sample of public high school adolescents (n?=?2,566). The Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey and an adolescent ESE scale were utilized. Logistic regression analyses indicated the presence of any significant race by…
Beavers, Amy S.; Murphy, Lindsay; Richards, Jennifer K.
A successfully targeted intervention can influence food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, as well as encourage participants to recognize their own responsibility for safe food handling. This acknowledgement of an individual's responsibility and capacity to address food safety can be understood as self-efficacy of food safety (SEFS). This…
DeChenne, Sue Ellen; Enochs, Larry G.; Needham, Mark
The graduate experience is a critical time for development of academic faculty, but often there is little preparation for teaching during the graduate career. Teaching self-efficacy, an instructor's belief in his or her ability to teach students in a specific context, can help to predict teaching behavior and student achievement, and can be used…
Two decades have now passed since Bandura (1986) introduced the concept of self-efficacy within the social cognitive theory of human behavior. He defined it as "people's judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances" (1986). Much empirical evidence now supports the…
Chen, Huey-Shys; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Ho, Ching-Sung
Background: Cigarette smoking is a health-risk behavior of global proportions. Self-efficacy plays an important role in both smoking acquisition and smoking resistance. Reliability and validity of an instrument is fundamental to research results, particularly in its simplified form on a different population. The purpose of this study was to…
Carpi Ballester, Amparo; Gonzalez Navarro, Pilar; Zurriaga Llorens, Rosario; Marzo Campos, Juan Carlos; Buunk, Abraham P.
From the Theory of Planed Behaviour (TPB), the aim of this study is to analyse the effect of self-efficacy and perceived control on intention and preventive behaviors of cardiovascular disease. To this end, 359 participants were evaluated in an empirical study. Data were analysed using the
Hadley, Jade; Mowbray, Tony; Jacobs, Nicky
Proactive aggression (PA) is goal-directed, hostile social behavior that has been linked to detrimental outcomes. It has been theorized that adolescents who believe aggression is a normal and acceptable social response (approval of aggression) are more likely to show PA. Confidence in one's ability to behave aggressively (self-efficacy about…
George, Gerard; Camarata, M. R.
Discussion of educational technology innovations focuses on some of the behavioral challenges facing the drive toward multimedia instruction and suggests a method by which instructor resistance to technological change can be lessened or eliminated based on the concept of self-efficacy. A typology of instructors is explained. (Author/LRW)
Golmakani, Nahid; Zare, Zahra; Khadem, Nayereh; Shareh, Hossein; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi
Background: Selection and acceptance of appropriate sexual behavior and sexual function are made difficult by low sexual self-efficacy in the postpartum period. The general purpose of this research is to define the effects of an 8-week pelvic floor muscle exercise program on sexual self-efficacy in primiparous women after childbirth. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 79 primiparous women who referred to health care centers, Mashhad, Iran in 2013, 8 weeks after delive...
Melancon, Claudiane; Gagne, Marie-Helene
Maternal and paternal psychological violence were examined as potential risk factors for internalized and externalized behavior problems displayed by adolescents. Childhood family violence (physical and psychological parental violence), current extrafamily violence (bullying and dating violence), and family structure were taken into account. A…
Jing Han; Xiaoyuan Chu; Huicun Song; Yuan Li
This study internalized social capital on the basis of traditional study of the influence of economic factors on self-efficacy, and studied the relationship among the family socio-economic status, social capital and self-efficacy. Based on the theoretical analysis, with first-hand data collection and using multiple regression models, the paper studied the intermediate effect of social capital in the relationship between the socioeconomic status and self-efficacy. We draw on the following conc...
Cicilia Tanti Utami
Full Text Available This article examined the correlation between self-efficacy and resilience with meta-analytic technique. The quanitative review includes 20 correlations from 15 studies. Two artifacts allow for correction in these study are sampling error and measurement error. Summary analysis provided support for the hypothesis that self-efficacy has a positive correlation to resilience. The result shows that the correlation of self-efficacy and resilience is 0.591, with the confidence level is 95%.
Thaemin Lee; Cheol Park; Jongkun Jun
This study examines the positive and negative effects of mobile shopping. It identifies and tests the antecedents and consequences of self-efficacy and impulse buying that result from mobile shopping. The results reveal that perceived convenience, perceived ease of response, and perceived control significantly affect self-efficacy and impulse buying. In addition, the results demonstrate that significant relationships exist between self-efficacy and satisfaction, and impulse buying and regret....
Eklund, A.; Bergstrom, G.; Bodin, L.
Background: Psychological, behavioral and social factors have long been considered important in the development of persistent pain. Little is known about how chiropractic low back pain (LBP) patients compare to other LBP patients in terms of psychological/behavioral characteristics. Methods......: The data show statistically significant overall differences across samples for the subgroups based on psychological and behavioral characteristics. The cluster classifications placed (in terms of the proportions of the adaptive copers and dysfunctional subgroups) sample A between B and the two secondary...... care samples C and D. Conclusions: The chiropractic primary care sample was more affected by pain and worse off with regards to psychological and behavioral characteristics compared to the other primary care sample. Based on our findings from the MPI-S instrument the 4 samples may be considered...
Judd, L.L.; Schettler, P.J.; Brown, E.S.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Sternberg, E.M.; Bender, B.G.; Bulloch, K.; Cidlowski, J.A.; Kloet, E.R. de; Fardet, L.; Joels, M.; Leung, D.Y.; McEwen, B.S.; Roozendaal, B.; Rossum, E.F. van; Ahn, J.; Brown, D.W.; Plitt, A.; Singh, G.
Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as
Judd, Lewis L.; Schettler, Pamela J.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Wolkowitz, Owen M.; Sternberg, Esther M.; Bender, Bruce G.; Bulloch, Karen; Cidlowski, John A.; de Kloet, E. Ronald; Fardet, Laurence; Joëls, Marian; Leung, Donald Y. M.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Roozendaal, Benno; Van Rossum, Elisabeth F. C.; Ahn, Junyoung; Brown, David W.; Plitt, Aaron; Singh, Gagandeep
Glucocorticoids are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressant medications worldwide. This article highlights the risk of clinically significant and sometimes severe psychological, cognitive, and behavioral disturbances that may be associated with glucocorticoid use, as well as
Morris, Edward K
Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001) Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a ...
43 Chinese postgraduate education students (16 men and 27 women), whose mean age was 33.5 yr., completed a questionnaire measuring superstitious beliefs (Superstitious Beliefs Scale) and self-efficacy (General Perceived Self-efficacy Scale). Higher scores on belief in superstition were associated with lower rated self-efficacy. While not significant, the observed correlation of -.28 between superstitious belief and self-efficacy was of a similar magnitude and in the same direction as that previously reported for western students. Such cross-cultural validation is consistent with the generality of this relationship. Suggestions for further research are made.
Full Text Available AbstractThe objective of this study is to find out the characteristics of teacher’s performance, spiritual intelligence, and self-efficacy also to find out the correlation between spiritual intelligence, self-efficacy either individually or collectively, and teacher’s performance at Madrasah Aliyah Al-Fatah. The descriptive and correlation method was used in this study. The population was teachers at MA Al-Fatah. The total number of respondents was 20. The technique for collecting the data was: psychological scale and questionnaire. The quantitative technique was used to analyze the data. The result of the study shows that: 1 most of the teachers (70 were at fair category based on the performance. 2 most of the teachers (65% were at fair category based on the spiritual intelligence. 3 most of the teachers (70% were at fair category based on the self-efficacy. 4 there were a positive and significant correlation between spiritual intelligence and teacher’s performance with contribution of 69.06%. 5 there was no a significant positive and correlation between self-efficacy and teacher’s performance with contribution of 17.72%. 6 there were a positive and significant correlation between spiritual intelligence and self-efficacy individually and collectively with contribution of 69.10%. Keywords: spiritual intelligence, self-efficacy, teacher’s performance
Ste-Marie, Diane M; Carter, Michael J; Law, Barbi; Vertes, Kelly; Smith, Victoria
Research has shown learning advantages for self-controlled practice contexts relative to yoked (i.e., experimenter-imposed) contexts; yet, explanations for this phenomenon remain relatively untested. We examined, via path analysis, whether self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation are important constructs for explaining self-controlled learning benefits. The path model was created using theory-based and empirically supported relationships to examine causal links between these psychological constructs and physical performance. We hypothesised that self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation would have greater predictive power for learning under self-controlled compared to yoked conditions. Participants learned double-mini trampoline progressions, and measures of physical performance, self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation were collected over two practice days and a delayed retention day. The self-controlled group (M = 2.04, SD = .98) completed significantly more skill progressions in retention than their yoked counterparts (M = 1.3, SD = .65). The path model displayed adequate fit, and similar significant path coefficients were found for both groups wherein each variable was predominantly predicted by its preceding time point (e.g., self-efficacy time 1 predicts self-efficacy time 2). Interestingly, the model was not moderated by group; thus, failing to support the hypothesis that self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation have greater predictive power for learning under self-controlled relative to yoked conditions.
Kao, Chia-Pin; Wu, Ying-Tien; Tsai, Chin-Chung
This study was conducted to explore the relationships between teachers' motivation toward web-based professional development, Internet self-efficacy, and beliefs about web-based learning. By gathering questionnaire data from 484 elementary school teachers, this study indicated that the teachers' Internet self-efficacy and behavioral beliefs about…
Grimmelikhuijsen, S.G.; Jilke, Sebastian; Leth Olsen, Asmus; Tummers, L.G.
We propose behavioral public administration as a designated subfield in public administration which explicitly deals with the integration of theories and methods from psychology into the study of public administration. We discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw on both methodological and theoretical innovations in psychology and point to research questions in public administration which could benefit from further integration. Behavioral public administration cannot, and s...
K A Ivanenko
Full Text Available This article reviews the current models of the voter behavior and proves the need in creating a new overarching conceptual framework, finding the integral social-psychological factor of the voter decision making. The public opinion is regarded as such a factor. The article presents the findings of the latest psychological research, devoted to the analysis of the connection between the different components of public opinion and electoral behavior.
Mustafa, M.; Martin, L; Hughes, M.
Despite the importance of middle managers’ entrepreneurial behavior for corporate entrepreneurship, there is still a lack of knowledge about its determinants. Knowledge of the role of individual psychological states and work attitudes remains particularly thin. Through an empirical investigation into 136 middle managers in a large Singapore telecommunications firm, this study finds that psychological ownership is positively related to entrepreneurial behavior and job satisfaction within these...
Hernández Blasi, Carlos; Causey, Kayla
This is an introduction to this special issue on evolutionary psychology (EP) and evolutionary developmental psychology (EDP). We suggest here that, contrary to some common assumptions, mainstream psychology continues to be essentially non Darwinian and that EP and EDP are new approaches that can potentially help us to change this situation. We then present the organization of the special issue (composed of six papers). We conclude that evolution is certainly not the final consideration in psychology, but emphasize its importance as the basis upon which all modern behaviors and development are built.
Jackson, Ben; Compton, Josh; Whiddett, Ryan; Anthony, David R.; Dimmock, James A.
Although inoculation messages have been shown to be effective for inducing resistance to counter-attitudinal attacks, researchers have devoted relatively little attention toward studying the way in which inoculation theory principles might support challenges to psychological phenomena other than attitudes (e.g., self-efficacy). Prior to completing a physical (i.e., balance) task, undergraduates (N = 127, Mage = 19.20, SD = 2.16) were randomly assigned to receive either a control or inoculation message, and reported their confidence in their ability regarding the upcoming task. During the task, a confederate provided standardized negative feedback to all participants regarding their performance, and following the completion of the task, participants again reported their self-efficacy along with measures assessing in-task processes. Findings supported the viability of efficacy inoculation; controlling for pre-task self-efficacy, task performance, and relevant psycho-social variables (e.g., resilience, self-confidence robustness), participants in the inoculation condition reported greater confidence in their ability (i.e., task self-efficacy) than those in the control condition at post-task. Relative to those in the inoculation condition, participants in the control condition also experienced greater concentration disruption and self-presentation concerns during the task. PMID:25898287
Ng, Alexander; Kennedy, Patricia; Hutchinson, Brian; Ingram, Anna; Vondrell, Suzanne; Goodman, Terri; Miller, Deborah
To determine if an intensive wellness program for persons with MS results in improved self-efficacy, quality of life (QOL), or physical activity outcomes. 129 subjects participated in one of seven 4-day interdisciplinary educational wellness programs throughout the United States. This intervention was based on the philosophy that health management is important to disease management. The program consisted of psychological and physiological evaluations, lectures and workshops. Before the intervention and after at 1, 3 and 6 months, self-efficacy (MS Self-Efficacy Scale, MSSE, control), health related QOL (SF-36) and physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for Persons with Physical Disabilities, PASAID) was assessed. Improvements were noted at 1, 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Those present at 6 months included, MSSE, role physical, vitality and mental health scales of the SF-36. PASAID did not change. Improvements were independent of disability (EDSS). A 4-day multidisciplinary educational wellness program can result in improvement in self-efficacy and health-related QOL in persons with MS and can be stable up to at least 6 months. Improvements do not depend on degree of disability.
Jackson, Ben; Compton, Josh; Whiddett, Ryan; Anthony, David R; Dimmock, James A
Although inoculation messages have been shown to be effective for inducing resistance to counter-attitudinal attacks, researchers have devoted relatively little attention toward studying the way in which inoculation theory principles might support challenges to psychological phenomena other than attitudes (e.g., self-efficacy). Prior to completing a physical (i.e., balance) task, undergraduates (N = 127, Mage = 19.20, SD = 2.16) were randomly assigned to receive either a control or inoculation message, and reported their confidence in their ability regarding the upcoming task. During the task, a confederate provided standardized negative feedback to all participants regarding their performance, and following the completion of the task, participants again reported their self-efficacy along with measures assessing in-task processes. Findings supported the viability of efficacy inoculation; controlling for pre-task self-efficacy, task performance, and relevant psycho-social variables (e.g., resilience, self-confidence robustness), participants in the inoculation condition reported greater confidence in their ability (i.e., task self-efficacy) than those in the control condition at post-task. Relative to those in the inoculation condition, participants in the control condition also experienced greater concentration disruption and self-presentation concerns during the task.
Full Text Available Although inoculation messages have been shown to be effective for inducing resistance to counter-attitudinal attacks, researchers have devoted relatively little attention toward studying the way in which inoculation theory principles might support challenges to psychological phenomena other than attitudes (e.g., self-efficacy. Prior to completing a physical (i.e., balance task, undergraduates (N = 127, Mage = 19.20, SD = 2.16 were randomly assigned to receive either a control or inoculation message, and reported their confidence in their ability regarding the upcoming task. During the task, a confederate provided standardized negative feedback to all participants regarding their performance, and following the completion of the task, participants again reported their self-efficacy along with measures assessing in-task processes. Findings supported the viability of efficacy inoculation; controlling for pre-task self-efficacy, task performance, and relevant psycho-social variables (e.g., resilience, self-confidence robustness, participants in the inoculation condition reported greater confidence in their ability (i.e., task self-efficacy than those in the control condition at post-task. Relative to those in the inoculation condition, participants in the control condition also experienced greater concentration disruption and self-presentation concerns during the task.
Wolstenholme, Daniel; Downes, Tom; Leaver, Jackie; Partridge, Rebecca; Langley, Joe
Advances in surgical and medical management have significantly reduced the length of time that patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have to stay in hospital, but has left patients with potentially less time to adjust psychologically.\\ud Following a pilot in 2012, this project was designed to test the effect of "design thinking" workshops on the self-efficacy of people undergoing rehabilitation following spinal injuries.\\ud Design thinking is about understanding the approaches and methods th...
Rohmatun Rohmatun; Taufik Taufik
This research is aimed at investigating the correlation between selfefficacy and authoritarian parenting style toward student s’ academic procrastination. The subject of this research is 150 students of faculty of of Psychology, Medicine, and Economy of Sultan Agung Islamic University who are working on the final project. The major hypothesis proposed in the research is that there is a correlation between self-efficacy and authoritarian parenting style with students’ academic procrastination...
Full Text Available Background Controlling diabetes requires management of the relationship between the patient and the initial attention team. Social and environmental factors lead to lifestyle variations in relation to the health care, community support, and social support received. Theess areas have an effect upon patients’ self-organization and self-efficacy. Self-efficacy can be recognized objectively as one of the strongest predictors of a patient’s physical condition, causing behavior variations. It can be defined as an individual’s level of trust in his/her ability to adopt a particular kind of behavior. Objectives The aim of this study is to examine the roles of social support and self-efficacy in predicting the level of adjustment to living with diabetes in diabetic patients. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the ability to predict diabetic patients’ adjustment to diabetes through analyzing levels of social support and self-efficacy. The population used for this survey was a random sample of 167 diabetic patients, who were dependent on insulin injections. The participants were 18 to 60 years old and had been members of the Iranian Diabetes Society since 2014. They were asked to complete Sullivan’s “adjustment to diabetes” test, and were examined using 1 Zimet’s Multidimensional Scale of social support and 2 the Coping Self-efficacy scale for confrontation of problems. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS (version 16 statistical software package, for which Pearson’s correlation test and the multiple regression method (linear method were used. Results The data revealed that self-efficacy (P < 0.001 and social support (P < 0.001 are indicators than can significantly anticipate levels of adjustment in diabetic patients. Moreover, it has been revealed that self-efficiency plays a significant and, indeed, fundamental role in adjustment anticipation. Conclusions It can be concluded that self-efficacy and
Cloutier, Michelle M.; Tennen, Howard; Wakefield, Dorothy B.; Brazil, Kevin; Hall, Charles B.
Objectives The association between changes in clinician self-efficacy and readiness to change and implementation of an asthma management program (Easy Breathing©) was examined. Methods A 36 month randomized, controlled trial was conducted involving 24 pediatric practices (88 clinicians). Randomized clinicians received interventions designed to enhance clinician self-efficacy and readiness to change which were measured at baseline and 3 years. Interventions consisted of an educational toolbox, seminars, teleconferences, mini-fellowships, opinion leader visits, clinician-specific feedback, and pay for performance. The primary outcome was program utilization (number of children enrolled in Easy Breathing/year); secondary outcomes included development of a written treatment plan and severity-appropriate therapy. Results At baseline, clinicians enrolled 149 ± 147 (mean ± SD) children/clinician/year; 84% of children had a written treatment plan and 77% of plans used severity-appropriate therapy. At baseline, higher self-efficacy scores were associated with greater program utilization (Relative Rate (RR) 1.34 (95% Confidence Interval 1.04, 1.72), p=0.04) but not treatment plan development (RR 0.63 (0.29, 1.35), p=.23) or anti-inflammatory use (RR 1.76 (0.92, 3.35), p=.09). Intervention clinicians participated in 17 interventions over 36 months. At study end, self-efficacy scores increased in intervention clinicians compared to control clinicians (p=0.01) and more clinicians were in an action stage of change (p=0.001) but these changes were not associated with changes in primary or secondary outcomes. Conclusions Self-efficacy scores correlated with program use at baseline and increased in the intervention arm but these increases were not associated with greater program-related activities. Self-efficacy may be necessary but not sufficient for behavior change. PMID:22634077
Hanners, Grace D.
Standardized test data indicate that student achievement in science is a problem both nationally and locally. At the study site, only a small percentage of fifth-grade students score at the advanced level on the Maryland state science assessment (MSA). In addition, the performance of African American, economically disadvantaged, and special education students is well below that of the general student population. Some studies have shown that teacher self-efficacy affects student achievement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between fifth-grade teacher inquiry science instruction self-efficacy scores and the scores of their students on the MSA. Bandura's work on the effect of self-efficacy on human behavior provided the theoretical basis for this study. The research questions examined the relationship between teacher inquiry science instructional self-efficacy scores and students' science MSA scores as well as the relationship by student subgroups. A correlational research design was used. The Teaching Science as Inquiry survey instrument was used to quantify teacher self-efficacy, and archival MSA data were the source for student scores. The study included data from 22 teachers and 1,625 of their students. A 2-tailed Pearson coefficient analysis revealed significant, positive relationships with regard to overall student achievement ( r20 = .724, p < .01) and the achievement of each of the subgroups (African American: r20 = .549, p < .01; economically disadvantaged: r20 = .655, p < .01; and special education: r18 = .532, p < .05). The results of this study present an opportunity for positive social change because the local school system can provide professional development that may increase teacher inquiry science instruction self-efficacy as a possible means to improve overall science achievement and to reduce achievement gaps.
Richardson, Arlisa Labrie
This study utilizes Bandura's theory of self-efficacy as a framework to examine the development of tinkering skills white working on a freshman engineering design team. The four sources of self-efficacy were analyzed in the context of tinkering within the design team. The research question, 'Does tinkering self-efficacy change for female students during the Freshman Engineering Design class while working on mixed sex teams?', was addressed using quantitative data collection and field observations. Approximately 41 students enrolled in a freshman engineering design class at a public university in the southwest participated by providing self-reports about their tinkering involvement during each design project. In addition, three mixed-sex student teams were observed while working to complete the course design projects. An observation protocol based on Bandura's sources of self efficacy, was used to document tinkering interactions within the three observed teams. The results revealed that Bandura's sources of self-efficacy influenced tinkering involvement. The self-efficacy source, performance accomplishment measured through prior tinkering experience, was the most influential on tinkering involvement. Unlike Bandura's ranking of influence, verbal persuasion was shown to correlate with more tinkering behaviors than the observation of others. The number of females on a team had no impact on tinkering involvement. Tinkering involvement did not change as students progressed from one project to another. However, the competitive nature of the design project appeared to have a negative impact on tinkering involvement and the division of tasks within the team. In addition, a difference was found in the female students' perception of their tinkering involvement and observation of their tinkering involvement. The findings suggest that effective implementation of teamwork including teamwork preparation, more emphasis on the design process and the elimination of competition
Iancu, Iulian; Bodner, Ehud; Ben-Zion, Itzhak Z
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fear and avoidance in social situations where one perceives being in danger of scrutiny by others. Low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, high self-criticism and high dependency are additional potential features of SAD, and thus their examination is warranted, as is the elucidation of their inter-relationship. Thirty-two SAD subjects diagnosed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and 30 healthy controls, were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire (DEQ) that assesses self-criticism, dependency and self-efficacy, and a socio-demographic questionnaire. We hypothesized that the SAD group would present higher scores of dependency and self-criticism and lower self-esteem and self-efficacy. We also hypothesized that low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, high self-criticism and high dependency will predict the severity of SAD. In line with the hypotheses, SAD patients had higher scores of self-criticism and dependency and lower scores of self-esteem. The social anxiety score correlated negatively with self-esteem and self-efficacy, and positively with dependency and self-criticism. Self-criticism, but not the other measures, predicted the total LSAS score. Self-esteem, self-criticism, dependency and self-efficacy are related to SAD and their relations should be examined in future studies that will employ larger samples. It is suggested to search for ways to affect these factors through cognitive-behavioral interventions and additional psychotherapeutic treatments. Research should also focus on the specific role of self-criticism in SAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is a common chronic disease that is increasingly observed in almost all countries of the world. The treatment and prevention of diabetes largely depend on patients’ self-efficacy in performing self-care behaviors. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and sexual performance in patients with type II diabetes. Methods: In the present correlational study, 200 patients with type II diabetes (based on physicians’ diagnosis participated. Using convenience sampling method, the samples were selected out of the whole population of diabetic patients who referred to Shahid Bahonar and Rajaei Hospitals in the city of Karaj (Iran. The data were collected through a multi-faceted questionnaire covering demographic characteristics of the participants, the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI and the Male Sexual Function Index (MSFI. Then, the collected data were analyzed through Pearson correlation test, multiple linear regression analysis, independent t-test and ANOVA. Results: The results showed a positive significant relationship between self-efficacy and sexual function (p<0.001; regression coefficient of the predictor variable ‘self-efficacy’ was 0.217 (p<0.017. Conclusion: Self-efficacy plays an important role in the lives of diabetic patients; it is also important in sexual performance of diabetic patients. Therefore, based on the results of this study, the significant relationship between self-efficacy and sexual function must be considered in the treatment of patients with type II diabetes.
Collaborative teamwork is a common practice in both science and engineering schools and workplaces. This study, using a mixed-methods approach, was designed to identify which team discourse characteristics are correlated with changes in student self-efficacy and achievement. Bandura's self-efficacy theory constitutes the theoretical framework. Seven teams, consisting of first-year engineering students, took the pre- and post-surveys and were video- and audio-recorded during a semester-long Introduction to Engineering Design course. Three instruments were developed: a self-efficacy survey, a team interaction observation protocol, and a team interaction self-report survey. The reliability and validity of these instruments were established. An iterative process of code development and refinement led to the development of thirty-five discourse types, which were grouped under six discourse categories: task-oriented, response-oriented, learning-oriented, support-oriented, challenge-oriented, and disruptive. The results of the quantitative data analysis showed that achievement and gain in self-efficacy were significantly correlated ( r=.55, pteamwork can lead to achievement to the extent that it supports self-efficacy. They also suggest that interactions such as receiving positive or negative feedback have less impact on self-efficacy than does the overall constructive behavior of the group. The qualitative component of the study, which focused on three case studies, presents how supportive and disruptive interactions occurred during team discourse. Discussion includes recommendations for educators on how to help teams build supportive environments as well as what to look for when forming teams and evaluating student team interactions.
Tilden, Ellen L.; Caughey, Aaron B.; Lee, Christopher S.; Emeis, Cathy
Objective To synthesize and critique the quantitative literature on measuring childbirth self-efficacy and the effect of childbirth self-efficacy on perinatal outcomes. Data Sources Eligible studies were identified through searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Study Selection Published research using a tool explicitly intended to measure childbirth self-efficacy and also examining outcomes within the perinatal period were included. All manuscripts were in English and published in peer-reviewed journals. Data Extraction First author, country, year of publication, reference and definition of childbirth self-efficacy, measurement of childbirth self-efficacy, sample recruitment and retention, sample characteristics, study design, interventions (with experimental and quasi-experimental studies), and perinatal outcomes were extracted and summarized. Data Synthesis Of 619 publications, 23 studies published between 1983 and 2015 met inclusion criteria and were critiqued and synthesized in this review. Conclusions There is overall consistency in how childbirth self-efficacy is defined and measured among studies, facilitating comparison and synthesis. Our findings suggest that increased childbirth self-efficacy is associated with a wide variety of improved perinatal outcomes. Moreover, there is evidence that childbirth self-efficacy is a psychosocial factor that can be modified through various efficacy-enhancing interventions. Future researchers will be able to build knowledge in this area through: (a) utilization of experimental and quasi-experimental design; (b) recruitment and retention of more diverse samples; (c) explicit reporting of definitions of terms (e.g. ‘high risk’); (d) investigation of interventions that increase childbirth self-efficacy during pregnancy; and, (e) investigation regarding how childbirth self-efficacy enhancing interventions might lead to decreased active labor pain and suffering. Exploratory research should
Nakade, Makiko; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Imai, Eri; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi
A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7593 adults to clarify lifestyle and psychosocial characteristics of breakfast skippers with different intention and self-efficacy toward eating breakfast. Data were obtained from Japan's national survey in 2009. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the characteristics of each breakfast skipper (having intention and self-efficacy toward eating breakfast [IS], having intention but not self-efficacy [INS], and not having intention to eat breakfast [NI]) compared with breakfast eaters. IS men were less likely to demonstrate understanding of healthy eating. INS and NI men were more likely to eat alone. INS and NI women were less likely to demonstrate understanding of healthy eating. NI men and women were less likely to report weight management behavior. Current smoking and being sleep-deprived were commonly associated with breakfast skipping in both sexes. Our results suggested the need for approaches considering type of breakfast skippers (eg, different intention and self-efficacy).
Evans, Robert Harry
Teacher development aimed at increasing the use of inquiry based methods in schools is an important way to reach science learning goals. To this end, the EC has promoted inquiry based science teaching (IBST) within the Seventh Framework Program (FP7). One dimension, typically absent from the FP7...... products, is the personal capacity belief of self- efficacy which has been shown to be important to personal behavioral change. The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of teacher professional development (TPD) which adds specific elements for altering teacher self...... included strategies for increasing participant’s self-efficacies. Pre and post assessments showed consistently improved personal self-efficacy scores in all of the workshops. In addition, and unlike other long-term studies of teachers, these self-efficacy scores did not significantly diminish over six...
Tudoran, Ana Alina; Scholderer, Joachim; Brunsø, Karen
-efficacy, respectively; whereas, the relationship promotion outcomeexpectations-intention was unaffected by the perceived levels of self-efficacy. The implications suggest that consumers’ motivation to adopt healthyfoodproducts, such as omega-3 supplements and omega-3 enriched products, should be encouraged......In this paper we apply the principle of RegulatoryFocus Theory to investigate the interaction between self-efficacy and outcomeexpectations on individuals’ intentions to adopt health behaviors. The participants, 959 individuals (Survey 1) and 2400 individuals (Survey 2), reported self......-efficacy beliefs and outcomeexpectations with regard to the consumption of omega-3 supplements and omega-3-enriched foodproducts. We found that the relationship prevention outcomeexpectations-intention was significantly attenuated at low levels of self-efficacy and strengthened at high levels of self...
Full Text Available Aims: The main purpose of the present study was to extend the Job Demand Control Support (JDCS model analyzing the direct and interactive role of occupational coping self-efficacy (OCSE beliefs. Background: OCSE concern an individual's beliefs about one's ability to cope with occupational stressors. The interplay between occupational stressors, job resources and self-efficacy beliefs is poorly investigated. The present research attempts to address this gap.Design: Cross-sectional survey.Method: Questionnaire data from 1479 nurses (65% response were analyzed. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the direct and moderating role of OCSE in conjunction with job demands (i.e., time pressure, and two job resources: job control (i.e., decision latitude and skill discretion and social support (i.e., supervisor support and coworker support in predicting psychological distress and well-being.Results: Our findings indicated that high demands, low job control and low social support additively predicted the distress/well-being outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, psychological distress, and somatic complaints. Beyond the main effects, no significant interactive effects of demands, control, and support were found. Occupational coping self-efficacy (OCSE accounted for an additional 1% to 4% of the variance in the outcomes, after controlling for the JDCS variables. In addition, the results indicate that occupational coping self-efficacy buffers the association between low job control and the distress dimensions emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and psychological distress. Low control was detrimental only for nurses with low occupational coping self-efficacy.Conclusion: Our results suggest expanding the JDCS model incorporating individual characteristics such as occupational coping self-efficacy beliefs, for predicting psychological distress and well-being. Limitations of the study and practical implications
Morris, Margaret E.; Lundell, Jay; Dishongh, Terry; Needham, Brad
This chapter describes a multiyear project with a team of social scientists and engineers at Intel focused on emerging technologies and successful aging. Theories of behavioral change are linked to the capabilities of emerging technologies for capturing and reflecting variability in activity and health status. The technologies described in this chapter reflect an attempt to integrate psychological theory and ethnographic research with ubiquitous computing. Ethnographic research that we conducted at the outset of this project consistently underscored the value of social engagement for successful aging. It also pointed out the significant social barriers encountered by many older adults. These barriers - which include changes in lifestyle, mobility, and cognitive functioning - are compounded by a perceived inability to change isolating circumstances. To address these social needs and barriers, we developed a set of prototypes involving sensor networks and feedback displays. This chapter describes the social health technologies that we developed, reactions of the older adults and family caregivers who participated in in-home trials, and implications for future development. We also describe the need for tools to encourage self-awareness and self-efficacy for a broad range of health concerns.
TfLN-Transforming Perspectives project
Explanation of what 'self-efficacy' is taken to mean in terms of student self-perception of ability, and relating that to the literature, current academic discourse and the use of the term in the TfLN context.
Lopez, J. Derek
This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…
The current study is a quantitative research that aims to investigate the university students' self-efficacy levels and their relation to their anxiety within an EFL context. To do this, a quantitative research was conducted to scrutinize the self-efficacy and anxiety levels of students at a state university. The participants of the study were 150…
Wernersbach, Brenna M.; Crowley, Susan L.; Bates, Scott C.; Rosenthal, Carol
Although study skills courses improve student retention, the impact of study skills courses on students' academic self-efficacy has not been investigated. The present study examined pre- and posttest levels of academic self-efficacy in college students enrolled in a study skills course (n = 126) compared to students enrolled in a general education…
This article describes a research project into the self-efficacy and anxiety of college English students at four universities in China. A total of 738 participants completed a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy and anxiety in writing in English. This was immediately followed by a writing task. The questionnaire used a seven point Likert type…
Vieluf, S.; Kuenther, M.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.
In the present study, teacher self-efficacy was examined in a cross-national setting. The cross-national generalizability of the scale and the meaning of cross-national variation in mean scores were investigated. Using data from TALIS involving 73,100 teachers in 23 countries, teacher self-efficacy
Dupere, Veronique; Leventhal, Tama; Vitaro, Frank
Self-efficacy beliefs are central to mental health. Because adolescents' neighborhoods shape opportunities for experiences of control, predictability, and safety, we propose that neighborhood conditions are associated with adolescents' self-efficacy and, in turn, their internalizing problems (i.e., depression/anxiety symptoms). We tested these…
Buldur, Serkan; Tatar, Nilgun
Determining the candidate teachers' opinions regarding self-efficacy towards alternative assessment will be beneficial in that this will improve their competencies while using these approaches in their applications within the classroom. In this article, the development and validation of the "Self-efficacy towards Using Alternative Assessment…
Sariçoban, Arif; Behjoo, Bahram Mohammadi
This study aims to scrutinize the possible relationship between academic self-efficacy beliefs and foreign language achievement among prospective ELT teachers. To do so, the data for the study were collected through a questionnaire, "College Academic Self-Efficacy Scale" adapted from Owen & Froman (1988), consisting of 33 items…
Information Literacy is a critical input in today's learning environment and indeed for lifelong learning. Information literacy could be contingent upon an intrinsic element such as self-efficacy belief. Thus, this study investigates the relationship between perceived self-efficacy and information literacy among library and ...
Zajacova, Anna; Lynch, Scott M.; Espenshade, Thomas J.
This paper investigates the joint effects of academic self-efficacy and stress on the academic performance of 107 nontraditional, largely immigrant and minority, college freshmen at a large urban commuter institution. We developed a survey instrument to measure the level of academic self-efficacy and perceived stress associated with 27…
Sehgal, Prachee; Nambudiri, Ranjeet; Mishra, Sushanta Kumar
Purpose: Teacher effectiveness has been a matter of concern not only for the parents and students but also for the policy makers, researchers, and educationists. Drawing from the "self-efficacy" theory (Bandura, 1977), the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between teacher self-efficacy and teacher effectiveness. In…
This study investigated the relationships between burnout and self-efficacy among school counselors. Also, the level of their burnout and self-efficacy was examined in terms of the social support, task perception and the number of students. A sample of 194 school counselors filled out the Maslach Burnout Inventory, The School Counselors…
The results showed that four motivational constructs (self-efficacy, intrinsic value, attainment value and cost), and four writing strategy categories (metacognitive, cognitive, affective and effort regulation) were significantly related to writing performance. The study also found that intrinsic value and self-efficacy contributed ...
Lane, Andrew M.; Hall, Ross; Lane, John
The present study explored predictive paths between performance accomplishments, self-efficacy, and performance among Sport Studies students taking a Level 1 statistics module. Fifty-eight Level 1 Sport Studies undergraduate degree students completed a 44-item self-efficacy measure and an assessment of perceived academic success at the start of…
Kunseler, F.C.; Hankel, M.A.; Balm, K.E.; Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.
Parental self-efficacy (PSE) is defined as "the expectation caregivers hold about their ability to parent successfully" (Jones & Prinz, 2005, p. 342). According to Bandura (1977), self-efficacy is based on four sources, including ‘performance accomplishments’: if successful experiences are repeated
The focus in this study is on developing a teacher training program for improving teachers’ science teaching self-efficacy. Teachers with a high sense of self-efficacy will set higher goals for themselves, are less afraid of failure and will find new strategies when old ones fail. If their sense of
Zundert, R.M.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kuntsche, E.N.
Recent research has shown that daily changes in self-efficacy predict lapses and relapse into smoking after quitting among adolescent daily smokers, but it is not known if and how momentary self-efficacy is associated with affect-motivational states and external contexts. In the present study, 134
Chen, Jason A.; Usher, Ellen L.
The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the latent profiles that arise from middle and high school students' (N = 1225) reported exposure to information from the four hypothesized sources of self-efficacy; (b) the relationships between these latent profiles and science self-efficacy and science achievement; and (c) the differences in…
Physical Self-Efficacy and Academic Level as Predictors Of University Maladjustment. UN Israel. Abstract. Self–efficacy is the belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to manage prospective situations. The goal of this study was to examine the influence of self-efficacy, academic level ...
Addresses issues concerning the extension of self-efficacy theory to memory functioning. Issues include perceived memory capabilities, memory self-appraisal, personal control over memory functioning, preservation of a favorable sense of memory self-efficacy, and strategies for generalizing the impact of training in memory skills. (RJC)
Heuven, Ellen; Bakker, Arnold B.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Huisman, Noortje
This study used a sample of 154 cabin attendants to examine the role of self-efficacy in the performance of emotion work. On the basis of the literature, we hypothesized that self-efficacy would have a moderating influence on the relationship between emotional job demands (i.e., feeling rules and emotionally charged interactions with passengers)…
Van Zundert, Rinka M P; Engels, Rutger C M E; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
Recent research has shown that daily changes in self-efficacy predict lapses and relapse into smoking after quitting among adolescent daily smokers, but it is not known if and how momentary self-efficacy is associated with affect-motivational states and external contexts. In the present study, 134 adolescent daily smokers were monitored daily during 1 week prior to and 3 weeks after they began their quit attempt. Participants completed questions on smoking, self-efficacy, affect-motivational states (craving and negative affect), and external contexts (seeing others smoke, experiencing a stressful event, and alcohol and coffee consumption) three times a day. Affect-motivational states as well as all external contexts (except for coffee consumption) were associated with lower self-efficacy when participants were still abstinent, but also after they had lapsed. Associations between the situational contexts and self-efficacy did not largely depend on individual characteristics such as baseline self-efficacy and age. Among girls, however, the negative associations between self-efficacy and negative affect and drinking alcohol were found to be stronger. These results show that adolescents' self-efficacy during a quit attempt may be responsive to affect-motivational states and external contexts, both before and after lapsing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
Meera, K. P.; Jumana, M. K.
This study reviews the relevant self-efficacy related literature, a central point of social cognitive theory, in the area of language learning. Role of self-efficacy in academic performance of learners is also considered. In the global world, English language has become the fundamental means of international affairs and communication. As a…
Workplace Spirituality, Computer Self-Efficacy And Emotional Labour As Predictors Of Job Satisfaction Among University Lecturers In Southwest Nigeria. ... The result showed that there were significant composite effect of workplace spirituality and computer self-efficacy on job satisfaction among university lecturers.
Ehrenberg, Marion F.; And Others
Examined the self-efficacy status of 366 depressed and nondepressed adolescents. Found that self-efficacy was negatively correlated with depression. Three-way interaction of Sex X Age X Level of Depression suggested separate analyses for males and females. Regression analysis revealed age-related changes in the dependence of depression scores on…
Vrugt, A.J.; Koenis, M.
Investigated the extent to which perceived self-efficacy, personal goals, and upward comparison predict the scientific productivity of academic staff members. 123 academic staff employed at different Dutch universities answered written questions about their judgment of self-efficacy in the area of
Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the career decision-making self-efficacy in a sample of 356 Turkish undergraduate students. Method: With this purpose, 356 (138 females; 218 males) Turkish undergraduate students aged 17-24 completed a Turkish-translated version of Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (CDSE-SF) to…
Smother, Anthony William
The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of "Career Cruising"© on self-efficacy of deciding majors in a university setting. The use of the self-assessment instrument, "Career Cruising"©, was used with measuring the career-decision making self-efficacy in a pre and post-test with deciding majors. The independent…
Ganske, Kathryn H.; Ashby, Jeffrey S.
This study investigated the relationship between perfectionism and career decision-making self-efficacy. Participants completed the Almost Perfect Scale-Revised (R. B. Slaney, K. G. Rice, M. Mobley, J. Trippi, & J. S. Ashby, 2001) and the Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy-Short Form (N. E. Betz, K. L. Klein, & K. M. Taylor, 1996). Adaptive…
Tierney, Pamela; Farmer, Steven M.
Building from an established framework of self-efficacy development, this study provides a longitudinal examination of the development of creative self-efficacy in an ongoing work context. Results show that increases in employee creative role identity and perceived creative expectation from supervisors over a 6-month time period were associated…
Kakudate, N; Morita, M; Fukuhara, S; Sugai, M; Nagayama, M; Kawanami, M; Chiba, I
In clinical practice, self-efficacy refers to how certain a patient feels about his or her ability to take the necessary action to improve the indicators and maintenance of health. It is assumed that the prognosis for patient behaviour can be improved by assessing the proficiency of their self-efficacy through providing psychoeducational instructions adapted for individual patients, and promoting behavioural change for self-care. Therefore, accurate assessment of self-efficacy is an important key in daily clinical preventive care. The previous research showed that the self-efficacy scale scores predicted patient behaviour in periodontal patients and mother's behaviour in paediatric dental practice. Self-efficacy belief is constructed from four principal sources of information: enactive mastery experience, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological and affective states. Thus, self-efficacy can be enhanced by the intervention exploiting these sources. The previous studies revealed that behavioural interventions to enhance self-efficacy improved oral-care behaviour of patients. Therefore, assessment and enhancement of oral-care specific self-efficacy is important to promote behaviour modification in clinical dental practice. However, more researches are needed to evaluate the suitability of the intervention method. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Yeo, Lay See; Tan, Kayce
This investigation examined the relationship between adolescent students' attributional style and their perceived academic self-efficacy using the Children's Attributional Style Questionnaire (CASQ) (Seligman et al., 1984) and Multidimensional Scales of Perceived Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1989). Attributional style, defined as the way in which…
L. Aben (Laurien); J.J. van Busschbach (Jan); R.W.H.M. Ponds (Rudolf W. H. M.); G.M. Ribbers (Gerard)
textabstractObjective: To explore whether Memory Self-efficacy is related to depression, neuroticism and coping in patients after stroke, as it is in healthy elderly subjects. Design: A cross-sectional design. The relation between Memory Self-efficacy and psychosocial factors was analysed using a
Concannon, James P.; Barrow, Lloyd H.
This study examines differences in women's engineering self-efficacy beliefs across grade levels in comparison to men's engineering self-efficacy (ESE) beliefs across grade levels. Data for this study was collected from 746 (635 men, 111 women) engineering students enrolled in a large research extensive university. Four major conclusions resulted…
Lemon, Narelle; Garvis, Susanne
Self-efficacy is an important motivational construct for primary school teachers (teachers of children aged 5-12 years) within Australia. Teacher self-efficacy beliefs will determine the level of teacher confidence and competence to engage with a task. In this study, we explore engagement with digital technology and the associated learning and…
Comparative Influence of Self-Efficacy, Social Support and PerceiIved Barriers on Low Physical Activity Development in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes, Hypertension ... Physical Activity Questionnaire, Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale, Medical Outcomes Social Support Scale and Exercise Benefits and Barrier Scale, respectively.
Interactive digital games can promote self-efficacy by engaging players in enactive and observational learning. However, interactivity does not always lead to greater self-efficacy. Important constructs in social cognitive theory, such as performance outcome and perceived similarity, are often not accounted for in studies that have tested the effect of digital game interactivity on self-efficacy. This study assessed the effects of interactive digital games compared with passive digital games based on video comparison, a common experimental design used to test the effect of digital game interactivity on self-efficacy. In addition, this study also evaluated player performance and measured perceived similarity to the observed player. Findings suggested that in general, digital game interactivity predicted higher self-efficacy compared with noninteractive passive games. However, in the noninteractive conditions, the effects of performance on self-efficacy were moderated by perceived similarity between the observer and the observed player. When the observed player was perceived to be similar to the observer, the effects of performance on self-efficacy were comparable to the interactive game, but when the observed player was perceived as dissimilar to the observer, observing the dissimilar player failed to increase observer self-efficacy. Implications for interactivity manipulations and game developers are discussed.
Llorca, Anna; Cristina Richaud, María; Malonda, Elisabeth
The aim of the present study is to analyze the relation between authoritative and permissive parenting styles with the kinds of adolescent peer relationships (attachment, victimization, or aggression), and of the latter ones, in turn, with academic self-efficacy, and academic performance, in three waves that range from the early-mid adolescence to late adolescence. Five hundred Spanish adolescents, of both sexes, participated in a three-wave longitudinal study in Valencia, Spain. In the first wave, adolescents were either in the third year of secondary school or the fourth year of secondary school. The mean age in the first wave was 14.70 ( SD = 0.68; range = 13-16 years). Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory (Schaefer, 1965; Samper et al., 2006), Peer Attachment (from the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment by Armsden and Greenberg, 1987), Victimization (from the Kit at School, Buhs et al., 2010), Physical and Verbal Aggression Scale (Caprara and Pastorelli, 1993; Del Barrio et al., 2001), items of academic self-efficacy, and items of academic performance were administered. Structural equations modeling-path analysis was employed to explore the proposed models. The results indicated that parenting styles relate to the way the adolescents develops attachments to their peers and to academic self-efficacy. The mother's permissive style is an important positive predictor of aggressive behavior and a negative predictor of attachment to their peers. At the end, peer relations and academic self-efficacy are mediator variables between parenting styles and academic performance.
Ocumpaugh, Jaclyn; San Pedro, Maria Ofelia; Lai, Huei-yi; Baker, Ryan S.; Borgen, Fred
Research suggests that trajectories toward careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) emerge early and are influenced by multiple factors. This paper presents a longitudinal study, which uses data from 76 high school students to explore how a student's vocational self-efficacy and interest are related to his or her middle school behavioral and affective engagement. Measures of vocational self-efficacy and interest are drawn from STEM-related scales in CAPAExplore, while measures of middle school performance and engagement in mathematics are drawn from several previously validated automated indicators extracted from logs of student interaction with ASSISTments, an online learning platform. Results indicate that vocational self-efficacy correlates negatively with confusion, but positively with engaged concentration and carelessness. Interest, which also correlates negatively with confusion, correlates positively with correctness and carelessness. Other disengaged behaviors, such as gaming the system, were not correlated with vocational self-efficacy or interest, despite previous studies indicating that they are associated with future college attendance. We discuss implications for these findings, which have the potential to assist educators or counselors in developing strategies to sustain students' interest in STEM-related careers.
Ryan, Tracey Ellen; Blau, Shawn; Grozeva, Dima
This article describes an experimental undergraduate psychology course that ran for two semesters during the 2009 academic year at a private, urban university in the United States. Students learned the techniques and strategies of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) with a focus on the practical elements…
Michael A. Andrykowski
Full Text Available Evaluation of costs and benefits associated with cancer screening should include consideration of any psychological and behavioral impact associated with screening participation. Research examining the psychological and behavioral impact of screening asymptomatic women for ovarian cancer (OC was considered. Research has focused upon potential negative psychological (e.g., distress and behavioral (e.g., reduced future screening participation impact of false positive (FP OC test results. Results suggest FP OC screening results are associated with greater short-term OC-specific distress. While distress dissipates over time it may remain elevated relative to pre-screening levels for several weeks or months even after clinical follow-up has ruled out malignancy. The likelihood of participation in future OC screening may also be reduced. Research focused upon identification of any beneficial impact of participation in OC screening associated with receipt of “normal” results was also considered. This research suggests that a “normal” screening test result can have psychological benefits, including increased positive affect and beliefs in the efficacy of screening. It is concluded that any psychological or behavioral harms attributable to OC screening are generally very modest in severity and duration and might be counterbalanced by psychological benefits accruing to women who participate in routine OC screening and receive normal test results.