Whear, Rebecca; Marlow, Ruth; Boddy, Kate; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Parker, Claire; Ford, Tamsin; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken
When children with special educational needs are excluded from school, it should raise the concern that these children are not receiving adequate help and support. This systematic review aims to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorder or impairing psychopathology among children who are excluded from school compared to children who are not…
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is dearth of data on the level of functional impairment and risk factors for psychiatric morbidity in children attending primary care services in developing countries like Nigeria. The risk factors for psychiatric morbidity and functional impairment in children attending the primary care unit of a teaching hospital in Ilorin, Nigeria was therefore investigated to obtain data that could be used in improving service provision by primary care physicians. Methods A cross-sectional two-stage design was employed for the study. The first stage involved administration of the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ to 350 children while the children’s version of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia was used for the second stage involving 157 children, all high scorers on CBQ (score of ≥ 7 and 30% of low scorers (score In addition, the Children Global Assessment Scale was used to assess the functional status of the children (score of ≤ 70 indicates functional impairment while the mothers’ mental health status was assessed with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire, a score of 3 or more on this instrument indicate presence of mental morbidity. Results It was observed that 11.4% of the children had diagnosable psychiatric disorders and 7.1% were functionally impaired; and those with psychiatric disorders were more functionally impaired than those without. Thus, significant negative correlation was noted between CBQ scores and CGAS (r = 0.53; p Conclusions Child psychiatric disorders are prevalent in the primary care unit studied. Many of the risk factors identified in the study population are modifiable. Collaborative efforts between psychiatrists and primary care physicians could therefore help to reduce level of risk and functional impairment and psychiatric morbidity among children attending the primary care unit studied. It could also help improve referral rates of
Saisky, Yaniv; Hasid, Soli; Ebert, Tanya; Kosov, Irene
Approximately 8% from those who are defined as blind in Israel are children and adolescents. Visual impairment is correlated with a high rate of psychopathology. However, some of these children and adolescents do not receive appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Often, the clinicians and those who treat the children/adolescents lack the proper professional knowledge related to the unique diagnosis and treatment of children/ adolescents who are visually impaired. Visual impairment might influence different aspects of the psychiatric diagnosis. These aspects include the influence of the impairment on different developmental axes; the reciprocal relationship between the child and his/her environment; the clinical presentation of different psychopathologies; and the different treatment modalities. In this review we discuss these issues. Moreover, we raise the question as to whether there is a need to adapt the psychiatric evaluation and the treatment specifically to the visually impaired child. The review is based on the existing literature in addition to our clinical experience, which stems from our work with children and adolescents who are at the "Jewish Institute for the Blind", an institute for children and adolescents with visual impairment in Israel.
Parker, Claire; Whear, Rebecca; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Bethel, Alison; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken; Ford, Tamsin
Childhood psychiatric disorders are associated with a wide range of adverse outcomes including poor academic attainment. For some children these difficulties are recognised through school Special Educational Need procedures (SEN) but many others may remain unidentified and/or unsupported. In Britain, government data suggests disproportionate…
Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Albert, David B.; Connor, Daniel F.
Objective: Sexually or physically abused children are at risk for neurobiological dysregulation as well as for internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Stress-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) down-regulation has been proposed as a sequela of abuse and was investigated in the present study. Methods: Child Protective Services…
Wriedt, Elke; Wiberg, Anja; Sakar, Vehbi; Noterdaeme, Michele
This article gives an overview of the consultant child and adolescent psychiatric services in the region of Upper Bavaria (Germany). The data of 257 children and adolescents with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders were evaluated. About 14% of the children with ID in special schools or day care centers, and 40% of the children with ID in residential care showed a definite psychiatric disorder. The most frequently diagnosed disorders were adjustment disorders, hyperkinetic disorders and conduct disorders, as well as emotional problems and pervasive developmental disorders. Children with severe intellectual disability had more additional somatic disorders and were more impaired in their psychosocial functions. The results show the need for psychiatric services for children and adolescents with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders. The development and implementation of integrative and interdisciplinary models is necessary to allow for adequate medical care for these patients.
Virring, Anne; Lambek, Rikke; Jennum, Poul Jørgen
, the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale, and the ADHD Rating Scale. RESULTS: We found a moderate, positive correlation between sleep problems and impaired functioning in both children with ADHD and in typically developed children. ADHD presentations did not differ significantly with respect to sleep......OBJECTIVE: Little systematic information is available regarding how sleep problems influence daytime functioning in children with ADHD, as the role of ADHD presentations and comorbidity is unclear. METHOD: In total, 397 children were assessed with the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire...... problem profile, but having a comorbid internalizing or autistic disorder lead to higher sleep problem score. CONCLUSION: Sleep problems and impaired daily functioning were more common in children with ADHD, but the overall association between sleep problems and impaired daily functioning was similar...
Helland, Wenche Andersen
Several studies have pointed to an overlap between different developmental psychopathological conditions and language impairments, and difficulties with communication have been identified in children of various diagnostic backgrounds. This thesis is based on three empirical studies, and the purposes are to investigate communication difficulties as reported by parents, in children identified with psychiatric problems as well as to evaluate a Norwegian adaptation of the Children’...
Worley, Julie A.; Matson, Johnny L.
In addition to the triad of impairments experienced by children and adolescents diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they often present with symptoms of psychiatric disorders. To date, very few studies have examined gender differences in regards to psychiatric symptoms in children and adolescents diagnosed with an ASD. Thus, the current…
Impairment and disability assessment on psychiatric grounds has always been subjective, controversial and at best, a difficult task. The South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP) needs to be congratulated, firstly on being instrumental in the publication of the first 'Guidelines to the Management of Disability Claims on ...
Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…
Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.
Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…
Deaton, Ann Virginia
Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…
Wrzesińska, Magdalena; Kapias, Joanna; Nowakowska-Domagała, Katarzyna; Kocur, Józef
Visual impairment present from birth or from an early childhood may lead to psychosocial and emotional disorders. 11-40% of children in the group with visual impairment show traits of autism. The aim of this paper was to present the selected examples of how visual impairment in children is related to the occurrence of autism and to describe the available tools for diagnosing autism in children with visual impairment. So far the relation between visual impairment in children and autism has not been sufficiently confirmed. Psychiatric and psychological diagnosis of children with visual impairment has some difficulties in differentiating between "blindism" and traits typical for autism resulting from a lack of standardized diagnostic tools used to diagnosing children with visual impairment. Another difficulty in diagnosing autism in children with visual impairment is the coexistence of other disabilities in case of most children with vision impairment. Additionally, apart from difficulties in diagnosing autistic disorders in children with eye dysfunctions there is also a question of what tools should be used in therapy and rehabilitation of patients.
Deployments in the United States military have increased greatly in the past 10 years. Families and children are psychiatrically affected by these deployments, and recent studies are clarifying these effects. This article focuses on the psychiatric effects of deployment on children and uses a composite case example to review the use of play therapy to treat children who are having psychiatric issues related to the deployment of one or both parents. PMID:22468239
Genderen, Maria Michielde van
Inherited retinal disorders and posterior visual pathway abnormalities are important causes of visual impairment in children. Visual electrophysiology often is indispensable in diagnosing these conditions. This thesis shows the wide range of use of pediatric electro-ophthalmology, and demonstrates
Choul, F H-C; Chou, P; Lin, C; Su, Tom T-P; Ou-Yang, W-C; Chien, I C; Su, C-Y; Lui, M-K; Chen, M-C
This purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life and psychiatric impairment in a Taiwanese community located near the epicenter of the 1999 earthquake, as assessed four to six months after the natural catastrophe. Trained assistants interviewed the 4223 respondents using the disaster-related psychological screening test (DRPST), an instrument specifically designed and validated by senior psychiatrists for assessment of psychiatric impairment after natural catastrophe. Additionally, the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) was used to evaluate quality of life. The collected results were analyzed using Windows SPSS 10.0 software. Psychiatric impairment rated moderate to severe was assessed for 1448 (34.3%) of the responding residents. The 4223 respondents were divided into 4 psychiatric-impairment groups based on DPRST score: healthy (n = 952); mild impairment (n = 1823); moderate impairment (n = 1126); and, severe impairment (n = 322). The four groups were compared for a number of salient factors, including gender, age, current marital status and psychiatric-impairment score, to determine impact on quality of life. Respondents assessed as psychiatrically impaired tended to be older, female, divorced/widowed, and less educated, and they were more likely to have experienced major familial financial loss as an immediate consequence of the earthquake. Further, the greater the severity of the psychiatric impairment, the lower the scores for quality of life, for both the physical and mental aspects of this important general indicator.
Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.
Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…
Al-Ansari, Ahmed M.
This study assesses the impairment and treatment outcome of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an outpatient child psychiatry clinic, using multiple sources, including the Children Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Methods: A total of 20 children, aged 4 to 16 years, were recruited serially in 2010 from the Child Psychiatric Unit of the Psychiatric Hospital, Manama, Bahrain. The children received a diagnosis of ADHD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of M...
Barghadouch, Amina; Kristiansen, Maria; Jervelund, Signe Smith
and psychiatrists in private practice. Results: Between 1 January 1996 and 30 June 2012, 3.5 % of the refugee children accessed psychiatric healthcare services compared to 7.7 % of the Danish-born children. The rate ratio of having any first-time psychiatric contact was 0.42 (95 % CI 0.40–0.45) among refugee boys...... and 0.35 (95 % CI 0.33–0.37) among refugee girls, compared to Danish-born children. Figures were similar for those accessing private psychologists or psychiatrists, emergency room, inpatient and outpatient services. Conclusions: Refugee children used fewer psychiatric healthcare services than Danish...
Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.
Objective: The role of preschool-onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or first grade was tested in a sample of 146 preschool-age children (age 3 to 5.11 years). Method: Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment.…
López, Irene; Rivera, Fernando; Ramirez, Rafael; Guarnaccia, Peter J; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Héctor R
Among Latino adults and children, ataques de nervios has been associated with an array of psychiatric disorders. Using data from a probability sample of Puerto Rican children, aged 5 to 13 years (N = 2491), we assessed the lifetime prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques in youth residing in the South Bronx, New York and San Juan, Puerto Rico. Baseline site comparisons indicated that between 4% and 5% of children had a lifetime prevalence of ataques (either by child or parent report) and that ataques were associated with greater global impairment and a host of childhood disorders within the previous twelve months. Ataques were also correlated with greater exposure to violence, as well as more stressful life events for the South Bronx sample. After controlling for several covariates, ataques continued to be significantly associated with psychopathology. Ataques are, therefore, a significant correlate of global impairment and childhood psychopathology among Puerto Rican youth.
Guarnaccia, Peter J; Martinez, Igda; Ramirez, Rafael; Canino, Glorisa
To provide the first empirical analysis of a cultural syndrome in children by examining the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques de nervios in an epidemiological study of the mental health of children in Puerto Rico. Probability samples of caretakers of children 4-17 years old in the community (N = 1,892; response rate: 90%) and in clinical services (N = 761; response rate 72%) were administered structured interviews to assess the presence and correlates of ataques de nervios. Nine percent of children in the community sample and 26% of children in the clinical sample had a reported history of an ataque de nervios. In contrast to the overall community and clinical samples, which had more boys in them, the ataque de nervios groups in both samples had more girls in them. Family history of ataques de nervios was associated with ataques de nervios in children in both samples. Across a wide range of depression, anxiety, and disruptive disorders, children who reported an ataque de nervios were more likely to meet research criteria for psychiatric disorder in both samples. Ataques de nervios are a frequently reported cultural syndrome among children in Puerto Rico. Adolescent girls are more likely to report this experience. Ataques de nervios have a significant relationship with psychiatric disorder and impairment in Puerto Rican children.
Simons, J.; Leitschuh, C.; Raymaekers, A.; Vandenbussche, I.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Berges & Lezine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age…
Jones, Jana E.; Watson, Ryann; Sheth, Raj; Caplan, Rochelle; Koehn, Monica; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce
The aim of this study was to characterize the distribution, timing, and risk factors for psychiatric comorbidity in children with recent onset epilepsy. Children aged 8 to 18 years with recent onset epilepsy (less than 1 year in duration) of idiopathic etiology (n=53) and a healthy comparison group (n=50) underwent a structured psychiatric…
Locke, Don C.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.
Evaluated the effectiveness of the Human Development Program (HDP) and the Developing Understanding of Self and Others (DUSO) program used with visually impaired children. Although HDP and DUSO affected the behavior of visually impaired children, they did not have any effect on children's attitudes toward school. (RC)
Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Luby, Joan L.
Objective The role of preschool onset (PO) psychiatric disorders as correlates and/or risk factors for relational aggression during kindergarten or 1st grade was tested in a sample of N = 146 preschool-age children (3 to 5.11). Method Axis-I diagnoses and symptom scores were derived using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Children’s roles in relational aggression as aggressor, victim, aggressive-victim, or non-aggressor/non-victim were determined at preschool and again 24 months later at elementary school entry. Results Preschoolers diagnosed with PO-psychiatric disorders were 3 times as likely as the healthy preschoolers to be classified aggressors, victims, or aggressive-victims. Children diagnosed with PO-disruptive, depressive, and/or anxiety disorders were at least 6 times as likely as children without PO-psychiatric disorders to become aggressive-victims during elementary school after covarying for other key risk factors. Conclusions Findings suggested that PO-psychiatric disorders differentiated preschool and school-age children’s roles in relational aggression based on teacher-report. Recommendations for future research and preventative intervention aimed at minimizing the development of relational aggression in early childhood by identifying and targeting PO-psychiatric disorders are made. PMID:22917202
One of the enduring clinical issues in the assessment of plaintiffs in personal injury and workers' compensation claims, as well as applicants for social security and disablement benefits, is that of the evaluation of impairment and work incapacity. Many writers on this topic confuse the concepts of impairment and disability, and similar confusion is reflected in a number of the rating methods that purport to evaluate impairment but in reality assess disability. In Australia there are 20 distinct statutory schemes for workers' compensation, motor accident compensation, and social security and other benefits, which utilise a variety of methods for the rating of psychiatric impairment. Recent legislative changes designed to restrict access to personal injury compensation at common law, which in two Australian State jurisdictions require the use of impairment rating scales, also specify the rating methods to be used in the assessment of psychiatric impairment. This article discusses the concepts of impairment and disability as defined by the World Health Organisation, and reviews the various methods for the rating of psychiatric impairment that are specified by statute in the federal and State jurisdictions in Australia.
Zwirs, B.W.; Burger, H.; Schulpen, T.W.J.; Wiznitzer, M.; Fedder, H.; Buitelaar, J.K.
The present study assesses the population prevalence of DSM-IV disorders among native and immigrant children living in low socio-economic status (SES) inner-city neighborhoods in the Netherlands. In the first phase of a two-phase epidemiological design, teachers screened an ethnically diverse sample of 2041 children aged 6-10 years using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). In the second phase, a subsample of 253 children was psychiatrically examined, while their parents were i...
Mansour, Rosleen; Dovi, Allison T; Lane, David M; Loveland, Katherine A; Pearson, Deborah A
Comorbid diagnoses identified in pediatric samples have been correlated with a range of outcomes, including greater levels of emotional, behavioral, and educational impairment and the need for more intensive treatment. Given that previous research has documented high levels of comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), this study closely examines the relationship between parent-reported ADHD symptoms (i.e., Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Revised [CPRS-R]) and the prevalence of additional comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in a pediatric ASD sample (n=99). Regression analyses revealed that greater severity of ADHD symptomatology was significantly related to a greater number of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, as identified using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and adolescents, 4th Edition (DICA-IV). Additionally, more severe ADHD symptoms were also associated with higher levels of symptom severity on Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) syndrome subscales. Interestingly, increasing severity of ASD symptomatology, as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised (ADI-R), was not associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses or CBCL syndrome severity. Our study concluded that higher levels of ADHD severity-not ASD severity-were associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in school-age children with ASD. These findings may encourage clinicians to thoroughly assess ADHD symptomatology in ASD children to better inform treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lahmann, Claas; Henningsen, Peter; Brandt, Thomas; Strupp, Michael; Jahn, Klaus; Dieterich, Marianne; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret; Feuerecker, Regina; Dinkel, Andreas; Schmid, Gabriele
Vertigo and dizziness are often not fully explained by an organic illness, but instead are related to psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to evaluate psychiatric comorbidity and assess psychosocial impairment in a large sample of patients with a wide range of unselected organic and non-organic (ie, medically unexplained) vertigo/dizziness syndromes. This cross-sectional study involved a sample of 547 patients recruited from a specialised interdisciplinary treatment centre for vertigo/dizziness. Diagnostic evaluation included standardised neurological examinations, structured clinical interview for major mental disorders (SCID-I) and self-report questionnaires regarding dizziness, depression, anxiety, somatisation and quality of life. Neurological diagnostic workup revealed organic and non-organic vertigo/dizziness in 80.8% and 19.2% of patients, respectively. In 48.8% of patients, SCID-I led to the diagnosis of a current psychiatric disorder, most frequently anxiety/phobic, somatoform and affective disorders. In the organic vertigo/dizziness group, 42.5% of patients, particularly those with vestibular paroxysmia or vestibular migraine, had a current psychiatric comorbidity. Patients with psychiatric comorbidity reported more vertigo-related handicaps, more depressive, anxiety and somatisation symptoms, and lower psychological quality of life compared with patients without psychiatric comorbidity. Almost half of patients with vertigo/dizziness suffer from a psychiatric comorbidity. These patients show more severe psychosocial impairment compared with patients without psychiatric disorders. The worst combination, in terms of vertigo-related handicaps, is having non-organic vertigo/dizziness and psychiatric comorbidity. This phenomenon should be considered when diagnosing and treating vertigo/dizziness in the early stages of the disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
Janssens, Astrid; Hayen, Sarah; Walraven, Vera; Leys, Mark; Deboutte, Dirk
Over the years, increasing numbers of children and adolescents have sought help for acute psychiatric problems. The responses to this treatment-seeking behavior are heterogeneous in different settings and nations. This review aimed to provide an answer to the questions "which care should be offered to children and adolescents presenting with a psychiatric emergency or crisis and how should it be organized." We committed a literature review to find out if any recommendations can be made regarding the organization of emergency care for children and adolescents with acute mental health problems. The lack of a clear definition of emergencies or urgencies hampered this review; we note the differences between adult and child or adolescent psychiatry. The theoretical models of care found in the literature are built up from several process and structural components, which we describe in greater detail. Furthermore, we review the main service delivery models that exist for children and adolescents. Currently, emergency psychiatric care for children and adolescents is practiced within a wide range of care models. There is no consensus on recommended care or recommended setting for this population. More research is needed to make exact recommendations on the standardization of psychiatric care for young people in emergency settings.
Stadelmann, Stephanie; Grunewald, Madlen; Gibbels, Charlotte; Jaeger, Sonia; Matuschek, Tina; Weis, Steffi; Klein, Annette Maria; Hiemisch, Andreas; von Klitzing, Kai; Döhnert, Mirko
In this study, we investigated the relation between global and domain-specific self-esteem and psychiatric disorders. A sample of 577 children aged 8-14 years was recruited via psychiatric hospitals and from the general population. Parents were given a diagnostic interview to assess children's psychiatric diagnoses (current/past). Parents and children completed questionnaires on child symptoms. Children completed a questionnaire on global and domain-specific self-esteem (scales: scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic performance and physical appearance, global self-esteem). Self-esteem of children with current psychiatric disorders was lower than that of healthy controls (η p 2 between 0.01 and 0.08). Concerning scholastic competence, social acceptance and global self-esteem, children with past psychiatric disorders scored also lower than healthy controls. Different current psychiatric disorders showed specific but small effects on dimensions of self-esteem (β between -0.08 and 0.19). Moreover, we found a gender × group interaction, indicating that girls with depressive and adjustment disorders were specifically impaired in their global self-esteem and perception of their physical appearance. Findings might help clinicians to focus on particular domains of self-esteem during the diagnostic process and to define adequate treatment goals.
Ozkubat, Ufuk; Ozdemir, Selda
The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of five groups of children: children with visual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with visual impairments attending schools for the blind, children with intellectual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with intellectual impairments…
Bastiaansen, D.; Koot, H.M.; Ferdinand, R.F.
Objective: To assess factors that, in addition to childhood psychopathology, are associated with Quality of Life (QoL) in children with psychiatric problems. Methods: In a referred sample of 252 8 to 18-year-olds, information concerning QoL, psychopathology and a broad range of child, parent, and
Kölch, Michael; Schmid, Marc
About a third of all inpatients in psychiatric hospitals are parents of children aged below 18 years. The mental illness of a parent and especially the need of inpatient treatment burdens families. This study was contributed to assess parental stress, behavioural and emotional problems of the children and the needs of psychiatric inpatients for support. Barriers and hindrances as well as positive experience with support for their children were assessed. All psychiatric hospitals in a county with about 1.5 million inhabitants in South-West Germany participated in this study. From 643 inpatients after drop-out 83 (54 female, 29 male) patients with non full aged children were questioned with inventories as the SDQ, the PSS and further assessments. Diagnoses and biographic data were assessed by the documentation of the German Association of psychiatry and psychotherapy. Parents reported about an increased level of stress by parenthood (PSS mean 41.9, SD 9.4). Psychopathology of the children influenced the stress of the mentally ill parents. 40% of the patients are dissatisfied with the care of their children during their inpatient treatment, but 51% have strong resentments against the youth welfare custodies and do not ask for support. Our results prove the high negative attitude of mentally ill parents against youth welfare service which must be reduced by active information policy and offers in collaboration with the treating psychiatrist of the parents.
Bigelow, Robin T; Semenov, Yevgeniy R; du Lac, Sascha; Hoffman, Howard J; Agrawal, Yuri
Patients with vestibular disease have been observed to have concomitant cognitive and psychiatric dysfunction. We evaluated the association between vestibular vertigo, cognitive impairment and psychiatric conditions in a nationally representative sample of US adults. We performed a cross-sectional analysis using the 2008 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which included a Balance and Dizziness Supplement, and questions about cognitive function and psychiatric comorbidity. We evaluated the association between vestibular vertigo, cognitive impairment (memory loss, difficulty concentrating, confusion) and psychiatric diagnoses (depression, anxiety and panic disorder). We observed an 8.4% 1-year prevalence of vestibular vertigo among US adults. In adjusted analyses, individuals with vestibular vertigo had an eightfold increased odds of 'serious difficulty concentrating or remembering' (OR 8.3, 95% CI 4.8 to 14.6) and a fourfold increased odds of activity limitation due to difficulty remembering or confusion (OR 3.9, 95% CI 3.1 to 5.0) relative to the rest of the US adults. Individuals with vestibular vertigo also had a threefold increased odds of depression (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.9 to 3.9), anxiety (OR 3.2, 95% CI 2.8 to 3.6) and panic disorder (OR 3.4, 95% CI 2.9 to 4.0). Our findings indicate that vestibular impairment is associated with increased risk of cognitive and psychiatric comorbidity. The vestibular system is anatomically connected with widespread regions of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. Loss of vestibular inputs may lead to impairment of these cognitive and affective circuits. Further longitudinal research is required to determine if these associations are causal. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders in the affected children and adolescents, but there are only a limited number of studies concerning the mental health characteristics of visually impaired children and adolescents. Objective The aim of this study was to determine levels of loneliness and anxiety in visually impaired children and adolescents, to analyze parenting style perceived by visually impaired children and adolescents, to compare those with typically controls. Methods The study included 40 children and adolescents with visually impairment and 34 control group without visual impairment. Sociodemographic data form, the UCLA loneliness scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children were used in both groups. The parenting Style Scale was used to determine perceived parental attitudes. Results This study found more loneliness and trait anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents compared to the control group. Authoritative parenting style was the most frequent type of parental attitude in the visually impaired group. In visual impairment group, loneliness level was higher in subgroups of authoritative and permissive-indulgent parenting style. However, level of trait anxiety was higher in authoritative parenting style subgroup compared to the control group. Discussion The results of this study showed higher loneliness and anxiety levels in visually impaired children and adolescents. Further studies are needed to determine psychopathological risks in this population.
Health sciences suffer from insomnia: experts too often concentrate their efforts on the wake state. Fortunately enough, some of them have taken the road towards the "Dark Third of Life": sleep. This article gives an historical account of the development of the first Canadian sleep disorders laboratory and clinic specifically and selectively designed for children and adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis. It then stresses the importance of sleep in children bearing a psychiatric diagnosis and summarizes therapeutic strategies. Data-on-file and selective review of literature. An innovative scheme matching sleep psychologists and psychiatrists with expertise in neurodevelopmental disorders led to the creation of a sleep research laboratory on mental health disorders. The initial research projects on the sleep and dreams of patients with schizophrenia and persons with autism are summarized. The Sleep Disorders Clinic for Children and Adolescents was then created at the Hôpital Rivière-des-Prairies, leading to much needed activities focused on youth. Indeed, sleep disorders show a high prevalence in children with a psychiatric diagnosis and the literature shows that these children have an increased sensitivity for diurnal effects of poor sleep. The main sleep-relevant issues at stake are reviewed, including the high frequency of sleep disorders in pedopsychiatric patients. Clinical challenges are described and the operating mode of the Sleep Disorders Clinic is illustrated. Sleep disorders and their effects on daytime functioning need to be assessed in children with a psychiatric diagnosis in order to generate a full clinical picture. Appropriate tools and know-how are readily available in order to achieve this goal.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nail biting (NB is a very common unwanted behavior. The majority of children are motivated to stop NB and have already tried to stop it, but are generally unsuccessful in doing so. It is a difficult behavior to modify or treat. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders in a clinical sample of children with NB who present at a child and adolescent mental healthcare outpatient clinic and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in their parents. Method A consecutive sample of 450 referred children was examined for NB and 63 (14% were found to have NB. The children and adolescents with nail biting and their parents were interviewed according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. They were also asked about lip biting, head banging, skin biting, and hair pulling behaviors. Results Nail biting is common amongst children and adolescents referred to a child and adolescent mental health clinic. The most common co-morbid psychiatric disorders in these children were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (74.6%, oppositional defiant disorder (36%, separation anxiety disorder (20.6%, enuresis (15.6%, tic disorder (12.7% and obsessive compulsive disorder (11.1%. The rates of major depressive disorder, mental retardation, and pervasive developmental disorder were 6.7%, 9.5%, 3.2%, respectively. There was no association between the age of onset of nail biting and the co-morbid psychiatric disorder. Severity and frequency of NB were not associated with any co-morbid psychiatric disorder. About 56.8% of the mothers and 45.9% of the fathers were suffering from at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric disorder found in these parents was major depression. Conclusion Nail biting presents in a significant proportion of referrals to a mental healthcare clinic setting. Nail biting should be routinely looked for and asked for in the child and adolescent mental healthcare setting
Mueller, Sven C; Ng, Pamela; Sinaii, Ninet; Leschek, Ellen W; Green-Golan, Liza; VanRyzin, Carol; Ernst, Monique; Merke, Deborah P
Very little is known about the mental health status in children with genetic causes of hyperandrogenism. This study sought to characterize psychiatric morbidity in this group. Children (8-18 years) with the diagnosis of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) or familial male precocious puberty (FMPP) underwent a semi-structured psychiatric interview, the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version. According to sex and the literature, incidence of identified psychopathology was compared between the two endocrinological groups. We evaluated 72 patients: 54 CAH (21 females) and 18 FMPP. Twenty-four (44.4%) CAH patients and 10 (55.6%) FMPP patients met the criteria for at least one lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was present in 18.2% of CAH males, 44.4% of FMPP males, and one case (4.8%) in CAH females. A high rate of anxiety disorders was also found in all the three groups (17-21%). Relative to females with CAH, the FMPP patients exhibited higher rates of ADHD. Age at diagnosis and the treatment modalities were not associated with psychopathology. Rates of psychiatric disorder, specifically ADHD and anxiety disorders, were higher than in the general population. Although anxiety disorders may occur at an increased rate in children with chronic illness, androgens may contribute to higher risk for psychopathology in pediatric patients with genetic cause of excess androgen. Early diagnosis and treatment of childhood hyperandrogenism is essential for optimal development. The results suggest that assessment for psychiatric disorders should be part of the routine evaluation of these patients.
Full Text Available Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is mainly low or moderately low in children and youth with visual impairment. Children with visual impairment achieve the worst results in social skills and everyday life skills, while the most acquired are communication skills. Apart from the degree of visual impairment, difficulties in motor development also significantly influence the acquisition of practical and social skills of blind persons and persons with low vision.
Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 2009
An introduction for any medical health clinician on the knowledge and skills that are needed for the psychiatric assessment and management of physically ill children and adolescents is presented. These parameters are presented to assist clinicians in psychiatric decision making.
Schurink, J.; Cox, R. F. A.; Cillessen, A. H. N.; van Rens, G. H. M. B.; Boonstra, F. N.
It is a widely accepted belief in clinical practice that children with a visual impairment can profit from the use of a low vision aid (LVA). However, we found a considerable gap in our scientific understanding of LVA use, particularly in young children. This is the reason for the analysis presented in this paper. A selected overview of LVA use in…
Barreto do Carmo, Maria Beatriz; Neves Santos, Darci; Alves Ferreira Amorim, Leila Denise; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Souza da Cunha, Sergio; Cunha Rodrigues, Laura; Barreto, Mauricio L
Recent studies have shown that asthma represents a major health issue not only in children of developed countries but also in urban centers in some middle-income countries. Brazil has one of the highest prevalences of asthma worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the relationship between psychosocial factors and asthma. This article examines the relationship between maternal mental disorders and the prevalence of asthma in low-income children from an inner city area of Salvador in the state of Bahia, Brazil, and is part of the SCAALA program (Social Change, Allergy and Asthma in Latin America). A total of 1,087 children between the ages of 5 and 12 were investigated, together with their mothers. The mothers' mental health was evaluated using the SRQ-20, an instrument for the psychiatric screening of minor psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety and somatic complaints). The prevalence of asthma was investigated using the ISAAC survey, a standardized, validated questionnaire for asthma and other allergic diseases. Cases were defined as asthma if the patient reported having had wheezing in the previous 12 months in addition to at least one of the following: having asthma, wheezing while exercising, waking during the night because of wheezing, or having had at least four episodes of wheezing in the previous 12 months. Atopy was defined as a positive skin prick test to allergens. The presence of minor psychiatric disorders in the mothers was significantly associated with the presence of asthma in the children, and this association was consistent with all forms of asthma, irrespective of whether it was atopic or nonatopic. Future studies should be carried out to further investigate this association and the potential biological mechanisms involved. Programs for asthma control should include strategies for stress reduction and psychological support for the families of asthmatic children.
Bos, Karen; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy S.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Nelson, Charles A.
Children raised in institutions, considered an extreme example of social deprivation, are one group through which we can better understand the impact of neglect on child health and development. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) is the first randomized, controlled trial of foster care as an intervention for institutionalized children. In this review we describe the mental health outcomes from the BEIP. Specifically, we report findings on attachment styles, attachment disorders, emotional reactivity, and psychiatric symptomatology for children in the BEIP. We describe the impact of the foster care intervention on these outcomes and also describe how outcomes differ by gender and by length of time spent in the institution. In addition, we explore the influence of genetic variation on individual outcomes and recovery from early severe social deprivation, as well as the role of differences in brain development in mediating later psychiatric morbidity. The results from the BEIP confirm and extend the previous findings on the negative sequelae of early institutional care on mental health. The results also underscore the benefit of early family placement for children living in institutions. PMID:21250893
Gadow, Kenneth D; Nolan, Edith E; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schwartz, Joseph
This study examined comorbid psychiatric symptoms in a large, community-based sample of children and adolescents. The study sample comprised a total of 3006 school children: 413 preschool (3 to 5 years; 237 males, 176 females; mean age 4 years 2 months, SD 8 months), 1520 elementary school (5 to 12 years; 787 males, 733 females; mean age 8 years 2 months, SD 1 year 11 months), and 1073 secondary school children (12 to 18 years; 573 males, 500 females; mean age 14 years 4 months, SD 1 year 10 months), all of whom were attending regular education programs. Children were evaluated with a teacher-completed DSM-IV-referenced rating scale. The sample was divided into four groups: attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder with tics (ADHD+tics), ADHD without tics (ADHD), tics without ADHD (T), and a comparison group i.e. neither ADHD nor tics (Non). The percentage of children with tic behaviors varied with age: preschool children (22.3%), elementary school children (7.8%), and adolescents (3.4%). Tic behaviors were more common in males than females, regardless of comorbid ADHD symptoms. For many psychiatric symptoms, screening prevalence rates were highest for the ADHD groups (ADHD+tics>ADHD>T>Non). However, obsessive-compulsive and simple and social phobia symptoms were more common in the groups with tic behavior. Findings for a community-based sample show many similarities with studies of clinically referred samples suggesting that teacher-completed ratings of DSM-IV symptoms may be a useful methodology for investigating the phenomenology of tic disorders.
Nishinaka, Hirofumi; Nakane, Jun; Nagata, Takako; Imai, Atsushi; Kuroki, Noriomi; Sakikawa, Noriko; Omori, Mayu; Kuroda, Osamu; Hirabayashi, Naotsugu; Igarashi, Yoshito; Hashimoto, Kenji
In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk. Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education) were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB) consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used. Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts. Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence.
Full Text Available In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered by the Japanese legislation. This study is designed to examine the neuropsychological characteristics of forensic patients in comparison to healthy controls and to assess the relationship between neuropsychological impairment and violence risk.Seventy-one forensic patients with psychiatric disorders and 54 healthy controls (matched by age, gender, and education were enrolled. The CogState Battery (CSB consisting of eight cognitive domains, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT to test emotion-based decision making, and psychological measures of violence risk including psychopathy were used.Forensic patients exhibited poorer performances on all CSB subtests and the IGT than controls. For each group, partial correlational analyses indicated that poor IGT performance was related to psychopathy, especially antisocial behavior. In forensic patients, the CSB composite score was associated with risk factors for future violent behavior, including stress and noncompliance with remediation attempts.Forensic patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological impairments, and these findings suggest that neuropsychological impairment may increase the risk of violent behavior. Therefore, the treatment of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients with psychiatric disorders is necessary to improve functional outcomes as well as to prevent violence.
Zalewski, Maureen; Cyranowski, Jill M; Cheng, Yu; Swartz, Holly A
Independently, maternal depression and maternal history of childhood abuse confer risk for impaired parenting. These associations may be compounded when depressed mothers with histories of childhood abuse are faced with the challenge of parenting offspring who themselves struggle with mental health problems. This study examined the relationships among maternal history of childhood abuse, maternal depression, and parenting style in the context of parenting a psychiatrically ill child, with an emphasis on examining maternal emotional abuse and neglect. We hypothesized that maternal childhood emotional abuse would be associated with maladaptive parenting strategies (lower levels of maternal acceptance and higher levels of psychological control), independent of maternal depression severity and other psychosocial risk factors. Ninety-five mother-child dyads (children ages 7-18) were recruited from child mental health centers where children were receiving treatment for at least one internalizing disorder. Participating mothers met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder. Mothers reported on their own childhood abuse histories and children reported on their mothers' parenting. Regression analyses demonstrated that maternal childhood emotional abuse was associated with child reports of lower maternal acceptance and greater psychological control, controlling for maternal depression severity, and other psychosocial risk factors. When treating psychiatrically ill children, it is important for a child's clinician to consider mothers' childhood abuse histories in addition to their history of depression. These mothers appear to have additional barriers to effective parenting. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Adaptive behavior includes a wide range of skills necessary for independent, safe and adequate performance of everyday activities. Practical, social and conceptual skills make the concept of adaptive behavior. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the existing studies of adaptive behavior in persons with visual impairment. The paper mainly focuses on the research on adaptive behavior in children with visual impairment. The results show that the acquisition of adaptive skills is ...
Treyvaud, Karli; Ure, Alexandra; Doyle, Lex W.; Lee, Katherine J.; Rogers, Cynthia E.; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.
Background: Uncertainty remains about the rate of specific psychiatric disorders and associated predictive factors for very preterm (VPT) children. The aims of this study were to document rates of psychiatric disorders in VPT children aged 7 years compared with term born children, and to examine potential predictive factors for psychiatric…
Bastiaansen, Dennis; Koot, Hans M; Ferdinand, Robert F
To assess factors that, in addition to childhood psychopathology, are associated with Quality of Life (QoL) in children with psychiatric problems. In a referred sample of 252 8 to 18-year-olds, information concerning QoL, psychopathology and a broad range of child, parent, and family/ social network factors was obtained from children, parents, teachers and clinicians. Poor child, parent, and clinician reported QoL was associated with child psychopathology, but given the presence of psychopathology, also with child factors, such as low self-esteem, and poor social skills, and family/social network factors, such as poor family functioning, and poor social support. In multiple linear regression analyses the importance of parent factors, such as parenting stress, was almost negligible. To increase QoL of children with psychiatric problems, treatment of symptoms is important, but outcome might improve if treatment is also focussed on other factors that may affect QoL. Results are discussed in relation to current treatment programs.
van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; de Bruin, E.I.
The present study was conducted with the aim to identify comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (n = 40) and to compare those comorbidity rates to those in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 40). Participants were clinically
Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Ulrikka Rask, Charlotte
BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the presentation of psychopathology in preschool age and associated risk factors is fundamental to preventive intervention before schooling. AIMS: To investigate the full spectrum of psychiatric diagnoses in general population children at the period of transition from.......4-1.6), respectively. Emotional disorders were found in 2.9% (95%CI: 1.9-40). More boys were diagnosed with PDD, behavioural disorders and tics. No gender differences were found in hyperactivity disorders (HD) and emotional disorders. Co-morbidity was frequent, in particular between HD and PDD, but also between HD...
Cumurcu, Tongabay; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Ozcan, Ozlem; Demirel, Soner; Duz, Cem; Porgalı, Esra; Doganay, Selim
To investigate the rate of social phobia, anxiety, depression, and other psychiatric problems in children with strabismus. Prospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. Forty-two children with strabismus and 47 control subjects 8-13 years of age were enrolled in this study. After the ophthalmologist's examination, all cases were assessed by a psychiatrist based on the structured interview technique of Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL). The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) was administered to each subject to evaluate social phobia. All participants completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Age as well as sex and income were comparable between the strabismus patients and control groups. Social phobia was diagnosed in 8 (19.04%) of the 42 strabismic children and in 1 (2.12%) of the control subjects. The CDI and SCARED (total score, social phobia, separation anxiety) scores of strabismus patients were significantly higher than the control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.004, p = 0.0001, p = 0.05, respectively). A relationship between strabismus in children and social phobia, depression, and anxiety on a symptom basis was underlined by our data. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD (n=15; 60.0%, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD (n=12; 48.0%, and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%. Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD.
Gillott, A.; Furniss, F.; Walter, A.
Whilst evidence of theory of mind impairments in children with autism is well established, possible impairments in children with language disorder have only recently been investigated. Children with specific language impairment aged between eight and 12 years were matched by age and gender to high functioning children with autism and normally…
Problems and possibilities assessing intellectual abilities of visually impaired children are addressed in the article. In other countries, usually there are few or no nationally standardized tests available for use with this population. Therefore parts of available instruments designed for normally sighted children are used. Sometimes test procedures or stimuli are modified what affects the validity of the results and they need to be interpreted with caution. Intellectual abilities of Lithua...
Manjeet S Bhatia
Full Text Available Background: Stampede is described as a sudden movement of a mass of people in response to a particular circumstance or stimulus. Human stampedes are quite often reported from crowded places like places of worship, sporting events, political rallies, etc. There are reports of development of posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents subsequent to both natural and man-made disasters. The present tragedy struck in a Government Secondary School in Delhi on September 9, 2009. The study describes the long-term psychiatric morbidity in children following stampede. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted by the department of psychiatry of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 38 children (all adolescent girls were registered at the casualty of the hospital and 1 absconded, 5 were brought dead. A total of 32 children were included in the study. After first assessment in the casualty, subsequent assessments at 8 weeks and 6 months were done using semi-structured performa, GHQ and Child′s reaction to traumatic event scale (CRTES-Revised. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The age-group of the children were 12-20 years(mean 14.3, all girls, studying in grades - VII to X Eight weeks follow up GHQ score was high in 27 (87%. On CRTESQ-R scale, 22 children were in high distress group (71%. Twenty-two children had symptoms of PTSD and five were in moderate distress group. Eleven children also had a comorbid diagnosis of depressive disorder, six had phobic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. There were statistically significant differences in mean GHQ scores at baseline and at 6 months follow up. There was also significant decrease in CRTESQ-R scale scores between baseline and 6 months. Conclusion: The children who were victims of stampede warrant the need for long-term intervention.
Braun, Kees P J
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cognitive impairments are common in children with epilepsy. They may already be present before the onset of epilepsy or occur – and even progress – during its course. Many variables contribute to cognitive dysfunction. Those that can be targeted to prevent (further) cognitive
Jan, James E.; And Others
The nature of eye-pressing as a visual stimulation mannerism in children with severely impaired eyesight is examined, and a possible physiological explanation (that self-stimulation occurs when the demand of the brain for meaningful visual information is not met) is offered. (CL)
Locke, Don C.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.
The study investigated the effects of two psychological education programs (Developing Understanding of Self and Others--DUSO, and Human Development Program--HDP or Magic Circle) on the affective growth of 42 visually impaired children in grades kindergarten through 3. (Author/SBH)
Shapiro, Deborah R.; Moffett, Aaron; Lieberman, Lauren; Dummer, Gail M.
This study examined the perceptions of competence of 43 children with visual impairments who were attending a summer sports camp. It found there were meaningful differences in the perceived competence of the girls, but not the boys, after they attended the camp, and no differences in the perceptions of competence with age.
Full Text Available Background: Non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome are greatly underdiagnosed. There are very few reported cases of neuropsychologically documented non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI data are scarce.Methods: We report clinical characteristics and neuropsychological as well as radiological findings from three psychiatric patients (one woman and two men with a history of probable undiagnosed non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and subsequent chronic memory problems.Results: All patients had abnormal neuropsychological test results, predominantly in memory. Thus, the neuropsychological findings were compatible with Korsakoff syndrome. However, the neuropsychological findings were not uniform. The impairment of delayed verbal memory of the first patient was evident only when the results of the memory tests were compared to her general cognitive level. In addition, the logical memory test and the verbal working memory test were abnormal, but the word list memory test was normal. The second patient had impaired attention and psychomotor speed in addition to impaired memory. In the third patient, the word list memory test was abnormal, but the logical memory test was normal. All patients had intrusions in the neuropsychological examination. Executive functions were preserved, except for planning and foresight, which were impaired in two patients. Conventional MRI examination was normal. DTI showed reduced fractional anisotropy values in the uncinate fasciculus in two patients, and in the corpus callosum and in the subgenual cingulum in one patient.Conclusions: Non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome can have diverse neuropsychological findings. This may partly explain its marked underdiagnosis. Therefore, a strong index of suspicion is needed. The presence of intrusions in the neuropsychological examination supports the diagnosis. Damage in frontotemporal white matter tracts, particularly in the
Nikolakaros, Georgios; Kurki, Timo; Paju, Janina; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G; Vataja, Risto; Ilonen, Tuula
Background: Non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome are greatly underdiagnosed. There are very few reported cases of neuropsychologically documented non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data are scarce. Methods: We report clinical characteristics and neuropsychological as well as radiological findings from three psychiatric patients (one woman and two men) with a history of probable undiagnosed non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and subsequent chronic memory problems. Results: All patients had abnormal neuropsychological test results, predominantly in memory. Thus, the neuropsychological findings were compatible with Korsakoff syndrome. However, the neuropsychological findings were not uniform. The impairment of delayed verbal memory of the first patient was evident only when the results of the memory tests were compared to her general cognitive level. In addition, the logical memory test and the verbal working memory test were abnormal, but the word list memory test was normal. The second patient had impaired attention and psychomotor speed in addition to impaired memory. In the third patient, the word list memory test was abnormal, but the logical memory test was normal. All patients had intrusions in the neuropsychological examination. Executive functions were preserved, except for planning and foresight, which were impaired in two patients. Conventional MRI examination was normal. DTI showed reduced fractional anisotropy values in the uncinate fasciculus in two patients, and in the corpus callosum and in the subgenual cingulum in one patient. Conclusions: Non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome can have diverse neuropsychological findings. This may partly explain its marked underdiagnosis. Therefore, a strong index of suspicion is needed. The presence of intrusions in the neuropsychological examination supports the diagnosis. Damage in frontotemporal white matter tracts, particularly in the uncinate
Karadayi, Husna; Arisoy, Ozden; Altunrende, Burcu; Boztas, Mehmet Hamid; Sercan, Mustafa
Cognitive impairment (CI) in multiple sclerosis (MS) can develop any time. CI is associated with the degree of neuronal loss, but disease duration, fatigue, comorbid affective disorder, and drug dose may also affect cognition. Our aim was to assess which cognitive domain was disturbed primarily in mild MS patients and to see whether CI was related with clinical and psychiatric features. Neurological and psychiatric evaluation of 31 MS patients and 31 age, sex, and education-matched healthy controls were made with Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Depression, anxiety, functionality, fatigue, and disability scoring were determined with Hamilton Depression-Anxiety scales, Global Assessment of Functionality, Fatigue Severity and Expanded Disability Status Scales. Cognitive functions were assessed using Mini Mental, Serial Digit Learning, Verbal and Nonverbal Cancellation, Stroop and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning tests. Retrieval from long-term memory and psychomotor speed were significantly worse in MS group. CI was correlated with disease duration, number of attacks, and physical disability but not with depression and anxiety severity. Disease duration predicted disturbances in recall and psychomotor speed, whereas fatigue and disability predicted depression. Psychomotor speed and memory were primarily impaired in MS patients, and CI was closely associated with clinical aspects of MS rather than with depression and anxiety.
Borgstein, E. S.; Heij, H. A.; Beugelaar, J. D.; Ekkelkamp, S.; Vos, A.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) in neurologically impaired children often causes feeding problems and complications of oesophagitis and is frequently resistant to medical treatment. Fifty neurologically impaired children underwent anterior gastropexy as anti-reflux operation, combined with
Tudor, Megan E.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.
The current study examined the association between prenatal pregnancy complications (PPC) and childhood psychiatric symptoms in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and non-ASD children who were referred to a psychiatric clinic (Controls). Parents completed a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale and developmental history questionnaire.…
The study sought to examine the views of children with visual impairment on the challenges of inclusion. A questionnaire was administered on 20 children with visual impairment. These had been randomly selected from three schools that were including children with visual impairment in their teaching and learning ...
Tadic, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi
The study investigated attentional processes of 32 preschool children with congenital visual impairment (VI). Children with profound visual impairment (PVI) and severe visual impairment (SVI) were compared to a group of typically developing sighted children in their ability to respond to adult directed attention in terms of establishing,…
Green, Ben Ezra; And Others
Places the limited knowledge of the psychological problems of American Indian and Alaska Native children in context of general child psychiatric epidemiology, using the taxonomy of the American Psychiatric Association's third "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual." Available from: White Cloud Center, Gaines Hall UOHSC, 840 Southwest Gaines…
Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.
The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with psychiatric disorders in 336 matched controls from the general population using data from the nationwide Danish...
Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.
The prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders were studied in a clinical sample of 89 individuals with atypical autism (AA) first seen as children, and 258 matched controls from the general population using data from the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The average observation...
Dil, L.M.; Vuijk, P.J.
Psychiatric emergency services for children and adolescents vary in process, structure and outcome. There are few systematic studies on the type and prevalence of psychiatric problems encountered, related circumstances or resulting interventions. Evidence in these areas is important in evaluation of
Dickerson Mayes, Susan; Calhoun, Susan L; Baweja, Raman; Mahr, Fauzia
Children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders are at increased risk for suicide behavior. This is the first study to compare frequencies of suicide ideation and attempts in children and adolescents with specific psychiatric disorders and typical children while controlling for comorbidity and demographics. Mothers rated the frequency of suicide ideation and attempts in 1,706 children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders and typical development, 6-18 years of age. For the typical group, 0.5% had suicide behavior (ideation or attempts), versus 24% across the psychiatric groups (bulimia 48%, depression or anxiety disorder 34%, oppositional defiant disorder 33%, ADHD-combined type 22%, anorexia 22%, autism 18%, intellectual disability 17%, and ADHD-inattentive type 8%). Most alarming, 29% of adolescents with bulimia often or very often had suicide attempts, compared with 0-4% of patients in the other psychiatric groups. It is important for professionals to routinely screen all children and adolescents who have psychiatric disorders for suicide ideation and attempts and to treat the underlying psychiatric disorders that increase suicide risk.
Full Text Available The research included 200 visually impaired children of primary school during the period from 1992 to 1996. By means of adequate instruments we have tested the relation between the success at school of partially seeing children and hyperkinetic behavior, active and passive vocabulary richness, visuo-motoric coordination and the maturity of handwriting. Besides the already known factors (intellectual level, specific learning disturbances, emotional and neurotic disturbances, cultural deprivation, the success in class depends very much on the intensity of hyperkinetic behavior as well as its features: unstable attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Visual-motor coordination eye-hand and the maturity of handwriting have a strong influence on their success at school.
Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Martinez, Igda; Ramirez, Rafael; Canino, Glorisa
Objective: To provide the first empirical analysis of a cultural syndrome in children by examining the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques de nervios in an epidemiological study of the mental health of children in Puerto Rico. Method: Probability samples of caretakers of children 4-17 years old in the community (N = 1,892; response…
Al-Ansari, Ahmed M
This study assesses the impairment and treatment outcome of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in an outpatient child psychiatry clinic, using multiple sources, including the Children Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). A total of 20 children, aged 4 to 16 years, were recruited serially in 2010 from the Child Psychiatric Unit of the Psychiatric Hospital, Manama, Bahrain. The children received a diagnosis of ADHD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). The children were assessed with the C-GAS by a blinded investigator, initially at the beginning of the treatment and then one year later. The parents of the patients reported improvement in all cases; the improvement in impairment after one year, assessed using the C-GAS, was significant for all of the cases (P = 0.001) and low for those with comorbidity (P = 0.07). Measurement of improvement using the C-GAS was a suitable method of collecting data, and hence should be included in routine clinical practice for both ADHD diagnosis and outcome measurement.
Bottcher, Louise; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter
Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are reported to have learning and social problems. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with CP have impairments in attention or executive function.......Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are reported to have learning and social problems. The aim of the present study was to examine whether children with CP have impairments in attention or executive function....
Hansson, K; Forsberg, J; Löfqvist, A; Mäki-Torkko, E; Sahlén, B
Working memory is considered to influence a range of linguistic skills, i.e. vocabulary acquisition, sentence comprehension and reading. Several studies have pointed to limitations of working memory in children with specific language impairment. Few studies, however, have explored the role of working memory for language deficits in children with hearing impairment. The first aim was to compare children with mild-to-moderate bilateral sensorineural hearing impairment, children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment and children with normal language development, aged 9-12 years, for language and working memory. The special focus was on the role of working memory in learning new words for primary school age children. The assessment of working memory included tests of phonological short-term memory and complex working memory. Novel word learning was assessed according to the methods of. In addition, a range of language tests was used to assess language comprehension, output phonology and reading. Children with hearing impairment performed significantly better than children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment on tasks assessing novel word learning, complex working memory, sentence comprehension and reading accuracy. No significant correlation was found between phonological short-term memory and novel word learning in any group. The best predictor of novel word learning in children with specific language impairment and in children with hearing impairment was complex working memory. Furthermore, there was a close relationship between complex working memory and language in children with a preschool diagnosis of specific language impairment but not in children with hearing impairment. Complex working memory seems to play a significant role in vocabulary acquisition in primary school age children. The interpretation is that the results support theories suggesting a weakened influence of phonological short-term memory on novel word
Alfstad, Kristin Å; Torgersen, Halvor; Van Roy, Betty; Hessen, Erik; Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Henning, Oliver; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Mowinckel, Petter; Gjerstad, Leif; Lossius, Morten I
Psychopathology in children and youth with epilepsy has previously been related to executive dysfunction, but the nature of the association is uncertain. We sought to explore risk factors for psychiatric disorders in children and youth with epilepsy, with emphasis on executive dysfunction, along with seizure-related and psychosocial factors. The cohort consisted of one hundred and one consecutive patients aged 10-19 years with focal (n=52) or genetic generalized (n=49) epilepsy. All were screened for psychiatric symptoms, using part of an extensive questionnaire, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for both patients and their parents. Participants scoring in the borderline or abnormal range on the SDQ received a psychiatric interview (Kiddie-SADS-PL). All participants underwent a neuropsychological examination, and those with general cognitive abilities (IQ)epilepsy-related or psychosocial factors were not significantly associated with psychiatric disorders. Multiple factors are associated with psychiatric problems in children and youth with epilepsy. In this study, executive dysfunction, male gender, and early epilepsy onset were independent risk factors for having a psychiatric disorder. An evaluation of psychiatric and cognitive problems is important to enable a positive long-term outcome in childhood epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rapee, R.M.; Bogels, S.M.; van der Sluis, Cathy .M.; Craske, M.G.; Ollendick, T.
Functional impairment is a key factor in the clinical importance of mental health problems in children. Yet, the nature of impairment and criteria for defining and assessing impairment in childhood disorders has been surprisingly overlooked in much of the literature. The current article examines the
Rapee, R.M.; Bögels, S.M.; van der Sluis, C.M.; Craske, M.G.; Ollendick, T.
Functional impairment is a key factor in the clinical importance of mental health problems in children. Yet, the nature of impairment and criteria for defining and assessing impairment in childhood disorders has been surprisingly overlooked in much of the literature. The current article examines the
Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is a common disorder worldwide, commonly starting during childhood. Despite the high impact of psychiatric comorbidities in these patients, little is known about Iranian children with epilepsy. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the tertiary clinics of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. All of the children (aged between 6 and 18 with a diagnosis of epilepsy were enrolled in this study. A semi-structured psychiatric interview was carried out using the Farsi (Persian version of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL. Results: From a total of 298 participants, 270 (90.6% completed the process, including 120 (44.4% girls and 150 (55.6% boys. At least one psychiatric diagnosis was made in 222 (82.2% patients. The most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with epilepsy were attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (34.4%, major depressive disorder (MDD (29.6%, social phobia (14.8% and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD (14.8%. Agoraphobia and anorexia nervosa were significantly more prevalent among girls. The following disorders were more prevalent in children aged between 13 and 18: MDD (47.5%, psychotic disorder (2.5%, social phobia (23.7%, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD (15.3%, conduct disorder (13.6%, chronic motor tic disorder (13.6% and substance related disorders (4.8%. Separation anxiety (15.1% and enuresis (1.5%, on the other hand, were more prevalent among younger children. A logistic regression model showed that psychiatric disorders in parents or siblings could independently predict at least one psychiatric comorbidity in children with epilepsy.Conclusion: Iranian children with epilepsy face a high burden of psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities compared to same aged general population that should be considered for comprehensive care.
Topal, E; Catal, F; Soylu, N; Ozcan, O O; Celiksoy, M H; Babayiğit, A; Erge, D; Karakoç, H T E; Sancak, R
Psychiatric disorders are seen frequently in atopic diseases. The present study aims to evaluate the frequency of psychiatric disorders and the severity of psychiatric symptoms in pre-school children with cow's milk allergy. The parents of the pre-school children with cow's milk allergy were interviewed in person and asked to fill out the Early Childhood Inventory-4 form. The cow's milk allergy group included 40 children (27 male, 13 female) with mean age, 44.5±14.7 months, and the control group included 41 children (25 male, 16 female) with mean age, 47.6±15.2 months. It was established that 65% of the group with cow's milk allergy received at least one psychiatric diagnosis, while 36.6% of the control group received at least one psychiatric diagnosis, with a statistically significant difference (p=0.02). Within the psychiatric disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (odds ratio: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.472-16.856, p=0.006), oppositional defiant disorder (odds ratio: 5.6, 95% CI: 1.139-28.128, p=0.026), and attachment disorder (odds ratio: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.747-13.506, p=0.004) were found significantly higher compared with the healthy control group. When the groups were compared in terms of psychiatric symptom severity scores, calculated by using the Early Childhood Inventory-4 form, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders severity (p=0.006) and oppositional defiant disorder severity (p=0.037) were found to be higher in the cow's milk allergy group. Psychiatric disorders are frequent and severe in pre-school children with cow's milk allergy. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Dilay Açıl, MSN
Conclusions: These findings showed the important role of school health nurses in performing health screenings directed at visually impaired children who constitute a special group for school health services. Health screening for height, weight, dental health, hearing, and scoliosis is suggested for visually impaired children.
Solebo, Ameenat Lola; Rahi, Jugnoo
An estimated 19 million of the world's children are visually impaired, while 1.4 million are blind. Using the UK as a model for high income countries, from a population-based incidence study, the annual cumulative incidence of severe visual impairment/blindness (SVL/BL) is estimated to be 6/10 000 by age 15 years, with the incidence being highest in the first year of life. The population of visually impaired children within high, middle and lower income countries differ considerably between and within countries. The numerous and mainly uncommon disorders which can cause impaired vision result in heterogeneous population which includes a substantial proportion (for SVI/BL, the majority) of children with additional systemic disorders or impairments whose needs differ substantially from those with isolated vision impairment. Paediatricians and other paediatric professionals have a key role in early detection and multidisciplinary management to minimise the impact of visual impairment (VI) in childhood.
Hansen, Berit Hjelde; Alfstad, Kristin Å; van Roy, Betty; Henning, Oliver; Lossius, Morten I
Sleep problems are common in pediatric epilepsy and may influence seizure control, daytime functioning, and overall quality of life. Knowledge of factors contributing to sleep problems is likely to improve treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between psychiatric comorbidity and parent-reported and self-reported sleep problems in a sample of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Participants were children and adolescents (N=94), aged 10-19years, with generalized or focal epilepsy who had been referred to a tertiary epilepsy treatment center in Norway. Participants underwent a thorough clinical assessment and 24h of EEG registration. Information on sleep problems was obtained from parents using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ) and from self-reporting using the Sleep Self-Report (SSR) questionnaire. Psychiatric diagnoses were established using the semistructured psychiatric interview Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL). Both the total and subdomain CSHQ and SSR scores were high in comparison with scores from population-based samples. Having one or more psychiatric disorder(s) was significantly associated with elevated scores on both the CSHQ and the SSR. With the exception of parent-reported parasomnias, associations between sleep problems and psychiatric disorders remained significant after adjusting for relevant epilepsy variables. Psychiatric comorbidity explained about one-third of the variance of the reported sleep problems in children and adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
James, Trenton; Countryman, Jacqueline
Deployments in the United States military have increased greatly in the past 10 years. Families and children are psychiatrically affected by these deployments, and recent studies are clarifying these effects. This article focuses on the psychiatric effects of deployment on children and uses a composite case example to review the use of play therapy to treat children who are having psychiatric issues related to the deployment of one or both parents.
Bentholm, Anette Lisbeth
A case study: Inclusion for children with psychiatric diagnosis in physical education (PE) at primary school.Research bagground and aim:A large majority in the Danish parliament decided in 2012 that more children with special needs for example children with psychiatric diagnosis as autism spectrum...... activities at least 45 minutes each school day (Bekendtgørelse af lov om folkeskolen, 2014). ASD and ADHD are disabling conditions that emerge in childhood and affects social communication and interaction, and often also their motor skill performance and cognition fx. academic skills (Harvey & Reid, 2003...... framework:My overall research design is a Case study, because the research question requires an “in-depth” description and valuable insights to the complexities of the social phenomenon of inclusion and exclusions processes (Flyvbjerg, 2006; Yin, 2014). The research focus on 11 children with psychiatric...
Dursun, Onur Burak; Erhan, Süleyman Erim; Ibiş, Esra Özhan; Esin, Ibrahim Selcuk; Keleş, Sadullah; Şirinkan, Ahmet; Yörük, Özgür; Acar, Ethem; Beyhun, Nazim Ercument
Physical exercise and sports have a key role in preventing physical and psychiatric problems in children. However, children with a disability often experience difficulty participating in physical activity due to a lack of suitable opportunities. Participation in an accessible sport is particularly important for these children, but studies examining which sports are beneficial for which disability groups are rare. In this study, we assessed the effects of ice skating on the psychological well-being, self-concept, and sleep quality of children with hearing or visual impairment. Forty students (20 visually impaired and 20 hearing impaired) aged 8-16 were included in a regular ice skating programme for three months. We examined the sleep quality, self-concept, and behavioural and emotional states of the children before and after participating in the programme. There was a significant improvement in self-concept, behavioural and emotional problems, and sleep quality (p sleep quality (p = 0.019) and emotional problem scores (p = 0.000) of the visually impaired children improved; self-concept, peer relations and hyperactivity scores of these children worsened (p sport alternatives that gives children the opportunity to exercise and have fun together. The results of this study revealed that regular ice skating programmes may have positive effects on the psychological well-being of children with hearing impairment. Despite some positive effects, caution must be use when including visually impaired children in ice skating programmes. Generalization of the study's outcomes is limited as the study group were residential students enrolled in special education institutions for children who are blind or deaf. Ice skating is a community-based sport and a popular leisure activity that can also have benefits for people with disabilities. Ice skating and children with hearing impairment: Self-concept, behavioural and emotional problems, and sleep quality of the children
Imran, Nazish; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Sattar, Ahsan; Bhatti, Mohammad Riaz
Association between Intellectual disability (ID) and psychiatric disorders in children & adolescents is well established but there is a paucity of published studies from Pakistan on this topic. The main aim of the study was to assess the frequency of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in the hospital outpatient sample of children with ID in Lahore, Pakistan as well as to find out which challenging behaviors, caregivers find difficult to manage in this setup. Socio-demographic information was collected, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised & ICD-10 diagnostic criteria was used to assess children (age range 6 - 16 years) with suspected ID along with identification of behaviors found to be difficult to manage by caregivers. 150 children were assessed with mean age of 10.7 years (males 70 %). Majority (72%) had mild ID while 18.7% and 9.3% had moderate and severe ID respectively. Thirty percent of children met the criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis, the most common being Oppositional Defiant Disorder (14%) and Hyperkinetic Disorders (10%). Verbal and physical aggression, school difficulties, socialization problems, inappropriate behaviors (e.g. disinhibition), sleep & feeding difficulties were the significant areas identified by the caregivers as a cause of major concern. Significantly high prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnosis in children with ID was found in Lahore, Pakistan. Support services for these children should be responsive not only to the needs of the child, but also to the needs of the family.
Bjorgaas, H. M.; Hysing, M.; Elgen, I.
The aim of the present population study was to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children with cerebral palsy (CP), as well as the impact of comorbid conditions. A cohort of children with CP born 2001-2003, and living in the Western Health Region of Norway were evaluated at school starting age. Parents were interviewed with the…
The need for effective treatments for pediatric overweight is well known. We evaluated the applicability of an evidence-based treatment in an applied clinic setting that includes children with severe obesity and comorbid medical or psychiatric conditions. Forty-eight overweight children and their fa...
Frémaux, T; Reymann, J-M; Chevreuil, C; Bentué-Ferrer, D
A review of the literature from 1996-2004 on the indications and adverse reactions concerning the use of olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic agent, in children and adolescents with psychiatric illness is made in this article. Studies lasted for 2 to 3 months and a few had a follow up period up to a year. Olanzapine, dosed from 2.5 to 20 mg/day, is shown to be a useful drug in the treatment of child and adolescent onset schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, anorexia nervosa with delusions, pervasive developmental disorder, tic disorders, and aggression. OPEN AND DOUBLE-BLIND STUDIES: In 4 open labeled studies (26, 34, 39, 43) and 2 case reports (25), 53 patients, aged from 6-18 years old, afflicted by child onset schizophrenia, were treated with olanzapine for 1 1/2 weeks to one year; 19 had treatment resistant childhood schizophrenia and 34 a first episode. In the first group 13/19 showed improvement whereas, in the second group 27/34 were considered responders. Four patients in the first group who had responded to clozapine (stopped because of adverse events) did less well on olanzapine. In 5 studies, 4 open labeled (15, 20, 44) and 1 double blind (27), 59 adolescent onset schizophrenic patients were treated by olanzapine from 8 to 26 weeks; 50/59 patients were considered responders. In the open label study (20) comparing 43 adolescents treated by olanzapine (19 patients), risperidone (17 patients), or haloperidol (7 patients), improvement was significant in the three groups after 4 weeks of treatment and continued after 8 weeks. It is most interesting to mention that 2 months after the end of the study 71% (12/17) of the olanzapine group that had completed the study, 10/15 (67%) of the risperidone group, and 43% (3/7) of the haloperidol group had continued their treatment. Dropouts were for inefficacy and non-compliance in the olanzapine and risperidone groups whereas they were also for adverse events in the haloperidol group (2/4). A final double blind
Catal, F; Topal, E; Soylu, N; Ozel Ozcan, O; Celiksoy, M H; Babayiğit, A; Karakoç, H T E; Erge, D; Sancak, R
To compare with a control group the frequency of psychiatric disorders and severity of psychiatric symptoms in preschool children with atopic eczema. The study included children between the ages of 3-5 who were diagnosed to have atopic eczema. The parents of the children with atopic eczema were interviewed in person and were asked to fill in "The Early Childhood Inventory-4" form. This form assesses the psychiatric disorders and symptoms severity in children between the ages of 3-5. The atopic eczema group included 80 patients (38 male, 42 female) with a mean age of 48.4 ± 15.7 months and the control group included 74 patients (41 male, 33 female) with a mean age of 49.9 ± 15.19 months. It was established that 68.8% of the group with atopic eczema received at least one psychiatric diagnosis. Between the psychiatric disorders, ADHD (Odds ratio: 2.57, 95% CI: 1.049-6.298, p=0.035), enuresis and encopresis (Odds ratio: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.121-5.097, p=0.022) and attachment disorder (Odds ratio: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.046-3.953, p=0.035) were found to be significantly higher when compared with the healthy control group. When the groups were compared in terms of psychiatric symptom severity scores calculated by using ECI-4, ADHD severity (p=0.043), conduct disorder severity (p=0.001), anxiety disorders severity (p<0.001), eating disorders severity (p=0.011) and tic disorder severity (p=0.01) were found to be higher in the atopic eczema group. Psychiatric illnesses are frequent in preschool children with atopic eczema. Copyright © 2015 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Stivanin, Luciene; Oliveira, Christian C de; Santos, Fernanda P Dos; Santos, Bernardo Dos; Scivoletto, Sandra
To study the co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders (PD) and communication disorders (CD) and their relationship with global functioning in maltreated children and adolescents. The sample comprised 143 maltreated children and adolescents (55.8% male). All underwent clinical communication and psychiatric evaluations, as well as global functioning assessment using the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Four groups emerged from evaluation: Group 1 (n=7, 4.9%) did not exhibit any disorders; Group 2 (n=26, 18.2%) exhibited PD; Group 3 (n=34, 23.8%) exhibited CD; and Group 4 (n=76, 53.1%) exhibited both PD and CD on evaluation. Significant differences in global functioning scores were found between G1 and G2, G1 and G4, G2 and G4, and G3 and G4, with the highest C-GAS scores found in G1 and the lowest in G4. Rates of PD and CD are high in this maltreated population. The presence of PD has a major impact on C-GAS score, and the simultaneous presence of CD increases the already impaired function of PD. Demonstration of the additive effects of PD and CD on youth functioning suggests that professionals should be alert to the presence of both disorders to better act preventively and therapeutically in a high-risk population.
Norredam, Marie; Nellums, Laura; Nielsen, Runa Schmidt
linked a cohort of refugee children who obtained right of residency in Denmark between 01 January 1993 and 31 December 2010 to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and calculated incidence rates per 100,000 person years and incidence rate ratios of overall psychiatric disorder, psychotic disorders...... psychiatric disorder (aIRR: 1.38, 95% CI 1.14-1.68) and neurotic disorders (aIRR: 1.67, 95% CI 1.32-2.13) than accompanied minors. Among children from Afghanistan, unaccompanied minors had significantly higher rates of any psychiatric disorder (aIRR: 2.23, 95% CI 1.26-3.93) and neurotic disorders (aIRR: 3.......50, 95% CI 1.72-7.11). Among children from Iraq, unaccompanied minors had higher rates of any psychiatric disorder (aIRR: 2.02, 95% CI 1.18-3.45), affective disorders (aIRR: 6.04, 95% CI 2.17-16.8), and neurotic disorders (aIRR: 3.04, 95% CI 1.62-5.70). Unaccompanied children were found to experience...
Holliday, Erin L.; Harrison, Linda J.; McLeod, Sharynne
Including children as research participants is an important new direction in early childhood research. However, it is rare for such studies to include the voices of children with significant communication impairment. This article suggests that drawing may be an appropriate non-verbal method for "listening" to these children's ideas and recording…
Green, Dido; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian
Aim: We undertook this study to explore the degree of impairment in movement skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and a wide IQ range. Method: Movement skills were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in a large, well defined, population-derived group of children (n=101: 89 males,12 females; mean…
Shih, Chih-Ming; Chao, Hsin-Yi
Five children with visual impairments received instruction in drawing, using ink and wash painting and calligraphy techniques. A special system developed by a blind Taiwanese Chinese calligrapher, Tsann-Cherng Liaw, was used to help the children orient and refine their work. Children's performance on simple drawing tasks was compared before and…
Wittke, Kacie; Spaulding, Tammie J.
Purpose: Potential biases in service provision for preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) were explored. Method: In Study 1, children with SLI receiving treatment (SLI-T) and those with SLI not receiving treatment (SLI-NT) were compared on demographic characteristics and developmental abilities. Study 2 recruited children with…
Paccione-Dyszlewski, Margaret R; Conelea, Christine A; Heisler, Walter C; Vilardi, Jodie C; Sachs, Henry T
Behavioral crisis management, including the use of seclusion and restraint, is the most high risk process in the psychiatric care of children and adolescents. The authors describe hospital-wide programmatic changes implemented at a children's psychiatric hospital that aimed to improve the quality of crisis management services. Pre/post quantitative and qualitative data suggest reduced restraint and seclusion use, reduced patient and staff injury related to crisis management, and increased patient satisfaction during the post-program period. Factors deemed beneficial in program implementation are discussed.
Williams, Alishia D
The aims of the current study were to determine if compulsive acquisition behaviors are meaningfully related to quality of life and psychiatric work impairment and to determine if compulsive buyers who engage in 2 forms of acquisition (buying and excessive acquisition of free items) are more impaired than individuals who only engage in 1 form of acquisition. In a community-recruited sample, analysis of covariance conducted between groups identified as noncompulsive buyers (NCB) (n = 30), compulsive buyers who did not acquire free items (CBB) (n = 30), and compulsive buyers who also acquired free items (CBF) (n = 35) revealed that both acquisition groups reported higher levels of depression and stress and lower quality of psychological well-being than the NCB group, despite a comparable number of individuals self-reporting a current mental health disorder in each group. The CBF group reported higher levels of anxiety and general distress as well as greater work inefficiency days compared with the NCB and CBB groups. Furthermore, regression analyses supported the unique contribution of acquisition of free items to the prediction of psychiatric work impairment. Taken together, the findings highlight the serious impact of compulsive buying on work functioning, general quality of life, and psychological well-being and provide avenues for future research to investigate the role of acquisition of free items in symptom severity. Limitations and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction: The epidemiological investigation was carried out among 228 children selected from two schools of similar socioeconomic strata in and around Chennai city. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 128 visually impaired and 100 normal school going children in the age group of 6-15 years. The examination procedure and criteria were those recommended by W.H.O. in 1997. Results: The mean DMFT/deft was 1.1 and 0.17,0.87 and 0.47 in visually impaired and normal children, respectively. Oral hygiene levels in both groups were: mean value in good category was 0.19 and 0.67, in fair category was 0.22 and 0.1, and in poor category 0.40 and 0.23 in visually impaired children and normal children, respectively. Trauma experienced children were 0.29 and 0.13 in visually impaired children and normal children, respectively. Conclusion: The conclusions drawn from this study were that there was a greater prevalence of dental caries, poorer oral hygiene, and higher incidence of trauma in visually impaired children.
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Baweja, Raman; Calhoun, Susan L; Syed, Ehsan; Mahr, Fauzia; Siddiqui, Farhat
Studies of the relationship between bullying and suicide behavior yield mixed results. This is the first study comparing frequencies of suicide behavior in four bullying groups (bully, victim, bully/victim, and neither) in two large psychiatric and community samples of young children and adolescents. Maternal ratings of bullying and suicide ideation and attempts were analyzed for 1,291 children with psychiatric disorders and 658 children in the general population 6-18 years old. For both the psychiatric and community samples, suicide ideation and attempt scores for bully/victims were significantly higher than for victims only and for neither bullies nor victims. Differences between victims only and neither victims nor bullies were nonsignificant. Controlling for sadness and conduct problems, suicide behavior did not differ between the four bullying groups. All children with suicide attempts had a comorbid psychiatric disorder, as did all but two children with suicide ideation. Although the contribution of bullying per se to suicide behavior independent of sadness and conduct problems is small, bullying has obvious negative psychological consequences that make intervention imperative. Interventions need to focus on the psychopathology associated with being a victim and/or perpetrator of bullying in order to reduce suicide behavior.
Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Moaiedy, Farah; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Askani, Hamid; Haghighat, Mahmood; Dehbozorgi, Gholamreza; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen
Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder. There is a heightened risk when conducting potentially dangerous and unnecessary medical investigations and procedures in children with FAPS. The aim of this study was to survey the rate of the psychiatric disorders and family functioning in children and adolescents with FAPS. The subjects were a consecutive new sample of 45 children and adolescents with FAPS, 45 with an organic abdominal pain, and 45 pain-free comparison subjects aged 5-18 years that were interviewed using the Farsi version of K-SADS. Family functioning and the severity of pain were also studied. About 51.1% of patients with FAPS suffered from at least one psychiatric disorder. Psychiatric disorders in the FAPS patients studied included general anxiety disorder (8.9%), obsessive-compulsive disorder (11.1%), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (15.6%), separation anxiety disorder (24.4%), and major depressive disorder (15.6%). Except for generalized anxiety disorder and tic disorder, the other disorders were significantly more common in the FAPS group than in the two other control groups. Family functioning scores were not significantly different between groups. There is a high rate of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with FAPS in Iran, but our study found fewer incidences of disorders than previous reports have indicated. Family dysfunction difficulties in FAPS children are not more common than those in the control groups.
Haugen, Olav H; Bredrup, Cecilie; Rødahl, Eyvind
BACKGROUND Due to failures in reporting and poor data security, the Norwegian Registry of Blindness was closed down in 1995. Since that time, no registration of visual impairment has taken place in Norway. All the other Nordic countries have registries for children and adolescents with visual impairment. The purpose of this study was to survey visual impairments and their causes in children and adolescents, and to assess the need for an ophthalmic registry.MATERIAL AND METHOD Data were collected via the county teaching centres for the visually impaired in the period from 2005 - 2010 on children and adolescents aged less than 20 years with impaired vision (n = 628). This was conducted as a point prevalence study as of 1 January 2004. Visual function, ophthalmological diagnosis, systemic diagnosis and additional functional impairments were recorded.RESULTS Approximately two-thirds of children and adolescents with visual impairment had reduced vision, while one-third were blind. The three largest diagnostic groups were neuro-ophthalmic diseases (37 %), retinal diseases (19 %) and conditions affecting the eyeball in general (14 %). The prevalence of additional functional impairments was high, at 53 %, most often in the form of motor problems or cognitive impairments.INTERPRETATION The results of the study correspond well with similar investigations in the other Nordic countries. Our study shows that the registries associated with teaching for the visually impaired are inadequate in terms of medical data, and this underlines the need for an ophthalmic registry of children and adolescents with visual impairment.
Full Text Available Stephanie Klügel,1 Caroline Lücke,1 Aurora Meta,1 Meike Schild-Suhren,2 Eduard Malik,2 Alexandra Philipsen,1 Helge HO Müller1,3 1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Bad Zwischenahn, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Oldenburg, 3Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Our aim was to summarize the current relevant literature on concomitant psychiatric symptoms with a focus on anxiety/depression in a population with gynecologic cancer; to identify the predictors, associated factors, and prevention strategies of psychiatric disorders; to examine psychiatric disorders in a population with recurrent gynecologic cancer; and to describe the limitations of the literature and future research areas. Little is known about attending psychiatric disorders in patients with gynecologic and other malignant diseases like cervical or breast cancer. However, patients suffering from other types of gynecologic cancer (eg, genital/cervical cancer may also have an increased risk of psychiatric symptoms. In this review, we identify the potential information deficits in this field. A two-rater independent literature search was conducted using the PubMed/Google Scholar search engines to systematically evaluate the literature on the research objectives, followed by a critical reflection on the results. Of the 77 screened studies, 15 met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Patients with gynecologic malignancies, especially cervical cancer, had a very high prevalence of psychiatric symptoms including depression (33%–52%. Additionally, the risk groups facing higher rates of concomitant reduced quality of life and increased psychiatric symptoms such as depression were identified. Specifically, low socioeconomic status, sexual inactivity, absence of a partner, and physical symptoms were correlated with an increased risk. Patients
. Knowledge of CVI is important in planning preventive measures. The aim of this study was determine the prevalence, etiology and the factors associated with childhood visual impairment among the children attending the eye clinic in Mulago ...
for management of GERD in neurologically impaired children. Materials and .... GERD pH analysis software, and accordingly, the patients were classified as having ... video processor model; Asahi Optical Co., Tokyo, Japan) and a standard ...
Hearing impairment and deafness among HIV infected children and adolescents in Harare, Zimbabwe. C Chidziva, J Matsekete, T Bandason, S Shamu, T Dzongodza, N Matinhira, HA Mujuru, C Kunzekwenyika, M Wellington, R Luthy, C Prescott, RA Ferrand ...
Goudie, Anthony; Havercamp, Susan; Jamieson, Barry; Sahr, Timothy
The purpose of this study was to empirically test if siblings of children with disability had higher levels of parent-reported behavioral and emotional functional impairment compared with a peer group of siblings residing with only typically developing children. This was a retrospective secondary analysis of data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We included only households with at least 2 children to ensure sibling relationships. Two groups of siblings were formed: 245 siblings resided in households with a child with disability and 6564 siblings resided in households with typically developing children. Parents responded to questions from the Columbia Impairment Scale to identify functional impairment in their children. On the basis of parent reports and after adjusting for sibling demographic characteristics and household background, siblings of children with disability were more likely than siblings residing with typically developing children to have problems with interpersonal relationships, psychopathological functioning, functioning at school, and use of leisure time (P siblings of children with disability classified with significant functional impairment was 16.0% at the first measurement period and 24.2% at the second (P siblings of typically developing children there was a smaller percentage increase from 9.5% to 10.3% (P mental health services and, as such, early assessment and interventions to limit increasing severity and short- to long-term consequences need to be addressed. Health care professionals need to consider a family-based health care approach for families raising children with disability.
Full Text Available Objective: This study was a basic investigation of the ability of concurrent speech segregation in hearing impaired children. Concurrent segregation is one of the fundamental components of auditory scene analysis and plays an important role in speech perception. In the present study, we compared auditory late responses or ALRs between hearing impaired and normal children. Materials & Methods: Auditory late potentials in response to 12 double vowels were recorded in 10 children with moderate to severe sensory neural hearing loss and 10 normal children. Double vowels (pairs of synthetic vowels were presented concurrently and binaurally. Fundamental frequency (F0 of these vowels and the size of the difference in F0 between vowels was 100 Hz and 0.5 semitones respectively. Results: Comparing N1-P2 amplitude showed statistically significant difference in some stimuli between hearing impaired and normal children (P<0.05. This complex indexing the vowel change detection and reflecting central auditory speech representation without active client participation was decreased in hearing impaired children. Conclusion: This study showed problems in concurrent speech segregation in hearing impaired children evidenced by ALRs. This information indicated deficiencies in bottom-up processing of speech characteristics based on F0 and its differences in these children.
Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Boonstra, F Nienke; van Rens, Ger H M B; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Meulenbroek, Ruud G J; Cox, Ralf F A
This study aimed to examine the controllability of cylinder-shaped and dome-shaped magnifiers in young children with visual impairment. This study investigates goal-directed arm movements in low-vision aid use (stand and dome magnifier-like object) in a group of young children with visual impairment (n = 56) compared to a group of children with normal sight (n = 66). Children with visual impairment and children with normal sight aged 4-8 years executed two types of movements (cyclic and discrete) in two orientations (vertical or horizontal) over two distances (10 cm and 20 cm) with two objects resembling the size and shape of regularly prescribed stand and dome magnifiers. The visually impaired children performed slower movements than the normally sighted children. In both groups, the accuracy and speed of the reciprocal aiming movements improved significantly with age. Surprisingly, in both groups, the performance with the dome-shaped object was significantly faster (in the 10 cm condition and 20 cm condition with discrete movements) and more accurate (in the 20 cm condition) than with the stand-shaped object. From a controllability perspective, this study suggests that it is better to prescribe dome-shaped than cylinder-shaped magnifiers to young children with visual impairment. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle
Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…
Trent, S. D.
A Tennessee program awards stipends to teachers to attend summer classes and a practicum and earn 18 hours of credit in education of children with visual impairments. The program requires that teachers have assurance from their superintendents that they will teach visually impaired students in their school systems after endorsement. (Author/JDD)
Armon-Lotem, S.; de Jong, J.; Meir, N.
This book presents a comprehensive set of tools for assessing the linguistic abilities of bilingual children. It aims to disentangle effects of bilingualism from those of Specific Language Impairment (SLI), making use of both models of bilingualism and models of language impairment.
Stelzig-Schöler, Renate; Hasselbring, Laura; Yazdi, Kurosch; Thun-Hohenstein, Leonhard; Stuppäck, Christoph; Aichhorn, Wolfgang
Children of mentally ill parents are exposed to a variety of stress- and harmful life events. To which extent the mental illness of one or both parents affects their children's mental development is barely studied. Therefore, over a period of 6 months 142 patients with children below the age of 18 (n=237 children), who were admitted to the Dept. for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy 1 of the Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg, were questioned for abnormalities in their children's mental development. Additionally all these patients were assessed for their family situation, demographic data and psychiatric disorder. 38.4% (n=91) of the children showed mental abnormalities. The most common one were emotional (n=41), social (n=41) and learning (n=34) disabilities. Parental duration of the illness (p=0.001), age of the children (p=0.044), illness of both parents (p=0.008), longlasting family conflicts (p=0.003) and living with only one parent (p=0.012) were correlated significantly with mental abnormalities in children. The results confirm an increase risk for mental abnormalities in children of psychiatric patients. This risk varies with existing risk and protective factors, which can be partially influenced. Therefore children of mentally ill parents with problems in their mental development should be detected early. Even if genetic risk factors cannot be changed reducing known psychosocial risk factors and promotion protective factors can significantly influence a healthy development of these vulnerable children.
Jarollahi, Farnoush; Mohamadi, Reyhane; Modarresi, Yahya; Agharasouli, Zahra; Rahimzadeh, Shadi; Ahmadi, Tayebeh; Keyhani, Mohammad-Reza
Since the pragmatic skills of hearing-impaired Persian-speaking children have not yet been investigated particularly through story retelling, this study aimed to evaluate some pragmatic abilities of normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children using a story retelling test. 15 normal-hearing and 15 profound hearing-impaired 7-year-old children were evaluated using the story retelling test with the content validity of 89%, construct validity of 85%, and reliability of 83%. Three macro structure criteria including topic maintenance, event sequencing, explicitness, and four macro structure criteria including referencing, conjunctive cohesion, syntax complexity, and utterance length were assessed. The test was performed with live voice in a quiet room where children were then asked to retell the story. The tasks of the children were recorded on a tape, transcribed, scored and analyzed. In the macro structure criteria, utterances of hearing-impaired students were less consistent, enough information was not given to listeners to have a full understanding of the subject, and the story events were less frequently expressed in a rational order than those of normal-hearing group (P hearing students who obtained high scores, hearing-impaired students failed to gain any scores on the items of this section. These results suggest that Hearing-impaired children were not able to use language as effectively as their hearing peers, and they utilized quite different pragmatic functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Pádua, Michelle; Sauer, Juliana F; João, Silvia M A
The aim of this study was to compare the postural alignment of children with visual impairment with that of children without visual impairment. The sample studied was 74 children of both sexes ages 5 to 12 years. Of these, 34 had visual impairment and 40 were control children. Digital photos from the standing position were used to analyze posture. Postural variables, such as tilt of the head, shoulder position, scapula position, lateral deviation of the spine, ankle position in the frontal plane and head posture, angle of thoracic kyphosis, angle of lumbar lordosis, pelvis position, and knee position in the frontal and sagittal planes, were measured with the Postural Assessment Software 0.63, version 36 (SAPO, São Paulo, Brazil), with markers placed in predetermined bony landmarks. The main results of this study showed that children with visual impairment have increased head tilt (P Visual impairment influences postural alignment. Children with visual impairment had increased head tilt, uneven shoulders, greater lateral deviation of the spine, thoracic kyphosis, lower lumbar lordosis, and more severe valgus deformities on knees. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Specific Language impairment (SLI is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed when a child has difficulties learning to produce and/or understand speech for no apparent reason (Bishop et al., 2012. The verbal difficulties of children with SLI have been largely documented, and a growing number of studies suggest that these children may also have difficulties in processing non-verbal complex auditory stimuli (Brandt et al., 2012; Corriveau et al., 2007. In a recent study, we reported that a large proportion of children with SLI present deficits in music perception (Planchou et al, submitted. Little is known, however, about the singing abilities of children with SLI. In order to investigate whether or not the impairments in expressive language extend to the musical domain, we assessed singing abilities in 8 children with SLI and 15 children with Typical Language Development (TLD matched for age and non-verbal intelligence. To this aim, we designed a ludic activity consisting of two singing tasks: a pitch-matching and a melodic reproduction task. In the pitch-matching task, the children were requested to sing single notes. In the melodic reproduction task, children were asked to sing short melodies that were either familiar (FAM-SONG and FAM-TUNE conditions or unfamiliar (UNFAM-TUNE condition. The analysis showed that children with SLI were impaired in the pitch-matching task, with a mean pitch error of 250 cents (mean pitch error for children with TLD: 154 cents. In the melodic reproduction task, we asked 30 healthy adults to rate the quality of the sung productions of the children on a continuous rating scale. The results revealed that singing of children with SLI received lower mean ratings than the children with TLD. Our findings thus indicate that children with SLI showed impairments in musical production and are discussed in light of a general auditory-motor dysfunction in children with SLI.
Simon, Joan B.; Savina, Elena A.
Over a quarter of a million U.S. students each year reside for a period of time in a psychiatric inpatient hospital setting to receive mental health treatment. Following inpatient treatment, most children are transitioned from the hospital into a regular school setting. Little is known about how these transitions are managed by hospital or school…
Nation, Kate; Clarke, Paula; Marshall, Catherine M.; Durand, Marianne
This study investigates the oral language skills of 8-year-old children with impaired reading comprehension. Despite fluent and accurate reading and normal nonverbal ability, these children are poor at understanding what they have read. Tasks tapping 3 domains of oral language, namely phonology, semantics, and morphosyntax, were administered,…
Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the visual impairment in cerebral palsy children with series objective indicators, and conclude their clinical features of visual function.METHODS: Objective tests including following pursuing test, optokinetic nystagmus(OKNdrum test, refractive error examination, fundus examination, ocular deviation examination, pattern visual evoked potential(P-VEPtests and brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRIwere carried out in 43 cerebral palsy children(86 eyeswith ocular visual dysfunction; The visual impairment data of the cerebral palsy children were collected, and the clinical features and possible mechanism were analyzed.RESULTS: 1. Of the 43 cerebral palsy children(86 eyeswith the visual impairment presented diversified, 25(50 eyes, 58.1%of refractive error, 24(48 eyes, 55.8%of strabismus, 12(24 eyes, 27.9%with nystagmus, 19(38 eyes, 44.2%of optical nerve atrophy or hyperplasia, 35(70 eyes, 81.4%of VEP abnormality. Among children with spastic cerebral palsy, the incidence of visual impairment was statistically significant difference compared with other groups(PP>0.05, no nystagmus in patients with severe occipital cortex damage.CONCLUSION: Cerebral palsy children were usually with visual impairment, and presented with special clinical features; Comprehensive objective visual tests are accurate and reliable for evaluation of the visual function in cerebral palsy children.
Becker, Stephen P; Withrow, Amanda R; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron M; Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani
Although identified as a significant public health concern, few studies have examined correlates of suicide risk in school-aged children. Recent studies show a relation between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms and a range of adverse outcomes linked to suicidal ideation, including depression, emotion dysregulation, lowered self-esteem, and peer problems/social withdrawal, yet no study to date has examined SCT in relation to suicide risk. We tested the hypothesis that SCT would be associated with suicide risk in a sample of 95 psychiatrically hospitalized children (74% male; 62% black) between the ages of 8 and 12 (M = 10.01, SD = 1.50). Parents completed measures of their child's psychiatric symptoms, including SCT and depression, as well as a measure of their own psychopathology. Children completed measures assessing loneliness and depression. Both parents and children completed measures of suicide risk. White children reported greater suicide risk than nonwhite children. After controlling for demographic characteristics, loneliness, parental psychopathology, and correlated psychiatric symptoms, including both parent- and child self-reported depressive symptoms, SCT remained uniquely associated with children's suicide risk. Results were consistent across both parent and child measures of suicide risk. This multi-informant study provides strong preliminary support for an association between SCT symptoms and suicide risk in psychiatrically hospitalized children, above and beyond loneliness, depression, and demographic characteristics. Findings are discussed in the context of the interpersonal theory of suicide. Additional studies are needed to replicate and extend these findings, with a particular need for studies that examine the cognitive processes and daydreaming content of individuals displaying elevated SCT symptomatology. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Background: Children with multiple impairments have more complex developmental problems than children with a single impairment. Method: We compared children, aged 4 to 11 years, with intellectual disability (ID) and visual impairment to children with single ID, single visual impairment and typical development on "Child Behavior Check…
Ceri, Veysi; Özlü-Erkilic, Zeliha; Özer, Ürün; Yalcin, Murat; Popow, Christian; Akkaya-Kalayci, Türkan
The aim of the present study was to evaluate psychiatric problems and disorders among Yazidi Kurd refugee children and adolescents, who were assessed immediately after their forced migration following life-threatening attacks by ISIS terrorists. We retrospectively analyzed the psychiatric assessments of 38 Yazidi children and adolescents (age 2-18, mean 12 years, m:f = 16:22), which were performed upon their arrival at the refugee camp. All children and adolescents exhibited psychiatric problems and disorders, 50 % had one, and 50 % had more than one. The most relevant problems were disturbed sleeping (71 % of children), followed by depression (36.8 %), conversion disorders (28.9 %), adjustment (21.8 %), acute (18.4 %) and posttraumatic stress (PTSD, 10.5 %) disorders, and non-organic enuresis (18.4 %). Our study confirms the results of previous studies, asserting that refugee children and adolescents do not just suffer from PTSD but from various other problems that are already present in the first days of resettlement. Children and adolescents living in refugee camps urgently need psychosocial support.
(children suffering from psoriasis, acne, urticaria, atopic dermatitis and alopecia), attended the dermatology outpatient clinic at Al Wahda Hospital and Community Health Center, Dema, Libya, from I st Jan. 2006 to May 30,2006. For all children the following were done: full medical history and clinical examination, D-test for ...
Beattie, R. G. John L.
This review of research on otitis media in children with existing hearing impairments concludes that the incidence of otitis media is probably higher than in the general population. The possible reasons for higher incidence, effects of otitis media on children with known losses, and the role of the classroom teacher are discussed. (Author/DB)
Dekker, R.; And Others
Statistical analyses of scores on subtests of the Intelligence Test for Visually Impaired Children were done for two groups of children, either with or without usable vision. Results suggest that the battery has differential factorial and predictive validity. (Author/DB)
Lieberman, Lauren J.; Schedlin, Haley; Pierce, Tristan
This article presents strategies for jumping rope for children with visual impairments. Giving choices related to the types of rope and the use of mats is important. In addition, using appropriate instructional strategies and modifications will make jumping rope a skill that the children will enjoy and will lead to their involvement in other…
Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Boonstra, F. Nienke; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Cox, Ralf F. A.
PurposeThis study aimed to examine the controllability of cylinder-shaped and dome-shaped magnifiers in young children with visual impairment. MethodsThis study investigates goal-directed arm movements in low-vision aid use (stand and dome magnifier-like object) in a group of young children with
Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam T
Functional impairment is a key indicator of need for mental health services among children and adolescents, often a stronger predictor of service usage than mental health symptoms themselves. Functional impairment may be of particular importance in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) because of its potential to focus policy on treatment of child mental health problems which is generally given low priority in LMIC. However, few studies have assessed functional impairment in LMIC. The present study assessed rates of functional impairment among children in Vietnam, as a case example of an LMIC, as well as effects of other risk/protective factors of particular relevance to LMIC (e.g., whether the family lived in an urban or rural area; family structure variables such as grandparents living with the family). 1314 parents of children 6-16 years old from 10 Vietnamese provinces were interviewed. The overall rate of functional impairment among Vietnamese children was 20 %, similar to rates in high-income countries such as Germany and the United States, suggesting that LMIC status may not be associated with dramatic increases in functional impairment in children. Functional impairment was significantly greater among mental health cases than non-cases, with increases of over 550 % associated with mental health caseness. A number of other risk factors (e.g., marital status) had smaller but significant effects. Mental health problems are a major but not the sole contributor to functional impairment among Vietnamese children. The pragmatic significance of this research lies in its potential to affect public awareness and policy related to child mental health in LMIC.
Dang, Hoang-Minh; Weiss, Bahr; Trung, Lam T.
Purpose Functional impairment is a key indicator of need for mental health services among children and adolescents, often a stronger predictor of service usage than mental health symptoms themselves. Functional impairment may be of particular importance in low and middle income countries (LMIC) because of its potential to focus policy on treatment of child mental health problems which is generally given low priority in LMIC. However, few studies have assessed functional impairment in LMIC. The present study assessed rates of functional impairment among children in Vietnam, as a case example of an LMIC, as well as effects of other risk/protective factors of particular relevance to LMIC (e.g., whether the family lived in an urban or rural area; family structure variables such as grandparents living with the family). Methods 1,314 parents of children 6–16 years old from 10 Vietnamese provinces were interviewed. Results The overall rate of functional impairment among Vietnamese children was 20%, similar to rates in high income countries such as Germany and the United States, suggesting that LMIC status may not be associated with dramatic increases in functional impairment in children. Functional impairment was significantly greater among mental health cases than non-cases, with increases of over 550% associated with mental health caseness. A number of other risk factors (e.g., marital status) had smaller but significant effects. Conclusions Mental health problems are a major but not the sole contributor to functional impairment among Vietnamese children. The pragmatic significance of this research lies in its potential to affect public awareness and policy related to child mental health in LMIC. PMID:26315942
Stallard, P; Williams, L; Lenton, S; Velleman, R
AIM—To detail the everyday occurrence of pain in non-communicating children with cognitive impairment. METHODS—Thirty four parents of cognitively impaired verbally non-communicating children completed pain diaries over a two week period. Each day, for five defined periods, parents rated whether their child had been in pain, and if so, its severity and duration. RESULTS—Twenty five (73.5%) children experienced pain on at least one day, with moderate or severe levels of pai...
Jakobsen, Klaus Damgaard; Bruhn, Christina Hedegaard; Pagsberg, Anne-Katrine
Aripiprazole is a partial dopamine agonist with only minor neurological and psychiatric adverse effects, making it a potential first-line drug for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the evidence of its use in children and adolescents is rather sparse. The aim of this case study...... with schizophrenia and psychoses, not otherwise specified; and the non-PS group consisted of fourteen cases including autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome. The main reported adverse effects in the non-PS group were chronic...
Fialkov, M J; Hasley, S
Over an 11-month period on a Children's Psychiatric Unit 5% of 60 first admissions for hospitalization were apparently associated with adverse effects of psychotropic medication. Forty (66%) of the first admissions had used, prior to hospitalization, a wide variety of drugs including stimulants, major and minor tranquilizers, anticonvulsants, antidepressants and over-the-counter drugs containing antihistamines and analgesics. It is suggested that inappropriate and injudicious use of psychotropic medications may be associated with unanticipated adverse behavioral effects, which can result in deterioration of a child's functioning to the point of necessitating psychiatric hospitalization. Early identification of these unwanted psychotropic effects has diagnostic, prognostic, economic, and legal implications.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of children and adolescents admitted to the psychiatric emergency department (ED of a French public teaching hospital over a six-year study period (2001–2006. Data for all episodes of care in the psychiatric ED from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2006, delivered to adolescents aged less than 18 years were retrospectively analyzed. During the six-year study period, 335 episodes of care in the psychiatric ED were experienced by 264 different adolescents. They accounted for 2.0% of the 16,754 care episodes of the ED; 164 patients (62.1 were female and the average age was 16.5 (SD = 1.6. The neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders were the most frequent (25.4% and concerned mainly anxiety disorders (15.2%. The frequency of the absence of psychiatric diagnosis (22.7% was high. A total of 48 children and adolescents (18.2% benefited from more than one episode of care. Several factors were associated to a higher number of visits to the ED: substance use, schizophrenia, disorders of adult personality and behaviour, disorders occurring in childhood and adolescence, and dual diagnosis. In conclusion, mental health disorders in children and adolescents are a serious problem associated with several potentially modifiable factors.
Isabella G. S. de Souza
Full Text Available OBJETIVE: The advance of research in child and adolescent psychiatry in Brazil heavily depends on the existence of instruments for the investigation of psychiatric syndromes adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. METHODS: This article describes a careful process of translation of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes for the purpose of use in research in Brazil. The Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes has a version for parents (P-ChIPs and a version for children (ChIPS. In this article, the sections of P-ChIPS referring to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mania/hypomania, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and psychotic disorders were translated to Brazilian Portuguese. The sections of the ChIPS referring to substance use disorders, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disoder, separation anxiety disorder, post-traumatic disorders and depression/dysthimia were also adapted. Each section was translated by two independent translators and later discussed in a committee composed of experts in the field of Psychiatry and a professional of the field of linguistics. RESULT: A final version containing an interview for the main psychiatric syndromes was defined. CONCLUSION: The translated P-ChIPS is a helpful instrument in children and adolescent clinical evaluation.OBJETIVO: O avanço em pesquisa em psiquiatria da infância e adolescência no Brasil depende da existência de instrumentos para a investigação de síndromes psiquiátricas adaptadas à Língua Portuguesa. Este artigo descreve um cuidadoso processo de tradução do Children´s Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes para o uso em pesquisa no Brasil. MÉTODOS: O Children´s Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes tem uma versão para pais (P-ChIPs e uma versão para as crianças (ChIPs. Nesse artigo, as seções do P-ChIPs referentes ao transtorno do déficit de aten
Full Text Available The present study reports data from a cross-sectional investigation of the psychiatric and psychosocial functioning of 55 children diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia and their families at three points in time: diagnosis (newly diagnosed, 1 year postdiagnosis, and 1 year after the completion of chemotherapy (offtherapy. Results reveal minimal psychopathology in these children and their parents based on self-and informantreports and structured diagnostic interviews. These families appear to be functioning adequately and report more family cohesiveness and marital satisfaction after chemotherapy was completed. Coping strategies commonly used by children and their parents include problem solving, a positive outlook, and good communication. Implications for psychiatric consultation are presented.
Baji, Ildikó; Gádoros, Júlia; Kiss, Enikô; Mayer, László; Kovács, Eszter; Benák, István; Vetró, Agnes
The lifetime prevalence of MDD before adolescence is 4-5%, while the symptoms concern 13-20% of the adolescents. In the development of suicidal behaviour the most important risk factors are the use of psychoactive drugs and smoking. Psychiatric comorbidities are aggravating significantly the major depression. The comorbidities are high among major depression, anxiety and disruptive disorders. We examined 649 children being in a depressive episode diagnosed by ISCA-D semi-structured interview, 45,9% of them were girls, and 54,1% were boys, the mean age was 11,7 years ( SD=2,00). The participants were enrolled into three groups according to their comorbidities: group with only depression without comorbidities, group with anxiety comorbidity, and group with disruptive comorbidity. We compared the three groups according to the frequency of their depressive symptoms. Anxiety comorbidities increase the incidence of depressive symptoms. Among the criteria symptoms irritability where the most frequent symptom independently from the comorbidities, the depressed mood is the most frequent within the anxiety group, while anhedonia occurred with a moderate frequency in each groups. In the anxiety group the vegetative symptoms, while in the disruptive group the psychomotor agitation and the feeling of worthlessness are the most frequent symptoms. Comorbidities are increasing the incidence of the suicide symptoms. The incidence of impaired decision making was high in each group, the comorbidities didn't influence it's frequency. Among depressed boys irritability and feelings of worthlessness (low self-esteem) increase the presence of externalisation comorbidity. Among depressed girls guilt was significantly more frequent in the anxiety comorbidity group, and concentration problems are the most typical symptoms in the clear MDD group, without comorbidities.
Shah, Mufarriq; Khan, Mirzaman; Khan, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Mohammad Younas; Saeed, Nasir
To determine the main causes of visual impairment in children with low vision. To assess the need of spectacles and low vision devices (LVDs) in children and to evaluate visual outcome after using their LVDs for far and near distance. Observational study. Khyber Institute of Ophthalmic Medical Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan, from June 2006 to December 2007. The clinical record of 270 children with low vision age 4-16 years attending the Low Vision Clinic were included. All those children, aged 4-16 years, who had corrected visual acuity (VA) less than 6/18 in the better eye after medical or surgical treatment, were included in the study. WHO low vision criteria were used to classify into visually impaired, severe visually impaired and blind. Results were described as percentage frequencies. One hundred and eighty nine (70%) were males and 81 (30%) were females. The male to female ratio was 2.3:1. The main causes of visual impairment included nystagmus (15%), Stargardt's disease (14%), maculopathies (13%), myopic macular degeneration (11%) and oculocutaneous albinism (7%). The percentages of visually impaired, severe visually impaired and blind were 33.8%, 27.2% and 39.0% respectively. Spectacles were prescribed to 146 patients and telescopes were prescribed to 75 patients. Spectacles and telescope both were prescribed to 179 patients while Ocutech telescope was prescribed to 4 patients. Retinal diseases nystagmus and macular conditions were mainly responsible for low vision in children. Visually impaired children especially with hereditary/congenital ocular anomalies benefit from refraction and low vision services which facilitate vision enhancement and inclusive education.
Heiervang, Einar; Hugdahl, Kenneth
A cue-target visual attention task was administered to 25 children (ages 10-12) with dyslexia. Results showed a general pattern of slower responses in the children with dyslexia compared to controls. Subjects also had longer reaction times in the short and long cue-target interval conditions (covert and overt shift of attention). (Contains…
Zwirs, B.W.; Burger, H.; Schulpen, T.W.J.; Wiznitzer, M.; Fedder, H.; Buitelaar, J.K.
The present study assesses the population prevalence of DSM-IV disorders among native and immigrant children living in low socio-economic status (SES) inner-city neighborhoods in the Netherlands. In the first phase of a two-phase epidemiological design, teachers screened an ethnically diverse sample
Zwirs, Barbara W. C.; Burger, Huibert; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; Wiznitzer, Martin; Fedder, Hans; Buitelaar, Jan K.
The present study assesses the population prevalence of DSM-IV disorders among native and immigrant children living in low socio-economic status (SES) inner-city neighborhoods in the Netherlands. In the first phase of a two-phase epidemiological design, teachers screened an ethnically diverse sample
Oeye, Christine; Bjelland, Anne Karen; Skorpen, Aina; Anderssen, Norman
Milieu therapy is widely used as a therapeutic approach in psychiatric wards in the Nordic countries, but few studies exist that report on what practices a milieu therapy approach implies as seen from an ethnographic perspective. Therefore, there is a need to obtain insight into how milieu therapy unfolds in a psychiatric ward setting. The present ethnographic study aims to explore this in a locked-up psychiatric ward that was tied to a psychodynamic-oriented milieu therapy approach. Metaphors from traditional nuclear family life were widely used. Patients were often understood as harmed children and were taught self-management skills; the staff aimed at providing a caring atmosphere; and the patients seemed to behave, sometimes, in a childlike manner. In a Foucaultian framework, milieu therapy can be seen as a therapeutic normalization technique used to produce self-governing individuals. Milieu therapy "raises" patients in order to transform patients' odd behaviour and nonconforming lifestyles. We see this "raising children" approach as a type of intervention that nicely connects to the national policy of normalization and integration politics towards persons with psychiatric diagnoses.
Philip, Swetha Sara; Dutton, Gordon N
Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) comprises visual malfunction due to retro-chiasmal visual and visual association pathway pathology. This can be isolated or accompany anterior visual pathway dysfunction. It is a major cause of low vision in children in the developed and developing world due to increasing survival in paediatric and neonatal care. CVI can present in many combinations and degrees. There are multiple causes and it is common in children with cerebral palsy. CVI can be identified easily, if a structured approach to history-taking is employed. This review describes the features of CVI and describes practical management strategies aimed at helping affected children. A literature review was undertaken using 'Medline' and 'Pubmed'. Search terms included cerebral visual impairment, cortical visual impairment, dorsal stream dysfunction and visual function in cerebral palsy. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2014 Optometrists Association Australia.
Desmottes, Lise; Meulemans, Thierry; Maillart, Christelle
According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), difficulties in the procedural memory system may contribute to the language difficulties encountered by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Most studies investigating the PDH have used the sequence learning paradigm; however these studies have principally focused on initial sequence learning in a single practice session. The present study sought to extend these investigations by assessing the consolidation stage and longer-term retention of implicit sequence-specific knowledge in 42 children with or without SLI. Both groups of children completed a serial reaction time task and were tested 24h and one week after practice. Results showed that children with SLI succeeded as well as children with typical development (TD) in the early acquisition stage of the sequence learning task. However, as training blocks progressed, only TD children improved their sequence knowledge while children with SLI did not appear to evolve any more. Moreover, children with SLI showed a lack of the consolidation gains in sequence knowledge displayed by the TD children. Overall, these results were in line with the predictions of the PDH and suggest that later learning stages in procedural memory are impaired in SLI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mabe, P A; Treiber, F A
This study examined the substantive features of children's social desirability (SD) tendencies that could influence the nature and severity of psychopathology. Examinations of substantive features of SD responding in an inpatient child psychiatry unit (N = 76) suggested that higher scores on the Children's Social Desirability questionnaire were associated strongly with (1) lower mental age; (2) higher scores on self-reported social competence; (3) lower scores on self-reported anger; and (4) lower scores on parent-reported externalization behavioral disturbance. Results were interpreted as suggesting that SD responding for child inpatients may reflect a mixed picture of negative features of cognitive and social immaturity that could affect adversely their ability to judge their own and others' social behavior and of positive features of less external behavioral disturbance and more prosocial attitudes and behaviors.
Kristensen, Pål; Weisaeth, Lars; Hussain, Ajmal; Heir, Trond
Bereavement following disasters is a devastating experience for family members. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term mental health effects of losing a loved one in a natural disaster. Ninety-four Norwegians aged 18-80 years who lost close family members in the 2004 Southeast Asian tsunami were evaluated 2 and 6 years after the disaster. The participants were either staying in an affected area at the time of the disaster (i.e., directly exposed) or not (i.e., not directly exposed). The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed by the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I). Prolonged grief disorder (PGD) was self-reported using the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), and functional impairment was self-reported using the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). We did not identify a significant decrease in the prevalence of PGD, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or major depressive disorder (MDD) from 2 to 6 years. Approximately, one-third of the bereaved (36%) had a psychiatric disorder 6 years after the tsunami. The most common disorder was PGD (12%) followed by general anxiety disorder (GAD, 11%), agoraphobia (11%), and MDD (10%). The prevalence of PTSD and MDD was higher among family members who were directly exposed to the disaster compared to those who were not (21 vs. 0%, and 25 vs. 3%). PGD was associated with functional impairment independent of other disorders. Loss of a close family member in a natural disaster can have a substantial adverse long-term effect on mental health and everyday functioning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Neurologically impaired (NI children are at increased risk of malnutrition due to several nutritional and non-nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, insufficient dietary intake as a consequence of feeding difficulties is one of the main issues. Feeding problems are frequently secondary to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which usually correlates with the severity of motor impairment and presents in around 90% of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP during the first year of life. Other nutritional factors are represented by excessive nutrient losses, often subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux and altered energy metabolism. Among the non-nutritional factors, the type and severity of neurological impairment, ambulatory status, the degree of cognitive impairment, and use of entiepileptic medication altogether concur to determination of nutritional status. With the present review, the current literature is discussed and a practical approach for nutritional assessment in NI children is proposed. Early identification and intervention of nutritional issues of NI children with a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to improve the overall health and quality of life of these complex children.
Penagini, Francesca; Mameli, Chiara; Fabiano, Valentina; Brunetti, Domenica; Dilillo, Dario; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo
Neurologically impaired (NI) children are at increased risk of malnutrition due to several nutritional and non-nutritional factors. Among the nutritional factors, insufficient dietary intake as a consequence of feeding difficulties is one of the main issues. Feeding problems are frequently secondary to oropharyngeal dysphagia, which usually correlates with the severity of motor impairment and presents in around 90% of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP) during the first year of life. Other nutritional factors are represented by excessive nutrient losses, often subsequent to gastroesophageal reflux and altered energy metabolism. Among the non-nutritional factors, the type and severity of neurological impairment, ambulatory status, the degree of cognitive impairment, and use of entiepileptic medication altogether concur to determination of nutritional status. With the present review, the current literature is discussed and a practical approach for nutritional assessment in NI children is proposed. Early identification and intervention of nutritional issues of NI children with a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to improve the overall health and quality of life of these complex children.
S.T. Lo (Sinddie)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis includes studies about developmental, behavioral and psychiatric characteristics in children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Endocrinologists Prader, Labhart, and Willi were the first describing the combination of neonatal hypotonia, short
Wang, A R; Goldschmidt, V V
A description of mentally ill parents' experience and points of view concerning professional intervention in relation to their young children is presented in this paper. The results are from an interview survey designed with the purpose of improving the basis for cooperation between mentally ill......% of the children. In most cases their views were in accordance with those of the mentally ill parents. Clinical implications concerning planning of intervention in regard to children of mentally ill parents are discussed....... patients and professionals, when intervention in relation to these patients' children is needed. Fifty consecutively admitted psychiatric inpatients with children 0-10 years old were interviewed by child psychiatrists and their information constitutes the study material. Data concerning the family...
Barghadouch, Amina; Kristiansen, Maria; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Hjern, Anders; Montgomery, Edith; Norredam, Marie
Studies show a high level of mental health problems among refugee children. This study examined whether a subset of refugee children living in Denmark accessed psychiatric healthcare services more than those born in the country. This study compared 24,427 refugee children from Asia, The Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa and former Yugoslavia, who obtained residency in Denmark between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2010 with 146,562 Danish-born children, matched 1:6 on age and sex. The study looked at contacts with psychiatric hospitals as well as psychologists and psychiatrists in private practice. Between 1 January 1996 and 30 June 2012, 3.5 % of the refugee children accessed psychiatric healthcare services compared to 7.7 % of the Danish-born children. The rate ratio of having any first-time psychiatric contact was 0.42 (95 % CI 0.40-0.45) among refugee boys and 0.35 (95 % CI 0.33-0.37) among refugee girls, compared to Danish-born children. Figures were similar for those accessing private psychologists or psychiatrists, emergency room, inpatient and outpatient services. Refugee children used fewer psychiatric healthcare services than Danish-born children. This may indicate that refugee children experience barriers in accessing psychiatric healthcare systems and do not receive adequate assessment of their mental health and subsequent referral to specialist services.
Reimer, A. M.; Cox, R. F. A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M. W. G.; Boonstra, F. N.
In this study we analysed the potential spin-off of magnifier training on the fine-motor skills of visually impaired children. The fine-motor skills of 4- and 5-year-old visually impaired children were assessed using the manual skills test for children (6-12 years) with a visual impairment (ManuVis) and movement assessment for children (Movement…
Dr. Syed Qalb-I-Hyder Naqvi*, Dr. Aysha Nighat, Dr. Nisar Ahmed Shah, Summaiya Shahid, Dr. Moin Ahmed Ansari, Syeda Maryam Hyder Naqvi, Dr.Zulfiqar Siddiqui
Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), now a day’s mental health disorders are the leading causes of disability worldwide. Most of the psychiatric disorders start in child hood and adolescent. In general population 9.3% of the children had mental health problem and presence of comorbidity complicate the diagnosis and treatment. Objective: This study was aimed to determine the frequency of psychiatric co-morbidity in children and to identify the common Socio demographic ...
Krzemien, Magali; Thibaut, Jean-Pierre; Zghonda, Hela; Maillart, Christelle
Specific Language Impairment (SLI) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects the language development of children with a normal nonverbal intelligence and no history of neurological disorder nor auditory deficit (Leonard, 2014). A difficulty linked to SLI is the poor language productivity and the input dependency that children display compared with their peers: they tend to use a limited variety of verbal forms compared to younger siblings (Conti-Ramsden & Jones, 1997) and use a high prop...
Thurston, S.; Paul, L.; Loney, P.; Ye, C.; Wong, M.; Browne, G.
Background: Families supporting children with complex needs are significantly more distressed and economically disadvantaged than families of children without disability and delay. What is not known is the associations and costs of parental psychiatric distress within a multi-diagnosis group of special needs children. Methods: In this…
Abbes, Zeineb; Bouden, Asma; Amado, Isabelle; Chantal Bourdel, Marie; Tabbane, Karim; Béchir Halayem, Mohamed
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder currently defined by clinical history and behavioral report of impairment. The Attention Network test (ANT) gives measures of different aspects of the complex process of attention. We ask if children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) will show a characteristic pattern of deficits on this test. The sample included 40 children (M=9 years) who performed the "Attention network test". Children with an ADHD diagnosis (N=20) were compared to a control group (N=20). The group of children with ADHD showed slower reaction times in all conditions (mean RT=866 ms; SD=234,063). Children with ADHD showed a significant impairment in their executive control system compared to healthy subjects, with slower reaction times in incongruent conditions and lower accuracy scores (RT=1064 ms; F(1.38) p=0.02). Our results showed that spatial orienting and alerting in ADHD was no different than controls (p=0,68). ADHD group showed a greater variable response (p=0,0001). The present study showed that impairment in executive control system and variability measures are the characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD.
Hamilton, Matthew J; Watson, Hunna J; Egan, Sarah J; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Harper, Emily; McCormack, Julie; Shu, Chloe; Forbes, David A
To examine the prevalence and importance of psychological, behavioural, and situational correlates of impending psychiatric inpatient admissions in children and adolescents with eating disorders. The sample consisted of 285 patients (8-17 years, M = 14.4, SD = 1.49) with DSM-5 eating disorders assessed between 2006 and 2013 from the Helping to Outline Pediatric Eating Disorders (HOPE) Project. The sample was split into two groups, those with (n = 38) and without (n = 247) impending psychiatric admission; Discriminant function analysis was used to examine correlates. The prevalence of impending psychiatric admission was 13.3%. Suicidal ideation provided the greatest discriminating power, followed by eating pathology, depressive symptoms, anxiety, multiple methods of weight control, binge eating, and family functioning. Earlier recognition of comorbid symptoms in eating disorders in the community may reduce the number of young people with eating disorders who present needing critical psychiatric care. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pham, Giang; Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn
Background: Evidence on the treatment effectiveness for bilingual children with primary language impairment (PLI) is needed to advance both theory and clinical practice. Of key interest is whether treatment effects are maintained following the completion of short-term intense treatments. Aims: To investigate change in select language and cognitive…
Liebrand-Schurink, Joyce; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger H. M. B.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Meulenbroek, Ruud G. J.; Boonstra, Frouke N.
Purpose: The main objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and efficiency of magnifier use in children with visual impairment who did not use a low vision aid earlier, in an ecologically valid goal-directed perceptuomotor task. Methods: Participants were twenty-nine 4- to 8-year-old
Leroy, Sandrine; Parisse, Christophe; Maillart, Christelle
Usage-based theory considers analogical reasoning as a cognitive process required in language development. We hypothesized that difficulties with analogical reasoning could hinder the abstraction of construction schemas, thus slowing down morphosyntactic development for children with specific language impairment (SLI). We also hypothesized, in…
Thornton, Rosalind; Rombough, Kelly; Martin, Jasmine; Orton, Linda
This study used elicited production methodology to investigate the negative sentences that are produced by English-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI). Negative sentences were elicited in contexts in which adults use the negative auxiliary verb doesn't (e.g., "It doesn't fit"). This form was targeted to see how…
Novelli-Olmstead, Tina; Ling, Daniel
Seven hearing impaired children (five to seven years old) assigned to the Speakers group made highly significant gains in speech production and auditory discrimination of speech, while Listeners made only slight speech production gains and no gains in auditory discrimination. Combined speech and auditory training was more effective than auditory…
Sep 3, 2017 ... hood visual impairment among the children attending the eye clinic in Mulago National Referral Hospital. Methods: This was a cross sectional hospital ... devastating implications not only for the affected child but the family as well. .... da National Council for Science and Technology. We ob- tained Informed ...
Cuperus, J.M.; Vugs, B.A.M.; Scheper, A.R.; Hendriks, M.P.H.
Background: There is growing evidence that linguistic and non-linguistic factors may contribute to the problems associated with specific language impairment (SLI). One factor that has been implicated is executive functioning (EF). Most studies investigating EF in children with SLI use performance
Mallineni, Sharmila; Nutheti, Rishita; Thangadurai, Shanimole; Thangadurai, Puspha
The aim of this study was to determine: (a) whether children with visual and additional impairments show any non-verbal behaviors, and if so what were the common behaviors; (b) whether two rehabilitation professionals interpreted the non-verbal behaviors similarly; and (c) whether a speech pathologist and a rehabilitation professional interpreted…
Hatton, Deborah D.; Erickson, Karen A.; Lee, Donna Brostek
The findings from a sample of 22 young children with visual impairments and no additional disabilities suggest that potential readers of braille or dual media had better syllable-segmentation, sound-isolation, and sound-segmentation skills than potential readers of print. Potential readers of print seemed to have slightly better…
Hanney, Nicole M.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.
We taught 2 children with visual impairments to select a coin from an array using tactile cues after hearing its name and then to select a coin after hearing its value. Following the acquisition of these listener (receptive language) skills, we then observed the emergence of speaker (expressive language) skills without direct instruction.…
Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Loijens, Nancy E. A.; Waller, Sarah E.
In the report presented here, the authors describe a pilot intervention study that was intended to teach children with visual impairments the meaning of far-away words, and that used their mothers as mediators. The aim was to teach both labels and deep word knowledge, which is the comprehension of the full meaning of words, illustrated through…
Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Metsiou, Katerina; Agaliotis, Ioannis
The present study explored the total adaptive behavior of children and adolescents with visual impairments, as well as their adaptive behavior in each of the domains of Communication, Daily Living Skills, and Socialization. Moreover, the predictors of the performance and developmental delay in adaptive behavior were investigated. Instrumentation…
Murphy, Kimberly A.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Pentimonti, Jill M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the preschool language and early literacy skills of kindergarten good and poor readers, and to determine the extent to which these skills predict reading status. Method: Participants were 136 children with language impairment enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms.…
Barghadouch, Amina; Carlsson, Jessica; Norredam, Marie
Studies show a high level of mental health problems among refugee children and adults. This study aimed to examine psychiatric disorders among refugee children in early adulthood. A total of 15,264 young adult refugees, who obtained residence permission January 1, 1993 to December 31, 2010, were...... matched 1:6 on age and sex with 99,313 Danish-born children. Rate ratios (RR) of having a first-time in- or outpatient hospital diagnosis with an affective (F30-39), psychotic (F29-30), neurotic (F40-48), or any psychiatric disorder (F00-99) according to ICD-10 were computed. Refugees had higher RRs...... of psychotic (RR: 1.81, 95%CI: 1.41-2.32) and nervous (RR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.14-1.43) disorders compared with Danish-born children. The RRs of having an affective disorder among refugees was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.60-0.90) compared with Danish-born children. Sex, geographical origin, migrant status, household income...
Full Text Available Object: The aim of this study was to examine children driving to committing crime who were brought to psychiatry clinic for forensic evaluation because of the crimes they committed to. Additionally, evaluation of these children's psychiaytric disorders, crime characteristics, sociodemographic data, factors driving to committing crime and forensic reports arranged by the physician were other aims. Methods: In this study 204 children, who were brought to the clinic in order to be evaluated whether they perceive the legal meaning and consequences of that action or possess sufficient ability to channel their behaviors, were included. In order to diagnose any psychiatric disorder, a structured interrogation schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for present and lifetime was applied all children and families and sociodemographic data form was completed. Results: At least one psychiatric disorder was present in 47% (n =96 of children driving to committing crime. The most common disorders were Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and Conduct Disorder. Almost none of them have been treated before. 45% of them dropped out their school, and 40% were smoking. Additionally, most of their parents who had low socioeconomical level also had very low education level. Discussion: It was determined that being male, living in a low socioeconomic family environment, living in large families, using drugs, smoking, not attending school and having parents with low education level were significant related factors for juvenile delinquency.
Heikkilä, Jenni; Lonka, Eila; Ahola, Sanna; Meronen, Auli; Tiippana, Kaisa
Purpose: Lipreading and its cognitive correlates were studied in school-age children with typical language development and delayed language development due to specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Forty-two children with typical language development and 20 children with SLI were tested by using a word-level lipreading test and an extensive…
Huurneman, Bianca; Cox, Ralf F. A.; Vlaskamp, Björn N. S.; Boonstra, F. Nienke
This study investigates the influence of oculomotor control, crowding, and attentional factors on visual search in children with normal vision ([NV], n = 11), children with visual impairment without nystagmus ([VI-nys], n = 11), and children with VI with accompanying nystagmus ([VI+nys], n = 26).
Full Text Available Often in working with children with blindness or visual impairments we are enchanting children with some specific stereotype behaviors, identified as "blindizms”. Parents and professionals noted that many of these behaviors are the same as or similar to those behaviors seen in students with autism. These similarities led professionals to pursue more information about autism and its relationship to blindness. To assist in this process the professionals from Oregon School for the blind developed some guidelines to compare the characteristics observed in children with blindness and autism alone, across four domains: language and communication, relating to people, discrepancies in developmental rates and responses to sensory stimuli.
Faengstroem, Britta; Hamadani, Jena; Nermell, Barbro; Grander, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie
Background: Methylation of inorganic arsenic (iAs) via one-carbon metabolism is a susceptibility factor for a range of arsenic-related health effects, but there is no data on the importance of arsenic metabolism for effects on child development. Aim: To elucidate the development of arsenic metabolism in early childhood. Methods: We measured iAs, methylarsonic acid (MA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), the metabolites of iAs, in spot urine samples of 2400 children at 18 months of age. The children were born to women participating in a population-based longitudinal study of arsenic effects on pregnancy outcomes and child development, carried out in Matlab, a rural area in Bangladesh with a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water. Arsenic metabolism was evaluated in relation to age, sex, anthropometry, socio-economic status and arsenic exposure. Results: Arsenic concentrations in child urine (median 34 μg/L, range 2.4-940 μg/L), adjusted to average specific gravity of 1.009 g/mL, were considerably higher than that measured at 3 months of age, but lower than that in maternal urine. Child urine contained on average 12% iAs, 9.4% MA and 78% DMA, which implies a marked change in metabolite pattern since infancy. In particular, there was a marked increase in urinary %MA, which has been associated with increased risk of health effects. Conclusion: The arsenic metabolite pattern in urine of children at 18 months of age in rural Bangladesh indicates a marked decrease in arsenic methylation efficiency during weaning.
Paula, Erica Macêdo de; Befi-Lopes, Debora Maria
To investigate the conflict resolution abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment, and to verify whether the time of speech-language therapy correlates to the performance on the conflict resolution task. Participants included 20 children with Specific Language Impairment (Research Group) and 40 children with normal language development (Control Group), with ages ranging from 7 years to 8 years and 11 months. To assess the conflict resolution abilities, five hypothetical contexts of conflict were presented. The strategies used by the children were classified and scored by the following levels: level 0 (solutions that do not match the other levels), level 1 (physical solutions), level 2 (unilateral solutions), level 3 (cooperative solutions), and level 4 (mutual solutions). Statistical analysis showed group effect for the variable total score. There was a difference between the groups for modal development level, with higher level of modal development observed in the Control Group. There was no correlation between the period of speech-language therapy attendance and the total score. Children with Specific Language Impairment present difficulties in solving problems, in view of the fact that they mainly use physical and unilateral strategies. There was no correlation between the time of speech-language therapy and performance in the task.
Full Text Available Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is often associated with other psychological problems. Objectives The present study aimed to study the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with ADHD who admitted to Golestan Hospital in Ahvaz. Patients and Methods This was a descriptive/analytic cross-sectional study carried out on 118 outpatient children and adolescents who were selected by convenient sampling. The data were collected using the questionnaire, designed by authors, and were analyzed through descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results The prevalence of comorbid disorders were as follows: anxiety disorders (48.3%; depression (20.33%; bipolar disorder (17.79%; obsessive-compulsive (47.45%; tic and tourette (35.59%, oppositional defiant disorder (43.22%; conduct disorder (11.01%; urinary incontinence (58.47%; communication disorder (9.32%; and learning disorder (21.18%. There was no significant difference between females and males with respect to the prevalence of comorbid disorders. Conclusions Similar to previous studies, we found some comorbid psychiatric disorders with ADHD. The treatment of the disorder can be improved, by more attention to comorbid psychiatric disorders, early diagnosis of them, and using distinct and specific treatment for everyone.
van Genderen, Maria; Dekker, Marjoke; Pilon, Florine; Bals, Irmgard
To identify elements that could facilitate the diagnosis of cerebral visual impairment (CVI) in children with good visual acuity in the general ophthalmic clinic. We retrospectively investigated the clinical characteristics of 30 children with good visual acuity and CVI and compared them with those of 23 children who were referred with a suspicion of CVI, but proved to have a different diagnosis. Clinical characteristics included medical history, MRI findings, visual acuity, crowding ratio (CR), visual field assessment, and the results of ophthalmologic and orthoptic examination. We also evaluated the additional value of a short CVI questionnaire. Eighty-three percent of the children with an abnormal medical history (mainly prematurity and perinatal hypoxia) had CVI, in contrast with none of the children with a normal medical history. Cerebral palsy, visual field defects, and partial optic atrophy only occurred in the CVI group. 41% of the children with CVI had a CR ≥2.0, which may be related to dorsal stream dysfunction. All children with CVI, but also 91% of the children without CVI gave ≥3 affirmative answers on the CVI questionnaire. An abnormal pre- or perinatal medical history is the most important risk factor for CVI in children, and therefore in deciding which children should be referred for further multidisciplinary assessment. Additional symptoms of cerebral damage, i.e., cerebral palsy, visual field defects, partial optic atrophy, and a CR ≥2 may support the diagnosis. CVI questionnaires should not be used for screening purposes as they yield too many false positives.
Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Stadnick, Nicole; Chlebowski, Colby; Baker-Ericzén, Mary; Ganger, William
Publicly funded mental health programs play a significant role in serving children with autism spectrum disorder. Understanding patterns of psychiatric comorbidity for this population within mental health settings is important to implement appropriately tailored interventions. This study (1) describes patterns of psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorder who present to mental health services with challenging behaviors and (2) identifies child characteristics associated with comorbid conditions. Data are drawn from baseline assessments from 201 children with autism spectrum disorder who participated in a community effectiveness trial across 29 publicly funded mental health programs. Non-autism spectrum disorder diagnoses were assessed using an adapted Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, parent version. Approximately 92% of children met criteria for at least one non-autism spectrum disorder diagnosis (78% attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 58% oppositional defiant disorder, 56% anxiety, 30% mood). Logistic regression indicated that child gender and clinical characteristics were differentially associated with meeting criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, an anxiety, or a mood disorder. Exploratory analyses supported a link between challenging behaviors and mood disorder symptoms and revealed high prevalence of these symptoms in this autism spectrum disorder population. Findings provide direction for tailoring intervention to address a broad range of clinical issues for youth with autism spectrum disorder served in mental health settings.
Charach, Alice; Volpe, Tiziana; Boydell, Katherine M; Gearing, Robin E
This article provides a theoretical review of treatment adherence for children and youth with psychiatric disorders where pharmacological agents are first-line interventions. Four empirically based models of health behavior are reviewed and applied to the sparse literature about medication adherence for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and young people with first-episode psychosis. Three qualitative studies of medication use are summarized, and details from the first-person narratives are used to illustrate the theoretical models. These studies indicate, when taken together, that the clinical approach to addressing poor medication adherence in children and youth with psychiatric disorders should be guided by more than one theoretical model. Mental health experts should clarify beliefs, address misconceptions, and support exploration of alternative treatment options unless contraindicated. Recognizing the larger context of the family, allowing time for parents and children to change their attitudes, and offering opportunities for easy access to medication in the future are important ways of respecting patient preferences, while steering them toward best-evidence interventions. Future research using qualitative methods of inquiry to investigate parent, child, and youth experiences of mental health interventions should identify effective ways to improve treatment adherence.
Rakesh N Patil
Full Text Available Aim: Study of the prevalence of common psychiatric disorders in children aged 5 to 14 years in a health post area of an urban slum. Objectives: (1 To study frequency of specific psychiatric disorders in the study population, (2 To study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and psychiatric morbidity. Settings and Design: The present study was conducted in one of the five health posts of an urban slum, which is a field practice area of the teaching medical institute. It was a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Sample size was estimated by using 20% as a prevalence of psychiatric morbidity which was obtained from previous studies done in developing countries. Household was used as a sampling unit and systematic random sampling method was used for selecting household. Total 257 children aged 5 to 14 years were included in the study. A pre-designed, semi-structured diagnostic interview schedule based on DSM-IV criteria was used for data collection. Statistical Analysis Used: The tests of significance used were Chi-square and Logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in this study was 14.8%. Non-organic enuresis, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Conduct disorder, and Mental retardation were identified as the common mental health problems. Conclusions: Factors like nuclear family, parents not living together, large family size, and positive family history of psychiatric disorder were associated with psychiatric morbidity in children.
Full Text Available For centuries Visually Impaired children have been educated within the high walls of special schools (Loots ET al., 1992. It is only during the last decades that more and more Visually Impaired children were brought up in their own environment:· the integrated education is not a trend anymore, but an educational policy;· The Early Intervention has transferred into approach to young Visually Impaired children.Early Intervention is crucial because the Visually Impairment affects the early development of a child in several ways:· motor functioning;· concept development;· social skills;· range of experience;· ability to move independently;· play etc.All these obstacles in early development create the necessity of Early Intervention programs which should start immediately after child’s is diagnosed.As it was said above the best approach to involve parents in early Intervention programs is to develop strategies, which fit individual family needs. This means to take into account many factors important for each family. Some of them are:· future believes and expectations;· educational background and culture;· religion;· financial situation.
Ventura, Liana O; Ventura, Camila V; Lawrence, Linda; van der Linden, Vanessa; van der Linden, Ana; Gois, Adriana L; Cavalcanti, Milena M; Barros, Eveline A; Dias, Natalia C; Berrocal, Audina M; Miller, Marilyn T
To describe the visual impairment associated with ocular and neurological abnormalities in a cohort of children with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). This cross-sectional study included infants with microcephaly born in Pernambuco, Brazil, from May to December 2015. Immunoglobulin M antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the Zika virus on the cerebrospinal fluid samples was positive for all infants. Clinical evaluation consisted of comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including visual acuity, visual function assessment, visual developmental milestone, neurologic examination, and neuroimaging. A total of 32 infants (18 males [56%]) were included. Mean age at examination was 5.7 ± 0.9 months (range, 4-7 months). Visual function and visual developmental milestone could not be tested in 1 child (3%). Visual impairment was detected in 32 infants (100%). Retinal and/or optic nerve findings were observed in 14 patients (44%). There was no statistical difference between the patients with ocular findings and those without (P = 0.180). All patients (100%) demonstrated neurological and neuroimaging abnormalities; 3 (9%) presented with late-onset of microcephaly. Children with CZS demonstrated visual impairment regardless of retina and/or optic nerve abnormalities. This finding suggests that cortical/cerebral visual impairment may be the most common cause of blindness identified in children with CZS. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gür, Kamer; Albayrak, Sevil
Although violence is a serious issue that children face all over the world, there is little known about the extent of the violence children with disabilities experience. This study was conducted to identify the frequency of exposure to violence that students with visual impairment experience in any environment, directly or as a witness, and the factors associated with this exposure. The study was conducted as descriptive research at a Secondary School for the Visually Impaired in 2011-2012 with 84 individuals. A questionnaire on demographics, a Violence Exposure Scale, and face-to-face interviews were used as data collection tools. It was found that the large majority of the children with visual impairment in the study had encountered violence on one occasion or more, recently or in the past. The number of students recently exposed to violence was higher than the number of children encountering violence in the past. The mean scores of the students who had recently experienced violence were higher than the scores for exposure to violence in the past. A large majority of the students with visual impairment in the study, all of the boarding students, and most of the day students had been exposed to violence once or more both recently and in the past. It was found that being male, having a congenital visual impairment, and living as a boarding student were risk factors in terms of violence. It may be recommended that school nurses more closely monitor this group of students for signs of violence. © The Author(s) 2015.
Alonso, J E; Sanchez, F L
Every year there are seven million new lawn mowers purchased in the United States, each of which is capable of injuring young children, especially those > 14 years of age. A total of 33 children injured by a lawn mower were reviewed to identify the mechanism of injury, to determine the factors responsible for the accident, to determine an effective treatment regime, and to evaluate the permanent impairment for these patients. Classified according to their mechanism of injury, 14 children were injured as bystanders, 13 injured as riders, and six injured as operators. Categorized according to the anatomical location of injury, there were eight head and eye injuries, 12 upper extremity injuries, and 13 lower extremity injuries. There were 13 amputations (39.3%). The treatment management was satisfactory, but 23 children had an impairment > 40% of the whole person. We believe that the incidence of these injuries can be reduced by public awareness. Each orthopaedic surgeon should take on the task of educating the public about the dangers and wounding capacity of these machines and instructing the proper safety precautions that should be taken when mowing the lawn, especially when children are involved. The bottom line is that children should not be allowed in the yard while the lawn is being mowed nor should they be allowed to mow the lawn until they are > or = 15 years of age.
Quitadamo, Paolo; Thapar, Nikhil; Staiano, Annamaria; Borrelli, Osvaldo
The current increasing survival of children with severe central nervous system damage has created a major challenge for medical care. Gastrointestinal and nutritional problems in neurologically impaired children have been recently recognized as an integral part of their disease, often leading to growth failure and worsened quality of life for both children and caregivers. Nutritional support is essential for the optimal care of these children. Undernourished handicapped children might not respond properly to intercurrent diseases and suffer unnecessarily. On the other hand, restoring a normal nutritional status results in a better quality of life in many. The easiest and least invasive method to increase energy intake is to improve oral intake. However, oral intake can be maintained as long as there is no risk of aspiration, the child is growing well and the time required to feed the child remains within acceptable limits. When oral intake is unsafe, insufficient or too time consuming, enteral nutrition should be initiated. Damage to the developing central nervous system may result in significant dysfunction in the gastrointestinal tract and is reflected in impairment in oral-motor function, rumination, gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER), with or without aspiration, delayed gastric emptying and constipation. These problems can all potentially contribute to feeding difficulty in disabled children, carrying further challenging long-term management issues. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the Quality of Life (QOL in parents of children with developmental diseases as compared to other severe neurological or psychiatric disorders. Aims of the present study were: to evaluate QOL in parents of children affected by Pervasive Development Disorder (PDDs, Cerebral Palsy (CP or Mental Retardation (MR as compared to a control group (CG; to evaluate QOL of parents of patients with different types of PDDs, namely Autistic Disorder (AD, High Function Autism/Asperger Syndromes (HFA/AS and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PPD-NOS; and to compare the level of impairment in QOL of mothers and fathers within PDDs, CP, MR groups and between AD, HFA/AS, PDD-NOS sub-groups. Methods The sample consisted of 212 parents (115 mothers and 97 fathers of 135 children or adolescents affected by PDDs, MR or CP. An additional sample of 77 parents (42 mothers and 35 fathers of 48 healthy children was also included and used as a control group. QOL was assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Results Compared with parents of healthy children, parents in the PDDs group reported impairment in physical activity (p = 0.0001 and social relationships (p = 0.0001 and worse overall perception of their QOL (p = 0.0001 and health (p = 0.005. Scores in the physical (p = 0.0001, psychological (p = 0.0001 and social relationships domains (p = 0.0001 and in the physical (p = 0.0001 and social relationships (p = 0.0001 domains were lower compared to the MR group CP group respectively. Little differences were observed between MR, CP and control groups. The level of impairment of physical (p = 0.001 and psychological (p = 0.03 well-being were higher in mothers than in fathers in the PDDs and CP groups respectively; in the other groups, and across all the other domains of QQL impairment was similar. There were no statistically significant differences in the scores between the AD, HFA/AS and PDD-NOS sub
Ohya, Takashi; Morita, Kiichiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Egami, Chiyomi; Ishii, Youhei; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro
Previous eye-tracking studies using an eye mark recorder have reported that disturbances in exploratory eye movements in adult schizophrenic patients are associated with social functioning. The current study sought to determine whether exploratory eye-movement disturbances are present in children with Asperger's syndrome (AS) compared with typically developing (TD) children. MATERIALS/PARTICIPANTS: The participants were 23 children with AS and 23 age-matched TD children. We measured exploratory eye movements using an EMR-8B eye mark recorder and an exploratory eye movement-measuring device. Eye movements were recorded while participants freely observed a geometric figure (free viewing task), and while they complied with the instructions of an experimenter (repeat-comparison task). We assessed eye fixation points (EFPs) and total eye scanning length (TESL) in all tasks, and measured the responsive search score (RSS) in the repeat-comparison task. In the free viewing task, children with AS exhibited significantly shorter TESL compared with TD children. In the repeat-comparison task, children with AS exhibited significantly lower RSS. Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire scores were negatively correlated with both EFP and TESL, but not RSS. The current results revealed that children with AS exhibited dysfunction in exploratory eye movements. Thus, assessing exploratory eye movements in a repeat-comparison task may be useful for detecting social impairment among children with AS. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Houwen, S; Visscher, C.; Hartman, E.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.
Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD =1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from
Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.
Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD = 1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstream schools participated. The results showed that…
Verger, Pierre; Guagliardo, Valérie; Gilbert, Fabien; Rouillon, Frédéric; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane
Few studies have explored the prevalence of psychiatric disorders (PD) among university students. This article aims to study 12-month prevalence of PD in university students, their socio-economic correlates, impairment in daily life and help-seeking behaviours. Cross-sectional study of randomly selected first-year students aged 18-24 years, enrolled in one of the six universities in south-eastern France in 2005-2006. We used the WHO CIDI-Short Form to derive DSM-IV diagnoses and the Sheehan disability scale to evaluate impairment. We studied their correlates with multiple logistic regressions. The 12-month prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders (AD) and substance use disorders (SUD) were 8.9% (95% CI: 7.2-10.9), 15.7% (95% CI: 13.5-18.2) and 8.1% (95% CI: 6.7-9.8), respectively. MDD was associated with precarious economic situation (OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.03-3.23), AD with a precarious job or unemployment of the father (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.04-4.14) and SUD with higher educational level of father (OR = 2.17; 95% CI: 1.28-3.67) or having a paid job (OR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.06-3.13). "Marked" or "extreme" impairment (score > or =7 for at least one of the domains in the Sheehan scale) was noted for 51.7% of students presenting a PD and was even more frequent in the presence of MDD/AD comorbidity. Only 30.5% of the students with a PD had sought professional help in the past 12 months. This study provides new results regarding university students suggesting a link between precarious economic situations and MDD. The frequent impairment arising from PD alongside low rates of help-seeking suggests that PD could be one of the factors in academic failure in first year of university. These results should be used to improve prevention and care of PD in university students in France.
Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Alibali, Martha W; Hostetter, Autumn B; Evans, Julia L
Previous research suggests that speakers are especially likely to produce manual communicative gestures when they have relative ease in thinking about the spatial elements of what they are describing, paired with relative difficulty organizing those elements into appropriate spoken language. Children with specific language impairment (SLI) exhibit poor expressive language abilities together with within-normal-range nonverbal IQs. This study investigated whether weak spoken language abilities in children with SLI influence their reliance on gestures to express information. We hypothesized that these children would rely on communicative gestures to express information more often than their age-matched typically developing (TD) peers, and that they would sometimes express information in gestures that they do not express in the accompanying speech. Participants were 15 children with SLI (aged 5;6-10;0) and 18 age-matched TD controls. Children viewed a wordless cartoon and retold the story to a listener unfamiliar with the story. Children's gestures were identified and coded for meaning using a previously established system. Speech-gesture combinations were coded as redundant if the information conveyed in speech and gesture was the same, and non-redundant if the information conveyed in speech was different from the information conveyed in gesture. Children with SLI produced more gestures than children in the TD group; however, the likelihood that speech-gesture combinations were non-redundant did not differ significantly across the SLI and TD groups. In both groups, younger children were significantly more likely to produce non-redundant speech-gesture combinations than older children. The gesture-speech integration system functions similarly in children with SLI and TD, but children with SLI rely more on gesture to help formulate, conceptualize or express the messages they want to convey. This provides motivation for future research examining whether interventions
Di Bonito, P; Pacifico, L; Chiesa, C; Valerio, G; Miraglia Del Giudice, E; Maffeis, C; Morandi, A; Invitti, C; Licenziati, M R; Loche, S; Tornese, G; Franco, F; Manco, M; Baroni, M G
To investigate in a large sample of overweight/obese (OW/OB) children and adolescents the prevalence of prediabetic phenotypes such as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and to assess their association with cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors including hepatic steatosis (HS). Population data were obtained from the CARdiometabolic risk factors in children and adolescents in ITALY study. Between 2003 and 2013, 3088 youths (972 children and 2116 adolescents) received oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and were included in the study. In 798 individuals, abdominal ultrasound for identification of HS was available. The prevalence of IFG (3.2 vs. 3.3%) and IGT (4.6 vs. 5.0%) was similar between children and adolescents. Children with isolated IGT had a 2-11 fold increased risk of high LDL-C, non-HDL-C, Tg/HDL-C ratio, and low insulin sensitivity, when compared to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). No significant association of IFG with any CMR factor was found in children. Among adolescents, IGT subjects, and to a lesser extent those with IFG, showed a worse CMR profile compared to NGT subgroup. In the overall sample, IGT phenotype showed a twofold increased risk of HS compared to NGT subgroup. Our study shows an unexpected similar prevalence of IFG and IGT between children and adolescents with overweight/obesity. The IGT phenotype was associated with a worse CMR profile in both children and adolescents. Phenotyping prediabetes conditions by OGTT should be done as part of prediction and prevention of cardiometabolic diseases in OW/OB youth since early childhood.
Zucker, K J; Doering, R W; Bradley, S J; Finegan, J K
Gender-disturbed children (n = 14) were compared to their preadolescent siblings (n = 16) and psychiatric controls (n = 13) on a sex-typed free-play task previously shown to differentiate gender-disturbed boys from normal boys. On three separate trials totaling 20 minutes, the gender-disturbed children played for a significantly longer period of time with cross-sex toys and for a significantly shorter period of time with same-sex toys than did the two control groups. The gender-disturbed children also showed greater trial-to-trial consistency in their play preferences than the other two groups. The utility of this task in the assessment of childhood gender disturbance is discussed. In addition, the results are discussed in relation to a number of perspectives regarding both typical and atypical gender identity development in childhood.
Pottick, K J; McAlpine, D D; Andelman, R B
The authors examine patterns in utilization of psychiatric inpatient services by children and adolescents in general hospitals during 1988-1995. National Hospital Discharge Survey data were used to describe utilization patterns for children and adolescents with primary psychiatric diagnoses in general hospitals from 1988 to 1995. During the study period, there was a 36% increase in hospital discharges and a 44% decline in mean length of stay, resulting in a 23% decline in the number of bed-days, from more than 3 million to about 2.5 million. The number of nonpsychotic major depressive disorders increased significantly. Discharges from public hospitals have declined, and those from proprietary hospitals have risen. Concurrently, the role of private insurance declined and the role of Medicaid increased. During the period of study, the mean and median length of stay declined most for children and adolescents who were hospitalized in private facilities and those covered by private insurance. Across the United States, the mean length of stay declined significantly; this decline was almost 60% in the West. Discharges also declined in the West, in contrast to the Midwest and the South, where they significantly increased. Increased numbers of discharges and decreased length of stay may reflect evolving market forces and characteristics of hospitals. Further penetration by managed care into the public insurance system or modifications in existing Medicaid policy could have a profound impact on the availability of inpatient resources.
Mari, Giorgia; Scorpecci, Alessandro; Reali, Laura; D'Alatri, Lucia
To date very few studies have investigated the musical skills of children with specific language impairment (SLI). There is growing evidence that SLI affects areas other than language, and it is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that children with this disorder may have difficulties in perceiving musical stimuli appropriately. To compare melody and song identification skills in a group of children with SLI and in a control group of children with typical language development (TD); and to study possible correlations between music identification skills and language abilities in the SLI group. This is a prospective case control study. Two groups of children were enrolled: one meeting DSM-IV-TR(®) diagnostic criteria for SLI and the other comprising an age-matched group of children with TD. All children received a melody and a song identification test, together with a test battery assessing receptive and productive language abilities. 30 children with SLI (mean age = 56 ± 9 months) and 23 with TD (mean age = 60 ± 10 months) were included. Melody and song identification scores among SLI children were significantly lower than those of TD children, and in both groups song identification scores were significantly higher than melody identification scores. Song identification skills bore a significant correlation to chronological age in both groups (TD: r = 0.529, p = 0.009; SLI: r = 0.506, p = 0.004). Whereas no other variables were found explaining the variability of melody or song identification scores in either group, the correlation between language comprehension and song identification in the SLI group approached significance (r = 0.166, p = 0.076). The poorer music perception skills of SLI children as compared with TD ones suggests that SLI may also affect music perception. Therefore, training programmes that simultaneously stimulate via language and music may prove useful in the rehabilitation of children affected by SLI. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and
Gupta, H. O.; Singh, Rakshpal
A low cost null detector an electronic thermometer and a colorimeter have been designed and developed for enabling visually impaired children (VIC) to do experiments in science that normally are accessible only to sighted children. The instruments are based on audio null detection in a balanced bridge and use a themistor for sensing the temperature and an LDR for color change. The analog output can be tactually read by VIC. The equipment has been tested for suitability with VIC. The approach followed in developing these equipment would be generally appropriate to a wide variety of science equipment for VIC by incorporating suitable sensors.
Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Christensen, Rikke Vang
This study focuses on the relationship between content elements and mental-state language in narratives from twenty-seven children with autism (ASD), twelve children with language impairment (LI), and thirty typically developing children (TD). The groups did not differ on chronological age...... (;–;) and non-verbal cognitive skills, and the groups with ASD and TD did not differ on language measures. The children with ASD and LI had fewer content elements of the storyline than the TD children. Compared with the TD children, the children with ASD used fewer subordinate clauses about the characters......’ thoughts, and preferred talking about mental states as reported speech, especially in the form of direct speech. The children with LI did not differ from the TD children on these measures. The results are discussed in the context of difficulties with socio-cognition in children with ASD and of language...
Jonathan Hill; Helen Sharp; Lynne Murray
Females are superior to males on a range of tasks indexing social sensitivity, the capacity to infer others' mental states and respond with appropriate behaviours and emotions(1-3). There are also sex differences in psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. Boys have higher rates of psychiatric disorders before puberty, but disorders increase markedly in girls after puberty (4). The causes of the commonest forms of disorder, antisocial behaviour problems in boys, and depression ...
Abdullah, H; Fazeli Farsani, Sulmaz; Souverein, P.C.; de Boer, A.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.
BACKGROUND: Several studies showed a bidirectional association between type 2 diabetes and psychiatric disorders in adults. Because there is limited information on the association between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and psychiatric disorders (including psychiatric medication use) in children and
Khemakhem, K; Ayedi, H; Moalla, Y; Yaich, S; Hadjkacem, I; Walha, A; Damak, J; Ghribi, F
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent behavioral disorder particularly noticed among school children. It is often associated with other psychological troubles at the origin of an additional difficulty that has to be overcome. Our research's aim was to study the comorbidity of school-aged children diagnosed with ADHD in Sfax, Tunisia. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from 1st April 2008 to 1st October 2008. Five hundred and thirteen pupils aged between 6 and 12, from primary arbitrarily chosen schools from Sfax were subjected to this study. Measurements were carried out in two steps: parents and teachers of each child filled in separately Conners questionnaire, then children with a score in subscales inattention, hyperactivity impulsivity higher than 70 were selected for psychiatric interview that was intended to confirm or to invalidate the ADHD diagnosis and the possible comorbid diagnosis. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV-TR. We have noticed that 109 pupils exhibited at least one pathological score on the Conners questionnaire. After interviewing these 109 pupils, the results have shown that 51 among them fulfilled criteria of ADHD. Prevalence of ADHD was found to be 9.94 %. About 72.54 % of children with ADHD had one or more comorbid disorder: learning disabilities (23.52 % of cases), anxiety disorder (31.37 % of cases), oppositional defiant disorder in (15.68 % of cases), mood disorder (3.92 % of cases), enuresis (13.72 % of cases) and slight mental retardation (1.95 % of cases). We can say that this study has shown that ADHD school children's psychiatric comorbidity is similar to any other previous study. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Malstadt, Nadine; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lehmann, Martin
This study examined supraspan free recall in children with and without spelling impairment. A repeated free recall task involving overt rehearsal and three computer-based adaptive working memory tasks were administered to 54 eight-year-old children. Children without spelling impairments tended to recall more items than did those children with…
Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F. Nienke; Cox, Ralf F. A.; van Rens, Ger; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
PURPOSE. This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four-to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. METHODS. Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children
Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.A.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.; Cillessen, A.H.N.
Purpose. This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four- to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. Methods. Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children
Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.; Rens, G. van; Cillessen, A.H.
PURPOSE: This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four- to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. METHODS: Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children
Huurneman, B.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.A.; Rens, G.H.M.B. van; Cillessen, A.H.N.
PURPOSE. This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four-to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. METHODS. Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children
Chen, B; Detyniecki, K; Choi, H; Hirsch, L; Katz, A; Legge, A; Wong, R; Jiang, A; Buchsbaum, R; Farooque, P
The objective of the study was to compare the psychiatric and behavioral side effect (PBSE) profiles of both older and newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in children and adolescent patients with epilepsy. We used logistic regression analysis to test the correlation between 83 non-AED/patient related potential predictor variables and the rate of PBSE. We then compared for each AED the rate of PBSEs and the rate of PBSEs that led to intolerability (IPBSE) while controlling for non-AED predictors of PBSEs. 922 patients (≤18 years old) were included in our study. PBSEs and IPBSEs occurred in 13.8% and 11.2% of patients, respectively. Overall, a history of psychiatric condition, absence seizures, intractable epilepsy, and frontal lobe epilepsy were significantly associated with increased PBSE rates. Levetiracetam (LEV) had the greatest PBSE rate (16.2%). This was significantly higher compared to other AEDs. LEV was also significantly associated with a high rate of IPBSEs (13.4%) and dose-decrease rates due to IPBSE (6.7%). Zonisamide (ZNS) was associated with significantly higher cessation rate due to IPBSE (9.1%) compared to other AEDs. Patients with a history of psychiatric condition, absence seizures, intractable epilepsy, or frontal lobe epilepsy are more likely to develop PBSE. PBSEs appear to occur more frequently in adolescent and children patients taking LEV compared to other AEDs. LEV-attributed PBSEs are more likely to be associated with intolerability and subsequent decrease in dose. The rate of ZNS-attributed IPBSEs is more likely to be associated with complete cessation of AED. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reichenbach, Katrin; Bastian, Laura; Rohrbach, Saskia; Gross, Manfred; Sarrar, Lea
A growing body of research has focused on executive functions in children with specific language impairment (SLI). However, results show limited convergence, particularly in preschool age. The current neuropsychological study compared performance of cognitive functions focused on executive components and working memory in preschool children with SLI to typically developing controls. Performance on the measures cognitive flexibility, inhibition, processing speed and phonological short-term memory was assessed. The monolingual, Caucasian study sample consisted of 30 children with SLI (Mage = 63.3 months, SD = 4.3 months) and 30 healthy controls (Mage = 62.2 months, SD = 3.7 months). Groups were matched for age and nonverbal IQ. Socioeconomic status of the participating families was included. Children with SLI had significantly poorer abilities of phonological short-term memory than matched controls. A tendency of poorer abilities in the SLI group was found for inhibition and processing speed. We confirmed phonological short-term memory to be a reliable marker of SLI in preschoolers. Our results do not give definite support for impaired executive function in SLI, possibly owing to limited sensitivity of test instruments in this age group. We argue for a standardization of executive function tests for research use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Modafferi, Sergio; Stornelli, Maddalena; Chiarotti, Flavia; Cardona, Francesco; Bruni, Oliviero
The current study evaluated the relationship between tic, sleep disorders and specific psychiatric symptoms (anxiety, depression, obsessive compulsive symptoms). Assessment of 36 consecutive children and adolescents with tic disorders included: the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) to assess the severity of tic symptoms; the Self-administered scale for children and adolescents (SAFA) to evaluate the psychopathological profile; a specific sleep questionnaire consisting of 45 items to assess the presence of sleep disorders. An age and sex-matched control group was used for comparisons. Sleep was significantly more disturbed in patients with tic disorders than in controls. Difficulties in initiating sleep and increased motor activity during sleep were the most frequent sleep disturbances found in our sample. Patients showed also symptoms of anxiety (SAFA A), depressed mood (SAFA D) and doubt-indecision (SAFA O). Additionally, difficulties in initiating sleep resulted associated with other SAFA subscales relative to obsessive-compulsive symptoms and depression symptoms. Furthermore, anxiety symptoms (SAFA A) resulted associated with increased motor activity during sleep. Findings confirm literature studies reporting high frequency of sleep problems, anxiety and other psychopathological symptoms in patients with tic disorders, and support the hypothesis that intrusive thoughts and other emotional disturbances might disrupt the sleep onset of these patients. These results suggest the importance of a thorough assessment of sleep and psychiatric disturbances in patients with tic disorders. Copyright © 2016 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buitelaar, J K; van der Wees, M; Swaab-Barneveld, H; van der Gaag, R J
The hypothesis was tested that weak theory of mind (ToM) and/or emotion recognition (ER) abilities are specific to subjects with autism. Differences in ToM and ER performance were examined between autistic (n = 20), pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (n = 20), psychiatric control (n = 20), and normal children (n = 20). The clinical groups were matched person-to-person on age and verbal IQ. We used tasks for the matching and the context recognition of emotional expressions, and a set of first- and second-order ToM tasks. Autistic and PDD-NOS children could not be significantly differentiated from each other, nor could they be differentiated from the psychiatric controls with a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 9). The psychiatric controls with conduct disorder or dysthymia performed about as well as normal children. The variance in second-order ToM performance contributed most to differences between diagnostic groups.
Renahan, Navanith; Varma, R Balagopal; Kumaran, Parvathy; Xavier, Arun M
The number of deaf children has dramatically increased in the past few decades. These children present to the pediatric dentist a unique set of challenges mostly pertaining to the establishment of communication with them. There have been very few attempts in the past to break down these challenges and formulate a strategy on how to manage them effectively. This is a case report of a child who was successfully managed using two different modes of communication. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages are mentioned, and a common strategy incorporating the positives of both the methods has been devised. Renahan N, Varma RB, Kumaran P, Xavier AM. Unique Approach to Dental Management of Children with Hearing Impairment. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):107-110.
Toppelberg, Claudio O; Medrano, Laura; Peña Morgens, Liana; Nieto-Castañon, Alfonso
To investigate (1) the prevalence of language deficits and disorders and (2) the relationship of bilingual language skills and psychopathology, in Spanish-English bilingual children referred for child and adolescent psychiatry services. Bilingual language skills, emotional/behavioral problems, sociodemographics, immigration variables, and nonverbal IQ were studied in 50 consecutively referred children. Estimated prevalence was high for language deficits (48%) and disorders (41%), with most cases (>79%) being of the mixed receptive-expressive type. In children with clinically significant emotional/behavioral problems, bilingual language skills were strongly and inversely correlated with problem scores, particularly global problems (r = -0.67, p or = -0.54; p language disorders and delays and (2) the close tie between poor language skills and emotional/behavioral problems. The data strongly suggest the clinical importance and feasibility of language assessment and the significance of receptive problems in bilingual children referred for psychiatric services. A safe approach is to fully assess language skills, rather than misattributing these children's language delays to normal bilingual acquisition processes.
Maunoury, C.; Acar, P.; Montalembert, M. de
While brain, bone and spleen strokes are well documented in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), impairment of myocardial perfusion is an unknown complication. Non invasive techniques such as exercise testing and echocardiography have a low sensitivity to detect myocardial ischemia in patients with SCD. We have prospectively assessed myocardial perfusion with Tl-201 SPECT in 23 patients with SCD (10 female, 13 male, mean age 12 ± 5 years). Myocardial SPECT was performed after stress and 3 hours later after reinjection on a single head gamma camera equipped with a LEAP collimator (64 x 64 matrix size format, 30 projections over 180 deg C, 30 seconds per step). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed by equilibrium radionuclide angiography at rest on the same day. Myocardial perfusion was impaired in 14/23 patients: 9 reversible defects and 5 fixed defects. The left ventricular cavity was dilated in 14/23 patients. The mean LVEF was 63 ± 9%. There was no relationship between myocardial perfusion and left ventricular dilation or function. The frequent impairment of myocardial perfusion in children with SCD could lead to suggest a treatment with hydroxyurea, an improvement of perfusion can be noted with hydroxyurea. (author)
van Daal, John; Verhoeven, Ludo; van Leeuwe, Jan; van Balkom, Hans
In the present study, the relations of various aspects of working memory to various aspects of language problems in a clinical sample of 97 Dutch speaking 5-year-old children with severe language problems were studied. The working memory and language abilities of the children were examined using an extensive battery of tests. Working memory was operationalized according to the model of Baddeley. Confirmative factor analyses revealed three memory factors: phonological, visual and central executive. Language was construed as a multifactorial construct, and confirmative factor analyses revealed four factors: lexical-semantic abilities, phonological abilities, syntactic abilities and speech production abilities. Moderate to high correlations were found between the memory and language factors. Structural equation modelling was used to further explore the relations between the different factors. Phonological memory was found to predict phonological abilities; central-executive memory predicted lexical-semantic abilities; and visual memory predicted speech production abilities. Phonological abilities also predicted syntactic abilities. Both the theoretical and clinical implications of the findings are discussed. The reader will be introduced to the concepts of multifactorial components of working memory as well as language impairment. Secondly the reader will recognize that working memory and language impairment factors can be related. Particular emphasis will be placed on phonological memory, central-executive memory and visual memory and their possible prediction of specific components of language impairment.
Pehere, Niranjan; Chougule, Pratik; Dutton, Gordon N
The aim of this study is to identify common causes, associated ophthalmological abnormalities, and systemic comorbidities in children in Andhra Pradesh, India, with cerebral visual impairment (CVI). A retrospective review of case records of all children aged visual impairment was seen in 88.8%, and 11.2% had high functioning CVI. Fifty-eight (46.4%) patients had significant refractive errors, 40 (32.25%) had strabismus, 4 (3.2%) had visually significant cataract, and 40 (32%) had optic atrophy. Motor delay was observed in 39.5%, speech delay was evident in 22.4%, and cognitive delay in 16%. HIE is the most common cause (one-third) of CVI in our population, and the majority of them presented at age visual impairment (88.8%). A significant number of them have treatable ophthalmic conditions such as refractive errors (46.4%), accommodative insufficiency (12.1%), and cataract (3.2%), and more than one-third of them also have delay in other areas of development.
Children who are identified as visually impaired frequently have a functional vision assessment as one way to determine how their visual impairment affects their educational performance. The CVI Range is a functional vision assessment for children with cortical visual impairment. The purpose of the study presented here was to examine the…
Full Text Available Aimed at the detailed insight into the phonological ability of Serbian-speaking children of preschool age, with and without language impairment, the ability of rapid naming was examined. Method: Operationalization of the set goal was carried out by using the Test for evaluating reading and writing pre-skills. In describing and analyzing the obtained data, methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The sample included 120 subjects of both gender, 40 children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI, age from 5,11 to 7 years, and 80 children with typical language development (TLD, age between 5,11 and 7 years, with no statistically significant differences in relation to age and gender of the participants. Results: Summing up the overall results and achievements of children with SLI and children with TLD, we concluded that there are statistically significant differences in the rapid naming between children with specific language impairment and children with typical language development. Conclusions: As it is a global trend to work on preventing disorders and obstructions, and phonological skills in this age are a timely indicator of the development of reading and writing skills, the examined children with SLI are at risk for the occurrence of obstructions and disorders in the area of reading and writing abilities.
Huurneman, Bianca; Cox, Ralf F A; Vlaskamp, Björn N S; Boonstra, F Nienke
This study investigates the influence of oculomotor control, crowding, and attentional factors on visual search in children with normal vision ([NV], n=11), children with visual impairment without nystagmus ([VI-nys], n=11), and children with VI with accompanying nystagmus ([VI+nys], n=26). Exclusion criteria for children with VI were: multiple impairments and visual acuity poorer than 20/400 or better than 20/50. Three search conditions were presented: a row with homogeneous distractors, a matrix with homogeneous distractors, and a matrix with heterogeneous distractors. Element spacing was manipulated in 5 steps from 2 to 32 minutes of arc. Symbols were sized 2 times the threshold acuity to guarantee visibility for the VI groups. During simple row and matrix search with homogeneous distractors children in the VI+nys group were less accurate than children with NV at smaller spacings. Group differences were even more pronounced during matrix search with heterogeneous distractors. Search times were longer in children with VI compared to children with NV. The more extended impairments during serial search reveal greater dependence on oculomotor control during serial compared to parallel search. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mahnaz Aliakbari Dehkordi
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Stress is associated with life satisfaction and also development of some physical diseases. Birth of a disabled child with mental or physical disability (especially deaf or blind children, impose an enormous load of stress on their parents especially the mothers. This study compared stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of normal children or with other disabilities.Methods: In this study, cluster random sampling was performed in Karaj city. 120 mothers in four groups of having a child with mental retardation, low vision, hearing impairment and with normal children were included. Family inventory of life events (FILE of Mc Cubbin et al. was used to determine stress level in four groups of mothers.Results: The results of this research indicated a significant difference (p<0.05 between stress levels of mothers with hearing impaired children and mothers of other disabled and normal children in subscales of intra-family stress, finance and business strains, stress of job transitions, stress of illness and family care and family members "in and out''. There was no difference between compared groups in other subscales.Conclusion: Since deafness is a hidden inability, the child with hearing impairment has a set of social and educational problems causing great stress for parents, especially to mother. In order to decrease mother’s stress, it is suggested to provide more family consultation, adequate social support and to run educational classes for parents to practice stress coping strategies.
Full Text Available Gastrostomy has been increasingly indicated for daily feeding ofneurologically impaired children with swallowing abnormalitiesthat hinder the use of the mouth. Therefore, the enteral route hasstill been used by means of oral, nasogastric or nasojejunal tube.However it is no longer the preferential method, mainly in cases ofprolonged use. Today gastrostomy is the most often utilizedprocedure, particularly Stamm gastrostomy. Many of thesepatients present pulmonary abnormalities due to a possiblegastroesophageal reflux (GER. After the study by Jolley et al.(1, in1985, fundoplication has become a systematic and routinecomplement to gastrostomy. The neurologically impaired patientshave been submitted to two surgeries, leading to possible andpredictable increase in morbidity and mortality rates. Althougheffective when properly indicated, this simple management hasrecently been very much debated and rejected. Thus, an updatingbased on recent studies is necessary to make pediatric surgeonsand pediatricians aware of other manners to solve this problem,which aim at correctly feeding these children with impairedswallowing and GER and helping them have a better quality of life.The literature reviewed was searched in PubMed/Medline, fromJanuary 1994 to May 2003. Other articles read and mentioned inthis review and published before 1994 were collected based onarticles cited in the references. Thus, we could assess thechronological progression in management of neurologicallyimpaired children who need gastrostomy for their feeding, andcarry out an analysis of current fundoplication and the questionwhether the use of a prophylactic antireflux valve is compulsoryor not.
Cordewener, Kim A H; Bosman, Anna M T; Verhoeven, Ludo
The present study investigated active grapheme knowledge and early spelling of 59 first grade children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Speed, nature, and knowledge transfer of spelling acquisition were taken into account. Four orthographic characteristics that influence early spelling, namely, 'Type of Grapheme', 'Grapheme Position', 'Number of Graphemes', and 'Word Structure' were examined at the middle and at the end of first grade. At the beginning of first grade when children were between 71 and 97 months, they performed well below national norms on assessment of active grapheme knowledge. The delay in word spelling persisted, but decreased between the middle and the end of first grade. Despite this delay, the findings suggest that characteristics of early spelling for children with SLI are rather similar to those of children with typical language development. For example, children with SLI represented more graphemes at the end of first grade than at the middle of first grade, found it easier to represent the initial grapheme in words than the final or medial grapheme (Grapheme Position), were more successful spelling shorter than longer words (Number of Graphemes), and spelled words with simple structures (CVC) more accurately than those with complex structures (CVCC and CCVC; Word Structure). Finally, participants demonstrated that they can use known graphemes to spell words, but the transfer between active grapheme knowledge and word spelling was not always stable. As a result of this activity, readers will be able to explain the speed and the nature of spelling acquisition of children with SLI. As a result of this activity, readers will be able to explain what skills are most important for teachers to practice with children with SLI to improve the spelling skills of these children. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Breeman, L.D.; Van Lier, Pol; Wubbels, T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan; Maras, Athanasios; Struiksma, Chris; Hopman, J.A.B.; Tick, Nouchka
Teaching children with psychiatric disorders can be a challenging task. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in children with psychiatric disorders, and their teachers, in special education. Teachers were trained by licensed school consultants to
Breeman, Linda D.; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Wubbels, Theo; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan; Maras, Athanasios; Struiksma, A. J. Chris; Hopman, Juliette A. B.; Tick, Nouchka T.
Teaching children with psychiatric disorders can be a challenging task. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Good Behavior Game (GBG) in children with psychiatric disorders, and their teachers, in special education. Teachers were trained by licensed school consultants to implement positive behavior support strategies to…
Schaeffer, J.; van Witteloostuijn, M.; de Haan, D.
This study reports on the choice between a definite and an indefinite article by children with High Functioning Autism (HFA) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). We carried out an elicited production task with 16 Dutch-speaking non-grammatically impaired children with HFA aged 6-13,
Tashakori, Ashraf; Safavi, Atefeh; Neamatpour, Sorour
The main source of information about children's masturbation is more on the basis of case reports. Due to the lack of consistent and accurate information. This study aimed to determine prevalence and underlying factors of masturbation and its comorbidity with psychiatric disorders in children. In this descriptive-analytical study, among the children referred to the Pediatrics Clinic of Psychiatric Ward, Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Southwest Iran, 98 children were selected by convenience sampling in 2014. Disorders were diagnosed by clinical interview based on the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Psychiatric Disorders (DSM-IV) and the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4). We also used a questionnaire, containing demographic information about the patient and their family and also other data. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test with SPSS software version 16. Of the children who participated in this study (most of whom were boys), 31.6% suffered from masturbation. The phobias (p=0.002), separation anxiety disorder (p=0.044), generalized anxiety disorder (p=0.037), motor tics (p=0.033), stress disorder (p=0.005), oppositional defiant disorder (p=0.044), thumb sucking (p=0.000) and conduct disorder (p=0.001) were associated with masturbation. Masturbation was common in children referred to psychiatric clinic, and may be more associated with oppositional defiant disorder, or conduct disorder, some anxiety disorders, motor tics and other stereotypical behavior. Authors recommended more probing for psychiatric disorders in children with unusual sexual behavior.
Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zubrick, Stephen R; Blair, Eve; Newnham, John P; Hickey, Martha
To characterise fetal brain growth in children with specific language impairment (SLI). A nested case-control study. Perth, Western Australia. Thirty children meeting criteria for SLI at age 10 years were individually matched with a typically developing comparison child on sex, non-verbal ability, fetal gestational age, maternal age at conception, smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy. Occipitofrontal head circumference (HC) was measured using ultrasonography at approximately 18 weeks gestation. Femur length provided a measure of fetal length. Occipitofrontal HC was measured at birth and at the 1-year postnatal follow-up using a precise paper tape measure, while crown-heel length acted as an index of body length at both time points. Raw data were transformed to z-scores using reference norms. The SLI group had a significantly smaller mean HC than the typically developing comparison children at birth, but there was no group difference at 18 weeks gestation or at the 1-year postnatal follow-up. Individual analyses found that 12 SLI children had an HC z-score less than -1 at birth, with three of these cases meeting criteria for microcephaly. There was no group difference in the indices of overall body size at any time point. Children with SLI are more likely to have a small HC at birth but not at 18 weeks gestation or infancy, suggesting growth asynchrony in brain development during the second half of pregnancy.
Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Balkom, Hans
In the literature so far the limited research on specific language impairment (SLI) in bilingual children has concentrated on linguistic skills in the first language (L1) and/or the second language (L2) without paying attention to the relations between the two types of skills and to the issue of linguistic transfer. To examine the first and second language proficiency of 75 Turkish-Dutch bilingual children with SLI in the age range between 7 and 11 years living in the Netherlands. A multidimensional perspective on language proficiency was taken in order to assess children's Turkish and Dutch proficiency levels, whereas equivalent tests were used in order to determine language dominance. A second aim was to find out to what extent the children's proficiency in L2 can be predicted from their L1 proficiency, while taking into account their general cognitive abilities. The children's performance on a battery of equivalent language ability tests in Turkish and Dutch was compared at three age levels. By means of analyses of variance, it was explored to what extent the factors of language and grade level as well as their interactions were significant. Bivariate correlations and partial correlations with age level partialled out were computed to examine the relationships between L1 and L2 proficiency levels. Moreover, regression analysis was conducted to find out to what extent the variance in general L2 proficiency levels could be explained by children's L1 proficiency, short-term memory and non-verbal intelligence. Repeated measures analyses showed that the children had generally higher scores on L1 as compared with L2 and that with progression of age the children's scores in L1 and L2 improved. Medium to high correlations were found between phonological memory, phonological awareness, grammatical skills and story comprehension in the two languages. Regression analysis revealed that children's L2 proficiency levels could be explained by their proficiency levels in L1
Elafros, Melissa A.; Sakubita-Simasiku, Claire; Atadzhanov, Masharip; Haworth, Alan; Chomba, Elwyn; Birbeck, Gretchen L.
Background Epilepsy-associated stigma contributes substantially to the social, medical, and economic burden of disease for people with epilepsy (PWE), but little is known about its impact on caregivers of PWE. Methods To better understand stigma experienced by caregivers of PWE, factors that influence caregiver stigma, and the effect of stigma on a caregiver's psychologic well being, we interviewed 100 caregivers of children with epilepsy in Zambia. Questions assessed maternal knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to epilepsy, maternal stigma, mother's proxy report of child stigma, and maternal psychiatric morbidity. Results Of 100 mothers, 39 (39%) indicated that their child was stigmatized because of his or her epilepsy. Maternal proxy report of child stigma was highly correlated with maternal stigma (OR: 5.4, p=0.04), seizure frequency (p=0.03) and seizure severity (p=0.01). One in five of 100 mothers (20%) reported feeling stigmatized because of their child's epilepsy. Higher maternal stigma was associated with lower familial and community support (ORs: 65.2 and 34.7, respectively; both pepilepsy knowledge were associated with decreased maternal stigma (ORs: 0.8 and 0.7, respectively; both pepilepsy. As maternal stigma is associated with psychiatric morbidity, educating caregivers about epilepsy and screening for anxiety and depression are warranted. PMID:24214528
Within the domain-general theory of language impairment, this study examined body posture and hand movement imitation in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and in their age-matched peers. Participants included 40 children with SLI (5 years 3 months to 6 years 10 months of age) and 40 children with typical language development (5…
Lu, Qing; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Sun, Baochen; Cui, Tongtong; Congdon, Nathan; Hu, Ailian; Chen, Jianhua; Shi, Jiliang
To evaluate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment among Chinese children aged 3 to 6 years in Beijing. Population-based prevalence survey. Presenting and pinhole visual acuity were tested using picture optotypes or, in children with pinhole vision children with pinhole vision children aged 3 to 6 years (95.3% of sample). Subjects with bilateral correctable low vision (presenting vision or= 6/18) numbered 57 (0.322%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.237% to 0.403%), while 14 (0.079%; 95% CI, 0.038% to 0.120%) had bilateral uncorrectable low vision (best-corrected vision of or= 3/60), and 5 subjects (0.028%; 95% CI, 0.004% to 0.054%) were bilaterally blind (best-corrected acuity visual impairment included: refractive error in 57 children (75%), hereditary factors (microphthalmos, congenital cataract, congenital motor nystagmus, albinism, and optic nerve disease) in 13 children (17.1 %), amblyopia in 3 children (3.95%), and cortical blindness in 1 child (1.3%). The cause of visual impairment could not be established in 2 (2.63%) children. The prevalence of visual impairment did not differ by gender, but correctable low vision was significantly (P children. The leading causes of visual impairment among Chinese preschool-aged children are refractive error and hereditary eye diseases. A higher prevalence of refractive error is already present among urban as compared with rural children in this preschool population.
Narayanasamy, Sumithira; Vincent, Stephen J; Sampson, Geoff P; Wood, Joanne M
Astigmatism is an important refractive condition in children. However, the functional impact of uncorrected astigmatism in this population is not well established, particularly with regard to academic performance. This study investigated the impact of simulated bilateral astigmatism on academic-related tasks before and after sustained near work in children. Twenty visually normal children (mean age: 10.8 ± 0.7 years; six males and 14 females) completed a range of standardised academic-related tests with and without 1.50 D of simulated bilateral astigmatism (with both academic-related tests and the visual condition administered in a randomised order). The simulated astigmatism was induced using a positive cylindrical lens while maintaining a plano spherical equivalent. Performance was assessed before and after 20 min of sustained near work, during two separate testing sessions. Academic-related measures included a standardised reading test (the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability), visual information processing tests (Coding and Symbol Search subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children) and a reading-related eye movement test (the Developmental Eye Movement test). Each participant was systematically assigned either with-the-rule (WTR, axis 180°) or against-the-rule (ATR, axis 90°) simulated astigmatism to evaluate the influence of axis orientation on any decrements in performance. Reading, visual information processing and reading-related eye movement performance were all significantly impaired by both simulated bilateral astigmatism (p 0.05). Simulated astigmatism led to a reduction of between 5% and 12% in performance across the academic-related outcome measures, but there was no significant effect of the axis (WTR or ATR) of astigmatism (p > 0.05). Simulated bilateral astigmatism impaired children's performance on a range of academic-related outcome measures irrespective of the orientation of the astigmatism. These findings have
Shakir, Lana Nabeel; Sulaiman, Karwan Hawez
Background and objectives: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the common psychiatric disorder in childhood and it affects on children socially and academically. The aim of this study is to find out the prevalence of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among the studied population, describe its association with certain…
Full Text Available Background: Healthy dietary habits are known as a key factor for improving brain functions and cognitive ability in children and adolescents. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of healthy food consumption with mental health in Iranian children and adolescents.Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the fourth national school-based surveillance survey entitled CASPIAN-IV study. In this study, 14880 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years were selected by multistage, cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas. The students and their parents completed two sets of questionnaires. The psychiatric distress included depression, worry, insomnia, anxiety, aggression, confusion, and worthless and the violent behaviors comprised of physical fight, victim and bully. The healthy foods included fresh fruits, dried fruits, vegetables and dairy products.Results: The participants include 13,486 students from elementary, intermediate and high school degree. The prevalence of psychiatric distress was significantly higher among high school students, while violent behaviors were more prevalent in the middle school students. According to the multivariate model (model IV, the risk of psychiatric distress was significantly lower in students with daily consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables and milk. In addition, those with daily consumption of vegetables and milk had significantly lower risk for violent behaviors.Conclusion: Consumption of healthy foods may reduce the risk of psychiatric distress and violent behaviors. Therefore, in addition to its benefits, increasing healthy food consumption among children and adolescents can be useful in preventing mental health disorders.
This bachelor thesis engages in the topic "Stimulation of sense perception for sight-impaired children at preschool age". The theoretical section of the bachelor thesis is divided into four chapters. The first chapter focuses on the sight-impaired individual, the second chapter deals with the development of a preschool-aged child, the next chapter is concerned with the preschool education of sight-impaired children and the last chapter focuses on sense perception for those children. The main ...
Olika, Ruth Erin Liselott
The aim of this research is to find out what kind of attitudes that hearing impaired children face from hearing people, and how these attitudes influence the hearing impaired child’s life. This is a qualitative research project with interview as the instrument of collecting data. The interviews were conducted in Wollega, Ethiopia with four different informant groups: Children with hearing impairment (CWHI), their parents (Parents CWHI), Children with hearing (CWH), and their parents (Parents ...
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analyzing the relation between visual acuity and developmental abilities (perceptive functions, verbal and non-verbal abilities in younger school children. The sample consists of 1165 children from urban, suburban, and rural parts of Belgrade, of both genders, aged between 7.5 and 11. American 'Lighthouse' Optotype was used for screening assessment of visual acuity. Mild visual impairment, i.e. near visual acuity in the better eye ranging from 0.3 to 0.7, was detected in 7.9% of the pupils. ACADIA test of developmental abilities was used for the assessment of developmental abilities. When compared to the examinees with visual acuity in the better eye ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 (mild amblyopia, the examinees with normal visual acuity achieved better results in visuomotor coordination, non-verbal reasoning (Visual Association subtest, and concept formation in non-verbal domain (Sequence and Coding subtest. No significant differences were determined in constructive praxis (Drawing Shapes subtest and representational dimension of a drawing (Drawing subtest. According to the criterion of age standard deviation, a statistically significant difference was determined between the examinees with mild visual impairment and the examinees with normal vision (χ2=13,425, df=2, p=0,001; ρ=0,103, p≤0,000. The results of 24.8% of the examinees with mild visual impairment deviate from age norms in one or two SD (14.9% in one SD, and 9.9% in two SD. In the group of examinees with normal vision 12.5% of the results deviate from age norms in one or two SD (8.7% in one SD, and 3.8% in two SD.
Wiegand-Grefe, S; Geers, P; Petermann, F; Plass, A
Children of mentally ill parents are known as a high-risk population for the development of psychological disturbances. In this study, the psychiatric diagnoses, the severity and chronicity and the comorbidity of a parental mental illness as well as the non-specific parameters were examined in terms of their influence on the children's mental health. n = 62 children of psychiatric inpatients were examined regarding their psychic symptomatology, assessed with the CBCL-Parent Report Form. The psychiatric ICD-10 diagnoses and comorbidities as well as the severity (CGI) of the mentally ill parents were collected from psychiatric assessment forms. Children of parents with personality disorders (PD) are evaluated as highly affected by their parents, regardless of whether the PD is the primary or the comorbid diagnosis. Children of parents suffering from addictive disorders are seen as the least affected by their parents. Overall, children of parents with multiple diagnoses tend to be rated as more affected. Severity of illness and chronicity do not have a considerable impact on the children's development of mental health problems. Strikingly, children with a high length of exposure to a parental illness are psychologically less affected than children with shorter times of exposure. Thus, children possibly acquire effective coping mechanisms with increasing time of exposure. The results reveal the necessity of preventive programmes, especially in case of personality disorders. In addition the necessity for external assessment of the children becomes clear, especially in those cases where the parents exhibit a poor acceptance of their disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Pham, Giang; Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn
Evidence on the treatment effectiveness for bilingual children with primary language impairment (PLI) is needed to advance both theory and clinical practice. Of key interest is whether treatment effects are maintained following the completion of short-term intense treatments. To investigate change in select language and cognitive skills in Spanish-English bilingual children with PLI 3 months after children have completed one of three experimental treatment conditions. There are two main study aims. First, to determine if skills in Spanish, English and cognitive processing decline, improve or are maintained after treatment has been completed. Second, to determine if differential rates of change are a function of the type of treatment children received. Participants were 48 children, aged 5:6-11:3, who spoke Spanish and English and were diagnosed with moderate to severe PLI. Participants received 6 weeks of treatment focused on English only (EO), bilingual skills in Spanish and English (BI) or nonlinguistic cognitive processing (NCP). Treatment effects reported in a previous study were determined by comparing pre- and post-treatment performance on a variety of language and cognitive measures. Here we re-administered each measure 3 months after completion of the experimental treatments. Hierarchical linear models were calculated for each measure using pre-, post- and follow-up testing scores to estimate change trajectories and compare outcomes between treatment conditions. Participants in all three treatment conditions either maintained skills or showed improvement even after treatment was discontinued for 3 months. Main findings included (1) comparable, positive rates of change on all English language outcomes for EO and BI conditions; (2) maintenance of Spanish language skills, and (3) modest improvements in NCP following the discontinuation of treatment. This study is the first to examine longer-term treatment effects for bilingual school-age children with PLI
Victorino, Kristen R; Schwartz, Richard G
Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a cross-modal word recognition task. Twenty participants with SLI (ages 9-12 years) and 20 age-matched peers with typical language development (TLD) listened to words through headphones and were instructed to attend to the words in 1 ear while ignoring the words in the other ear. They were simultaneously presented with pictures and asked to make a lexical decision about whether the pictures and auditory words were the same or different. Accuracy and reaction time were measured in 5 conditions, in which the stimulus in the unattended channel was manipulated. The groups performed with similar accuracy. Compared with their peers with TLD, children with SLI had slower reaction times overall and different within-group patterns of performance by condition. Children with TLD showed efficient inhibitory control in conditions that required active suppression of competing stimuli. Participants with SLI had difficulty exerting control over their auditory attention in all conditions, with particular difficulty inhibiting distractors of all types.
This study investigates the question as to whether and how the linguistic and other cognitive abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ from those of children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA). To this end, 27 Dutch-speaking elementary-school-age children with SLI, 27 age-matched children with HFA, and a control group…
Adani, Flavia; Stegenwallner-Schütz, Maja; Haendler, Yair; Zukowski, Andrea
We elicited the production of various types of relative clauses in a group of German-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing controls in order to test the movement optionality account of grammatical difficulty in SLI. The results show that German-speaking children with SLI are impaired in relative clause…
Charman, Tony; Ricketts, Jessie; Dockrell, Julie E; Lindsay, Geoff; Palikara, Olympia
Although it is well-established that children with language impairment (LI) and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) both show elevated levels of emotional and behavioural problems, the level and types of difficulties across the two groups have not previously been directly compared. To compare levels of emotional and behavioural problems in children with LI and children with ASD recruited from the same mainstream schools. We measured teacher-reported emotional and behavioural problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a sample of 5-13-year-old children with LI (N = 62) and children with ASD (N = 42) attending mainstream school but with identified special educational needs. Both groups showed similarly elevated levels of emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems. The only differences between the LI and ASD groups were on subscales assessing peer problems (which were higher in the ASD group) and prosocial behaviours (which were higher in the LI group). Overall, there were few associations between emotional and behavioural problems and child characteristics, reflecting the pervasive nature of these difficulties in children with LI and children with ASD, although levels of problems were higher in children with ASD with lower language ability. However, in the ASD group only, a measure of family social economic status was associated with language ability and attenuated the association between language ability and emotional and behavioural problems. Children with LI and children with ASD in mainstream school show similarly elevated levels of emotional and behavioural problems, which require monitoring and may benefit from intervention. Further work is required to identify the child, family and situational factors that place children with LI and children with ASD at risk of emotional and behavioural problems, and whether these differ between the two groups. This work can then guide the application of evidence-based interventions to
Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Alguacil, Juan; Lorca, Andres; Mendoza, Ramón; Gómez, Inmaculada; Molina-Villalba, Isabel; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Rohlman, Diane S; Lacasaña, Marina
Over the last few decades there has been an increased concern about the health risks from exposure to metallic trace elements, including arsenic, because of their potential neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. This study assessed whether urinary arsenic (UA) levels are associated with attention performance and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children living in an area with high industrial and mining activities in Southwestern Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 children aged 6-9 years. Arsenic levels were determined in urine samples. Attention was measured by using 4 independent tools: a) tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) designed to measure attention function: Simple Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT); b) AULA Test, a virtual reality (VR)-based test that evaluates children's response to several stimuli in an environment simulating a classroom; c) Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), administered to parents; and d) Teacher's Report Form (TRF), administered to teachers. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between UA levels and attention performance scores. Higher UA levels were associated with an increased latency of response in RTT (β = 12.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5-21.1) and SAT (β = 3.6; 95% CI: .4-6.8) as well as with worse performance on selective and focalized attention in the AULA test (β for impulsivity = .6; 95% CI: .1-1.1; β for inattention = .5; 95% CI: .03-1.0). A dose-response relationship was observed between UA levels and inattention and impulsivity scores. In contrast, results from the CBCL and TRF tests failed to show a significant association with UA levels. In conclusion, UA levels were associated with impaired attention/cognitive function, even at levels considered safe. These results provide
F J W Calitz
Full Text Available Background. Children and adolescents can develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD after exposure to a range of traumatic events, including domestic, political or community violence, violent crime, physical and sexual abuse, hijacking, witnessing a violent crime and motor vehicle accidents. This is particularly critical given the substantial challenge that PTSD poses to the healthy physical, cognitive and emotional development of children and adolescents. Methods. The clinical records of 1 229 children (age 2 - 11 years and adolescents (age 12 - 18 years treated at the Child Mental Health Unit of the Free State Psychiatric Complex (FSPC were screened for the diagnosis of PTSD and analysed for the purpose of this study. Results. Forty-nine (4.0% of the children and adolescents treated at the unit were diagnosed with PTSD, of whom most were female (63.3%. Approximately 22% of the participants had comorbid major depressive disorder. The main traumatic event in both groups was witnessing the death of a close relative (32.7%, followed by sexual assault (25%, rape (25% and physical attack (10.2%. Associated stressors identified included problems at school (55.1%, isolation (39%, fear or anxiety (37%, problematic family relationships (29%, emotional (27% and physical (23% abuse, and lack of social support (23%. Most of the participants (59.2% received psychotherapy. Conclusions. Children and adolescents referred to the FSPC are also exposed to traumatic events which lead to the development of PTSD. The Free State is a sprawling province with remote areas where specialist services and facilities are limited. It is therefore recommended that preventive programmes, training opportunities and consultation services are implemented to identify and treat children and adolescents with PTSD. Schools with limited access to psychological services and large classrooms, impeding the diagnosis and treatment of PTSD specifically, face similar challenges
Full Text Available Murat Yüce,1 Süleyman Salih Zoroglu,2 Mehmet Fatih Ceylan,3 Hasan Kandemir,4 Koray Karabekiroglu5 1Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey; 2Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Medical Faculty of Istanbul, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Dr Sami Ulus Children's Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 4Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Harran University, Sanliurfa, Turkey; 5Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey Objective: We aimed to determine distribution and diversities of psychiatric comorbidities in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in terms of age groups, sex, and ADHD subtype. Materials and methods: The sample included 6–18 year old children and adolescents from Turkey (N=108; 83 boys, 25 girls diagnosed with ADHD. All comorbid diagnoses were determined based on the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version assessment. Results: 96.3% of the cases were found to have at least one psychiatric comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent psychiatric comorbid disorder was oppositional defiant disorder (69.4% followed by anxiety disorders (49% and elimination disorders (27.8%. Disruptive behavior disorders were more common in ADHD-combined type. Depression and anxiety disorders were more common in girls. Separation anxiety disorder and elimination disorder were more common in children, whereas depression, bipolar disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, and social phobia were more common in the adolescents. Conclusion: According to our results, when a diagnostic tool was used to assess the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD, almost all cases had at least one
Ryles, Ruby; Bell, Edward
Seventy-three children with visual impairments aged 2-10 and their parents participated in a project that examined the children's interest in and exploration of tactile graphics. The parents reported that the children's interest in and conceptual understanding of the project's tactile workbook were high and that the children explored the…
Alderton, H R
The role of punishment in the psychiatric in-patient treatment of nonpsychotic latency-age children with behaviourdisorders is discussed. Punishment is defined as the removal of previously existing positive reinforcers or the administration of aversive stimuli. Ways in which appropriate social behaviour may be acquired are briefly considered. These include reinforcement of desirable responses, non-reinforcement of undesirable responses, reinforcement of incompatible responses and imitative learning. The reported effects of punishment on behaviour are reviewed and the psychological functions necessary before punishment can have the intended effects considered. For seriously disturbed children punishment is ineffective as a treatment technique. It reinforces pathological perceptions of self and adults even if it successfully suppresses behaviour. The frame of reference of the seriously disturbed child contraindicates the removal of positive reinforcers and verbal as well as physical aversive stimuli. Controls and punishments must be clearly distinguished. Controls continue only as long as the behaviour towards which they are directed. They do not include the deliberate establishment of an unpleasant state by the adult as a result of particular behaviour. Control techniques such as removal from a group may be necessary but when possible should be avoided in favour of techniques less likely to be misinterpreted. Avoidance of punishment in treatment makes even more important explicit expectations and provision of realistic controls. Natural laws may result in unpleasant experiences as an unavoidable result of certain behaviour. By definition such results can never be imposed by the adult. Treatment considerations may necessitate that the child be protected from the results of his actions. Avoidance of punishment requires a higher staff/child ratio, more mature and better trained staff. Sometimes children have previously been deterred from serious community acting out
Pham, Giang; Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn
Background Evidence on the treatment effectiveness for bilingual children with primary language impairment (PLI) is needed to advance both theory and clinical practice. Of key interest is whether treatment effects are maintained following the completion of short-term intense treatments. Aims To investigate change in select language and cognitive skills in Spanish–English bilingual children with PLI 3 months after children have completed one of three experimental treatment conditions. There are two main study aims. First, to determine if skills in Spanish, English and cognitive processing decline, improve or are maintained after treatment has been completed. Second, to determine if differential rates of change are a function of the type of treatment children received. Methods & Procedures Participants were 48 children, aged 5:6–11:3, who spoke Spanish and English and were diagnosed with moderate to severe PLI. Participants received 6 weeks of treatment focused on English only (EO), bilingual skills in Spanish and English (BI) or nonlinguistic cognitive processing (NCP). Treatment effects reported in a previous study were determined by comparing pre- and post-treatment performance on a variety of language and cognitive measures. Here we re-administered each measure 3 months after completion of the experimental treatments. Hierarchical linear models were calculated for each measure using pre-, post- and follow-up testing scores to estimate change trajectories and compare outcomes between treatment conditions. Outcomes & Results Participants in all three treatment conditions either maintained skills or showed improvement even after treatment was discontinued for 3 months. Main findings included (1) comparable, positive rates of change on all English language outcomes for EO and BI conditions; (2) maintenance of Spanish language skills, and (3) modest improvements in NCP following the discontinuation of treatment. Conclusions & Implications This study is the first
Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Gelgic, Celin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
Background: Much evidence has accumulated to indicate memory deficits in children with specific language impairment. However, most research has focused on working memory impairments in these children. Less is known about the functioning of other memory systems in this population. Aims: This study examined procedural and declarative memory in young…
Wong, Ling M.; Riggins, Tracy; Harvey, Danielle; Cabaral, Margarita; Simon, Tony J.
Individuals with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) have been shown to have impairments in processing spatiotemporal information. The authors examined whether children with 22q11.2DS exhibit impairments in spatial working memory performance due to these weaknesses, even when controlling for maintenance of attention. Children with…
Ketelaars, M.P.; Jansonius, K.; Cuperus, J.M.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.
Background: Children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) show impairments in the use of language in social contexts. Although the issue has been gaining attention in recent literature, not much is known about the developmental trajectories of children who experience pragmatic language problems.
Ketelaars, M.P.; Jansonius, K.; Cuperus, J.; Verhoeven, L.
This study investigated narrative competence in children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) and the extent to which it is related to impairments in theory of mind and executive functioning (EF). Narrative competence was assessed using a retelling design in a group of 77 children with PLI and a
Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard
Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler…
Weissman, Adam S.; Bates, Marsha E.
Bipolar (BD) symptomatology is prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and may lead to increased impairment. The current study compared clinical and neurocognitive impairment in children (7-13 years) diagnosed with ASD (n=55), BD (n=34), ASD + BD (n=23), and a non-clinical control group (n=27). Relative to the ASD group, the ASD…
Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris
HOUWEN, S., E. HARTMAN, and C. VISSCHER. Physical Activity and Motor Skills in Children with and without Visual Impairments. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No, 1, pp. 103-109, 2009. Purpose: To examine the physical activity levels of children with and without visual impairments(VI). We further
Purpose: To determine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) demonstrate impaired visual fast mapping skills compared with unimpaired peers and to test components of visual working memory that may contribute to a visual working memory deficit. Methods: Fifty children (25 SLI) played 2 computer-based visual fast mapping games…
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a literacy-based intervention on the conventional pretend play skills of preschool children who are visually impaired. The intervention involved experience books, real objects, story-reading, and role-play, which are common strategies used to teach children with visual impairments. A…
Robinson, Barbara L.; Lieberman, Lauren J.
The authors examined the effects of a parent resource manual on physical and sedentary activity levels of children with visual impairments. Children and youth with visual impairments, aged 9-23 years (7 girls, 11 boys), attended a 1-week summer sports camp in New York state. The authors found that 1 month after they provided the families of the…
Kesiktas, A. Dolunay
Studies showing developmental delays in infants and children with visual impairments have triggered early childhood special education studies for this population. Early childhood special education guidelines for visually impaired infants and children range from individualized services to personnel preparation issues while all display certain…
Perkins, Kara; Columna, Luis; Lieberman, Lauren; Bailey, JoEllen
Introduction: Ongoing communication with parents and the acknowledgment of their preferences and expectations are crucial to promote the participation of physical activity by children with visual impairments. Purpose: The study presented here explored parents' perceptions of physical activity for their children with visual impairments and explored…
Lax Pericall, Maria Teresa; Taylor, Eric
The psychological and psychiatric outcome of children with acquired brain injury is influenced by many variables. A review was undertaken to clarify the contribution of family function, how it relates to injury severity, and what particular aspects of family function influence psychological outcome in this group. A systematized review of the literature of studies published between 1970 and 2012 from OvidMedline, PsychoInfo, PsycARTICLES, and Cochrane was undertaken focusing on family function, injury severity, and psychiatric outcome. Thirty-six papers met the inclusion criteria. Injury severity was linked to the development of organic personality change. Family function before injury, measured by the Family Assessment Device or the Clinical Rating Scale, had a statistically significant effect on general psychological functioning in six out of eight studies. Family function had a significant effect for oppositional defiant disorder and secondary attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. The effects of family function may differ depending on the age of the child and the severity of the injury. Some styles of parenting moderated recovery. After injury, family function was related to the child's contemporaneous psychiatric symptoms. The level of evidence for these papers was 3 or 4 (Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria). Screening for some aspects of family functioning before injury and family function during the rehabilitation phase may identify children at risk of psychiatric disorders. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.
Belmonte, Matthew K.; Saxena-Chandhok, Tanushree; Cherian, Ruth; Muneer, Reema; George, Lisa; Karanth, Prathibha
Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive vs. expressive speech/language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills) and 90 (for oral motor skills) typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual. PMID:23847480
Matthew K Belmonte
Full Text Available Absence of communicative speech in autism has been presumed to reflect a fundamental deficit in the use of language, but at least in a subpopulation may instead stem from motor and oral motor issues. Clinical reports of disparity between receptive versus expressive speech / language abilities reinforce this hypothesis. Our early-intervention clinic develops skills prerequisite to learning and communication, including sitting, attending, and pointing or reference, in children below 6 years of age. In a cohort of 31 children, gross and fine motor skills and activities of daily living as well as receptive and expressive speech were assessed at intake and after 6 and 10 months of intervention. Oral motor skills were evaluated separately within the first 5 months of the child's enrolment in the intervention programme and again at 10 months of intervention. Assessment used a clinician-rated structured report, normed against samples of 360 (for motor and speech skills and 90 (for oral motor skills typically developing children matched for age, cultural environment and socio-economic status. In the full sample, oral and other motor skills correlated with receptive and expressive language both in terms of pre-intervention measures and in terms of learning rates during the intervention. A motor-impaired group comprising a third of the sample was discriminated by an uneven profile of skills with oral motor and expressive language deficits out of proportion to the receptive language deficit. This group learnt language more slowly, and ended intervention lagging in oral motor skills. In individuals incapable of the degree of motor sequencing and timing necessary for speech movements, receptive language may outstrip expressive speech. Our data suggest that autistic motor difficulties could range from more basic skills such as pointing to more refined skills such as articulation, and need to be assessed and addressed across this entire range in each individual.
Yamamah, Gamal Abdel Naser; Talaat Abdel Alim, Ahmed Ahmed; Mostafa, Yehia Salah El Din; Ahmed, Rania Ahmed Abdel Salam; Mohammed, Asmaa Mahmoud; Mahmoud, Asmaa Mohammed
To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in children of South Sinai, and to evaluate outcomes of rehabilitation programs. Population-based, cross-sectional analysis of 2070 healthy school children screened for visual impairment from 2009 through 2010 in cities of South Sinai and their surrounding Bedouin settlements. Visual acuity (VA) was tested using Snellen charts followed by cycloplegic autorefractometry for cases with presenting VA ≤ 6/9. Appropriate eyeglasses were prescribed and VA re-evaluated. This study included 1047 boys and 1023 girls, mean age 10.7 ± 3.1 years. Visual impairment (uncorrected VA ≤ 6/9) was detected in 29.4% of children, while 2.0% had moderate-severe visual impairment (uncorrected VA ≤ 6/24). There were statistically significant differences in prevalence of visual impairment between the studied cities (p visual impairment was significantly higher among girls (p children showed significantly lower prevalences of visual impairment. Only age was a reliable predictor of visual impairment (odds ratio 0.94, p children who received spectacles (p children had some form of visual impairment, 90.32% of which comprised refractive errors (mainly astigmatism) which were significantly corrected with eyeglasses. VA screening and correction of refractive errors are of the utmost importance for ensuring better visual outcomes and improved school performance.
Huurneman, Bianca; Boonstra, F Nienke; Cox, Ralf F A; van Rens, Ger; Cillessen, Antonius H N
This study investigated whether visual perceptual learning can improve near visual acuity and reduce foveal crowding effects in four- to nine-year-old children with visual impairment. Participants were 45 children with visual impairment and 29 children with normal vision. Children with visual impairment were divided into three groups: a magnifier group (n = 12), a crowded perceptual learning group (n = 18), and an uncrowded perceptual learning group (n = 15). Children with normal vision also were divided in three groups, but were measured only at baseline. Dependent variables were single near visual acuity (NVA), crowded NVA, LH line 50% crowding NVA, number of trials, accuracy, performance time, amount of small errors, and amount of large errors. Children with visual impairment trained during six weeks, two times per week, for 30 minutes (12 training sessions). After training, children showed significant improvement of NVA in addition to specific improvements on the training task. The crowded perceptual learning group showed the largest acuity improvements (1.7 logMAR lines on the crowded chart, P children in the crowded perceptual learning group showed improvements on all NVA charts. Children with visual impairment benefit from perceptual training. While task-specific improvements were observed in all training groups, transfer to crowded NVA was largest in the crowded perceptual learning group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence for the improvement of NVA by perceptual learning in children with visual impairment. (http://www.trialregister.nl number, NTR2537.).
Ravenscroft, John; Blaikie, Andrew; Macewen, Caroline; O'Hare, Anne; Creswell, Lyn; Dutton, Gordon N.
The purpose of this study is to pilot a new notification system for children with visual impairment (VI) and describe the initial summary findings. A system of notification of children in Scotland with VI was established. Information concerning this system was distributed to professionals working with visually impaired children to forward to…
Morgan, Angela T; Dodrill, Pamela; Ward, Elizabeth C
Oropharyngeal dysphagia encompasses problems with the oral preparatory phase of swallowing (chewing and preparing the food), oral phase (moving the food or fluid posteriorly through the oral cavity with the tongue into the back of the throat) and pharyngeal phase (swallowing the food or fluid and moving it through the pharynx to the oesophagus). Populations of children with neurological impairment who commonly experience dysphagia include, but are not limited to, those with acquired brain impairment (for example, cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, stroke), genetic syndromes (for example, Down syndrome, Rett syndrome) and degenerative conditions (for example, myotonic dystrophy). To examine the effectiveness of interventions for oropharyngeal dysphagia in children with neurological impairment. We searched the following electronic databases in October 2011: CENTRAL 2011(3), MEDLINE (1948 to September Week 4 2011), EMBASE (1980 to 2011 Week 40) , CINAHL (1937 to current) , ERIC (1966 to current), PsycINFO (1806 to October Week 1 2011), Science Citation Index (1970 to 7 October 2011), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 7 October 2011), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2011(3), DARE 2011(3), Current Controlled Trials (ISRCTN Register) (15 October 2011), ClinicalTrials.gov (15 October 2011) and WHO ICTRP (15 October 2011). We searched for dissertations and theses using Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations, Australasian Digital Theses Program and DART-Europe E-theses Portal (11 October 2011). Finally, additional references were also obtained from reference lists from articles. The review included randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials for children with oropharyngeal dysphagia and neurological impairment. All three review authors (AM, PD and EW) independently screened titles and abstracts for inclusion and discussed results. In cases of uncertainty over whether an abstract met inclusion criterion, review
Ajaiyeoba, A I; Isawumi, M A; Adeoye, A O; Oluleye, T S
The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and identify the causes of blindness and visual impairment in school children of Ilesa-East Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 1144 school children in primary and secondary schools were selected using a 2-stage random sampling method and examined to determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment. A total of 17 (1.48%) children were blind or visually impaired. These comprised of 11 (0.96%) children who were visually impaired and 4 (0.3%) who were severely visually impaired. Only 2 (0.15%) school children were blind. The causes of visual impairment were refractive error 10 (0.87%) and immature cataract 1 (0.08%), causes of severe visual impairment included corneal opacities 2 (0.2%), amblyopia leading to squint 1 (0.08%) and 1 cataract 1 (0.08%). The causes of blindness in school children were corneal scars presumed to be due to vitamin A deficiency 1 (0.08%) and keratoconus 1 (0.08%). Causes of blindness and visual impairment in children attending regular schools in Nigeria were treatable. Prevention, early recognition and prompt treatment of these diseases by regular screening of school children would definitely reduce unnecessary visual handicap in Nigerian school children so that they can attain their full potential in the course of their education. Also, information from this study is relevant for the purpose of planning eye care programmes for the prevention of blindness in Nigerian school children. This will go a long way in the prevention of unnecessary blindness and visual impairment in school children.
Malstädt, Nadine; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lehmann, Martin
This study examined supraspan free recall in children with and without spelling impairment. A repeated free recall task involving overt rehearsal and three computer-based adaptive working memory tasks were administered to 54 eight-year-old children. Children without spelling impairments tended to recall more items than did those children with spelling deficits. Video analyses revealed that recall behaviour was similar in impaired and unimpaired children, indicating that both groups applied similar learning activities. Group differences in number of recalled items were attributed to differences in working memory subcapacities between children with and without spelling impairment, especially with regard to central executive and phonological loop functioning. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
McNamee, J E; Lipman, E L; Hicks, F
To provide a preliminary report of data from 2 support groups for single mothers, all of whom were mothers of children attending a child outpatient psychiatric clinic. The groups' 2 purposes were: 1. to assess the feasibility of adding structured evaluation to a common clinical intervention; 2. to improve single mothers' parenting skills through raised levels of self-esteem, increased capacity for family functioning and reduced levels of depression. Three structured evaluation instruments were used to measure the domains of self-esteem, family functioning and depression. These instruments were given to both groups of women on 3 occasions: 1. before the group; 2. after the group; 3. at a follow-up session 4 months after group termination. Open-ended questions were also asked at group termination. The questionnaire response rate was 100%; overall response rate for the 3 open-ended questions was 89%. Comparisons of pre-group and post-group scores showed that there was a significant increase in self-esteem (p parenting skills. Methodologic concerns and future directions are discussed.
Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Mowery, Debra; Dollard, Norín
This study examined characteristics and profiles of youth receiving services in 1 of Florida's Medicaid-funded residential mental health treatment programs--State Inpatient Psychiatric Program (SIPP)--between July 1, 2004, and June 30, 2008 (N=1,432). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify youth, and 3 classes were identified: Children With Multiple Needs, Children With No Caregivers, and Abused Children With Substantial Maltreatment History. The results of LCA showed that Children With Multiple Needs experienced the greatest risk for adverse outcomes. Compared with youth in the other 2 classes, these children were more likely to get readmitted to SIPP, more likely to become involved with the juvenile justice system, and more likely to experience involuntary mental health assessments. Implications of the findings are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved
Harsha Munot; Alok Avinash; Nilotpol Kashyap; Rashmi Baranwal; Brij Kumar; Maylavarapu Krishna Sagar
Background: Studies on dental trauma of the normal population have been carried out in the past; however, limited data are available on dental trauma of the handicapped population, especially visually impaired children in Chhattisgarh, India. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in visually impaired children in relation to age, cause, and place of injury. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological study was carried out among 400 children fr...
Aras, Ivana; Stevanović, Ranko; Vlahović, Sanja; Stevanović, Siniša; Kolarić, Branko; Kondić, Ljiljana
Hearing impairment and specific language disorder are two entities that seriously affect language acquisition in children and reduce their communication skills. These children require specific treatment and higher levels of care than healthy children. Their language abilities also strongly influence parent-child interactions. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of the parents of hearing-impaired children and the parents of children with speech difficulties (specific language disorder). Our study subjects included 349 parents (182 mothers and 167 fathers) of preschool-aged children with receptive expressive language disorder and 131 parents (71 mothers and 60 fathers) of children with severe hearing impairment. A control group was composed of 146 parents (82 mothers and 64 fathers) of healthy children of the same age. HRQOL was assessed using the SF-36 questionnaire. For all groups of parents, the mothers had poorer scores compared with the fathers, but large differences were apparent depending on the child's impairment. In the control group, the scores of the mothers were significantly lower than the fathers' scores in only two (of eight) health domains. In contrast, the scores were lower in three domains for the mothers of speech-impaired children and in six domains for the mothers of hearing-impaired children, representing the greatest difference between the parents. When compared with the control group, both the mothers and fathers of speech-impaired children scored significantly worse in five health domains. Fathers of hearing-impaired children scored significantly worse than controls in three health domains. The lowest scores, indicating the poorest HRQOL, were observed for mothers of hearing-impaired children, who obtained significantly lower scores than the control mothers in all health domains except the emotional role. The parents of preschool-aged speech-and hearing-impaired children experience poorer HRQOL
This study investigates the question as to whether and how the linguistic and other cognitive abilities of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) differ from those of children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA). To this end, 27 Dutch-speaking elementary-school-age children with SLI, 27
Edmonds, Caroline J.; Pring, Linda
The two experiments reported here investigated the ability of sighted children and children with visual impairment to comprehend text and, in particular, to draw inferences both while reading and while listening. Children were assigned into "comprehension skill" groups, depending on the degree to which their reading comprehension skill was in line…
Lee, Florence M Y; Tsang, Janice F K; Chui, Mandy M Y
This study attempted to use a validated and standardised psychometric tool to identify the specific needs of parents of children with visual impairment studying in mainstream schools in Hong Kong. The second aim was to compare their needs with those of parents of mainstream school children without special education needs and parents having children with learning and behavioural problems. Cross-sectional survey. Mainstream schools in Hong Kong. Parents of 30 children with visual impairment who were studying in mainstream schools and attended assessment by optometrists at Child Assessment Service between May 2009 and June 2010 were recruited in the study (visual impairment group). Parents of 45 children with learning and behavioural problems recruited from two parent support groups (learning and behavioural problems group), and parents of 233 children without special education needs studying in mainstream schools recruited in a previous validation study on Service Needs Questionnaire (normal group) were used for comparison. Participants were invited to complete a self-administered Service Needs Questionnaire and a questionnaire on demographics of the children and their responding parents. The visual impairment group was asked additional questions about the ability of the child in coping and functioning in academic and recreational activities. Needs expressed by parents of the visual impairment group were significantly higher than those of parents of the normal group, and similar to those in the learning and behavioural problems group. Parents of children with visual impairment expressed more needs for future education and school support than resources for dealing with personal and family stress. Service needs of children with visual impairment and their families are high, particularly for future education and school support. More study on the various modes of accommodation for children with visual impairment and more collaborative work among different partners
Gligorovic, Milica; Vucinic, Vesna; Eskirovic, Branka; Jablan, Branka
This research was conducted in order to examine the influence of manifest strabismus and stereoscopic vision on non-verbal abilities of visually impaired children aged between 7 and 15. The sample included 55 visually impaired children from the 1st to the 6th grade of elementary schools for visually impaired children in Belgrade. RANDOT stereotest…
Aslan, Ummuhan Bas; Calik, Bilge Basakci; Kitis, Ali
This study was planned in order to determine physical activity levels of visually impaired children and adolescents and to investigate the effect of gender and level of vision on physical activity level in visually impaired children and adolescents. A total of 30 visually impaired children and adolescents (16 low vision and 14 blind) aged between…
Reimer, A.M.; Barsingerhorn, A.D.; Overvelde, A.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Boonstra, F.N.; Cox, R.F.A.
AIM: To compare fine motor performance of 3-year-old children with visual impairment with peers having normal vision, to provide reference scores for 3-year-old children with visual impairment on the ManuVis, and to assess inter-rater reliability. METHOD: 26 children with visual impairment (mean
Vera, Juan; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria
This study examined the prevalence, degree of association and differential effect, by sex and age, of conduct disorder symptoms on psychopathology and functioning. Participants included 680 Spanish children and adolescents between 8 and 17 years and their parents, attending to psychiatric outpatient consultation. Data were obtained through…
Murakami, Yoshihiko; Yamashita, Y.; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Utsunomiya, Hidetsuna; Okudera, Toshio; Hashimoto, Takeo
Background. Metabolic disturbances such as anoxia and hypoglycaemia are important in causing maldevelopment of the neonatal brain. While there have been some pathology studies of the effects of neonatal hypoglycaemia on brain development, reports of MRI findings in such infants have been rare. Objectives. To describe the MRI findings in neurologically handicapped children who had suffered from neonatal hypoglycaemia and to evaluate the relationship between the neurological impairment and neonatal hypoglycaemia. Materials and methods. We retrospectively evaluated the MRI findings in eight full-term infants with neonatal symptomatic hypoglycaemia who later exhibited neurological handicap. The age at which the MRI scans were obtained ranged from 9 months to 8 years 10 months (mean 4 years 1 month, median 4 years). Results. The most striking findings were prolonged T1 weighting and T2 weighting in the parieto-occipital periventricular deep white matter in six patients, suggesting abnormal or delayed myelination. Dilatation of the lateral ventricles, especially of the trigones, was observed in five patients in whom the distance between the posterior horns of the lateral ventricles and the adjacent sulci was reduced. The volume of white matter relative to grey matter was reduced in two patients. In addition, four patients exhibited cerebral cortical atrophy, mainly in the occipital lobe. Conclusions. These findings suggest that neonatal hypoglycaemia may cause delayed or abnormal myelination, especially in the parieto-occipital, periventricular, deep white matter, and may cause cerebral cortical atrophy, especially in the occipital lobe. (orig.)
Siu, Elaine; Man, David W K
Children with Specific Language Impairment present with delayed language development, but do not have a history of hearing impairment, mental deficiency, or associated social or behavioral problems. Non-word repetition was suggested as an index to reflect the capacity of phonological working memory. There is a paucity of such studies among Hong Kong Chinese children. This preliminary study aimed to examine the relationship between phonological working memory and Specific Language Impairment, through the processes of non-word repetition and sentence comprehension, of children with Specific Language Impairment and pre-school children with normal language development. Both groups of children were screened by a standardized language test. A list of Cantonese (the commonest dialect used in Hong Kong) multisyllabic nonsense utterances and a set of 18 sentences were developed for this study. t-tests and Pearson correlation were used to study the relationship between non-word repetition, working memory and specific language impairment. Twenty-three pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (mean age = 68.30 months; SD = 6.90) and another 23 pre-school children (mean age = 67.30 months; SD = 6.16) participated in the study. Significant difference performance was found between the Specific Language Impairment group and normal language group in the multisyllabic nonsense utterances repetition task and the sentence comprehension task. Length effect was noted in Specific Language Impairment group children, which is consistent with the findings of other literature. In addition, correlations were also observed between the number of nonsense utterances repeated and the number of elements comprehended. Cantonese multisyllabic nonsense utterances might be worth further developing as a screening tool for the early detection of children with Specific Language Impairment.
Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of physical fitness items from the European Test of Physical Fitness (Eurofit) for children with visual impairments. A sample of 21 children, ages 6-12 years, that were recruited from a special school for children with visual
Jenks, K.M.; Lieshout, E.C. van; Moor, J.M.H. de
Arithmetic ability was tested in children with cerebral palsy without severe intellectual impairment (verbal IQ >or= 70) attending special (n = 41) or mainstream education (n = 16) as well as control children in mainstream education (n = 16) throughout first and second grade. Children with cerebral
Schuchardt, Kirsten; Bockmann, Ann-Katrin; Bornemann, Galina; Maehler, Claudia
Purpose: On the basis of Baddeley's working memory model (1986), we examined working memory functioning in children with learning disorders with and without specific language impairment (SLI). We pursued the question whether children with learning disorders exhibit similar working memory deficits as children with additional SLI. Method: In…
Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris
This study examines the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in children with visual impairments (VI). Seventy-five children aged between 6 and 12 years with VI completed the TGMD-2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). The internal
Liu, Lanfang; Li, Hehui; Zhang, Manli; Wang, Zhengke; Wei, Na; Liu, Li; Meng, Xiangzhi; Ding, Guosheng
Prior work has extensively studied neural deficits in children with reading impairment (RI) in their native language but has rarely examined those of RI children in their second language (L2). A recent study revealed that the function of the local brain regions was disrupted in children with RI in L2, but it is not clear whether the disruption…
Werfel, Krystal L.; Krimm, Hannah
The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the Spelling Sensitivity Score (SSS) beyond percentage correct scoring in analyzing the spellings of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Participants were 31 children with SLI and 28 children with typical language in grades 2-4. Spellings of individual words were scored using…
Ketelaars, M.P.; Hermans, S.I.A.; Cuperus, J.; Jansonius, K.; Verhoeven, L.
Purpose: The semantic abilities of children with pragmatic language impairment (PLI) are subject to debate. The authors investigated picture naming and definition skills in 5-year-olds with PLI in comparison to typically developing children. Method: 84 children with PLI and 80 age-matched typically
Spanoudis, George C.; Natsopoulos, Demetrios
Memory and language operate in synergy. Recent literature stresses the importance of memory functioning in interpreting language deficits. Two groups of 50 children each, ages 8-12 were studied. The first group included children with specific language impairment, while the participants in the second group were typically developing children. The…
Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Youssef, George J.; Clark, Gillian M.
Purpose: In this study pupillometry was used to investigate the allocation of attentional resources associated with sentence comprehension in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eighteen children with SLI (age: M = 6.4 years) and 18 typically developing (TD) children (age: M = 6.3 years) participated in the study.…
Salavati, Masoud; Waninge, Aly; Rameckers, E.A.A.; van der Steen, J; Krijnen, W.P.; van der Schans, C.P.; Steenbergen, B.
AIM: The objectives of this study were (i) to develop two cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaires (CVI-MQ's) for children with cerebral palsy (CP): one for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II and III and one for children with GMFCS levels IV and V;
Ghadim, Nafiseh Alaghehband; Jomhari, Nazean; Alias, Norlidah; Rashid, Syar Meeze Mohd; Yusoff, Mohd Yakub Zulkifli Bin Mohd
An interview with parents of children with hearing impairment was carried out in the initial study since the coordinated effort of parents and children is essential in the education of children. Considering that this interview was appropriate for collecting qualitative-oriented data, it has been chosen as the knowledge elicitation method. In most…
Halliday, Lorna F.; Tuomainen, Outi; Rosen, Stuart
Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine language development and factors related to language impairments in children with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss (MMHL). Method: Ninety children, aged 8-16 years (46 children with MMHL; 44 aged-matched controls), were administered a battery of standardized language assessments, including…
Adlof, Suzanne M.; Scoggins, Joanna; Brazendale, Allison; Babb, Spencer; Petscher, Yaacov
Purpose: The study aims to determine whether brief, group-administered screening measures can reliably identify second-grade children at risk for language impairment (LI) or dyslexia and to examine the degree to which parents of affected children were aware of their children's difficulties. Method: Participants (N = 381) completed screening tasks…
Montgomery, James W.; Evans, Julia L.
Purpose: This study investigated the association of 2 mechanisms of working memory (phonological short-term memory [PSTM], attentional resource capacity/allocation) with the sentence comprehension of school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 2 groups of control children. Method: Twenty-four children with SLI, 18 age-matched…
Spaulding, Tammie J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca
Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the performance of preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers on sustained selective attention tasks. Method: This study included 23 children diagnosed with SLI and 23 TD children matched for age, gender, and maternal education level.…
Snowling, Margaret J.; Duff, Fiona J.; Nash, Hannah M.; Hulme, Charles
Background: Children with language impairment (LI) show heterogeneity in development. We tracked children from pre-school to middle childhood to characterize three developmental trajectories: resolving, persisting and emerging LI. Methods: We analyzed data from children identified as having preschool LI, or being at family risk of dyslexia,…
Haebig, Eileen; Sterling, Audra; Hoover, Jill
Purpose: One aspect of morphosyntax, finiteness marking, was compared in children with fragile X syndrome (FXS), specific language impairment (SLI), and typical development matched on mean length of utterance (MLU). Method: Nineteen children with typical development (mean age = 3.3 years), 20 children with SLI (mean age = 4.9 years), and 17 boys…
Smeets, Daisy J. H.; van Dijken, Marianne J.; Bus, Adriana G
Novel word learning is reported to be problematic for children with severe language impairments (SLI). In this study, we tested electronic storybooks as a tool to support vocabulary acquisition in SLI children. In Experiment 1, 29 kindergarten SLI children heard four e-books each four times: (a) two
Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Jonker, Laura; Visscher, Chris
This study examines the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in children with visual impairments (VI). Seventy-five children aged between 6 and 12 years with VI completed the TGMD-2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). The internal consistency of the TGMD-2 was found to be high…
Tadic, Valerie; Pring, Linda; Dale, Naomi
Background: Development of children with congenital visual impairment (VI) has been associated with vulnerable socio-communicative outcomes often bearing striking similarities to those of sighted children with autism. To date, very little is known about language and social communication in children with VI of normal intelligence. Methods: We…
Salavati, M.; Waninge, A.; Rameckers, E. A. A.; van der Steen, J.; Krijnen, W. P.; van der Schans, C. P.; Steenbergen, B.
Aim The objectives of this study were (i) to develop two cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaires (CVI-MQ's) for children with cerebral palsy (CP): one for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II and III and one for children with GMFCS levels IV and V;
Dote-Kwan, Jamie; Chen, Deborah
This study examined the temperamental characteristics of 18 toddlers with visual impairments as reported by their Anglo and Latino (Mexican American) parents. Differences in the parents' ratings of the children's temperament were related to the children's level of visual functioning and development. No differences were related to the children's…
Pagliano, Paul J.; Zambone, Alana M.; Kelley, Pat
Humor is a highly regarded attribute and often forms the basis of childhood friendships. As much humor is visual, children with visual impairment are particularly vulnerable to missing out on this type of development. Recent research indicates that children can be taught to develop their sense of humor. Therefore, children with visual impairment…
Swift, Suzanne H.; Davidson, Roseanna C.; Weems, Linda J.
Children with cortical visual impairment (CVI) exhibit distinct visual behaviors which are often misinterpreted. As the incidence of CVI is on the rise, this has subsequently caused an increased need for identification and intervention with these children from teaching and therapy service providers. Distinguishing children with CVI from children…
.03, P = 0.04]. NREM slow oscillation power did not correlate with memory consolidation. All results retained significance after controlling for age and BMI. In sum, participants with mild OSA had impaired memory consolidation and results were mediated by N2 sigma power. These results suggest that N2 sigma power could serve as biomarker of risk for cognitive dysfunction in children with sleep disordered breathing.
Rietz, Chantal Sabrina; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Labuhn, Andju Sara
Children with literacy difficulties often suffer from a variety of co-occurring externalizing and internalizing difficulties, as well as comorbid ADHD. Therefore, these externalizing and internalizing problems might be more related to comorbid ADHD, rather than being a correlate of literacy difficulties per se. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of externalizing and internalizing difficulties in elementary school children (third grade) with and without spelling impairment. Taking the high rate of comorbidity between literacy difficulties and ADHD into account, we investigated whether co-occurring difficulties are associated with spelling impairment per se or with comorbid ADHD symptoms. Results indicated that these young children with spelling impairment showed more co-occurring difficulties compared with children without spelling impairment. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that occurrence of externalizing symptoms is more strongly related to comorbid ADHD symptoms than to spelling impairment per se. The pattern of results concerning internalizing problems was not as distinct but showed a similar trend. Preferably, carers and educators should be aware of co-occurring socio-emotional and behavioural problems in children with spelling impairment. Particularly children with spelling impairment and comorbid ADHD symptoms seem to have an increased risk of encountering further co-occurring difficulties. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kanagasabai, Parimala S; Mirfin-Veitch, Brigit; Hale, Leigh A; Mulligan, Hilda
Children are increasingly included in qualitative research and new methods for interviewing children are emerging. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss the strategies of a child-centered method of data collection for interviewing children with movement impairments to explore their leisure participation experiences. A study was conducted using an Interpretative Phenomenological Approach (IPA) to explore leisure participation experiences of children with movement impairments aged 6 to 12 years. Various strategies, guided by children, were used to facilitate children's active involvement in the interview process. Twenty-two children (mean age 8.7 years) participated in the interview study, most of them in the presence of their parents or guardian (18 children) and some of them (9 children) with their siblings present. Children enjoyed and were actively engaged in the interview process. Along with talking, 19 children did drawings, 5 children used stickers, 4 children played quiet games, six children shared pictures of their leisure activities, and 16 children physically demonstrated some of their leisure activities, environment, and equipment. A wide range of data collection strategies facilitated children to communicate their leisure participation experiences and to represent children's views without being overly influenced by parental views.
Birnbaum, Shira; Hanchuk, Hilary; Nelson, Marjorie
Interest has grown in the use of doll therapy, particularly in geropsychiatric and dementia care settings. In a long-term state psychiatric hospital, a dollhouse-play activity was implemented in an effort to engage an acutely disturbed, middle-aged woman undergoing medication trials and whose symptoms had been refractory to conventional treatments. A schedule of nondirective dollhouse-play activities was implemented over an 8-week period. Measures of behavioral change were tracked. Dramatic clinical improvements were seen, including significant reductions in verbal and physical aggression, use of as-needed medications, and need for close one-to-one monitoring. Improvements were seen prior to achievement of therapeutic drug levels. The patient was successfully discharged from the hospital. Doll play has recently been associated with clinical benefits in the care of patients with dementia and has long been deployed in childhood mental health treatment. The current findings suggest doll play may have applications as a time-limited intervention in the treatment of major psychiatric disorders in adults and warrants consideration when achieving therapeutic alliance has proven particularly challenging. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Keskin-Arslan, Elif; Acar, Selin; Sozmen, Kaan
We undertook an exclusive meta-analysis of cohort studies investigating the possible link between prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children to further investigate our previous suggestion of confounding by indication. The point estimates regarding the following cohorts were extracted and pooled: (1) pregnant women who discontinued SSRI until 3 months before pregnancy; (2) pregnant women who were exposed to SSRI during pregnancy; and (3) pregnant women with maternal psychiatric disorder but no exposure to SSRI during pregnancy. Although the pooled point estimate of the first cohort showed a trend for increase, it did not reach significance. The pooled point estimates of the latter cohorts showed a significant association with ASD which strengthens our previous suggestion of confounding by indication. Future studies should be adequately designed to differentiate whether the previously suggested association is a result of maternal psychiatric disorder or SSRI exposure or both. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.
Koopmans Petra C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS have a high prevalence in the general population and are associated with psychiatric morbidity. There are indications that MUPS are an important determinant of frequent and long-term disability. The primary objective was to assess the prevalence of MUPS in sick-listed-employees and its associations with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment. Secondary objectives were to investigate the classification of the occupational health physicians (OHPs, their opinions about the causes as well as the attributions of the employee. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 489 sick-listed employees from 5 OHP group practices, MUPS, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, health anxiety, distress and functional impairment were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ, the Whitely Index (WI, the Four- Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36. We used a cut off score of 15 on the PHQ for the categorisation of severe MUPS. The opinions of the OHPs were evaluated by means of a separate questionnaire with regard to the presence of employees physical symptoms, and the symptoms attributions, and the diagnoses of the OHPs. Results Severe MUPS had a prevalence of 15.1% in this population of sick-listed employees. These employees had 4-6 times more depressive and anxiety disorders, and were more impaired. Female gender and PHQ-9 scores were determinants of severe MUPS. Most of the time the OHPs diagnosed employees with severe MUPS as having a mental disorder. The employees attributed their physical symptoms in 66% to mental or to both mental and physical causes. Conclusion The prevalence of severe MUPS is higher in long-term sick-listed employees than in the non-sick- listed working population and at least equals the prevalence in the general practice population. Severe MUPS are associated with
Bentovim, Arnon; Elliott, Ian
The purpose of this study is to distill the "effective practice elements" from randomised controlled interventions (RCTs) to prevent the recurrence of abusive and neglectful parenting and the associated health and developmental impairment of children. The resulting elements would be used then to develop a step-by-step modular-systemic approach to intervention that is suitable to the needs of a variety of frontline practitioners in social care, health, and education. A series of 22 randomised RCTs were analysed using the distillation and matching approach to establish the presence of effective practice elements. The focus was physical and sexual abuse, victims and children, and young people as perpetrators; neglect including failure to thrive, emotional abuse (exposure to violence and mental health issues). The studies were analysed for effective practice elements, across different approaches matched to interventions focused on parenting, on children and young people, and on family/professional relationships. The proportion of practice elements utilised in each form of maltreatment was defined. The distillation process resulted in a total of 47 practice elements present across all forms of maltreatment studied. An experienced group of practitioners from statutory and voluntary agencies ordered and integrated the most frequently utilised emerging elements into a series of step-by-step modules, which could fit the complex needs of families when maltreatment had occurred. The resulting manual, Hope for Children and Families, provides a "menu" of evidence-based, step-by-step modular interventions targeting the profile of abusive and neglectful parenting and associated impairments of children. To be effective for frontline practitioners, the manual will need to be delivered in a user-friendly format, training developed, and supervision and support provided.
Gebauer, Daniela; Enzinger, Christian; Kronbichler, Martin; Schurz, Matthias; Reishofer, Gernot; Koschutnig, Karl; Kargl, Reinhard; Purgstaller, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Fink, Andreas
Studies investigating reading and spelling difficulties heavily focused on the neural correlates of reading impairments, whereas spelling impairments have been largely neglected so far. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate brain structure and function of children with isolated spelling difficulties. Therefore, 31 children, aged ten to 15 years, were investigated by means of functional MRI and DTI. This study revealed that children with isolated spelling impairment exhibit a stronger right hemispheric activation compared to children with reading and spelling difficulties and controls, when engaged in an orthographic decision task, presumably reflecting a highly efficient serial grapheme-phoneme decoding compensation strategy. In addition, children with spelling impairment activated bilateral inferior and middle frontal gyri during processing correctly spelled words and misspelled words, whereas the other two groups showed bilateral activation only in the misspelled condition, suggesting that additional right frontal engagement could be related to generally higher task demand and effort. DTI analyses revealed stronger frontal white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy) in controls (compared to spelling and reading impaired children), whereas no structural differences between controls and spelling impaired children were observed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McGill, Ryan J.
Appraising psychosocial impairment is an essential enterprise of diagnostic decision-making in the field of school psychology. Despite its importance, few practitioners utilize systematic procedures when engaging in this process, despite the fact that a number of impairment measures and scales have been developed specifically for this purpose. The…
Ahadi, Zeinab; Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Zahedi, Hoda; Aram, Mahtab; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Shafiee, Gita; Arzaghi, Seyed Masoud; Asayesh, Hamid; Heshmat, Ramin
To assess the relationship of breakfast intake with psychiatric distress and violent behaviors among Iranian children and adolescents. This national survey was conducted among 14,880 students, aged 6-18 y. They were selected by stratified multistage sampling method from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Breakfast intake, psychiatric distress, and violent behaviors were assessed by a questionnaire prepared based on the Global school-based student health survey of the World Health Organization. The data were analyzed by the STATA package. The participation rate was 90.6 %. The percentage of psychiatric distress among breakfast skippers, semi-skippers and non-skippers was 13.4-50.4, 10.1-41.9, and 7.0-33.3 % respectively. The prevalence of psychiatric distress was significantly higher among breakfast skippers than semi-skippers and non-skippers (P value breakfast skippers to non-skippers. The prevalence of violent behaviors was significantly higher among breakfast skippers than non-skippers. Students who skipped breakfast reported to be more victimized (29.2 % vs. 26.7 %, respectively, P = 0.04), bullied (21.0 % vs. 16.2 %, respectively, P breakfast were less likely to experience mental health disorders and violent behavior. Adhering to a regular and balanced diet, besides the awareness of parents on the importance of breakfast eating, may be an appropriate approach for preventing mental health problems and violent behavior in children and adolescents.
Tonezer, Jordana; Muller, Thomaz; Rocha, Gibsi Possapp; Recondo, Rogéria; Nogueira, Eduardo Lopes; Spanemberg, Lucas
We present a survey of sex differences and socio-demographic and clinical variables in children and adolescents receiving a psychiatric consultation service in an emergency department (ED). This observational, retrospective, and cross-sectional study included all records of patients (age, services in an ED in a 4-year period (January 2010 to December 2013). Two hundred fifty-nine records of children and adolescents were located. The mean age of the participants was 14.19 years, and most subjects were female (59.5%) and had private health insurance (83.7%). Most participants (87.4%) were accompanied by their parents. The main complaints were suicide attempts (21.8%) and psychomotor agitation/aggressiveness (21.8%). Unipolar depression (37.8%) and adjustment, reactive, and anxiety disorders (13.7%) were the most prevalent diagnoses. Most patients received an indication of psychiatric hospitalization (51.7%). Females had more suicide attempts than males (28.3% vs 12.4%) and less psychomotor agitation/aggressiveness than males (15.5% vs 31.4%). Females also exhibited more unipolar depression (47.6% vs 23.5%), fewer psychotic disorders (4.2% vs 16.3%), and substance use/misuse (1.4% vs 13.3%) than males. Males needed more psychiatric medication during evaluation (37.9% vs 19.2%). This survey of the profile of pediatric patients evaluated by a psychiatric service in an ED in Brazil was the first of its kind. The large percentage of patients referred for hospitalization highlights the importance of specialized psychiatry care for this age group in this facility, which is a common entry point for mental health care.
Márquez-Caraveo, Maria Elena; Arroyo-García, Eduardo; Granados-Rojas, Armida; Ángeles-Llerenas, Angélica
The activities concerning mental health care of psychiatric disorders during more than 50 years of service (1966-2016) at the Children's Psychiatric Hospital "Dr. Juan N. Navarro" (HPI), as well as the progressive development of teaching and research, have contributed to its positioning as a leading institution in medical care of high specialization. This has been possible through the training of human resources that focus the quality of care to the children and their families. The hospital has progressed towards diagnostic and therapeutic care of outpatients through the creation of specialized clinics (emotions, behavior, development, adolescence, among others) and the development of more actualized and integral therapeutic programs (behavioral psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral, psychodynamic; individual, group, family, etc.). In the field of education, the hospital has been the most important institution in the training of child psychiatrists in Mexico and its recognition as a research interdisciplinary center has grown.
Cryns, K; Sivakumaran, TA; Van den Ouweland, JMW; Pennings, RJE; Cremers, CWRJ; Flothmann, K; Young, TL; Smith, RJH; Lesperance, MM; Van Camp, G
WFS1 is a novel gene and encodes an 890 amino-acid glycoprotein (wolframin), predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations in WFS1 underlie autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome and autosomal dominant low frequency sensorineural hearing impairment (LFSNHI) DFNA6/14. In addition,
Cryns, K.; Sivakumaran, T.A.; Ouweland, J.M.W. van den; Pennings, R.J.E.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Flothmann, K.; Young, T.L.; Smith, R.J.H.; Lesperance, M.M.; Camp, G. van
WFS1 is a novel gene and encodes an 890 amino-acid glycoprotein (wolframin), predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutations in WFS1 underlie autosomal recessive Wolfram syndrome and autosomal dominant low frequency sensorineural hearing impairment (LFSNHI) DFNA6/14. In addition,
Rieken, Rob; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Schierbeek, Henk; Willemsen, Sten P.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine
Accurate prediction equations for estimating body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability are currently lacking. The objective was to develop group-specific equations to predict body composition by using
Vinter, Annie; Bonin, Patrick; Morgan, Pascal
Astonishing drawing capacities have been reported in children with early visual impairments. However, most of the evidence relies on single case studies. Hitherto, no study has systematically jointly investigated, in these children, the role of (1) the severity of the visual handicap, (2) age and (3) practice in drawing. The study aimed at revealing the specificities of the drawing in children deprived from vision, as compared to children with less severe visual handicap and to sighted children performing under haptic or usual visual control. 148 children aged 6-14 years had to produce 12 drawings of familiar objects. 38 had a severe visual impairment, 41 suffered from low vision, and 69 were sighted children performing either under visual condition or blindfolded under haptic control. Recognizability and other characteristics of the drawings were highly dependent on the child's degree of vision and level of drawing practice, and progressed with chronological age more clearly in the sighted children or those with low vision than in those deprived of vision. The study confirmed that all groups showed significant drawing ability, even the group totally deprived of visual experience. Furthermore, the specificities of the drawings produced by visually-impaired children appeared clearly related to their practice and the severity of their visual impairment. This should incite parents and professionals to encourage these children to practice drawing as early as possible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: A research was conducted to assess the phonological awareness in hearing-impaired children in comparison to normal children. In this context, we discussed about the ability of these children in identification of rhyme and word segmentation to syllables. Method and Material: The sample of this study is composed of 320 children, 160 normal & 160 hearing-impaired with a hearing-loss. Of over 70 dB, studying in the 1st t 4th grade of the primary schools in Tehran. They are divided into two groups at each level (20 girls & 20 boys. Results: 1 Hearing-impaired children's scores on test related to rhyme and syllable is lower as compared with normal children. 2 Hearing-impaired children are more potent on test of word segmentation to syllables in comparison to that related to rhyme, while normal children are more successful on test of word segmentation to syllables as compared with that related to rhyme. Discussion: Hearing is an important factor in phonological awareness. Formal education at special schools doesn't compensate for the hearing impairment as to development of the phonological awareness.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Reading is the most important human need for learning. In normal-hearing people working memory is a predictor of reading comprehension. In this study the relationship between working memory and reading comprehension skills was studied in hearing-impaired children, and then compared with the normal-hearing group.Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. The working memory and reading comprehension skills of 18 (8 male, 10 female sever hearing-impaired children in year five of exceptional schools were compared by means of a reading test with 18 hearing children as control group. The subjects in the control group were of the same gender and educational level of the sample group.Results: The children with hearing loss performed similarly to the normal-hearing children in tasks related to auditory-verbal memory of sounds (reverse, visual-verbal memory of letters, and visual-verbal memory of pictures. However, they showed lower levels of performance in reading comprehension (p<0.001. Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between working memory and reading comprehension skills.Conclusion: Findings indicated that children with hearing loss have a significant impairment in the reading comprehension skill. Impairment in language knowledge and vocabulary may be the main cause of poor reading comprehension in these children. In hearing-impaired children working memory is not a strong predictor of reading comprehension.
Jongman, Suzanne R.; Roelofs, Ardi; Scheper, Annette R.; Meyer, Antje S.
Background: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have problems not only with language performance but also with sustained attention, which is the ability to maintain alertness over an extended period of time. Although there is consensus that this ability is impaired with respect to processing stimuli in the auditory perceptual…
Prizant, Barry M.
The paper examines theoretical issues regarding the symptomatology of echolalia in the language of visually impaired children. Literature on echolalia is reviewed from a variety of perspectives and clinical work and research with visual impairment and with autism is discussed. Problems of definition are cited, and explanations for occurrence of…
Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith
The prevalence of severe impairments of social interaction, language abnormalities, and repetitive stereotyped behaviors was investigated in a group of 132 children under 15 years old, consisting of a socially impaired group (more than half of whom were severely retarded) and a comparison group of sociable severely mentally retarded. Author/DLS)
Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Archibald, Lisa
The authors compared 6- to 11-year-olds with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and those with specific language impairment (SLI) on measures of memory (verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory) and learning (reading and mathematics). Children with DCD with typical language skills were impaired in all four areas of memory…
Sandgren, Olof; Holmström, Ketty
The clinical assessment of language impairment (LI) in bilingual children imposes challenges for speech-language pathology services. Assessment tools standardized for monolingual populations increase the risk of misinterpreting bilingualism as language impairment. This Perspective article summarizes recent studies on the assessment of bilingual LI and presents new results on including nonlinguistic measures of executive functions in the diagnostic assessment. Executive functions shows clinica...
El-Sayed, Behairy; El-Araby, Hanaa; Adawy, Nermin; Hassona, Mona; El-Nady, Naglaa; Zakaria, Haidy; Khedr, Mohammed
To assess if elevated serum cystatin C (Cyst-C) is an indicator for renal or hepatic dysfunction in presence of liver fibrosis. Data of 50 children with chronic liver diseases (CLDs), out of which 25 were without renal impairment, and 25 with renal impairment were analyzed. Twenty healthy children served as a healthy control group. Routine investigations, creatinine clearance, hepatitis viral markers, abdominal ultrasonography, and liver biopsy were performed for patients with CLDs. Measurement of serum Cyst-C concentration by particle induced immunonephelometry were completed for both patients and control group. Results showed that serum Cyst-C is not correlated with the degree of hepatic impairment ( p > 0.05). Cyst-C levels were significantly higher in patients with renal impairment (3.66 ± 0.85) than those without (0.71 ± 0.12), and healthy control group (0.63 ± 0.85). Cystatin-C showed significant elevation in patients with severe fibrosis with renal impairment (3.66 ± 0.85) than those without (0.76 ± 0.04) ( p without renal impairment. Cyst-C > 2.34 mg/l predicting GFR 2.73 mg/l predicting GFR impairment in children with CLDs. Further studies are needed to estimate the accuracy of serum Cyst-C for early detection of renal impairment and close monitoring of the hepatic children.
Krupa, Chelsea; Esmail, Shaniff
This study investigated problems that children with visual impairments experience with sexual health education. The participants identified themes that affected their knowledge of sexual health and the need for sexual health education. Strategies that address sexual health issues for individuals with visual impairments are described.
Nicola, K; Watter, P
This study investigated (1) the visual-motor integration (VMI) performance of children with severe specific language impairment (SLI), and any effect of age, gender, socio-economic status and concomitant speech impairment; and (2) the relationship between language and VMI performance. It is hypothesized that children with severe SLI would present with VMI problems irrespective of gender and socio-economic status; however, VMI deficits will be more pronounced in younger children and those with concomitant speech impairment. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that there will be a relationship between VMI and language performance, particularly in receptive scores. Children enrolled between 2000 and 2008 in a school dedicated to children with severe speech-language impairments were included, if they met the criteria for severe SLI with or without concomitant speech impairment which was verified by a government organization. Results from all initial standardized language and VMI assessments found during a retrospective review of chart files were included. The final study group included 100 children (males = 76), from 4 to 14 years of age with mean language scores at least 2SD below the mean. For VMI performance, 52% of the children scored below -1SD, with 25% of the total group scoring more than 1.5SD below the mean. Age, gender and the addition of a speech impairment did not impact on VMI performance; however, children living in disadvantaged suburbs scored significantly better than children residing in advantaged suburbs. Receptive language scores of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals was the only score associated with and able to predict VMI performance. A small subgroup of children with severe SLI will also have poor VMI skills. The best predictor of poor VMI is receptive language scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals. Children with poor receptive language performance may benefit from VMI assessment and multidisciplinary
Full Text Available Background and aims The procedural deficit hypothesis attributes the language phenotype in children with specific language impairment to an impaired procedural and relatively intact declarative memory system. The declarative compensatory hypothesis is an extension of the procedural deficit hypothesis which claims that the declarative system in specific language impairment compensates for the procedural deficit. The present study’s aim was to examine the claims of the procedural deficit hypothesis and declarative compensatory hypothesis by examining these memory systems and relation between them in specific language impairment. Methods Participants were children aged 8–13 years, 30 with specific language impairment and 30 typically developing controls, who spoke Kannada (an agglutinating language of the Dravidian family. Procedural learning was assessed using a serial reaction time task. Declarative memory was assessed using two non-verbal tasks that differed at the level of encoding and retrieval: a recognition memory task after incidental encoding using real and novel object images and a recall task after intentional encoding using visual paired associates. Retrieval was examined after short (10 min and long (60 min delays after encoding on both declarative tasks. Results Findings confirmed that children with specific language impairment (SLI have impaired procedural memory on a non-verbal serial reaction time task. On recognition memory task after incidental encoding though children with specific language impairment encoded less well, they recognized items as well as typically developing controls. Both the groups retrieved more at short compared to long intervals and retrieved real (verbalizable objects better than novel objects. On visual paired associates (recall task with intentional encoding children with specific language impairment retrieved less than typically developing children (even after controlling for non-verbal ability
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Specific language impairment (SLI, one variety of developmental language disorder, has attracted much interest in recent decades. Much research has been conducted to discover why some children have a specific language impairment. So far, research has failed to identify a reason for this linguistic deficiency. Some researchers believe language disorder causes defects in phonological working memory and affects auditory processing speed. Therefore, this study reviews the results of research investigating these two factors in children with specific language impairment.Recent Findings: Studies have shown that children with specific language impairment face constraints in phonological working memory capacity. Memory deficit is one possible cause of linguistic disorder in children with specific language impairment. However, in these children, disorder in information processing speed is observed, especially regarding the auditory aspect.Conclusion: Much more research is required to adequately explain the relationship between phonological working memory and auditory processing speed with language. However, given the role of phonological working memory and auditory processing speed in language acquisition, a focus should be placed on phonological working memory capacity and auditory processing speed in the assessment and treatment of children with a specific language impairment.
The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between the severity of gross motor dysfunction (GMD) and certain factors such as the type of CP, aetiology of CP, nutrition, socioeconomic class (SEC), and the frequency of these accompanying impairments like visual, auditory, cognitive and speech impairments.
Haddad, Maria Aparecida Onuki; Sei, Mayumi; Sampaio, Marcos Wilson; Kara-José, Newton
To determine causes of visual impairment in children at the Low Vision Service of the Ophthalmic Clinic at the University of São Paulo and at the Brazilian Association for the Visually Impaired People (Laramara), located in São Paulo, Brazil. This study evaluated 3,210 visually impaired children (49% female, 51% male; average age, 5.9 years). Visual impairment was present in 57% (visually impaired group) and 43% presented another associated disability (multiple disability group). The main causes of visual impairment in the visually impaired group were toxoplasmic macular retinochoroiditis (20.7%), retinal dystrophies (12.2%), retinopathy of prematurity (11.8%), ocular malformation (11.6%), congenital glaucoma (10.8%), optic atrophy (9.7%), and congenital cataracts (7.1%). The main causes of visual impairment in the multiple disability group were optic atrophy (37.7%), cortical visual impairment (19.7%), toxoplasmic macular retinochoroiditis (8.6%), retinopathy of prematurity (7.6%), ocular malformation (6.8%), congenital cataracts (6.1%), and degenerative disorders of the retina and macula (4.8%). The retina was the most frequently affected anatomic site in the visually impaired group (49.2%) and the optic nerve in the multiple disability group (39%). Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention efforts for childhood blindness and visual rehabilitation must be considered in Latin America.
Vidranski, Tihomir; Farkaš, Daria
Hearing impairment is a major limitation in communication, and it can obstruct psychological development, development of social skills and motor development. Hearing impairment is the third most common contemporary chronic health condition, and it has become a public health problem. The effectiveness of problem solving in everyday life and in emergency situations depends greatly on the amount and quality of the motor programs. Therefore, it is evident that the normal motor development in persons with hearing impairment is essential for everyday life. The aim of this research is to analyze the available information pertaining to motor skills of hearing impaired children both with and without a cochlear implant (CI) and to analyze possibilities of influencing their motor skills. The relevant studies on motor skills of hearing impaired children both with and without CI were obtained by an extensive computer search of various databases using special keywords and extraction with respect to certain criteria, resulting in 22 studies. The overall results of this systematic review indicate that the children with hearing impairment exhibit suboptimal levels of motor skills especially balance. Very few studies compared children with hearing impairment with CI units and without CI units and the results of those studies are quite contradictory. Numerous studies have confirmed that the regular and appropriate physical exercise can improve motor skills of children with hearing impairment, especially balance. The fact that the development of motor skills is crucial for the child's interaction with the outside world, action, perception and acquisition of academic skills and other skills necessary for life shows the importance of motor skills development for children with hearing impairment.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Research conducted since the early 1900s has consistently identified differences between deaf and hearing children on performance of a wide variety of motor tasks, most notably balance. Our study was performed to test static and dynamic balance skills in congenital severe to profound hearing impaired children in comparison with normal age-matched children.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 severe to profound hearing impaired and 40 normal children with age 6 to 10 years old. Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency 2, balance subset with 9 parts was used for evaluation of balance skills.Results: Hearing-impaired children showed 16.7 to 100% fail results in 7 parts of the balance subset. In normal children fail result was revealed just in 3 parts of the balance subset from 2.5 to 57.5%, and differences between two groups were significant (p<0.0001. There was a significant difference between two groups in two static balance skills of standing on one leg on a line and standing on one leg on a balance beam with eyes closed (p<0.0001.conclusion: It seems that development of static balance skills are longer than dynamic ones. Because severe to profound hearing-impaired children showed more weakness than normal children in both static and dynamic balance abilities, functional tests of balance proficiency can help to identify balance disorders in these children.
Rosa, Mireia; Puig, Olga; Lázaro, Luisa; Calvo, Rosa
Previous studies have shown high rates of comorbid disorders in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, but failed to compare them with general population and few of them have identified predictors of comorbidity. This study compared the rates of psychiatric disorders in 50 children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, 24…
Hatamizadeh, N; Ghasemi, M; Saeedi, A; Kazemnejad, A
Although educational main streaming of children with special needs formally began in Iran since 1992 there is little information whether hearing impaired children feel competent in regular schools. To determine the perceived competence and school adjustment of hearing impaired children in mainstream primary school settings, the self-perception profile was administered to 60 mainstreamed hard of hearing children and 60 classmates with normal hearing matched for gender by a single interviewer. The instrument comprised 28 items, 23 of which were similar to those of 'adapted test Image for children with cochlear implants' asking children about their feelings about their own cognitive, physical, socio-emotional and communication competence and school adjustment. The Cronbach alpha coefficient for the instrument was 0.93. Hard of hearing children rated their competence significantly poorer than their hearing classmates for all domains. Mean differences for the five domains ranged from 0.48 (for physical competence) to 0.90 (for school adjustment) on a scale of 1-4. There were no significant differences between girls' and boys' competence, in either the hearing or the hearing impaired groups. Classifying overall scores for perceived competence into four groups ('poor competence', 'low competence', 'moderate competence' and 'high competence'), 23.4% of hearing impaired children but none of the hearing classmates rated themselves as having low or poor competence. On the other hand 85% of hearing children and only 18.3% of hearing impaired children rated themselves as highly competent. We suggest that periodical assessments of mainstreamed children might help to identify those children who are having difficulty adapting to their environment.
Haebig, Eileen; Saffran, Jenny R; Ellis Weismer, Susan
Word learning is an important component of language development that influences child outcomes across multiple domains. Despite the importance of word knowledge, word-learning mechanisms are poorly understood in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined underlying mechanisms of word learning, specifically, statistical learning and fast-mapping, in school-aged children with typical and atypical development. Statistical learning was assessed through a word segmentation task and fast-mapping was examined in an object-label association task. We also examined children's ability to map meaning onto newly segmented words in a third task that combined exposure to an artificial language and a fast-mapping task. Children with SLI had poorer performance on the word segmentation and fast-mapping tasks relative to the typically developing and ASD groups, who did not differ from one another. However, when children with SLI were exposed to an artificial language with phonemes used in the subsequent fast-mapping task, they successfully learned more words than in the isolated fast-mapping task. There was some evidence that word segmentation abilities are associated with word learning in school-aged children with typical development and ASD, but not SLI. Follow-up analyses also examined performance in children with ASD who did and did not have a language impairment. Children with ASD with language impairment evidenced intact statistical learning abilities, but subtle weaknesses in fast-mapping abilities. As the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) predicts, children with SLI have impairments in statistical learning. However, children with SLI also have impairments in fast-mapping. Nonetheless, they are able to take advantage of additional phonological exposure to boost subsequent word-learning performance. In contrast to the PDH, children with ASD appear to have intact statistical learning, regardless of
For a report on the stress experiences of parents with hearing-impaired children in Germany, 317 parents completed a survey on how their families communicate and socialize, among other issues. The report focuses on how contacts with other parents and with hearing-impaired adults affect stress experiences, in the context of the child's hearing status and the means of communication. Parents who frequently meet with other parents show evidence of a warm, accepting, trusting relationship with their child. Parents who have many contacts with hearing-impaired adults show evidence of a strong sense of competence in regard to their child's upbringing. The findings confirm the implication found in most reports describing empirical studies. Social support is to be regarded as a cornerstone of psychosocial intervention and has to play as great a role as possible in institutional programs.
Schaeffer, J.; van Witteloostuijn, M.; Creemers, A.
Previous studies show that young, typically developing (TD) children (
Ghaderi, Soraya; Hashemi, Hassan; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Yekta, Abbasali; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Mirzajani, Ali; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi
To report the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in seven-year-old children in Iran and its relationship with socio-economic conditions. In a cross-sectional population-based study, first-grade students in the primary schools of eight cities in the country were randomly selected from different geographic locations using multistage cluster sampling. The examinations included visual acuity measurement, ocular motility evaluation, and cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refraction. Using the definitions of the World Health Organization (presenting visual acuity less than or equal to 6/18 in the better eye) to estimate the prevalence of vision impairment, the present study reported presenting visual impairment in seven-year-old children. Of 4,614 selected students, 4,106 students participated in the study (response rate 89 per cent), of whom 2,127 (51.8 per cent) were male. The prevalence of visual impairment according to a visual acuity of 6/18 was 0.341 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval 0.187-0.571); 1.34 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval 1.011-1.74) of children had visual impairment according to a visual acuity of 6/18 in at least one eye. Sixty-six (1.6 per cent) and 23 (0.24 per cent) children had visual impairment according to a visual acuity of 6/12 in the worse and better eye, respectively. The most common causes of visual impairment were refractive errors (81.8 per cent) and amblyopia (14.5 per cent). Among different types of refractive errors, astigmatism was the main refractive error leading to visual impairment. According to the concentration index, the distribution of visual impairment in children from low-income families was higher. This study revealed a high prevalence of visual impairment in a representative sample of seven-year-old Iranian children. Astigmatism and amblyopia were the most common causes of visual impairment. The distribution of visual impairment was higher in children from low-income families. Cost
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The birth of a hearing-impaired child and raising him/her often brings special psychological feelings for parents, especially mothers who spend more time with the child. This study aimed to compare the general health status in mothers of hearing-impaired and hearing children. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic study. General Health Questionnaire was used to identify general health status; and data were analyzed with independent-t test. Results: The general health level of mothers of hearing-impaired children was lower than mothers of normal hearing children (p=0.01 . The average scores of anxiety (p=0.01, depression (p= 0.01 and physical (p=0.02 symptoms and social function (p=0.01 of mothers of hearing-impaired children was higher than mothers of normal hearing ones (p=0.01. Conclusion: Having a child with hearing impairment affects mothers’ general health status. Our findings show that it’s necessary to provide psychological and social support for mothers of hearing-impaired children.
Kujawa, Autumn; Hajcak, Greg; Danzig, Allison P; Black, Sarah R; Bromet, Evelyn J; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Kotov, Roman; Klein, Daniel N
Natural disasters expose entire communities to stress and trauma, leading to increased risk for psychiatric symptoms. Yet, the majority of exposed individuals are resilient, highlighting the importance of identifying underlying factors that contribute to outcomes. The current study was part of a larger prospective study of children in Long Island, New York (n = 260). At age 9, children viewed unpleasant and pleasant images while the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential component that reflects sustained attention toward salient information, was measured. Following the event-related potential assessment, Hurricane Sandy, the second costliest hurricane in United States history, hit the region. Eight weeks after the hurricane, mothers reported on exposure to hurricane-related stress and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Symptoms were reassessed 8 months after the hurricane. The LPP predicted both internalizing and externalizing symptoms after accounting for prehurricane symptomatology and interacted with stress to predict externalizing symptoms. Among children exposed to higher levels of hurricane-related stress, enhanced neural reactivity to unpleasant images predicted greater externalizing symptoms 8 weeks after the disaster, while greater neural reactivity to pleasant images predicted lower externalizing symptoms. Moreover, interactions between the LPP and stress continued to predict externalizing symptoms 8 months after the hurricane. Results indicate that heightened neural reactivity and attention toward unpleasant information, as measured by the LPP, predispose children to psychiatric symptoms when exposed to higher levels of stress related to natural disasters, while greater reactivity to and processing of pleasant information may be a protective factor. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gense, Marilyn H.; Gense, D. Jay
This paper offers guidelines to compare the characteristics observed in children with autism and blindness and those observed in children with blindness alone. It distinguishes between stereotypic behaviors (blindisms) in blind individuals and similar stereotypic behaviors of children with autism. A table presents typical behavior patterns of…
Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Eichorn, Naomi; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee
Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a deficit in inhibition control, but research isolating specific abilities is scarce. The goal of this study was to examine whether children with SLI differ from their peers in resistance to proactive interference under different conditions. Method: An…
Marshall, Chloë; Mason, Kathryn; Rowley, Katherine; Herman, Rosalind; Atkinson, Joanna; Woll, Bencie; Morgan, Gary
Children with specific language impairment (SLI) perform poorly on sentence repetition tasks across different spoken languages, but until now, this methodology has not been investigated in children who have SLI in a signed language. Users of a natural sign language encode different sentence meanings through their choice of signs and by altering…
Blom, E.; van Dijk, C.; Vasić, N.; van Witteloostuijn, M.; Avrutin, S.
The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages
Ritter, David R.
The Arthur Adaptation of the Leiter International Performance Scale, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Performance Section were administered to 31 children with mild to moderate hearing impairments. A comparison of test results indicated moderate convergent validity among the measures. (Author)
Saletta, Meredith; Goffman, Lisa; Ward, Caitlin; Oleson, Jacob
Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) show particular deficits in the generation of sequenced action--the quintessential procedural task. Practiced imitation of a sequence may become rote and require reduced procedural memory. This study explored whether speech motor deficits in children with SLI occur generally or only in…
MacDonald, John T; Kutzbach, Beth R; Holleschau, Ann M; Wyckoff, Suzanne; Summers, C Gail
To evaluate whether visual impairment in albinism contributes significantly to the acquisition of normal reading skills. The authors administered standardized reading tests to 41 children and 18 adults with albinism. The Young Children's Achievement Test was used for children between 4 and 6 years old and the Woodcock-Johnson III was used for children 7 years and older and adults. Parents of children and adult subjects also completed a questionnaire to document developmental, academic, and/or work experiences. The Spearman test was used to evaluate the relationship between binocular best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and reading test results. Standardized reading tests in both children and adults with albinism showed a normal distribution of scores. BCVA did not appear to play a significant role in the development of normal reading ability in these individuals who were visually impaired except for a mild correlation of decreased reading fluency on the Woodcock-Johnson III with decreased BCVA (r = 0.287, P = .046). Many young children with albinism had superior reading skills despite having a BCVA of 20/200 or worse (legal blindness). This study of cognitively normal children and adults with albinism demonstrates that impaired vision during childhood does not by itself significantly impede a child's ability to acquire normal reading skills. However, the lower reading fluency that occurs in the more visually impaired individuals suggests they would benefit, both in the school system and workplace, with an accommodation involving more time to complete reading tasks. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Zelaznik, Howard N.; Goffman, Lisa
Purpose: To examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ from normally developing peers in motor skills, especially those skills related to timing. Method: Standard measures of gross and fine motor development were obtained. Furthermore, finger and hand movements were recorded while children engaged in 4 different timing…
Undernourished children exhibit impaired development of their gut microbiota. Transplanting microbiota from 6- and 18-month-old healthy or undernourished Malawian donors into young germ-free mice that were fed a Malawian diet revealed that immature microbiota from undernourished infants and children...
Mak, W.M.; Tribushinina, E.; Lomako, Julia; Gagarina, N.; Abrosova, Ekaterina; Sanders, T.J.M.
Production studies show that both Russian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and bilingual children for whom Russian is a non-dominant language have difficulty distinguishing between the near-synonymous connectives i ‘and’ and a ‘and/but’. I is a preferred connective when
Marton, Klara; Schwartz, Richard G.
This study examined the interaction between working memory and language comprehension in children with specific language impairment (SLI), focusing on the function of the central executive component and its interaction with the phonological loop (A. D. Baddeley, 1986) in complex working memory tasks. Thirteen children with SLI and 13 age-matched…
Background. Stunted growth is a major public health issue for children in Tanzania. We examined dietary exposures to aflatoxin and fumonisin and their potential roles in growth impairment in children under 36 months of age in Haydom, Tanzania. Methods. Plasma samples collected at 24 months of age ...
Fernandez, Eduard Bayarri; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; de la Osa, Nuria; Domenech, Josep Maria
There are discrepancies about whether children who witness and suffer domestic violence (DV) have similar outcomes in terms of psychopathology. This work examines the relationship between different types of exposure to DV and child psychopathology and functional impairment. One hundred and forty-four Spanish children aged from 4 to 17 years and…
Martinussen, Rhonda; Hayden, Jill; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Tannock, Rosemary
Objective: To determine the empirical evidence for deficits in working memory (WM) processes in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Exploratory meta-analytic procedures were used to investigate whether children with ADHD exhibit WM impairments. Twenty-six empirical research studies published from…
Research on children with language impairment (LI) and bilingual children is important for both clinical and theoretical reasons (Paradis, 2010). For example, identifying similarities and differences between the two child populations can support the clinical challenge of diagnosing LI in bilingual
Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Guo, Ying; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Pentimonti, Jill M.
To contribute to the modest body of work examining the home literacy environment (HLE) and emergent literacy outcomes for children with disabilities, this study addressed two aims: (a) to determine the unique contributions of the HLE on print knowledge of preschool children with language impairment and (b) to identify whether specific child…
Chilver-Stainer, Jennifer; Gasser, Luciano; Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina
Children and adolescents with hearing impairments are at risk of being excluded from activities with hearing peers. Moral emotion attributions may represent important indicators for children's identification with the moral norm not to exclude peers based on disability. Against this background, we investigated how 10-, 12- and 15-year-olds…
Reviews the literature on the use of music therapy with visually impaired and socially isolated children. Describes ways that music therapy can help the child explore his environment, modify blindisms (stereotypic, autistic-like behaviors), and encourage social awareness and interaction with other children. (DB)
Heij, H. A.; Ekkelkamp, S.; Moorman-Voestermans, C. G.; Vos, A.
Treatment of children with severe impairment of bladder function requires a large-volume, low-pressure reservoir combined with a continent, easily catheterizable valve. The Mitrofanoff principle (MP) appears to meet these requirements. Between 1986 and 1993, the MP was applied in 15 children (4
Blom, Elma; Vasic, Nada; de Jong, Jan
Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated whether errors with subject-verb agreement in monolingual Dutch children with specific language impairment (SLI) are influenced by verb phonology. In addition, the productive and receptive abilities of Dutch acquiring children with SLI regarding agreement inflection were compared. Method: An SLI…
Ugwuanyi, L. T.; Adaka, T. A.
The paper focused on the effect of auditory training on reading comprehension of children with hearing impairment in Enugu State. A total of 33 children with conductive, sensory neural and mixed hearing loss were sampled for the study in the two schools for the Deaf in Enugu State. The design employed for the study was a quasi experiment (pre-test…
DiDonato Brumbach, Andrea C.; Goffman, Lisa
Purpose: To examine how language production interacts with speech motor and gross and fine motor skill in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Eleven children with SLI and 12 age-matched peers (4-6 years) produced structurally primed sentences containing particles and prepositions. Utterances were analyzed for errors and for…
Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L.; Alibali, Martha W.
Purpose: The authors investigated mental representations of Piagetian conservation tasks in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing peers. Children with SLI have normal nonverbal intelligence; however, they exhibit difficulties in Piagetian conservation tasks. The authors tested the hypothesis that conservation…
Weerdenburg, M.W.C. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Balkom, L.J.M. van; Bosman, A.M.T.
This study investigated the role of cognitive and language skills as predictors of early literacy skills in children with Specific Language Impairment. A range of cognitive and linguistic skills were assessed in a sample of 137 eight-year-old children with SLI at the beginning of the school year,
Budd, Julia M.; LaGrow, Steven J.
A study investigated the efficacy of using the Buddy Road Kit, an interactive, wooden model, to teach environmental concepts to 4 children with visual impairments ages 7 to 11 years old. Results indicate the model was effective in teaching environmental concepts and traffic safety to the children involved. (Contains references.) (CR)
Blom, W.B.T.; van Dijk, Chantal; Vasic, Nada; van Witteloostuijn, Merel; Avrutin, S.
The purpose of this study was to investigate texting and textese, which is the special register used for sending brief text messages, across children with typical development (TD) and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Using elicitation techniques, texting and spoken language messages
Vugs, Brigitte; Hendriks, Marc; Cuperus, Juliane; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo
Purpose: This longitudinal study examined differences in the development of working memory (WM) between children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children. Further, it explored to what extent language at ages 7-8 years could be predicted by measures of language and/or WM at ages 4-5 years. Method: Thirty…
Vendeville, Nathalie; Blanc, Nathalie; Brechet, Claire
Purpose: Studies investigating the ability of children with language impairment (LI) to infer emotions rely on verbal responses (which can be challenging for these children) and/or the selection of a card representing an emotion (which limits the response range). In contrast, a drawing task might allow a broad spectrum of responses without…
Reimer, A.M.; Cox, R.F.A.; Boonstra, F.N.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.
This study investigated potential differences in motor control between children with a visual impairment (diagnosed albinism; n=11, mean age 8y 4mo [SD 7mo]; seven males, four females,) and children with normal vision (n=11, mean age 8y 4mo [SD 7mo]; six males, five females). Mean near visual acuity
Cohen-Maitre, Stacey Ann; Haerich, Paul
This study investigated the ability of color and motion to elicit and maintain visual attention in a sample of children with cortical visual impairment (CVI). It found that colorful and moving objects may be used to engage children with CVI, increase their motivation to use their residual vision, and promote visual learning.
Lieberman, Lauren J.; Conroy, Paula
Introduction: Children with visual impairments are often behind their peers in physical and motor skills. It is often necessary for these children to work one to one with a paraeducator to gain the benefits of physical education, improve physical activity and motor skills, and attain the basic standards of the Expanded Core Curriculum (ECC).…
Shapiro, Deborah R.; Moffett, Aaron; Lieberman, Lauren; Dummer, Gail M.
This study examined perceived competence; ratings of importance of physical appearance, athletic competence, and social acceptance; discrepancy scores; and global self-worth of 43 children with visual impairments. The findings revealed that the children discounted the importance of physical appearance, athletic competence, and social acceptance…
Reimer, A.M.; Cox, R.F.A.; Boonstra, F.N.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.
This study investigated potential differences in motor control between children with a visual impairment (diagnosed albinism; n=11, mean age 8y 4mo [SD 7mo]; seven males, four females,) and children with normal vision (n=11, mean age 8y 4mo [SD 7mo]; six males, five females). Mean near visual acuity
Al-Zboon, Eman; Al-Dababneh, Kholoud A. H.; Baibres, Haithem
The aim of this study was to investigate fear in children with visual impairments (VI) from the perspective of their parents. The study was conducted in Jordan. One hundred and eight parents were surveyed. Results revealed that the main fear contents in children with VI are fear of voices and social communication fears. There were no statistically…
Ferdenzi, Camille; Coureaud, Gerard; Camos, Valerie; Schaal, Benoist
The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot investigation of the self-reported awareness and reactivity to odors of children with visual impairments and sighted children. A questionnaire related to relevant everyday contexts involving food and social cues, as well as the general environment, was used to determine whether, and in which…
Brennan, Susan A.; Luze, Gayle J.; Peterson, Carla
This survey explored the emergent literacy experiences that parents provided for their children with visual impairments, aged 1-8, as well as the parents' perceptions of the professional support that they received to facilitate these activities. The results indicated that the parents and children engaged in reading, singing songs, and writing or…
Ayvazoglu, Nalan R.; Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Kozub, Francis M.
Using a mixed design this study explored physical activity in children with visual impairments from a family perspective. Quantitative findings revealed varied amounts of physical activity; younger children were more active than older participants. Further, parents were involved in moderate to vigorous physical activity 0% to 21% of the time when…
This article provides a synthesis of literature pertaining to the development of haptic exploratory strategies in children who have visual impairment and intellectual disabilities. The information received through such strategies assumes particular significance for these children, given the restricted information available through their visual…
Columna, Luis; Fernández-Vivó, Margarita; Lieberman, Lauren; Arndt, Katrina
Nationwide research indicates that children with visual impairment have limited participation in recreational and sport activities than their peers. This is due in part to the lack of recreational opportunities and facilities, as well as a lack of awareness by parents of how and where their children can participate. The purpose of the current study was to explore the experiences of Latino families of children with visual impairments living in Guatemala regarding physical recreation. Participants were Latino parents (N = 13) who have children with visual impairments recruited from a sport camp. Qualitative data were gathered through one-on-one interviews that were transcribed and analyzed through a constant comparative analysis. Participating Latino families who resided in Guatemala City participated at least once a month in low budget recreational activities with their children with visual impairments. Activities were mostly done in local surroundings and led mainly by their mother. Benefits identified by the participants related to relaxation, socialization, and sense of independence, with minimal mention of health related benefits. There is a need to disseminate information to the Latino community with children with visual impairments regarding the multiple benefits that arise from being involved in recreational physical activities.
In my diploma work I would like to focus on theme of spending free time in school for hearing impaired children (age 6-12) . The work has two parts. In the first one - theoretical- literary - I will describe types of spending free time of deaf and hard of hearing children different enviroments : family, school, out of school. In the second one -practical research - I will focus on the profile of school for hearing impaired children. I would like to touch the problem of activities (during the ...
Banda, Francis M; Powis, Kathleen M; Mokoka, Agnes B; Mmapetla, Moalosi; Westmoreland, Katherine D; David, Thuso; Steenhoff, Andrew P
Objective . To describe and quantify hearing impairment among children referred to the audiology clinic in Princess Marina Hospital, a public referral hospital in Botswana. Methods . In a retrospective case series, we reviewed medical records of children aged 10 years and younger whose hearing was assessed between January 2006 and December 2015 at the audiology clinic of Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Results . Of 622 children, 50% were male, and median age was 6.7 years (interquartile range = 5.0-8.3). Hearing impairment was diagnosed in 32% of clinic attendees, comprising sensorineural (23%), conductive (25%), and mixed (11%) hearing loss, while 41% of children with diagnosed hearing impairment did not have a classification type. Hearing impairment was mild in 22.9%, moderate in 22.4%, severe in 19.4%, profound in 16.9%, and of undocumented severity in 18.4%. Children younger than 5 years were 2.7 times (95% confidence interval = 1.29-5.49; P = .008) more likely to be diagnosed with sensorineural hearing impairment compared with those older than 5 years. By contrast, children older than 5 years were 9.6 times (95% confidence interval = 2.22-41.0; P = .002) more likely to be diagnosed with conductive hearing loss compared with those under 5 years. Conclusion . Hearing impairment was common among children referred to this audiology clinic in Botswana. Of those with hearing impairment, more than a third had moderate or severe deficits, suggesting that referrals for hearing assessments are not occurring early enough. Hearing awareness programs individually tailored to parents, educators, and health care workers are needed. Neonatal and school hearing screening programs would also be beneficial.
Wilcox, Holly C.; Kuramoto, Satoko J.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Langstrom, Niklas; Brent, David A.; Runeson, Bo
Objective: This retrospective cohort study examined the risk for suicide, psychiatric hospitalization, and violent criminal convictions among offspring of parents who died from suicide, accidents, and other causes. Method: Population-based data from multiple Swedish national registers were linked from 1969 to 2004. Participants were 44,397…
Theunissen, Stephanie C. P. M.; Rieffe, Carolien; Netten, Anouk P.; Briaire, Jeroen J.; Soede, Wim; Kouwenberg, Maartje; Frijns, Johan H. M.
OBJECTIVE: Sufficient self-esteem is extremely important for psychosocial functioning. It is hypothesized that hearing-impaired (HI) children have lower levels of self-esteem, because, among other things, they frequently experience lower language and communication skills. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare HI children's self-esteem across different domains with those of normal hearing (NH) children and to investigate the influence of communication, type of education, and audiolog...
Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hoeyer, Mette; Dyrborg, Jørgen
The paper provides prevalence estimates of anxiety disorders as well as homotypic (e.g., other anxiety disorders) and heterotypic (e.g., mood, externalizing) co-morbidity in a national sample of children and adolescents referred to the psychiatric system in Denmark. Data were gathered from a data...... as routine to increase the precision in recognizing and reporting on childhood anxiety disorders.......The paper provides prevalence estimates of anxiety disorders as well as homotypic (e.g., other anxiety disorders) and heterotypic (e.g., mood, externalizing) co-morbidity in a national sample of children and adolescents referred to the psychiatric system in Denmark. Data were gathered from...... a database containing 83% of all youth referred from 2004 to 2007 (N=13,241). A prevalence of 5.7% of anxiety disorder was found in the sample. Homotypic co-morbidity was found in only 2.8%, whereas heterotypic co-morbidity was found in 42.9% of the cohort. A total of 73.6% had a principal anxiety disorder...
Bahatheg, Raja Omar
This research tries to investigate the technical contribution on improving the social interaction of hearing-impaired children from low income families in Saudi Arabia. It compares the social interaction skills of hearing-impaired children who do and do not have access to iPads. To achieve the goals of the study; seventeen children aged five years…
Factor, Reina S.; Ryan, Sarah M.; Farley, Julee P.; Ollendick, Thomas H.; Scarpa, Angela
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience internalizing and externalizing problems at higher rates than typically developing children, which could worsen social impairment. The present study compared impairment scores (social responsiveness scale, 2nd edition; SRS-2 scores) in 57 children (3-17 years, 82.5% male) with ASD, either…
Kaddah, F A; Shoeib, R M; Mahmoud, H E
Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) may have some kind of memory disorder that could increase their linguistic impairment. This study assessed the short-term memory skills in Arabic speaking children with either Expressive Language Impairment (ELI) or Receptive/Expressive Language Impairment (R/ELI) in comparison to controls in order to estimate the nature and extent of any specific deficits in these children that could explain the different prognostic results of language intervention. Eighteen children were included in each group. Receptive, expressive and total language quotients were calculated using the Arabic language test. Assessment of auditory and visual short-term memory was done using the Arabic version of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities. Both groups of SLI performed significantly lower linguistic abilities and poorer auditory and visual short-term memory in comparison to normal children. The R/ELI group presented an inferior performance than the ELI group in all measured parameters. Strong association was found between most tasks of auditory and visual short-term memory and linguistic abilities. The results of this study highlighted a specific degree of deficit of auditory and visual short-term memories in both groups of SLI. These deficits were more prominent in R/ELI group. Moreover, the strong association between the different auditory and visual short-term memories and language abilities in children with SLI must be taken into account when planning an intervention program for these children.
Chong, Cheefoong; Dai, Shuan
To provide information and comparison pertaining to visual impairment of Maori children with other children in New Zealand in particular: prevalence of blindness, causes of visual impairment, and avoidable causes of visual impairment. Retrospective data collection utilising the WHO/PBL eye examination record for children with blindness and low vision at Blind and Low Vision Education Network New Zealand (BLENNZ), Homai. Individuals not of Maori ethnicity or over the age of 16 were excluded from the study. 106 blind and 64 low-vision Maori children were studied. The main cause of blindness in Maori children is cortical visual impairment. Twenty-eight percent of causes of blindness in this population are potentially avoidable with non-accidental injury as the main cause. The prevalence of blindness and low vision in children amounts to 0.05% and 0.03%, respectively. The prevalence and causes of childhood blindness are comparable to the other ethnic groups in New Zealand. The main difference lies in avoidable causes of blindness, which appeared to be much higher in the Maori population. The leading cause of avoidable blindness in Maori children is caused by non-accidental injuries.
Pilling, Rachel F; Outhwaite, Louise
There is a growing body of evidence that children with special needs are more likely to have visual problems, be that visual impairment, visual processing problems or refractive error. While there is widespread provision of vision screening in mainstream schools, patchy provision exists in special schools. The aim of the study was to determine the unmet need and undiagnosed visual problems of children attending primary special schools in Bradford, England. Children attending special schools who were not currently under the care of the hospital eye service were identified. Assessments of visual function and refractive error were undertaken on site at the schools by an experienced orthoptist and/or paediatric ophthalmologist. A total of 157 children were identified as eligible for the study, with a mean age of 7.8 years (range 4-12 years). Of these, 33% of children were found to have visual impairment, as defined by WHO and six children were eligible for severe sight impairment certification. The study demonstrates significant unmet need or undiagnosed visual impairment in a high-risk population. It also highlights the poor uptake of hospital eye care for children identified with significant visual needs and suggests the importance of providing in-school assessment and support, including refractive correction, to fully realise the benefits of a visual assessment programme. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Kai; Wu, Jianxian; Hong, Yongfeng; Zhao, Jingpu; Feng, Xiaojun; Xu, Mei; Wang, Min; Ndasauka, Yamikani; Zhang, Xiaochu
The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between theory of mind (ToM) deficits and executive function (EF) impairments in children with cerebral palsy (CP), 42 CP with children and 42 typically developing (TD) children, acting as controls, were assessed on the tasks of ToM (false belief and faux pas) and EF (inhibition, updating and shifting). Results showed that CP children had deficits both in ToM and EF tasks. The correlation analyses showed that two EF components (inhibition and updating) were strongly related to false belief and faux pas in both two groups. We also found correlation between shifting and false belief and faux pas. However, this correlation was only found in TD children and not in children with CP. These findings suggest that children with CP lag behind TD children in both ToM and EF. Further, the results reveal, interestingly, that ToM deficits in CP children might be related to their inhibition and updating impairments, but not to shifting impairments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schulze Schwering, M; Nyrenda, M; Spitzer, M S; Kalua, K
The aim of this study was to determine the anatomic sites of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in an integrated school for the blind in Malawi, and to compare the results with those of previous Malawian blind school studies. Children attending an integrated school for the blind in Malawi were examined in September 2011 using the standard WHO/PBL eye examination record for children with blindness and low vision. Visual acuity [VA] of the better eye was classified using the standardised WHO reporting form. Fifty-five pupils aged 6 to 19 years were examined, 39 (71 %) males, and 16 (29 %) females. Thirty eight (69%) were blind [BL], 8 (15 %) were severely visually impaired [SVI], 8 (15 %) visually impaired [VI], and 1 (1.8 %) was not visually impaired [NVI]. The major anatomic sites of visual loss were optic nerve (16 %) and retina (16 %), followed by lens/cataract (15 %), cornea (11 %) and lesions of the whole globe (11 %), uveal pathologies (6 %) and cortical blindness (2 %). The exact aetiology of VI or BL could not be determined in most children. Albinism accounted for 13 % (7/55) of the visual impairments. 24 % of the cases were considered to be potentially avoidable: refractive amblyopia among pseudophakic patients and corneal scaring. Optic atrophy, retinal diseases (mostly albinism) and cataracts were the major causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in an integrated school for the blind in Malawi. Corneal scarring was now the fourth cause of visual impairment, compared to being the commonest cause 35 years ago. Congenital cataract and its postoperative outcome were the commonest remedial causes of visual impairment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Williams, Jacqueline; Lee, Katherine J; Anderson, Peter J
Motor skill impairment is a common negative outcome in children born preterm who do not develop cerebral palsy (CP). This study aimed to conduct a systematic review of current data to provide an accurate estimate of the prevalence of non-CP motor impairment in preterm children at school age. We searched the Medline, PubMed, and PsycInfo databases and relevant journals to identify all studies published post-1990 that reported the prevalence of motor impairment in school-aged children born preterm (children was 40.5/100. and for moderate motor impairment the estimate was 19.0/100. There was also a trend for lower motor impairment levels in samples born before 1990 compared with those born after 1990. Children born preterm are at increased risk of motor impairment, with prevalence three to four times greater than in the general population. This highlights the need for improved surveillance and intervention strategies in this group of children.
Smith-Lock, Karen M; Leitao, Suze; Lambert, Lara; Nickels, Lyndsey
Children with specific language impairment are known to struggle with expressive grammar. While some studies have shown successful intervention under laboratory conditions, there is a paucity of evidence for the effectiveness of grammar treatment in young children in community settings. To evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based intervention programme for expressive grammar in 5-year-olds with specific language impairment. Thirty-four 5-year-old children attending a specialized school for children with language impairment participated in the study. Nineteen children received treatment for expressive grammar (experimental group) and 15 children received a control treatment. Treatment consisted of weekly 1-h sessions of small group activities in a classroom setting for 8 weeks. Techniques included direct instruction, focused stimulation, recasting and imitation. Results were analysed at the group level and as a case series with each child as their own control in a single-subject design. There was a significant difference in grammatical performance pre- and post-treatment for children who received grammar treatment (Cohen's d = 1.24), but not for a group of children who received a control treatment. Further, no difference in performance was found in the equivalent time period prior to treatment, nor for an untreated target. Treatment success was more pronounced in children without articulation difficulties which interfered with their ability to produce the grammatical targets (Cohen's d = 1.66). Individual analyses indicated the treatment effect was significant for the majority of children. Individually targeted intervention delivered in small groups in a classroom setting was effective in improving production of expressive grammatical targets in 5-year-old children with specific language impairment. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Knutsen, John; Mandell, David S.; Frye, Douglas
Children learn novel information using various methods, and one of the most common is human pedagogical communication or teaching--the purposeful imparting of information from one person to another. Neuro-typically developing (TD) children gain the ability to recognize and understand teaching as a core method for acquiring knowledge from others.…
Daal, J.G.H.L. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Balkom, L.J.M. van
In the present study, the relations of various aspects of working memory to various aspects of language problems in a clinical sample of 97 Dutch speaking 5-year-old children with severe language problems were studied. The working memory and language abilities of the children were examined using an
Pavlidou, Elpis V.; Kelly, M. Louise; Williams, Joanne M.
We explored implicit learning in a group of typically developing and developmental dyslexic primary school children (9-12y) using a modified artificial grammar learning task. Performance was calculated using two measures of performance: a perfect free recall (PFR) score and a grammaticality judgment score. Both groups of children required the same…
Ruiter, Selma; Nakken, Han; Janssen, Marleen; Van Der Meulen, Bieuwe; Looijestijn, Paul
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adaptations for children with low vision of the Bayley Scales, a standardized developmental instrument widely used to assess development in young children. Low vision adaptations were made to the procedures, item instructions and play material of the Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant…
Title: Balance-related excercise as a preparation to cross-country skiing practice in visually impaired children. Objectives of the Thesis: The goal of this thesis is to test the possibilitiy of implementation of selected balance- related excercise in visually impaired children. Method: The testing pool consisted of six pupils attending the Special school for Visually Impaired Children between 14 and 15 years of age. Over the period of ten weeks, selected exercise geared towards the cross-cou...
Full Text Available Objectives: Auditory perception or hearing ability is critical for children in acquisition of language and speech hence hearing loss has different effects on individuals’ linguistic perception, and also on their functions. It seems that deaf people suffer from language and speech impairments such as in perception of complex linguistic constructions. This research was aimed to study the perception of complex syntactic constructions in children with hearing-impairment. Methods: The study design was case-control. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, twenty children with severe to profound hearing impairment, aged 8-12 years and twenty normal-hearing children, aged 6-7 years were selected in a simple random sampling from exceptional schools for deaf people and from normal kindergartens and schools for normal cases. The perception of sentences was tested by using a researcher-made task called sentence-picture matching task. At first the content validity was determined and then the reliability was confirmed with Cronbach Alpha Test. Data were analyzed by statistical tests such as Independent Samples T-Test and Mann-Whitney U Test using SPSS. Results: Perception of the group with hearing-impairment was significantly lower than the normal control group. The hearing-impaired children failed to perceive complex syntactic structures. Linguistic function of the group with hearing-impairment on perception of sentences with simple word order was better than on complex sentences. Discussion: If rich linguistic inputs are not available for children during the critical period of the first language acquisition, the syntactic skill, especially in complex syntactic constructions, will not normally develop. In order to establish a foundation for a healthy perfect development of syntax, at the early years of life, children should be exposed to a natural language.
Mitry, D; Williams, C; Northstone, K; Akter, A; Jewel, J; Khan, N; Muhit, M; Gilbert, C E; Bowman, R
Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of motor disability in children and is often accompanied by sensory and/or cognitive impairment. The aim of this study was to characterise visual acuity impairment, perceptual visual dysfunction (PVD) and physical disability in a community-based sample of Bangladeshi children with CP and to assess the impact of these factors on the quality of life of the children. A key informant study was used to recruit children with CP from Sirajganj district. Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels and visual impairment were assessed by a physiotherapist and an optometrist, respectively. Assessments of visual perception were performed and standardised questionnaires were administered to each child's main carer to elicit indicators of PVD and parent-reported health-related quality of life. A generalised linear regression analysis was conducted to assess the determinants of the quality of life scores. 180 children were recruited. The median age was 8 years (IQR: 6-11 years); 112 (62%) were male; 57 (32%) had visual acuity impairment and 95 (53%) had some parent-reported PVD. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, GMFCS and acuity impairment, visual attention (pvisual search (p=0.020). PVD is an important contributor in reducing quality of life in children with CP, independent of motor disability and acuity impairment. Better characterisation of PVD is important to help design interventions for affected children, which may improve their quality of life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Roello, Mara; Ferretti, Maria Letizia; Colonnello, Valentina; Levi, Gabriel
Several studies indicate that school-age children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulties with tasks that rely on executive functions. Whether executive function deficits in children with SLI emerge during preschool age remains unclear. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating executive function performances in two age groups of preschoolers with and without SLI. Children with SLI (N=60; young: 53.6±5.3 months; old: 65.4±3.8 months) and age-matched control children (N=58) were tested for problem-representation ability, using the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST), rule-use skills, using a Stroop-like Day-Night test (D/N), and planning skills, using the Tower of London test (TOL). Older children performed better than younger children did across tasks. Children with SLI had poorer performance, compared to typically developing children, on measures of problem representation, planning skills, and use of rules. Our results clearly indicate that executive function impairment is evident during the preschool period. Although old children with SLI performed better than young children with SLI, their performances were still poor, compared to those of control peers. These findings suggest that children with SLI have altered executive functioning at 53.6 months. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fortunato-Tavares, Talita; Andrade, Claudia R F; Befi-Lopes, Debora; Limongi, Suelly O; Fernandes, Fernanda D M; Schwartz, Richard G
This study examined syntactic assignment for predicates and reflexives as well as working memory effects in the sentence comprehension of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), Down syndrome (DS), high functioning Autism (HFA) and Typical Language Development (TLD). Fifty-seven children (35 boys and 22 girls) performed a computerised picture-selection sentence comprehension task. Predicate attachment and reflexive antecedent assignment (with working memory manipulations) were investigated. The results showed that SLI, HFA and DS children exhibited poorer overall performance than TLD children. Children with SLI exhibited similar performance to the DS and HFA children only when working memory demands were higher. We conclude that children with SLI, HFA and DS differ from children with TLD in their comprehension of predicate and reflexive structures where the knowledge of syntactic assignment is required. Working memory manipulation had different effects on syntactic comprehension depending on language disorder. Intelligence was not an explanatory factor for the differences observed in performance.
Full Text Available Robabeh Ghergherechi1, Ali Tabrizi21Department of Pediatrics Endocrinology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranPurpose: Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders in the world which has an obvious relationship with the incidence of metabolic diseases. Obesity prevalence has increased among children and adolescents during recent decades, leading to a rise in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM II prevalence in these two age brackets. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance, and gather metabolic findings in obese children and adolescents.Methods and materials: We studied 110 obese children and adolescents (body mass index > 95th percentile for age and gender 4–18 years of age referred to the endocrine clinic of the Children’s Hospital at Tabriz University in a descriptive cross-sectional study. Fasting glucose, insulin, and lipid profile in all subjects were determined. Oral glucose tolerance test after eating 75 g/kg glucose was performed. Homeostatic model assessment was used to estimate insulin resistance.Results: Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance prevalence in 68 obese adolescents was 14.7% and 31.8%, respectively. Impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was not seen in 23.8% of 42 obese children. No case of DM II was seen. There was a significant statistical difference in glucose (P = 0.003 and insulin (P < 0.001 level at minute 120 in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance compared to obese children and adolescents without impaired glucose tolerance. Rate of insulin resistance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance was greater and had a significant statistical difference (P = 0.03.Conclusion: Obesity has a close relationship with increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in children and adolescents. Oral glucose
Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…
Alexander, Francis E.
Ten day students and 10 residential students with visual impairments in grades 3-5 participated in 18 weekly self-esteem building exercises. No intergroup differences in self-esteem were found, and data were inconclusive on the effectiveness of the self-esteem building activities. (CR)
Nilsson, Kristine Kahr; de López, Kristine Jensen
The relation between language and theory of mind (ToM) has been debated for more than two decades. In a similar vein, ToM has been examined in children with specific language impairment (SLI), albeit with inconsistent results. This meta-analysis of 17 studies with 745 children between the ages of 4 and 12 found that children with SLI had substantially lower ToM performance compared to age-matched typically developing children (d = .98). This effect size was not moderated by age and gender. By revealing that children with SLI have ToM impairments, this finding emphasizes the need for further investigation into the developmental interface between language and ToM as well as the extended consequences of atypical language development. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Narimoto, Tadamasa; Matsuura, Naomi; Takezawa, Tomohiro; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Hiratani, Michio
The authors investigated whether impaired spatial short-term memory exhibited by children with nonverbal learning disabilities is due to a problem in the encoding process. Children with or without nonverbal learning disabilities performed a simple spatial test that required them to remember 3, 5, or 7 spatial items presented simultaneously in random positions (i.e., spatial configuration) and to decide if a target item was changed or all items including the target were in the same position. The results showed that, even when the spatial positions in the encoding and probe phases were similar, the mean proportion correct of children with nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.58 while that of children without nonverbal learning disabilities was 0.84. The authors argue with the results that children with nonverbal learning disabilities have difficulty encoding relational information between spatial items, and that this difficulty is responsible for their impaired spatial short-term memory.
Maes, Leen; De Kegel, Alexandra; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Dhooge, Ingeborg
The clinical balance performance of normal-hearing (NH) children was compared with the balance performance of hearing-impaired (HI) children with and without vestibular dysfunction to identify an association between vestibular function and motor performance. Prospective study. Tertiary referral center. Thirty-six children (mean age, 7 yr 5 mo; range, 3 yr 8 mo-12 yr 11 mo) divided into three groups: NH children with normal vestibular responses, HI children with normal vestibular responses, and HI children with abnormal vestibular function. A vestibular test protocol (rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing) in combination with three clinical balance tests (balance beam walking, one-leg hopping, one-leg stance). Clinical balance performance. HI children with abnormal vestibular test results obtained the lowest quotients of motor performance, which were significantly lower compared with the NH group (p beam walking and one-leg stance; p = 0.003 for one-leg hopping). The balance performance of the HI group with normal vestibular responses was better in comparison with the vestibular impaired group but still significantly lower compared with the NH group (p = 0.020 for balance beam walking; p = 0.001 for one-leg stance; not significant for one-leg hopping). These results indicate an association between vestibular function and motor performance in HI children, with a more distinct motor deterioration if a vestibular impairment is superimposed to the auditory dysfunction.
Weinstein, Joel M; Gilmore, Rick O; Shaikh, Sumera M; Kunselman, Allen R; Trescher, William V; Tashima, Lauren M; Boltz, Marianne E; McAuliffe, Matthew B; Cheung, Albert; Fesi, Jeremy D
We sought to characterize visual motion processing in children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI) due to periventricular white matter damage caused by either hydrocephalus (eight individuals) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) associated with prematurity (11 individuals). Using steady-state visually evoked potentials (ssVEP), we measured cortical activity related to motion processing for two distinct types of visual stimuli: 'local' motion patterns thought to activate mainly primary visual cortex (V1), and 'global' or coherent patterns thought to activate higher cortical visual association areas (V3, V5, etc.). We studied three groups of children: (1) 19 children with CVI (mean age 9y 6mo [SD 3y 8mo]; 9 male; 10 female); (2) 40 neurologically and visually normal comparison children (mean age 9y 6mo [SD 3y 1mo]; 18 male; 22 female); and (3) because strabismus and amblyopia are common in children with CVI, a group of 41 children without neurological problems who had visual deficits due to amblyopia and/or strabismus (mean age 7y 8mo [SD 2y 8mo]; 28 male; 13 female). We found that the processing of global as opposed to local motion was preferentially impaired in individuals with CVI, especially for slower target velocities (p=0.028). Motion processing is impaired in children with CVI. ssVEP may provide useful and objective information about the development of higher visual function in children at risk for CVI. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2011.
Cheung, Karen K L; Lau, Ada H Y; Lam, Joffee H S; Lee, Kathy Y S
This study investigated the Cantonese tone production ability of children with hearing impairment studying in mainstream schools. The participants were 87 Cantonese-speaking children with mild-to-profound degrees of hearing loss aged 5.92-13.58 in Hong Kong. Most of the children were fitted with hearing aids (n = 65); 17 of them had profound hearing impairment, one who had severe hearing loss had cochlear implantation, and four who had mild hearing loss were without any hearing device. The Hong Kong Cantonese Articulation Test was administered, and the tones produced were rated by two of the authors and a speech-language pathologist. Group effects of tones, hearing loss level, and also an interaction of the two were found to be significant. The children with profound hearing impairment performed significantly worse than most of the other children. Tone 1 was produced most accurately, whereas tone 6 productions were the poorest. No relationship was found between the number of years of mainstreaming and tone production ability. Tone production error pattern revealed that confusion patterns in tone perception coincided with those in production. Tones having a similar fundamental frequency (F0) at the onset also posed difficulty in tone production for children with hearing impairment.
Biran, Michal; Novogrodsky, Rama; Harel-Nov, Efrat; Gil, Mali; Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva
Naming is a complex, multi-level process. It is composed of distinct semantic and phonological levels. Children with naming deficits produce different error types when failing to retrieve the target word. This study explored the error characteristics of children with language impairment compared to those with typical language development. 46 preschool children were tested on a naming test: 16 with language impairment and a naming deficit and 30 with typical language development. The analysis compared types of error in both groups. In a group level, children with language impairment produced different error patterns compared to the control group. Based on naming error analysis and performance on other language tests, two case studies of contrasting profiles suggest different sources for lexical retrieval difficulties in children. The findings reveal differences between the two groups in naming scores and naming errors, and support a qualitative impairment in early development of children with naming deficits. The differing profiles of naming deficits emphasise the importance of including error analysis in the diagnosis.
Landau, Yael E; Bar-Yishay, Orit; Greenberg-Dotan, Sari; Goldbart, Aviv D; Tarasiuk, Ariel; Tal, Asher
We aimed to examine the hypothesis that behavioral and neurocognitive functions of preschool children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) are impaired compared to healthy children, and improve after adenotonsillectomy (TA). A comprehensive assessment battery was used to assess cognitive and behavioral functions, and quality of life in children with OSAS compared to matched controls. 45 children (mean age 45.5 ± 9 months, 73% boys, BMI 15.7 ± 2) with OSAS were compared to 26 healthy children (mean age 48.6 ± 8 months, 46% boys, BMI 16.4 ± 2). Mean AHI in the OSAS group was 13.2 ± 10.7 (ranging from 1.2 to 57). Significantly impaired planning and fluency (executive function) were found in children with OSAS, as well as impaired attention and receptive vocabulary. Parents and teachers described the OSAS group as having significantly more behavior problems. Quality of life questionnaire in children with OSAS (mean 2.3, range 0.7-4.3) was significantly worse compared to controls (mean 0, range: 0-4), P improvement was documented in verbal and motor fluency, sustained attention, and vocabulary. After TA, fewer behavioral problems were seen. Preschool children with OSAS present significantly impaired executive functions, impaired attention and receptive vocabulary, and more behavior problems. One year after TA, the prominent improvements were in behavior and quality of life. These findings suggest that the impact of OSAS on behavioral and cognitive functions begins in early childhood. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mäkinen, Leena; Loukusa, Soile; Laukkanen, Päivi; Leinonen, Eeva; Kunnari, Sari
This study investigates narratives of Finnish children with specific language impairment (SLI) from linguistic and pragmatic perspectives, in order to get a comprehensive overview of these children's narrative abilities. Nineteen children with SLI (mean age 6;1 years) and 19 typically developing age-matched children participated in the study. Their picture-elicited narrations were analysed for linguistic productivity and complexity, grammatical and referential accuracy, event content, the use of mental state expressions and narrative comprehension. Children with SLI showed difficulties in every aspect of narration in comparison to their peers. Only one measure of productivity, the number of communication units, did not reach statistical significance. Not only was linguistic structure fragile but also pragmatic aspects of storytelling (referencing, event content, mental state expressions and inferencing) were demanding for children with SLI. Results suggest that pragmatic aspects of narration should be taken into account more often when assessing narrative abilities of children with SLI.
Vishnuprasad, R; Bazroy, Joy; Madhanraj, K; Prashanth, Hannah Ranjee; Singh, Zile; Samuel, Abel K; Muthukumar, T
According to the 2010 estimates by the World Health Organization, nearly 285 million (4.24% of total population) people of all ages worldwide are visually impaired. Almost 18.9 million children under 15 years of age are visually impaired globally. In developing countries, 7%-31% of childhood blindness and visual impairment is avoidable. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional study among 1884 school students in Puducherry, in the age group of 10-14 years. A child with presenting maximum vision ≤6/12 Snellen equivalent in the better eye is considered visually impaired. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel 2013 and analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 21.0. Chi-square test was applied for testing difference in proportion and a P visual impairment (vision ≤6/12) among the study participants was 6.37% (95% confidence interval = 5.27-7.47). The prevalence of visual impairment increased with age and it was found to be high among male students (6.6%) when compared to female students (6%). Presenting vision of 6/6 was observed in 79.8% of the children while with pinhole correction, the proportion increased to 94.6%. The prevalence of visual impairment in our study population was found to be 6.37% and the prevalence was even higher among children who belonged to schools of urban region or private schools. Children with a positive family history of spectacle use were more likely to have visual impairment.
The effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with a psychiatric disorder and mild intellectual disability to borderline intellectual functioning: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.
Kok, Lidwien; van der Waa, Anne; Klip, Helen; Staal, Wouter
Children with intellectual disability frequently have difficulties in adapting to their environment. The extent of the experienced problems does not only depend on cognitive functioning but is influenced by other factors, such as the presence of a psychiatric disorder or other brain disorders, or adverse environmental factors. Several epidemiological studies show that children with intellectual disabilities are at an increased risk to develop psychiatric disorders. This is also true for youth with a mild intellectual disability and even those with borderline intellectual functioning (mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID)). Psychiatric disorders are often overlooked because behavioral problems are rather attributed to the intellectual disability. Consequently, effective psychiatric interventions, which are needed to improve the level of functioning, are not applied. This review aimed to systematically evaluate the currently available, qualitatively sound research concerning the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions, specifically directed at psychiatric disorders in children with MBID. Assessed for eligibility were 1409 unique reports, and the review ultimately included only 12 reports. Review of the results and meta-analyses showed that the majority of studies suffer from multiple limitations and that methodological variations between studies are extensive. This possibly reflects the high variance of factors that may be involved in MBID. It will be important in future research to address multi-causality. © The Author(s) 2015.
Afzelius, Maria; Östman, Margareta; Råstam, Maria; Priebe, Gisela
A parental mental illness affects all family members and should warrant a need for support. To investigate the extent to which psychiatric patients with underage children are the recipients of child-focused interventions and involved in interagency collaboration. Data were retrieved from a psychiatric services medical record database consisting of data regarding 29,972 individuals in southern Sweden and indicating the patients' main diagnoses, comorbidity, children below the age of 18, and child-focused interventions. Among the patients surveyed, 12.9% had registered underage children. One-fourth of the patients received child-focused interventions from adult psychiatry, and out of these 30.7% were involved in interagency collaboration as compared to 7.7% without child-focused interventions. Overall, collaboration with child and adolescent psychiatric services was low for all main diagnoses. If a patient received child-focused interventions from psychiatric services, the likelihood of being involved in interagency collaboration was five times greater as compared to patients receiving no child-focused intervention when controlled for gender, main diagnosis, and inpatient care. Psychiatric services play a significant role in identifying the need for and initiating child-focused interventions in families with a parental mental illness, and need to develop and support strategies to enhance interagency collaboration with other welfare services.
Full Text Available In practical pediatrics specialists paid wrongly little attention to identification and treatment of cognitive disorders in children. At the same time it is difficult to overestimate the influence of cognitive functions on the formation of human personality and social maladjustment in this part of population. The paper is devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairments. In addition, the classification of this pathology, highlighting aetiopathogenetic factors, prognosis are showed. One of the important problems of early revealing of cognitive impairments and appropriate management of children with this pathology according to the authors opinion are the following: the deficiency of educational programs for training specialists in neurology, lack of knowledge concerning the possibilities of psychological-pedagogical correction, inefficient system of neurological techniques for primary care. Key words: cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment, classification, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, social maladjustment, psychopedagogical support, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. — 2011; 8 (5: 37–41.
Tribushinina, Elena; Dubinkina, Elena
Research on specific language impairment (SLI) has primarily focused on the acquisition of nouns and verbs. Less attention has been given to other content-word classes, such as adjectives and adverbs. This article investigates adjective production by 7- to 10-year-old Russian-speaking children with SLI and their typically developing (TD) peers and focuses on the production of antonymous adjectives and degree markers in an elicitation experiment. The results show that degree morphology is more impaired in SLI than antonymy. In antonym production, children with SLI were able to catch up with their TD peers by age 8. In the domain of degree, however, the SLI group lagged behind the TD controls across all ages studied. Error analysis indicates that language-impaired children have particular difficulty with agreement inflection and affixal negations. They also substitute adjectives with specific meanings by more general terms. The implications of this study for the morphological-richness hypothesis are discussed.
Warlaumont, Anne S; Jarmulowicz, Linda
Acquisition of regular inflectional suffixes is an integral part of grammatical development in English and delayed acquisition of certain inflectional suffixes is a hallmark of language impairment. We investigate the relationship between input frequency and grammatical suffix acquisition, analyzing 217 transcripts of mother-child (ages 1 ; 11-6 ; 9) conversations from the CHILDES database. Maternal suffix frequency correlates with previously reported rank orders of acquisition and with child suffix frequency. Percentages of children using a suffix are consistent with frequencies in caregiver speech. Although late talkers acquire suffixes later than typically developing children, order of acquisition is similar across populations. Furthermore, the third person singular and past tense verb suffixes, weaknesses for children with language impairment, are less frequent in caregiver speech than the plural noun suffix, a relative strength in language impairment. Similar findings hold across typical, SLI and late talker populations, suggesting that frequency plays a role in suffix acquisition.
Helland, Wenche Andersen; Helland, Turid
Language problems may negatively affect children's behaviour and have detrimental effects on the development of peer-relations. We investigated and compared emotional and behavioural profiles in children with SLI and in children with ASD aged 6-15 years and explored to what extent pragmatic language problems contributed to the emotional and behavioural needs (EBN) in these clinical groups. The ASD group consisted of 23 children (19 boys; 4 girls) and the SLI group consisted of 20 children (18 boys; 2 girls). In order to assess EBN and language abilities, the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Children's Communication Checklist -2 (CCC-2) were filled out by parents. Our main findings were that although EBN was common in both groups; the children in the ASD group were significantly impaired relative to the children in the SLI group. However, in both groups pragmatic language problems were found to be significantly associated with EBN. A comprehensive assessment of EBN as well as pragmatic language abilities should be an integral part of the assessment procedure. Considering the substantial influence of pragmatic language abilities on social function and in resolving interpersonal conflicts with peers further development of therapy plans and interventions targeting pragmatics is strongly needed. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
J Haabrekke, Kristin; Siqveland, Torill; Smith, Lars; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Walhovd, Kristine B; Moe, Vibeke
This prospective, longitudinal study with data collected at four time points investigated how maternal psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse and maternal intrusiveness in interaction were related to early child language skills. Three groups of mothers were recruited during pregnancy: One from residential treatment institutions for substance abuse (n = 18), one from psychiatric outpatient treatment (n = 22) and one from well-baby clinics (n = 30). Maternal substance abuse and anti-social and borderline personality traits were assessed during pregnancy, postpartum depression at 3 months, maternal intrusiveness in interaction at 12 months, and child language skills at 2 years. Results showed that the mothers in the substance abuse group had the lowest level of education, they were younger and they were more likely to be single mothers than the mothers in the two other groups. There was a significant difference in expressive language between children born to mothers with substance abuse problems and those born to comparison mothers, however not when controlling for maternal age, education and single parenthood. No group differences in receptive language skills were detected. Results further showed that maternal intrusiveness observed in mother-child interaction at 12 months was significantly related to child expressive language at 2 years, also when controlling for socio-demographic risk factors. This suggests that in addition to addressing substance abuse and psychiatric problems, there is a need for applying treatment models promoting sensitive caregiving, in order to enhance child expressive language skills.
disorders of the development of movement and posture causing activity limitation ... The cohort consisted of CP patients, with a median age of 32 months. (range 9 .... Children who were <18 months old were assessed for head control, floor-.
Jozefiak, Thomas; Larsson, Bo; Wichstrøm, Lars; Wallander, Jan; Mattejat, Fritz
During the recent decade, a number of studies have begun to address Quality of Life (QoL) in children and adolescents with mental health problems in general population and clinical samples. Only about half of the studies utilized both self and parent proxy report of child QoL. Generally children with mental health problems have reported lower QoL compared to healthy children. The question whether QoL assessment by both self and parent proxy report can identify psychiatric health services needs not detected by an established instrument for assessing mental health problems, i.e. the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), has never been examined and was the purpose of the present study. No study exists that compares child QoL as rated by both child and parent, in a sample of referred child psychiatric outpatients with a representative sample of students attending public school in the same catchment area while controlling for mental health problems in the child. In the current study patients and students, aged 8-15.5 years, were matched with respect to age, gender and levels of the CBCL Total Problems scores. QoL was assessed by the self- and parent proxy-reports on the Inventory of Life Quality in Children and Adolescents (ILC). QoL scores were analyzed by non-parametric tests, using Wilcoxon paired rank comparisons. Both outpatients and their parents reported significantly lower child QoL on the ILC than did students and their parents, when children were matched on sex and age. Given equal levels of emotional and behavioural problems, as reported by the parents on the CBCL, in the two contrasting samples, the outpatients and their parents still reported lower QoL levels than did the students and their parents. Child QoL reported both by child and parent was reduced in outpatients compared to students with equal levels of mental health problems as reported by their parents on the CBCL. This suggests that it should be helpful to add assessment of QoL to achieve a fuller
Vugs, Brigitte; Knoors, Harry; Cuperus, Juliane; Hendriks, Marc; Verhoeven, Ludo
The underlying structure of working memory (WM) in young children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) was examined. The associations between the components of WM and the language abilities of young children with SLI were then analyzed. The Automated Working Memory Assessment and four linguistic tasks were administered to 58 children with SLI and 58 children without SLI, aged 4-5 years. The WM of the children was best represented by a model with four separate but interacting components of verbal storage, visuospatial storage, verbal central executive (CE), and visuospatial CE. The associations between the four components of WM did not differ significantly for the two groups of children. However, the individual components of WM showed varying associations with the language abilities of the children with SLI. The verbal CE component of WM was moderately to strongly associated with all the language abilities in children with SLI: receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, verbal comprehension, and syntactic development. These results show verbal CE to be involved in a wide range of linguistic skills; the limited ability of young children with SLI to simultaneously store and process verbal information may constrain their acquisition of linguistic skills. Attention should thus be paid to the language problems of children with SLI, but also to the WM impairments that can contribute to their language problems.
Gonçalves, Bruna Miroski; Dias, Loraine Fernandes; Pereira, Carla da Silva; Ponte, Marcos Ximenes; Konrath, Andréa Cristina; Bolan, Michele da Silva; Cardoso, Mariane
ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of dental trauma and impaired esthetics on the quality of life (QoL) of preschool children and their relatives. Methods: Study conducted with 192 children aged 2 to 5 years in 11 preschools in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, South of Brazil. Parents/caregivers completed a questionnaire on quality of life (Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scales - B-ECOHIS), a socioeconomic survey, and then answered specific questions related to dental trauma. The subjects were examined by three accordant examiners (Kappa>0.7). Dental trauma was evaluated on the basis of indexes adopted by the World Health Organization, and esthetic impairment was then classified. Data were descriptively analyzed and put to bivariate analysis by chi-square and Fisher tests, with significance level at 5%. Results: The prevalence of dental trauma was 62.5% with 15.6% of esthetic impairment. Almost 12% of parents reported impact on the quality of life of their children. Dental trauma was not significantly associated with gender, age or QoL. Crown color change by trauma was associated with esthetic impairment. Also esthetic impairment had a negative impact on QoL (pEsthetic impairment had a negative impact on children’s quality of life, while dental trauma was not associated to it. PMID:28977132
Watkin, Peter; McCann, Donna; Law, Catherine; Mullee, Mark; Petrou, Stavros; Stevenson, Jim; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho Ming; Kennedy, Colin
The goal was to examine the relationships between management after confirmation, family participation, and speech and language outcomes in the same group of children with permanent childhood hearing impairment. Speech, oral language, and nonverbal abilities, expressed as z scores and adjusted in a regression model, and Family Participation Rating Scale scores were assessed at a mean age of 7.9 years for 120 children with bilateral permanent childhood hearing impairment from a 1992-1997 United Kingdom birth cohort. Ages at institution of management and hearing aid fitting were obtained retrospectively from case notes. Compared with children managed later (> 9 months), those managed early (early did not have significantly higher scores for these outcomes. Family Participation Rating Scale scores showed significant positive correlations with language and speech intelligibility scores only for those with confirmation after 9 months and were highest for those with late confirmed, severe/profound, permanent childhood hearing impairment. Early management of permanent childhood hearing impairment results in improved language. Family participation is also an important factor in cases that are confirmed late, especially for children with severe or profound permanent childhood hearing impairment.
Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.
The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.
Flapper, B.C.; Bos, A.C.; Jansen, D.E.
The prevalence of mental health problems (MHP) in children with language disorders ranges from 11 to 55%, due to additional disabilities that have a significant relationship to psychosocial difficulties. Specialists assume that children with a selective disorder [selective language impairment
Kurz, Max J; Stuberg, Wayne; Dejong, Stacey; Arpin, David J
The aim of this investigation was to determine if body-weight-supported (BWS) overground gait training has the potential to improve the walking abilities of children and youth with childhood onset motor impairments and intellectual disabilities. Eight participants (mean age of 16.3 years) completed 12 weeks of BWS overground gait training that was performed two times a week. BWS was provided during the training sessions by an overhead harness system that rolls overground. There was a significant improvement in the preferred walking speed after the training (p training may be an effective treatment strategy for improving the preferred walking speed of children and youth with motor impairments.
Yoneda, Takahiro; Kudo, Hiroaki; Minagawa, Hiroki; Ohnishi, Noboru; Matsubara, Shizuya
Some visually impaired children have difficulty in simple locomotion, and need orientation and mobility training. We developed a computer assisted instruction system which assists this training. A user realizes a task given by a tactile map and synthesized speech. The user walks around a room according to the task. The system gives the gap of walk path from its target path via both auditory and tactile feedback after the end of a task. Then the user can understand how well the user walked. We describe the detail of the proposed system and task, and the experimental result with three visually impaired children.
Stephan, T; Keilmann, A
Currently, only few tests for the development of speech and language exist for bi- or multilingual children in Germany. One of those, the LiSe-DaZ (Linguistic performance measurement - German as a second language), was examined in a prospective study regarding its practicability and the sensitivity to detect children with specific language impairment in a group of children aged 5 to 7 who suffered from a severe language impairment according to clinical tests. 74 children (mean age: 60 months; 46% monolingual German-speaking; 54% bi- or multilingual) with severe specific language impairment were examined with the LiSe-DaZ in addition to the clinical established diagnostic during their in-patient stay in the hospital. The children, on average, showed in the receptive language abilities (LiSe-DaZ vs. TROG-D), the expressive vocabulary (LiSe-DaZ vs. AWST-R or WWT) and in the use of prepositions (LiSe-DaZ vs. Ravensburger Dysgrammatical clinical trial) significantly (pchildren were diagnosed as language impaired by clinically established tests whereas the LiSe-DaZ considered the children's language development to be normal. This difference was consistently more prominent for children with German as a second language. Compared with the clinically established tests, the informative value of the LiSe-DaZ turned out to be insufficient. The LiSe-DaZ does not detect children with the need of language therapy. Nevertheless, a norming of the established speech tests for bi- or multilingual children would be desirable to avoid unfounded judgements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Postert, Christian; Averbeck-Holocher, Marlies; Beyer, Thomas; Müller, Jörg; Furniss, Tilman
DSM-IV and ICD-10 have limitations in the diagnostic classification of psychiatric disorders at preschool age (0-5 years). The publication of the Diagnostic Classification 0-3 (DC:0-3) in 1994, its basically revised second edition (DC:0-3R) in 2005 and the Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age (RDC-PA) in 2004 have provided several modifications of these manuals. Taking into account the growing empirical evidence highlighting the need for a diagnostic classification system for psychiatric disorders in preschool children, the main categorical classification systems in preschool psychiatry will be presented and discussed. The paper will focus on issues of validity, usefulness and reliability in DSM-IV, ICD-10, RDC-PA, DC:0-3, and DC:0-3R. The reasons for including or excluding postulated psychiatric disorder categories for preschool children with variable degrees of empirical evidence into the different diagnostic systems will be discussed.
Geldof, Christiaan J A; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Dik, Marjolein; Kok, Joke H; Oosterlaan, Jaap
Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is a major cause of visual impairment, with very preterm birth/very low birth weight (VP/VLBW) being a major risk factor. There is no generally accepted definition of CVI. This study aims to investigate the usefulness of an empirically-based functional definition of CVI. One-hundred-five VP/VLBW children and 67 controls participated. CVI was defined after comprehensive oculomotor, visual sensory and perceptive assessment, and validated against vision problems in daily life and in terms of intellectual, behavioral, emotional and social functioning, as well as use of therapeutic services. Twenty-four per cent of the VP/VLBW children met criteria for CVI, compared to 7% of controls (P = 0.006, OR: 3.86, 95% CI: 1.40-10.70). VP/VLBW children with CVI had lower performance IQ, but not verbal IQ, than those without CVI. Visual problems in daily life were confirmed in VP/VLBW children classified with CVI. Additionally, difficulties in behavioral and social functioning were most prominent among VP/VLBW children with CVI. In VP/VLBW children, CVI defined in terms of visual function deficits is accompanied by intellectual, behavioral, and social impairments, validating our operational definition of CVI. CVI might act as a marker for developmental problems in VP/VLBW children.
Svedberg, Lena E; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Nordahl, Gunnar; Lundeberg, Thomas
Little emphasis has been accorded to peripheral skin temperature impairments in children with neurological disorders but attention has been paid to the significance of cold extremities (autonomic failure) for well-being and quality of life in adults stroke patients. Therefore, it seems important to investigate skin temperature in children with neurological disorder, especially when their communication is impaired. In the present study, we wanted to objectively verify any skin temperature differences between pre-school children with and without neurological disorders and also ascertain if any correlation existed between skin temperature and physical activity. Skin temperatures in 25 healthy children and 15 children with cerebral or spinal cord damages were assessed using infrared radiation. The temperatures were recorded on the palm and the dorsal surface of the hands and on the sole and dorsal surface of the feet three times at 15-minute intervals over 30min. A significant lower mean skin temperature in all measurement points was seen in non-walking children with cerebral damages compared to healthy controls. Also, the mean skin temperature was significantly lower in all foot measuring points in the children with cerebral damages that were unable to walk compared to those walking. In conclusion, as cold extremities may result in impaired well-being and hypothetically may be associated with other symptoms born by the child, further investigations of thermal dysfunction and autonomic function are of importance and treatment may be warranted.
Full Text Available Children with specific language impairments (SLIs show impaired perception and production of language, and also show impairments in perceiving auditory cues to rhythm (amplitude rise time [ART] and sound duration and in tapping to a rhythmic beat. Here we explore potential links between language development and rhythm perception in 45 children with SLI and 50 age-matched controls. We administered three rhythmic tasks, a musical beat detection task, a tapping-to-music task, and a novel music/speech task, which varied rhythm and pitch cues independently or together in both speech and music. Via low-pass filtering, the music sounded as though it was played from a low-quality radio and the speech sounded as though it was muffled (heard behind the door. We report data for all of the SLI children (N = 45, IQ varying, as well as for two independent subgroupings with intact IQ. One subgroup, Pure SLI, had intact phonology and reading (N=16, the other, SLI PPR (N=15, had impaired phonology and reading. When IQ varied (all SLI children, we found significant group differences in all the rhythmic tasks. For the Pure SLI group, there were rhythmic impairments in the tapping task only. For children with SLI and poor phonology (SLI PPR, group differences were found in all of the filtered speech/music AXB tasks. We conclude that difficulties with rhythmic cues in both speech and music are present in children with SLIs, but that some rhythmic measures are more sensitive than others. The data are interpreted within a ‘prosodic phrasing’ hypothesis, and we discuss the potential utility of rhythmic and musical interventions in remediating speech and language difficulties in children.
Mohanty, Soubhagyalaxmi; Venkata Ramana Murty, Peri; Pradhan, Balaram; Hankey, Alex
Muscle strength, a component for balance, gait and functional mobility is vital for children with visual impairment. Yoga has frequently been demonstrated to improve physical and mental fitness in children. This study aimed to assess the effect of 16 weeks yoga training on muscular ﬁtness in children with visual impairment. This was a wait-listed two-armed-matched case-control study. Eighty (41 yoga, 39 control) visual impairment students of both genders aged 9-16 years matched on age, gender and degree of blindness were assessed at pre, mid (after 8 weeks) and post (after 16 weeks) yoga intervention using the Kraus-Weber test. The percentage of students passed in yoga group were 12.2%, 43.9% and 68.3% whereas percentages in the control group were 23.1%, 30.8% and 30.8% in pre, mid, and post tests respectively. McNemar test showed significant differences between pre and mid, mid and post in the yoga group while those parameters were not significantly different in the control group. Yoga therapy seemed to have considerable benefits for the children's muscular ﬁtness. The study suggests that yoga have considerable benefits for improvement of fitness level in children with visual impairment and may be recommended as and effective, alternative, inexpensive low risk training activity option for them.
Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Antonio Pascotto,1 Beatrice Gallai,3 Lucia Parisi,2 Michele Roccella,2 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Antonella Gritti,5 Giovanni Mazzotta,6 Marco Carotenuto11Center for Childhood Headache, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples, Naples, 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, 4Department of Psychiatry, “Magna Graecia” University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, 5Suor Orsola Benincasa University, Napoli, 6Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Azienda Sanitaria Locale 4, Terni, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the cognitive functioning of children affected by headache, pinpointing the differences in intelligence style between subjects affected by migraine without aura and subjects with tension-type headache.Methods: The study population consisted of 147 children (mean age 10.82 ± 2.17 years with headache, recruited from the Headache Center for Developmental Age, Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic, Second University of Naples. Cognitive profiling was performed using Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children Third Edition throughout the sample. According to the International Classification of Headache Disorders II criteria for pediatric age, subjects were divided into a migraine without aura group (n = 75; 43 boys, 32 girls and a tension-type headache group (n = 72; 49 boys, 23 girls. The results were compared with the findings obtained from a sample of 137 healthy control subjects recruited from schools in the Campania region, matched for age and gender.Results: No difference in full intelligence quotient was found between the groups, but the children with tension-type headache had a lower verbal intelligence quotient and a higher performance intelligence quotient than the healthy controls and children with migraine. Factor
Hamilton, Antonia F de C; Brindley, Rachel; Frith, Uta
Evidence from typical development and neuroimaging studies suggests that level 2 visual perspective taking - the knowledge that different people may see the same thing differently at the same time - is a mentalising task. Thus, we would expect children with autism, who fail typical mentalising tasks like false belief, to perform poorly on level 2 visual perspective taking as well. However, prior data on this issue are inconclusive. We re-examined this question, testing a group of 23 young autistic children, aged around 8years with a verbal mental age of around 4years and three groups of typical children (n=60) ranging in age from 4 to 8years on a level 2 visual perspective task and a closely matched mental rotation task. The results demonstrate that autistic children have difficulty with visual perspective taking compared to a task requiring mental rotation, relative to typical children. Furthermore, performance on the level 2 visual perspective taking task correlated with theory of mind performance. These findings resolve discrepancies in previous studies of visual perspective taking in autism, and demonstrate that level 2 visual perspective taking is a mentalising task.
Narimoto, Tadamasa; Matsuura, Naomi; Hiratani, Michio
Previous studies provide clear evidence that visuospatial memory performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is significantly lower than in typically developing children. In the present study, we investigated a major cause of their low performance using a spatial span test. Possibly, inattention resulting from lack of motivation or interest causes their low performance so that they do not correctly encode targets to be remembered. On the other hand, a deficit in temporary maintenance per se may cause their low performance; that is, their inefficient use of rehearsal during a retention interval may lead to memory traces' fast decay. Results in this study indicated that children with ADHD could sustain attention during the encoding phase. Furthermore, their performance at delayed recall was significantly lower than immediate recall, but delayed recall did not affect typically developing children's performance. These results provide evidence for the likelihood that a factor causing children with ADHD difficulty in temporarily maintaining visuospatial information is fast decay of memory traces as a result of inefficient use of rehearsal, not inattention in the encoding phase.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the high prevalence of substance abuse and mood disorders among victimized children and adolescents, few studies have investigated the association of these disorders with treatment adherence, represented by numbers of visits per month and treatment duration. We aimed to investigate the effects of substance abuse and mood disorders on treatment adherence and duration in a special program for victimized children in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A total of 351 participants were evaluated for psychiatric disorders and classified into one of five groups: mood disorders alone; substance abuse disorders alone; mood and substance abuse disorders; other psychiatric disorders; no psychiatric disorders. The associations between diagnostic classification and adherence to treatment and the duration of program participation were tested with logistic regression and survival analysis, respectively. RESULTS: Children with mood disorders alone had the highest rate of adherence (79.5%; those with substance abuse disorders alone had the lowest (40%; and those with both disorders had an intermediate rate of adherence (50%. Those with other psychiatric disorders and no psychiatric disorders also had high rates of adherence (75.6% and 72.9%, respectively. Living with family significantly increased adherence for children with substance abuse disorders but decreased adherence for those with no psychiatric disorders. The diagnostic correlates of duration of participation were similar to those for adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Mood and substance abuse disorders were strong predictive factors for treatment adherence and duration, albeit in opposite directions. Living with family seems to have a positive effect on treatment adherence for patients with substance abuse disorders. More effective treatment is needed for victimized substance-abusing youth
Vuolo, Janet; Goffman, Lisa; Zelaznik, Howard N
Our objective was to delineate components of motor performance in specific language impairment (SLI); specifically, whether deficits in timing precision in one effector (unimanual tapping) and in two effectors (bimanual clapping) are observed in young children with SLI. Twenty-seven 4- to 5-year-old children with SLI and 21 age-matched peers with typical language development participated. All children engaged in a unimanual tapping and a bimanual clapping timing task. Standard measures of language and motor performance were also obtained. No group differences in timing variability were observed in the unimanual tapping task. However, compared with typically developing peers, children with SLI were more variable in their timing precision in the bimanual clapping task. Nine of the children with SLI performed greater than 1 SD below the mean on a standardized motor assessment. The children with low motor performance showed the same profile as observed across all children with SLI, with unaffected unimanual and impaired bimanual timing precision. Although unimanual timing is unaffected, children with SLI show a deficit in timing that requires bimanual coordination. We propose that the timing deficits observed in children with SLI are associated with the increased demands inherent in bimanual performance.
Chew, F L M; Thavaratnam, L K; Shukor, I N C; Ramasamy, S; Rahmat, J; Reidpath, D D; Allotey, P; Alagaratnam, J
Little is known regarding the extent of visual impairment amongst pre-school children in Malaysia. To determine the prevalence of visual impairment and amblyopia in Malaysian preschool children. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on children aged four to six years from 51 participating kindergartens in the district of Segamat, Johor, Malaysia from 20 March 2016 to 6 April 2016. All subjects had initial eye screening consisting of LogMar visual acuity, orthoptics examination and Spot vision screener assessment. Subjects who failed the initial eye screening were invited for a formal eye assessment consisting of cycloplegic refraction and a comprehensive ocular examination. Definitions of visual impairment and amblyopia were based on the Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study criteria. A total of 1287 children were recruited. Mean subject age was 5.03 (SD:0.77) and males represented 52.3% of subjects. Subjects by ethnicity were Malay (54.8%), Chinese (27.7%), Indian (15.6%) and Orang Asli (1.9%). Formal eye assessment was required for 221 subjects and 88.8% required ophthalmic intervention. Refractive error, representing 95.4% of diagnosed ocular disorders, comprised of astigmatism (84%), myopia (9%) and hypermetropia (6.9%). With-the-rule astigmatism was present in 93.4% of the subjects with astigmatism. Visual impairment was present in 12.5% of our subjects, with 61% having bilateral visual impairment. Of the subjects with visual impairment, 59.1% had moderate visual impairment. The prevalence of amblyopia was 7.53%, and 66% of the amblyopic subjects had bilateral amblyopia. Our study highlights an urgent need for initiation of preschool vision screening in Malaysia.
Iannuzzi, Stéphanie; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Chignac, Céline; Faure-Marie, Nathalie; Barry, Isabelle; Karsenty, Caroline; Chaix, Yves
There is a body of evidence demonstrating comorbidity of motor and cognitive deficit in «idiopathic» developmental disorders. These associations are also found in developmental disorders secondary to monogenic disorders as in Neurofibromatosis type 1 for which the principal complication during childhood is learning disabilities. The comparison of motor impairment between developmental disorders either idiopathic or secondary as in NF1 could help us to better understand the cause of the combined language/motor deficit in these populations. The aim of this current study was to investigate motor impairment in children with NF1 for which oral language had been specified and then to compare the motors skills of the NF1 group to motor performance of children with Specific Language Disorder (SLD). Two groups of 49 children between 5 and 12years old were included and compared, the NF1 group and the SLD (Specific Language Disorder) group. Each child completed evaluation involving cognitive, language and motor assessment. In NF1 group, motor impairment was more frequent and more severe and concerned specifically balance rather than manual dexterity or ball skills, compared to a group of children with SLD. This motor impairment was independent of language status in the NF1 group. These results as well as other studies on the same topic could suggest that in NF1 children, fine motor skills impairment would be dependent on the existence of comorbidity with language disorders. Also, that gross motor skills impairment, and more precisely the balance deficit would be characteristic of NF1. This issue encourages studies of procedural learning that can involve the fronto-striatal or the fronto-cerebellar loops according to the type of motor tasks and the stage of learning. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Reimer, A M; Barsingerhorn, A D; Overvelde, A; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M W G; Boonstra, F N; Cox, R F A
To compare fine motor performance of 3-year-old children with visual impairment with peers having normal vision, to provide reference scores for 3-year-old children with visual impairment on the ManuVis, and to assess inter-rater reliability. 26 children with visual impairment (mean age: 3 years 7 months (SD 3 months); 17 boys) and 28 children with normal vision (mean age: 3 years 7 months (SD 4 months); 14 boys) participated in the study. The ManuVis age band for 3-year-old children comprised two one-handed tasks, two two-handed tasks, and a pre-writing task. Children with visual impairment needed more time on all tasks (p children with normal vision (p Children aged 42-47 months performed significantly faster on two tasks and had better total scores than children aged 36-41 months (p children is appropriate to assess fine motor skills, and is sensitive to differences between children with visual impairment and normal vision and between half-year age groups. Reference scores are provided for 3-year-old children with visual impairment to identify delayed fine motor development.
Earle, F. Sayako; Gallinat, Erica L.; Grela, Bernard G.; Lehto, Alexa; Spaulding, Tammie J.
This study determined the effect of matching children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their peers with typical development (TD) for nonverbal IQ on the IQ test scores of the resultant groups. Studies published between January 2000 and May 2012 reporting standard nonverbal IQ scores for SLI and age-matched TD controls were categorized…
Anderson, Raquel T.; Lockowitz, Alison
The purpose of this investigation was to identify how Spanish-speaking preschool children with and without specific language impairment (SLI) use the various cues available for ascribing a noun's inherent gender in the language. Via an invented word task, four types of cues were isolated and presented to each child: (1) two types of noun-internal…
Tuller, Laurice; Hamann, Cornelia; Chilla, Solveig; Ferré, Sandrine; Morin, Eléonore; Prevost, Philippe; Dos Santos, Christophe; Abed Ibrahim, Lina; Zebib, Racha
The detection of specific language impairment (SLI) in children growing up bilingually presents particular challenges for clinicians. Non-word repetition (NWR) and sentence repetition (SR) tasks have proven to be the most accurate diagnostic tools for monolingual populations, raising the question of the extent of their usefulness in different bilingual populations. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of NWR and SR tasks that incorporate phonological/syntactic complexity as discussed in recent linguistic theory. The tasks were developed as part of the Language Impairment Testing in Multilingual Settings (LITMUS) toolkit, in two different national settings, France and Germany, and investigated children with three different home languages: Arabic, Portuguese and Turkish. NWR and SR tasks developed in parallel were administered to 151 bilingual children, aged 5;6-8;11, in France and in Germany, to 64 children in speech-language therapy (SLT) and to 87 children not in SLT, whose first language (L1) was Arabic, Portuguese or Turkish. Children were also administered standardized language tests in each of their languages to determine likely clinical status (typical development (TD) or SLI), and parents responded to a questionnaire including questions about early and current language use (bilingualism factors) and early language development (risk factors for SLI). Monolingual controls included 47 TD children and 29 children with SLI. Results were subjected to inter-group comparisons, to diagnostic accuracy calculation, and to correlation and multiple regression analyses. In accordance with previous studies, NWR and SR identified SLI in the monolingual children, yielding good to excellent diagnostic accuracy. Diagnostic accuracy in bilingual children was fair to good, generally distinguishing children likely to have SLI from children likely to have TD. Accuracy was necessarily linked to the determination of clinical status, which was based on standardized assessment in each
The present thesis addresses the influence of aquatic interventions on motor performance of children with neuro-motor deficiencies in a functional context. The theoretical framework is based on a functional approach in compliance to the International Classification of Function and Disability (ICF).
Essa, M. M.; Braidy, N.; Waly, M. I.; Al-Farsi, Y. M.; Al-Sharbati, M.; Subash, S.; Amanat, A.; Al-Shaffaee, M. A.; Guillemin, G. J.
Accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress induced mechanisms are believed to be associated with the pathophysiology of autism. In this study, we recruited 19 Omani autistic children with age-matched controls to analyze their plasma and serum redox status and the levels of ATP, NAD[superscript +] and NADH using well established…
Verheij, C.; Louwerse, A.; van der Ende, J.; Eussen, M. L. J. M.; Van Gool, A. R.; Verheij, F.; Verhulst, F. C.; Greaves-Lord, K.
The current study was a 7-year follow-up of 74 6-12 year old children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. We examined the rates and 7 year stability of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses as ascertained with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children: Parent version at ages 6-12 and again at ages 12-20. Also, we examined…
Richtsmeier, Peter T; Goffman, Lisa
Children with specific language impairment (SLI) often perform below expected levels, including on tests of motor skill and in learning tasks, particularly procedural learning. In this experiment we examined the possibility that children with SLI might also have a motor learning deficit. Twelve children with SLI and thirteen children with typical development (TD) produced complex nonwords in an imitation task. Productions were collected across three blocks, with the first and second blocks on the same day and the third block one week later. Children's lip movements while producing the nonwords were recorded using an Optotrak camera system. Movements were then analyzed for production duration and stability. Movement analyses indicated that both groups of children produced shorter productions in later blocks (corroborated by an acoustic analysis), and the rate of change was comparable for the TD and SLI groups. A nonsignificant trend for more stable productions was also observed in both groups. SLI is regularly accompanied by a motor deficit, and this study does not dispute that. However, children with SLI learned to make more efficient productions at a rate similar to their peers with TD, revealing some modification of the motor deficit associated with SLI. The reader will learn about deficits commonly associated with specific language impairment (SLI) that often occur alongside the hallmark language deficit. The authors present an experiment showing that children with SLI improved speech motor performance at a similar rate compared to typically developing children. The implication is that speech motor learning is not impaired in children with SLI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ventura, Liana O; Ventura, Camila V; Dias, Natália de C; Vilar, Isabelle G; Gois, Adriana L; Arantes, Tiago E; Fernandes, Luciene C; Chiang, Michael F; Miller, Marilyn T; Lawrence, Linda
To assess visual impairment in a large sample of infants with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) and to compare with a control group using the same assessment protocol. The study group was composed of infants with confirmed diagnosis of CZS. Controls were healthy infants matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. All infants underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic evaluation including visual acuity, visual function assessment, and visual developmental milestones. The CZS group included 119 infants; the control group, 85 infants. At examination, the mean age of the CZS group was 8.5 ± 1.2 months (range, 6-13 months); of the controls, 8.4 ± 1.8 months (range, 5-12 months; P = 0.598). Binocular Teller Acuity Card (TAC) testing was abnormal in 107 CZS infants and in 4 controls (89.9% versus 5% [P visual development milestones were less achieved by infants with CZS compared to controls (P visual impairment. A protocol for assessment of the ocular findings, visual acuity, and visual developmental milestones tested against age-matched controls is suggested. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Research on the relationship between aspects of language development and Theory of Mind (ToM) in children with language impairments suggests that children with language impairment show a delay in ToM development. This study aimed to examine the relationships of the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills with ToM in school-age children. Twenty children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) aged 9-12 years and two control groups, one matched for chronological age (CA) and one for language ability (LA) (aged 8-10 years) were compared on a set of language tasks tapping syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic skills and on an advanced test of ToM. Results showed that children with SLI performed poorly on the ToM task compared to the CA matches. Also, analysis showed that language skills and ToM are related and that syntactic and pragmatic abilities contributed significantly to the prediction of ToM performance in the SLI group. It is concluded that the syntax/pragmatic aspects of the language impact on ToM understanding in children with SLI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Willinger, Ulrike; Schmoeger, Michaela; Deckert, Matthias; Eisenwort, Brigitte; Loader, Benjamin; Hofmair, Annemarie; Auff, Eduard
Specific language impairment (SLI) comprises impairments in receptive and/or expressive language. Aim of this study was to evaluate a screening for SLI. 61 children with SLI (SLI-children, age-range 4-6 years) and 61 matched typically developing controls were tested for receptive language ability (Token Test-TT) and for intelligence (Wechsler Preschool-and-Primary-Scale-of-Intelligence-WPPSI). Group differences were analyzed using t tests, as well as direct and stepwise discriminant analyses. The predictive value of the WPPSI with respect to TT performance was analyzed using regression analyses. SLI-children performed significantly worse on both TT and WPPSI ([Formula: see text]). The TT alone yielded an overall classification rate of 79%, the TT and the WPPSI together yielded an overall classification rate of 80%. TT performance was significantly predicted by verbal intelligence in SLI-children and nonverbal intelligence in controls whilst WPPSI subtest arithmetic was predictive in both groups. Without further research, the Token Test cannot be seen as a valid and sufficient tool for the screening of SLI in preschool children but rather as a tool for the assessment of more general intellectual capacities. SLI-children at this age already show impairments typically associated with SLI which indicates the necessity of early developmental support or training. Token Test performance is possibly an indicator for a more general developmental factor rather than an exclusive indicator for language difficulties.
Plioplys, Sigita; Dunn, David W.; Caplan, Rochelle
The research on epilepsy, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by seizures, psychopathology, cognitive, and linguistic problems among children in the age group of 0 to 18 years is reported. Early identification of children with epilepsy (CWE) and the development of multidisciplinary management strategies would advance relevant clinical…
Luebbe, Aaron M.; Elledge, L. Christian; Kiel, Elizabeth J.; Stoppelbein, Laura
Individual differences in behavioral regulation system (BRS) and stress response system (SRS) functioning may reflect greater biological sensitivity to context. The current study tested whether children's cortisol, a measure of the SRS, was related to observed dysregulated behavior, an indicator of the BRS, in a sample of children admitted for…
Campaña, Laura V.; Ouimet, Donald A.
Since its creation in the early 1980s, Light Box, a product developed by the American Printing House for the Blind (APH) that is designed for working on functional vision tasks with children who have visual impairments or multiple disabilities, has been an effective tool to help teach children with visual impairments to locate and track items…
Zelaznik, Howard N; Goffman, Lisa
To examine whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) differ from normally developing peers in motor skills, especially those skills related to timing. Standard measures of gross and fine motor development were obtained. Furthermore, finger and hand movements were recorded while children engaged in 4 different timing tasks, including tapping and drawing circles in time with a metronome or a visual target. Fourteen children with SLI (age 6 to 8 years) and 14 age-matched peers who were typically developing participated. As expected, children with SLI showed poorer performance on a standardized test of gross and fine motor skill than did their normally developing peers. However, timing skill in the manual domain was equivalent to that seen in typically developing children. Consistent with earlier findings, relatively poor gross and fine motor performance is observed in children with SLI. Surprisingly, rhythmic timing is spared.
Larkin, Rebecca F; Williams, Gareth J; Blaggan, Samarita
Few studies have explored the phonological, morphological and orthographic spellings skills of children with specific language impairment (SLI) simultaneously. Fifteen children with SLI (mean age=113.07 months, SD=8.61) completed language and spelling tasks alongside chronological-age controls and spelling-age controls. While the children with SLI showed a deficit in phonological spelling, they performed comparably to spelling-age controls on morphological spelling skills, and there were no differences between the three groups in producing orthographically legal spellings. The results also highlighted the potential importance of adequate non-word repetition skills in relation to effective spelling skills, and demonstrated that not all children with spoken language impairments show marked spelling difficulties. Findings are discussed in relation to theory, educational assessment and practice. As a result of this activity, readers will describe components of spoken language that predict children's morphological and phonological spelling performance. As a result of this activity, readers will describe how the spelling skills of children with SLI compare to age-matched and spelling age-matched control children. Readers will be able to interpret the variability in spelling performance seen in children with SLI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mosca, Renata; Kritzinger, Alta; van der Linde, Jeannie
Language and communication difficulties of young children with visual impairment (VI) are ascribed to intellectual disability, multiple disabilities and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rather than their sensory impairment. Consequently, the communication difficulties of children with VI may have been underestimated and undertreated. This report aims to critically appraise recent peer reviewed literature relating to communication and language development in children with VI. A systematic search of the literature (2003–2013) was completed using the PRISMA guidelines, and primary and secondary search phrases. Nine publications were reviewed in terms of the strength of recent evidence. Thematic analysis was used to describe the early language and communication characteristics of children with VI. All the selected articles (n = 9) were from developed countries and participants from seven of the studies had congenital VI. Five of the studies received an evidence level rating of III while four articles were rated as IIb. Two main themes emerged from the studies: early intervention, and multiple disabilities and ASD. Language and communication development is affected by VI, especially in the early stages of development. Speech-language therapists should therefore be included in early intervention for children with VI. Recent evidence on the early language and communication difficulties of children with VI exists, but children in developing countries with acquired VI appear to not be investigated. The identified language and communication developmental characteristics may assist speech-language therapists to build a knowledge base for participation in early intervention for young children with VI and their families.
Ghosh, Sambuddha; Mukhopadhyay, Udayaditya; Maji, Dipankar; Bhaduri, Gautam
To evaluate pattern of visual impairment in school children from low-income families in Kolkata, India, an institutional cross-sectional study was conducted among 2570 children of 10 primary schools. Ocular examination including refraction was done and pattern of visual impairment and refractive error was studied. The age range was 6-14 years. Refractive error was seen in 14.7%. Only 4 children were already wearing correction. Myopia and hypermetropia was present in 307 (11.9%) and 65 (2.5%) children, respectively. Visual acuity of less than 6/12 in better eye was present in 109 (4.2%) and 5 (0.2%) children pre- and post-correction, respectively. Eighteen children had amblyopia. Although prevalence of refractive error in this group is less compared to school children of all income categories reported from other cities of India, it is more compared to school children of all income categories from the same city. Refractive error mostly remains uncorrected in this group.
Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Veríssimo, João; Dye, Cristina D; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Bruce Tomblin, J; Ullman, Michael T
The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TD children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that these
Hedenius, Martina; Persson, Jonas; Tremblay, Antoine; Adi-Japha, Esther; Veríssimo, João; Dye, Cristina D.; Alm, Per; Jennische, Margareta; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Ullman, Michael T.
The Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH) posits that Specific Language Impairment (SLI) can be largely explained by abnormalities of brain structures that subserve procedural memory. The PDH predicts impairments of procedural memory itself, and that such impairments underlie the grammatical deficits observed in the disorder. Previous studies have indeed reported procedural learning impairments in SLI, and have found that these are associated with grammatical difficulties. The present study extends this research by examining the consolidation and longer-term procedural sequence learning in children with SLI. The Alternating Serial Reaction Time (ASRT) task was given to children with SLI and typically-developing (TD) children in an initial learning session and an average of three days later to test for consolidation and longer-term learning. Although both groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only the TD children showed clear signs of consolidation, even though the two groups did not differ in longer-term learning. When the children were re-categorized on the basis of grammar deficits rather than broader language deficits, a clearer pattern emerged. Whereas both the grammar impaired and normal grammar groups showed evidence of initial sequence learning, only those with normal grammar showed consolidation and longer-term learning. Indeed, the grammar-impaired group appeared to lose any sequence knowledge gained during the initial testing session. These findings held even when controlling for vocabulary or a broad non-grammatical language measure, neither of which were associated with procedural memory. When grammar was examined as a continuous variable over all children, the same relationships between procedural memory and grammar, but not vocabulary or the broader language measure, were observed. Overall, the findings support and further specify the PDH. They suggest that consolidation and longer-term procedural learning are impaired in SLI, but that
Dote-Kwan, Jamie; Chen, Deborah; Hughes, Margaret
This study examined the influence of home environment, socioeconomic status, and visual functioning on mothers' perceptions of the family needs and development of 19 toddlers with visual impairments from Latino and Anglo backgrounds. Differences were found between the mothers' perceived needs based on ethnicity and their children's degree of…
In this German study, 317 parents of children with hearing impairments and additional disabilities completed both the Parenting Stress Index and an additional questionnaire on demographics and related information. Analysis showed consistently high stress scores in the Child Domain, whereas the Parent Domain showed only a slight tendency toward…
Ritter, Michaela; Colson, Karen A.; Park, Jungjun
This exploratory study examined the effects of Interactive Metronome (IM) when integrated with a traditional language and reading intervention on reading achievement. Forty-nine school-age children with language and reading impairments were assigned randomly to either an experimental group who received the IM treatment or to a control group who…
Stauter, Donna W.; Myers, Sarah R.; Classen, Audra I.
Children with severe speech and physical impairment who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) present unique challenges in literacy development. Traditional reading instruction has not met these students' needs. Occupational therapy and speech therapy provide supports to mediate limitations to literacy instruction. A systematic…
Nordberg, Ann; Dahlgren Sandberg, Annika; Miniscalco, Carmela
Background: Research on retelling ability and cognition is limited in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and speech impairment. Aims: To explore the impact of expressive and receptive language, narrative discourse dimensions (Narrative Assessment Profile measures), auditory and visual memory, theory of mind (ToM) and non-verbal cognition on the…
Good, Joy E.; Lance, Dee M.; Rainey, Jacquie
Children with language impairment frequently struggle with written language skills such as spelling. With their expertise in language, speech-language pathologists are in the position to promote the development of such skills. One way to do this is through the use of direct spelling instruction which has been shown to facilitate growth in a number…
Petersen, Douglas B.
This systematic review focuses on research articles published since 1980 that assess outcomes of narrative-based language intervention for preschool and school-age children with language impairment. The author conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases and hand searches of other sources for studies using all research designs except…
Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenge, Judit; van Leeuwe, Jan; van Balkom, Hans
In this study, we investigated which componential skills can be distinguished in the second language (L2) development of 140 bilingual children with specific language impairment in the Netherlands, aged 6-11 years, divided into 3 age groups. L2 development was assessed by means of spoken language tasks representing different language skills…
The aim of this study is to assess the effects that teaching visually impaired (VI) preschool children play skills has on their abilities to initialize and respond to social interactions with their typically developing (TD) peers in a reverse mainstreaming preschool class. The subjects of the study were three female VI students regularly attending…
Flapper, B.C.; Van Den Heuvel, M.
Speech-language-impairment (SLI) as well as behavioral-dysfunction and school-type might influence health-related-quality-of-life. Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study in 124 children aged 5-8 years with SLI, in 4 special education (SE) and 7 mainstream ambulatory care (AC) schools, and 35
Macrine, Sheila L.; Heji, Hayat; Sabri, Amel; Dalton, Sara
Developmental screening has become an established component of child health programs in many developed countries. The research objective of this project was to translate and adapt a developmental assessment (Oregon Project Skills Inventory) for use with young children with visual impairments who speak Arabic. The study was prompted by the lack of…
Vervloed, M.P.J.; Hartog, E. de; Jespers, C.; Wals, T. de
The Radboud Sensis program is intended to promote language, speech, and communication in children with visual impairments and their caregivers. Starting-point has been that such an intervention program can be a useful tool, not only for language and communication itself, but also for attachment,
Jonsdottir, S; Bouma, A; Sergeant, JA; Scherder, EJA
The objective of this study was to examine the impact of comorbid specific language impairment (SLI) on verbal and spatial working memory in children with DSM-IV combined subtype Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Participants were a clinical sample of 8 1/2- to 12 1/2-year-old
Jondottir, S.; Bouma, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Scherder, E.J.A.
The objective of this study was to examine the impact of comorbid specific language impairment (SLI) on verbal and spatial working memory in children with DSM-IV combined subtype Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Participants were a clinical sample of 81/2- to 121/2-year-old
Jonsdottir, S.; Bouma, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Scherder, E.J.A.
The objective of this study was to examine the impact of comorbid specific language impairment (SLI) on verbal and spatial working memory in children with DSM-IV combined subtype Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-C). Participants were a clinical sample of 81/2- to 121/2-year-old
Garrity, April W.; Oetting, Janna B.
Purpose: To examine 3 forms ("am," "is," "are") of auxiliary BE production by African American English (AAE)-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Thirty AAE speakers participated: 10 six-year-olds with SLI, 10 age-matched controls, and 10 language-matched controls. BE production was examined through…
Macarena M. Aguilar
Conclusions: Academic attainment is associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels; however, it was weakly impaired by screen time. These findings seem to suggest that parents and policymakers should minimize the negative effects of screen time on children's lives to maximize the beneficial effect of healthy habits on academic attainment.
Turkestani, Maryam Hafez
With modern technological developments and with the fast expansion of mobile technical equipment, conducting a field study to find out how technology influences various developmental aspects of normal and special needs children at the preschool stage was deemed appropriate and timely hearing impairment. In this study aimed at finding out the…
Full Text Available Introduction: Muscle strength, a component for balance, gait and functional mobility is vital for children with visual impairment. Yoga has frequently been demonstrated to improve physical and mental fitness in children. This study aimed to assess the effect of 16 weeks yoga training on muscular ﬁtness in children with visual impairment.Methods: This was a wait-listed two-armed-matched case–control study. Eighty (41 yoga, 39control visual impairment students of both genders aged 9-16 years matched on age, gender and degree of blindness were assessed at pre, mid (after 8 weeks and post (after 16 weeks yoga intervention using the Kraus-Weber test. Results: The percentage of students passed in yoga group were 12.2%, 43.9% and 68.3% whereas percentages in the control group were 23.1%, 30.8% and 30.8% in pre, mid, and post tests respectively. McNemar test showed significant differences between pre and mid, mid and post in the yoga group while those parameters were not significantly different in the control group. Yoga therapy seemed to have considerable benefits for the children’s muscular ﬁtness. Conclusion: The study suggests that yoga have considerable benefits for improvement of fitness level in children with visual impairment and may be recommended as and effective, alternative, inexpensive low risk training activity option for them.
Winzer, M. A.
The paper describes the enactive method, an alternative approach to introducing and teaching reading to young hearing impaired children. The method actively involves the child as a processor of the material rather than as a passive consumer. The approach is established for a short period of time each day until the student outgrows its original…
Ritter, Michaela J.; Park, Jungjun; Saxon, Terrill F.; Colson, Karen A.
This study was conducted utilizing a quasi-experimental pre- and postgroup design to examine the effects of a phonologically based intervention aimed to improve phonological awareness (PA) and reading abilities in school-age children with language impairment (LI) in Grades 1 through 3. The intervention included instruction in PA and sound-symbol…
Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, Inc., Washington, DC.
These guidelines are intended to assist parents in evaluating educational programs for children who are hearing impaired, where a program's stated intention is promoting the child's optimal use of spoken language as a mode of everyday communication and learning. The guidelines are applicable to programs where spoken language is the sole mode or…
Full Text Available Objectives: Inclusive education is a process of enabling all children to learn and participate effectively within mainstream school systems. It does not segregate children who have different abilities or needs. This article explores the attitudes of regular and itinerant teachers about inclusion of hearing impairment children in their schools in general education. Methods: In a descriptive Survey research design, the sample included 100 teachers (50 regular and 50 itinerant who were selected randomly, according to a multistage sampling method. Data was collected by using questionnaire with 32 questions regarding their attitudes. One-way Analysis of Variance and t-test were performed to obtain between- group comparisons. Results: The results indicated that the teacher's positive attitudes towards inclusive educational system of students with hearing impairment. Significant difference in attitudes was observed, based on the teaching experience, gender, level of teaching. The results also indicate that most teachers are agreeable to the inclusion of students with hearing impairment in their classrooms. Discussion: successful inclusion for hearing impairment children in regular classrooms entails the positive attitudes of Regular and itinerant teachers through a systematic programming within the classroom.
Simon-Cereijido, Gabriela; Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Sweet, Monica
We investigated the factors that may help understand the differential rates of language development in the home language (i.e., Spanish) of Latino preschoolers with specific language impairment. Children were randomly assigned to either bilingual or English-only small group interventions and followed from preschool to kindergarten. Predictors of…