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Sample records for psychiatric symptoms related

  1. Perceived Dangerousness as Related to Psychiatric Symptoms and Psychiatric Service Use – a Vignette Based Representative Population Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia F.; Gonet-Wirz, Franca; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E.; Huber, Christian G.

    2017-01-01

    Perceptions of dangerousness are an influential component of mental health stigma and can be driven by the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. Yet, no previous study compared symptoms and service use associated perceptions of dangerousness. Therefore, we conducted a representative survey (N = 2,207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to answer the perceived dangerousness scale with respect to a vignette that either depicted psychiatric symptoms of a fictitious character or a psychiatric service institution the fictitious character had been admitted to. Between the vignettes, type of symptoms, type of psychiatric service, dangerousness, and gender were systematically varied. Perceived dangerousness was significantly lower as related to psychiatric service use than related to psychiatric symptoms. Overall, symptoms of alcohol dependency, behavior endangering others, and male gender of the fictitious character tend to increase perceived dangerousness. Furthermore, being hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital or the rater being familiar with psychiatric services tends to decrease perceived dangerousness. Effective anti-stigma initiatives should integrate education about dangerousness as well as methods to increase familiarity with psychiatry. Additionally, an integration of modern psychiatry in somato-medical care institutions might decrease stigmatization. PMID:28367993

  2. Perceived Dangerousness as Related to Psychiatric Symptoms and Psychiatric Service Use - a Vignette Based Representative Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia F; Gonet-Wirz, Franca; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G

    2017-04-03

    Perceptions of dangerousness are an influential component of mental health stigma and can be driven by the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. Yet, no previous study compared symptoms and service use associated perceptions of dangerousness. Therefore, we conducted a representative survey (N = 2,207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to answer the perceived dangerousness scale with respect to a vignette that either depicted psychiatric symptoms of a fictitious character or a psychiatric service institution the fictitious character had been admitted to. Between the vignettes, type of symptoms, type of psychiatric service, dangerousness, and gender were systematically varied. Perceived dangerousness was significantly lower as related to psychiatric service use than related to psychiatric symptoms. Overall, symptoms of alcohol dependency, behavior endangering others, and male gender of the fictitious character tend to increase perceived dangerousness. Furthermore, being hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital or the rater being familiar with psychiatric services tends to decrease perceived dangerousness. Effective anti-stigma initiatives should integrate education about dangerousness as well as methods to increase familiarity with psychiatry. Additionally, an integration of modern psychiatry in somato-medical care institutions might decrease stigmatization.

  3. The therapeutic alliance in a naturalistic psychiatric setting: temporal relations with depressive symptom change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christian A; Beard, Courtney; Auerbach, Randy P; Menninger, Eliza; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2014-10-01

    Numerous studies have reported associations between the therapeutic alliance and depressive symptom improvement in outpatient samples. However, little is known regarding the temporal relationship between the alliance and symptom change among relatively severely depressed patients receiving treatment in naturalistic, psychiatric hospital settings. Adult patients with major depression (n = 103) receiving combined cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacological treatment at a psychiatric hospital completed repeated assessments of the therapeutic alliance and depressive symptoms, as well as a pretreatment assessment of their expectation of symptom improvement. Results indicated that the alliance and treatment outcome expectancies significantly predicted subsequent depressive symptom change. However, in a model in which prior symptom change and treatment outcome expectancies were statistically controlled, the alliance-outcome association was rendered nonsignificant. The alliance was significantly associated with prior symptom improvement. Findings highlight the importance of controlling for plausible third variable and temporal confounds to minimize biased estimates of alliance-outcome associations in future studies. Overall, results were more consistent with the alliance being a consequence, rather than a cause, of symptom change. Finally, findings contribute to a growing body of evidence supporting the role of treatment outcome expectancies in predicting symptom improvement, even within our relatively severely depressed sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceived Dangerousness as Related to Psychiatric Symptoms and Psychiatric Service Use ? a Vignette Based Representative Population Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Julia F. Sowislo; Franca Gonet-Wirz; Stefan Borgwardt; Lang, Undine E.; Christian G. Huber

    2017-01-01

    Perceptions of dangerousness are an influential component of mental health stigma and can be driven by the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. Yet, no previous study compared symptoms and service use associated perceptions of dangerousness. Therefore, we conducted a representative survey (N?=?2,207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to answer the perceived dangerousness scale with respect to a vignette that either d...

  5. Determination of the psychiatric symptoms and psychological resilience levels of hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çuhadar, D; Tanriverdi, D; Pehlivan, M; Kurnaz, G; Alkan, S

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate psychiatric symptoms and resilience levels of the hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients and their relatives. The study enrolled 51 patients and 45 relatives undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Data were collected using Personal Information Form, Brief Symptom Inventory and Resilience Scale for Adults. Psychiatric symptoms of both patients and their relatives were negatively associated with resilience levels. Patients and their relatives with a higher degree of resilience showed a lower degree of psychiatric symptoms. The study results demonstrate that haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a process that affects patients as well as their families. We suggest that patients and their family members be evaluated for psychiatric symptoms by nurses during this process and resilience level of patients be increased by helping them improve their coping and problem-solving skills for adaptation throughout the process. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Rabeprazole and psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeni, Giovanni; Cutroneo, Paola; Gallo, Adele; Gallo, Salvatore; Spina, Edoardo; Caputi, Achille P

    2007-07-01

    To report the case of a patient who developed marked anxiety associated with episodes of panic attacks after starting rabeprazole therapy. An otherwise healthy 55-year-old woman was prescribed rabeprazole 20 mg/day administered in the morning for persistent symptoms of dyspepsia. Ten days later, she presented with a 7 day history of marked anxiety associated with panic attacks, night terror (pavor nocturnus), episodic mental confusion, and attention deficit. Within 2 days of discontinuing rabeprazole, the patient recovered completely from the neuropsychiatric manifestations. Subsequent esomeprazole therapy did not cause psychiatric symptoms. Rabeprazole-induced hypergastrinemia may have played a role in this neuropsychiatric adverse reaction. Several lines of evidence have indicated that gastrin-releasing peptide, whose release is mediated by proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced secretion of gastrin, is involved in regulating aspects of behavior that might be altered in disorders such as anxiety, depression, and dementia. The fact that rabeprazole has the highest capacity of inducing gastrin increase compared with other PPIs might explain why our patient's panic symptoms disappeared after switching to esomeprazole. Based on the Naranjo probability scale, rabeprazole was the probable cause of the adverse reaction. Specific studies are needed to investigate the potential role of PPI-induced hypergastrinemia in neuropsychiatric adverse reactions.

  7. Relation of Psychiatric Symptoms with Epilepsy, Asthma, and Allergy in Youth with ASD vs. Psychiatry Referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rebecca J; Gadow, Kenneth D

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the association of psychopathology with the clinical correlates of epilepsy, asthma, and allergy within and between neurobehavioral syndromes. Participants were consecutively evaluated youth (6-18 years, 75 % male) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; n = 589) and non-ASD outpatient psychiatry referrals (n = 653). Informants completed a background questionnaire (parents) and a psychiatric symptom severity rating scale (parents, teachers). Youth with ASD had higher rates of epilepsy and allergy but not asthma than psychiatry referrals, even when analyses were limited to youth with IQ ≥ 70. Somatic conditions evidenced variable associations with medical services utilization, educational interventions, family income, and maternal education. Youth with ASD with versus without epilepsy had more severe ASD social deficits (parents' ratings) and less severe ASD repetitive behaviors (teachers' ratings). Epilepsy was associated with more severe depression, mania, and schizophrenia symptoms in youth with ASD. Youth with allergy (psychiatry referrals only) had more severe anxiety and depression symptoms (parents' ratings) but less severe aggression (teachers' ratings) thus providing evidence of both context- and diagnostic-specificity. Youth with ASD versus non-ASD psychiatry referrals evidence a variable pattern of relations between somatic conditions and a range of clinical correlates, which suggests that the biologic substrates and psychosocial concomitants of neurodevelopmental disorders and their co-occurring somatic conditions may interact to produce unique clinical phenotypes.

  8. Oppositional defiant disorder symptoms in relation to psychopathic traits and aggression among psychiatrically hospitalized children: ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is associated with elevated rates of psychopathic traits and aggression. However, it remains unclear if attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms exacerbate these relations, particularly in samples of children who are severely clinically distressed. The purpose of the present study was to test ADHD symptoms as a potential moderator of the relations of ODD symptoms to psychopathic traits (i.e., callous-unemotional [CU] traits, narcissism) and to aggressive subtypes (i.e., proactive, reactive aggression) in a large sample of children in an acute psychiatric inpatient facility (n = 699; ages 6-12). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after controlling for child demographic variables, ADHD symptoms marginally exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and CU traits. Both ODD and ADHD symptoms had an additive, but not a multiplicative effect, in predicting narcissism. In addition, for a subset of the full sample for whom data were available (n =351), ADHD symptoms exacerbated the relation between ODD symptoms and both reactive and proactive aggression. These results suggest that ADHD symptoms tend to have a negative effect on the relation between ODD symptoms and markers of antisociality among children receiving acute psychiatric care. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The relations between violence exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, secondary traumatization, vicarious post traumatic growth and illness attribution among psychiatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gad; Shalev, Tal Ben-Itzchak

    2015-06-01

    This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD), secondary traumatization (ST) and vicarious posttraumatic growth (VG) among Israeli psychiatric nurses (PN) who were compared to community nurses (CN). Furthermore, we examined the contribution of PN perceptions of the etiology of their patients' mental illness to their PTSD, ST and VG. Results show that PN reported higher levels of both PTSD and ST symptoms, but lower levels of VG, as compare to CN. While ST symptoms were positively related to VG among CN, PTSD and ST symptoms were negatively associated among PN. Finally, exposure to patients' violence, PTSD or ST symptoms, and illness attribution dimensions of 'powerful others', predicted nurses' VG. PN are an at-risk population for work-related stress residues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Disability and Psychiatric Symptoms in Men Referred for Treatment with Work-Related Problems to Primary Mental Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S Kathleen; Mushquash, Christopher J; Haggarty, John M

    2017-03-24

    The relationship between male sex and employment as barriers to accessing mental health care is unclear. The aim of this research was to examine (1) whether the clinical features of men referred to a shared mental health care (SMHC) service through primary care differed when symptoms were affecting them in the work domain; and (2) empirically re-evaluate the effectiveness of a SMHC model for work-related disability using a pre-post chart review of N = 3960 referrals to SMHC. ANOVA and logistic regression were performed to examine symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ) and disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS 2) at entry and discharge. Men were RR (relative risk) = 1.8 (95% C.I.: 1.60-2.05) times more likely to be referred to SMHC with work problems than women. Having greater disability and more severe somatic symptoms increased the likelihood of a work-related referral. There were no significant differences after treatment. Problems in the work domain may play an important role in men's treatment seeking and clinicians' recognition of a mental health care need. This study is relevant because men are underrepresented in mental health (MH) treatment and primary care is the main gateway to accessing MH care. Asking men about functioning in the work domain may increase access to helpful psychiatric services.

  11. Stigmatization of psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric service use: a vignette-based representative population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia F; Lange, Claudia; Euler, Sebastian; Hachtel, Henning; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G

    2017-06-01

    Background There is evidence for two different types and/or sources of mental illness stigma, namely the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. However, no current study has compared the two. Furthermore, gaps exist in our knowledge of both types of stigma. Little is known about the perceived stigma of specific psychiatric service treatment environments, for instance forensic settings. In addition, systematic research on stigma attached to symptoms of personality disorders in the general population is scarce, and for borderline personality disorder, nonexistent. Methods We conducted a representative survey of the general population (N = 2207) in the canton of Basel-Stadt, Switzerland. Participants were asked to read a vignette depicting either the psychiatric symptoms of a fictitious character or a psychiatric service institution to which the character had been admitted, and indicate desired social distance (an indicator for stigma). Type of symptoms, type of psychiatric service, dangerousness, and gender were systematically varied between vignettes. Findings Desired social distance was significantly lower in relation to psychiatric service use than to psychiatric symptoms. Overall, symptoms of alcohol dependency, behavior endangering others, and the fictitious character's being male tend to increase stigmatization. Interestingly, the character's being hospitalized in a psychiatric unit at a general hospital and also respondent familiarity with psychiatric services tend to decrease stigmatization. Interpretation Familiarity of the general population with psychiatric patients should be increased. Furthermore, treatment in psychiatric units located within general hospitals should be promoted, as such treatment is associated with decreased stigma.

  12. Psychiatric Symptoms in Adults with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Changes in psychiatric symptoms related to specific stages of dementia were investigated in 224 adults 45 years of age or older with Down syndrome. Findings indicate that psychiatric symptoms are a prevalent feature of dementia in the population with Down syndrome and that clinical presentation is qualitatively similar to that seen in Alzheimer's…

  13. PERSONALITY TRAITS, ANGER AND PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS RELATED TO QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CANCER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honorato, Noemi Peres; Abumusse, Luciene Vaccaro de Morais; Coqueiro, Daniel Pereira; Citero, Vanessa de Albuquerque

    2017-01-01

    The presence of psychiatric symptoms, anger, and personality characteristics are factors that affect the quality of life of newly diagnosed digestive system cancer patients. This study aims to identify which stable characteristics of the individual's personality interfere with quality of life, even when reactive emotional characteristics of falling ill are controlled. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Oncology Clinic ( Hospital das Clínicas ), Marília/SP, Brazil, in which 50 adult patients with digestive system cancer and diagnosed less than 6 months answered the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and WHOQOL-BREF. Multiple regression was performed to verify if quality of life was related to stable characteristics of the subject's personality (anger trait, temperament and character) after controlling to the transient emotional aspects (anger state, psychiatric symptoms). The quality of life psychological health score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and reward dependence temperament and quality of life environment score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and lower in presence of harm avoidance temperament. The psychological well-being and the adaptive needs to the environment that favoring a better quality of life were reinforced mainly by the self-directedness character; which means that patients more autonomous cope better with the disease. On the other hand, the harm avoidance temperament (meaning the patient has fear of aversive situations) impaired the adaptive capacity to deal with the changes of the day-to-day imposed by the disease. Understanding these personality traits is important to the health professionals drive the patient to more successful treatment.

  14. PERSONALITY TRAITS, ANGER AND PSYCHIATRIC SYMPTOMS RELATED TO QUALITY OF LIFE IN PATIENTS WITH NEWLY DIAGNOSED DIGESTIVE SYSTEM CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Peres HONORATO

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND The presence of psychiatric symptoms, anger, and personality characteristics are factors that affect the quality of life of newly diagnosed digestive system cancer patients. OBJECTIVE This study aims to identify which stable characteristics of the individual’s personality interfere with quality of life, even when reactive emotional characteristics of falling ill are controlled. METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed at the Oncology Clinic ( Hospital das Clínicas , Marília/SP, Brazil, in which 50 adult patients with digestive system cancer and diagnosed less than 6 months answered the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and WHOQOL-BREF. Multiple regression was performed to verify if quality of life was related to stable characteristics of the subject’s personality (anger trait, temperament and character after controlling to the transient emotional aspects (anger state, psychiatric symptoms. RESULTS The quality of life psychological health score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and reward dependence temperament and quality of life environment score was higher in presence of self-directedness character and lower in presence of harm avoidance temperament. CONCLUSION The psychological well-being and the adaptive needs to the environment that favoring a better quality of life were reinforced mainly by the self-directedness character; which means that patients more autonomous cope better with the disease. On the other hand, the harm avoidance temperament (meaning the patient has fear of aversive situations impaired the adaptive capacity to deal with the changes of the day-to-day imposed by the disease. Understanding these personality traits is important to the health professionals drive the patient to more successful treatment.

  15. Impact of Deployment-Related Sexual Stressors on Psychiatric Symptoms After Accounting for Predeployment Stressors: Findings From a U.S. National Guard Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Ethan B; Murdoch, Maureen; Erbes, Christopher R; Arbisi, Paul; Polusny, Melissa A

    2015-08-01

    This study used a longitudinal research design to examine the impact of predeployment stressors and deployment-related sexual stressors on self-reported psychiatric symptoms of U.S. National Guard soldiers returning from deployments to Iraq or Afghanistan. Prior to deployment, participants completed measures of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms, along with an inventory of predeployment stressor experiences. At 3-months postdeployment, participants (468 men, 60 women) again completed self-report measures of psychiatric symptoms, along with an inventory of sexual stressors experienced during deployment. We compared a cross-sectional model of sexual stressors' impact on psychiatric symptoms, in which only postdeployment reports were considered, to a longitudinal model in which we adjusted for participants' predeployment stressors and psychiatric symptoms. No participants reported sexual assault during deployment, though sexual harassment was common. The cross-sectional model suggested that deployment-related sexual stressors were significantly associated with postdeployment depression (R(2) = .11) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (R(2) = .10). Once predeployment factors were taken into consideration, however, sexual stressors were no longer significant. The results did not support the notion of lasting negative impact for low-level sexual stressors (e.g., sexual harassment) during deployment after predeployment stressors are accounted for. Future studies of sexual stressors should consider longitudinal designs. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  16. Anosognosia and Its Relation to Psychiatric Symptoms in Early-Onset Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Bora; Shim, Yong S; Hong, Yun Jeong; Choi, Seong Hye; Park, Hee Kyung; Park, Sun Ah; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Yoon, Soo Jin; Yang, Dong-Won

    2017-05-01

    We investigated differences in the prevalence of anosognosia and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) characteristics according to disease severity in patients with early-onset Alzheimer disease (EOAD). We recruited 616 patients with EOAD. We subdivided participants into 2 groups based on the presence or absence of anosognosia and then again by Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. We compared the differences in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) scores according to anosognosia and disease severity. The percentage of patients with anosognosia in each CDR group steadily increased as the CDR rating increased (CDR 0.5 8.6% vs CDR 1 13.6% vs CDR 2 26.2%). The NPI total score was significantly higher in patients with anosognosia in the CDR 0.5 and 1 groups; by contrast, it had no association in the CDR 2 group. Frontal lobe functions were associated with anosognosia only in the CDR 0.5 and 1 groups. After stratification by CDR, in the CDR 0.5 group, the prevalence of agitation ( P = .040) and appetite ( P = .013) was significantly higher in patients with anosognosia. In the CDR 1 group, patients with anosognosia had a significantly higher prevalence of delusions ( P = .032), hallucinations ( P = .048), and sleep disturbances ( P = .047). In the CDR 2 group, we found no statistical difference in the frequency of symptoms between patients with and without anosognosia. These results confirm that the prevalence of anosognosia as well as the individual NPS and cognitive functions associated with it differ according to EOAD severity.

  17. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Psychiatric Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Cakmak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rapidly progressive, degenerative slow virus infection disease of central nervous system. Based on etiologic origins, four different Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease subtypes have been identified: sporadic, genetic, iatrogenic and variant. The clinical course generally begin with apathy, irritability, behavioral changes, speech problems, memory deterioration, rapidly progresses and concludes with death over a period of 3-12 months. Symptoms are observed secondary to brain cortex, cerebellum, corticospinal tracts, spinal anterior horn cells and basal ganglia damage. Unusual (%5-10 cases can survive up to 2 years. The initial symptoms of disease can be sudden which resultsin adjustment problems leading patients to seek psychiatric help. Patients could receive different diagnosis such as psychosis, depression with psychotic features, and treatments at this stages. Early diagnosis is crucial because of management of the disease and treatment approaches. In this article diagnosis and clinical features of Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and related psychiatric symptoms have been briefly reviewed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(4.000: 631-643

  18. The Role of Parenting Styles in the Relation Between Functions of Aggression and Internalizing Symptoms in a Child Psychiatric Inpatient Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Casey A; Rathert, Jamie L; Fite, Paula J; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric inpatient hospitalization is a costly intervention for youth. With rates of hospitalization rising, efforts to refine prevention and intervention are necessary. Aggression often precedes severe internalizing behaviors, and proactive and reactive functions of aggression are differentially associated with internalizing symptomatology. Thus, further understanding of the links between functions of aggression and internalizing symptomatology could aid in the improvement of interventions for hospitalized youth. The current study examined parenting styles, gender, and age as potential moderators of the relations between proactive and reactive aggression and internalizing symptoms. Participants included 392 children, 6-12 years of age admitted consecutively to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Reactive aggression was uniquely associated with anxiety symptoms. However, proactive aggression was associated with internalizing problems only when specific parenting styles and demographic factors were present. Although both proactive and reactive subtypes of aggression were associated with internalizing symptoms, differential associations were evident. Implications of findings are discussed.

  19. [Complex hereditary diseases with psychiatric symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterberg, L

    1999-02-28

    Family and adoption studies indicate that genetic factors play a role in the development of many psychiatric disorders. A variable number of possible interacting genes giving a predisposition to the diseases is likely. The genetic dissection has been hampered by genetic complexity as well as by difficulties in defining the phenotypes. Genetic mapping efforts using sib pairs, twins and individual large families have revealed preliminary or tentative evidence of susceptibility loci for a number of psychiatric disorders. Illnesses described in this article include the prion disease familial fatal insomnia (FFI), alcoholism, anorexia nervosa, autism, bipolar affective disorder, dyslexia, enuresis nocturna, epilepsia, obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), schizophrenia, and the dementias, Alzheimer's disease and frontal lobe dementia. The genes and proteins related to the newly discovered transmitter in the central nervous system, nitric oxide (NO), and its genes and proteins are also reviewed. The number of mapped human genes now exceeds 30,000 of the estimated total number of 60,000 to 100,000 genes. This rapid development will facilitate gene mapping and efforts to isolate and identify the genes responsible for symptom susceptibility in many of the aetiologically unclear psychiatric diseases with complex genetic origin.

  20. Perceived mental health related stigma, gender, and depressive symptom severity in a psychiatric facility in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Raguram, R; Rao, Deepa

    2014-06-01

    Few studies exist on the topic of gender associated with depression and mental health-related stigma coming out of non-Western countries such as India. We aimed to add to the literature by assessing these relationships among adults seeking psychiatric services in India. Participants were 60 individuals seeking care at a psychiatric clinic in Bangalore, India. The majority of participants were female with a mean age of 36 years (SD=9.75). Contrary to our prediction, there were no significant differences between men (M=28.96; SD=9.85) and women (M=33.03; SD=12.08) on depression severity, t(58)=1.42, p=.16. Yet, women (M=10.09, SD=8.23) reported significantly more perceived stigma than men (M=5.79, SD=5.86), t(58)=2.30, p=.02. While men and women seeking psychiatric services at the psychiatric clinic in India report similar levels of depression severity, women reported more perceived mental illness stigma. Having experienced regular forms of discrimination associated with female status in India, it may be the case that women are more attuned to other forms of stigma, such as mental health stigma investigated in the present study. Given the detrimental impact of stigma on treatment adherence and engagement in care, additional research is needed support this work, including research on interventions to reduce stigma and improve engagement in care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms in Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetti, Lidiane; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Mendes, Karina Giane; Theodoro, Heloísa; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the association between minor psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 615 women aged 40 to 65 years treated in a public menopause and gynecological outpatient clinic in the South Region of Brazil. Minor psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and menopause symptoms using the Menopause Rating Scale. Score for menopause symptoms was categorized into three levels of symptoms: mild, moderate, and severe. Multivariate analyses used ordinal logistic regression. The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe menopause symptoms was 34.1% (95% CI 30.3-37.9), 29.6% (95% CI 25.8-33.1), and 36.3% (95% CI 32.4-40.0), respectively. The overall prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 66.6% (95% CI 62.8-70.3). After adjustment, the odds ratio (OR) of the occurrence of menopause symptoms were approximately eight times higher in women relating minor psychiatric disorders compared with those without such disorders (OR = 7.76; 95% CI 5.27-11.44). The following factors were also associated with the menopause symptoms: women older than 50 years, living with a partner, lower educational level, smokers, larger number of pregnancies, obese, and those using psychotropic and/or postmenopause medication. The minor psychiatric disorders exhibited strong association with the presence of menopause symptoms independently of sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors, and of use of psychotropic medication.

  2. Psychiatric (Axis I) and personality (Axis II) disorders and subjective psychiatric symptoms in chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlsten, Hanna; Taiminen, Tero; Karukivi, Max; Sjösten, Noora; Nikkilä, Johanna; Virtanen, Juuso; Paavola, Janika; Joutsa, Juho; Niinivirta-Joutsa, Katri; Takala, Mari; Holm, Anu; Rauhala, Esa; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Johansson, Reijo; Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2017-11-30

    Chronic tinnitus has been associated with several psychiatric disorders. Only few studies have investigated these disorders using validated diagnostic interviews. The aims were to diagnose psychiatric and personality disorders with structured interviews, to assess self-rated psychiatric symptoms and elucidate temporal relations between psychiatric disorders and tinnitus. Current and lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses of axis-I (psychiatric disorders) and axis-II (personality disorders) were assessed using structured clinical interviews (SCID-I and -II). Current subjective psychiatric symptoms were evaluated via self-rating instruments: the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). 83 patients (mean age 51.7, 59% men) with chronic, disturbing tinnitus and a median Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score of 32. The rates of lifetime and current major depression were 26.5% and 2.4%. The lifetime rate of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (type C) was 8.4%. None of the patients had cluster B personality disorder or psychotic symptoms. The SCL-90 subscales did not differ from the general population, and median DES score was low, 2.4. Tinnitus patients are prone to episodes of major depression and often also have obsessive-compulsive personality features. Psychiatric disorders seem to be comorbid or predisposing conditions rather than consequences of tinnitus. Clinical trial reference: ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT 01929837).

  3. Improvement of psychiatric symptoms in youth following resolution of sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Talia; Sidell, Douglas; Gans, Hayley; Brown, Kayla; Farhadian, Bahare; Gustafson, Melissa; Sherr, Janell; Thienemann, Margo; Frankovich, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports a role for inflammation in psychiatric illness, and the onset or exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms may follow non-CNS infections. Here, we provide the first detailed description of obsessive-compulsive and related psychiatric symptoms arising concurrently with sinusitis. We reviewed the charts of 150 consecutive patients evaluated in our Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndromes clinic for documented sinusitis as defined by the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. Sinusitis treatments, sinonasal imaging, and neuropsychiatric symptoms before, during, and after sinusitis onset were noted. Patients were included in the final review if they had a clear diagnosis of isolated sinusitis (without concurrent illness and/or immunodeficiency), and were evaluated during an episode of sinusitis. 10/150 (6.6%) patients had isolated sinusitis at the time of their neuropsychiatric deterioration. Eight patients received antibiotics to treat sinusitis, three of whom also received sinus surgery. Neuropsychiatric symptoms improved in all eight patients concurrent with resolution of sinusitis per parent report and clinician assessment. One patient did not follow through with recommended sinus surgery or antibiotics and her psychiatric symptoms persisted. One patient was lost to follow-up. Improvement of psychiatric symptoms correlated with resolution of sinus disease in this retrospective study. Identification, treatment, and resolution of underlying infections, including sinusitis, may have the potential to change the trajectory of some neuropsychiatric illnesses. Randomized clinical trials are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Child psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial impairment: relationship and prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, A; Rowe, R; Simonoff, E; Foley, D; Rutter, M; Silberg, J

    2001-09-01

    Relatively little is known about the relationships between psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis and psychosocial impairment. To examine these contemporaneous relationships and prognostic significance in a large general population sample. Symptoms of major depression, conduct and oppositional defiant disorders were assessed by interview in two waves of the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent behavioural Development (2800 children aged 8-16 years). Many children below the DSM-III-R diagnostic threshold, especially for depression, had symptom-related impairment, whereas many children reaching the symptom threshold for conduct and oppositional defiant disorders were little impaired. Impairment score was linearly related to symptom count, with no evidence of any additional impairment at the diagnostic threshold. For depression, only symptoms predicted later symptoms and diagnosis. For conduct and oppositional defiant disorders, impairment was additionally predictive of later symptoms and diagnosis. Impairment, in addition to symptoms, is important for both nosology and prognosis.

  5. Examining the effects of a novel training program and use of psychiatric service dogs for military-related PTSD and associated symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloep, Megan L; Hunter, Richard H; Kertz, Sarah J

    2017-01-01

    This study explored an intensive 3-week training program and use of psychiatric service dogs for military-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and associated symptoms. The sample included 2 separate cohorts of military veterans (n = 7 and n = 5) with prior diagnoses of PTSD. Participants completed self-report measures assessing PTSD, depression, perception of social support, anger, and overall quality of life 1 month prior to the training (baseline), at arrival to the training site, and 6-month follow-up. Results indicated that, for this sample, there was a statistically significant decrease in PTSD and depression symptoms from pre- to posttreatment, as well as 6-month follow-up. For most participants decreases were both clinically significant and reliable changes. Further, participants reported significant reductions in anger and improvement in perceived social support and quality of life. Limitations of the study include a lack of control group, a limitation of most naturalistic studies, as well as small sample size. Despite this, the findings indicate that utilizing psychiatric service dogs, coupled with an intensive trauma resilience training program for veterans with ongoing symptoms, is feasible as a complementary treatment for PTSD that could yield beneficial results in terms of symptom amelioration and improvement to overall quality of life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Defense styles explain psychiatric symptoms: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holi, M M; Sammallahti, P R; Aalberg, V A

    1999-11-01

    To examine the relation between psychiatric symptoms and defense mechanisms, we administered two questionnaires, the Symptom Check-list 90 (SCL-90) and the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) to 122 psychiatric out-patients and to a community sample of 337 subjects. Using regression analysis, we found that 51.8% of the variation in subject's Global Severity Index value could be explained by his defense style. Of the three defense styles, the immature style explained most of the variation in the symptoms. We found little overall evidence for specific connections between particular defenses and symptoms. Projection and dissociation were central in most of the symptom dimensions. We compared patients and controls with the same level of general symptom severity and found that patients used significantly more devaluation and splitting, and controls used significantly more altruism and idealization. Whether defenses predispose to certain symptomatology or are one of its aspects is discussed.

  7. Internet Addiction and Psychiatric Symptoms among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Keum Seong; Hwang, Seon Young; Choi, Ja Yun

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to identify the independent factors associated with intermittent addiction and addiction to the Internet and to examine the psychiatric symptoms in Korean adolescents when the demographic and Internet-related factors were controlled. Methods: Male and female students (N = 912) in the 7th-12th grades were…

  8. Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms in cognitive neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles Bayón, A; Gude Sampedro, F

    2017-03-01

    Behavioural and psychiatric symptoms (BPS) are frequent in neurological patients, contribute to disability, and decrease quality of life. We recorded BPS prevalence and type, as well as any associations with specific diagnoses, brain regions, and treatments, in consecutive outpatients examined in a cognitive neurology clinic. A retrospective analysis of 843 consecutive patients was performed, including a review of BPS, diagnosis, sensory impairment, lesion topography (neuroimaging), and treatment. The total sample was considered, and the cognitive impairment (CI) group (n=607) was compared to the non-CI group. BPS was present in 59.9% of the patients (61.3% in the CI group, 56.4% in the non-CI group). One BPS was present in 31.1%, two in 17.4%, and three or more in 11.4%. BPS, especially depression and anxiety, are more frequent in women than in men. Psychotic and behavioural symptoms predominate in subjects aged 65 and older, and anxiety in those younger than 65. Psychotic symptoms appear more often in patients with sensory impairment. Psychotic and behavioural symptoms are more prevalent in patients with degenerative dementia; depression and anxiety in those who suffer a psychiatric disease or adverse effects of substances; emotional lability in individuals with a metabolic or hormonal disorder; hypochondria in those with a pain syndrome; and irritability in subjects with chronic hypoxia. Behavioural symptoms are more frequent in patients with anomalies in the frontal or right temporal or parietal lobes, and antipsychotics constitute the first line of treatment. Leaving standard treatments aside, associations were observed between dysthymia and opioid analgesics, betahistine and statins, and between psychotic symptoms and levodopa, piracetam, and vasodilators. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients with Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Alopecia areata is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by sudden hair loss. Existing evidence suggests that alopecia areata may be associated with personality traits altering the susceptibility to stress and psychiatric conditions associated with stress. The aim of this study was to compare the intensity of depressive and anxiety symptoms and the level of alexithymia in patients with alopecia areata and healthy control subjects.Materials and methods: Fifty patients with the diagnosis of alopecia areata and 30 healthy volunteers were compared in terms of scores of Beck depression inventory, Beck anxiety inventory, and Toronto alexithymia scale.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between alopecia areata cases and healthy controls regarding intensity of anxiety and level of alexythimia (p=0.053 and p=0.120, respectively. The intensity of depressive symptoms exhibited by alopecia areata patients was found to be significantly higher than that in healthy controls (p=0.010 and there was no statistically significant relationship between intensity of depressive symptoms and duration of the current alopecia areata episode (p=0.873.Conclusion: It is suggested that psychiatric evaluation should also be performed in all alopecia areata cases during the clinical follow-up period. (Turk­derm 2011; 45: 203-5

  10. Exploratory factor analysis of a 16D Health-Related Quality of Life instrument with adolescents seeking help for early psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granö, Niklas; Kieseppä, Tuula; Karjalainen, Marjaana; Roine, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a widely studied phenomenon in health care. This study aimed to identify which factors can be extracted from a generic 16-dimension (16D) HRQoL instrument in a sample of adolescents seeking help for early psychiatric symptoms. Data were collected at the Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH), Finland, by an early intervention team. In total, 394 help-seeking adolescents (mean age 15.3 years, SD 2.14 years, 183 boys and 211 girls) completed a 16D HRQoL questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis (generalized least squares method, promax rotation) identified four factors in the 16D instrument. The first factor of "psychophysiological health" included the dimensions of vitality, breathing, distress, sleeping, physical appearance, mental functioning and depression. The second factor, "physical and social health", consisted of the items discomfort and symptoms, friends and elimination. The items hearing, eating and speech were loaded on factor three, "health in somatosensory functioning". Moreover, the single item of school and hobbies was loaded on factor four, "health in functioning ability". However, the items of vision and mobility were not loaded on any factor. Since the 16D instrument was originally designed for 11-15-year-old adolescents, analysis was repeated using a subsample of this age group (n = 245). The results here suggest that the 16D instrument consists of four factors and forms its own latent variable structure in this specific sample of adolescents seeking help for early psychiatric symptoms. However, items such as vision, mobility and school and hobbies should be interpreted with caution as a part of the factor structure of a 16D instrument among this population.

  11. Evaluation of effectiveness and safety of a herbal compound in primary insomnia symptoms and sleep disturbances not related to medical or psychiatric causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmieri G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Giancarlo Palmieri,1,2 Paola Contaldi,1 Giuseppe Fogliame1 1ANARDI Medical and Scientific Association, Scafati, Italy; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Niguarda Cà Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy Background and purpose: Sleep disturbances and related daytime activities impairment are common diseases nowadays. General practitioners are often the first health care professional asked to alleviate sleep disturbances and primary insomnia symptoms. Beyond a wide class of hypnotic drugs, botanicals can represent an alternative treatment for those kinds of symptoms. The scope of the present study is to evaluate safety and effectiveness of a herbal compound composed of valerian, hop, and jujube (Vagonotte® on primary insomnia symptoms and sleep disturbances not related to medical or psychiatric causes.Patients and methods: One hundred and twenty subjects with sleep disturbances symptoms were randomized in two branches of 60 persons each, receiving the herbal compound or placebo at dosage of two pills per day 30 minutes before their scheduled bedtime. All subjects were screened for precise items related to sleep quality and daytime activity at the beginning, after 10 days, and after 20 days of consecutive dietary supplement (or placebo consumption. The participants remained blind to group assignment until all of them completed the trial.Results: Sleep onset, numbers of nocturnal awakenings, and overall nocturnal slept time were assessed. A statistically significant difference between the two groups emerged. The group receiving the herbal compound showed a lower time of sleep onset compared to placebo group, the same result was obtained for total slept time and night awakenings frequency (p<0.001. Daily symptom improvement in subjects receiving the herbal compound showed significant reduction in tension and irritability, difficulty in concentration, and fatigue intensity, if compared to placebo scores (p<0.001. None of the 60 subjects in the verum group

  12. Psychiatric symptoms, quality of life, and HIV status among people using opioids in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Zvartau, Edwin; Schottenfeld, Richard; Chawarski, Marek

    2017-03-01

    The Russian Federation is experiencing a very high rate of HIV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID). However, few studies have explored characteristics of people with co-occurring opioid use disorders and HIV, including psychiatric symptom presentations and how these symptoms might relate to quality of life. The current study therefore explored a.) differences in baseline psychiatric symptoms among HIV+ and HIV- individuals with opioid use disorder seeking naltrexone treatment at two treatment centers in Saint Petersburg, Russia and b.) associations between psychiatric symptom constellations and quality of life. Participants were 328 adults enrolling in a randomized clinical trial evaluating outpatient treatments combining naltrexone with different drug counseling models. Psychiatric symptoms and quality of life were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory and The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF, respectively. Approximately 60% of participants were HIV+. Those who were HIV+ scored significantly higher on BSI anxiety, depression, psychoticism, somatization, paranoid ideation, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and GSI indexes (all p<0.05) than those HIV-. A K-means cluster analysis identified three distinct psychiatric symptom profiles; the proportion of HIV+ was significantly greater and quality of life indicators were significantly lower in the cluster with the highest psychiatric symptom levels. Higher levels of psychiatric symptoms and lower quality of life indicators among HIV+ (compared to HIV-) individuals injecting drugs support the potential importance of combining interventions that target improving psychiatric symptoms with drug treatment, particularly for HIV+ patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Migraine predicts physical and pain symptoms among psychiatric outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background No study has been performed to compare the impacts of migraine and major depressive episode (MDE) on depression, anxiety and somatic symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among psychiatric outpatients. The aim of this study was to investigate the above issue. Methods This study enrolled consecutive psychiatric outpatients with mood and/or anxiety disorders who undertook a first visit to a medical center. Migraine was diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd edition. Three psychometric scales and the Short-Form 36 were administered. General linear models were used to estimate the difference in scores contributed by either migraine or MDE. Multiple linear regressions were employed to compare the variance of these scores explained by migraine or MDE. Results Among 214 enrolled participants, 35.0% had migraine. Bipolar II disorder patients (70.0%) had the highest percentage of migraine, followed by major depressive disorder (49.1%) and only anxiety disorder (24.5%). Patients with migraine had worse depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms and lower SF-36 scores than those without. The estimated differences in the scores of physical functioning, bodily pain, and somatic symptoms contributed by migraine were not lower than those contributed by MDE. The regression model demonstrated the variance explained by migraine was significantly greater than that explained by MDE in physical and pain symptoms. Conclusions Migraine was common and the impact of migraine on physical and pain symptoms was greater than MDE among psychiatric outpatients. Integration of treatment strategies for migraine into psychiatric treatment plans should be considered. PMID:23565902

  14. The effects of the Make a Wish intervention on psychiatric symptoms and health-related quality of life of children with cancer: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, Anat; Mifano, Keren; Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna

    2016-05-01

    Children with life-threatening medical conditions frequently undergo invasive medical procedures that may elicit anxiety and distress. However, there are few empirically validated interventions that reduce mental health symptoms and increase the resilience of children during the acute stages of illness. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the Make a Wish intervention for children with life-threatening cancer. The design was a wait-list-controlled trial with two parallel groups. Sixty-six children aged 5-12 with an initial diagnosis of life-threatening cancer were identified and randomly assigned to the Make a Wish intervention (n = 32) or a wait-list control group (n = 34). Children completed measures of psychiatric and health-related symptoms, positive and negative affect, hope, and optimism pre-intervention and post-intervention. After baseline data collection, children were interviewed and made an authentic wish that they wanted to come true. These wishes were made possible 5-6 months after baseline data collection, to fuel anticipation and excitement over the wish-fulfillment event. The post-intervention assessment point was 5 weeks after wish fulfillment (approximately 7 months after baseline data collection). Children in the intervention group exhibited a significant reduction in general distress (d = 0.54), depression (d = 0.70), and anxiety symptoms (d = 0.41), improved health-related quality of life (d = 0.59), hope (d = 0.71), and positive affect (d = 0.80) compared to decrease in positive affect and no significant changes in the other measures in the control group. These findings emphasize the role of hope and positive emotions in fostering the well-being of children who suffer from serious illnesses.

  15. Psychiatric symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus: an update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wekking, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-one studies on the prevalence and type of psychiatric symptoms in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are reviewed and evaluated. Substantial differences in prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in SLE-patients (from 17%-71%) have been reported. Of the investigated methodological aspects,

  16. The impact of sleep and psychiatric symptoms on alcohol consequences among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary Beth; Van Reen, Eliza; Barker, David H; Roane, Brandy M; Borsari, Brian; McGeary, John E; Seifer, Ronald; Carskadon, Mary A

    2017-03-01

    Independent lines of research have documented links between psychiatric symptoms and poor sleep quality, psychiatric symptoms and alcohol use, and alcohol use and poor sleep quality. The current study examined the synergistic effect of poor sleep quality and psychiatric symptoms on alcohol-related consequences in heavy-drinking young adults. Matriculating college students reporting at least one heavy drinking episode over the first nine weeks of the semester (N=385, 52% female) were categorized as experiencing 'good' (n=280) versus 'poor' sleep quality (n=105) and screening 'positive' (n=203) or 'negative' (n=182) for a psychiatric disorder. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; psychiatric diagnosis was assessed using the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire; and alcohol-related consequences were assessed using the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire. General linear models were used to examine the main effects and interaction between sleep quality and psychiatric symptoms on alcohol-related consequences. Sleep quality moderated the association between psychiatric screen and alcohol-related consequences among heavy-drinking college students, such that psychiatric symptoms were associated with more alcohol-related consequences in the context of poor sleep quality. The combination of poor sleep quality and psychiatric symptoms is associated with increased alcohol-related consequences among heavy-drinking college students. Given the significant interaction between these symptoms, healthcare providers are encouraged to screen for the presence of sleep and psychiatric disorders among heavy-drinking young adults and to provide empirically-supported treatments as appropriate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Capturing the ebb and flow of psychiatric symptoms with dynamical systems models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L; Mulvey, Edward P; Skeem, Jennifer L; Gardner, William; Lidz, Charles W; Schubert, Carol

    2009-05-01

    Psychiatric symptoms play a crucial role in psychology and psychiatry. However, little is known about how dimensions of symptoms--other than symptom level--relate to psychiatric outcomes. Until recently, methods for measuring dynamic aspects of symptoms have not been available to clinicians or researchers. The authors sought to test whether systematic patterns of change in psychiatric symptoms can be recovered across weekly assessments of individuals at high risk for violence. A secondary objective was to explore whether dynamic features of symptoms (specifically, oscillation speed and dysregulation) are concurrently associated with violence, an important indicator of functional impairment for these individuals. Participants (N=132) were drawn from a sample of patients evaluated at the emergency room of an urban psychiatric hospital. Patients actuarially classified as being at high risk for violence were eligible for participation in the study. Participants and collateral informants were interviewed weekly for 26 weeks following an acute psychiatric evaluation. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Measures of symptom fluctuation and regulation were derived using dynamical systems models. Involvement in violence was assessed using self, informant, and official reports. Individuals' symptom dynamics were recovered by a linear oscillator model that described how quickly symptoms oscillated and whether symptoms were amplifying or moving back toward equilibrium across time. Patterns of rapid symptom fluctuation and symptom amplification were concurrently associated with violence. Psychiatric researchers and clinicians have long been interested in adopting more dynamic approaches to understanding symptom change. This study is the first to demonstrate that systematic fluctuations in symptom patterns may be captured by dynamic models. Moreover, the concurrent association between symptom dynamics and violence suggests avenues for future

  18. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children with Gross Motor Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Children with psychiatric disorders often demonstrate gross motor problems. This study investigates if the reverse also holds true by assessing psychiatric symptoms present in children with gross motor problems. Emotional, behavioral, and autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as well as psychosocial problems, were assessed in a sample of 40 children…

  19. Symptom characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity among males with muscle dysmorphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; Olivardia, Roberto; Thompson, J Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Muscle dysmorphia has been described as a disorder in which individuals are pathologically preoccupied with their muscularity. This study was designed to further investigate the symptom characteristics and psychiatric conditions associated with the disorder. Weight lifting males meeting current criteria for muscle dysmorphia (n = 15), past muscle dysmorphia (n = 8), and no history of muscle dysmorphia (n = 28) responded to advertisements placed in gymnasium and nutrition stores. Structured and semistructured interviews were administered, as well as survey measures. Relative to controls, males with current muscle dysmorphia experienced more aversive symptoms related to the appearance of their bodies, including more often thinking about their muscularity, dissatisfaction with appearance, appearance checking, bodybuilding dependence, and functional impairment. Higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders were found among individuals with a history of muscle dysmorphia relative to individuals with no history of muscle dysmorphia. The findings suggest that muscle dysmorphia can be distinguished from normal weight lifting on a number of clinical dimensions. Muscle dysmorphia appears to be comorbid with other psychiatric conditions. Limitations of the current study and directions for future research are considered.

  20. Mood changes after indoor tanning among college women: associations with psychiatric/addictive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Heckman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor tanning (IT has been linked with psychiatric and addictive symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction. The current study evaluated the effects of an IT episode on mood states and the association of these effects with psychiatric and addictive symptoms among young adult female indoor tanners. One-hundred thirty-nine female university students aged 18-25 years who had indoor tanned completed an online survey including the Positive and Negative Affects Scales and a standardized psychiatric interview (the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview via telephone. Psychiatric and addictive symptoms were relatively common among these young adult female indoor tanners. Overall, participants reported significant decreases in both negative (upset, scared, irritable, nervous, jittery, afraid and positive (feeling interested mood states after their most recent tanning episode. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that more frequent indoor tanning in the past month and symptoms of illicit drug use disorders were associated with decreases in negative mood, and symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder were associated with a decrease in feeling interested. In summary, indoor tanners report relatively high rates of psychiatric and substance use symptoms, including symptoms of tanning dependence, and indoor tanning appears to alter mood. Women with certain substance use and psychiatric characteristics may be more vulnerable to such mood changes after tanning indoors. Further research is needed to clarify the relationships among these variables.

  1. Effects of Psychiatric Symptoms on Attention in North Korean Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Jun, Jin Yong; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the performance of North Korean refugees on attention tasks, and the relationship between that performance and psychiatric symptoms. Methods Sustained and divided attention was assessed using the computerized Comprehensive Attention Test in North Korean refugees and in South Koreans. All participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). Results The North Korean refugees showed slower reaction times (RTs) on the visual sustained attention task compared to the South Koreans after controlling for age and sex. North Korean refugees had a greater number of omission errors (OEs) on the divided attention task and a higher standard deviation (SD) of RT. Total DES-II scores of the North Korean refugees were associated with the number of OEs and the SD of RT on the sustained attention task, and with the number of OEs on the divided attention task. Conclusion North Korean refugees showed poorer performance on computerized attention tasks. In addition, attention deficit among North Korean refugees was associated with their dissociative experiences. Our results suggest that refugees may have attention deficits, which may be related to their psychiatric symptoms, particularly dissociation. PMID:27757125

  2. What do bodily symptoms in African psychiatric patients mean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To review the various bodily symptoms presented by African psychiatric patients and attempt to understand them. Method: The literature on bodily (somatic) symptoms is surveyed with special reference to Africans and examples are drawn from a focused group discussion in one African rural community.

  3. Neuromyelitis optica, psychiatric symptoms and primary polydipsia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Josh; Douglas, Vanja C; Cree, Bruce A C

    2010-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an aggressive demyelinating disease that typically affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. While it is increasingly recognized that cerebral lesions are common in NMO, there have been no reported cases of NMO presenting with psychiatric symptoms and polydipsia. We describe a patient with classic signs and symptoms of NMO who also demonstrated prominent psychiatric symptoms and polydipsia that were tied to his flares and resolved with treatment of his NMO. This case expands our understanding of possible presentations of NMO. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychiatric Symptoms in Childhood Wilson’s Disease: Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various psychiatric symptoms/signs have been identified since the identification of Wilson’s disease (WD. Every patient with WD suffers from one or more psychiatric problems (organic dementia, psychosis, and impulsivity across the disease course. Sometimes, insidious symptoms, such as behavioral changes, failure in school performance, and disturbances in hand-eye coordination may be seen before the onset of neurologic presentation. In this report, five patients, who were diagnosed with WD and followed up in the Child Neurology Unit, were assessed by a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4-based semistructured psychiatric interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children. All patients had psychiatric symptoms. One patient had a history of a manic episode and the other had a history of a psychotic disorder at the initial stage of WD. Psychiatric symptoms coexist mostly with neurologic signs in patients with WD. In this sense, pediatric neurological consultation and copper screening are lifesaving in excluding organic etiology. However, WD is a lifelong treatment-requiring disease and psychiatric evaluation of the patients is essential.

  5. The Relationship Between Severity of Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shirmohammadi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Premenstrual syndrome is a common disorder experienced by up to 50% of women during reproductive age. The prevalence of severe form of PMS (PMDD is 3 % to 8%. Psychiatric disorders in PMS patients have resulted in significant morbidity and in some cases caused resistance to the treatment process Material and Method: 390 participants (264 with PMS/PMDD, and 126 healthy students of University of Guilan who completed the demographic questionnaire, daily symptom rating (DSR and the checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R took part in this study. This study was conducted using a cross sectional method. Results: According to repeated measure variance, the mean scores of psychiatric symptoms (Depression, Anxiety, Aggression, Interpersonal sensitivity in the PMS group were significantly higher than the healthy group (p< 0/05, and increase in severity of PMS from mild to severe was accompanied by increase in mean score of these subscales. There was a significant difference in mean score of depression, anxiety, aggression and interpersonal sensitivity between the 3rd and the 13th day of the cycle. Significant effect of the DSR grouping (PMS and Healthy group and time interaction emerged in interpersonal sensitivity and aggression, significant effect on the DSR grouping (Mild, Moderate, Severer and time interaction demonstrated in interpersonal sensitivity. Conclusion: Patients with prospective confirmed PMDD seemed to suffer from psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, recognizing co-morbid psychiatric symptoms in patients with PMDD is of prime importance. All healthcare providers should be sensitive to mental status of women with PMS.

  6. Religion/Spirituality and Adolescent Psychiatric Symptoms: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, Rachel Elizabeth; Daniel, Stephanie S.; Armstrong, Tonya D.; Goldston, David B.; Triplett, Mary Frances; Koenig, Harold G.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the current article is to review the literature on religion and spirituality as it pertains to adolescent psychiatric symptoms. One hundred and fifteen articles were reviewed that examined relationships between religion/spirituality and adolescent substance use, delinquency, depression, suicidality, and anxiety. Ninety-two percent of…

  7. Automatic mining of symptom severity from psychiatric evaluation notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karystianis, George; Nevado, Alejo J; Kim, Chi-Hun; Dehghan, Azad; Keane, John A; Nenadic, Goran

    2017-12-22

    As electronic mental health records become more widely available, several approaches have been suggested to automatically extract information from free-text narrative aiming to support epidemiological research and clinical decision-making. In this paper, we explore extraction of explicit mentions of symptom severity from initial psychiatric evaluation records. We use the data provided by the 2016 CEGS N-GRID NLP shared task Track 2, which contains 541 records manually annotated for symptom severity according to the Research Domain Criteria. We designed and implemented 3 automatic methods: a knowledge-driven approach relying on local lexicalized rules based on common syntactic patterns in text suggesting positive valence symptoms; a machine learning method using a neural network; and a hybrid approach combining the first 2 methods with a neural network. The results on an unseen evaluation set of 216 psychiatric evaluation records showed a performance of 80.1% for the rule-based method, 73.3% for the machine-learning approach, and 72.0% for the hybrid one. Although more work is needed to improve the accuracy, the results are encouraging and indicate that automated text mining methods can be used to classify mental health symptom severity from free text psychiatric notes to support epidemiological and clinical research. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in HIV infected mine workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease. Several other psychiatric symptoms and disorders, such as psychosis, secondary mania and depression, have also been ... Bipolar disorder with mania, without concurrent dementia, and major depression was present in 2 patients, respectively. Screening .... refers to the Axis IV diagnosis of psychosocial and.

  9. Psychiatric outcomes after pediatric sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; Ritchie, Lesley J; Koltek, Mark; Hosain, Shahid; Cordingley, Dean; Chu, Stephanie; Selci, Erin; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the prevalence of emotional symptoms among children and adolescents with a sports-related concussion (SRC) who were referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and (2) to examine the prevalence, clinical features, risk factors, and management of postinjury psychiatric outcomes among those in this clinical population. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients with SRC referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program between September 2013 and October 2014. Clinical assessments carried out by a single neurosurgeon included clinical history, physical examination, and Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) scoring. Postinjury psychiatric outcomes were defined as a subjective worsening of symptoms of a preinjury psychiatric disorder or new and isolated suicidal ideation or diagnosis of a novel psychiatric disorder (NPD). An NPD was defined as a newly diagnosed psychiatric disorder that occurred in a patient with or without a lifetime preinjury psychiatric disorder after a concussion. Clinical resources, therapeutic interventions, and clinical and return-to-play outcomes are summarized. One hundred seventy-four patients (mean age 14.2 years, 61.5% male) were included in the study. At least 1 emotional symptom was reported in 49.4% of the patients, and the median emotional PCSS subscore was 4 (interquartile range 1-8) among those who reported at least 1 emotional symptom. Overall, 20 (11.5%) of the patients met the study criteria for a postinjury psychiatric outcome, including 14 patients with an NPD, 2 patients with isolated suicidal ideation, and 4 patients with worsening symptoms of a preinjury psychiatric disorder. Female sex, a higher initial PCSS score, a higher emotional PCSS subscore, presence of a preinjury psychiatric history, and presence of a family history of psychiatric illness were significantly associated with postinjury psychiatric outcomes

  10. Associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents in two samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Hellström, Charlotta; Nilsson, Kent W

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate associations between problematic gaming and psychiatric symptoms among adolescents. Data from adolescents in the SALVe cohort, including adolescents in Västmanland who were born in 1997 and 1999 (N=1868; 1034 girls), and data from consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients in Västmanland (N=242; 169 girls) were analyzed. Adolescents self-rated on the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT), Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Adolescent version (ASRS-A), Depression Self-Rating Scale Adolescent version (DSRS-A), Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS), and psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed, and adjusted for sex, age, study population, school bullying, family maltreatment, and interactions by sex, with two-way interactions between psychiatric measurements. Boys had higher self-rated problematic gaming in both samples, whereas girls self-rated higher in all psychiatric domains. Boys had more than eight times the probability, odds ratio (OR), of having problematic gaming. Symptoms of ADHD, depression and anxiety were associated with ORs of 2.43 (95% CI 1.44-4.11), 2.47 (95% CI 1.44-4.25), and 2.06 (95% CI 1.27-3.33), respectively, in relation to coexisting problematic gaming. Problematic gaming was associated with psychiatric symptoms in adolescents; when problematic gaming is considered, the probability of coexisting psychiatric symptoms should also be considered, and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neurovisceral phenotypes in the expression of psychiatric symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Anne Eccles

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This review explores the proposal that vulnerability to psychological symptoms, particularly anxiety, originates in constitutional differences in the control of bodily state, exemplified by a set of conditions that include Joint Hypermobility, Postural Tachycardia Syndrome and Vasovagal Syncope. Research is revealing how brain-body mechanisms underlie individual differences in psychophysiological reactivity that can be important s for predicting, stratifying and treating individuals with anxiety disorders and related conditions. One common constitutional difference is Joint Hypermobility, in which there is an increased range of joint movement as a result of a variant of collagen. Joint hypermobility is over-represented in people with anxiety, mood and neurodevelopmental disorders. It is also linked to stress-sensitive medical conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Structural differences in ‘emotional’ brain regions are reported in hypermobile individuals, and many people with joint hypermobility manifest autonomic abnormalities, typically Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. Enhanced heart rate reactivity is characteristic of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, and there is a phenomenological overlap with anxiety disorders, which may be partially accounted for by exaggerated neural reactivity within ventromedial prefrontal cortex. People who experience Vasovagal Syncope, a heritable tendency to fainting induced by emotional challenges (and needle/ blood phobia, are also more vulnerable to anxiety disorders. Neuroimaging implicates brainstem differences in vulnerability to faints, yet the structural integrity of the caudate nucleus appears important for the control of fainting frequency in relation to parasympathetic tone and anxiety. Together there is clinical and neuroanatomical evidence to show that common constitutional differences affecting autonomic responsivity are linked to psychiatric symptoms

  12. Neurovisceral phenotypes in the expression of psychiatric symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Jessica A.; Owens, Andrew P.; Mathias, Christopher J.; Umeda, Satoshi; Critchley, Hugo D.

    2015-01-01

    This review explores the proposal that vulnerability to psychological symptoms, particularly anxiety, originates in constitutional differences in the control of bodily state, exemplified by a set of conditions that include Joint Hypermobility, Postural Tachycardia Syndrome and Vasovagal Syncope. Research is revealing how brain-body mechanisms underlie individual differences in psychophysiological reactivity that can be important for predicting, stratifying and treating individuals with anxiety disorders and related conditions. One common constitutional difference is Joint Hypermobility, in which there is an increased range of joint movement as a result of a variant of collagen. Joint hypermobility is over-represented in people with anxiety, mood and neurodevelopmental disorders. It is also linked to stress-sensitive medical conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia. Structural differences in “emotional” brain regions are reported in hypermobile individuals, and many people with joint hypermobility manifest autonomic abnormalities, typically Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. Enhanced heart rate reactivity during postural change and as recently recognized factors causing vasodilatation (as noted post-prandially, post-exertion and with heat) is characteristic of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, and there is a phenomenological overlap with anxiety disorders, which may be partially accounted for by exaggerated neural reactivity within ventromedial prefrontal cortex. People who experience Vasovagal Syncope, a heritable tendency to fainting induced by emotional challenges (and needle/blood phobia), are also more vulnerable to anxiety disorders. Neuroimaging implicates brainstem differences in vulnerability to faints, yet the structural integrity of the caudate nucleus appears important for the control of fainting frequency in relation to parasympathetic tone and anxiety. Together there is clinical and neuroanatomical evidence to

  13. Athletic identity and psychiatric symptoms following retirement from varsity sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Zarina A; Haney, Colleen J; Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2017-11-01

    Despite evidence identifying adjustment difficulties among retiring athletes, research investigating factors that contribute to post-retirement complications is limited. Athletic identity may be an important determinant of adverse adaptation to sport retirement. The purpose of this study was to address the influence of athletic identity on post-retirement depression and anxiety symptoms among varsity athletes. An anonymous, online survey regarding athletic identity and psychiatric symptoms was completed by 72 self-identified varsity athletes during their final season of competition and 3 months after retiring from sport. After controlling for the effects of pre-retirement anxiety symptoms, endorsement of an athletic identity significantly predicted anxiety symptoms in the post-retirement period. A similar, but non-significant, pattern was observed for depressive symptoms. The findings of this study suggest that athletes' degree of athletic identity may be a risk factor for the emergence of psychiatric distress in the months following their retirement from sport. Identity-focused screening or intervention during athletes' sport careers could potentially mitigate some of the psychological difficulties associated with sport retirement.

  14. ASD Symptom Severity in Adolescence of Individuals Diagnosed with PDD-NOS in Childhood: Stability and the Relation with Psychiatric Comorbidity and Societal Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, A.; Eussen, M. L. J. M.; Van der Ende, J.; de Nijs, P. F. A.; Van Gool, A. R.; Dekker, L. P.; Verheij, C.; Verheij, F.; Verhulst, F. C.; Greaves-Lord, K.

    2015-01-01

    The current 7-year follow-up study investigated: (1) the stability of ASD severity, and (2) associations of ASD severity in adolescence with (a) childhood and concurrent psychiatric comorbidity, and (b) concurrent societal functioning. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children were…

  15. Progress monitoring and feedback in psychiatric care reduces depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, Elizabeth A; Hooke, Geoff R; Page, Andrew C

    2010-12-01

    To date, the monitoring of patient progress using standardized assessments has been neglected in hospital-based psychiatric care. Findings in outpatient psychotherapy have demonstrated clinically significant benefits for providing feedback to the sizeable minority of patients who were otherwise unlikely to experience positive outcome (Lambert, 2007). However, a similar system for presenting feedback on patient progress has not yet been assessed for group therapy within psychiatric inpatient settings. The current study aimed to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a feedback system suitable for use in psychiatric services. In a nonrandomized trial, 1308 consecutive inpatients and day patients, whose diagnoses were primarily depressive and anxiety disorders, completed the World Health Organization's Wellbeing Index (WHO-5) routinely during a ten-day cognitive behavioral therapy group. The first cohort (n=461) received treatment as usual. The second cohort (n=439) completed monitoring measures without feedback, and for patients in the third cohort (n=408), feedback on progress was provided to both clinicians and patients midway through the treatment period. Feedback was effective in reducing depressive symptoms (F(1,649)=6.29, p.05). The current findings may be generalized to patient samples that exhibit largely depressive disorders, however rigorous follow-up is warranted. Similar to outpatient settings, feedback appears to be beneficial for improving symptom outcomes but further time may be required for wellbeing to be affected. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Traditional and cyberbullying co-occurrence and its relationship to psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tural Hesapcioglu, Selma; Ercan, Filiz

    2017-01-01

    The effect of cyberbullying accompanied by traditional bullying on mental health has been less studied. In this study, the frequency, co-occurrence, and the relationship to psychiatric symptoms of traditional bullying and cyberbullying among bullies and victims are examined. All of the high schools in the province of Mus, Turkey were stratified according to Placement Test for High Schools admission points for 2014-2015. By choosing schools using simple random sampling, 1276 students were reached. Students were given the Brief Symptom Inventory and three separate scale assessments: peer bullying rating, cybervictimization, and cyberbullying scales. High scores in all subscale scores of bullying and victimization were significantly related to higher depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, somatization, and hostility scores. For people who were exposed to cyberbullying in addition to traditional bullying, the severity of the psychiatric symptoms was significantly higher. For all psychiatric symptoms, major predictors were gender, total victimization score, and total cybervictimization score. Moreover, the bullying total score was among the predictors of low self-esteem and hostility. Cybervictimization and cyberbullying occur less often than traditional bullying and victimization, but people who were exposed to or performed cyberbullying were also exposed to or performed traditional bullying. The addition of cyberbullying to traditional bullying is associated with more intense psychiatric symptoms. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Bilateral anterior capsulotomy and amygdalotomy for mental retardation with psychiatric symptoms and aggression: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizhen; Zhou, Peizhi; Jiang, Shu; Li, Peng; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is a chronic condition that often has no readily identifiable cause or treatment. Aggression and psychiatric symptoms are prevalent in children with MR. Surgical treatment of aggression and psychiatric symptoms of MR is seldom investigated and studies are limited. We encountered a 19-year-old female who had MR with aggression and psychiatric symptoms. She was diagnosed with mild MR with aggressiveness and psychiatric symptoms. Because the patient was refractory to conservative treatment, bilateral anterior capsulotomy and amygdaloid neurosurgery were performed for her psychiatric symptoms and aggression. The benefits and side effects of the surgery were analyzed. After surgery, the patient showed significant alleviation of her psychiatric symptoms and aggression with no observed side effects. Bilateral anterior capsulotomy in combination with amygdaloid neurosurgery may resolve both psychiatric and aggressive symptoms. Future investigations of control studies with large patient cohorts are needed.

  18. Quality of Life and Psychiatric Symptoms in Wilson's Disease: the Relevance of Bipolar Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Mg; Mura, G; Sorbello, O; Farina, G; Demelia, L

    2012-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an inherited disorder caused by a gene located on chromosome 13, which involved copper transportation across cell membranes. The disease can cause a reduced incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin resulting in accumulation of this metal in the liver, central nervous system, kidneys and other organs. The objective is to define the frequencies of psychiatric disorders in WD, the amount of impairment of Quality of Life [QoL] in patients with WD and the relevance of the psychiatric disorders in the QoL of people suffering by WD. This is a systematic review. The search of the significant articles was carried out in PubMed using specific key words. Such other neurological diseases, WD is characterized by chronic course and need of treatments, impairment of functional outcomes and high frequency of psychiatric symptoms, although a specific association between Bipolar Disorders and WD was recently found. Despite this, since today few studies are carried on WD patients' quality of life related to psychiatric symptoms. Some new reports showed a link between presence of Bipolar Disorders diagnosis, cerebral damage and low Qol. Prospective studies on large cohorts are required to establish the effective impact of psychiatric disorders comorbidity, particularly Bipolar Disorders, on quality of life in WD and to clarify the causal link between brain damage, psychiatric disorders and worsening of QoL.

  19. The Overlap between Psychiatric Symptoms and Challenging Behaviour: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Borge; Gitlesen, Jens Petter

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, challenging behaviour is explained by way of psychiatric symptomatology. This poses possible pitfalls. First, the possibility exists that both psychiatric symptoms and challenging behaviour are concurrent expressions of common underlying factors. Second, psychiatric symptoms may be rated as present on the basis of challenging…

  20. Psychiatric symptoms in adolescents with Internet use: comparison without Internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleci, Meral; Inal, Sevil

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the psychiatric symptoms of adolescents with and without Internet use. A total of 2,080 students (1,105 male, 975 female) were recruited for the study. We administered the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision and Questions Related to Internet Use. Students in 10th through 12th grades were recruited from 14 senior high schools in Sivas, Turkey. Data were collected from October to May 2008. Data were analyzed after excluding the participants who provided incomplete data. It was found that Internet use in adolescents was associated with more severe psychiatric symptoms. Attention should be devoted to adolescents with Internet use for the design of preventive strategies.

  1. Alcohol Misuse among College Athletes: Self-Medication for Psychiatric Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B. E.; Miller, M. N.; Verhegge, R.; Linville, H. H.; Pumariega, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys a collegiate athlete population for alcohol abuse as well as self-reported depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric symptoms. Significant correlations were found between reported alcohol abuse and self-reported symptoms of depression and general psychiatric symptoms. Findings suggest a possible link between psychopathology and serious…

  2. The direction of the relationship between symptoms of insomnia and psychiatric disorders in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Pasquale K; Roberts, Rachel M; Harris, Jodie K; Bruni, Oliviero

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the direction of the relationship between symptoms of insomnia disorder, depression, various anxiety disorders and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in adolescents after controlling for age, gender, chronotype, and outcome variable at baseline. Data was collected in eight high schools in Adelaide, South Australia, at two time-points approximately 6 months apart. The study was completed by 318 and 255 high school students at baseline and follow-up, respectively, aged 12-18 (M=14.96, SD=1.34) in grades 7-11 at baseline. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to assess each relationship, the first model controlling for age, gender and chronotype, and the second controlling for outcome variable at baseline. Insomnia symptoms predicted and were predicted by symptoms of each psychiatric disorder in model 1. In model 2, insomnia symptoms predicted symptoms of depression, and vice-versa. Symptoms of insomnia also predicted symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) once SAD, but not vice-versa, in model 2. Symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and social phobia (SP) predicted symptoms of insomnia disorder in model 2, but not vice-versa. Insomnia symptoms were no longer related to symptoms of other anxiety disorders in model 2. The use of self-report measures, and potential predisposing, precipitating, perpetuating or preventative factors were not assessed. Symptoms of insomnia disorder are bidirectionally related to depressive symptoms independent from baseline symptoms, and unidirectionally related to symptoms of OCD and SP where OCD and SP are independent risk-factors of the development of insomnia symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychiatric symptoms of patients with primary mitochondrial DNA disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inczedy-Farkas Gabriella

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to assess psychiatric symptoms in patients with genetically proven primary mutation of the mitochondrial DNA. Methods 19 adults with known mitochondrial mutation (MT have been assessed with the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire 20-item Disability Index (HAQ-DI, the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-SF, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the the DSM-IV (SCID-I and SCID-II As control, 10 patients with hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy (HN, harboring the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22 mutation were examined with the same tools. Results The two groups did not differ significantly in gender, age or education. Mean HAQ-DI score was 0.82 in the MT (range: 0-1.625 and 0.71 in the HN group (range: 0-1.625. Level of disability between the two groups did not differ significantly (p = 0.6076. MT patients scored significantly higher on the BDI-SF and HDRS than HN patients (12.85 versus 4.40, p = 0.031, and 15.62 vs 7.30, p = 0.043, respectively. The Global Severity Index (GSI of SCL-90-R also showed significant difference (1.44 vs 0.46, p = 0.013 as well as the subscales except for somatization. SCID-I interview yielded a variety of mood disorders in both groups. Eight MT patient (42% had past, 6 (31% had current, 5 (26% had both past and current psychiatric diagnosis, yielding a lifetime prevalence of 9/19 (47% in the MT group. In the HN group, 3 patients had both past and current diagnosis showing a lifetime prevalence of 3/10 (30% in this group. SCID-II detected personality disorder in 8 MT cases (42%, yielding 3 avoidant, 2 obsessive-compulsive and 3 personality disorder not otherwise specified (NOS diagnosis. No personality disorder was identified in the HN group. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in patients with

  4. Bilateral thalamic infarction with psychiatric symptoms: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Tekin Güveli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thalamus is a mass of gray matter, which plays a role in the transmission of sensory and motor information to the primary sensory and motor centers of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia. Vascular lesions of thalamus may occur in different syndromes depending on the affected nuclei. In this report, a case with acute evolving personality and behavior changes and detected bilateral thalamic infarction will be presented. Case: A 40-year-old male patient was brought to the psychiatric ER with complaints of acute excessive sleep and behavioral changing. His neurological examination was normal except for limited cooperation and dysarthria. There was hyperintensity in bilateral paramedian thalamic regions in diffusion MRI and hypointensity in the right side in the ADC. During clinical observation the patient occasionally had visual hallucinations and attempted suicide. The psychiatrist diagnosed the patient with psychotic disorder due to his general medical condition and olanzapine 10 mg / day was prescribed. Etiological tests were normal. The patient was discharged after clinical improvement on the tenth day of hospitalization. Conclusion: Bilateral thalamic infarcts are very rare in all ischemic cerebrovascular diseases and typically result in changing of consciousness, gaze palsy and memory. The most common etiological cause of bilateral thalamic infarct is cardioembolism and the prognosis is generally good. Thalamic infarcts have a clinical spectrum varying according to the location of the lesion and may even just be present with psychiatric symptoms. In acute or subacute personality and behavior changes in a patient with no history of psychiatric disorders, thalamic lesions should be considered.

  5. Traumatic war stressors and psychiatric symptoms among World War II, Korean, and Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, A; Rosenheck, R

    1994-03-01

    Three hypotheses regarding symptoms of war-related posttraumatic stress disorder and general psychiatric distress were tested: that symptoms are more severe the more severe the traumatic exposure, regardless of the war in question; that symptoms are less severe the older the veterans' age; and that symptom levels differ across sociocultural cohorts. A total of 5,138 war zone veterans who were seeking treatment from specialized Veterans Affairs outpatient clinical teams made up the sample: 320 World War II, 199 Korean War, and 4,619 Vietnam War veterans. All hypotheses were supported significantly. The similarity of relationships between traumatic exposure and symptoms across wars testifies to the generality of these experiences. Furthermore, the results suggest the operation of significant effects due both to aging and to cohort differences in sociocultural attitudes toward the stigma of mental illness and the popularity of the wars.

  6. prevalence of hiv/aids and psychiatric disorders and their related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-10-01

    Oct 1, 2003 ... PREVALENCE OF HIV/AIDS AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND THEIR RELATED RISK FACTORS AMONG ADULTS IN EPWORTH, ZIMBAMBWE ... psychiatric symptoms/signs, alcohol use/misuse, CD4 cell counts and risk factors in adult patients. ...... and NGOs to prevent the spread of HIV disease,.

  7. Psychiatric Symptoms in Patients with Cushing's Syndrome: Prevalence, Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alicia; Resmini, Eugenia; Pascual, Juan Carlos; Crespo, Iris; Webb, Susan M

    2017-05-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) results from chronic exposure to cortisol excess, produced by the adrenal cortex. Hypercortisolism predisposes to psychiatric and neurocognitive disorders, mainly to depression and anxiety disorders. Screening tools to identify psychiatric symptoms are available for clinicians in their daily practice, although a specific diagnosis should be performed by specialists. Even if psychiatric symptoms improve after remission of hypercortisolism, complete recovery may not be achieved. Given the burden of these symptoms, psychiatric or psychological monitoring and treatment should be offered through all phases of CS, with a multidisciplinary approach. The aim of this article is to review data on the prevalence, diagnosis and management of psychiatric symptoms seen in patients with CS and to propose therapeutic approaches that may be followed in clinical practice. The prevalence of different psychiatric disorders has been described in both the active phase and after CS remission. Patients may not talk spontaneously about psychiatric symptoms they present, thus clinicians should ask directly about them. We recommend the use of screening tools in clinical practice to detect and treat these symptoms promptly. Even if reference endocrinologists cannot perform a definite psychiatric diagnosis, it will be important to ask patients directly about the presence of symptoms and refer if necessary to a psychiatrist. Additionally, patient information and educational programmes could be useful to manage psychiatric symptoms and to improve quality of life in patients with CS.

  8. The relationship between self-reported substance use and psychiatric symptoms in low-threshold methadone maintenance treatment clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Sean P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ongoing psychiatric symptoms and substance use are common difficulties experienced by clients enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT. However, little research to date has evaluated if specific types of current substance use are related to specific types of current psychiatric symptoms. The present study investigated these relationships with a sample of clients enrolled in a low-threshold MMT program (i.e., clients are not expelled if they continue to use substances. Some clients enrolled in low-threshold programs may never achieve complete abstinence from all substances. Thus, understanding the possibly perpetuating relationships between concurrent substance use and psychiatric symptoms is important. Understanding such relationships may aid in developing possible target areas of treatment to reduce substance use and/or related harms in this population. Methods Seventy-seven individuals were interviewed regarding methadone usage and current and past substance use. Current psychiatric symptoms were assessed using a modified version of the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ. Relationships between types of substances used in the past 30 days and the types and number of psychiatric symptoms experienced in the same timeframe were examined. Results The majority of participants (87.0% reported using alcohol, illicit substances, non-prescribed prescription opioids, or non-prescribed benzodiazepines in the past 30 days and 77.9% of participants reported currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms at levels that would likely warrant diagnosis. Current non-prescribed benzodiazepine use was a predictor for increased severity (i.e., symptom count of almost all anxiety and mood disorders assessed. Conversely, number and presence of generalized anxiety symptoms and presence of social phobia symptoms predicted current non-prescribed benzodiazepine and alcohol use, respectively. Conclusions Individuals enrolled in

  9. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms in Huntington's disease are modified by polymorphisms in catecholamine regulating enzyme genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Jensen, T; Nielsen, Troels Tolstrup; Budtz-Jørgensen, E

    2016-01-01

    previously been shown in HD, and furthermore dopamine is thought to be implicated in cognition, behavioral and motor disturbances. A substantiated inverse correlation between motor onset and the elongated CAG repeat in the HTT has been established. This relation does not account for the full variability......Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, psychiatric, and cognitive manifestations. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene but the exact pathogenesis remains unknown. Dopamine imbalance has...... of the motor onset, and efforts have been put into finding genetic modifiers of motor onset, however, mostly with unsuccessful outcome. In this study, we took an alternative approach focusing on symptom complexes and searched for modifiers of cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms in a well...

  11. Gender Differences in Psychiatric Symptoms among Methamphetamine Dependent Residents in Sober Living Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcin, Douglas L; Buscemi, Raymond; Nayak, Madhabika; Korcha, Rachael; Galloway, Gantt

    2012-06-01

    Although psychiatric symptoms among methamphetamine (MA) dependent individuals have been studied in treatment programs, they have not been examined in services designed to support sustained recovery in the community (e.g. sober living houses). In addition, some disorders more common among women, such as somatoform and bulimia, have been understudied among MA dependent individuals. This study aimed to examine psychiatric symptom differences between MA dependent men and women who we entering sober living houses (SLHs). Two hundred forty five individuals were interviewed within one week of entering SLHs. Instruments included a DSM IV based measure for MA dependence, a psychiatric screen (the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire), demographics, recent substance use and recent use of services. Of the 245 participants, 103 men and 25 women met criteria for MA dependence. Womenwith MA dependence reported more psychiatric symptoms than men. They also trended toward reporting more psychiatric symptoms than non-MA dependent women. For men, psychiatric symptoms did not vary between those with and without MA dependence. Some understudied disorders (e.g., somatoform) had large proportions of women meeting the screening criteria. Additional research is needed on understudied psychiatric disorders that are common among MA dependent women. SLH's should consider ways to address psychiatric symptoms among MA dependent individuals, especially women. Strategies could include increasing linkages with professional mental health services as well as developing peer oriented strategies for managing symptoms.

  12. Psychiatric Disorders in HTLV-1-Infected Individuals with Bladder Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória O Orge

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported high rates of depression and anxiety in HTLV-1 infected individuals with the neurological disease and in the asymptomatic phase. No study has investigated the rates in individuals that already show bladder symptoms without severe neurological changes; that is, during the oligosymptomatic phase. The present study investigated patients in this intermediate form on the spectrum of the infection.Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Brazilian Version 5.0.0 (MINI PLUS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Data analysis was performed in STATA statistical software (version 12.0. Depressive disorder was the most frequent comorbidity. Current depressive disorder was higher in the group of overactive bladder subjects (11.9%, and lifelong depression was more frequent in the HAM/TSP group (35%. The three groups had similar frequencies of anxiety disorders. Increased frequency and severity of anxiety and depression symptoms were observed in the overactive bladder group.The results suggest that individuals with overactive bladders need a more thorough assessment from the mental health perspective. These patients remain an understudied group regarding psychiatric comorbidities.

  13. Evaluating psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's Disease by a clinimetric analysis of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Morberg, Bo Mohr; Siri, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Although psychiatric comorbidity in Parkinson's Disease (PD) has often been studied, the individual psychiatric symptoms have rarely been evaluated from a clinimetric point of view in an attempt to measure how much the symptoms have been bothering or distressing the PD patients. The current study...... is therefore aimed at evaluating from a clinimetric viewpoint the severity of psychiatric symptoms affecting PD patients by using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) to show its measurement-driven construct validity (scalability). The conventional nine SCL-90-R subscales (somatization, obsessive...... are bothered with diverse somatic symptoms, but also with specific secondary psychiatric comorbidities which are clinically severe markers of impairment in the day-to-day function implying a negative cooping approach....

  14. Somatic symptoms, perceived stress and perceived job satisfaction among nurses working in an Indian psychiatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Sangeetha, G; Ahmed, Nurnahar; Chaturvedi, S K

    2014-12-01

    High stress perception by nurses caring for psychiatric patients can lead to somatic symptoms which impact on their job satisfaction perception. To assess and correlate the level of somatic symptoms, perceived stress and perceived job satisfaction among the subjects. The authors used a descriptive correlation design to invite 150 nurses of both genders working for more than one year with psychiatric patients. The Scale for Assessment of Somatic Symptoms (Chaturvedi et al., 1987) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for stress and job satisfaction perception were used to collect data. The nurses (128) reported mainly pain related (4.87±2.97) somatic symptoms. Somatic symptoms positively correlated (r=0.302) with stress perception and negatively correlated (r=-0.231) with perceived job satisfaction, while perceived stress and perceived job satisfaction were negatively correlated (r=-0.460, p=0.000). The results indicate a need for stress management interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comorbid internet addiction in male clients of inpatient addiction rehabilitation centers: psychiatric symptoms and mental comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Koch, Andreas; Dickenhorst, Ulrike; Müller, Kai W

    2013-11-01

    Addictive Internet use has recently been proposed to be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Still, little is known about its nosological features, including comorbidity with other mental disorders and disorder-specific psychopathological symptoms. To investigate whether Internet addiction (IA) is an issue in patients in addiction treatment, 1826 clients were surveyed in 15 inpatient rehabilitation centers. Male patients meeting criteria for comorbid IA (n = 71) were compared with a matched control group of male patients treated for alcohol addiction without addictive Internet use (n = 58). The SCL-90-R, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder were used to assess associated psychiatric symptoms and further comorbid disorders. Comorbid IA was associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, especially depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity. Moreover, the patients with IA more frequently met criteria for additional mental disorders. They display higher rates of psychiatric symptoms, especially depression, and might be in need of additional therapeutic treatment. In rehabilitation centers, a regular screening for IA is recommended to identify patients with this (non-substance-related) addiction and supply them with additional disorder-specific treatment.

  16. Effect of Sleep Quality on Psychiatric Symptoms and Life Quality in Newspaper Couriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nalan

    2016-06-01

    Working at unusual hours has been found to be related to sleep problems, psychiatric symptoms, and low quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sleep quality on psychiatric symptoms and the quality of life in newspaper couriers who permanently wake up at early morning hours. Thirty-five newspaper couriers who worked for a media company in Ankara and 35 healthy individuals who worked at usual hours and who were matched according to age, gender, and work duration were included in the study. All individuals were evaluated using the demographic forms, Symptom Checklist (SCL)-90-R, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). The somatization subscale of SCL-90-R and the sleep duration sub-component scores of PSQI were significantly higher and the physical role functioning domain score of SF-36 was significantly lower in newspaper couriers compared with the scores in healthy individuals. There were significantly positive correlations between the PSQI total and sub-component scores and the SCL-90-R subscale and global symptom index scores. There were significantly negative correlations between the PSQI total and sub-component scores and the SF-36 domain scores. This study demonstrates that waking up permanently at early morning hours may be related to sleep disturbances, psychiatric symptoms, and low quality of life. Measures to increase sleep quality in individuals working at unusual hours may improve their mental health and quality of life. Future studies should investigate the effects of interventions toward sleep disturbances on mental health and quality of life in different occupational groups.

  17. Hair loss related to primary psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Çığıl Fettahoğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scalp hair has greater social and psychological importance than its' biological significance. In the hair disorder consultation services there are lots of patients who are often considered as "difficult" or "problematic", because of their biopsychosocial problems. When it’s considered that the hair loss patients refer to the dermatology clinics in the first step, we can understand the importance of the awareness of the clinicians about the causal and/or consequential relationship between hair diseases and the psychological problems. In this paper, hair loss diseases that are related to primary psychiatric disorders are reviewed.

  18. Longitudinal Psychiatric Symptoms Progress in Prodromal Huntington Disease: a Decade of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epping, Eric A.; Kim, Ji-In; Craufurd, David; Brashers-Krug, Thomas M.; Anderson, Karen E.; McCusker, Elizabeth; Luther, Jolene; Long, Jeffrey D.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Psychiatric symptoms are a significant aspect of Huntington disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative illness. The presentation of these symptoms is highly variable in patients, and their course does not fully correlate with motor or cognitive disease progression. We sought to better understand the development and longitudinal course of psychiatric manifestations in patients who carry the HD mutation starting from the prodromal period prior to motor diagnosis. Method Longitudinal measures for up to 10 years of psychiatric symptoms from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised were obtained from 1305 participants (1007 carrying the HD mutation) and 1235 companions enrolled in the Neurobiological Predictors of Huntington’s Disease (PREDICT-HD) study. Participants with the HD mutation were stratified into three groups according to probability of motor diagnosis within five years. Using linear mixed effects regression models, differences in psychiatric symptoms at baseline and over time between HD mutation positive groups and controls were compared as well as between HD mutation participants and their companions. Results 19 of 24 psychiatric measures showed significant increases at baseline and longitudinally in HD mutation carrying individuals or their companions versus controls. The differences were greatest when comparing symptom reports from companions (versus self-report), especially in participants who were closest to motor diagnosis. Conclusions Results indicate psychiatric manifestations develop more often than previously thought in the HD prodrome. Symptoms also increase with progression of disease severity. Companions of HD mutation carriers also report greater psychiatric symptoms over time compared to affected individuals, consistent with decreasing awareness. PMID:26472629

  19. Psychiatric symptoms and response quality to self-rated personality tests: Evidence from the PsyCoLaus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Rudaz, Dominique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Castelao, Enrique; Preisig, Martin; Capel, Roland; Vandeleur, Caroline L

    2017-06-01

    Despite the fact that research has demonstrated consistent associations between self-rated measures of personality dimensions and mental disorders, little has been undertaken to investigate the relation between psychiatric symptoms and response patterns to self-rated tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychiatric symptoms and response quality using indices from our functional method. A sample of 1,784 participants from a Swiss population-based cohort completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI) and a symptom checklist of 90 items (SCL-90-R). Different indices of response quality were calculated based on the responses given to the NEO-FFI. Associations among the responses to indices of response quality, sociodemographic characteristics and the SCL-90-R dimensions were then established. Psychiatric symptoms were associated with several important differences in response quality, questioning subjects' ability to provide valid information using self-rated instruments. As suggested by authors, psychiatric symptoms seem associated with differences in personality scores. Nonetheless, our study shows that symptoms are also related to differences in terms of response patterns as sources of differences in personality scores. This could constitute a bias for clinical assessment. Future studies could still determine whether certain subpopulations of subjects are more unable to provide valid information to self-rated questionnaires than others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychiatric symptom typology in a sample of youth receiving substance abuse treatment services: associations with self-reported child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James

    2011-11-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.

  1. Increased oxytocin levels among abstinent heroin addicts: Association with aggressiveness, psychiatric symptoms and perceived childhood neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerra, Lidia M; Gerra, Gilberto; Mercolini, Laura; Manfredini, Matteo; Somaini, Lorenzo; Pieri, Chiara M; Antonioni, Maina; Protti, Michele; Ossola, Paolo; Marchesi, Carlo

    2017-04-03

    A disruption of the oxytocin system seems to affect a variety of brain functions including emotions, mood and social behavior possibly underlying severe social deficits and susceptibility for substance use and mental health disorders. Early life adversity, such as insecure attachment in childhood, has been suggested to influence oxytocin tone contributing to a condition of neurobiological vulnerability. Aim of the present study was to investigate oxytocin serum levels in abstinent heroin addicted patients, in comparison with healthy controls, and the possible correlation with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and perception of parental neglect. Eighteen (18) abstinent patients, affected by heroin use disorders, and 18 control subjects, who never used drugs or abused alcohol, were included in the study and submitted to 1) collection of a blood sample for oxytocin assay, 2) Symptoms Check List 90 for psychiatric symptoms evaluation 3) Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory to measure aggressiveness 4) Child Experience of Care and Abuse-Questionnaire to retrospectively test the perception of parental neglect. Heroin exposure extent and heroin dosages were also recorded. Oxytocin serum levels were unexpectedly significantly higher among abstinent patients affected by heroin use disorders and positively correlated with psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and mother neglect scores. No correlation was evidenced between oxytocin and heroin exposure extent or dosages. Our findings appear to contradict the simplistic view of oxytocin as a pro-social hormone and confirm previous evidence concerning the peptide levels direct association with aggressive behavior and mood disorders. Considering a more complex mechanism, oxytocin would increase the sensitivity to social salience cues related to contextual or inter-individual factors, promoting pro-sociality in "safe" conditions and, in contrast, inducing more defensive and "anti-social" emotions and behaviors when the

  2. Acculturation styles and their associations with psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ethnic minorities with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Weintraub, Marc J; Maura, Jessica; Martinez de Andino, Ana; Brown, Caitlin A; Gurak, Kayla

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether Berry's model of acculturative stress would predict psychiatric symptom severity and quality of life (QoL) in ethnic minorities with schizophrenia. Tested extensively in non-psychiatric populations, Berry's framework generally suggests that integration, or engagement with both the host and minority culture, is most adaptive. Using the Abbreviated Multidimensional Acculturation Scale (AMAS), we tested the hypothesis that individuals with schizophrenia who employed an integrative acculturation strategy would have the highest QoL and lowest symptom severity, followed by the assimilation and enculturation groups, then the marginalized group. Psychiatric symptoms and QoL were regressed on AMAS assimilation scores, enculturation scores, and the interaction term in a sample of 128 Hispanic and Blacks with schizophrenia (M age = 41.28; 70% male). Acculturation strategy was not found to relate to psychiatric symptoms (measured from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale). However, acculturation strategy did predict QoL (measured from the Quality of Life Inventory), and results were in line with Berry's model. Marginalization may exacerbate issues surrounding social identity in schizophrenia, including low self-concept clarity and internalized stigma. Encouraging bicultural individuals with schizophrenia to interact with the host culture while also practicing traditions from their minority culture may help improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study…

  4. Heterogeneity in Youth Symptom Trajectories Following Psychiatric Crisis: Predictors and Placement Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Rowland, Melisa D.; DeLucia, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined heterogeneity in symptom trajectories among youths following psychiatric crises as well as the psychosocial correlates and placement outcomes associated with identified trajectories. Using semiparametric mixture modeling with 156 youths approved for psychiatric hospitalization, the authors identified 5 trajectories based on…

  5. Genes, Parental Psychiatric Symptoms and Child Emotional Problems: Nurture versus Nature: There and Back Again

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P. Velders (Fleur)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractChildhood psychiatric disorders are common, show a high comorbidity and are associated with a long-term vulnerability for mental health problems, which underscores the importance of a better understanding of their etiology. Psychiatric symptoms of the parents place children at risk for

  6. Prenatal Pregnancy Complications and Psychiatric Symptoms: Children with ASD versus Clinic Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Megan E.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the association between prenatal pregnancy complications (PPC) and childhood psychiatric symptoms in children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and non-ASD children who were referred to a psychiatric clinic (Controls). Parents completed a "DSM-IV"-referenced rating scale and developmental history questionnaire.…

  7. Impulse control disorders are associated with multiple psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Elina; Kaasinen, Valtteri; Siri, Chiara; Martikainen, Kirsti; Cilia, Roberto; Niemelä, Solja; Joutsa, Juho

    2014-01-01

    Impulse control disorders can have serious adverse consequences to the life of a patient with Parkinson's disease. Although impulse control disorders are common, a possible psychiatric comorbidity has not been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychiatric symptoms exhibited by Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders. The study was conducted as a postal survey to patients in the registry of the Finnish Parkinson Association. A total of 290 Parkinson's disease patients were evaluated for impulse control disorders using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease. Psychiatric symptoms were systematically screened using the Symptom Checklist 90. We found that 108 of the evaluated patients had one or more impulse control disorders. Patients with impulse control disorders had markedly higher scores for symptoms of psychoticism (Bonferroni corrected p disorder (p disorders. Impulse control disorders were shown to be independently associated with these symptoms. Patients with multiple impulse control disorders had higher scores for depression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms when compared with patients that exhibited only one impulse control disorder. COUNCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the previous observations that impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are linked with multiple psychiatric symptoms, including psychoticism, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and depression. Clinicians treating these patients should acknowledge the concomitant psychiatric symptoms.

  8. The relationship between prosthesis use, phantom pain and psychiatric symptoms in male traumatic limb amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, Dilek; Safaz, Ismail; Adıgüzel, Emre; Uran, Ayça; Sarısoy, Gökhan; Goktepe, Ahmet Salim; Tan, Arif Kenan

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify psychiatric symptoms by comparing male patients with traumatic leg amputations (LAs) with healthy controls and to determine the association between these psychiatric symptoms and phantom pain and prosthesis use characteristics. One hundred four volunteers, 51 LA patients (group 1) and 53 healthy controls (group 2) were included. Demographic data including age, height, weight, time since amputation, duration of prosthesis use, and Satisfaction with Prosthesis Questionnaire scores were recorded. Phantom pain was measured a visual analog scale (VAS). Psychiatric symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist-90-R, Beck Depression Inventory, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Correlations were determined between time since amputation, duration of prosthesis use and satisfaction with prosthesis questionnaire scores and psychiatric scale scores. Amputee patients had higher phobic anxiety, state anxiety, trait anxiety and sleep disturbance scores (p0.05). There were significant negative correlations between time since amputation, duration of prosthesis use, duration of daily prosthesis use, and satisfaction with prosthesis questionnaire scores and psychiatric symptoms. Apart from anxiety (state, trait or phobic) and disturbed sleep, other psychiatric symptoms in amputee patients undergoing lengthy prosthetic rehabilitation may not differ from those of healthy controls. The presence and severity of phantom pain appear to be unrelated to general psychiatric symptomatology. Length of time since amputation, length of prosthesis use, daily length of prosthesis use and prosthesis satisfaction are negatively correlated with general psychiatric symptoms. These characteristics must be borne in mind in psychiatric and prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychiatric symptoms in adolescents with Internet addiction: Comparison with substance use

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yen, Ju‐Yu; Ko, Chih‐Hung; Yen, Cheng‐Fang; Chen, Sue‐Huei; Chung, Wei‐Lun; Chen, Cheng‐Chung

    2008-01-01

    Aims:  The aim of the present study was to compare psychiatric symptoms between adolescents with and without Internet addiction, as well as between analogs with and without substance use. Methods...

  10. Effects of sports participation on psychiatric symptoms and brain activations during sports observation in schizophrenia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takahashi, H; Sassa, T; Shibuya, T; Kato, M; Koeda, M; Murai, T; Matsuura, M; Asai, K; Suhara, T; Okubo, Y

    2012-01-01

    .... However, the neurobiological basis for this remains poorly understood. We aimed to examine the effect of sports participation on weight gain, psychiatric symptoms and brain activation during sports observation in schizophrenia patients...

  11. Burnout in psychiatric nursing: examining the interplay of autonomy, leadership style, and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madathil, Renee; Heck, Nicholas C; Schuldberg, David

    2014-06-01

    It is important to consider ways in which nurses can be protected from experiencing the effects of burnout. This study examined the relationships between leadership style of psychiatric nurse supervisors, work role autonomy, and psychological distress in relation to psychiatric nurse burnout. Eighty-nine psychiatric nurses from Montana and New York hospitals completed an online survey that assessed their work-related experiences. Overall, results of this study indicate that the participants were experiencing high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization when compared to a normative sample of mental health workers. Results also showed that leadership style and work role autonomy are likely to be environmental factors that protect against burnout in nurses. Finally, it was shown that the relationship between depressive symptoms and the burnout component of personal accomplishment may be influenced by nurses' perceptions of the leadership style in their work environment. These findings are important because nurse supervisor leadership styles and amount of autonomy are characteristics of the work environment that may be amenable to change through training and intervention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Self-rated psychiatric symptoms and their correlates among senior high school students in Hualien City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y M; Yen, L L

    1998-09-01

    The association between mental health disorders beginning in adolescence and disorders in early adulthood is increasingly acknowledged. The mental health of adolescents has not been studied in the eastern area of Taiwan, where the mortality of teenagers is highest in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to assess psychiatric symptoms among senior high school students in Hualien City, and to identify their associated factors. A total of 1,195 students were selected, via a stratified cluster sampling method, from nine high schools in Hualien City. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess students' demographic characteristics, neurotic traits, perceived daily-life stress, social support, and psychiatric symptoms. There were 1,141 valid responses. From principal components analysis, depression-anxiety, impulsivity-paranoia, and psychoticism-obsession were found to be the most common self-rated psychiatric symptoms. About 70% of the students felt blue, 48.2% reported urges to injure someone, and 25% felt tense. Overall, about 5% to 10% of high school students had severe psychiatric symptoms. Stress from schoolwork, peer relationships, and neurotic traits were important predictors of psychiatric symptoms. The findings of this study imply that screening for psychiatric symptoms at senior high schools is essential for improving the mental health of students. The mental health care of adolescents should be school-based and in collaboration with medical professionals. Life skills must be taught at school.

  13. Associations between Relational Aggression, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation in a Child Psychiatric Inpatient Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani; Preddy, Teresa M.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined relations between relational aggression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in a child clinical population. Participants included 276 children (M age = 9.55 years; 69% Male) who were admitted to a child psychiatric inpatient facility. Findings suggested that relational aggression was associated with depressive…

  14. Cultural differences in symptom representation for depression and somatization measured by the PHQ between Vietnamese and German psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Annegret; Hahn, Eric; Diefenbacher, Albert; Nguyen, Main Huong; Böge, Kerem; Burian, Hannah; Dettling, Michael; Burian, Ronald; Ta, Thi Minh Tam

    2017-11-01

    Despite an extensive body of research on somatic symptom presentation among people of East- and Southeast-Asian descent, results are still inconclusive. Examining and comparing symptom presentation in clinically and ethnically well-characterized populations may constitute a step towards understanding symptom presentation between patients with a different cultural background. This study aims to compare Vietnamese and German patients regarding cultural dynamics of symptom presentation upon first admission to a psychiatric outpatient service. 110 Vietnamese and 109 German patients seeking psychiatric treatment at two outpatient clinics completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). The somatic symptom subscale (PHQ-15), the depression subscale (PHQ-9) and PHQ-subscales examining anxiety and psychosocial stress levels were analyzed and compared for both groups using multivariate analysis of covariance. Regression analysis was utilized to examine the influences of sociodemographic and migration specific factors. Vietnamese and German patients showed comparable Cronbach's alpha for all subscales. Vietnamese patients endorsed significantly higher levels of somatic symptoms overall and on certain items (as pain-related items, dizziness, and fainting spells) despite similar levels of depression severity in comparison with German patients. Vietnamese patients with poor German language skills showed a significantly higher focus on somatic symptoms. Raising awareness for cultural dynamics of symptom presentation in patients with depression is indispensable. Cross-cultural symptom assessment using the PHQ seems feasible and expands our understanding of depressive and psychosomatic symptoms when assessed by clinicians. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Social attribution processes and comorbid psychiatric symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jessica A.; Mundy, Peter C.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Durocher, Jennifer Stella

    2009-01-01

    The factors that place children with Asperger syndrome at risk for comorbid psychiatric symptoms, such as anxiety and depression, remain poorly understood. We investigated the possibility that the children’s emotional and behavioral difficulties are associated with social information and attribution processing. Participants were children with either Asperger syndrome (n = 31) or typical development (n = 33).To assess social information and attribution processing, children responded to hypothetical social vignettes.They also completed self-report measures of social difficulties and psychological functioning. Their parents provided information on social competence and clinical presentation. Children with Asperger syndrome showed poor psychosocial adjustment, which was related to their social information and attribution processing patterns. Cognitive and social-cognitive abilities were associated with aspects of social information processing tendencies, but not with emotional and behavioral difficulties. Results suggest that the comorbid symptoms of children with Asperger syndrome may be associated with their social perception, understanding, and experience. PMID:16908481

  16. The Effect of Traumatic Experiences and Psychiatric Symptoms on the Life Satisfaction of North Korean Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeonsun; Lim, Sun Young; Jun, Jin Yong; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Kim, Ji-Chul; Lee, Yu Jin; Kim, Seog Ju

    2017-01-01

    Successful adaptation of refugees to a new society can be hindered by traumatic experiences and psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to examine the relationship between trauma, psychiatric symptoms and life satisfaction of North Korean refugees resettled in South Korea. A total of 211 North Korean refugees living in South Korea completed a series of questionnaires on the history of their previous traumatic experiences, life satisfaction in South Korea, depression, anxiety, somatization and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. North Korean refugees who had experienced more traumatic events were less satisfied with their economic status in South Korea. Severe depression, anxiety, somatization or PTSD symptoms negatively correlated with their overall satisfaction in South Korea. In the stepwise regression model including all psychiatric symptoms and the number of traumatic experiences as dependent variables, only anxiety, but not trauma, predicted lower life satisfaction in South Korea. Traumatic experiences of North Korean refugees negatively affected the life satisfaction, especially the economic satisfaction, in South Korea. Since the negative effect of trauma was mainly mediated by psychiatric symptoms, the strategy of relieving psychiatric symptoms of traumatized refugees may help the adaptation of refugees. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Psychiatric symptoms are present in most of the patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus F. Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH is characterized by gait disturbance, dementia and/or urinary incontinence associated with dilation of ventricular system with normal opening cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Wide scientifical evidence confirms association between NPH and psychiatric symptoms. We selected 35 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus from January 2010 to January 2012 in a Brazilian tertiary hospital and performed a formal psychiatric evaluation to identify psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric disorders were present in 71% of these patients, especially anxiety, depression and psychotic syndromes. NPH patients may develop symptoms with frontal dominance, such as personality changes, anxiety, depression, psychotic syndromes, obsessive compulsive disorder, Othello syndrome; shoplifting and mania. Unusual appearances of NPH symptoms may hinder early diagnosis and consequently proper treatment.

  18. Low levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms and psychiatric symptomatology among third-generation Holocaust survivors whose fathers were war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2016-02-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the intergenerational transmission of Holocaust trauma to the third generation (TGH). However, due to the rareness of this population, there are no studies that have examined TGH individuals whose fathers were also victims of war-related trauma and captivity. This prospective study aimed to assess the role of parents' Holocaust background, fathers' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and adult offspring's anxiety sensitivity (AS) in adult offspring's PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology. A sample of 123 Israeli father-child dyads (42 TGH and 71 non-TGH), that included 80 former prisoners of war (ex-POWs) dyads and a comparison group of 44 veteran dyads, completed AS, PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology self-report measures. Fathers were assessed 17 years following the Yom Kippur War (T1: 2008) while offspring took part in T2 (2013-2014). Surprisingly, results show that TGH participants reported lower levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology than non-TGH participants, regardless of their fathers' captivity status. Interestingly, a moderated mediation analysis indicated that offspring's AS mediated the association between Holocaust background and participants' PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology, only among ex-POWs' offspring. This study provides evidence for relatively lower levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology among TGH individuals whose fathers were war veterans. Ex-POWs' adult offspring who are grandchildren of Holocaust survivors reported lower levels of AS that was related to lower levels of PTSS and psychiatric symptomatology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of educational module on knowledge of primary school teachers regarding early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Liza Thankam; Gupta, Sandhya; Sagar, Rajesh

    2013-10-01

    University-based pre-service educational programs do not adequately prepare the teachers to have sufficient knowledge and skill for identifying a wide variety of symptoms related to mental health disorders among children. To assess the effect of educational module on knowledge of primary school teachers regarding early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders. A pre experimental study on a sample of 35 primary school teachers was done in selected schools of Delhi. Self-instructional module on early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders (SIM on ESCD) was developed. Data was collected by using standardized tools including the structured questionnaire for 'Demographic and selected variables' and pre-test knowledge questionnaire. The subjects were exposed to SIM on ESCD for a period of 15 days. Knowledge regarding early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders was assessed twice, first one being before exposure to module and the next one on 16(th) day of exposure to module. Data were analyzed using statistical package STATA 9.0 version. Primary school teachers who have been teaching in government schools had high pre-test knowledge score than that in private sector. There was significant difference in mean knowledge score of primary school teachers before (9.71) and after (15.60) the administration of SIM on ESCD. Younger teachers and those who had less years of teaching experience had more knowledge gain score than those who were older and had more teaching experience. In the absence of adequate pre-service and in-service education of primary school teachers on early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders, SIM on ESCD is a highly effective and viable method for improving primary school teachers' knowledge on early symptoms of childhood psychiatric disorders.

  20. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms...... and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54...... assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were evaluated at baseline, at discharge, 1 year and 5 years after discharge, using the crime-related post-traumatic stress disorder scale (CR-PTSD) and the Global Severity Index (GSI) from the Symptom Checklist- 90...

  1. Symptoms of epilepsy and organic brain dysfunctions in patients with acute, brief depression combined with other fluctuating psychiatric symptoms: a controlled study from an acute psychiatric department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linaker Olav M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In psychiatric acute departments some patients present with brief depressive periods accompanied with fluctuating arrays of other psychiatric symptoms like psychosis, panic or mania. For the purpose of the present study we call this condition Acute Unstable Depressive Syndrome (AUDS. The aims of the present study were to compare clinical signs of organic brain dysfunctions and epilepsy in patients with AUDS and Major Depressive Episode (MDE. Methods Out of 1038 consecutive patients admitted to a psychiatric acute ward, 16 patients with AUDS and 16 age- and gender-matched MDE patients were included in the study. Using standardized instruments and methods we recorded clinical data, EEG and MRI. Results A history of epileptic seizures and pathologic EEG activity was more common in the AUDS group than in the MDE group (seizures, n = 6 vs. 0, p = 0.018; pathologic EEG activity, n = 8 vs. 1, p = 0.015. Five patients in the AUDS group were diagnosed as having epilepsy, whereas none of those with MDE had epilepsy (p = 0.043. There were no differences between the groups regarding pathological findings in neurological bedside examination and cerebral MRI investigation. Conclusion Compared to patients admitted with mood symptoms fulfilling DSM 4 criteria of a major depressive disorder, short-lasting atypical depressive symptoms seem to be associated with a high frequency of epileptic and pathologic EEG activity in patients admitted to psychiatric acute departments. Trial registration NCT00201474

  2. Posttraumatic growth, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, post-migration stressors and quality of life in multi-traumatized psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Dinu-Stefan; Siqveland, Johan; Heir, Trond; Hauff, Edvard; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Lien, Lars

    2012-07-23

    Psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background have often been exposed to a variety of potentially traumatizing events, with numerous negative consequences for their mental health and quality of life. However, some patients also report positive personal changes, posttraumatic growth, related to these potentially traumatic events. This study describes posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, post-migration stressors, and their association with quality of life in an outpatient psychiatric population with a refugee background in Norway. Fifty five psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background participated in a cross-sectional study using clinical interviews to measure psychopathology (SCID-PTSD, MINI), and four self-report instruments measuring posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (PTGI-SF, IES-R, HSCL-25-depression scale, and WHOQOL-Bref) as well as measures of social integration, social network and employment status. All patients reported some degree of posttraumatic growth, while only 31% reported greater amounts of growth. Eighty percent of the patients had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cut-off point, and 93% reported clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Quality of life in the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref levels were low, well below the threshold for the'life satisfaction' standard proposed by Cummins. A hierarchic regression model including depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and unemployment explained 56% of the total variance found in the psychological health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref scale. Posttraumatic growth made the strongest contribution to the model, greater than posttraumatic stress symptoms or depressive symptoms. Post-migration stressors like unemployment, weak social network and poor social integration were moderately negatively correlated with posttraumatic growth and quality of life, and positively

  3. Posttraumatic growth, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, post-migration stressors and quality of life in multi-traumatized psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorescu Dinu-Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background have often been exposed to a variety of potentially traumatizing events, with numerous negative consequences for their mental health and quality of life. However, some patients also report positive personal changes, posttraumatic growth, related to these potentially traumatic events. This study describes posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, post-migration stressors, and their association with quality of life in an outpatient psychiatric population with a refugee background in Norway. Methods Fifty five psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background participated in a cross-sectional study using clinical interviews to measure psychopathology (SCID-PTSD, MINI, and four self-report instruments measuring posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (PTGI-SF, IES-R, HSCL-25-depression scale, and WHOQOL-Bref as well as measures of social integration, social network and employment status. Results All patients reported some degree of posttraumatic growth, while only 31% reported greater amounts of growth. Eighty percent of the patients had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cut-off point, and 93% reported clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Quality of life in the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref levels were low, well below the threshold for the’life satisfaction’ standard proposed by Cummins. A hierarchic regression model including depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and unemployment explained 56% of the total variance found in the psychological health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref scale. Posttraumatic growth made the strongest contribution to the model, greater than posttraumatic stress symptoms or depressive symptoms. Post-migration stressors like unemployment, weak social network and poor social integration were moderately negatively correlated with

  4. Posttraumatic growth, depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, post-migration stressors and quality of life in multi-traumatized psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background have often been exposed to a variety of potentially traumatizing events, with numerous negative consequences for their mental health and quality of life. However, some patients also report positive personal changes, posttraumatic growth, related to these potentially traumatic events. This study describes posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, post-migration stressors, and their association with quality of life in an outpatient psychiatric population with a refugee background in Norway. Methods Fifty five psychiatric outpatients with a refugee background participated in a cross-sectional study using clinical interviews to measure psychopathology (SCID-PTSD, MINI), and four self-report instruments measuring posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (PTGI-SF, IES-R, HSCL-25-depression scale, and WHOQOL-Bref) as well as measures of social integration, social network and employment status. Results All patients reported some degree of posttraumatic growth, while only 31% reported greater amounts of growth. Eighty percent of the patients had posttraumatic stress symptoms above the cut-off point, and 93% reported clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Quality of life in the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref levels were low, well below the threshold for the’life satisfaction’ standard proposed by Cummins. A hierarchic regression model including depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, and unemployment explained 56% of the total variance found in the psychological health domain of the WHOQOL-Bref scale. Posttraumatic growth made the strongest contribution to the model, greater than posttraumatic stress symptoms or depressive symptoms. Post-migration stressors like unemployment, weak social network and poor social integration were moderately negatively correlated with posttraumatic growth and

  5. THE STRUCTURE OF COMMON PSYCHIATRIC-SYMPTOMS - HOW MANY DIMENSIONS OF NEUROSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ORMEL, J; OLDEHINKEL, AJ; GOLDBERG, DP; HODIAMONT, PPG; WILMINK, FW; BRIDGES, K

    In order to replicate and elaborate the two-dimensional model of depression and anxiety underlying the structure of common psychiatric symptoms proposed by Goldberg et al. (1987), we carried out latent trait analyses on PSE symptom data of the original Manchester study and two recent Dutch studies.

  6. Do intercultural factors play a role in exacerbating psychiatric symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Yong Lock; Yap, Hwa Ling

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 29-year-old mixed-race woman suffering from recurrent major depressive episodes, with suicidal ideation and risk, involving several inpatient admissions. A comorbid diagnosis of borderline personality disorder was also recorded in one of her previous inpatient admissions. During her last inpatient admission, a multidisciplinary case discussion and review of the patient's life highlighted several possible intercultural trigger factors that could have contributed to the exacerbation of her psychiatric illness. We emphasise the need to explore intercultural predisposing and precipitating factors for a more complete psychodynamic understanding of psychiatric illnesses among the multiracial population of Singapore. This also adds to the discussion on the management of such patients with the option of formal in-depth psychotherapy in adjunct to medication. This may prevent recurrent relapses, modify suicide intent and reduce the necessity for inpatient treatment, which will be cost-effective and result in efficacious treatment.

  7. Interactive Effect of Parent and Adolescent Psychiatric Symptoms on Substance Use among Adolescents in Community Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lourah M; Becker, Sara J; Wolff, Jennifer C; Graves, Hannah; Spirito, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    Both adolescent and parent psychiatric symptoms are well-established risk factors for adolescent substance use (SU), but the ways that these symptoms interact are not well understood. This study examined the interactive effects of parent and adolescent psychiatric symptoms on adolescent frequency of alcohol and marijuana use, over and above the effects of parental SU. Seventy adolescents presenting to a community mental health center (CMHC) participated. Parent and adolescent psychiatric symptoms were measured with the brief symptom inventory (BSI) and child behavior checklist (CBCL), respectively. Hierarchical regressions revealed different patterns for adolescent alcohol and marijuana use. For alcohol, the BSI parent phobic anxiety subscale predicted increased adolescent use while the parent interpersonal sensitivity subscale predicted decreased use: the effects of these parental symptoms were strongest among adolescents with higher levels of externalizing problems on the CBCL. For marijuana, the BSI parent psychoticism subscale predicted increased adolescent use, whereas paranoid ideation predicted decreased use. Results suggest that adolescent SU treatment and assessment should attend to both adolescent and parent psychiatric symptoms.

  8. The Relationships between Workaholism and Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Schou Andreassen

    Full Text Available Despite the many number of studies examining workaholism, large-scale studies have been lacking. The present study utilized an open web-based cross-sectional survey assessing symptoms of psychiatric disorders and workaholism among 16,426 workers (Mage = 37.3 years, SD = 11.4, range = 16-75 years. Participants were administered the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale, the Obsession-Compulsive Inventory-Revised, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Bergen Work Addiction Scale, along with additional questions examining demographic and work-related variables. Correlations between workaholism and all psychiatric disorder symptoms were positive and significant. Workaholism comprised the dependent variable in a three-step linear multiple hierarchical regression analysis. Basic demographics (age, gender, relationship status, and education explained 1.2% of the variance in workaholism, whereas work demographics (work status, position, sector, and annual income explained an additional 5.4% of the variance. Age (inversely and managerial positions (positively were of most importance. The psychiatric symptoms (ADHD, OCD, anxiety, and depression explained 17.0% of the variance. ADHD and anxiety contributed considerably. The prevalence rate of workaholism status was 7.8% of the present sample. In an adjusted logistic regression analysis, all psychiatric symptoms were positively associated with being a workaholic. The independent variables explained between 6.1% and 14.4% in total of the variance in workaholism cases. Although most effect sizes were relatively small, the study's findings expand our understanding of possible psychiatric predictors of workaholism, and particularly shed new insight into the reality of adult ADHD in work life. The study's implications, strengths, and shortcomings are also discussed.

  9. Pregnancy is associated with psychiatric symptoms in a low-income countryside community of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Mv; Junior, Claudio Sd; Franco, Glaura C; Teixeira, Antônio L; Ribeiro, Angela M

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy induce an increase in morbidity and also in the mortality levels among women and children. However, the real association between pregnancy and psychiatric disorders and the peculiarities of the phenomenology of symptoms in underprivileged countryside communities remain uncertain. To verify the association between psychiatric disorder, symptoms, and pregnancy among women from a low-income countryside community and to determine the specific cutoff points for major depression diagnosis according to Beck Depression Inventory for the different trimesters of pregnancy in this population. Ninety-four pregnant women and 38 healthy women from the Conceição do Mato Dentro health service, a rural low-income community in Brazil, participated in the present study. Psychiatric examination included a structured clinical interview for psychiatric disorders according to Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and psychometric scales such as the Yale-Brown Obsessive Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. The cutoff points for Beck Depression Inventory were determined through the application of receiver operating characteristic curves considering the diagnosis of major depression according to Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The pregnant women had a higher frequency of psychiatric disorders and depression and anxiety symptoms. All cutoff points of Beck Depression Inventory were equal or higher than 12 with high sensitivity and specificity. Although the modified cutoff was selected based on both high sensitivity and high specificity, they were lower than when the cutoff was applied to nonpregnant women. Pregnancy was associated with the occurrence of psychiatric disorders and depressive and anxiety symptoms. In comparison to the literature, the present results indicate that there are different cutoff points in the Beck Depression Inventory for pregnant women from different cultures and in

  10. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms in the menopausal transition and postmenopausally: psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jeanne Leventhal; Burger, Henry; Dennerstein, Lorraine; Woods, Nancy Fugate; Davis, Susan R; Kotz, Krista; Van Winkle, Julie; Richardson, Gregg; Ratka, Anna; Kessel, Bruce

    2007-11-01

    This article aims to educate the nonpsychiatric as well as the psychiatric clinician on the impact of vasomotor symptoms in women with comorbid psychiatric problems and the challenges of treating vasomotor symptoms in these women. The pathophysiology, prevalence and common risk factors associated with disturbing hot flashes in the menopausal transition are reviewed. Hormonal, nonhormonal and behavioral treatment options of vasomotor symptoms for these women are discussed. Special pharmacokinetic implications for hormonal treatment of those women on anticonvulsant medications for the treatment of their mood disorders, on tamoxifen and/or with high or low sex hormone-binding globulin are examined. An in-depth discussion of mood and the menopausal transition, theoretical mechanisms for mood problems with the symptomatic menopause and the impact of stress on the symptomatic menopause are found elsewhere in this clinical review series on psychiatric illness, stress and the symptomatic menopause.

  11. Concomitant psychiatric symptoms and impaired quality of life in women with cervical cancer: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klügel S

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie Klügel,1 Caroline Lücke,1 Aurora Meta,1 Meike Schild-Suhren,2 Eduard Malik,2 Alexandra Philipsen,1 Helge HO Müller1,3 1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Bad Zwischenahn, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Oldenburg, 3Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany Abstract: Our aim was to summarize the current relevant literature on concomitant psychiatric symptoms with a focus on anxiety/depression in a population with gynecologic cancer; to identify the predictors, associated factors, and prevention strategies of psychiatric disorders; to examine psychiatric disorders in a population with recurrent gynecologic cancer; and to describe the limitations of the literature and future research areas. Little is known about attending psychiatric disorders in patients with gynecologic and other malignant diseases like cervical or breast cancer. However, patients suffering from other types of gynecologic cancer (eg, genital/cervical cancer may also have an increased risk of psychiatric symptoms. In this review, we identify the potential information deficits in this field. A two-rater independent literature search was conducted using the PubMed/Google Scholar search engines to systematically evaluate the literature on the research objectives, followed by a critical reflection on the results. Of the 77 screened studies, 15 met the criteria for inclusion in this review. Patients with gynecologic malignancies, especially cervical cancer, had a very high prevalence of psychiatric symptoms including depression (33%–52%. Additionally, the risk groups facing higher rates of concomitant reduced quality of life and increased psychiatric symptoms such as depression were identified. Specifically, low socioeconomic status, sexual inactivity, absence of a partner, and physical symptoms were correlated with an increased risk. Patients

  12. Effects of group music intervention on psychiatric symptoms and depression in patient with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shiou-Fang; Lo, Chi-Hui Kao; Sung, Huei-Chuan; Hsieh, Tsung-Cheng; Yu, Shun-Chieh; Chang, Shu-Chuan

    2013-12-01

    To examine the effects of a group music therapy on psychiatric symptoms and depression for patient with schizophrenia in a psychiatric nursing home. Eighty patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to a music intervention group (MIG) or usual care group (UCG). Both groups received similar medical and routine care. The MIG received a 60-min group music therapy twice a week, a total of ten sessions. The UAG only received the usual care with no music therapy. Psychiatric symptoms and depression assessments were conducted using the positive and negative syndrome scale and the depression scale for schizophrenia at baseline, the posttest, and at a 3-month follow-up. Thirty-eight patients in the MIG and 42 in the UCG completed the study. After 10 sessions of group music therapy, the groups showed statistically significant differences in psychiatric symptoms (pdepression status (pmusic therapy is an economical and easily implemented method of improving depression and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Sporadic Case of Fabry Disease Involving Repeated Fever, Psychiatric Symptoms, Headache, and Ischemic Stroke in an Adult Japanese Woman

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawada, Jun; Katayama, Takayuki; Kano, Kohei; Asanome, Asuka; Takahashi, Kae; Saito, Tsukasa; Chinda, Junko; Nakagawa, Naoki; Sato, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Takashi; Yahara, Osamu; Momosaki, Ken; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Hasebe, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Fabry disease can cause various neurological manifestations. We describe the case of a Japanese woman with Fabry disease who presented with ischemic stroke, aseptic meningitis, and psychiatric symptoms...

  14. Neural Reactivity to Emotional Stimuli Prospectively Predicts the Impact of a Natural Disaster on Psychiatric Symptoms in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Autumn; Hajcak, Greg; Danzig, Allison P; Black, Sarah R; Bromet, Evelyn J; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Kotov, Roman; Klein, Daniel N

    2016-09-01

    Natural disasters expose entire communities to stress and trauma, leading to increased risk for psychiatric symptoms. Yet, the majority of exposed individuals are resilient, highlighting the importance of identifying underlying factors that contribute to outcomes. The current study was part of a larger prospective study of children in Long Island, New York (n = 260). At age 9, children viewed unpleasant and pleasant images while the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential component that reflects sustained attention toward salient information, was measured. Following the event-related potential assessment, Hurricane Sandy, the second costliest hurricane in United States history, hit the region. Eight weeks after the hurricane, mothers reported on exposure to hurricane-related stress and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Symptoms were reassessed 8 months after the hurricane. The LPP predicted both internalizing and externalizing symptoms after accounting for prehurricane symptomatology and interacted with stress to predict externalizing symptoms. Among children exposed to higher levels of hurricane-related stress, enhanced neural reactivity to unpleasant images predicted greater externalizing symptoms 8 weeks after the disaster, while greater neural reactivity to pleasant images predicted lower externalizing symptoms. Moreover, interactions between the LPP and stress continued to predict externalizing symptoms 8 months after the hurricane. Results indicate that heightened neural reactivity and attention toward unpleasant information, as measured by the LPP, predispose children to psychiatric symptoms when exposed to higher levels of stress related to natural disasters, while greater reactivity to and processing of pleasant information may be a protective factor. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Free will perceptions and psychiatric symptoms in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman de Mamani, A; Gurak, K; Maura, J; Martinez de Andino, A; Weintraub, M J; Mejia, M

    2016-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Some research suggests that holding a free will perspective may offer mental health and physical health benefits. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study is the first to examine links between free will perceptions and psychiatric symptoms in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Study results suggest that helping people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia to recognize situations where they do have some freedom of choice over their actions and emotional reactions (free will) may assist them in improving their experiences and better managing their symptoms. Introduction Some research indicates that having a strong sense that one possesses free will may be associated with better psychological and physical health. This study is the first to examine the relationship between free will perceptions and psychiatric symptoms in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Method Thirty-two participants were interviewed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale to assess symptom severity and the Free Will Subscale of the Free Will and Determinism Scale to assess free will perceptions. Results As hypothesized, a negative association was found between free will perceptions and total symptom severity, though it appears that this was mainly accounted for by positive symptoms. A content analysis was also conducted to qualitatively examine how patients conceptualize the construct of free will and its role in coping with their own mental illness. Discussion Study results suggest that holding a free will perspective may mitigate psychiatric symptoms in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Thus, psychiatric nurses and other mental health clinicians may improve current treatments for schizophrenia by helping patients recognize situations where they do have some freedom of choice over their actions and emotional reactions (free will) to stressful life events. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Post traumatic stress disorder symptoms in a psychiatric population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a diagnostic category used to describe symptoms arising from emotionally traumatic experience(s). Research suggests that PTSD may be under- diagnosed when trauma is not the presenting problem or when not the focus of clinical intervention. There is a dearth of South ...

  17. symptoms in psychiatric in-patients at Mathari hospital, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-02-01

    Feb 1, 2008 ... Patients with obsessive-compulsive (00) symptoms often meet the life time criteria for another anxiety disorder as OCD often co—exists with panic disorder, social phobia, simple phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder as well as depression, alcohol and drug use disorders.'*-8. A number of studies based ...

  18. Post traumatic stress disorder symptoms in a psychiatric population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-05-12

    May 12, 2006 ... Introduction. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder currently defined by the coexistence of three clusters of symptoms, persisting for one month in survivors of a serious traumatic event .These clusters are: • Intrusive cluster - Intrusions can take the form of repeated, unwanted and ...

  19. Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in HIV infected mine workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The findings confirm that patients with a new diagnosis of HIV may present with disorders of thought and/or cognition as well as gross behavioural disturbance, and that psychotic symptoms and secondary mania could be manifestations of the clinical onset of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) ...

  20. The effect of psychotherapy in improving physical and psychiatric symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbobeh Faramarzi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional Dyspepsia (FD is a common symptom of upper gastrointestinal discomfort. Few data are available on the role of psychotherapy in the treatment of dyspeptic syndromes. This study assesses whether brief core conflictual relationship theme (CCRT psychoanalytic psychotherapy improves gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia.A randomized, controlled trial was planned in two educational hospitals in city of Babol. Forty-nine patients with FD were randomly assigned to receive standard medication treatment with CCRT psychotherapy (24 participants or standard medication treatment alone (25 participants. The participants completed the Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Symptom Severity Index (PAGI-SYM and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R questionnaires before the trial, after the treatment and at 1 and 12-month follow-ups. The mixed-effects (regression model was used to analyze the data.The results showed that CCRT psychotherapy improved all of the FD symptoms (heartburn/regurgitation, nausea/vomiting, fullness, bloating, upper abdominal pain, and lower abdominal pain and many of the psychiatric symptoms (depression, anxiety, somatization, interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation after the treatment and at 1-month and 12-month follow-ups.Brief CCRT psychoanalytic psychotherapy can serve as an effective intervention for promoting gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  1. [The relation of selected psychiatric disorders to occurrence of suicide attempts among teenage psychiatrically hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Katarzyna; Gawlik-Kotelnicka, Oliwia; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Suicide is the third cause of death globally in the age group 10-19. Multiple risk factors (genetic, psychiatric, psychological, familial, social) increased number of suicide attempts. The aim of this study was to explore whether mental disorders are associated with the number of suicide attempts among psychiatric hospitalized adolescents. Retrospective, chart-based analysis of 119 patients, aged 13-18, treated in 2013-2014 in the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź. Inclusion criteria was diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, behavioral and emotional disorders according to ICD 10. Exclusion criteria were other psychiatric diagnosis, incomplete information about intention of self-harm behaviors. For statistical analysis used Statistica 9.1. Among psychiatricaly hospitalized patients, 51.2% of people attempted suicide. No relationship was found (p > 0.05) between psychiatric diagnosis and frequency of suicide attempts in adolescents, but the most common suicide attempts related to people with a diagnosis of mood disorders (59.3%) and neurotic disorders (54.6%), and least frequently in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia , schizotypal and delusional disorders (40%) and behavioral and emotional disorders (44.4%). There is no relation between the occurrence of suicide attempts and the type of mental disorders among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  2. The predictive value of childhood subthreshold manic symptoms for adolescent and adult psychiatric outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papachristou, Efstathios; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Raven, Dennis; Hartman, Catharina A.; Frangou, Sophia; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Background: Childhood subthreshold manic symptoms may represent a state of developmental vulnerability to Bipolar Disorder (BD) and may also be associated with other adverse psychiatric outcomes. To test this hypothesis we examined the structure and predictive value of childhood subthreshold manic

  3. Van psychiatrisch symptoom tot paraneoplastisch syndroom [From psychiatric symptoms to paraneoplastic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, S.T. de; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Haaxma, C.A.; Kappelle, A.C.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de

    2008-01-01

    Two patients, a 38-year-old man and a 32-year-old woman, were admitted to a psychiatric ward. The first patient suffered from a mood disorder, personality changes and complained of several, hitherto unexplained physical symptoms. Finally the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic cerebellar

  4. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  5. Complex Psychiatric Comorbidity of Treatment-Seeking Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Susan L.; Stern, Jessica A.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Kimel, Lila K.; Reaven, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examines the complexity of psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking youth with ASD and anxiety symptoms. Forty-two parents of youth with ASD and anxiety (ages 8-14) completed a structured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version). Youth…

  6. Pursuing bariatric surgery in an urban area: Gender and racial disparities and risk for psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Matero, Lisa Renee; Tobin, Erin T; Clark, Shannon; Eshelman, Anne; Genaw, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is effective for weight loss; however, only a small percentage of those who qualify choose to pursue it. Additionally, although psychiatric symptoms appear to be common among candidates, the risk factors for symptoms are not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of those who are pursuing bariatric surgery in an urban area, whether demographic disparities continue to exist, and identify characteristics of those who may be at higher risk for experiencing psychiatric symptoms. There were 424 bariatric candidates who completed a required psychological evaluation prior to bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery candidates tended to be middle-aged, Caucasian females, which was unexpected when compared to the rates of obesity among these groups. Therefore, it appears that there are disparities in who chooses to seek out bariatric surgery compared to those who may qualify due to their obesity status. Cultural factors may play a role in why males and African Americans seek out bariatric surgery less frequently. Psychiatric symptoms among candidates are also common, with depression symptoms increasing with age and BMI. Perhaps the compounding effects of medical comorbidities over time are contributing to greater depressive symptoms in the older patients. Findings from this study suggest that we may need to explore ways of encouraging younger patients, males, and ethnic minorities to pursue bariatric surgery to increase weight loss success and decrease medical comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of psychiatric symptoms on the internet addiction disorder in Isfahan′s University students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet addiction disorder is an interdisciplinary phenomenon and it has been studied from different viewpoints in terms of various sciences such as medicine, computer, sociology, law, ethics, and psychology. The aim of this study was to determine the association of psychiatric symptoms with Internet addiction while controlling for the effects of age, gender, marital status, and educational levels. It is hypothesized, that high levels of Internet addiction are associated with psychiatric symptoms and are specially correlated with obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total number of 250 students from Isfahan′s universities were randomly selected. Subjects completed the demographic questionnaire, the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision (SCL-90-R. Data was analyzed using the multiple logistic regression method. Results: There was an association between psychiatric symptoms such as somatization, sensitivity, depression, anxiety, aggression, phobias, and psychosis with exception of paranoia; and diagnosis of Internet addiction controlling for age, sex, education level, marital status, and type of universities. Conclusions: A great percentage of youths in the population suffer from the adverse effects of Internet addiction. It is necessary for psychiatrists and psychologists to be aware of the mental problems caused by Internet addiction.

  8. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and gene......Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms...... and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54...... assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. PTSD symptoms and general psychiatric distress were evaluated at baseline, at discharge, 1 year and 5 years after discharge, using the crime-related post-traumatic stress disorder scale (CR-PTSD) and the Global Severity Index (GSI) from the Symptom Checklist- 90...

  9. Exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile telephony and the association with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Denize Francisca da; Barros, Warley Rocha; Almeida, Maria da Conceição Chagas de; Rêgo, Marco Antônio Vasconcelos

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and psychiatric symptoms. In a cross-sectional study in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, 440 individuals were interviewed. Psychiatric complaints and diagnoses were the dependent variables and distance from the individual's residence to the base station was considered the main independent variable. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess confounding. An association was observed between psychiatric symptoms and residential proximity to the base station and different forms of mobile phone use (making calls with weak signal coverage, keeping the mobile phone close to the body, having two or more chips, and never turning off the phone while sleeping), and with the use of other electronic devices. The study concluded that exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone base stations and other electronic devices was associated with psychiatric symptoms, independently of gender, schooling, and smoking status. The adoption of precautionary measures to reduce such exposure is recommended.

  10. Psychopathology, Psychiatric Symptoms and their Demographic Correlates in Female Adolescents Flood Victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitwat, Aisha; Asad, Sara; Yousaf, Aasma

    2015-12-01

    To estimate the incidence of psychopathology, frequency of psychiatric symptoms, and their demographic correlates in flood affected female adolescents. Descriptive study. District Muzaffargarh, Pakistan, from July to October 2011. Female adolescent flood victims, aged 13 - 19 years, were recruited. Screening was done and Diagnostic Questionnaire for Psychiatric Disorders was administered to confirm the diagnosis according to DSM-IV-TR. Demographic information was also obtained regarding nature of personal and financial damages to the participants due to flood. The mean age of 205 participants was 15.78 ±2.13 years. Post-flood diagnoses of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) had the highest frequency rates in female adolescents flood victims i.e., 4 (2%), 2 (1%) and 2 (1%), respectively. Psychiatric symptoms of GAD and PTSD were reported most by the screened-out participants; whereas participants who were still living in personal tents and received late arrival of any kind of aid, reported more psychopathology. Flood and consequent financial damages may pose a risk factor for development of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology. Results have implications for the need of improved mental health services for female adolescent flood victims.

  11. 'Mastication rage': a review of misophonia - an under-recognised symptom of psychiatric relevance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruxner, George

    2016-04-01

    To explore the condition of misophonia, its definition, possible neurological correlates, its associated morbidity, its possible psychiatric relevance and potential treatment. Provision of an illustrative case vignette and a review of the limited literature. Misophonia is a symptom associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety disorders and may be a syndrome in itself associated with significant distress and avoidance. Treatments are not well validated. Misophonia may be an under-recognised condition of psychiatric relevance. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  12. The Mediating Effect of Gaming Motivation Between Psychiatric Symptoms and Problematic Online Gaming: An Online Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D; Ágoston, Csilla; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid expansion of online video gaming as a leisure time activity has led to the appearance of problematic online gaming (POG). According to the literature, POG is associated with different psychiatric symptoms (eg, depression, anxiety) and with specific gaming motives (ie, escape, achievement). Based on studies of alcohol use that suggest a mediator role of drinking motives between distal influences (eg, trauma symptoms) and drinking problems, this study examined the assumption that there is an indirect link between psychiatric distress and POG via the mediation of gaming motives. Furthermore, it was also assumed that there was a moderator effect of gender and game type preference based on the important role gender plays in POG and the structural differences between different game types. Objective This study had two aims. The first aim was to test the mediating role of online gaming motives between psychiatric symptoms and problematic use of online games. The second aim was to test the moderator effect of gender and game type preference in this mediation model. Methods An online survey was conducted on a sample of online gamers (N=3186; age: mean 21.1, SD 5.9 years; male: 2859/3186, 89.74%). The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (MOGQ), and the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) were administered to assess general psychiatric distress, online gaming motives, and problematic online game use, respectively. Structural regression analyses within structural equation modeling were used to test the proposed mediation models and multigroup analyses were used to test gender and game type differences to determine possible moderating effects. Results The mediation models fitted the data adequately. The Global Severity Index (GSI) of the BSI indicated that the level of psychiatric distress had a significant positive direct effect (standardized effect=.35, Pgaming motives: escape (standardized effect=.139

  13. The mediating effect of gaming motivation between psychiatric symptoms and problematic online gaming: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D; Ágoston, Csilla; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-04-07

    The rapid expansion of online video gaming as a leisure time activity has led to the appearance of problematic online gaming (POG). According to the literature, POG is associated with different psychiatric symptoms (eg, depression, anxiety) and with specific gaming motives (ie, escape, achievement). Based on studies of alcohol use that suggest a mediator role of drinking motives between distal influences (eg, trauma symptoms) and drinking problems, this study examined the assumption that there is an indirect link between psychiatric distress and POG via the mediation of gaming motives. Furthermore, it was also assumed that there was a moderator effect of gender and game type preference based on the important role gender plays in POG and the structural differences between different game types. This study had two aims. The first aim was to test the mediating role of online gaming motives between psychiatric symptoms and problematic use of online games. The second aim was to test the moderator effect of gender and game type preference in this mediation model. An online survey was conducted on a sample of online gamers (N=3186; age: mean 21.1, SD 5.9 years; male: 2859/3186, 89.74%). The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (MOGQ), and the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire (POGQ) were administered to assess general psychiatric distress, online gaming motives, and problematic online game use, respectively. Structural regression analyses within structural equation modeling were used to test the proposed mediation models and multigroup analyses were used to test gender and game type differences to determine possible moderating effects. The mediation models fitted the data adequately. The Global Severity Index (GSI) of the BSI indicated that the level of psychiatric distress had a significant positive direct effect (standardized effect=.35, Pgaming motives: escape (standardized effect=.139, Pgaming (standardized effect size=.64

  14. ADHD severity as it relates to comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Rosleen; Dovi, Allison T; Lane, David M; Loveland, Katherine A; Pearson, Deborah A

    2017-01-01

    Comorbid diagnoses identified in pediatric samples have been correlated with a range of outcomes, including greater levels of emotional, behavioral, and educational impairment and the need for more intensive treatment. Given that previous research has documented high levels of comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), this study closely examines the relationship between parent-reported ADHD symptoms (i.e., Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Revised [CPRS-R]) and the prevalence of additional comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in a pediatric ASD sample (n=99). Regression analyses revealed that greater severity of ADHD symptomatology was significantly related to a greater number of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, as identified using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and adolescents, 4th Edition (DICA-IV). Additionally, more severe ADHD symptoms were also associated with higher levels of symptom severity on Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) syndrome subscales. Interestingly, increasing severity of ASD symptomatology, as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised (ADI-R), was not associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses or CBCL syndrome severity. Our study concluded that higher levels of ADHD severity-not ASD severity-were associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in school-age children with ASD. These findings may encourage clinicians to thoroughly assess ADHD symptomatology in ASD children to better inform treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Eating disorders and anabolic androgenic steroids in males--similarities and differences in self-image and psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Tabita; Skårberg, Kurt; Engström, Ingemar

    2013-08-19

    Body dissatisfaction is common among both females and males. Dissatisfaction with the body is a risk factor both for onset of eating disorders and for abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Few studies have however investigated if there are other similarities in respect to self-image or psychiatric symptoms between clinical samples of eating disordered males and males in treatment for negative effects of AAS use. The aim of this study was to compare two clinical samples, one of males with ED and one of males who used AAS, regarding self-image and psychiatric symptoms. This study compared males with eating disorders (n = 13) and males who recently stopped AAS use (n = 29) on self-image and psychiatric symptoms, using The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior self-questionnaire and a shortened version of The Symptom Check List. The eating disorder group reported significantly lower scores for Self-emancipation and Active self-love and higher scores for Self-blame and Self-hate. Both groups reported serious psychiatric symptoms. The common denominator between groups was serious psychiatric symptomatology rather than negative self-image. The negative self-image profile, especially self-hate, found among males with Eating Disorders may indicate that the studied groups differ in aetiology of the underlying problems. The serious psychiatric symptoms in both groups call staff to pay attention to any thoughts of suicide due to severe depressive symptoms where by specialized psychiatric treatment may be needed.

  16. Psychiatric Symptoms as a Predictor of Sexual Aggression among Male College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J; Brown, Elissa J; Doyle, Megan E

    The goal of this investigation was to examine psychiatric symptoms as predictors of the frequency and severity of sexually aggressive behaviors that had been perpetrated by college-aged men in the past year. Over 400 undergraduate males completed an assessment of sexual aggression, athletic involvement, fraternity affiliation, alcohol and drug use, mistrust of women, depression, and social anxiety. More than 40% of the undergraduate men reported having participated in some form of sexual aggression within the past 12 months, 6% of whom reported having attempted or completed rape. Sexually aggressive behavior (both frequency and severity) was predicted by alcohol use, mistrust of women, and social anxiety. Results are the first to indicate that psychiatric symptoms might contribute to sexual aggression among college men.

  17. Dopamine transporter gene polymorphism and psychiatric symptoms seen in schizophrenic patients at their first episode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Toshiya; Sugita, Tetsuyoshi; Dobashi, Izumi [National Institute of Mental Health, Chiba (Japan)] [and others

    1996-07-26

    To investigate the possible role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene in determining the phenotype in human subjects, allele frequencies for the 40-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism at this site were compared between 117 Japanese normal controls and 118 schizophrenic patients, including six subgroups: early-onset, those with a family history, and those suffering from one of the following psychiatric symptoms at their first episode: delusion and hallucination; disorganization; bizarre behavior; and negative symptoms. No significant differences were observed between the group as a whole or any subgroup of schizophrenic patients and controls. The results indicate that VNTR polymorphism in the DAT gene is unlikely to be a major contributor to any of the psychiatric parameters examined in the present population of schizophrenic subjects. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Executive functions and psychiatric symptoms in drug-refractory juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jordana; Thomas, Rhys H; Church, Carla; Rees, Mark I; Marson, Anthony G; Baker, Gus A

    2014-06-01

    The pattern of executive dysfunction reported in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) resembles that of patients with cluster B personality disorders. This study examined whether executive dysfunction and maladaptive behavior reported in patients with JME are related. Sixty patients with drug-refractory JME were administered tests of intellect, memory, and executive dysfunction. Anxiety, depression, personality traits, impact of epilepsy, and perceived cognitive effects of antiepileptic drugs were measured. Half of the cohort exhibited moderate to severe anxiety symptoms. The patients performed most poorly on naming ability and inhibition switching. Duration of epilepsy exacerbated poor performance on inhibition switching. Females presented with pathological scores for neurotic and introvert traits and males for introvert traits. Abnormal personality traits and psychiatric disorders were associated with worse intellectual and executive functioning. People with extreme Eysenck Personality Scale - Brief Version (EPQ-BV) scores demonstrated the greatest level of executive impairment. Furthermore, the same degree of dysfunction was not seen in any individual with unremarkable EPQ-BV scores. This study indicates that specific patterns of executive dysfunction are related to maladaptive behavior in JME. Distinct behavioral patterns may be used to identify functional and anatomical differences between people with JME and for stratification to enable gene discovery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Psychiatric Symptoms as a Predictor of Sexual Aggression among Male College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Esther J.; BROWN, ELISSA J.; Doyle, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine psychiatric symptoms as predictors of the frequency and severity of sexually aggressive behaviors that had been perpetrated by college-aged men in the past year. Over 400 undergraduate males completed an assessment of sexual aggression, athletic involvement, fraternity affiliation, alcohol and drug use, mistrust of women, depression, and social anxiety. More than 40% of the undergraduate men reported having participated in some form of sexual aggr...

  20. Psychiatric symptoms and pregnancy distress in subsequent pregnancy after spontaneous abortion history

    OpenAIRE

    Haghparast, Elahe; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Hassanzadeh, Ramezan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Spontaneous abortion is one of the most important complications of pregnancy with short and long adverse psychological effects on women. This study assesses the implications of a spontaneous abortion history has on women?s psychiatric symptoms and pregnancy distress in subsequent pregnancy less than one years after spontaneous abortion. Methods: A case-control study was conducted on pregnant women of Babol city from September 2014 to May 2015. In this study, 100 pregnant women wit...

  1. Youth With Psychogenic Non-Syncopal Collapse Have More Somatic and Psychiatric Symptoms and Lower Perceptions of Peer Relationships Than Youth With Syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Geoffrey L

    2017-11-20

    Little is known about somatic and psychiatric symptoms and perceived peer relationships of patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse. This study aimed to compare somatic and psychiatric symptoms and other elements potentially related to functional neurological symptom disorders between youth with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse and those with neurally mediated syncope. Before testing, patients completed a structured interview and questionnaire addressing current symptoms, previous psychiatric diagnoses, referrals, diagnostic testing, prescribed medications, and patient self-ratings of anxiety, depression, and perceived peer relationships. Compared with patients with syncope (n = 60), patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse (n = 60) had higher ratings for lightheadedness and vertigo, more abdominal pain, more chronic headaches, more fatigue, more sleep disturbances, more prescriptions for antidepressant medicines, more encephalograms performed, more referrals to psychiatry, and more psychiatric diagnoses including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, previous nonfainting conversion disorders, and eating disorders (all p peer relationships (37 ± 12.3 versus 47.6 ± 7.9, p Peer relationships remained significantly lower (p = 0.001) when analyzed with anxiety and depression. Patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse have more symptom complaints and perceptions of poorer peer social interactions than patients with syncope. These results broaden our understanding of the biopsychosocial profile that increases an individual's vulnerability to psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse specifically and to functional neurological symptom disorders in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Harnessing clinical psychiatric data with an electronic assessment tool (OPCRIT+: the utility of symptom dimensions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip James Brittain

    Full Text Available Progress in personalised psychiatry is dependent on researchers having access to systematic and accurately acquired symptom data across clinical diagnoses. We have developed a structured psychiatric assessment tool, OPCRIT+, that is being introduced into the electronic medical records system of the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust which can help to achieve this. In this report we examine the utility of the symptom data being collected with the tool. Cross-sectional mental state data from a mixed-diagnostic cohort of 876 inpatients was subjected to a principal components analysis (PCA. Six components, explaining 46% of the variance in recorded symptoms, were extracted. The components represented dimensions of mania, depression, positive symptoms, anxiety, negative symptoms and disorganization. As indicated by component scores, different clinical diagnoses demonstrated distinct symptom profiles characterized by wide-ranging levels of severity. When comparing the predictive value of symptoms against diagnosis for a variety of clinical outcome measures (e.g. 'Overactive, aggressive behaviour', symptoms proved superior in five instances (R(2 range: 0.06-0.28 whereas diagnosis was best just once (R(2:0.25. This report demonstrates that symptom data being routinely gathered in an NHS trust, when documented on the appropriate tool, have considerable potential for onward use in a variety of clinical and research applications via representation as dimensions of psychopathology.

  3. Effect of Rivastigmine on Behavioral and Psychiatric Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Sang Oh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective A recent study showed that rivastigmine and memantin improved behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD in Alzheimer’s dementia. Furthermore, according to recent guidelines presented by the Movement Disorder Society, rivastigmine is efficacious for the treatment of dementia in Parkinson’s disease (PD. We investigated the efficacy of rivastigmine for BPSD in patients with Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD. Methods Twenty-three patients in whom cognitive impairment occurred at least one year after a diagnosis of PD participated in this open-label trial. Cognitive, psychiatric, and motor symptoms were assessed before and after 24 weeks of treatment with rivastigmine using unstructured clinical assessments and rating scales including the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Results Age (± standard deviation was 74.7 ± 5.9 years, average duration of PD was 3.5 ± 3.7 years, Hoehn and Yahr scores were 2.2 ± 0.8, and baseline MMSE scores were 19.1 ± 4.2. Improvements in global mental symptoms and neuropsychiatric symptoms were significant; among them, hallucination, depression and appetite changes improved. Caregiver distress significantly decreased, including distress resulting from hallucinations, depression, apathy, and appetite changes. Conclusions Although controlled trials are required, the findings suggest that rivastigmine is useful for control of several neuropsychiatric symptoms and beneficial for caregiver distress in patients with PDD.

  4. Mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence in office workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.M.; Rhenen, van W.; Hoedeman, R.; Groothoff, J.W.; Klink, van der J.J.L.; Bültmann, U.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence (SA). Methods: Mental health symptoms were measured in 1137 office workers with the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ), including scales for distress, depression, anxiety and

  5. Mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence in office workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; Hoedeman, Rob; van Rhenen, Willem; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Bultmann, Ute

    Background: To investigate mental health symptoms as prognostic risk markers of all-cause and psychiatric sickness absence (SA). Methods: Mental health symptoms were measured in 1137 office workers with the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ), including scales for distress, depression,

  6. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms...... and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54...

  7. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms...... and general psychiatric distress (GSI from SCL-90-R) five years after discharge among adult women suffering from sequelae from childhood sexual abuse. Materials and method: This 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial included 106 women: 52 assigned to analytic group psychotherapy and 54...

  8. The Effect of Participating in Suicide Research: Does Participating in a Research Protocol on Suicide and Psychiatric Symptoms Increase Suicide Ideation and Attempts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Phillip; Poindexter, Erin; Cukrowicz, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    The effect of engaging in an intensive research protocol that inquired extensively about psychiatric and suicide symptoms and exposed participants to a number of images, including suicide-related content was explored. Individuals experiencing a major depressive episode were called at 1 and 3 months after the initial protocol. Participants were…

  9. Feigned symptoms among defendants claiming psychiatric problems: Survey of 45 Malingerers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Seyed Mehdi; Sheikhazadi, Ardeshir; Ghorbani, Mazaher; Nasrabadi, Zaynab Nasri; Meysamie, Ali Pasha

    2013-01-01

    Objective In many jurisdictions, psychiatric problems are intended for commutation. Therefore, a forensic psychiatrist has an important role in detection of malingering. While several studies evaluate diagnostic tests, it is less known what symptoms are more likely to be imitated by malingerers. Method In a prospective study 45 malingerers, who were diagnosed according to interviews by two forensic psychiatrists, from defendants with a judicial order for evaluation of mental status and criminal responsibility during a period of eighteen months were examined in legal medicine center of Tehran. Participants were assessed in another interview to determine symptoms. Dichotomous symptoms in felony and misdemeanor groups were analyzed using fisher's exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results Thirty-eight malingerers were charged with misdemeanors and seven with felonies. Behavioral symptoms were most frequently faked by 35 participants (77.8%). Participants charged with criminal accusation had a significantly lower mean age (P=0.032) and a higher level of education (P=0.008) than other non-criminal defendants. A statistically significant increase in memory function problems was demonstrated in the misdemeanor group (P=0.040). With regard to dual symptom imitation, statistically significant correlations were observed between thought content and perceptual symptoms (P=0.048) for felonies and mood & affect and thought process symptoms (P=0.034), mood & affect and behavioral symptoms (P=0.000) and cognitive function and behavioral symptoms (P=0.039) for misdemeanors. In general, many simulators attempted to mimic simple symptoms of behavioral disorders. Probably felony offenses need less accurate programming; therefore, their rates are higher in older, less educated participants. Conclusion This study demonstrated that differences between presenting symptoms among different offenses may not be useful in detection of malingering,; however

  10. Feigned Symptoms among Defendants Claiming Psychiatric Problems: Survey of 45 Malingerers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mehdi Saberi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In many jurisdictions, psychiatric problems are intended for commutation. Therefore, a forensic psychiatrist has an important role in detection of malingering. While several studies evaluate diagnostic tests, it is less known what symptoms are more likely to be imitated by malingerers.Method: In a prospective study [t1] 45 [t2] malingerers, who were diagnosed according to interviews by two forensic psychiatrists, from defendants [t3] with a judicial order for evaluation of mental status and criminal responsibility during a period of eighteen months were examined in legal medicine center of Tehran.[t4] [t5] Participants were assessed in another interview to determine symptoms. Dichotomous symptoms in felony and misdemeanor groups were analyzed using fisher’s exact test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. [t6] Results: Thirty-eight malingerers were charged with misdemeanors and seven with felonies. Behavioral symptoms were most frequently faked by 35 participants (77.8%. Participants charged with criminal accusation had a significantly lower mean age (P=0.032 and a higher level of education (P=0.008 than other non-criminal defendants. A statistically significant increase in memory function problems was demonstrated in the misdemeanor group (P=0.040. With regard to dual symptom imitation, statistically significant correlations were observed between thought content and perceptual symptoms (P=0.048 for felonies and mood & affect and thought process symptoms (P=0.034, mood & affect and behavioral symptoms (P=0.000 and cognitive function and behavioral symptoms (P=0.039 for misdemeanors. In general, many simulators attempted to mimic simple symptoms of behavioral disorders. Probably felony offenses need less accurate programming; therefore, their rates are higher in older, less educated participants.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that differences between presenting symptoms among different offenses may not be

  11. The Relationships between Workaholism and Symptoms of Psychiatric Disorders: A Large-Scale Cross-Sectional Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinha, Rajita; Hetland, Jørn; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-01-01

    .... The present study utilized an open web-based cross-sectional survey assessing symptoms of psychiatric disorders and workaholism among 16,426 workers (Mage = 37.3 years, SD = 11.4, range = 16-75 years...

  12. Correlations between caregiver psychiatric symptoms and offspring psychopathology in a low-resource setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila T. Matsuzaka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Associations between parental/caregiver depression and adverse child outcomes are well established and have been described through one or more mechanisms: child psychopathology following exposure to a depressed caregiver, child psychopathology exacerbating a caregiver’s depression, and caregiver and offspring depression sharing the same etiology. Data from low and middle-income countries is scarce. We examined correlations between common symptoms of mental disorders in caregivers and their offspring’s psychopathology in a Brazilian sample. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, adult caregivers were screened for depression during routine home visits by community health workers as part of the Brazilian Family Health Strategy. Caregivers with suspected depression were assessed using the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Children’s symptoms were evaluated using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Results: The sample included 68 primary caregivers and 110 children aged 6 to 15 years. Higher caregiver scores on the SRQ-20 correlated significantly with psychiatric symptoms in offspring. Conclusion: These results substantiate our hypothesis that child psychopathology correlates with caregivers’ psychiatric symptoms. This paper adds to the growing literature on community mental health assessment and can help guide future strategies for reducing the burden of common mental disorders in caregivers and children alike in low and middle-income countries.

  13. Eating-related Psychopathology and Food Addiction in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Özgür; Föcker, Manuel; Kliewer, Josephine; Esber, Simon; Peters, Triinu; de Zwaan, Martina; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2017-05-01

    Our aims were to investigate the relationship between food addiction and mental disorders including eating disorders (ED), eating-related psychopathology and body mass index-standard deviation score in a sample of adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Food addiction was assessed with the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). Eating-related psychopathology was measured with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ). Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The sample consisted of n = 242 adolescent psychiatric inpatients, of which n = 37 (15.3%) met criteria for an ED. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association between YFAS symptom count, TFEQ scales and ED controlling for age and gender. Food addiction frequency was 16.5%, and the mean YFAS symptom count was 2.39 (SD: 1.60). In patients with food addiction, TFEQ scale scores were significantly higher than patients without food addiction. Frequency of ED was 42.9% in patients with and 9.9% in patients without food addiction. The TFEQ subscales disinhibition and hunger as well as diagnosis of ED were associated with YFAS symptom count. Food addiction in adolescent psychiatric inpatients occurs with rates higher than those seen in community samples of children, adolescents and adults. Food addiction might be associated with eating styles related to susceptibility to hunger and feelings of loss of control. The implications of high-YFAS scores in restricting-type anorexia nervosa warrant further investigations to explore which and how the respective items are interpreted in this ED subgroup. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of feature like the eyes, nose, and breasts.Conversion disorder is when physical symptoms that are similar ... is the best treatment option? Do I need therapy? Medicine?Will lifestyle changes, such as learning how ...

  15. Effect of hopelessness on the links between psychiatric symptoms and suicidality in a vulnerable population at risk of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Patricia; Tarrier, Nicholas; Dunn, Graham; Shaw, Jennifer; Awenat, Yvonne; Ulph, Fiona; Pratt, Daniel

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of two risk factors working together on a measure of suicide probability in a highly vulnerable group who were male prisoners identified as being at risk of self harm. The first risk factor was psychiatric symptoms, including general psychiatric symptoms and symptoms of personality disorder. The second risk factor was psychological precursors of suicidal thoughts and behaviours which were defeat, entrapment, and hopelessness. Sixty-five male prisoners from a high secure prison in NW England, UK, were recruited, all of whom were considered at risk of suicide by prison staff. General psychiatric symptoms and symptoms of personality disorders predicted the probability of suicide. Hopelessness amplified the strength of the positive relationship between general psychiatric symptoms and suicide probability. These amplification effects acted most strongly on suicidal ideation as opposed to negative self evaluations or hostility. In contrast, defeat, entrapment and hopelessness did not affect the relationship between personality disorders and suicide probability. Clinical assessments of highly vulnerable individuals, as exemplified by prisoners, should include measures of a range of general psychiatric symptoms, together with measures of psychological components, in particular perceptions of hopelessness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anxiety symptoms in crack cocaine and inhalant users admitted to a psychiatric hospital in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; Thorell, Mariana Rossi; Franceschini, Paulo Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of psychiatric comorbidity among individuals with crack or inhalant dependence is frequently observed. The objective of this study was to investigate anxiety symptoms among crack cocaine and inhalant users in southern Brazil. The study investigated two groups of volunteers of equal size (n=50): one group consisted of crack cocaine users, and the other group consisted of inhalant users. Research volunteers completed the Portuguese versions of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ). Both crack and inhalant users experience significant symptoms of anxiety. Inhalant users presented significantly more anxiety symptoms than crack users according to the HAM-A questionnaire only. In contrast to the results of the HAM-A, the STAI failed to demonstrate a significant difference between the two groups of substance users. SRQ scores revealed that crack and inhalants users had significant degrees of morbidity. A significant difference regarding anxiety symptomatology, especially state anxiety, was observed among inhalant and crack users. Anxiety and overall mental psychopathology were significantly correlated in this sample. The results indicate that screening initiatives to detect anxiety and additional psychiatric comorbidities among crack and inhalant users are feasible and relevant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Association among serum cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels and psychiatric symptoms in men with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Rui; Li, Yan

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible associations of serum levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) with psychiatric symptoms in men with chronic schizophrenia. This retrospective study involved 162 men with schizophrenia and 138 age-matched healthy controls, for whom data were collected on demographic characteristics, age at disease onset, disease duration, positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores, and history of atypical antipsychotic treatment. Serum levels of cortisol and DHEA-S were calculated, as well as the ratios of the two levels. Possible correlations were explored between these levels and psychiatric symptoms before and after antipsychotic treatment. Serum levels of cortisol and DHEA-S levels as well as the ratios of cortisol to DHEA-S levels were higher in patients than in controls (p cortisol and DHEA-S were significantly lower after treatment than before (p cortisol to DHEA-S levels remained similar. Serum levels of cortisol, DHEA-S and the ratios of the two levels were positively correlated with the negative symptoms score on the PANSS. The pathophysiology of schizophrenia may involve in the spread levels of cortisol and DHEA-S. These levels may serve as biomarkers for diagnosing schizophrenia and monitoring treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of emotional intelligence in symptom reduction after psychotherapy in a heterogeneous psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyklíček, Ivan; Schalken, Pierre; Meertens, Stephanie

    2015-02-01

    Emotional intelligence of the patient has been claimed to potentially be an important factor in psychotherapy. Empirical studies are largely lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine if (i) pre-intervention emotional intelligence predicts outcome of psychotherapy and (ii) change in emotional intelligence during psychotherapy is associated with change in symptoms in a patient sample with heterogeneous psychiatric symptoms. Participants were 166 patients with different diagnoses who were hospitalized at the Center for Psychological Recovery. Before, after hospitalization and 6months after hospitalization they were asked to complete the BarOn-EQi for emotional intelligence and the Symptom Checklist-90. Level of emotional intelligence at the start of hospitalization largely did not predict psychological symptoms at post-intervention or at 6month follow-up. However, an increase in the level of emotional intelligence over the course of the intervention was associated with lower levels of psychological symptoms, both immediately post-intervention and at 6-month follow-up. The results suggest that while the pre-intervention level of emotional intelligence has no substantial effect on treatment outcome, an increase in emotional intelligence may have a positive effect on symptom decrease and on the preservation of treatment results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Topiramate improves psychiatric symptoms in a patient with Lewy body dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Juan G

    2014-12-01

    Many patients with Lewy body dementia develop visual hallucinations and other psychiatric symptoms. These patients are hypersensitive to antipsychotic drugs. Although patients tolerate atypical better than typical antipsychotics, both types can cause major extrapyramidal side effects. The anticonvulsant mood stabilizer topiramate, which does not cause parkinsonism, has been used as adjuvant therapy for both the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia; these symptoms can resemble those of Lewy body dementia. This report documents a 65-year-old woman with a 3-year history of progressive dementia that over the past 2 years had become complicated by severe extrapyramidal symptoms and agitated hallucinations. Her hallucinations became daily and were disrupting to her family. She was given a clinical diagnosis of Lewy body dementia after imaging and laboratory studies ruled out other etiologies. Treatment with olanzapine relieved her psychotic symptoms but caused severe dystonias, daily myoclonic jerks, and tremors. Stopping the olanzapine and starting topiramate 25 mg daily eliminated the hallucinations and agitation without worsening her extrapyramidal side effects. However, the topiramate was stopped because the patient reportedly developed anorexia and significant weight loss. Her hallucinations returned. When topiramate was reinstated at 12.5 mg a day, her agitation resolved, although her hallucinations continued. After 6 months on this dose, her agitation was still fairly well controlled without serious side effects or worsening of her parkinsonian symptoms.

  20. Delayed cognitive and psychiatric symptoms following methyl iodide and manganese poisoning: Potential for misdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie Ross, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes two patients who were exposed to toxic substances in the workplace, but for whom diagnosis proved difficult, particularly in case 2. Case 1 was exposed to methyl iodide and case 2 to manganese. Poisoning was characterised by delayed onset of symptoms following exposure and symptom progression after cessation of exposure. The clinical consequences of exposure to these substances include cerebellar and Parkinsonian symptoms followed by the development of cognitive impairment and the late appearance of psychiatric disturbances. Both cases were evaluated by physicians with little training in toxicology. Apart from abnormal liver function in case 1 and decreased power, coordination and proprioception in case 2, results of most routine medical investigations were normal. Both cases were referred for MRI brain scan and neuropsychological assessment. Abnormalities were noted on MRI but reported as being absent initially in case 1and of unknown significance in case 2. There was evidence of cognitive impairment in both and personality change in case 1 of sufficient severity to prevent both cases from returning to work and to impact on family life. There is no antidote to methyl iodide or manganese poisoning. Successful treatment requires early diagnosis and cessation of exposure, but neurotoxic syndromes are difficult to diagnose when a time lag exists between exposure and symptom onset and there is no biomarker of exposure. These syndromes may initially be confused with other neurodegenerative conditions, infectious processes, and psychiatric disorders. Clinician's lack of familiarity with the potential toxicity of environmental and industrial chemicals can lead to misdiagnosis and mismanagement, and this lack of recognition can lead to continued exposure. These cases highlight the importance of taking a detailed occupational history in patients who present with atypical neurological symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Longitudinal study of psychiatric symptoms, disability, mortality, and emigration among Bosnian refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollica, R F; Sarajlic, N; Chernoff, M; Lavelle, J; Vukovic, I S; Massagli, M P

    2001-08-01

    Evidence is emerging that psychiatric disorders are common in populations affected by mass violence. Previously, we found associations among depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and disability in a Bosnian refugee cohort. To investigate whether previously observed associations continue over time and are associated with mortality emigration to another region. Three-year follow-up study conducted in 1999 among 534 adult Bosnian refugees originally living in a refugee camp in Croatia. At follow-up, 376 (70.4%) remained living in the region, 39 (7.3%) were deceased, 114 (21.3%) had emigrated, and 5 (1%) were lost to follow-up. Those still living in the region and the families of the deceased were reinterviewed (77.7% of the original participants). Depression and PTSD diagnoses, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria and measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, respectively; disability, measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 20; and cause of death, determined by family interviews with review of death certificates, if available. In 1999, 45% of the original respondents who met the DSM-IV criteria for depression, PTSD, or both continued to have these disorders and 16% of respondents who were asymptomatic in 1996 developed 1 or both disorders. Forty-six percent of those who initially met disability criteria remained disabled. Log-linear analysis revealed that disability and psychiatric disorder were related at both times. Male sex, isolation from family, and older age were associated with increased mortality after adjusting for demographic characteristics, trauma history, and health status (for male sex, adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-5.92; living alone, OR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.07-5.38; and each 10-year increase in age, OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.34-2.71). Depression was associated with higher mortality in unadjusted analysis

  2. A categorical view toward diagnosis and classification of war-related psychiatric disorders

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    Abhari SA

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Documented war experiences have provided early descriptions of different group of psychiatric features. A combat soldier with palpitation and chest pains was felt to have a functional cardiac disturbance, called soldier's heart. Anxiety and other symptoms indicating increased arousal were called shell shock and were thought to be related to lesions in the central nervous system (CNS. Describing analytically war events could operate with an enormous emotional intensity breaking through the ego defences and flooding it with an uncontrollable anxiety. Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD delineates a syndrome developing after a discrete traumatic event in a stress setting. Diagnostic conceptualization which tie PTSD to stress and trauma invariably involve two different approaches from two different theoretical bases: the concepts dealing with trauma on the one hand (which could effect on CNS and those dealing with stress-response theory on the other. Author emphasizes on viewing the patients who complain of war psychiatric effects in three categories: (1 Non PTSD diagnoses that the patient ought to be treated accordingly (2 Traumatic neurosis which has overwhelming war stress related emotional aspects and is occurred in predisposed individuals. This category is suggested to be classified as post war stress disorder specifically, to be differentiated from other post traumatic psychiatric categories. (3 Author also suggests the third category as post traumatic war stress syndrome which is thought to have organic origin. Symptoms such as hyperacusis, hyperirritability, tinnitus and particular type of head aches which are mostly refractory to treatment confirm the hypothesis.

  3. Eating disorders and anabolic androgenic steroids in males - similarities and differences in self-image and psychiatric symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Body dissatisfaction is common among both females and males. Dissatisfaction with the body is a risk factor both for onset of eating disorders and for abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Few studies have however investigated if there are other similarities in respect to self-image or psychiatric symptoms between clinical samples of eating disordered males and males in treatment for negative effects of AAS use. Aim The aim of this study was to compare two clinical samples, one of males with ED and one of males who used AAS, regarding self-image and psychiatric symptoms. Methods This study compared males with eating disorders (n = 13) and males who recently stopped AAS use (n = 29) on self-image and psychiatric symptoms, using The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior self-questionnaire and a shortened version of The Symptom Check List. Results The eating disorder group reported significantly lower scores for Self-emancipation and Active self-love and higher scores for Self-blame and Self-hate. Both groups reported serious psychiatric symptoms. The common denominator between groups was serious psychiatric symptomatology rather than negative self-image. Conclusions The negative self-image profile, especially self-hate, found among males with Eating Disorders may indicate that the studied groups differ in aetiology of the underlying problems. The serious psychiatric symptoms in both groups call staff to pay attention to any thoughts of suicide due to severe depressive symptoms where by specialized psychiatric treatment may be needed. PMID:23958408

  4. The relationship between genotype, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in adult patients with sickle cell disease in São Paulo, Brazil: a cross-sectional study

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    Érika Bergamini Mastandréa

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL may be worsened in sickle cell patients due to the presence of psychiatric disorders. The aims of this study were to describe the psychiatric symptoms in Brazilian sickle cell patients and to evaluate the relationship of these symptoms to the genotype of the disease and the subject's HRQoL. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study conducted at the hematology outpatient clinic, Hospital São Paulo. METHODS: Adult patients with sickle cell disease completed the Medical Outcome Study - Short Form 36 and the Patients' Health Questionnaire. Clinical data were gathered from their medical files. Linear regression models were developed to study the dependency of HRQoL domains on the genotype controlling for psychiatric symptoms. RESULTS: In the study period, 110 patients were evaluated. The most frequent psychiatric symptom was depression (30%, followed by anxiety (12.7% and alcohol abuse (9.1%. Patients with the more severe genotype (SS and Sβthal0 showed lower scores for the "general health" and "role-physical" HRQoL domains, without interference from psychiatric symptoms. In the "role-physical" domain, the more severe genotype operated as a protective factor for HRQoL (β = 0.255; P = 0.007. CONCLUSION: The more severe genotypes worsened HRQoL in two domains of physical health (general health and role-physical, but they did not have any influence on mental health, thus suggesting that physicians should be more attentive to aspects of HRQoL relating to the functionality of sickle cell disease patients, so as to be aware of the limitations that these patient live with.

  5. Treatment received, satisfaction with health care services, and psychiatric symptoms 3 months after hospitalization for self-poisoning

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    Grimholt Tine K

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients who self-poison have high repetition and high mortality rates. Therefore, appropriate follow-up is important. The aims of the present work were to study treatment received, satisfaction with health care services, and psychiatric symptoms after hospitalization for self-poisoning. Methods A cohort of patients who self-poisoned (n = 867 over a period of 1 year received a questionnaire 3 months after discharge. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS, and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE were used. The participation rate was 28% (n = 242; mean age, 41 years; 66% females. Results Although only 14% of patients were registered without follow-up referrals at discharge, 41% reported no such measures. Overall, satisfaction with treatment was fairly good, although 29% of patients waited more than 3 weeks for their first appointment. A total of 22% reported repeated self-poisoning and 17% cutting. The mean BDI and BHS scores were 23.3 and 10.1, respectively (both moderate to severe. The GSE score was 25.2. BDI score was 25.6 among patients with suicide attempts, 24.9 for appeals, and 20.1 for substance-use-related poisonings. Conclusions Despite plans for follow-up, many patients reported that they did not receive any. The reported frequency of psychiatric symptoms and self-harm behavior indicate that a more active follow-up is needed.

  6. Ordinal convolutional neural networks for predicting RDoC positive valence psychiatric symptom severity scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Anthony; Kavuluru, Ramakanth

    2017-11-01

    The CEGS N-GRID 2016 Shared Task in Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) provided a set of 1000 neuropsychiatric notes to participants as part of a competition to predict psychiatric symptom severity scores. This paper summarizes our methods, results, and experiences based on our participation in the second track of the shared task. Classical methods of text classification usually fall into one of three problem types: binary, multi-class, and multi-label classification. In this effort, we study ordinal regression problems with text data where misclassifications are penalized differently based on how far apart the ground truth and model predictions are on the ordinal scale. Specifically, we present our entries (methods and results) in the N-GRID shared task in predicting research domain criteria (RDoC) positive valence ordinal symptom severity scores (absent, mild, moderate, and severe) from psychiatric notes. We propose a novel convolutional neural network (CNN) model designed to handle ordinal regression tasks on psychiatric notes. Broadly speaking, our model combines an ordinal loss function, a CNN, and conventional feature engineering (wide features) into a single model which is learned end-to-end. Given interpretability is an important concern with nonlinear models, we apply a recent approach called locally interpretable model-agnostic explanation (LIME) to identify important words that lead to instance specific predictions. Our best model entered into the shared task placed third among 24 teams and scored a macro mean absolute error (MMAE) based normalized score (100·(1-MMAE)) of 83.86. Since the competition, we improved our score (using basic ensembling) to 85.55, comparable with the winning shared task entry. Applying LIME to model predictions, we demonstrate the feasibility of instance specific prediction interpretation by identifying words that led to a particular decision. In this paper, we present a method that successfully uses wide features and

  7. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid

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    Benjamin L. Cook

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural language processing (NLP and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12. Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being and responses to one unstructured question, “how do you feel today?” We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4 were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible.

  8. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin L; Progovac, Ana M; Chen, Pei; Mullin, Brian; Hou, Sherry; Baca-Garcia, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12). Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being) and responses to one unstructured question, "how do you feel today?" We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4) were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible.

  9. Association of psychiatric history and type D personality with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and health status prior to ICD implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrenburg, Annemieke H; Kraaier, Karin; Pedersen, Susanne S; van Hout, Moniek; Scholten, Marcoen; van der Palen, Job

    2013-09-01

    Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). We examined associations between previous anxiety and depressive disorder, type D personality, anxiety or depressive symptoms, and health status in ICD patients prior to ICD implantation. Patients (N = 278; 83 % men; mean age = 62.2 years ±11) receiving a first ICD from September 2007 through April 2010 at the Medisch Spectrum Twente, The Netherlands completed validated questionnaires before implantation assessing type D personality (14-item Type D Scale), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and health status (36-item Short Form Health Survey). History of anxiety or depressive disorder was assessed with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview structural interview. Previous anxiety or depressive disorder was prevalent in 8 and 19 % of patients, respectively. Type D personality was present in 21 %, depressive symptoms in 15 %, and anxiety in 24 %. In adjusted analyses, type D personality was a dominant correlate of previous depressive disorder (odds ratio (OR) 6.2, p anxiety disorder (OR 3.9, p = 0.004). Type D personality (OR 4.0, p anxiety symptoms at baseline. Type D personality (OR 5.9. p depressive symptoms at baseline. Heart failure and type D personality were related to poorer health status. In ICD patients, prior to ICD implantation, a previous anxiety or depressive disorder, type D personality, and anxiety and depressive symptoms were associated with poorer health status. Type D personality was also independently associated with increased anxiety and depression symptoms.

  10. Motivational and Behavioral Activation as an Adjunct to Psychiatric Rehabilitation for Mild to Moderate Negative Symptoms in Individuals with Schizophrenia: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot Study

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    Kee-Hong Choi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Few psychosocial approaches address the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, which shares common features with depression and anxiety. Behavioral activation (BA is effective for addressing depression and anxiety in adults with various mental disorders. Motivational Interviewing (MI has been successfully applied to address ambivalence or lack of motivation towards treatment. Motivational and behavioral activation (mBA has been developed by incorporating the core principles from BA and MI with recent findings on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. In this study, we aimed to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of mBA in a non-randomized controlled pilot study that included individuals with schizophrenia with mild to moderate negative symptoms receiving psychiatric rehabilitation. A total of 73 individuals with schizophrenia were recruited. Forty-seven of the participants who met the study inclusion and exclusion criteria were assigned to either an mBA + usual psychiatric rehabilitation group (mBA or a usual psychiatric rehabilitation only group (treatment as usual, TAU. Administering mBA to individuals with schizophrenia with mild to moderate negative symptoms was feasible in a community mental health setting. Relative to TAU, mBA was associated with large effects in reducing negative symptoms measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS. However, after considering PANSS cognitive deficits and marital status as covariates due to significant differences in their baseline levels, the treatment effects on the BNSS were partially observed. In addition, participants in the mBA group showed improved verbal learning and memory compared with those in the TAU group. In individuals with schizophrenia receiving the usual forms of psychiatric rehabilitation in a community mental health setting, mBA appears to offer a promising adjunctive approach for addressing mild to moderate

  11. Reward processing and mood-related symptoms: An RDoC and translational neuroscience perspective.

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    Nusslock, Robin; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-07-01

    Two objectives of the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative are to identify (a) mechanisms that are common to multiple psychiatric disorders, and (b) mechanisms that are unique to specific psychiatric symptoms, and that reflect markers of differential risk for these symptoms. With respect to these objectives, a brain-behavior dimension that has received considerable attention and that is directly relevant to the Positive Valence Systems domain of the RDoC initiative involves reward processing. The present review paper first examines the relationship between reward processing and mood-related symptoms from an RDoC perspective. We then place this work in a larger context by examining the relationship between reward processing abnormalities and psychiatric symptoms defined broadly, including mood-related symptoms, schizophrenia, and addiction. Our review suggests that reward hyposensitivity relates to a subtype of anhedonia characterized by motivational deficits in unipolar depression, and reward hypersensitivity relates to a cluster of hypo/manic symptoms characterized by excessive approach motivation in the context of bipolar disorder. Integrating this perspective with research on reward processing abnormalities in schizophrenia and addiction, we further argue that the principles of equifinality and multifinality may be preferable to a transdiagnostic perspective for conceptualizing the relationship between reward processing and psychiatric symptoms defined broadly. We propose that vulnerability to either motivational anhedonia or approach-related hypo/manic symptoms involve extreme and opposite profiles of reward processing. We further propose that an equifinality and multifinality perspective may serve as a useful framework for future research on reward processing abnormalities and psychiatric symptoms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Prevalence Rates of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms and Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Adolescents in Iran

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    Homayoon Amini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological studies show that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and its comorbidity with psychiatric problems is more prevalent among children and adolescents than was previously believed. The primary aim of the current study is to investigate the point-prevalence rate of obsessive compulsive symptoms in a sample of adolescent high school student in Iran. A two-stage epidemiological study was carried out through a clustered random sampling method. All participants went through a two-stage assessment procedure, in the first screening phase, the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI was administered to 909 randomly selected students (in the age range 14-18 years. Participants were considered possible sub-clinical or clinical OCD cases, if they obtained a score of MOCI≥15. In the second stage, the Symptoms Checklist -90-revised (SCL-90-R was administered to student who fulfilled the screening criteria. The prevalence of OC symptoms was found to be 11.2 percent for the total sample. The most prevalent comorbid conditions were depression and anxiety with prevalence rates of 91.2 and 78.4 percent respectively. Gender, age, birth-order, parent's education and family income had no statistically significant association with OC symptoms. Further research in this area is warranted in order to establish a set of comprehensive global assessment and measurement tools, which would allow cross-cultural studies in the field of OCD.

  13. Emotional reactions to involuntary psychiatric hospitalization and stigma-related stress among people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüsch, Nicolas; Müller, Mario; Lay, Barbara; Corrigan, Patrick W; Zahn, Roland; Schönenberger, Thekla; Bleiker, Marco; Lengler, Silke; Blank, Christina; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-02-01

    Compulsory admission to psychiatric inpatient treatment can be experienced as disempowering and stigmatizing by people with serious mental illness. However, quantitative studies of stigma-related emotional and cognitive reactions to involuntary hospitalization and their impact on people with mental illness are scarce. Among 186 individuals with serious mental illness and a history of recent involuntary hospitalization, shame and self-contempt as emotional reactions to involuntary hospitalization, the cognitive appraisal of stigma as a stressor, self-stigma, empowerment as well as quality of life and self-esteem were assessed by self-report. Psychiatric symptoms were rated by the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In multiple linear regressions, more self-stigma was predicted independently by higher levels of shame, self-contempt and stigma stress. A greater sense of empowerment was related to lower levels of stigma stress and self-contempt. These findings remained significant after controlling for psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis, age, gender and the number of lifetime involuntary hospitalizations. Increased self-stigma and reduced empowerment in turn predicted poorer quality of life and reduced self-esteem. The negative effect of emotional reactions and stigma stress on quality of life and self-esteem was largely mediated by increased self-stigma and reduced empowerment. Shame and self-contempt as reactions to involuntary hospitalization as well as stigma stress may lead to self-stigma, reduced empowerment and poor quality of life. Emotional and cognitive reactions to coercion may determine its impact more than the quantity of coercive experiences. Interventions to reduce the negative effects of compulsory admissions should address emotional reactions and stigma as a stressor.

  14. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  15. Psychiatric symptoms in Norwegian children with epilepsy aged 8-13 years: effects of age and gender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfstad, Kristin Å; Clench-Aas, Jocelyne; Van Roy, Betty; Mowinckel, Petter; Gjerstad, Leif; Lossius, Morten I

    2011-07-01

    In this population-based study we wanted to assess the prevalence and impact of psychiatric symptoms in children with epilepsy compared to controls, and investigate possible age and gender differences. Data were collected using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Parent report (SDQ-P) as part of a more extensive questionnaire. A total of 14,699 parents of children aged 8-13 years (response rate 78%) participated. Associations between SDQ scores and epilepsy, other chronic disease, age, gender, and socioeconomic factors were explored using logistic regression analysis. Children with epilepsy (CWE) (n=110) had a significantly higher frequency of psychiatric symptoms (37.8% vs. 17.0% in controls, pGender differences were found in several subscales of the SDQ; girls had more emotional problems, whereas boys had higher scores regarding peer relationship and hyperactivity/inattention problems. Male gender, low socioeconomic status (family income below poverty limit and living in a single parent home), and other chronic disease (asthma/diabetes) were independent risk factors of developing psychiatric symptoms, along with epilepsy. Having or having had epilepsy was, however, a much stronger risk factor for developing psychiatric symptoms in girls than in boys [odds ratio (OR) 4.2 vs. OR 2.3]. A minor effect of age was seen only in girls with epilepsy, with an increased risk of psychiatric symptoms in age group 10-13 years (OR 1.28 for scoring borderline/abnormal on SDQ-total difficulties). Borderline/abnormal impact scores were found in 31.8% of CWE compared with 13.0% of controls (p<0.001). Multiple risk factors contribute to the high prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in CWE, perhaps differently in boys and girls. Awareness of this complex interaction may help target intervention toward high risk groups and thus prevent more serious problems from arising. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Suicidality, self-harm and psychotic-like symptoms in a general adolescent psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Maija; Manninen, Marko; Kalska, Hely; Mustonen, Ulla; Laajasalo, Taina; Moilanen, Kari; Huttunen, Matti O; Cannon, Tyrone D; Suvisaari, Jaana; Therman, Sebastian

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the associations between clinical high-risk for psychosis (CHR), psychotic-like symptoms and suicidality among adolescent psychiatric patients. The sample consisted of 54 CHR and 107 non-CHR psychiatric patients aged 15-18 in Helsinki, Finland, who were assessed at the beginning of their psychiatric treatment with the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS). Current suicidality was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory (item 9), while lifetime suicidality was evaluated from all available data, including patient files. The participants were followed for 2.8-8.9 years via the national hospital discharge register, with the follow-up outcome being intentional self-harm. Data on suicides were also gathered from the Causes of Death statistics. Only 30.5% of the adolescents had no suicidal ideation at the beginning of their treatment. CHR risk state and SIPS-assessed delusions, suspiciousness, and hallucinations were associated with higher current suicidality. Of the 154 adolescents with register follow-up, there were five (3.2%) with intentional self-harm resulting in hospital treatment, all female. CHR status was not associated with self-harm. Current suicidality, familial risk of psychosis, and SIPS decreased expression of emotions were associated with self-harm during follow-up. In a Cox regression analysis model among girls, only decreased expression of emotions remained a significant predictor of intentional self-harm. Baseline suicidality measures were not associated with transitions to psychosis. CHR status was associated with higher current suicidality but did not predict follow-up intentional self-harm in treatment-seeking adolescents. Decreased expression of emotions may indicate higher risk of intentional self-harm in adolescent treatment-seeking girls. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in HIV infected mine workers in South Africa. A retrospective descriptive study of acute first admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säll, L; Salamon, E; Allgulander, C; Owe-Larsson, B

    2009-08-01

    The social and living conditions of mine workers in South Africa contribute to a rapid transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections. HIV-associated dementia is a serious condition during HIV disease. Several other psychiatric symptoms and disorders, such as psychosis, secondary mania and depression, have also been associated with clinical HIV infection. We describe the onset of psychiatric symptoms and signs in a group of untreated, HIV infected male mine workers first admitted for psychiatric treatment at the Rand Mutual Hospital in Johannesburg. Between 1987 and 1997, 38 consecutive cases were admitted, and their files were retrieved for study in 2006. The subjects were 38 black male mine workers admitted acutely for psychiatric care due to psychiatric symptoms, and subsequently diagnosed with HIV infection. The presenting psychiatric symptoms on admission and diagnoses at discharge were compiled for all patients, not to infer causality but to establish the range of symptoms that the clinician has to deal with. The 38 patients presented with a wide range of psychiatric symptoms. The dominating symptoms were those of cognitive deficits, and different psychotic manifestations. 12 of the patients, almost one third of the individuals, were diagnosed with dementia. The patients with dementia exhibited cognitive deficits, and in addition often abnormal behaviour and psychotic symptoms, and several also had symptoms of secondary mania. 5 of the patients presented with delirium. Psychosis, without concurrent dementia, was diagnosed in 5 patients. Bipolar disorder with mania, without concurrent dementia, and major depression was present in 2 patients, respectively. Screening for substance abuse showed that 9 of the patients had ongoing cannabis abuse and 10 had alcohol abuse. Cannabis-induced psychotic disorder was present in 5 patients. The findings confirm that patients with a new diagnosis of HIV may present with

  18. Cognitive underperformance and symptom over-reporting in a mixed psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandachi-FitzGerald, Brechje; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Peters, Maarten J V; Merckelbach, Harald

    2011-07-01

    The current study examined the prevalence of cognitive underperformance and symptom over-reporting in a mixed sample of psychiatric patients (N = 183). We employed the Amsterdam Short-Term Memory Test (ASTM) to measure cognitive underperformance and the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS) to measure the tendency to over-report symptoms. We also administered neuropsychological tests (e.g., Concept Shifting Task; Rey's Verbal Learning Test) and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) to the patients. A total of 34% of them failed the ASTM, the SIMS or both tests. ASTM and SIMS scores were significantly, albeit modestly, correlated with each other (r = -.22). As to the links between underperformance, over-reporting, neuropsychological tasks, and the SCL-90, the association between over-reporting on the SIMS and SCL-90 scores was the most robust one. The subsample that only failed on the ASTM performed significantly worse on a compound index of memory performance. Our findings indicate that underperformance and over-reporting are loosely coupled dimensions and that particularly over-reporting is intimately linked to heightened SCL-90 scores.

  19. X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in a 6-year-old boy initially presenting with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İncecik, Faruk; Hergüner, M Özlem; Mert, Gülen; Önenli-Mungan, Neslihan; Ceylaner, Serdar; Kör, Deniz; Altunbaşak, Şakir

    2014-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) leads to demyelination of the nervous system, adrenal insufficiency and accumulation of long-chain fatty acids. Most young patients with X-linked ALD develop seizures and progressive neurologic deficits, and die within the first two decades of life. We present the case of a 6-year-old with childhood-onset ALD, first presenting with psychiatric symptoms and progressive gait difficulties, slurred speech and cognitive impairment. Genetic testing was performed and a p.R401Q (c.1202G>A) mutation detected in the ABCD1 gene. ALD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with behavior changes and white matter disease in neuroimaging.

  20. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide—An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment tools. PMID:28257103

  1. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide—An Overview

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    Trine Madsen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment tools.

  2. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide-An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-03-02

    People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment tools.

  3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Stress-Related Psychiatric Co-morbidities: Focus on Early Life Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, Siobhain M; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2017-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder, with stress playing a major role in onset and exacerbation of symptoms such as abdominal pain and altered bowel movements. Stress-related disorders including anxiety and depression often precede the development of irritable bowel syndrome and vice versa. Stressor exposure during early life has the potential to increase an individual's susceptibility to both irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disease indicating that there may be a common origin for these disorders. Moreover, adverse early life events significantly impact upon many of the communication pathways within the brain-gut-microbiota axis, which allows bidirectional interaction between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. This axis is proposed to be perturbed in irritable bowel syndrome and studies now indicate that dysfunction of this axis is also seen in psychiatric disease. Here we review the co-morbidity of irritable bowel syndrome and psychiatric disease with their common origin in mind in relation to the impact of early life stress on the developing brain-gut-microbiota axis. We also discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting this axis in these diseases.

  4. General psychiatric or depressive symptoms were not predictive for mortality in a healthy elderly cohort in Southern Brazil

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    Maria Otilia Cerveira

    Full Text Available Abstract General psychiatric symptoms may interfere with the ability of individuals to take care of their health, to get involved with activities and develop social abilities, thereby increasing risk of death. Objective: To evaluate general psychiatric symptoms as predictive factors for mortality in a community elderly cohort in Southern Brazil. Methods: 345 healthy elderly, aged ³60 years, from the catchment area of Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre were followed from 1996. Data for the present study were drawn from the period 1996-2004. General psychiatric symptoms (Self-Reporting Questionnaire - SRQ, depressive symptoms (Montgomery-Asberg depressive rating scale, and Mini Mental State Examination scores at baseline were included in the study. Socio-demographic, medical conditions, and functional capacity were also analyzed. The outcome was vital status at follow-up obtained from family members, hospital records and checked against official death registers. Results: Of the 345 baseline individuals, 246 were followed-up. The global mortality rate over the study period was 36.9% (N=90. Those who deceased during the period were older (73.5±7.5, more dependent overall, and more cognitively impaired than the living elderly (univariate analyses. In the logistic regression, only age (OR=0.93; p=0.003 and functional capacity (OR=0.22; p=0.007 remained significant in the final equation. Conclusion: Psychiatric symptoms presented no association with mortality in the present sample. Older age and functional incapacity were risk factors for mortality.

  5. Maternal attachment style and psychiatric history as independent predictors of mood symptoms in the immediate postpartum period.

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    Croce Nanni, Roberta; Troisi, Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    There is evidence that both a past history of psychiatric illness and insecure attachment put women at risk for mood disturbances in the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether maternal insecure attachment is a risk factor for mood symptoms in the immediate postpartum period independently of the confounding effect of maternal psychiatric history. A convenience sample of 120 mothers was assessed prenatally with the Maternal History of Mood Disturbances (MHMD), the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ), and in the first week after delivery with the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Mothers with higher scores on the preoccupied and fearful attachment scales had more severe postpartum anxiety and depression symptoms but only fearful attachment remained a significant predictor of postpartum anxiety when the significant effect of maternal history of mood disturbances was included in the model. Our diagnostic assessment focused on mood symptoms, not disorders, and we limited psychometric assessment to the immediate postpartum period and did not collect longitudinal data to ascertain whether the relationship between maternal insecure attachment and postpartum mood disturbances changed over time. Our results show the necessity to assess prior psychiatric symptoms in studies of maternal attachment style and postpartum mood disturbances. The finding that a mother's recall of her own psychiatric history emerged as significant predictor of postpartum mood symptoms suggests that antenatal assessment based on maternal self-report can be used in those settings where structured diagnostic interviews are not feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality of life and psychiatric work impairment in compulsive buying: increased symptom severity as a function of acquisition behaviors.

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    Williams, Alishia D

    2012-08-01

    The aims of the current study were to determine if compulsive acquisition behaviors are meaningfully related to quality of life and psychiatric work impairment and to determine if compulsive buyers who engage in 2 forms of acquisition (buying and excessive acquisition of free items) are more impaired than individuals who only engage in 1 form of acquisition. In a community-recruited sample, analysis of covariance conducted between groups identified as noncompulsive buyers (NCB) (n = 30), compulsive buyers who did not acquire free items (CBB) (n = 30), and compulsive buyers who also acquired free items (CBF) (n = 35) revealed that both acquisition groups reported higher levels of depression and stress and lower quality of psychological well-being than the NCB group, despite a comparable number of individuals self-reporting a current mental health disorder in each group. The CBF group reported higher levels of anxiety and general distress as well as greater work inefficiency days compared with the NCB and CBB groups. Furthermore, regression analyses supported the unique contribution of acquisition of free items to the prediction of psychiatric work impairment. Taken together, the findings highlight the serious impact of compulsive buying on work functioning, general quality of life, and psychological well-being and provide avenues for future research to investigate the role of acquisition of free items in symptom severity. Limitations and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  8. A network view on psychiatric disorders: network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology.

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    Rutger Goekoop

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. AIM: To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. METHODS: 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS. An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS was optimized using a previously published technique. RESULTS: In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. CONCLUSION: We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.

  9. A network view on psychiatric disorders: network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekoop, Rutger; Goekoop, Jaap G

    2014-01-01

    The vast number of psychopathological syndromes that can be observed in clinical practice can be described in terms of a limited number of elementary syndromes that are differentially expressed. Previous attempts to identify elementary syndromes have shown limitations that have slowed progress in the taxonomy of psychiatric disorders. To examine the ability of network community detection (NCD) to identify elementary syndromes of psychopathology and move beyond the limitations of current classification methods in psychiatry. 192 patients with unselected mental disorders were tested on the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on the bootstrapped correlation matrix of symptom scores to extract the principal component structure (PCS). An undirected and weighted network graph was constructed from the same matrix. Network community structure (NCS) was optimized using a previously published technique. In the optimal network structure, network clusters showed a 89% match with principal components of psychopathology. Some 6 network clusters were found, including "Depression", "Mania", "Anxiety", "Psychosis", "Retardation", and "Behavioral Disorganization". Network metrics were used to quantify the continuities between the elementary syndromes. We present the first comprehensive network graph of psychopathology that is free from the biases of previous classifications: a 'Psychopathology Web'. Clusters within this network represent elementary syndromes that are connected via a limited number of bridge symptoms. Many problems of previous classifications can be overcome by using a network approach to psychopathology.

  10. Maltreatment clusters among youth in outpatient substance abuse treatment: co-occurring patterns of psychiatric symptoms and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubman, Jonathan G; Oshri, Assaf; Taylor, Heather L; Morris, Staci L

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe the use of a brief maltreatment assessment instrument to classify adolescents receiving alcohol or other drug (AOD) treatment services based on the extensiveness and severity of prior maltreatment. This goal is significant because maltreatment reduces the effectiveness of AOD treatment and is associated significantly with co-occurring patterns of psychiatric symptoms and sexual risk behaviors. Structured interviews were administered to 300 adolescent treatment clients (202 males, 98 females; M = 16.22 years; SD = 1.13 years) to assess childhood maltreatment experiences, past year psychiatric symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors during the past 180 days. Cluster analysis classified adolescents into unique groups via self-reported sexual abuse, physical punishment, and parental neglect/negative home environment. Significant between-cluster differences in psychiatric symptoms and sexual risk behaviors were documented using MANOVA and chi-square analyses. More severe maltreatment profiles were associated with higher scores for psychiatric symptoms and unprotected intercourse. Significant heterogeneity and distinct types within this treatment sample of adolescents supports the adaptation of selected prevention efforts to promote HIV/STI risk reduction.

  11. Symptoms of stroke-related visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona

    2013-06-01

    Investigate the frequency and type of visual symptoms following stroke. Prospective multicenter cohort study (Vision in Stroke [VIS]) in accordance with Declaration of Helsinki. Standardized referral/investigation protocol with detailed assessment of visual acuity, ocular alignment/motility, visual field and visual perception, plus quality of life score. A total of 915 patients were recruited with a mean age of 69.18 years (standard deviation 14.19). Reported symptoms included diplopia, blurred vision, reading difficulty, field loss, perceptual difficulty, and oscillopsia. Sixteen percent (149) had no visual symptoms: 22 patients had normal eye examinations by orthoptic assessment and 127 had diagnoses of central/peripheral visual loss, ocular motility or perceptual abnormalities. Eighty-four percent had visual symptoms, but 50 patients had normal eye examinations. There was no significant difference in type of symptom and quality of life score. Treatment included refraction, prisms, occlusion, orthoptic exercises, low vision aids, and advice. Of those with no visual symptoms, 85% had objectively measured visual impairment. Conversely, 6.5% of those with visual symptoms had normal orthoptic examinations. Thus the presence or absence of visual symptoms does not infer absence or presence of visual impairment and may relate to recovery of visual impairment, cognitive, or communication impairment.

  12. Prehospital delay and stroke-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Tomoko; Fujimoto, Shigeru; Inoue, Takuya; Suzuki, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Prehospital delay is the major cause of treatment delay in stroke. This study was conducted to clarify the contribution of specific stroke-related symptoms to prehospital delay. A consecutive series of 469 patients hospitalized within 2 weeks of stroke onset was collected. In this study, prehospital delay was defined as the time interval from recognition of stroke-related symptoms to hospital arrival. The prevalence of each symptom or sign and prehospital delay were analyzed. Weakness of the lower limb (43.5%) was the most common symptom followed by weakness of the upper limb (37.1%) and dysarthria (31.6%). Conversely, the most common sign was weakness of the upper limb (54.1%) followed by dysarthria (53.3%), weakness of the lower limb (53.1%), and sensory disturbance (39.0%). The presence of confusion/decreased level of consciousness (psymptoms in univariate analyses. Conversely, the presence of sensory disturbance (p=0.0017) and vertigo/dizziness (p=0.044) were associated with a significant delay in hospital visitation compared with the absence of these symptoms. There was a discrepancy in the prevalence between symptoms recognized by the patients or bystanders and signs diagnosed by the physicians. There was a significant overall correlation between prehospital delay and the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores. Public education is therefore necessary to encourage early hospital visitation even with the appearance of mild symptoms.

  13. Psychiatric nurse practitioners’ experiences of working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms

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    Kgalabi J. Ngako

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric nurse practitioners (PNPs working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms work in a complex environment. This environment is characterised by mental health care users who may present with a history of violence, sexual assault and substance misuse.The objectives of this study were twofold: firstly, to explore and describe the experiences of PNPs working with mental health care users (MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms; and secondly, to make recommendations for the advanced PNPs to facilitate promotion of the mental health of PNPs with reference to nursing practice, research and education.A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. The target population was PNPs working with MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms in a public mental health care institution in Gauteng. Data were collected by means of four focus group interviews involving 21 PNPs. The researcher made use of drawings, naïve sketches and field notes for the purpose of data triangulation. Data were analysed in accordance with Tesch’s method of open coding.The three themes that emerged were: PNPs experienced working with these MHCUs as entering an unsafe world where care became a burden; they experienced negative emotional reactions and attitudes towards these MHCUs that compromised quality nursing care; and they made a plea for a nurturing environment that would enhance quality nursing care.The PNPs suggest skills and competency development, organisational support, and a need for external resources. Creation of a positive environment and mobilisation of resources as well as the identification and bridging of obstacles are essential in the promotion of the overall wellbeing and mental health of PNPs. 

  14. Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with a History of Autism and Optimal Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine E.; Suh, Joyce; Troyb, Eva; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael; Barton, Marianne L.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Kelley, Elizabeth; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael C.; Fein, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Since autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often comorbid with psychiatric disorders, children who no longer meet criteria for ASD (optimal outcome; OO) may still be at risk for psychiatric disorders. A parent interview for DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (K-SADS-PL) for 33 OO, 42 high-functioning autism (HFA) and 34 typically developing (TD) youth,…

  15. Antenatal and postnatal maternal mood symptoms and psychiatric disorders in pre-school children from the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluísio J D; Barros, Fernando C

    2014-08-01

    Maternal mood symptoms have been associated with psychiatric disorders in children. This study aimed to assess critical periods when maternal symptoms would be more deleterious. Cohort of 4231 births followed-up in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. Mood symptoms during pregnancy were self-reported by mothers at perinatal interview; and at 3-months postpartum, mothers answered the Self-Reporting Questionnaire. Psychiatric disorders in 6-year-old children were evaluated through the Development and Well-Being Assessment instrument. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by logistic regression. Prevalence of mood symptoms in pregnancy was 24.6% (23.2-26.0%) and at three months postpartum 22.5% (21.1-23.9%). Prevalence of mental disorders in children was 13.3% (12.2-14.4%). After adjustment for confounders children of mothers with mood symptoms during pregnancy were 82% more likely of presenting psychiatric disorders than children of mothers that did not (1.82; 1.48-2.25); and the chance of having mental disorders among children whose mothers had positive SRQ-20 at three months postpartum was 87% greater than the observed among children whose mothers had it negative (1.87; 1.50-2.33). Because maternal anxiety/depression may interfere with interpretation of the child behavior, child׳s mental health being obtained by interviewing the mother is a limitation of this study. Lack of information on other risk factors may have lead to residual confounding on the effect of maternal mood symptoms at three months postpartum. Children of mothers presenting mood symptoms during pregnancy and in the first months postpartum are more likely to present psychiatric disorders at 6 years of age. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Morbid risk for psychiatric disorder among the relatives of methamphetamine users with and without psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ken; Lin, Shih-Ku; Sham, Pak C; Ball, David; Loh, El-Wui; Murray, Robin M

    2005-07-05

    It is not clear why some methamphetamine (MAMP) abusers develop psychotic symptoms, while others use MAMP regularly over long periods and remain unscathed. We tested the hypotheses that those users who develop MAMP-induced psychosis (MIP) have greater familial loading for psychotic disorders than users with no psychosis. Four hundred forty-five MAMP users were recruited from a psychiatric hospital and a detention center in Taipei, and were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for genetic studies (DIGS-C) and the Family Interview for genetic study (FIGS-C). Morbid risk (MR) for psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives was compared between those MAMP users with a lifetime diagnosis of MAMP psychosis and those without. The relatives of MAMP users with a lifetime diagnosis of MAMP psychosis had a significantly higher MR for schizophrenia (OR = 5.4, 95% CI: 2.0-14.7, P < 0.001) than the relatives of those probands who never became psychotic. Furthermore, the MR for schizophrenia in the relatives of the subjects with a prolonged MAMP psychosis (MIP-P) was higher than in the relatives of those users with a brief MAMP psychosis (MIP-B) (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.0-8.0, P = 0.042). The greater his or her familial loading for schizophrenia, the more likely a MAMP user is to develop psychosis, and the longer that psychosis is likely to last. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Face-to-Face Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: The Effects on Gastrointestinal and Psychiatric Symptoms

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    Hanna Edebol-Carlman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a gastrointestinal disorder linked to disturbances in the gut-brain axis. Visceral hypersensitivity and pain are hallmarks of IBS and linked to the physiological and psychological burden and to the nonadaptive coping with stress. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT for IBS has proven effective in reducing gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms in IBS by means of coping with stress. The present pilot study evaluated for the first time whether CBT for IBS affected visceral sensitivity and pain. Individual CBT was performed for 12 weeks in 18 subjects with IBS and evaluated in terms of visceral sensitivity and pain during rectal distensions using the barostat method and self-rated visceral sensitivity and gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms. Visceral discomfort, urge, and pain induced by the barostat were not affected by CBT but were stable across the study. However, the level of self-rated visceral sensitivity and gastrointestinal and psychiatric symptoms decreased after the intervention. Central working mechanisms and increased ability to cope with IBS-symptoms are suggested to play a key role in the alleviation of IBS symptoms produced by CBT.

  18. Impact of psychotic symptoms on cognitive functioning in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients with severe mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, James B; Weiss, Shira R; Segovich, Kristin T; Barbot, Baptiste

    2016-10-30

    Despite established differences in cognitive functioning of adults with mood disorder-related psychosis and those with non-affective psychotic disorders, there is limited evidence of the impact of psychotic symptoms on the cognitive functioning of children and adolescents with mood disorders. This study investigates IQ, working memory, and processing speed scores in 80 child and adolescent inpatients discharged from an intermediate care state psychiatric hospital, using a retrospective chart review. Associations between diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria (7 with Major Depression- MDD; 43 with Bipolar Disorders-BD, and 30 with Mood Disorders Not Otherwise Specified-NOS), presence of current psychotic features, and cognitive functioning (WISC-IV IQ, Coding, Symbol Search, and Digit Span) were investigated using Multivariate Analyses of Variance. No differences were found in cognitive functioning between patients with MDD and BD, or between those with severe Mood Disorders (MDD or BD) and those with NOS, when controlling for age, gender, and presence of psychotic features. However, patients with severe mood disorders and psychotic features showed lower IQs and greater working memory deficits than those without psychotic features or NOS. Results are discussed in terms of treatment planning for children and adolescents at risk for developing psychotic symptoms and severe mood disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolution of substance use, neurological and psychiatric symptoms in schizophrenia and substance use disorder patients: a 12-week, pilot, case-control trial with quetiapine

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    Simon eZhornitsky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurological and psychiatric symptoms are consequences of substance abuse in schizophrenia and non-schizophrenia patients. The present case-control study examined changes in substance abuse/dependence and neurological and psychiatric symptoms in substance abusers with (DD group, n=26 and without schizophrenia (SUD group, n=24 and in non-abusing schizophrenia patients (SCZ group, n=23 undergoing 12-week treatment with the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Neurological and psychiatric symptoms were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia, the Extrapyramidal Symptoms Rating Scale and the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale. At endpoint, DD and SCZ patients were receiving significantly higher doses of quetiapine (mean = 554mg/d and 478mg/d, respectively, relative to SUD patients (mean = 150mg/d. We found that SUD patients showed greater improvement in weekly dollars spent on alcohol and drugs and SUD severity, compared to DD patients. At endpoint, there was no significant difference in dollars spent, but DD patients still had a higher mean SUD severity. Interestingly, DD patients had significantly higher Parkinsonism and depression than SCZ patients at baseline and endpoint. On the other hand, we found that SUD patients had significantly more akathisia at baseline, improved more than SCZ patients and this was related to cannabis abuse/dependence. Finally, SUD patients improved more in PANSS positive scores than DD and SCZ patients. Taken together, our results provide evidence for increased vulnerability to the adverse effects of alcohol and drugs in schizophrenia patients. They also suggest that substance abuse/withdrawal may mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia. Future studies will need to determine the role quetiapine played in these improvements.

  20. [Menopause-related symptoms in middle-aged women residing in the Zaragoza Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo Ramón; Martínez-Dearth, Rebeca; López-Baena, María Teresa; Ornat-Clemente, Lía

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess menopausal symptoms and related sociodemographic conditions in middle-aged women from the Spanish province of Zaragoza. This was a cross-sectional study in which 241 women (40-59 years old) from the Zaragoza province completed the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and a sociodemographic questionnaire containing personal and partner data to assess symptoms associated with the menopause. The most prevalent symptoms were musculoskeletal, followed by hot flushes and perspiration. Somatic, psychological and urogenital symptoms were more severe in post-menopausal women. Somatic and urogenital symptoms worsen with age, body mass index, age at menopause, and partner age. Multiple linear regression analysis (MA) for somatic symptoms was related with the menopausal status, psychiatric treatment, problems with sexual relationships, and history of gender violence. The MA for psychological symptoms was associated with menopausal status, psychiatric treatment and a history of gender violence. The MA for urogenital symptoms was associated with menopausal status, problems with sexual relationships, urinary incontinence and partner alcohol abuse. A history of gender violence was reported by 11.6% of the women. In this sample of middle-aged women, menopausal symptoms were related to menopausal status, and other factors associated with their partner factors, including gender violence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol related disorders

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    Aruna Dandu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Alcohol dependence is on rise world over, especially in developing countries such as India. According to the World Health Organization, about 30% of Indians consume alcohol, out of which 4%–13% are daily consumers and up to 50% of them, fall under the category of hazardous drinking. Another worrying trend from India is that the average age of initiation of alcohol use has reduced from 28 years during the 1980s to 17 years in 2007. In India, alcohol abuse also amounts to huge annual losses due to alcohol-related problems in workplaces. This was a cross-sectional, noninterventional study which was carried out at the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Venkateswara Ramnaraian Ruia Government General Hospital (SVRRGGH, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and nature of psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol-related disorders (ARDs. Methods: Study design - Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Study setting - Psychiatry Department of SVRRGGH, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati. Study period - October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015. Study units - the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry, with a diagnosis of ARDs. After the ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry with a diagnosis of ARDs according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders constitute the population for the investigation. After obtaining written informed consent from each of the concerned subjects, demographic details and history of psychiatric illness were noted as per the structured pro forma. Results: The age of the alcohol-dependent men and spouses of men with ADS ranged from 23 to 67 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 41.24 ± 10.101 and 21–60 years (mean ± SD 35.04 ± 8.98, respectively. Among the study population, 36.6% of

  2. Psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandu, Aruna; Bharathi, S; Dudala, Shankar Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is on rise world over, especially in developing countries such as India. According to the World Health Organization, about 30% of Indians consume alcohol, out of which 4%-13% are daily consumers and up to 50% of them, fall under the category of hazardous drinking. Another worrying trend from India is that the average age of initiation of alcohol use has reduced from 28 years during the 1980s to 17 years in 2007. In India, alcohol abuse also amounts to huge annual losses due to alcohol-related problems in workplaces. This was a cross-sectional, noninterventional study which was carried out at the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Venkateswara Ramnaraian Ruia Government General Hospital (SVRRGGH), Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and nature of psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol-related disorders (ARDs). Study design - Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Study setting - Psychiatry Department of SVRRGGH, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati. Study period - October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015. Study units - the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry, with a diagnosis of ARDs. After the ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry with a diagnosis of ARDs according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders constitute the population for the investigation. After obtaining written informed consent from each of the concerned subjects, demographic details and history of psychiatric illness were noted as per the structured pro forma. The age of the alcohol-dependent men and spouses of men with ADS ranged from 23 to 67 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 41.24 ± 10.101) and 21-60 years (mean ± SD 35.04 ± 8.98), respectively. Among the study population, 36.6% of alcohol-dependent men were in the age group of 31

  3. Kynurenic acid and psychotic symptoms and personality traits in twins with psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Magdalena E; Johansson, Viktoria; Wetterberg, Lennart; Bhat, Maria; Schwieler, Lilly; Cannon, Tyrone D; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Engberg, Göran; Landén, Mikael; Hultman, Christina M; Erhardt, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Increased cytokines and kynurenic acid (KYNA) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have been reported in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate cytokines and kynurenines in the CSF of twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder and to study these CSF markers in relation to psychotic symptoms and personality traits. CSF levels of tryptophan (TRP), KYNA, quinolinic acid (QUIN), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were analyzed in 23 twins with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, and in their not affected co-twins. Ratings of psychotic symptoms and personality traits were made using the Scales for Assessment of Negative and Positive symptoms, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV - Axis II Disorders, and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire - Brief. A total score for psychotic symptoms and personality traits was constructed for analysis. CSF KYNA was associated with the score for psychotic symptom and personality traits. TNF-α and IL-8 were associated, and the intra-pair differences scores of TNF-α and IL-8 were highly correlated. Intraclass correlations indicated genetic influences on CSF KYNA, TRP, IL-8 and TNF-α. The association between KYNA and psychotic symptoms further supports a role of KYNA in psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the Effects of Haloperidol and Benzodiazepines Used for Postictal Psychiatric Symptoms on Seizure Recurrence: A Pilot Study

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    Pınar Hanife Kara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Patients with epilepsy may experience a number of psychiatric and cognitive symptoms or behavioral manifestations during the period of a seizure and the postictal period. The aim of this pilot study was to compare the effects medications commonly used in emergency departments for postictal psychiatric symptoms on seizure recurrence. Methods: Data of 32 epileptic patients, who presented to İzmir Katip Çelebi University Atatürk Research and Training Hospital Emergency Department with postictal psychiatric symptoms between January 2013 and December 2014, were retrospectively collected. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from the emergency department charts and neurology and psychiatry consultation records. Data regarding administered drugs were obtained from the hospital data processing system. The chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used as statistical methods. Bonferroni correction was performed for post-hoc analysis. Results: There were no differences in the seizure recurrence rate between benzodiazepine, haloperidol and without medication groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: Our results suggest that benzodiazepines and haloperidol do not affect the development of recurrent seizures when administered for postictal symptoms.

  5. Breathing meditation by medical students at Khon Kaen University: effect on psychiatric symptoms, memory, intelligence and academic achievement.

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    Paholpak, Suchat; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Rangseekajee, Poonsri; Krisanaprakornkit, Thawatchai; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Pajanasoontorn, Niramol; Virasiri, Surapol; Singkornard, Jintana; Rongbudsri, Somchit; Udomsri, Chonnikarn; Chonprai, Chanatiporn; Unprai, Peerada

    2012-03-01

    To examine the short-term effects on fifth-year medical students of a 4-week, breathing meditation-based, stress reduction intervention on psychiatric symptoms, memory function, intelligence, and academic achievement. Using a randomized control trial, the meditation group practiced every 8.00 to 8.20 a.m. before beginning daily learning schedule. Meditation emphasized mindful awareness of the breath during inhaling and exhaling. The control group went about their normal activities in the other room. The psychiatric symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), the memory used the Wechsler Memory Scale-I (WMS-I), the intelligence used the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM), and the academic achievement used psychiatry course MCQ examination score. Analysis was done using Ancova statistic. Fifty-eight volunteer medical students during their psychiatry rotation between June 2008 and May 2009, were randomized into either in the meditation (n = 30) or the control (non-meditation) (n = 28) group. There was no significant difference between the groups in their respective SCL-90, WMS-I, APM, and psychiatry course MCQ examination score. Among normal, intelligent, mentally healthy persons, short-term breathing meditation practice will not likely change psychiatric symptoms, memory function, intellectual performance, and academic achievement.

  6. Behavioral symptoms related to cognitive impairment

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    Dillon C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Carol Dillon,1 Cecilia M Serrano,1 Diego Castro,1 Patricio Perez Leguizamón,1 Silvina L Heisecke,1,2 Fernando E Taragano1 1CEMIC (Centro de Educación Médica e Investigaciones Clínicas University Institute, 2CONICET (Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Técnicas, Buenos Aires, Argentina Abstract: Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS are core features of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. On one hand, behavioral symptoms in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI can indicate an increased risk of progressing to dementia. On the other hand, mild behavioral impairment (MBI in patients who usually have normal cognition indicates an increased risk of developing dementia. Whatever the cause, all dementias carry a high rate of NPI. These symptoms can be observed at any stage of the disease, may fluctuate over its course, are a leading cause of stress and overload for caregivers, and increase rates of hospitalization and early institutionalization for patients with dementia. The clinician should be able to promptly recognize NPI through the use of instruments capable of measuring their frequency and severity to support diagnosis, and to help monitor the treatment of behavioral symptoms. The aims of this review are to describe and update the construct ‘MBI’ and to revise the reported NPS related to prodromal stages of dementia (MCI and MBI and dementia stages of Alzheimer’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Keywords: behavioral or neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive impairment, dementia

  7. Clinical Insight Into Latent Variables of Psychiatric Questionnaires for Mood Symptom Self-Assessment.

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    Tsanas, Athanasios; Saunders, Kate; Bilderbeck, Amy; Palmius, Niclas; Goodwin, Guy; De Vos, Maarten

    2017-05-25

    We recently described a new questionnaire to monitor mood called mood zoom (MZ). MZ comprises 6 items assessing mood symptoms on a 7-point Likert scale; we had previously used standard principal component analysis (PCA) to tentatively understand its properties, but the presence of multiple nonzero loadings obstructed the interpretation of its latent variables. The aim of this study was to rigorously investigate the internal properties and latent variables of MZ using an algorithmic approach which may lead to more interpretable results than PCA. Additionally, we explored three other widely used psychiatric questionnaires to investigate latent variable structure similarities with MZ: (1) Altman self-rating mania scale (ASRM), assessing mania; (2) quick inventory of depressive symptomatology (QIDS) self-report, assessing depression; and (3) generalized anxiety disorder (7-item) (GAD-7), assessing anxiety. We elicited responses from 131 participants: 48 bipolar disorder (BD), 32 borderline personality disorder (BPD), and 51 healthy controls (HC), collected longitudinally (median [interquartile range, IQR]: 363 [276] days). Participants were requested to complete ASRM, QIDS, and GAD-7 weekly (all 3 questionnaires were completed on the Web) and MZ daily (using a custom-based smartphone app). We applied sparse PCA (SPCA) to determine the latent variables for the four questionnaires, where a small subset of the original items contributes toward each latent variable. We found that MZ had great consistency across the three cohorts studied. Three main principal components were derived using SPCA, which can be tentatively interpreted as (1) anxiety and sadness, (2) positive affect, and (3) irritability. The MZ principal component comprising anxiety and sadness explains most of the variance in BD and BPD, whereas the positive affect of MZ explains most of the variance in HC. The latent variables in ASRM were identical for the patient groups but different for HC; nevertheless

  8. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders and premenstrual dysphoric symptoms in patients with experience of adverse mood during treatment with combined oral contraceptives.

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    Segebladh, Birgitta; Borgström, Anna; Odlind, Viveca; Bixo, Marie; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2009-01-01

    Negative mood symptoms remain one of the major reasons for discontinuation of combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs). The primary aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in women with different experience of COCs. Thirty women currently on COCs with no report of adverse mood symptoms, 28 women currently on COCs and experiencing mood-related side effects, 33 women who had discontinued COC use due to adverse mood effects and 27 women who had discontinued COC use for reasons other than adverse mood symptoms were included. Ongoing psychiatric disorders were evaluated by a structured psychiatric interview and prevalence rates of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) or premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) were assessed by daily prospective ratings on the Cyclicity Diagnoser scale. Women with ongoing or past experience of COC-induced adverse mood, more often suffered from mood disorders than women with no reports of adverse mood while on COC. The prevalence of prospectively defined PMS or PMDD did not differ between prior users with positive or negative experience. Women who had discontinued COC use due to adverse mood symptoms more often had had a legal abortion in the past. Women with ongoing or past self-reported adverse mood effects from COCs had a significantly increased prevalence of mood disorders.

  9. Using zebrafish to uncover the genetic and neural basis of aggression, a frequent comorbid symptom of psychiatric disorders.

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    Jones, Lauren J; Norton, William H J

    2015-01-01

    Aggression is an important adaptive behavior that can be used to monopolize resources such as mates or food, acquire and defend territory and establish dominant hierarchies in social groups. It is also a symptom of several psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. The frequent comorbidity of aggression and psychiatric diseases suggests that common genes and neural circuits may link these disorders. Research using animal models has the potential to uncover these genes and neural circuits despite the difficulty of fully modeling human behavioral disorders. In this review we propose that zebrafish may be a suitable model organism for aggression research with the potential to shed light upon the aggressive symptoms of human diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychiatric symptoms in patients with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O104:H4 induced haemolytic-uraemic syndrome.

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    Alexandra Kleimann

    Full Text Available In May 2011 an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (STEC O104:H4 in Northern Germany led to a high number of in-patients, suffering from post-enteritis haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS and often severe affection of the central nervous system. To our knowledge so far only neurological manifestations have been described systematically in literature.To examine psychiatric symptoms over time and search for specific symptom clusters in affected patients.31 in-patients suffering from E. coli O104:H4 associated HUS, were examined and followed up a week during the acute hospital stay. Psychopathology was assessed by clinical interview based on the AMDP Scale, the Brief Symptom Inventory and the Clinical Global Impressions Scale.At baseline mental disorder due to known physiological condition (ICD-10 F06.8 was present in 58% of the examined patients. Patients suffered from various manifestations of cognitive impairment (n = 27 and hallucinations (n = 4. Disturbances of affect (n = 28 included severe panic attacks (n = 9. Psychiatric disorder was significantly associated with higher age (p<0.0001, higher levels of C-reactive protein (p<0.05, and positive family history of heart disease (p<0.05. Even within the acute hospital stay with a median follow up of 7 days, symptoms improved markedly over time (p <0.0001.Aside from severe neurological symptoms the pathology in E.coli O104:H4 associated HUS frequently includes particular psychiatric disturbances. Long term follow up has to clarify whether or not these symptoms subside.

  11. Risk of Placental Abruption in Relation to Maternal Depressive, Anxiety and Stress Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paz, Nicole C.; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Huaman, Luis E.; Chang, Guillermo Diez; Pacora, Percy N.; Garcia, Pedro J.; Ananth, Cande V.; Qiu, Chungfang; Williams, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the influence of psychiatric factors on the etiology of placental abruption (PA), an obstetrical condition that complicates 1-2% of pregnancies. We examined the risk of AP in relation to maternal psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy. Methods This case-control study included 373 AP cases and 368 controls delivered at five medical centers in Lima, Peru. Depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Multivariable logistic regression models were fit to calculate odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for confounders. Results Depressive symptoms of increasing severity (using the DASS depression subscale) was associated with AP (p for trend=0.02). Compared with women with no depressive symptoms, the aOR (95%CI) for AP associated with each level of severity of depression symptoms based on the DASS assessment were as follows: mild 1.84 (0.91-3.74); moderate 1.25 (0.67-2.33); and severe 4.68 (0.98-22.4). The corresponding ORs for mild, moderate, and moderately severe depressive symptoms based on the PHQ assessment were 1.10 (0.79-1.54), 3.31 (1.45-7.57), and 5.01 (1.06-23.6), respectively. A positive gradient was observed for the odds of AP with severity of anxiety (p for trend=0.002) and stress symptoms (p for trend=0.002). Limitations These cross-sectionally collected data may be subject to recall bias. Conclusions Maternal psychiatric disorders may be associated with an increased occurrence of AP. Larger studies that allow for more precise evaluations of maternal psychiatric health in relation to AP risk are warranted. PMID:20692040

  12. SAFA: A new measure to evaluate psychiatric symptoms detected in a sample of children and adolescents affected by eating disorders. Correlations with risk factors

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    Emilo Franzoni

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Emilo Franzoni1, Morena Monti1, Alessandro Pellicciari1, Carlo Muratore1, Alberto Verrotti3, et al1Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, Clinical Pediatrics; 2Protection and Enhancement Department, University of Bologna, Italy; 3Clinic of Paediatrics, University of Chieti, Chieti, ItalyAbstract: In order to evaluate the psychiatric symptoms associated with a diagnosis of eating disorders (ED we have administered a new psychometric instrument: the Self Administrated Psychiatric Scales for Children and Adolescents (SAFA test. SAFA was administered to a cohort of 97 patients, aged from 8.8 to 18, with an ED diagnosis. Age, body mass index (BMI and BMI standard deviation score were analyzed. Furthermore, while looking for linkable risk factors, we evaluated other data that took an influence over the SAFA profile, like parental separation and family components’ number. Compared to the range of statistical normality (based on Italian population, patients with bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder showed higher and pathologic values in specific subscales. When analyzing sex, males showed more pathologic values in most anxiety-related, obsessiveness–compulsiveness-related and insecurity subscales. A correlation among age, BMI and specific subscales (low self esteem, psychological aspects emerged in participants with anorexia nervosa. In order to plan more appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in children or adolescents suffering from ED, the SAFA test can be an important instrument to evaluate psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, we propose to include this useful, simple self-administered test as a new screening tool for ED diagnosis. Keywords: psychiatric comorbidity, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, SAFA test

  13. Social networks, social support and psychiatric symptoms: social determinants and associations within a multicultural community population.

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    Smyth, Natasha; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about how social networks and social support are distributed within diverse communities and how different types of each are associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to address such shortcomings by: (1) describing the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of social networks and social support in a multicultural population and (2) examining how each is associated with multiple mental health outcomes. Data is drawn from the South East London Community Health Study; a cross-sectional study of 1,698 adults conducted between 2008 and 2010. The findings demonstrate variation in social networks and social support by socio-demographic factors. Ethnic minority groups reported larger family networks but less perceived instrumental support. Older individuals and migrant groups reported lower levels of particular network and support types. Individuals from lower socioeconomic groups tended to report less social networks and support across the indicators measured. Perceived emotional and instrumental support, family and friend network size emerged as protective factors for common mental disorder, personality dysfunction and psychotic experiences. In contrast, both social networks and social support appear less relevant for hazardous alcohol use. The findings both confirm established knowledge that social networks and social support exert differential effects on mental health and furthermore suggest that the particular type of social support may be important. In contrast, different types of social network appear to impact upon poor mental health in a more uniform way. Future psychosocial strategies promoting mental health should consider which social groups are vulnerable to reduced social networks and poor social support and which diagnostic groups may benefit most.

  14. Nursing diagnoses related to psychiatric adult inpatient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenfelder, Fritz; van Achterberg, Theo; Müller Staub, Maria

    2018-02-01

    To detect the prevalence of NANDA-I diagnoses and possible relationships between those and patient characteristics such as gender, age, medical diagnoses and psychiatric specialty/setting. There is a lack on studies about psychiatric inpatient characteristics and possible relationships among these characteristics with nursing diagnoses. A quantitative-descriptive, cross-sectional, completed data sampling study was performed. The data were collected from the electronic patient record system. Frequencies for the social-demographic data, the prevalence of the NANDA-I diagnoses and the explanatory variables were calculated. In total, 410 nursing phenomena were found representing 85 different NANDA-I diagnoses in 312 patients. The NANDA-I diagnosis "Ineffective Coping" was the most frequently stated diagnosis followed by "Ineffective Health Maintenance," "Hopelessness" and "Risk for Other-Directed Violence". Men were more frequently affected by the diagnoses "Ineffective Coping," "Hopelessness," "Risk for Self-Directed Violence," "Defensive Coping" and "Risk for Suicide," whereas the diagnoses "Insomnia," "Chronic Confusion," "Chronic Low Self-Esteem" and "Anxiety" were more common in women. Patients under the age of 45 years were more frequently affected by "Chronic Low Self-Esteem" and "Anxiety" than older patients. "Ineffective Coping" was the most prevalent diagnosis by patients with mental disorders due to psychoactive substance use. Patients with schizophrenia were primarily affected by the diagnoses "Ineffective Coping," "Impaired Social Interaction" and "Chronic Low Self-Esteem." This study demonstrates the complexity and diversity of nursing care in inpatient psychiatric settings. Patients' gender, age and psychiatric diagnoses and settings are a key factor for specific nursing diagnosis. There are tendencies for relationships between certain nursing diagnosis and patient characteristics in psychiatric adult inpatients. This enhances the specific, extended

  15. Transient Impact of Rituximab in H1N1 Vaccination-associated Narcolepsy With Severe Psychiatric Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkanen, Tomi; Alén, Reija; Partinen, Markku

    2016-09-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 is an organic sleep disorder caused by the destruction of hypocretin producing neurons in hypothalamus. In addition to daytime sleepiness, the spectrum and severity of symptoms are very variable. Psychiatric comorbidity and phenomena resembling psychotic symptoms are also common. Current treatment options for narcolepsy are symptomatic but there are few case reports of positive effect of immunotherapy. We report a very severely affected young boy treated with rituximab (RXB). A 12-year-old boy developed narcolepsy after Pandemrix H1N1 vaccination in 2010. He started to express severe psychiatric symptoms shortly after the onset. Cataplexy and sleepiness were devastatingly disabling. Conventional treatments did not have any effect on symptoms so we decided to try RXB, chimeric human monoclonal antibody against CD20 expressed in B lymphocytes. After the first treatment his condition ameliorated dramatically. Unfortunately, the effect lasted only for 2 months. Following attempts did not show any effect. Effect of RXB on narcolepsy has not been reported before. Remarkable but short-lasting effect of RXB in narcolepsy is intriguing as it could imply that there is still ongoing B cell-mediated autoimmune response possible contributing to symptoms in narcolepsy.

  16. Parental verbal affection and verbal aggression in childhood differentially influence psychiatric symptoms and wellbeing in young adulthood.

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    Polcari, Ann; Rabi, Keren; Bolger, Elizabeth; Teicher, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to parental verbal aggression is common and associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety, dissociation, and drug use. A key question that has not been addressed is whether verbal affection from the same or opposite parent can attenuate the effects of verbal aggression. This cross-sectional study examined the effects of parental verbal aggression and affection during childhood on measures of psychopathology and wellbeing in a community sample of 2,518 individuals (18-25 years). Data were analyzed for moderating influences using mixed effect models and for direct and indirect effects using structural equation models. The moderation analysis suggested that high levels of exposure to verbal affection did not mitigate the effects of verbal aggression from the same parent, and high levels of verbal affection from another parent did not generally result in a significant attenuation of the effects of verbal aggression. Structural equation models showed that verbal aggression was predominantly associated with effects on psychiatric symptoms scores, whereas verbal affection was primarily associated with effects on measures of wellbeing. These findings highlight the relatively independent effects of verbal aggression and verbal affection and suggest that the latter may be particularly important in establishing a foundation for emotional and physical wellbeing. These findings also suggest that ridicule, disdain, and humiliation cannot be easily counteracted by praise and warmth from the same or another parent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Parental Verbal Affection and Verbal Aggression in Childhood Differentially Influence Psychiatric Symptoms and Wellbeing in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcari, Ann; Rabi, Keren; Bolger, Elizabeth; Teicher, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to parental verbal aggression is common and associated with increased levels of depression, anxiety, dissociation, and drug use. A key question that has not been addressed is whether verbal affection from the same or opposite parent can attenuate the effects of verbal aggression. This cross-sectional study examined the effects of parental verbal aggression and affection during childhood on measures of psychopathology and wellbeing in a community sample of 2,518 individuals (18–25 years). Data were analyzed for moderating influences using mixed effect models and for direct and indirect effects using structural equation models. The moderation analysis suggested that high levels of exposure to verbal affection did not mitigate the effects of verbal aggression from the same parent, and high levels of verbal affection from another parent did not generally result in a significant attenuation of the effects of verbal aggression. Structural equation models showed that verbal aggression was predominantly associated with effects on psychiatric symptoms scores, whereas verbal affection was primarily associated with effects on measures of wellbeing. These findings highlight the relatively independent effects of verbal aggression and verbal affection and suggest that the latter may be particularly important in establishing a foundation for emotional and physical wellbeing. These findings also suggest that ridicule, disdain, and humiliation cannot be easily counteracted by praise and warmth from the same or another parent. PMID:24268711

  18. The genealogy of the clinical syndrome of mania: signs and symptoms described in psychiatric texts from 1880 to 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S

    2017-10-11

    In 1800, mania was conceptualized as an agitated psychotic state. By 1900, it closely resembled its modern form. This paper reviews the descriptions of mania in Western psychiatry from 1880 to 1900, when Kraepelin was training and developing his concept of manic-depressive illness. Psychiatric textbooks published 1900-1960 described 22 characteristic manic symptoms/signs the presence of which were recorded in 25 psychiatric textbooks and three other key documents published 1880-1900. Descriptions of mania in these nineteenth century textbooks closely resembled those in the twentieth century, recording a mean (s.d.) of 15.9 (2.3) and 17.0 (2.3) of the characteristic symptoms, respectively (p = 0.12). The frequency with which individual symptoms were reported was substantially correlated in these two periods (r = +0.64). Mendel's 1881 monograph, Kraepelin's first description of mania in 1883 and the entry for mania in Tuke's Dictionary of Psychological Medicine (1892) described a mean (s.d.) of 19 (1.7) of these characteristic symptoms. These descriptions of mania often contained phenomenologically rich descriptions of euphoria, hyperactivity, grandiosity, flight of ideas, and poor judgment. They also emphasized several features not in DSM criteria including changes in character, moral standards and physical appearance, and increased sense of humor and sexual drive. Fifteen authors described key symptoms/signs of mania most reporting elevated mood, motoric hyperactivity and accelerated mental processes. By 1880, the syndrome of mania had been largely stabilized in its modern form. In the formation of his concept of manic-depressive illness, Kraepelin utilized the syndrome of mania as described in the psychiatric community in which he was trained.

  19. [Rate and characteristics of dementia patients who visit psychiatric emergency hospitals for the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshiro; Kazui, Hiroaki; Sawa, Yutaka; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioral changes, known as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), are often observed in patients with dementia. BPSD impairs a patient's quality of life, increases the burden on the caregivers, and can be a predictor of the need for institutionalization. BPSD can aggravate on holidays or at night, when general psychiatric clinics are closed. When psychiatric symptoms aggravate on holidays or at night in patients with psychiatric disorders other than dementia, such as schizophrenia and manic psychosis, the patients visit psychiatric emergency hospitals. However, it has not been assessed whether patients with dementia visit psychiatric emergency hospitals for the treatment of BPSD on holidays or at night, although dementia patients are increasing and account for 10.5% of psychiatric outpatients in Japan. To determine the percentage of dementia patients with BPSD in all psychiatric patients who visit psychiatric emergency hospitals, and the characteristics of patients with BPSD in Japan. We developed two questionnaires. One was for psychiatric emergency hospitals and assessed the numbers of all patients, patients over 65 years old, and patients over 65 years and with BPSD or BPSD-like symptoms, who visited the psychiatric emergency hospitals on holidays or at night. The other questionnaire was for each patient over 65 years and with BPSD, and assessed the patients' characteristics, including their diagnosis, sex, what kinds of BPSD or BPSD-like symptoms brought them to the hospital, and whether they had visited a psychiatric clinic or hospital during the preceding 12 months. The questionnaires were sent to 360 hospitals that belong to the Japan Psychiatric Hospitals Association and treat patients with acute psychotic symptoms or dementia. This prospective survey was conducted from October 1 to November 30, 2009. One hundred and forty-three hospitals returned the questionnaires (response rate: 39.7%). In the survey

  20. Demographic, criminal and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims.

  1. Demographic, criminal, and psychiatric factors related to inmate suicide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, E.; Kerkhof, A.J.; Hayes, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    A review of 19 studies suggests that it may be feasible to identify prisoners with suicide risk on the basis of demographic, psychiatric, and criminal characteristics. The present study aimed to identify combinations of characteristics that are capable of identifying potential suicide victims.

  2. Accuracy of specific symptoms in the diagnosis of major depressive disorder in psychiatric out-patients: data from the MIDAS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A J; McGlinchey, J B; Young, D; Chelminski, I; Zimmerman, M

    2009-07-01

    There is uncertainty about the diagnostic significance of specific symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). There is also interest in using one or two specific symptoms in the development of brief scales. Our aim was to elucidate the best possible specific symptoms that would assist in ruling in or ruling out a major depressive episode in a psychiatric out-patient setting. A total of 1523 psychiatric out-patients were evaluated in the Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project. The accuracy and added value of specific symptoms from a comprehensive item bank were compared against the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). The prevalence of depression in our sample was 54.4%. In this high prevalence setting the optimum specific symptoms for ruling in MDD were psychomotor retardation, diminished interest/pleasure and indecisiveness. The optimum specific symptoms for ruling out MDD were the absence of depressed mood, the absence of diminished drive and the absence of loss of energy. However, some discriminatory items were relatively uncommon. Correcting for frequency, the most clinically valuable rule-in items were depressed mood, diminished interest/pleasure and diminished drive. The most clinically valuable rule-out items were depressed mood, diminished interest/pleasure and poor concentration. The study supports the use of the questions endorsed by the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) with the additional consideration of the item diminished drive as a rule-in test and poor concentration as a rule-out test. The accuracy of these questions may be different in primary care studies where prevalence differs and when they are combined into multi-question tests or algorithmic models.

  3. Pregnancy-related anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with visuospatial working memory errors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataja, E-L; Karlsson, L; Huizink, A C; Tolvanen, M; Parsons, C; Nolvi, S; Karlsson, H

    2017-08-15

    Cognitive deficits, especially in memory and concentration, are often reported during pregnancy. Similar cognitive dysfunctions can also occur in depression and anxiety. To date, few studies have investigated the associations between cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy. This field is of interest because maternal cognitive functioning, and particularly its higher-order aspects are related to maternal well-being and caregiving behavior, as well as later child development. Pregnant women (N =230), reporting low (n =87), moderate (n =97), or high (n =46) levels of depressive, general anxiety and/or pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms (assessed repeatedly with EPDS, SCL-90/anxiety subscale, PRAQ-R2, respectively) were tested in mid-pregnancy for their cognitive functions. A computerized neuropsychological test battery was used. Pregnant women with high or moderate level of psychiatric symptoms had significantly more errors in visuospatial working memory/executive functioning task than mothers with low symptom level. Depressive symptoms throughout pregnancy and concurrent pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms were significant predictors of the performance in the task. General anxiety symptoms were not related to visuospatial working memory. Cognitive functions were evaluated only at one time-point during pregnancy precluding causal conclusions. Maternal depressive symptoms and pregnancy-related anxiety symptoms were both associated with decrements in visuospatial working memory/executive functioning. Depressive symptoms seem to present more stable relationship with cognitive deficits, while pregnancy-related anxiety was associated only concurrently. Future studies could investigate, how stable these cognitive differences are, and whether they affect maternal ability to deal with demands of pregnancy and later parenting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Does varenicline worsen psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder? A review of published studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerimele, Joseph M; Durango, Alejandra

    2012-08-01

    To review published cases and prospective studies describing the use of varenicline in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. PubMed, PsychINFO, and the Cochrane Database were searched in July 2011 using the key words schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, psychosis, positive symptoms, negative symptoms, aggression, hostility, suicidal ideation AND varenicline to identify reports published between January 2006 and July 2011 in English. Five case reports, 1 case series, 1 retrospective study, 10 prospective studies (17 publications), and 1 meeting abstract describing the use of varenicline in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were identified. Review articles and articles describing findings other than the use of varenicline in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were excluded. Thirteen reports were included in the final analysis. Information on each study's patient population, age, diagnosis, medication treatment, tobacco use history, adverse effects, and outcome was collected from the published reports. Of the 260 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who received varenicline in these published reports, 13 patients (5%) experienced the onset or worsening of any psychiatric symptom, although 3 of the 13 patients experienced a very brief negative effect after 1 dose. No patients experienced suicidal ideation or suicidal behaviors. Published reports suggest that, in most stable, closely monitored patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, varenicline treatment is not associated with worsening of psychiatric symptoms. Current, prospective studies are assessing effectiveness and further assessing safety in this population. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  5. Early diagnosis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in a young woman with psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hiromichi; Morita, Seiji; Miura, Naoya; Tsuji, Tomoatsu; Ohnuki, Youichi; Nakagawa, Yoshihide; Yamamoto, Isotoshi; Takahashi, Hirohide; Inokuchi, Sadaki

    2012-09-20

    A previously healthy 21-year-old woman, transported to our medical emergency center for excluding organic brain disease, had undergone medical examination 9 days before for trembling in her left hand, which was caused by stress. The patient exhibited fever and strange behaviors, e.g., wandering around, babbling, and making smoking gestures; hence, psychiatric examination was performed. The patient's Glasgow Coma Scale score was 4-3-5, and involuntary movement was observed. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed increased cell count; hence, we suspected anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis. We conducted an abdominal CT scan, which revealed a neoplastic lesion with calcification in the right ovary. Early steroid pulse therapy was started. On hospital day 25, she tested positive for anti-NMDA receptor antibodies; hence, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and concomitant ovarian teratoma was diagnosid. She underwent right adnexectomy; subsequently, immunotherapy was performed. The patient recovered and was discharged on hospital day 105. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is not uncommon; however, this disease must be considered for young encephalitis patients exhibiting psychiatric symptoms. If patients (aged ≤ 30 years) presents with encephalitis of uncertain etiology, psychiatric symptoms, seizures, movement disorders, or psychosis, clinicians should consider anti-NMDA encephalitis as a possible diagnosis. Clinical diagnosis should be waged early to ensure timely treatment.

  6. Are Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Related to Mental Health Service Use?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Andersen, Søren Bo; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Investigating the use of mental health services by combat veterans can help illuminate utilization and unmet needs of this population. The aims of this study were to estimate the use of mental health services and to examine how such use is associated with self-reported symptoms...... the Danish registers. RESULTS: The prevalence of PTSD symptoms increased over time, and almost 10% of the sample reported high levels of PTSD symptoms 2.5 years postdeployment. Overall, 37% of the soldiers utilized mental health services; 6% utilized psychiatric services, and 12.4% redeemed a prescription...... for psychiatric medicine. Approximately one-third received psychotherapy at the Military Psychological Division. In those reporting high PTSD symptomatology, 83% utilized 1 or more types of mental health service. At predeployment and homecoming, high PTSD symptomatology was significantly (P

  7. [Parenting stress and the reliability of parental information in the diagnostics of children and adolescents with symptoms of psychiatric and behavioral disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlbauer-Müller, Viktoria; Eichler, Anna; Stemmler, Mark; Moll, Gunther H; Kratz, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    Information from parents is regularly used in the diagnostic process of children and adolescents with psychiatric symptoms. But the reliability of this information is debatable, because the parents’ own stress can distort their perceptions of the child’s symptoms. For each of N = 68 children and adolescents (11–18 years) who were using mental health services for the first time, we evaluated the ratings of a parent and a professional clinician (internalizing, externalizing symptoms, total-problem score). In addition, parenting stress was scored on the Eltern-Belastungs-Inventars (EBI, Tröster, 2011), which measures both child-related stress and parent-related stress as well as total stress. Highly stressed parent ratings differed more from the clinicians’ ratings than the ratings of less stressed parents. Additionally, correlations showed that higher parenting stress resulted in larger differences between the parent’s and the clinician’s assessments. Multiple regressions proved the predictive value of child-caused parenting stress for these differences. These results apply for internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and total-problem score. Parenting stress should be evaluated systematically in order to carefully assess the value of the information from parents and to determine how it should be included in diagnostic and therapeutical decisions.

  8. Network analysis of depression and anxiety symptom relationships in a psychiatric sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beard, C.; Millner, A.J.; Forgeard, M.J.C.; Fried, E.I.; Hsu, K.J.; Treadway, M.T.; Leonard, C.V.; Kertz, S.J.; Björgvinsson, T.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have studied psychological disorders extensively from a common cause perspective, in which symptoms are treated as independent indicators of an underlying disease. In contrast, the causal systems perspective seeks to understand the importance of individual symptoms and symptom-to-symptom

  9. Psychiatric and neurological symptoms in patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C): Findings from the International NPC Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnot, Olivier; Gama, Clarissa S; Mengel, Eugen; Pineda, Mercè; Vanier, Marie T; Watson, Louise; Watissée, Marie; Schwierin, Barbara; Patterson, Marc C

    2017-10-09

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare inherited neurovisceral disease that should be recognised by psychiatrists as a possible underlying cause of psychiatric abnormalities. This study describes NP-C patients who had psychiatric manifestations at enrolment in the international NPC Registry, a unique multicentre, prospective, observational disease registry. Treating physicians' data entries describing psychiatric manifestations in NPC patients were coded and grouped by expert psychiatrists. Out of 386 NP-C patients included in the registry as of October 2015, psychiatric abnormalities were reported to be present in 34% (94/280) of those with available data. Forty-four patients were confirmed to have identifiable psychiatric manifestations, with text describing these psychiatric manifestations. In these 44 patients, the median (range) age at onset of psychiatric manifestations was 17.9 years (2.5-67.9; n = 15), while the median (range) age at NP-C diagnosis was 23.7 years (0.2-69.8; n = 34). Almost all patients (43/44; 98%) had an occurrence of ≥1 neurological manifestation at enrolment. These data show that substantial delays in diagnosis of NP-C are long among patients with psychiatric symptoms and, moreover, patients presenting with psychiatric features and at least one of cognitive impairment, neurological manifestations, and/or visceral symptoms should be screened for NP-C.

  10. Perinatal psychiatric episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M

    2016-01-01

    and childbirth, which suggests differences in the underlying etiology. We further speculate varying treatment incidence and prevalence in pregnancy vs postpartum may indicate that the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 peripartum specifier not adequately describes at-risk periods......Perinatal psychiatric episodes comprise various disorders and symptom severity, which are diagnosed and treated in multiple treatment settings. To date, no studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of perinatal psychiatric episodes treated in primary and secondary care, which we aimed...... psychiatric facilities, 2.5 births were followed by an episode treated at outpatient psychiatric facility and 12 births by GP-provided pharmacological treatment. We interpret our results the following way: treated severe and moderate psychiatric disorders have different risk patterns in relation to pregnancy...

  11. Complementary therapies for cancer-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gary; Cassileth, Barrie R; Yeung, K Simon

    2004-01-01

    Relief of cancer-related symptoms is essential in the supportive and palliative care of cancer patients. Complementary therapies such as acupuncture, mind-body techniques, and massage therapy can help when conventional treatment does not bring satisfactory relief or causes undesirable side effects. Controlled clinical trials show that acupuncture and hypnotherapy can reduce pain and nausea. Meditation, relaxation therapy, music therapy, and massage mitigate anxiety and distress. Pilot studies suggest that complementary therapies may treat xerostomia, hot flashes, and fatigue. Botanicals or dietary supplements are popular but often problematic. Concurrent use of herbal products with mainstream medical treatment should be discouraged.

  12. Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes: Impact on Weight, Quality of Life, and Psychiatric Symptoms in Veterans With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Jillian M; Erickson, Zachary D; Meyer, Hilary B; Baker, Matthew R; Gelberg, Hollie A; Arnold, Irina Y; Kwan, Crystal; Chamberlin, Valery; Rosen, Jennifer A; Shah, Chandresh; Hellemann, Gerhard; Lewis, Melissa M; Nguyen, Charles; Sachinvala, Neena; Amrami, Binyamin; Pierre, Joseph M; Ames, Donna

    2017-09-01

    . Besides weekly journals, researchers also collected prospective data on quality of life, psychiatric symptoms, vitals, and anthropometric measurements. In both studies, investigators tested for main effects of the total number of TLCs practiced and study week using mixed-effects linear models with independent intercepts by participant. In Study 1, engagement in more TLC behaviors was significantly associated with higher ratings of quality of life, as well as greater weight loss for each additional type of TLC practiced. In Study 2, TLC practice increased significantly over 9 weeks, and was significantly associated with improvements in quality of life and diastolic blood pressure. Counseling Veterans to practice TLCs provides a holistic adjunct to current treatments for mental illness. TLCs may confer multiple benefits upon Veterans with mental illness, enhancing quality of life and well-being along with weight management efforts. As these were pilot studies, the samples sizes were relatively small and a control group was lacking. Our findings may have broader implications supporting a holistic approach in both primary and mental health care settings. Future research will expand this work to address its weaknesses and examine the cost differential between this holistic approach and traditional mental health treatment. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Relation to Maternal Depressive, Anxiety and Stress Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E.; Puente, Gabriella C.; Atencio, Guillermo; Qiu, Chungfang; Yanez, David; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the risk of preterm birth (PTB) in relation to maternal psychiatric symptoms during pregnancy in Peruvian women. Methods This case control study included 479 PTB cases and 480 term controls. In-person interviews were conducted to assess women’s depressive, anxiety and stress symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Compared with women reporting no or minimal depressive symptoms, the aOR (95% CI) for PTB associated with consecutive severity of depressive symptoms based on the PHQ-9 assessment method were as follows: mild 2.22 (95% CI 1.64–3.00) and moderate-severe 3.67 (95% CI 2.09–6.46). The corresponding aORs for mild, moderate, and moderate- severe depressive symptoms based on the DASS-21 assessment were, 1.00 (reference), 3.82 (95% CI 1.90–7.66) and 2.90 (95% CI 1.66–5.04), respectively. A positive gradient was observed for the odds of PTB with severity of anxiety (ptrend <0.001) and stress symptoms (ptrend <0.001). Conclusions The odds of PTB are increased in pregnant Peruvian women with psychiatric symptoms. Efforts to screen and treat affected women may modify risks of PTB and possibly other associated disorders. PMID:23447915

  14. Self-management of psychiatric symptoms using over-the-counter (OTC) psychopharmacology: the S-DTM therapeutic model--Self-diagnosis, self-treatment, self-monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacological self-management is becoming more widespread in modernizing societies, as part of a general expansion of health care. This may exert a vital corrective balance to the professionalization of health by ensuring that the individual perspective of patients is not neglected. There are many 'good ideas' for new treatments being published which have a plausible scientific rationale for effectiveness and a low likelihood of harm, yet are essentially ignored by mainstream medical research. The most likely avenue for progress is probably the spread of self-management, together with increased sharing of experience via the internet. There is considerable scope for self-management of psychiatric symptoms with psychoactive medication purchased 'over-the-counter' (OTC) and without prescription. A surprisingly wide range of effective psychoactive agents are available with the potential to self-treat many of the common psychiatric problems. These include 'medical' psychopharmacological agents such as analgesics and antihistamines, a plant extract called St. John's Wort (Hypericum), and physical treatments such as early morning bright light therapy. But self-management currently lacks an explicit therapeutic model. A three stage process of S-DTM - self-diagnosis, self-treatment and self-monitoring is proposed and described in relation to psychiatric symptoms. Self-diagnosis describes the skill of introspection to develop awareness of inner bodily states and emotions. A specific sensation is identified and isolated as the 'focal symptom' for subsequent treatment and monitoring. Self-treatment involves choosing a drug (or other therapy) which is intended to alleviate the focal symptom. Self-monitoring entails a continued awareness of the focal system and of general well-being in order to evaluate effect of therapy. Self-monitoring could involve repeated cycles of dose-adjustment, and on-off ('challenge-dechallenge-rechallenge') therapeutic trials. An example of S

  15. Psychiatric manifestations, personality traits and health-related quality of life in cancer of unknown primary site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyphantis, Thomas; Papadimitriou, Ilias; Petrakis, Dimitrios; Fountzilas, George; Repana, Dimitra; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Carvalho, André F; Pavlidis, Nicholas

    2013-09-01

    Psychiatric manifestations and personality traits are known to influence cancer patients. We aimed to assess psychological distress symptoms, psychosocial factors and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) and to test whether these parameters differ between CUP and Metastatic (MKPC) or Non-Metastatic Known Primary Cancers (N-MKPC) after controlling for demographics and clinical variables. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 50 CUP, 264 N-MKPC and 52 MKPC participants. We assessed depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression [CES-D]), psychological distress symptoms (Symptom Distress Checklist-90 Revised), sense of coherence (SOC), ego defense mechanisms (Life Style Index) and HRQoL (World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form). The prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 23) was 40.0% in CUP, 28.8% in MKPC and 23.5% N-MKPC (p=0.037). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that N-MKPC patients were 5 times less likely (p=0.028) and MKPC patients 3.3 times less likely (p=0.05) to be assessed with probable depression compared with CUP patients after controlling for the major demographic and clinical variables studied. CUP patients presented also higher levels of somatization, anxiety and depressive symptoms; they also had more impaired Physical (p=0.005), Mental (p=0.041) and Social Relations (p=0.044) HRQoL, along with lower scores on SOC and intellectualization defense and higher scores on repression defense, compared with MKPC and N-MKPC patients. These findings suggest that psychiatric manifestations are frequent in CUP, and the patients' resources to cope with the burden of their illness are limited. Attention to CUP patients' psychological distress and coping resources and capacities may enable oncologists to identify and manage modifiable aspects of HRQoL. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Symptoms, Quality of Life and level of functioning of traumatized refugees at Psychiatric Trauma Clinic in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhman, Cæcilie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lundstrøm, Stine

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize physical and mental health in trauma exposed refugees by describing a population of patients with regard to background, mental health history and current health problems; and to identify pre- and post-migratory predictors of mental health. METHOD: All patients receiving...... treatment at the Psychiatric Trauma Clinic for Refugees in Copenhagen from April 2008 to February 2010 completed self-rating inventories on symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety as well as level of functioning and quality of life before treatment. Then, associations of pre and post migratory factors...... of treatment effect should clarify all co-morbidities so that comparable populations can be included in treatment evaluation studies....

  17. Are psychiatric comorbidities and associated cognitive functions related to treatment response to methylphenidate in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan MH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mandy H Chan,1 Patrick WL Leung,2 Ting-pong Ho,3 Se-fong Hung,4 Chi-chiu Lee,5 Chun-pan Tang,5 Ka-chai Cheung,2 Fung-yee Ching,2 Fefe HK Chan,6 Lu-hua Chen,2 Merce Garcia-Barcelo,7 Pak-chung Sham3 1Department of Clinical Psychology, Kowloon Hospital, Hospital Authority, 2Department of Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Hong Kong, 4Department of Psychiatry, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 5Department of Psychiatry, Kwai Chung Hospital, Hospital Authority, 6Department of Clinical Psychology, Alice Ho Mui Ling Nethersole Hospital, Hospital Authority, 7Department of Surgery, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, People’s Republic of China Background: Methylphenidate (MPH has been found to be an effective medication for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, there are neither consistent nor sufficient findings on whether psychiatric comorbidities and associated cognitive functions of ADHD are related to treatment response to MPH in ADHD children.Objectives: This study investigated whether psychiatric comorbidities, IQ, and neurocognitive deficits are related to treatment response to MPH in ADHD children. In some ways, it is preferable to have a drug that the effectiveness of which to a disorder is not affected by its associated cognitive functions and psychiatric comorbidities. On the other hand, it is likely that the baseline symptom severity of ADHD is associated with the effectiveness of MPH treatment on the symptoms post treatment.Methods: A total of 149 Chinese boys (aged 6–12 years with ADHD, combined type, and normal IQ participated in this study. Assessment of ADHD symptom severity was conducted pre and post MPH treatment, while assessment of psychiatric comorbidities, IQ, and neurocognitive deficits was performed in a non-medicated condition. Treatment response was defined as the ADHD symptom severity post MPH treatment.Results: Results indicated that MPH

  18. Screening for Psychiatric Symptoms: PAS-ADD Checklist Norms for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. L.; Hatton, C.; Dixon, L.; Douglas, C.

    2004-01-01

    The Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disabilities Checklist (PAS-ADD Checklist) is a screening instrument designed to help carers recognize likely mental health problems in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). To date there are no published PAS-ADD Checklist data on a large nonpsychiatric population of adults…

  19. Efficacy of Group Art Therapy on Depressive Symptoms in Adult Heterogeneous Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandraiah, Shambhavi; Ainlay Anand, Susan; Avent, Lindsay Cherryl

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential benefit of weekly group art therapy in groups of adult psychiatric outpatients at a university medical center. Eighteen patients participated in 4 successive 8-week groups of 6 to 8 patients each that met weekly and were led by 2 therapists (a board-certified art therapist and a psychiatry resident). The…

  20. The association between depressive symptoms and non-psychiatric hospitalisation in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prina, A.M.; Deeg, D.; Brayne, C.; Beekman, A.; Huisman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is known that people who suffer from depression are more likely to have other physical illnesses, but the extent of the association between depression and non-psychiatric hospitalisation episodes has never been researched in great depth. We therefore aimed to investigate whether

  1. Sleep-related problems and minor psychiatric disorders among Brazilian shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Garcez, Anderson; Henn, Ruth Liane; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between sleep-related problems with the occurrence of minor psychiatric disorders in shift workers of southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study with 1202 workers (785 females) aged 18-50 years was carried out. Minor psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), and four sleep problems were collected and analyzed: sleep deprivation (≤ 5h), difficulty falling asleep, waking up during sleep, and sleep medication use. Results show that the overall prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 26.8%, but it was more prevalent among females than males (30.2% vs. 20.4%). Nightshift work was significantly associated with the occurrence of sleep-related problems. After adjusting for confounding factors, the number of sleep-related problems showed a positive linear trend with psychiatric disorders in both sexes. Having two or more sleep-related problems was associated with increased probability of psychiatric disorders approximately three-fold among males and two-fold among females, when compared with those without sleep problems. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that sleep-related problems have a strong and independent association with psychiatric disorders among shift workers. Furthermore, the prevalence of both conditions was higher among females than males; however, the strength of these associations was higher in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Chloroquine use improves dengue-related symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Carvalho Borges

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is the most important arboviral disease in the world. As chloroquine, an antimalarial agent, has shown some antiviral effects, this study evaluated its effect in patients with dengue. A randomised, double-blind study was performed by administering chloroquine or placebo for three days to 129 patients with dengue-related symptoms. Of these patients, 37 were confirmed as having dengue and completed the study; in total, 19 dengue patients received chloroquine and 18 received placebo. There was no significant difference in the duration of the disease or the degree and days of fever. However, 12 patients (63% with confirmed dengue reported a substantial decrease in pain intensity and a great improvement in their ability to perform daily activities (p = 0.0004 while on the medication and the symptoms returned immediately after these patients stopped taking the medication. The same effect was not observed in patients with diseases other than dengue. Therefore, this study shows that patients with dengue treated with chloroquine had an improvement in their quality of life and were able to resume their daily activities. However, as chloroquine did not alter the duration of the disease or the intensity and days of fever, further studies are necessary to confirm the clinical effects and to assess the side effects of chloroquine in dengue patients.

  3. Occupational Outcome in Adult ADHD: Impact of Symptom Profile, Comorbid Psychiatric Problems, and Treatment--A Cross-Sectional Study of 414 Clinically Diagnosed Adult ADHD Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmoy, Anne; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Gillberg, Christopher; Haavik, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of symptom profile, comorbid psychiatric problems, and treatment on occupational outcome in adult ADHD patients. Method: Adult ADHD patients (N = 414) responded to questionnaires rating past and present symptoms of ADHD, comorbid conditions, treatment history, and work status. Results: Of the patients, 24%…

  4. [Discharge dynamics and related factors of newly-admitted patients in psychiatric hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Toshiaki; Shiraishi, Hiromi; Tachimori, Hisateru; Koyamas, Asuka; Naganuma, Yoichi; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    .3%). In dementia, the residential setting after discharge showed a similar distribution, and death was also frequent (6.6%). Multivariate analyses revealed that a long stay (one year or longer) was significantly associated with a residential setting before admission, the type of ward at admission, a founder (a private hospital or public/university hospital), and symptom severity at admission in schizophrenia; and with the type of ward at admission and hospital founder in dementia. In schizophrenia, the risk of a long stay was higher on hospitalization in other psychiatric hospitals (odds ratio [OR] : 28) and other departments (OR: 18), and living alone (OR: 2.1) than in living with the family by residential setting. The risk was also higher in psychiatric long-term care wards than in general psychiatric wards by the type of ward (OR: 3.0), and in private hospitals than in public/university hospitals by hospital founder (OR: 3.0). Additionally, the higher risk was associated with higher symptom severity assessed using a 6-point scale (OR: 1.3 per point). In dementia, the risk was higher in senile dementia wards than in general psychiatric wards by the type of ward (OR: 2.9), and in private hospitals than in public/university hospitals by hospital founder (OR: 6.8). The most frequently reported direct causes of a long stay were problems regarding a family's acceptance (51.5%), poor improvement of symptoms (48.8%), and poor recovery of daily living abilities (44.0%). In dementia, physical diseases (20.8%) and undecidedness of residence after discharge (29.2%) were also frequent. Considering the elapsed time after survey, the low response rate, and the data analyses with sampling bias adjustment, the results should be interpreted carefully. Nevertheless, the discharge dynamics and related factors in newly-admitted patients varied with the diagnosis and type of hospitalization. Particularly, schizophrenia and dementia, as well as IHOPG and HMCP, showed high MRRs and frequent

  5. Psychiatric Symptoms, Parental Attachment, and Reasons for Use as Correlates of Heavy Substance Use Among Treatment-Seeking Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattamorta, Karina A; Varela, Alberto; McCabe, Brian E; Mena, Maite P; Santisteban, Daniel A

    2017-02-23

    In early adolescence, Hispanics self-report higher drug use rates compared to White and African American peers. Among adolescent users, heavy users have more negative behavioral and health consequences. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine whether psychiatric symptoms, parental attachment, and reasons for use predict heavy alcohol and illicit drug use (more than 10 times in the past three months) among Hispanic adolescents. This study examines baseline data from a study evaluating a family based substance abuse treatment program for Hispanic adolescents. Participants were 14-17 years old (N = 156, 44% female). Adolescent reports on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scales measured psychiatric symptoms of major depressive disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and anxiety. The Personal Experiences Inventory measured type and amount of drug use, as well as perceived social and psychological benefits of drug use. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment measured trust, communication, and alienation between adolescents and their mothers. Logistic regression identified correlates of heavy alcohol use and heavy illicit drug use among Hispanic adolescents. Higher social benefits were associated with increased likelihood of heavy alcohol use. Conduct disorder, higher levels of maternal attachment, lower levels of acculturation, and higher levels of psychological benefits of use were associated with an increased likelihood of heavy illicit drug use. These findings support the assumption that substance use treatment among Hispanic adolescents must be capable of addressing co-occurring psychiatric disorders, familial relationships, and the individual reasons/motivators to use.

  6. Common psychiatric symptoms among public school teachers in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. An observational cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Baldaçara

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Teachers are at great risk of physical and mental stress due to material or psychological difficulties associated with their work. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of common psychiatric symptoms measured on the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 scale that would suggest a diagnosis of psychiatric disorders among public school teachers in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil, in 2012. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. METHOD: We assessed 110 municipal teachers in the city of Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. They were selected randomly from a list of employees of the Municipal Education Department of Palmas. All of them answered the SRQ-20 questionnaire after giving their consent. RESULTS: Between the years 2008 and 2011, 24 cases of absence from work due to mental disorders were found. We excluded one case and 109 teachers answered the SRQ-20questionnaire. Out of the 109 teachers assessed, 54 had ≥ 7 points on the SRQ-20 scale. This finding suggests that 49.5% of the teachers had symptoms that were sufficient to consider a diagnosis of mental disorder, with the need for treatment. CONCLUSION: Our study found that the prevalence of mental disorders among teachers is as high as seen in the literature. Our results suggest that recognition of mental disorders is low and that the current statistics fail to reach the occupational health sector.

  7. Characteristics and Psychiatric Symptoms of Internet Gaming Disorder among Adults Using Self-Reported DSM-5 Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Ri; Hwang, Samuel Suk-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kim, Dai-Jin; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Griffiths, Mark D; Hyun, So Yeon; Youn, Hyun Chul; Choi, Sam-Wook

    2016-01-01

    The Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) proposed nine diagnostic criteria and five cut-point criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). We aimed to examine the efficacy of such criteria. Adults (n=3041, men: 1824, women: 1217) who engaged in internet gaming within last 6 months completed a self-report online survey using the suggested wordings of the criteria in DSM-5. Major characteristics, gaming behavior, and psychiatric symptoms of IGD were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, and correlation analyses. The sociodemographic variables were not statistically significant between the healthy controls and the risk group. Among the participants, 419 (13.8%) were identified and labeled as the IGD risk group. The IGD risk group scored significantly higher on all motivation subscales (p<0.001). The IGD risk group showed significantly higher scores than healthy controls in all nine psychiatric symptom dimensions, i.e., somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism (p<0.001). The IGD risk group showed differential psychopathological manifestations according to DSM-5 IGD diagnostic criteria. Further studies are needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the specific criteria, especially for developing screening instruments.

  8. New possibility of traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as treatment for behavioral and psychiatric symptoms in dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung FC

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fan-Chin Kung,1 Ryouhei Ishii,2 Hsing-Cheng Liu,3 Masatoshi Takeda21Yuli Hospital, DOH, Hualien, Taiwan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan; 3Department of General Psychiatry, Taipei City Psychiatric Center, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: Yokukansan, one of the Kampo prescriptions, is composed of seven herbaceous plants and was developed in China in the 16th century as a cure for restlessness and agitation in children. Yokukansan has also become a popular drug combination in Japan, especially for the behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of dementia (BPSD. Recent studies have shown that yokukansan might also be quite effective against BPSD occurring in association with other types of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease, Lewy body disease, Parkinson's disease with dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and vascular dementia. Researchers have intensively investigated yokukansan, focusing on the pharmacological mechanisms against glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. This traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine holds potential promise for improving BPSD in elderly patients suffering from dementia.Keywords: yokukansan, dementia, Alzheimer's disease, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, Kampo, glutamate

  9. Do gaming motives mediate between psychiatric symptoms and problematic gaming? An empirical survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Ballabio, M.; Griffiths, MD; Urbán, R; Quartiroli, A; Demetrovics, Z; Király, O

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that motives play an important role in several potentially addictive activities including online gaming. The aims of the present study were to (i) examine the mediation effect of different online gaming motives between psychiatric distress and problematic online gaming, and (ii) validate Italian versions of the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire, and the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire. Data collection took place online and targeted Italian-speakin...

  10. Estrogen therapy and noncognitive psychiatric signs and symptoms in elderly patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyomen, Helen H; Hennen, John; Gottlieb, Gary L; Wei, Jeanne Y

    2002-07-01

    This study investigated the efficacy and safety of short-term estrogen therapy in decreasing noncognitive signs and symptoms of dementia in demented elderly patients. Sixteen moderately to severely demented elderly patients with aggressive behavioral disturbances were randomly assigned to receive conjugated equine estrogens or placebo in a 4-week clinical trial. Frequency and severity of noncognitive signs and symptoms of dementia, as assessed with the Dementia Signs and Symptoms Scale, were compared between estrogen and placebo groups. Data were analyzed with intent-to-treat and regression modeling methods. Estrogen therapy was associated with a significantly greater improvement on the Dementia Signs and Symptoms Scale total score than placebo. All five Dementia Signs and Symptoms Scale subscale comparisons favored estrogen therapy. No adverse effects were observed. These preliminary data suggest that short-term estrogen therapy may safely decrease the frequency and severity of noncognitive signs and symptoms of dementia in elderly patients.

  11. Dopaminergic dysfunction and psychiatric symptoms in movement disorders: a {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giuda, Daniela; Cocciolillo, Fabrizio; Bruno, Isabella; Giordano, Alessandro [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Medicina Nucleare, Rome (Italy); Camardese, Giovanni; Pucci, Lorella; Janiri, Luigi [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Psichiatria e Psicologia, Rome (Italy); Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Guidubaldi, Arianna [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Neurologia, Rome (Italy); Fasano, Alfonso [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Istituto di Neurologia, Rome (Italy); AFaR-Associazione Fatebenefratelli per la Ricerca, Rome (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Psychiatric symptoms frequently occur in patients with movement disorders. They are not a mere reaction to chronic disability, but most likely due to a combination of psychosocial factors and biochemical dysfunction underlying the movement disorder. We assessed dopamine transporter (DAT) availability by means of {sup 123}I-FP-CIT SPECT, and motor and psychiatric features in patients with Parkinson's disease, primary dystonia and essential tremor, exploring the association between SPECT findings and symptom severity. Enrolled in the study were 21 patients with Parkinson's disease, 14 patients with primary dystonia and 15 patients with essential tremor. The severity of depression symptoms was assessed using the Hamilton depression rating scale, anxiety levels using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale and hedonic tone impairment using the Snaith-Hamilton pleasure scale. Specific {sup 123}I-FP-CIT binding in the caudate and putamen was calculated based on ROI analysis. The control group included 17 healthy subjects. As expected, DAT availability was significantly decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease, whereas in essential tremor and dystonia patients it did not differ from that observed in the control group. In Parkinson's disease patients, an inverse correlation between severity of depression symptoms and DAT availability in the left caudate was found (r = -0.63, p = 0.002). In essential tremor patients, levels of anxiety symptoms were inversely correlated with DAT availability in the left caudate (r = -0.69, p = 0.004). In dystonia patients, the severities of both anxiety and depression symptoms were inversely associated with DAT availability in the left putamen (r = -0.71, p = 0.004, and r = -0.75, p = 0.002, respectively). There were no correlations between psychometric scores and {sup 123}I-FP-CIT uptake ratios in healthy subjects. We found association between presynaptic dopaminergic function and affective symptoms in different movement

  12. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment...

  13. Likelihood of obtaining Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) and SIRS-2 elevations among forensic psychiatric inpatients with screening elevations on the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmire, David M; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Gottfried, Emily D

    2016-12-01

    The Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) was designed as a screening measure for feigned psychiatric symptoms. When M-FAST Total Scores are elevated (raw score ≥6), the test manual recommends follow-up with a more comprehensive measure of feigning, such as the widely used and researched Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) or the revised version of the test (SIRS-2). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate how often M-FAST screening elevations are associated with subsequent elevations on the SIRS or SIRS-2. The sample included archival data from 100 forensic psychiatric inpatients who obtained M-FAST Total Score elevations ≥6 during screening and were subsequently administered the SIRS (that was also rescored using SIRS-2 criteria). Among examinees who elevated the M-FAST over the recommended cutoff, 66.0% met standard SIRS feigning criteria, 42% met SIRS-2 criteria for feigning, and 81.0% obtained at least 1 SIRS/SIRS-2 elevation in the Probable Feigning range or higher. These results are consistent with the M-FAST manual guidelines, which support the use of the ≥6 M-FAST cutoff score to screen for potential feigning (but not as an independent marker of feigning). A higher M-FAST cutoff score of ≥16 was associated with subsequently meeting full SIRS criteria for feigning in 100.0% of protocols. Because the SIRS criteria were designed to have very low false positive rates, these findings indicate that more confident assertions about feigning can be made when elevations reach this level on the MFAST. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the treatment of depression and depressive symptoms in other psychiatric and medical illnesses: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Clayton; Devicari Cheda, Julio Nelson; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Veras, Andre Barciela; Cardoso, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    International interest on the benefits of using the steroid hormone Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on various aspects of human health, including the regulation of mood, is increasing. This study aimed to review the scientific literature on the use of DHEA in the treatment of depression and depressive symptoms in other psychiatric and medical illnesses. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Virtual Health Library (VHL) databases were independently searched by two researchers using the following terms: depression, treatment, DHEA, and mood. Clinical studies were considered eligible when subjects were treated with DHEA and psychological assessments of depression were conducted. No time limits or language for this research were imposed. One 183 references were identified, and 22 references were selected to compose this review. Significant improvements related to the use of DHEA in patients with depression were observed, in addition to improvements in depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, anorexia nervosa, HIV and adrenal insufficiency. No significant improvements were observed regarding depressive symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia; the results observed in patients with autoimmune diseases and healthy individuals remain contradictory. Although the selected studies demonstrated good methodological applications, most studies consisted of small samples, and only 3 studies were conducted in a young population. Therefore, we concluded that the studies published to date indicate promising results regarding the use of DHEA in the treatment of depression and depressive symptoms, especially in depression that is mild or resistant to conventional therapy.

  15. Acceptance and commitment therapy for psychosis and trauma: Improvement in psychiatric symptoms, emotion regulation, and treatment compliance following a brief group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spidel, Alicia; Lecomte, Tania; Kealy, David; Daigneault, Isabelle

    2017-10-04

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has shown effectiveness for individuals with psychosis and individuals with a history of childhood trauma, but has not been investigated with people with psychosis who also have a history of childhood trauma. This study aims at determining the efficacy of a mindfulness-based ACT with this clientele in diminishing psychiatric symptoms, trauma-related symptoms, as well as in improving treatment adherence. Fifty participants meeting our inclusion criteria were recruited and randomized to take part in either 10 sessions of ACT group, or Treatment as Usual (TAU). Using RCT it was found that symptom severity, for both overall symptoms (BPRS) and anxiety (GAD), decreased over the course of the treatment, and participants' ability to regulate their emotional reactions (i.e., accept them) increased. The study also found that treatment engagement increased with regards to help-seeking for those in the ACT group, compared with the TAU controls. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy offered in a group appears a promising treatment for those with psychosis and history of trauma. To understand the benefits of ACT with those who suffer from psychosis and a history of trauma. To further the understanding of the effectiveness of ACT. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Positive and negative subclinical symptoms and MCCB performance in non-psychiatric controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Korponay

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerable data support the phenomenological and temporal continuity between subclinical psychosis and psychotic disorders. In recent years, neurocognitive deficits have increasingly been recognized as a core feature of psychotic illness but there are few data seeking to elucidate the relationship between subclinical psychosis and neurocogntive deficits in non-clinical samples. The goal of the present study was to examine the relationship between subclinical positive and negative symptoms, as measured by the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE and performance on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB in a large (n = 303 and demographically diverse non-clinical sample. We found that compared to participants with low levels of subclinical positive symptoms, participants with high levels of subclinical positive symptoms performed significantly better in the domains of working memory (p < .001, verbal learning (p = .007 and visual learning (p = .014. Although comparison of participants with high and low levels of subclinical negative symptoms revealed no differences in MCCB performance, we found that individuals with high levels of subclinical negative symptoms performed significantly better on a measure of estimated IQ (WRAT-3 Reading subtest; p = .02 than those with low levels of subclinical negative symptoms. These results are at odds with prior reports that have generally shown a negative relationship between neurocognitive functioning and severity of subclinical psychotic symptoms, and suggest some potential discontinuities between clinically significant psychotic symptoms and sub-syndromal manifestations of psychosis.

  17. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders and Related Factors in Male Prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Sepehrmanesh, Zahra; Ahmadvand, Afshin; Akasheh, Goudarz; Saei, Rezvan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prisoners are at risk of mental disorders. Therefore attention to mental health of prisoners is important. Objectives: This study aimed determine to the prevalence of mental disorders among Kashan prisoners. Patients and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in Kashan prison (Iran). 180 Subjects were selected by using stratified random sampling and evaluated with Symptoms Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) questionnaire and clinical interview based on Diagnostic Statis...

  18. Depressive Symptoms and Their Interactions With Emotions and Personality Traits Over Time: Interaction Networks in a Psychiatric Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semino, Laura N; Marksteiner, Josef; Brauchle, Gernot; Danay, Erik

    2017-04-13

    Associations between depression, personality traits, and emotions are complex and reciprocal. The aim of this study is to explore these interactions in dynamical networks and in a linear way over time depending on the severity of depression. Participants included 110 patients with depressive symptoms (DSM-5 criteria) who were recruited between October 2015 and February 2016 during their inpatient stay in a general psychiatric hospital in Hall in Tyrol, Austria. The patients filled out the Beck Depression Inventory-II, a German emotional competence questionnaire (Emotionale Kompetenz Fragebogen), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, and the German versions of the Big Five Inventory-short form and State-Trait-Anxiety-Depression Inventory regarding symptoms, emotions, and personality during their inpatient stay and at a 3-month follow-up by mail. Network and regression analyses were performed to explore interactions both in a linear and a dynamical way at baseline and 3 months later. Regression analyses showed that emotions and personality traits gain importance for the prediction of depressive symptoms with decreasing symptomatology at follow-up (personality: baseline, adjusted R2 = 0.24, P emotions, and personality traits is significantly denser and more interconnected (network comparison test: P = .03) at follow-up than at baseline, meaning that with decreased symptoms interconnections get stronger. During depression, personality traits and emotions are walled off and not strongly interconnected with depressive symptoms in networks. With decreasing depressive symptomatology, interfusing of these areas begins and interconnections become stronger. This finding has practical implications for interventions in an acute depressive state and with decreased symptoms. The network approach offers a new perspective on interactions and is a way to make the complexity of these interactions more tangible.

  19. Psychiatric Symptoms and Alcohol Use in Community Violence by Persons With a Psychotic Disorder or Depression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Suzanne; Mulvey, Edward P; Loughran, Thomas A; Hanusa, Barbara H

    2012-01-01

    .... This study used data from the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study to examine the relationship of symptom levels and alcohol use to violence in repeated observations within two diagnostic groups...

  20. Transactional Relations Between Marital Functioning and Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated dynamic, longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and marital processes. Two hundred ninety-six couples reported on marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and depressive symptoms yearly for three years. Observational measures of marital conflict were also collected. Results suggested that different domains of marital functioning related to husbands’ versus wives’ symptoms. For husbands, transactional relations between marital satisfaction and depre...

  1. Plasma profile of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in cocaine users under outpatient treatment: influence of cocaine symptom severity and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araos, Pedro; Pedraz, María; Serrano, Antonia; Lucena, Miguel; Barrios, Vicente; García-Marchena, Nuria; Campos-Cloute, Rafael; Ruiz, Juan J; Romero, Pablo; Suárez, Juan; Baixeras, Elena; de la Torre, Rafael; Montesinos, Jorge; Guerri, Consuelo; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Martínez-Riera, Roser; Torrens, Marta; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Mason, Barbara J; Pavón, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    The treatment for cocaine use constitutes a clinical challenge because of the lack of appropriate therapies and the high rate of relapse. Recent evidence indicates that the immune system might be involved in the pathogenesis of cocaine addiction and its co-morbid psychiatric disorders. This work examined the plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profile in abstinent cocaine users (n = 82) who sought outpatient cocaine treatment and age/sex/body mass-matched controls (n = 65). Participants were assessed with the diagnostic interview Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Diseases according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12)/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) were decreased in cocaine users, although all cytokines were identified as predictors of a lifetime pathological use of cocaine. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1)/fractalkine and CXCL12/SDF-1 positively correlated with the cocaine symptom severity when using the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine abuse/dependence. These cytokines allowed the categorization of the outpatients into subgroups according to severity, identifying a subgroup of severe cocaine users (9-11 criteria) with increased prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders [mood (54%), anxiety (32%), psychotic (30%) and personality (60%) disorders]. IL-1β was observed to be increased in users with such psychiatric disorders relative to those users with no diagnosis. In addition to these clinical data, studies in mice demonstrated that plasma IL-1β, CX3CL1 and CXCL12 were also affected after acute and chronic cocaine administration, providing a preclinical model for further research. In conclusion, cocaine exposure modifies the circulating levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Plasma

  2. [Effects of listening to music on auditory hallucination and psychiatric symptoms in people with schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyun-Joo; Yang, Soo

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of listening to music in inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia, on their auditory hallucinations, and positive and negative symptoms. A quasi-experimental research design with 2x2 cross-over trial and convenience sample was used. Eleven patients (Group AB) listened to music followed by a wash out period and then a usual care period, and 12 patients (Group BA) had a usual care period followed by a wash out period and then listened to music. For one week those who were in the experimental period listened to individualized music using an MP3 player whenever they heard hallucinations. There was a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of auditory hallucinations after listening to the music. There was a decrease in the mean scores for positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and general psychopathology after listening to music, but only negative symptoms showed a statistically significant decrease. The treatment effects on scores for positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and general psychopathology were greater in Group BA than Group AB. These findings suggest that listening to music may be useful for managing auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia inpatients.

  3. Gastrointestinal symptoms related to the irritable bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinsvig Poulsen, Chalotte; Falgaard Eplov, Lene; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Objective Functional gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms can develop into persistent states often categorised as the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). In the severe end of the GI symptom continuum, other coexisting symptoms are common. We aimed to investigate the GI symptom continuum in relation...... symptom groups and mortality (p = 0.47). IBS and GI symptoms with abdominal pain were significantly associated with development of GI diseases. Only GI symptoms with abdominal pain were associated with development of severe GI diseases (HR: 1.38; 95% CI: [1.06–1.79]). There were no statistically...... significant interactions between symptom groups and coexisting symptoms in relation to the two outcomes. Conclusions GI diseases were seen more frequently, but IBS was not associated with severe GI diseases or increased mortality. Clinicians should be more aware when patients do not fulfil the IBS definition...

  4. The relative importance of child, family, school and neighbourhood correlates of childhood psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Tamsin; Goodman, Robert; Meltzer, Howard

    2004-06-01

    Many studies have described associations between childhood psychiatric disorder and characteristics of the child, and their family, school and neighbourhood, but few studies have studied them simultaneously. Also, most investigators have failed to allow for the extent to which different exposures are correlated, or for clustering at different levels of observation. Our objective was to establish which correlates were independently associated with psychiatric disorder. Data on DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses, as well as child and family characteristics, were obtained on 8772 English 5- to 15-year-olds included in a large British prevalence survey of mental health. These data were supplemented by independent measures of school and neighbourhood disadvantage. We entered child and family variables with the measures of school and neighbourhood disadvantage into a logistic regression analysis to establish which variables were independently associated with child psychiatric disorder. No variables were associated with all types of disorder. Poor general health and life events were related to emotional disorders, while conduct disorders were most closely associated with family variables, and ADHD was only related to child characteristics. Disadvantaged schools, deprived neighbourhoods, low socioeconomic status, parental unemployment, cohabiting, large family size, and poverty were not independently associated with disorder. Individually assessed child and family factors may be more influential than aggregate measures of school and neighbourhood factors. Different disorders have distinctive correlates. Many of the best known "risk factors" are not independently related to childhood psychiatric disorder, and are, therefore, acting distally in the causal pathway or irrelevant.

  5. Effects of extended cannabis abstinence on clinical symptoms in cannabis dependent schizophrenia patients versus non-psychiatric controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Rachel A; Kozak, Karolina; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Remington, Gary; George, Tony P

    2017-03-08

    Rates of cannabis use among patients with schizophrenia are high, however little is understood about clinical effects of continued cannabis use and cessation after illness onset. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 28-days of cannabis abstinence on psychotic and depressive symptomatology in cannabis dependent patients with schizophrenia. Males with cannabis dependence and co-morbid schizophrenia (n=19) and non-psychiatric controls (n=20) underwent 28-days of monitored cannabis abstinence. Clinical symptoms were assessed at baseline and then weekly. Abstinence was encouraged using weekly therapy sessions and contingency reinforcement, confirmed by twice-weekly urine assays. Forty-two percent (8/19) of patients and 55% (11/20) of controls achieved 28-days of sustained cannabis abstinence. In patients, PANSS subscores did not change over time irrespective of abstinence status. In contrast, patient abstainers demonstrated a more pronounced reduction in depression scores compared to non-abstainers, however, the Abstinence Status x Time interaction was non-significant. Short-term (28-days) cannabis abstinence is not associated with improvement in psychotic symptoms, but may be associated with improvement in depressive symptomatology in patients with schizophrenia. Future studies employing larger samples as well as a continuous cannabis-using group may help to better characterize the causal effects of cannabis on symptom outcomes in this disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence rates of borderline symptoms reported by adolescent inpatients with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents and adult inpatients with BPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    The validity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in children and adolescents has not been studied in a rigorous manner reflecting the criteria of Robins and Guze first detailed in 1970. This paper and the others in this series address some aspects of this multifaceted validation paradigm, which requires that a disorder has a known clinical presentation, can be delimited from other disorders, 'runs' in families, and something of its aetiology, treatment response and course is known. Three groups of subjects were studied: 104 adolescent inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV criteria for BPD, 60 psychiatrically healthy adolescents and 290 adult inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD. Adolescents with BPD had significantly higher prevalence rates of 22 of the 24 symptoms studied than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Only rates of serious treatment regressions and countertransference problems failed to reach the Bonferroni-corrected level of 0.002. Adolescents and adults with BPD had only four symptomatic differences that reached this level of significance, with adolescents with BPD reporting significantly lower levels of quasi-psychotic thought, dependency/masochism, devaluation/manipulation/sadism and countertransference problems than adults with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents report BPD as severe as that reported by adults. They also suggest that BPD in adolescents is not a tumultuous phase of normal adolescence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  8. Sex differences in neural responses to disgusting visual stimuli: implications for disgust-related psychiatric disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caseras, X.; Mataix-Cols, D.; An, S.K.; Lawrence, N.S.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Giampietro, V.; Brammer, M.J.; Phillips, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A majority of patients with disgust-related psychiatric disorders such as animal phobias and contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder are women. The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to examine possible sex differences in neural responses to

  9. Symptoms, Quality of Life and level of functioning of traumatized refugees at Psychiatric Trauma Clinic in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Christine Cæcilie Böck; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lundstrøm, Stine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To characterize physical and mental health in trauma exposed refugees by describing a population of patients with regard to background,  mental health history and current health problems; and to identify pre- and post-migratory predictors of mental health. Method: All patients receiving...... treatment at the Psychiatric Trauma Clinic for Refugees in Copenhagen from April 2008 to February 2010 completed self-rating inventories on symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety as well as level of functioning and quality of life before treatment. Then, associations of pre and post-migratory factors...... of treatment effect should clarify all co-morbidities so that comparable populations can be included in treatment evaluation studies....

  10. Mindfulness, spirituality, and health-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, James; Reed, George; Kristeller, Jean; Merriam, Phillip

    2008-04-01

    Although the relationship between religious practice and health is well established, the relationship between spirituality and health is not as well studied. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether participation in the mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program was associated with increases in mindfulness and spirituality, and to examine the associations between mindfulness, spirituality, and medical and psychological symptoms. Forty-four participants in the University of Massachusetts Medical School's MBSR program were assessed preprogram and postprogram on trait (Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale) and state (Toronto Mindfulness Scale) mindfulness, spirituality (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy--Spiritual Well-Being Scale), psychological distress, and reported medical symptoms. Participants also kept a log of daily home mindfulness practice. Mean changes in scores were computed, and relationships between changes in variables were examined using mixed-model linear regression. There were significant improvements in spirituality, state and trait mindfulness, psychological distress, and reported medical symptoms. Increases in both state and trait mindfulness were associated with increases in spirituality. Increases in trait mindfulness and spirituality were associated with decreases in psychological distress and reported medical symptoms. Changes in both trait and state mindfulness were independently associated with changes in spirituality, but only changes in trait mindfulness and spirituality were associated with reductions in psychological distress and reported medical symptoms. No association was found between outcomes and home mindfulness practice. Participation in the MBSR program appears to be associated with improvements in trait and state mindfulness, psychological distress, and medical symptoms. Improvements in trait mindfulness and spirituality appear, in turn, to be associated with improvements in psychological and

  11. Amelioration of psychiatric symptoms through exposure to music individually adapted to brain rhythm disorders - a randomised clinical trial on the basis of fundamental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wolf; Haffelder, Günter; Schlotmann, Angelika; Schaefers, Andrea T U; Teuchert-Noodt, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study examined, whether long-term exposure of psychiatric patients to music that was individually adapted to brain rhythm disorders associated with psychoticism could act to ameliorate psychiatric symptoms. A total of 50 patients with various psychiatric diagnoses were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to listen to CDs containing either music adapted to brain rhythm anomalies associated with psychoticism - measured via a specific spectral analysis - or standard classical music. Participants were instructed to listen to the CDs over the next 18 months. Psychiatric symptoms in both groups were assessed at baseline and at 4, 8 and 18 months, using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). At 18 months, patients in the experimental group showed significantly decreased BSI scores compared to control patients. Intriguingly, this effect was not only seen for symptoms of psychoticism and paranoia but also for anxiety, phobic anxiety and somatisation. Exposure to the adapted music was effective in ameliorating psychotic, anxiety and phobic anxiety symptoms. Based on the theories of neuroplasticity and brain rhythms, it can be hypothesised that this intervention may be enhancing brain-rhythm synchronisation and plasticity in prefrontal-hippocampal circuits that are implicated in both psychosis/paranoia and anxiety/phobic anxiety.

  12. Hospital Related Stress Among Patients Admitted to a Psychiatric In-patient Unit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha KS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychiatric patient’s attitudes towards hospitalization have found an association between patient perceptions of the ward atmosphere and dissatisfaction. The aim of the study was to determine the aspects of stress related to hospitalization in inpatients admitted to a psychiatric facility. Fifty in-patients of both sexes admitted consecutively to a psychiatric unit in a General Hospital were asked to rate the importance of, and their satisfaction with, 38 different aspects of in-patient care and treatment. Results showed that the major sources of stress were related to having a violent patient near to his/her bed; being away from family; having to stay in closed wards; having to eat cold and tasteless food; losing income or job due to illness, being hospitalized away from home; not able to understand the jargons used by the clinical staff and not getting medication for sleep. A well-differentiated assessment of stress and satisfaction has implications for the evaluation of the quality of psychiatric care and for the improvement of in-patient psychiatric care.

  13. Disability, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in infertile women: a cross-sectional study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Hacer; Hocaoglu, Cicek; Guvendag-Guven, Emine Seda

    2016-04-25

    Infertility is a major life crisis which can lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms and negative effects on the quality of life of affected couples, but the magnitude of the effects may vary depending on cultural expectations. We compare the level of psychiatric symptoms, disability, and quality of life in fertile and infertile women in urban Turkey. This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 married women being treated for infertility at the outpatient department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Rize Education and Research Hospital and a control group of 100 fertile married women. All study participants were evaluated with a socio-demographic data screening form, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The mean anxiety subscale score and depression subscale score of HADS were slightly higher in the infertile group than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The proportion of subjects with clinically significant anxiety (i.e., anxiety subscale score of HADS ≥11) was significantly higher in infertile women than in fertile women (31% v. 17%, χ (2)=5.37, p=0.020), but the proportion with clinically significant depressive symptoms (i.e., depression subscale score of HADS >8) was not significantly different (43% v. 33%, χ (2)=2.12, p=0.145). Self-reported disability over the prior month was significantly worse in the infertile group than in the controls, and 4 of the 8 subscales of the SF-36 - general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health - were significantly worse in the infertile group. Compared to infertile women who were currently working, infertile women who were not currently working reported less severe depression and anxiety and better general health, vitality, and mental health. Married women from urban Turkey seeking treatment for infertility do not have significantly more severe depressive

  14. Prevalence of attenuated psychotic symptoms and their relationship with DSM-IV diagnoses in a general psychiatric outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Brandon A; Zimmerman, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS) is being proposed for inclusion in Section III of DSM-5 for those impaired by subthreshold psychotic symptoms that are not better accounted for by another diagnosis and not meeting criteria for a psychotic disorder. The rationale is to identify patients who are at high risk for transition to a psychotic disorder in the near future. However, the potential impact of using this new diagnosis in routine clinical practice settings has not been carefully examined. As part of the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project, a treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatient sample (n = 1,257) recruited from June 1997 to June 2002 completed a self-report measure of psychiatric symptoms and afterward were administered structured clinical interviews. For the current post hoc study, we investigated the prevalence rate of endorsing attenuated psychotic experiences to identify patients who could potentially meet criteria for APS. After the exclusion of those with lifetime DSM-IV psychotic disorders, psychotic experiences remained highly prevalent in the sample (28% reported at least 1 psychotic experience during the past 2 weeks), and rates were similar across all major DSM-IV diagnostic categories. Only 1 patient (0.08%) reported psychotic experiences but did not meet criteria for another current DSM disorder; however, this individual endorsed other nonpsychotic symptoms of greater severity. Psychotic experience endorsement was positively correlated with nearly all other nonpsychotic symptom domains, and multivariate analysis showed that general clinical severity predicted endorsement of psychotic experiences (P values < .001). We could not identify any patients who clearly met criteria for APS alone in our sample. Psychotic experiences appear to be common in outpatients and represent nonspecific indicators of psychopathology. Diagnosing APS in the community could result in high rates of false-positives or high

  15. Logic structure of clinical judgment and its relation to medical and psychiatric semiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejón Altable, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The logical nature of clinical judgment has been conceptualized in different ways, but a clear connection between the features of clinical judgment and those of semiology is still lacking. The characteristics of clinical judgment, medical semiology, and psychiatric semiology are described. Connections between them are drawn. Clinical judgment is described as an abductive inference. Abductive inferences are especially useful to balance universal and singular information. In psychiatric semiology, due to some specific features, a careful balance between the information present in descriptive definitions and the information absent from the definition but present in singular symptoms is needed. The main types of out-of-definition information are reviewed. The implications of the results for diagnosis and research are drawn. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Correlates of pain symptoms among Iraq and Afghanistan military personnel following combat-related blast exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Kelcey J; Hawn, Sage E; Amstadter, Ananda B; Cifu, David X; Walker, William C

    2014-01-01

    Pain complaints are highly prevalent among military servicemembers and Veterans of the recent combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The high comorbidity of pain with conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) underscores the importance of a greater understanding of factors associated with complex polytraumatic injuries among military personnel. The present study aimed to identify correlates of current pain among 201 U.S. military personnel who reported at least one blast experience during combat deployment (age [mean +/– standard deviation]: 27.20 +/– 7.58 yr). Theoretically derived subsets of variables were analyzed in successive hierarchical regression models to determine correlates of self-reported pain symptoms. Preliminary models evaluated demographic features, medical and injury characteristics (e.g., TBI classification), psychosocial history (e.g., trauma exposure), and psychiatric variables. A final model was then derived, in which older age, possible or probable mild TBI, depression symptoms, and PTSD re-experiencing symptoms emerged as significant correlates of pain. The findings further the understanding of polytrauma symptoms among military personnel by identifying specific patient characteristics and comorbidity patterns related to pain complaints. Increased awareness of demographic, psychiatric, or medical factors implicated in pain will enhance comprehensive clinical assessment and intervention efforts.

  17. Association between pretransplant psychological assessments and posttransplant psychiatric disorders in living-related transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunishi, Isao; Sugawara, Yasutoshi; Takayama, Tadatoshi; Makuuchi, Masatoshi; Kawarasaki, Hideo; Surman, Owen S

    2002-01-01

    The authors examined pretransplant assessment in order to predict posttransplant occurrence of psychiatric disorders in living-related transplantation (LRT). Before LRT, the authors administered the Integrated House-Tree-Person Drawing Test (I-HTP) and 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) to 31 donor-recipient pairs undergoing living-related liver transplantation (LRLT) and 65 pairs undergoing living-related kidney transplantation (LRKT). After LRT, the authors examined the occurrence of psychiatric disorders for the recipients and donors. Pretransplant, two psychological indicators,-alexithymia, a lack of verbalized emotion and abnormal projective drawings such as truncated tree representation-were significantly related to the manifestation of paradoxical psychiatric syndrome (PPS) in LRLT and LRKT. The occurrence of PPS was significantly related to recipients' guilt feelings toward living donors, but these were strongly superseded by recipients' desires to escape from approaching death just before LRT. These results suggest that pretransplant psychological assessment is useful for predicting posttransplant occurrence of psychiatric disorders.

  18. Identifying Specific Clinical Symptoms of Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia Versus Differential Psychiatric Disorders in Patients Presenting With a Late-Onset Frontal Lobe Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, Annemiek; van Liempt, Saskia; Gossink, Flora; Krudop, Welmoed A; Sikkes, Sietske; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Stek, Max L

    2016-10-01

    Early differentiation between psychiatric disorders and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is of paramount importance in patients with the late-onset frontal lobe syndrome. As bvFTD in patients will deteriorate, psychiatric disorders are treatable. To date, misdiagnosis often occurs due to an overlap of symptoms and lack of specific biomarkers. The aim of our study was to investigate whether specific symptoms could separate bvFTD from psychiatric disorders. In a naturalistic, prospective, multicenter study, 137 patients (aged 45-75 years, 72% male) with a late-onset frontal lobe syndrome were included based on their scores on the Frontal Behavioral Inventory (FBI) and the Stereotypy Rating Inventory (SRI) from April 2011 to June 2013. In a multidisciplinary consensus meeting, diagnoses were established based on elaborate neuropsychological testing, magnetic resonance imaging, fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers, and clinical examination by a neurologist and a psychiatrist based on the International bvFTD Criteria Consortium for bvFTD and DSM-IV-TR criteria for psychiatric disorders. Forty-four subjects (32.8%) were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder, 10 (7.3%) with possible bvFTD, and 45 (32.8%) with probable bvFTD. A logistic regression analysis was performed with "psychiatry or bvFTD" as dependent variable and clinical variables (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS], SRI, FBI) and demographics as independent variables. A positive history of psychiatric illness, male gender, lower SRI scores and higher MADRS scores were predictive of psychiatric disorders, explaining 65.2% of the variance in diagnosis of psychiatry versus bvFTD (χ²₅ = 60.04, P onset frontal lobe syndrome may aid in differentiating bvFTD patients from psychiatric patients and may provide guidance in patient management.

  19. From peculiar psychiatric disorders through culture-bound syndromes to culture-related specific syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wen-Shing

    2006-12-01

    This article reviews the historical evolution and progress of nosological concepts from exotic psychiatric disorders and culture-bound syndromes to culture-related specific syndromes. Approaches to classification and subgrouping these disorders are disccused and an argument offered for finding a place for culturally unique syndromes in the existing classification system. The characteristics of various syndromes are elaborated and suggestions are made for future research. Finally, emphasis is given to the need to be concerned with the impact of culture on every psychiatric disorder, not only culture-specific syndromes, to promote culturally competent care for every patient.

  20. Psychiatric symptoms in offspring of within vs. across racial/ethnic marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danko, G P; Miyamoto, R H; Foster, J E; Johnson, R C; Andrade, N N; Yates, A; Edman, J L

    1997-01-01

    A large number of adolescents of interracial ancestry (parents comprising various combinations of African-American, American Indian/Alaska Native, European-American, Chinese, Filipino, Hispanic, Japanese, Korean, Puerto Rican, Samoan, and Tongan ancestry) were contrasted with a monoracial European-American sample in the degree to which they reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, conduct disorder/aggression, and substance abuse. The adolescents of interracial ancestry were subdivided into three groups in terms of parental ancestry: both parents of interracial ancestry, one parent of interracial and the other of monoracial ancestry, and both parents of monoracial but different ancestries. The interracial ancestry groups did not differ significantly from one another or from the European American sample in terms of symptom scores.

  1. [Discharge Dynamics and Related Factors of Long-stay Patients in Psychiatric Hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Toshiaki; Shiraishi, Hiromi; Tachimori, Hisateru; Koyama, Asuka; Naganuma, Yoichi; Takeshima, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    significantly correlated with the diagnosis, district, hospital founder, and presence of psychiatric emergency or acute-phase treatment (acute-phase-type) wards in hospitals, but not with the hospitalization type, presence of psychiatric long-term care wards, or presence of senile dementia wards. The probability of discharge (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) regarding the diagnosis was higher in dementia (2.47 [2.23-2.74]), alcoholism (2.09 [1.71-2.55]), depression (2.07 [1.65-2.59]), and bipolar disorder (1.70 [1.35-2.16]) than in schizophrenia (reference). Regarding the district, the probability was higher in Kinki (1.32 [1.12-1.54]) and Kyushu (1.27 [1.14-1.42]) than Kanto (reference). The probability was also lower in private hospitals (0.58 [0.51-0.66]) than in public/university hospitals (reference), and higher in hospitals with acute-phase-type wards (1.24 [1.14-1.35]) than in those without them (reference). The most common residential setting post-discharge for the total sample of weighted Group B patients was temporary hospitalization in another department prearranging psychiatric readmission (THAD, 35.8%), followed by death (18.2%), living with families/relatives (LF/R, 11.3%), a residential care facility for the aged (RCF-A, 9.5%), residential care facility for the disabled (RCF-D, 8.6%), hospitalization in another psychiatric hospital (7.4%), living alone (LA, 4.3%), permanent hospitalization in another department (PHAD, 4.3%), and others (0.7%). In dementia, death was common (31.0%) ; LF/R (1.8%) and LA (0.0%) were rare. As the age increased, the proportions of LF/R, LA, RCF-D, RCF-A, PHAD, and death changed; particularly, LA decreased and death increased markedly with age. Additionally, THAD amounted to approximately 40% in every age class of 40 years or older, contrasting with 11.4% in those under 40 years. The study's limitations include a low response rate, the elapsed time after the survey, and lack of attention paid to symptom severity. Nevertheless, it

  2. The relationship between addictive use of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou Andreassen, Cecilie; Billieux, Joël; Griffiths, Mark D; Kuss, Daria J; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Mazzoni, Elvis; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-03-01

    Over the last decade, research into "addictive technological behaviors" has substantially increased. Research has also demonstrated strong associations between addictive use of technology and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 23,533 adults (mean age 35.8 years, ranging from 16 to 88 years) participated in an online cross-sectional survey examining whether demographic variables, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, and depression could explain variance in addictive use (i.e., compulsive and excessive use associated with negative outcomes) of two types of modern online technologies: social media and video games. Correlations between symptoms of addictive technology use and mental disorder symptoms were all positive and significant, including the weak interrelationship between the two addictive technological behaviors. Age appeared to be inversely related to the addictive use of these technologies. Being male was significantly associated with addictive use of video games, whereas being female was significantly associated with addictive use of social media. Being single was positively related to both addictive social networking and video gaming. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that demographic factors explained between 11 and 12% of the variance in addictive technology use. The mental health variables explained between 7 and 15% of the variance. The study significantly adds to our understanding of mental health symptoms and their role in addictive use of modern technology, and suggests that the concept of Internet use disorder (i.e., "Internet addiction") as a unified construct is not warranted. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Psychiatric symptoms and leptin in obese patients who were bariatric surgery candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchien TC

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Te-Chang Changchien,1 Chi-Ming Tai,2 Chih-Kun Huang,3 Chia-Chang Chien,1 Yung-Chieh Yen1,4 1Department of Psychiatry, E-Da Hospital, 2Department of Internal Medicine, E-Da Hospital, 3Bariatric and Metabolic International Surgery Center, E-Da Hospital, 4School of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Objective: There is a significant relationship between obesity and common mental symptoms (depression and anxiety symptoms. But the association between depression (or anxiety symptoms and serum leptin is still unclear and controversial, despite the growing body of evidence supporting the existence of “leptin resistance” in obese persons. So we investigated whether common mental symptoms, obesity, and the interactive effect of these two factors have a relationship with leptin in obese patients who were candidates for bariatric surgery.Methods: In all, 139 participants (mean age: 31.4 years, standard deviation: 9.3 years, 73.4% female were enrolled at an obesity treatment center in southern Taiwan. Serum leptin levels and body mass index (BMI were measured. The Chinese Health Questionnaire and Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire were administered. Results: The mean BMI of our participants was 39.4 kg/m2 (±6.8, and the mean leptin level was 24.5 ng/mL (±9.4. In the multivariate regression models, Chinese Health Questionnaire-by-BMI and Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire-by-BMI interaction terms remained significant predictors of leptin level (β=0.16, P<0.0001; β=0.04, P<0.0001, respectively, after adjustment for age, sex, and history of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia, despite the inverse correlation between Chinese Health Questionnaire (or Taiwanese Depression Questionnaire and leptin. In addition, female patients had significantly higher leptin levels than male patients.Conclusion: The present findings confirmed that the relationship between common mental symptoms and leptin is modulated by obesity in severely obese

  4. Programming for Stimulation-Induced Transient Nonmotor Psychiatric Symptoms after Bilateral Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi; Qiu, Yiqing; Simfukwe, Keith; Wang, Jiali; Chen, Jianchun

    2017-01-01

    Background Stimulation-induced transient nonmotor psychiatric symptoms (STPSs) are side effects following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We designed algorithms which (1) determine the electrode contacts that induce STPSs and (2) provide a programming protocol to eliminate STPS and maintain the optimal motor functions. Our objective is to test the effectiveness of these algorithms. Materials and Methods 454 PD patients who underwent programming sessions after STN-DBS implantations were retrospectively analyzed. Only STPS patients were enrolled. In these patients, the contacts inducing STPS were found and the programming protocol algorithms used. Results Eleven patients were diagnosed with STPS. Of these patients, two had four episodes of crying, and two had four episodes of mirthful laughter. In one patient, two episodes of abnormal sense of spatial orientation were observed. Hallucination episodes were observed twice in one patient, while five patients recorded eight episodes of hypomania. There were no statistical differences between the UPDRS-III under the final stimulation parameter (without STPS) and previous optimum UPDRS-III under the STPSs (p = 1.000). Conclusion The flow diagram used for determining electrode contacts that induce STPS and the programming protocol employed in the treatment of these symptoms are effective. PMID:28894620

  5. Are there any differences in psychiatric symptoms and eating attitudes between pregnant women with hyperemesis gravidarum and healthy pregnant women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annagür, Bilge Burçak; Kerimoğlu, Özlem Seçilmiş; Gündüz, Şule; Tazegül, Aybike

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to determine the relationship between eating attitudes and psychiatric symptoms in women with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to compare these women with healthy control subjects. The study sample included 48 women with HG, and the control group had 44 pregnant women. The patients were selected from women with HG hospitalized in the obstetric inpatient clinic. All of the participants were in the first trimester of pregnancy. The participants' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were recorded in the obstetric clinic. All of the participants completed a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and Body Image Scale (BIS). Women with HG were more likely to have had a history of HG during their previous pregnancy (Ppregnancy nausea, food craving and the initial BMI (P>0.05). Depression and anxiety scores were significantly higher in women with HG (P0.05). We suggest that HG appears to be associated with depression and anxiety symptoms rather than deterioration of eating attitudes and body image. However, these results should be confirmed by prospective and clinical studies. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Coexisting Psychiatric Problems and Stressful Life Events in Adults with Symptoms of ADHD--A Large Swedish Population-Based Study of Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Bettina; Igl, Wilmar; Larsson, Henrik; Larsson, Jan-Olov

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the associations of subtypes of adult ADHD with other psychiatric problems, stressful life events, and sex differences. Method: Odds ratios were calculated using information from 17,899 participants from a population-based survey of adult twins born in Sweden between 1959 and 1985. Results: Symptoms of attention deficit…

  7. Self-reported symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: rate of endorsement and association with neuropsychological performance in an adult psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Brooke C; Thoering, Teresa; Cludius, Barbara; Moritz, Steffen

    2015-05-01

    The lack of specificity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms represents a diagnostic challenge, especially when assessing psychiatric patients reporting a wide range of complaints. Rate of endorsement of ADHD symptoms, and their association with neuropsychological performance, was examined in a psychiatric sample of 71 adults, who had been referred for a neuropsychological evaluation. Patients completed two self-report measures of ADHD symptoms, the ADHD Self-Report Scale (ADHD-SR) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale-Short Form, as well as measures of attention, executive functioning, visuoconstructional ability, and verbal learning and memory. On the ADHD-SR, 74.6% of the sample met the cutoff for inattention or hyperactivity, while 81.7% met the cutoff for impulsivity. Neuropsychological performance was weakly associated with self-reported symptoms. Our results suggest that psychiatric patients commonly report symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Assessment utilizing multiple sources is necessary to confirm whether self-reported symptoms are indicative of ADHD or reflect other causes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Primary progressive multiple sclerosis presenting with severe predominant cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms: A challenging case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Alberto Andrea; Cecchetti, Giordano; Caso, Francesca; Santangelo, Roberto; Baldoli, Cristina; Natali Sora, Maria Grazia; Comi, Giancarlo; Magnani, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Vittorio

    2017-10-01

    Severe cognitive dysfunction is a frequent feature of multiple sclerosis (MS), normally associated with later stages of the disease in adult population. Nevertheless, progressive cognitive and neuropsychiatric disturbances might rarely be the presenting and predominant symptom. In order to better characterize this peculiar phenotype of MS, we report on the case of a 38-year-old man who referred to our hospital with the suspect of hereditary leukodystrophy after 5 years of behavioral and mood abnormalities, global cognitive dysfunction, clumsiness, and very mild pyramidal and cerebellar signs. Brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis prompted the diagnosis of MS.

  9. A twin study of perfume-related respiratory symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elberling, J; Lerbaek, A; Kyvik, K O; Hjelmborg, J

    2009-11-01

    Respiratory symptoms from environmental perfume exposure are main complaints in patients with multiple chemical sensitivities and often coincide with asthma and or eczema. In this population-based twin study we estimate the heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume and if co-occurrences of the symptoms in asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are influenced by environmental or genetic factors common with these diseases. In total 4,128 twin individuals (82%) responded to a questionnaire. The heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume is 0.35, 95%CI 0.14-0.54. Significant associations (pperfume-related respiratory symptoms and asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are not attributable to shared genetic or shared environmental/familial factors, except possibly for atopic dermatitis where genetic pleiotropy with respiratory symptoms to perfume is suggested by an estimated genetic correlation of 0.39, 95%CI 0.09-0.72.

  10. A twin study of perfume-related respiratory symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, J; Lerbaek, A; Kyvik, K O

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms from environmental perfume exposure are main complaints in patients with multiple chemical sensitivities and often coincide with asthma and or eczema. In this population-based twin study we estimate the heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume and if co......-occurrences of the symptoms in asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are influenced by environmental or genetic factors common with these diseases. In total 4,128 twin individuals (82%) responded to a questionnaire. The heritability of respiratory symptoms related to perfume is 0.35, 95%CI 0.......14-0.54. Significant associations (pperfume-related respiratory symptoms and asthma, atopic dermatitis, hand eczema or contact allergy are not attributable to shared genetic or shared environmental/familial factors, except possibly for atopic dermatitis where genetic pleiotropy with respiratory symptoms...

  11. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Daeho; Jun, Tae-Youn; Lee, Min-Soo; Kim, Jae-Min; Kim, Jung-Bum; Jo, Sun-Jin; Park, Yong Chon

    2015-01-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS), depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale), global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale), suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation), functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale), and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version). Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  12. Dimensional approach to symptom factors of major depressive disorder in Koreans, using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: The Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Cheol Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although major depressive disorder (MDD has a variety of symptoms beyond the affective dimensions, the factor structure and contents of comprehensive psychiatric symptoms of this disorder have rarely been explored using the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. We aimed to identify the factor structure of the 18-item BPRS in Korean MDD patients. A total of 258 MDD patients were recruited from a multicenter sample of the Clinical Research Center for Depression of South Korea study. Psychometric scales were used to assess overall psychiatric symptoms (BPRS, depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, global severity (Clinical Global Impression of Severity Scale, suicidal ideation (Scale for Suicide Ideation, functioning (Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale, and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-abbreviated version. Common factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to yield factor structure. A four-factor structure was designed and interpreted by the symptom dimensions to reflect mood disturbance, positive symptoms/apathy, bipolarity, and thought distortion/mannerism. These individual factors were also significantly correlated with clinical variables. The findings of this study support the view that the BPRS may be a promising measuring tool for the initial assessment of MDD patients. In addition, the four-factor structure of the BPRS may be useful in understanding the mood and psychotic characteristics of these patients.

  13. Antisocial personality disorder and borderline symptoms are differentially related to impulsivity and course of illness in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C; Lijffijt, Marijn; Lane, Scott D; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard

    2013-06-01

    Interactions between characteristics of bipolar and Axis II cluster B disorders are clinically and diagnostically challenging. Characteristics associated with personality disorders may be dimensional aspects of bipolar disorder. We investigated relationships among antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder symptoms, impulsivity, and course of illness in bipolar disorder. Subjects with bipolar disorder were recruited from the community. Diagnosis was by structured clinical interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and -II), psychiatric symptom assessment by the change version of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia (SADS-C), severity of Axis II symptoms by ASPD and borderline personality disorder SCID-II symptoms, and impulsivity by the Barratt impulsiveness scale (BIS-11). ASPD and borderline symptoms were not related to clinical state or affective symptoms. Borderline symptoms correlated with BIS-11 impulsivity scores, and predicted history of suicide attempts independently of the relationship to impulsivity. ASPD symptoms were more strongly related to course of illness, including early onset, frequent episodes, and substance-related disorders. These effects persisted after allowance for gender and substance-use disorder history. Personality disorder symptoms appear to be dimensional, trait-like characteristics of bipolar disorder. ASPD and Borderline symptoms are differentially related to impulsivity and course of illness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antisocial Personality Disorder and Borderline Symptoms are Differentially Related to Impulsivity and Course of Illness in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C.; Lijffijt, Marijn; Lane, Scott D.; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Background Interactions between characteristics of bipolar and Axis II cluster B disorders are clinically and diagnostically challenging. Characteristics associated with personality disorders may be dimensional aspects of bipolar disorder. We investigated relationships among antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder symptoms, impulsivity, and course of illness in bipolar disorder. Methods Subjects with bipolar disorder were recruited from the community. Diagnosis was by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I and –II), psychiatric symptom assessment by the Change version of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS-C), severity of axis II symptoms by ASPD and borderline personality disorder SCID-II symptoms, and impulsivity by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). Results ASPD and borderline symptoms were not related to clinical state or affective symptoms. Borderline symptoms correlated with BIS-11 impulsivity scores, and predicted history of suicide attempts independently of the relationship to impulsivity. ASPD symptoms were more strongly related to course of illness, including early onset, frequent episodes, and substance-related disorders. These effects persisted after allowance for gender and substance-use disorder history. Conclusions Personality disorder symptoms appear to be dimensional, trait-like characteristics of bipolar disorder. ASPD and Borderline symptoms are differentially related to impulsivity and course of illness. PMID:22835849

  15. Exploratory Study of Factors Influencing Job-Related Stress in Japanese Psychiatric Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Yada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the factor structure of psychiatric nurses’ job-related stress and examined the specificity of the related stressors using the job stressor scale of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ. The stressor scale of the BJSQ was administered to 296 nurses and assistant nurses. Answers were examined statistically. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify factor structures; two factors (overload and job environment were valid. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to examine the two-factor structure and found 11 items with factor loadings of >0.40 (model 1, 13 items with factor loadings from 0.30 to <0.40 (model 2, and 17 items with factor loadings from 0.20 to <0.30 (model 3 for one factor; model 1 demonstrated the highest goodness of fit. Then, we observed that the two-factor structure (model 1 showed a higher goodness of fit than the original six-factor structure. This differed from subscales based on general workers’ job-related stressors, suggesting that the factor structure of psychiatric nurses’ job-related stressors is specific. Further steps may be necessary to reduce job-related stress specifically related to overload including attention to many needs of patients and job environment including complex ethical dilemmas in psychiatric nursing.

  16. Children's perception and interpretation of anxiety-related physical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muris, Peter; Hoeve, Inge; Meesters, Cor; Mayer, Birgit

    2004-09-01

    The present study examined children's perception and interpretation of anxiety-related physical symptoms in a sample of 4-12-year-old primary school children (N = 129). Children were presented with neutral scenarios in which the main character experienced an anxiety-related physical symptom (e.g., hands trembling, heart beating very fast), and asked to attribute various emotions to this character. Children were also interviewed about idiosyncratic experiences with anxiety-related physical symptoms. Results showed that physical symptoms were associated with a broad range of emotions. "Hands trembling", "heart beating fast", and "difficulties with breathing" were the only symptoms that were more frequently linked to fear than to other emotions. Furthermore, developmental patterns were found for fear-related interpretations of physical symptoms. That is, from the age of 7, children more frequently associated physical symptoms to fear. Finally, children reported to experience anxiety-related physical symptoms in daily life, although frequently not in relation to fearful situations and circumstances.

  17. The association between parental history of diagnosed mood/anxiety disorders and psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nancy CP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental history of mood or anxiety disorders is one of the strongest and most consistent risk factors for the development of these disorders in offspring. Gaps remain however in our knowledge of whether maternal or paternal disorders are more strongly associated with offspring disorders, and whether the association exists in non-clinical samples. This study uses a large population-based sample to test if maternal or paternal history of mood and/or anxiety disorders increases the risk of mood and/or anxiety disorders, or symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study, a prospective cohort investigation of 1293 grade 7 students. Data on mental health outcomes were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 20.4 (0.7 years on average. Parental data were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires. This current analysis pertains to 564 participants with maternal and/or paternal data. The association between maternal and paternal history and each of diagnosed anxiety disorder, diagnosed mood disorder, and symptoms of specific anxiety disorders in offspring was studied in multivariate logistic regression. Results A higher proportion of mothers than fathers had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder (23% versus 12%. Similarly, 14% of female offspring had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder, compared to 6% of male offspring. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval for maternal history was 2.2 (1.1, 4.5 for diagnosed mood disorders, 4.0 (2.1, 7.8 for diagnosed anxiety disorders, and 2.2 (1.2, 4.0 for social phobia symptoms. Paternal history was not associated with any of the mental health outcomes in offspring. Conclusion Maternal, but not paternal mood/anxiety disorders were associated with diagnosed psychiatric disorders, as well as symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Efforts to detect mood and anxiety

  18. Child abuse and neglect in complex dissociative disorder, abuse-related chronic PTSD, and mixed psychiatric samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Only a select number of studies have examined different forms of child maltreatment in complex dissociative disorders (DDs) in comparison to other groups. Few of these have used child abuse-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) and mixed psychiatric (MP) patients with maltreatment as comparison groups. This study examined child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in DD (n = 39), C-PTSD (n = 13), and MP (n = 21) samples, all with abuse and neglect histories. The predictive capacity of these different forms of maltreatment across the 3 groups was assessed for pathological dissociation, shame, guilt, relationship esteem, relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. All forms of maltreatment differentiated the DD from the MP group, and sexual abuse differentiated the DD sample from the C-PTSD group. Childhood sexual abuse was the only predictor of pathological dissociation. Emotional abuse predicted shame, guilt, relationship anxiety, and fear of relationships. Emotional neglect predicted relationship anxiety and relationship depression. Physical neglect was associated with less relationship anxiety. Different forms of abuse and neglect are associated with different symptom clusters in psychiatric patients with maltreatment histories.

  19. Predictive validity of a five-item symptom checklist to screen psychiatric morbidity and suicide ideation in general population and psychiatric settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yi Wu

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The BSRS-5R was validated as an efficient checklist to screen for psychiatric morbidity and suicide ideation in the general public. The result is valuable in translating into general medical and community settings for early detection of suicide ideation.

  20. The effect of memantine on sleep architecture and psychiatric symptoms in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Ichiro; Shinno, Hideto; Ando, Nobuo; Mori, Takahiro; Nakamura, Yu

    2016-06-01

    Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are commonly present in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Disturbed sleep quality is also observed in AD patients. However, the effects of memantine on sleep architecture have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of memantine on polysomnography (PSG) variables and BPSD. In total, 12 patients with AD (mean age: 79.0±4.1 years old) were enrolled in this study. The following tests were performed: the Neuropsychiatric Inventory for the assessment of BPSD, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for cognitive function, and PSG for evaluation of sleep architecture. After baseline examinations, patients were treated with memantine according to a standard prescription protocol. After being treated with 20 mg/day of memantine for 4 weeks, examinations were carried out again. All subjects completed the trial. The mean MMSE and NPI scores were 22.6±3.4 and 13.8±12.9, respectively. Treatment with memantine significantly decreased the NPI score (5.8±4.3, p<0.01). There were significant decreases in the scores of subscales for anxiety (p=0.04) and irritability/lability (p=0.04). PSG demonstrated a longer total sleep time (TST) (p<0.01), increases in sleep efficiency (p<0.01) and time spent in stage II (% TST, p=0.02), and decreases in nocturnal awakening (p<0.01), the periodic limb movement index (p<0.01), and time spent in stage I (% TST, p=0.02). Memantine was effective for reducing fragmented sleep and improving BPSD, and was well tolerated.

  1. Minding the gap: Subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshai, Shadi; Mishra, Sandeep; Meadows, Tyler J S; Parmar, Priya; Huang, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence has linked depressive symptoms to various indices of societal-level inequality and relative deprivation. A larger literature has also addressed cognitive vulnerability and correlates of depression. Despite this evidence, little research to date has examined the relationship of depressive symptoms with such downstream individual-level consequences of inequality as subjective relative deprivation, or whether relative deprivation is associated with cognitive vulnerability in depression. We conducted two investigations among four separate samples (total N = 2999) to examine associations between subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms and cognitions. Across our studies and four different self-report measures of depressive symptoms, we found consistent significant positive associations between subjective relative deprivation and depression symptoms. Further, we found that subjective relative deprivation was predictive of depressive symptoms over and above other known vulnerability factors. Finally, we found that the relationship between subjective relative deprivation and depressive symptoms was fully mediated by negative automatic thoughts about self. These results provide further evidence of the importance of subjective deprivation in maintaining negative mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The relation of depression and anxiety to measures of executive functioning in a mixed psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, Todd A; Huerkamp, Justin K; Miller, Brian I; Houle, Timothy T; O'Jile, Judith R

    2007-06-01

    The relationship between mood and executive functioning is of particular importance to neuropsychologists working with mixed psychiatric samples. The present study evaluated the relation of self-reported depression and anxiety to several common measures of executive functioning: the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Trail Making Test, the Controlled Oral Word Association, and the Letter-Number Sequencing subtest of the Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. Records from 86 adult patients evaluated in an outpatient psychiatry unit were examined. Correlations between self-reported depression or anxiety and most measures of executive functioning were small and non-significant. The variance predicted by depression or anxiety after controlling for age, gender, and IQ was minimal (typically < or =3.0%), even after conducting diagnostic subgroup analyses. These results suggest that impaired performance on measures of executive functioning is minimally related to self-reported depression and anxiety within mixed psychiatric settings.

  3. [Prevalence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in outpatient adolescents and young adults with other psychiatric disorders refractory to previous treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Raquel; Barrau, Víctor; Casas, Miguel; Caballero-Correa, María; Martínez-Jiménez, Pedro; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents and young adults diagnosed with other primary psychiatric disorders, who had not responded to previous treatments. A total of 795 outpatients aged 15 to 24 years were included. The presence of ADHD was studied using DSM-IV criteria and the frequency of symptoms using the 18 item DuPaul ADHD Rating Scale. ADHD (DSM-IV criteria) was present in 48 patients (6%), none of whom had previously received the diagnosis. A total of 260 patients (32.7%) met the criteria for moderate ADHD and between them, severity of primary psychiatric disorder was higher according to the CGI-S (P=.007). Risk factors for moderate ADHD symptoms were the presence of substance use disorders (SUD) (odds ratio=1.543, P=.01) and borderline personality disorders (odds ratio =2.173, p=.0001). Unrecognized ADHD was present in 6% of patients; moreover 32.7% of the sample also presented moderate symptoms of the disorder. Screening for ADHD in young patients with refractory response to primary disorder treatment, mainly those with substance use disorders, conduct and personality disorders is highly advisable, due to the high frequency of ADHD comorbidity in these psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceived attachment: relations to anxiety sensitivity, worry, and GAD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Andres G; Rabian, Brian

    2008-06-01

    This investigation examined the relation between perceived alienation from parents and peers, anxiety sensitivity (AS), and current worry and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms with the goal of expanding the knowledge base on factors that may contribute to the development of AS and its role in worry. The mediating role of AS between perceptions of alienation and current worry and GAD symptoms was also examined. Ninety-four non-clinical worriers completed self-report questionnaires assessing their perceptions of attachment, AS levels, and worry and GAD symptoms. Even after controlling for worry and GAD symptoms, greater perceptions of alienation from mothers and peers were significantly associated with higher AS symptoms. AS as a unitary construct mediated the relation between perceptions of alienation from mothers and peers and worry and GAD symptoms. The facets fear of publicly observable symptoms and fear of cognitive dyscontrol also mediated this relation. The role of alienation in relation to AS, worry, and GAD symptoms is discussed along with directions for future research.

  6. Predictors of Trauma-Related Symptoms among Runaway Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael D.; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about trauma-related symptoms among runaway adolescents. Precocious departure from familial homes often exposes youth to traumatic victimization. This study examined the extent to which runaway adolescents present trauma symptomotology and assessed factors that predict trauma symptoms. Participants (N = 350) were 12-18 years of age…

  7. Aerobic exercises alleviate symptoms of fatigue related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerobic exercises alleviate symptoms of fatigue related to inflammatory cytokines in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. ... Measurements of fatigue symptoms and markers of systemic inflammation were assessed before and at the end of the study for all participants in both groups. Results: The mean values of inflammatory ...

  8. Implicit attitudes toward violence and their relation to psychopathy, aggression, and socially adaptive behaviors in forensic psychiatric inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwets, Almar J.; Hornsveld, Ruud H J; Muris, Peter; Huijding, Jorg; Kanters, Thijs; Snowden, Robert J.; van Marle, Hjalmar

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the relation between implicit attitudes toward violence and different aspects of violent and social behavior in Dutch forensic psychiatric inpatients, an implicit association test was related to measures of psychopathy, aggression, and socially adaptive behaviors. Results

  9. Psychosocial work environment and building related symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roda, C.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Mandin, C.; Fossati, S.; Carrer, P.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Mihucz, V.G.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bartzis, J.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that the psychosocial work environment may affect health (Marmot et al. 2006). Nevertheless, these factors are still not commonly taken into account in the studies examining the relations between indoor environmental quality and employee’s health and wellbeing. Several

  10. Shame, Dissociation, and Complex PTSD Symptoms in Traumatized Psychiatric and Control Groups: Direct and Indirect Associations With Relationship Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Corry, Mary; Black, Rebecca; Matheson, Laura; Coles, Holly; Curran, David; Seager, Lenaire; Middleton, Warwick; Dyer, Kevin F W

    2017-04-01

    Elevated shame and dissociation are common in dissociative identity disorder (DID) and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are part of the constellation of symptoms defined as complex PTSD. Previous work examined the relationship between shame, dissociation, and complex PTSD and whether they are associated with intimate relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. This study investigated these variables in traumatized clinical samples and a nonclinical community group. Participants were drawn from the DID (n = 20), conflict-related chronic PTSD (n = 65), and nonclinical (n = 125) populations and completed questionnaires assessing the variables of interest. A model examining the direct impact of shame and dissociation on relationship functioning, and their indirect effect via complex PTSD symptoms, was tested through path analysis. The DID sample reported significantly higher dissociation, shame, complex PTSD symptom severity, relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships than the other two samples. Support was found for the proposed model, with shame directly affecting relationship anxiety and fear of relationships, and pathological dissociation directly affecting relationship anxiety and relationship depression. The indirect effect of shame and dissociation via complex PTSD symptom severity was evident on all relationship variables. Shame and pathological dissociation are important for not only the effect they have on the development of other complex PTSD symptoms, but also their direct and indirect effects on distress associated with relationships. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A six-month prospective evaluation of personality traits, psychiatric symptoms and quality of life in ayahuasca-naïve subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Cazorla, Irene Maurício; Giglio, Joel Sales; Strassman, Rick

    2009-09-01

    The authors assessed 23 subjects immediately before and six months (27.5 weeks) after their first ayahuasca experience in an urban Brazilian religious setting, either Santo Daime (N = 15) or União do Vegetal (N = 8). Measures included scores on instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality variables and quality of life. Independent variables were the frequency of ayahuasca use throughout the period and the length of ayahuasca wash-out after six months. Santo Daime subjects had a significant reduction of minor psychiatric symptoms, improvement of mental health, and a change in attitude towards more confidence and optimism. The União do Vegetal group had a significant decrease in physical pain, and attitude change towards more independence. Independence was positively correlated with the frequency of ayahuasca use and negatively correlated with the wash-out period. We discuss possible mechanisms by which these changes may occur and suggest areas for future research.

  12. Effects of Increased Psychiatric Treatment Contact and Acculturation on the Causal Beliefs of Chinese Immigrant Relatives of Individuals with Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Graciete; Tu, Ming; Wu, Olivia; Anglin, Deidre; Saw, Anne; Chen, Fang-pei

    2016-01-01

    Encounters with Western psychiatric treatment and acculturation may influence causal beliefs of psychiatric illness endorsed by Chinese immigrant relatives, thus affecting help-seeking. We examined causal beliefs held by forty-six Chinese immigrant relatives and found that greater acculturation was associated with an increased number of causal beliefs. Further, as Western psychiatric treatment and acculturation increased, causal models expanded to incorporate biological/physical causes. However, frequency of Chinese immigrant relatives' endorsing spiritual beliefs did not appear to change with acculturation. Clinicians might thus account for spiritual beliefs in treatment even after acculturation increases and biological causal models proliferate. PMID:27127454

  13. Disentangling the Correlates of Drug Use in a Clinic and Community Sample: A Regression Analysis of the Associations between Drug Use, Years-of-School, Impulsivity, IQ, Working Memory, and Psychiatric Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Gene M; Dunn, Brian J; Mignone, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Years-of-school is negatively correlated with illicit drug use. However, educational attainment is positively correlated with IQ and negatively correlated with impulsivity, two traits that are also correlated with drug use. Thus, the negative correlation between education and drug use may reflect the correlates of schooling, not schooling itself. To help disentangle these relations we obtained measures of working memory, simple memory, IQ, disposition (impulsivity and psychiatric status), years-of-school and frequency of illicit and licit drug use in methadone clinic and community drug users. We found strong zero-order correlations between all measures, including IQ, impulsivity, years-of-school, psychiatric symptoms, and drug use. However, multiple regression analyses revealed a different picture. The significant predictors of illicit drug use were gender, involvement in a methadone clinic, and years-of-school. That is, psychiatric symptoms, impulsivity, cognition, and IQ no longer predicted illicit drug use in the multiple regression analyses. Moreover, high risk subjects (low IQ and/or high impulsivity) who spent 14 or more years in school used stimulants and opiates less than did low risk subjects who had spent regression method proved the best approach for dealing with this problem. To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that years-of-school predicts lower levels of illicit drug use after controlling for IQ and impulsivity. This paper also highlights the advantages of Double-Hurdle regression methods for analyzing the correlates of drug use in community samples.

  14. Association of psychiatric history and type D personality with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and health status prior to ICD implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrenburg, Annemieke H; Kraaier, Karin; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).......Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)....

  15. The relationship between addictive use of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: a large-scale cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Schou Andreassen, C; Billieux, J; Griffiths, MD; Kuss, DJ; Demetrovics, Z; Mazzoni, E.; Pallesen, S

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research into ‘addictive technological behaviors’ has substantially increased. Research has also demonstrated strong associations between addictive use of technology and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 23,533 adults (mean age 35.8 years, ranging from 16 to 88 years) participated in an online cross-sectional survey examining whether demographic variables, symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)...

  16. Disaster-related psychiatric disorders among survivors of flooding in Ladakh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Motonao; Yamamoto, Naomune; Yamanaka, Gaku; Suwa, Kuniaki; Nakajima, Shun; Hozo, Reiko; Norboo, Tsering; Okumiya, Kiyohito; Matsubayashi, Kozo; Otsuka, Kuniaki

    2013-08-01

    Heavy rainfall in northern India in August 2010 caused flash floods, seriously damaging homes and infrastructure. There have been no major disasters in the history of Ladakh, and no surveys on post-disaster psychiatric disorders have been conducted in this area. To examine the impact of this disaster in Ladakh one month post-disaster, we visited Choglamsar, located near the town of Leh, where the flood had the most severe impact. In total, 318 survivors (mean age: 58.6 years; female-male ratio: 59.7%; Tibetan refugees: 86.2%) participated in the survey. We used the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2) along with questions covering background characteristics and disaster exposure. A psychiatrist interviewed the survivors with a single or double positive score in the PHQ-2 or with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. There were only two PTSD cases and five of major depressive disorders. PTSD and depression were less common in the Tibetan cultural areas than in other areas. The social background and temperamental characteristics of the Tibetan culture may play a suppressive role in psychiatric disorders.

  17. Early symptom burden predicts recovery after sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C; Stein, Cynthia J; Bachur, Richard G

    2014-12-09

    To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of sport-related concussion is overall symptom burden. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. [Prevalence and Phenomenology of Psychotic-Like Symptoms in Borderline Personality Disorders - Associations with Suicide Attempts and Use of Psychiatric Inpatient Treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Katrin; Schätzle, Anja; Kowohl, Pauline; Leske, Lisa; Huber, Christian G; Schäfer, Ingo

    2018-01-19

    Psychotic-like symptoms are found in a subgroup of borderline patients (BPD). Reported prevalence is heterogeneous (up to 50% affected). Investigations in Germany have not been conducted so far. Furthermore, the precise phenomenology of the psychotic symptoms and the effects on suicidal behavior and the use of inpatient psychiatric treatment are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate prevalence rates and phenomenology of psychotic-like symptoms. Associations between the latter and suicidality as well as the use of inpatient psychiatric treatment were examined. Further influencing factors were taking into account. Psychotic-like symptoms were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview-I in 95 BPD patients. To investigate the associations between psychotic-like symptoms and suicidality as well as the use of inpatient psychiatric treatment, correlation and regression analyzes were calculated, considering severity of PTSD, BPD and depression. 36% of the patients reported alterations of perception and 21% delusions, both multiform and long lasting. The number of suicide attempts was associated with delusions, alterations of perception and severity of PTSD, BPS, and depression. Only delusions and severity of PTSD explained together 25.8% of the variance for the prediction of the number of suicide attempts. Age of initial hospitalization showed fewer and number of hospitalizations no associations at all. Psychotic-like symptoms should not be trivialized, which may happen by using terms such as pseudo-hallucinations or transient paranoid ideas, and may be particularly associated with suicidal tendencies complicating the clinical course. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Stimulation-Induced Transient Nonmotor Psychiatric Symptoms following Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: Association with Clinical Outcomes and Neuroanatomical Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulseoud, Osama A; Kasasbeh, Aimen; Min, Hoon-Ki; Fields, Julie A; Tye, Susannah J; Goerss, Stephan; Knight, Emily J; Sampson, Shirlene M; Klassen, Bryan T; Matsumoto, Joseph Y; Stoppel, Cynthia; Lee, Kendall H; Frye, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and neurobiological underpinnings of transient nonmotor (TNM) psychiatric symptoms during the optimization of stimulation parameters in the course of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) remain under intense investigation. Forty-nine patients with refractory Parkinson's disease underwent bilateral STN-DBS implants and were enrolled in a 24-week prospective, naturalistic follow-up study. Patients who exhibited TNM psychiatric manifestations during DBS parameter optimization were evaluated for potential associations with clinical outcome measures. Twenty-nine TNM+ episodes were reported by 15 patients. No differences between TNM+ and TNM- groups were found in motor outcome. However, unlike the TNM- group, TNM+ patients did not report improvement in subsyndromal depression or quality of life. TNM+ episodes were more likely to emerge during bilateral monopolar stimulation of the medial STN. The occurrence of TNM psychiatric symptoms during optimization of stimulation parameters was associated with the persistence of subsyndromal depression and with lower quality of life ratings at 6 months. The neurobiological underpinnings of TNM symptoms are investigated yet remain difficult to explain. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. The current state of research on ayahuasca: A systematic review of human studies assessing psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rafael G; Balthazar, Fermanda M; Bouso, José C; Hallak, Jaime Ec

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, the use of ayahuasca (AYA) - a β-carboline- and dimethyltryptamine-rich hallucinogenic botanical preparation traditionally used by Northwestern Amazonian tribes for ritual and therapeutic purposes - has spread from South America to Europe and the USA, raising concerns about its possible toxicity and hopes of its therapeutic potential. Thus, it is important to analyze the acute, subacute, and long-term effects of AYA to assess its safety and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of human studies assessing AYA effects on psychiatric symptoms, neuropsychological functioning, and neuroimaging. Papers published until 16 December 2015 were included from PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases following a comprehensive search strategy and pre-determined set of criteria for article selection. The review included 28 full-text articles. Acute AYA administration was well tolerated, increased introspection and positive mood, altered visual perceptions, activated frontal and paralimbic regions and decreased default mode network activity. It also improved planning and inhibitory control and impaired working memory, and showed antidepressive and antiaddictive potentials. Long-term AYA use was associated with increased cortical thickness of the anterior cingulate cortex and cortical thinning of the posterior cingulate cortex, which was inversely correlated to age of onset, intensity of prior AYA use, and spirituality. Subacute and long-term AYA use was not associated with increased psychopathology or cognitive deficits, being associated with enhanced mood and cognition, increased spirituality, and reduced impulsivity. Acute, subacute, and long-term AYA use seems to have low toxicity. Preliminary studies about potential therapeutic effects of AYA need replication due to their methodological limitations. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program to reduce multiple psychiatric symptoms of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Ton J E M; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; van der Lee, Jacqueline; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Ribbe, Miel W

    2011-06-01

    To test the effectiveness of an integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program (integrative reactivation and rehabilitation [IRR]) to reduce multiple neuropsychiatry symptoms (MNPS) of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden (CB). Randomized controlled trial. Psychiatric-skilled nursing home (IRR) and usual care (UC), consisting of different types of nursing home care at home or in an institution. N = 168 (81 IRR and 87 UC). Patients had to meet classification of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition for dementia, amnestic disorders, or other cognitive disorders. Further inclusion criteria: Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) ≥3; Mini-Mental State Examination ≥18 and ≤27; and Barthel Index (BI) ≥5 and ≤19. IRR consisted of a person-oriented integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program to reduce MNPS of the patient and CB. UC consisted of different types of nursing home care at home or in an institution, mostly emotion oriented. Primary outcome variable was MNPS (number and sum-severity of NPI). Furthermore, burden and competence of caregiver were also measured. T1 (inclusion), T2 (end of treatment), T3 (after 6 months of follow-up). Cohen's d (Cd) was calculated for mean differences (intention to treat). For confounding, repeated measurement modeling (random regression modeling [RRM]) was applied. In the short term from the perspective of the caregiver, IRR showed up to 34% surplus effects on MNPS of the patients; NPI symptoms: 1.31 lower (Cd, -0.53); and NPI sum- severity: 11.16 lower (Cd, -0.53). In follow-up, the effects were sustained. However, from the perspective of the nursing team, these effects were insignificant, although the trend was in the same direction and correlated significantly with the caregiver results over time (at T3: r = 0.48). In addition, IRR showed surplus effects (up to 36%) on burden and competence of caregiver: NPI emotional distress: 3.78 (Cd, -0.44); CB: 17.69 (Cd, -0

  2. [Event-related EEG potentials associated with error detection in psychiatric disorder: literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Lívia; Czobor, Pál

    2010-01-01

    Error-related bioelectric signals constitute a special subgroup of event-related potentials. Researchers have identified two evoked potential components to be closely related to error processing, namely error-related negativity (ERN) and error-positivity (Pe), and they linked these to specific cognitive functions. In our article first we give a brief description of these components, then based on the available literature, we review differences in error-related evoked potentials observed in patients across psychiatric disorders. The PubMed and Medline search engines were used in order to identify all relevant articles, published between 2000 and 2009. For the purpose of the current paper we reviewed publications summarizing results of clinical trials. Patients suffering from schizophrenia, anorexia nervosa or borderline personality disorder exhibited a decrease in the amplitude of error-negativity when compared with healthy controls, while in cases of depression and anxiety an increase in the amplitude has been observed. Some of the articles suggest specific personality variables, such as impulsivity, perfectionism, negative emotions or sensitivity to punishment to underlie these electrophysiological differences. Research in the field of error-related electric activity has come to the focus of psychiatry research only recently, thus the amount of available data is significantly limited. However, since this is a relatively new field of research, the results available at present are noteworthy and promising for future electrophysiological investigations in psychiatric disorders.

  3. [An exploratory study of psychiatric patients' needs and nurses' current practices related to sexual counseling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Su-Ching; Lin, Yen-Chin; Hong, Chi-Mei; Cho, Pei-Pei

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore psychiatric patient needs and current nursing practice with regard to sexual counseling and to understand differences in individual patient characteristics. A total of 182 psychiatric patients and 44 psychiatric nurses were purposively selected from a mental hospital in northern Taiwan. Results revealed that 63.2% of subjects had not been given sexuality information and 81.9% had not been approached by nurses to discuss such issues. While 35.2% of study patients treated sexual issues as psychological or private issues that should only be discussed with psychologists, 33.5% expressed a desire to discuss issues related to sexuality with nurses. Even so, most subjects preferred to discuss sexual issues in a private way, and asked for assistance from same-gender professionals. Also, patients with higher education levels placed greater attention on the counseling topics of how to express sexual needs and the impacts of mental illness on sexuality. With regard to nurses participating in the study, female nurses had a generally more conservative attitude toward sexual values than males. Those who were married, older, or had received continuing sexuality education were more comfortable with conducting sexual counseling. Those with clinical experience and continuing sexuality education were able to take more responsibility and a more professional role in sexual counseling. Data collected on the specific subject groups in order to provide effective comparisons can be employed to refine current sexual counseling training programs for nurses in order to improve patient care.

  4. Social relations, depressive symptoms, and incident type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin Rosenkilde; Hulman, Adam; Witte, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Aims We examined whether social relations are associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and furthermore, whether social relations modify the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM. We hypothesized that the risk of developing T2DM would be lower...... for individuals with stronger social relations compared to those with weaker social relations, and that the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM would be attenuated for those with stronger social relations. Methods Non-diabetic participants (n = 7662) of the “English Longitudinal Study...... of developing T2DM; however, this effect is largely explained by known diabetes risk factors. No evidence was found that stronger social relations reduce the association between depressive symptoms and incident T2DM....

  5. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms and gene......Background and purpose: Several studies have found that women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their victimization experiences. The current study evaluated the presence of PTSD symptoms...... in trajectories for treatment planning will be discussed. The findings in the present study stress the importance of long-term follow-up studies in evidencebased reserch....

  6. Psychiatric comorbidities in women with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Anskis, Alicia M; Smyth, Joshua M

    2012-03-01

    Although the physical consequences of Celiac Disease are well studied, less is known about co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. This study examines psychiatric risk and comorbidities of women with Celiac Disease, who may be at increased risk for psychiatric symptoms (e.g. depression, and disordered eating behaviours). Women (N = 177) with Celiac Disease responded to an extensive web-mediated survey assessing dietary compliance, illness symptoms, psychiatric functioning, and disordered eating. Despite high reported dietary compliance, patients reported marked illness symptoms and impaired quality of life. A substantial minority endorsed symptoms that met criteria for the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders: 37% (n = 65) met the threshold suggesting depression, and 22% (n = 39) for disordered eating. Participants whose symptoms exceeded these clinical thresholds reported greater perceived stress and reduced overall mental health, relative to women below the clinical cutoffs. Despite largely adhering to a gluten-free diet, a substantial subset of women with Celiac Disease report clinically relevant symptoms of depression and disordered eating; such symptoms are associated with increased psychosocial distress in other domains. These results suggest potential to improve the patient well-being through attention to psychosocial care, in addition to existing dietary recommendations for individuals with Celiac Disease.

  7. Relatives of psychiatric inpatients--do physical violence and suicide attempts of patients influence family burden and participation in care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellin, Lars; Ostman, Margareta

    2005-01-01

    A common concern of psychiatric patients' relatives is that patients might be a danger to themselves or others. The aim of this study was to investigate family burden and relatives' participation in care in relation to physical violence towards others and suicide attempts by psychiatric inpatients before admission. Information concerning violence and suicide attempts by the patients prior to admission was collected from the medical records of 155 acutely voluntarily and involuntarily admitted psychiatric inpatients. Relatives were interviewed a month after admission, using a semi-structured questionnaire. Violence towards other persons and suicide attempts were recorded in 16% and 17% of the cases, respectively. There were no differences between relatives of patients who had been violent and other relatives regarding burden and participation in care. Relatives of patients with suicide attempts more often stated they had been prevented from having own company, worried about suicide attempts by the patient, had mental health problems of their own, and had own need for care and support. It was concluded that violence of acutely admitted psychiatric patients, targeted at other people, was not associated with burden of family, but the results corroborate the need for psychiatric services to involve and support relatives of psychiatric patients with suicidal behaviour.

  8. Premenstrual syndrome health-related quality of life and psychiatric comorbidity in a clinical adolescent sample: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uran, Pınar; Yürümez, Esra; Aysev, Ayla; Kılıç, Birim Günay

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents who were admitted to the child and adolescent psychiatry clinic were compared with respect to the premenstrual symptom severity, psychiatric comorbidities and health related quality of life (HRQoL). The research group was identified using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version and Premenstrual Assessment Form. They completed the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (The PedsQL). There were 55 adolescents who were eligible for the study and 89% of participants were diagnosed with at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric diagnoses among the diagnosed cases were anxiety and major depressive disorders. Of all of the cases, 78.2% were diagnosed with premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and among those cases, 46.5% had mild, 34.8% had moderate and 18.6% had severe PMS. Most common PMS symptom was anger/irritability. HRQoL in the group with PMS was significantly lower than that of the adolescents without PMS. Moreover, HRQoL of adolescents with PMS was found to deteriorate with the increasing severity of PMS. This study is of great importance since it demonstrated that PMS frequency is very high in a clinical adolescent population and negatively affects their HRQoL as similar to non-clinical adolescent population studies.

  9. Early symptom burden predicts recovery after sport-related concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Stein, Cynthia J.; Bachur, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. Results: A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of concussion is overall symptom burden. PMID:25381296

  10. Evaluation of social disablement, psychiatric symptoms and autonomy in long-stay psychiatric patients Avaliação do comportamento social, sintomas psiquiátricos e autonomia em pacientes psiquiátricos de longa permanência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Abelha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data on prevalence of social disablement, psychiatric symptoms and independent living skills in long-stay psychiatric patients are scarce in Brazil. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was carried out on a population of 881 long-stay psychiatric patients. METHOD: Data were collected from all the patients living in the Municipal Mental Health Institute from Rio de Janeiro city, using 3 instruments: Social Behaviour Schedule (SBS-BR, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, and Independent Living Skills Survey (ILSS-BR. RESULTS: 75% of total patients presented poor independent living skills, and high rates of social disablement, specially in the items: poor self care (50,9%, little spontaneous communication (46,2% and underactivity (37,5%. 15.1% of schizophrenic patients showed severe symptoms of hallucinations, delusions and conceptual disorganization.11.5% did not present psychiatric symptoms in the last month, and 16% showed no social disablement CONCLUSION: 50% of patients are older than 65 years and have been living in the institution for more than 38 years. They present high rates of problem behaviours and poor autonomy. Our data should suggest the adoption of treatment programs or interventions for those patients. Also, there is a group without psychiatric symptoms, good autonomy degree and no social disablement that could live in therapeutic residences in the community.INTRODUÇÃO: No Brasil ainda são escassos os dados sobre limitações no comportamento social, sintomas psiquiátricos e habilidades de vida independente. Nesse sentido foi realizado um estudo seccional em uma população de 881 pacientes psiquiátricos de longa permanência. METODOLOGIA: Foram coletados dados de todos os pacientes residentes no Instituto Municipal Juliano Moreira, utilizando três instrumentos: Avaliação das Limitações no Comportamento Social (SBS-BR, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS e o Inventário de Habilidades de Vida Independente para

  11. [Could aspecific symptoms be related to Borrelia infection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papo, T

    2007-01-01

    Chronic manifestations (knee arthritis, encephalomyelitis, axonal polyneuropathy) may occur in the late phase of Lyme disease. Contrasting with such well-defined manifestations, the "post-Lyme syndrome" includes symptoms such as fatigue, algia, malaise, cognitive disorders, after treatment of a documented Lyme disease. The analysis of clinical, neuropsychological, bacteriological, immunological, epidemiological, quality of life, and treatment data does not support the reality of such a syndrome. Moreover, no physiopathological data can relate Borrelia infection to such symptoms in patients without previously documented Lyme disease symptoms but who are seropositive (or even sometimes without serodiagnosis as for instance in the Munchausen by proxy, or Gulf war syndromes).

  12. Sexual violence and pregnancy-related physical symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasse Mirjam

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the impact of sexual violence on health during pregnancy. We examined the association between sexual violence and the reporting of physical symptoms during pregnancy. Methods A population-based national cohort study conducted by The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa collected data from pregnant women through postal questionnaires at 17 and 32 weeks gestation. Three levels of sexual violence were measured: 1 mild (pressured into sexual relations, 2 moderate (forced with violence into sexual relation and 3 severe (rape. Differences between women reporting and not reporting sexual violence were assessed using Pearson’s X2 test and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results Of 78 660 women, 12.0% (9 444 reported mild, 2.8% (2 219 moderate and 3.6% (2 805 severe sexual violence. Sexual violence was significantly associated with increased reporting of pregnancy-related physical symptoms, both measured in number of symptoms and duration/degree of suffering. Compared to women not reporting sexual violence, the probability of suffering from ≥8 pregnancy-related symptoms estimated by Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR was 1.49 (1.41–1.58 for mild sexual violence, 1.66(1.50–1.84 for moderate and 1.78 (1.62–1.95 for severe. Severe sexual violence both previously and recently had the strongest association with suffering from ≥8 pregnancy-related symptoms, AOR 6.70 (2.34–19.14. Conclusion A history of sexual violence is associated with increased reporting of pregnancy-related physical symptoms. Clinicians should consider the possible role of a history of sexual violence when treating women who suffer extensively from pregnancy-related symptoms.

  13. [Psychosocial factors predicting postnatal anxiety symptoms and their relation to symptoms of postpartum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Laura Elena; Lara-Cantú, María Asunción; Navarro, Claudia; Gómez, María Eugenia; Morales, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    To study perinatal anxiety symptoms in a sample of Mexican mothers. A) To evaluate the effect of certain psychosocial factors during pregnancy on anxiety symptoms at two postpartum time intervals; and B) to determine whether this symptomatology is related to symptoms of postnatal depression. In this secondary data analysis, 156 women were interviewed during pregnancy (T1): 149 were interviewed again at 6 weeks postpartum (T2) and 156 at 4-6 months postpartum (T3). Subjects were selected from women seeking prenatal attention at three health centers in Mexico City who presented with depressive symptomatology and/or previous history of depression. Two models were subjected to multivariate regression analysis to determine the influence of psychosocial factors in pregnancy (age, education, partner status, social support [APGAR], stress events, self-esteem [Coopersmith], depressive symptomatology [BDI-II], and anxiety [SCL-90]) on anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) in T2 and T3. Two additional linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of prenatal anxiety symptomatology (SCL-90) on postpartum depression symptoms (BDI-II), one for each postnatal period (T2, T3). The variables that predicted postpartum anxiety symptomatology in T2 were anxiety symptoms and lack of social support; in T3 they were anxiety symptoms, lack of a partner, and lack of social support. Prenatal anxiety symptoms predicted postpartum depressive symptomatology at both postpartum intervals (T2, T3). Untreated prenatal anxiety symptomatology is predictive of symptoms of anxiety and depression in the postpartum period, suggesting the need for timely detection and treatment. Women lacking social support or partners are a population particularly vulnerable to anxiety symptoms, and merit interventions that address these issues.

  14. Relative performance of for-profit psychiatric hospitals in investor-owned systems and nonprofit psychiatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, M J; Clement, J P

    1993-01-01

    The authors analyzed the differences in operational and financial performance between 42 matched pairs of for-profit psychiatric hospitals belonging to multifacility organizations and nonprofit psychiatric hospitals for the fiscal years ending in 1986 through 1990. The pairs of short-term hospitals were matched according to location, standard metropolitan statistical area, or wage index. Analyses were based on data on these hospitals from the Health Care Financing Administration. The groups of variables studied included the hospitals' operational performance and productivity, profitability and payer mix, revenue and expenses, and capital structure. Differences in the mean values of the variables for the for-profit hospitals and the nonprofit hospitals were analyzed by pairwise t tests. The for-profit organization hospitals had significantly higher net revenue, lower salary expenses, and higher profits than the nonprofit hospitals. Patients in the for-profit hospitals had longer stays, and these hospitals had fewer full-time employees per adjusted inpatient day and per adjusted discharge. The higher prices and operating margins of the for-profit hospitals belonging to investor-owned systems reflect the profit-maximizing goal of these facilities. The ability of for-profit organization hospitals to achieve economies of scale in expenses, however, was not evident except in the case of salary expenses.

  15. Adoption, family relations and psychotic symptoms among Palauan adolescents who are genetically at risk for developing schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierago, Laura; Malsol, Cynthia; Singeo, Techong; Kishigawa, Yuri; Blailes, Francisca; Ord, Lisa; Florsheim, Paul; Phillips, Lisa; Kuartei, Stevenson; Tiobech, Josepha; Watson, Berrymoon; Ngiralmau, Hilda

    2010-12-01

    This paper focuses on the role of adoption and family relations as moderators of genetic risk for psychotic disorders. Participants included 184 adolescents in the Republic of Palau identified to be at genetic risk for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Palau is an island nation in Micronesia with a lifetime prevalence of 1.99% for schizophrenia and 2.67% for psychotic disorders more broadly defined. In Palauan culture, kinship adoption is a common cultural practice; 47 of the 184 participants had been adopted at an early age. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that adoption would function as a protective factor among Palauan youth at genetic risk for the development of psychotic symptoms. Participants were evaluated for psychotic and other psychiatric symptoms using KSADS-PL. Concurrently, the Youth Self Report was used to assess the perceived quality of family relationships. Results indicated that adopted adolescents were more likely to develop psychotic symptoms than non-adopted adolescents. However, perceived family relations moderated the association between adoption status and psychotic symptoms, such that adopted adolescents with poorer family relations reported disproportionately higher rates of psychotic symptoms. Family relations also moderated the association between level of genetic risk and psychotic symptoms, independently of adoption status. Consistent with previous research, adolescents at high genetic risk who reported more positive family relations also reported fewer psychotic symptoms.

  16. Prospective study of work related respiratory symptoms in trainee bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zotti, R; Bovenzi, M

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of work related respiratory symptoms and to assess the effect of atopy in a group of trainee bakers. A prospective study of work related respiratory symptoms among 125 trainee bakers who were investigated with a questionnaire plus skin prick test with wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens at baseline and then after 6, 18, and 30 months. At the baseline examination, four students (3.2%) complained of respiratory symptoms (cough and rhinitis) when working with flours and four were skin positive to wheat flour or alpha-amylase. The incidence of work related respiratory symptoms was 3.4% at 6 months, and the cumulative incidence was 4.8% and 9.0% at 18 and 30 months, respectively. The incidence of skin sensitisation to occupational allergens was 4.6% at 6 months and the cumulative incidence was 4.6% at 18 months and 10.1% at 30 months. The generalised estimating equation approach to longitudinal data showed that work related respiratory symptoms in the study population was significantly associated with a personal history of allergic disease (odds ratio (OR) 5.8, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.8 to 18.2) and skin sensitisation to wheat flour or alpha-amylase (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 14.9). Atopy based on prick test was not related to the occurrence of work related respiratory symptoms over time (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.3 to 3.8). Personal history of allergic disease is a predisposing factor for the development of symptoms caused by exposure to wheat flour and may be a criterion of unsuitability for starting a career as a baker. Atopy based on the skin prick test is useful for identifying subjects with allergic disease, but should not be used to exclude non-symptomatic atopic people from bakery work.

  17. Association of Psychiatric History and Type D Personality with Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Health Status Prior to ICD Implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starrenburg, Annemieke H.; Kraaier, Karin; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Hout, Moniek; Scholten, Marcoen; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). PURPOSE: We examined associations between previous anxiety and depressive

  18. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Ingmar

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has shown that depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis are more common than previously supposed in elderly populations without dementia. It is unclear whether the frequency of these disorders increases or decreases with age. Clinical expression of psychiatric disorders in old age may be different from that seen in younger age groups, with less and often milder symptoms. Concurrently, comorbidity between different psychiatric disorders is immense, as well as comorbidity with somatic disorders. Cognitive function is often decreased in people with depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis, but whether these disorders are risk factors for dementia is unclear. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly are often related to cerebral neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease, although psychosocial risk factors are also important. Psychiatric disorders, common among the elderly, have consequences that include social deprivation, poor quality of life, cognitive decline, disability, increased risk for somatic disorders, suicide, and increased nonsuicidal mortality.

  19. Occurrence of post traumatic stress symptoms and their relationship to professional quality of life (ProQoL) in nursing staff at a forensic psychiatric security unit: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauvrud, Christian; Nonstad, Kåre; Palmstierna, Tom

    2009-04-16

    Violence is frequent towards nurses in forensic mental health hospitals. Implications of this high risk environment have not been systematically explored. This paper explores occurrence of symptoms on post traumatic stress and their relationship to professional quality of life. Self report questionnaires assessing symptoms of post traumatic stress and professional quality of life were distributed among psychiatric nurses in a high security forensic psychiatric unit with high frequency of violent behaviour. Relationships between post traumatic stress symptoms, forensic nursing experience, type of ward and compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue were explored. The prevalence of post traumatic stress symptoms was low. Low scores were found on compassion satisfaction. Length of psychiatric nursing experience and low scores on compassion satisfaction were correlated to increased post traumatic stress symptoms. Although high violence frequency, low rate of post traumatic stress symptoms and low compassion satisfaction scores was found. High staff/patient ratio and emotional distance between staff and patients are discussed as protective factors.

  20. Change in psychiatric symptomatology after benfotiamine treatment in males is related to lifetime alcoholism severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzardo, Ann M; Pendleton, Tiffany; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C; Butler, Merlin G

    2015-07-01

    Severe alcoholism can be associated with significant nutritional and vitamin deficiency, especially vitamin B1 (thiamine) which is associated with neurological deficits impacting mood and cognition. Alcohol consumption was reduced among female but not male alcoholics after supplementation with the high potency thiamine analog benfotiamine (BF). We examined the relationship between lifetime alcoholism severity, psychiatric symptoms and response to BF among the alcohol dependent men from this cohort. Eighty-five adult men (mean age=48±8 years) meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for a current alcohol use disorder who were abstinent Alcoholism Severity Score (AS), Symptom Checklist 90R (SCL-90R), and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) at baseline and at 6 months. Baseline SCL-90-R scale scores for men with high alcoholism severity (AS≥24; N=46 HAS) were significantly greater than for men with low alcoholism severity (ASalcoholism severity level interaction (F=2.5, dfnum=10, dfden=30, palcohol use disorder and should be considered for adjuvant therapy in alcohol rehabilitation. #NCT00680121 High Dose Vitamin B1 to Reduce Abusive Alcohol Use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Incorporating and integrating cognitive event-related potentials in the management of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bragazzi NL

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicola Luigi Bragazzi,1,2 Giovanni Del Puente21School of Public Health, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy; 2DINOGMI, Department of Neuroscience, Rehabilitation, Ophtalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, Section of Psychiatry, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy Dr Salvatore Campanella has recently advocated the urgent need to incorporate cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs for a proper diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of psychiatric disorders, on the basis of four working hypotheses, which are theoretically solid and experimentally supported.1View original paper by Campanella S.

  2. HIV-related stigma: implications for symptoms of anxiety and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-related stigma: implications for symptoms of anxiety and depression among Malawian women. ... African Journal of AIDS Research ... These findings suggest that interventions that reduce HIV-related stigma are likely to enhance psychological functioning among Malawian women, which in turn will improve the women's ...

  3. The occurrence of overtraining-related symptoms among under-21 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the manifestation of overtraining-related symptoms among U-21 rugby players, and to gain insight into the detection and prevention thereof. The methodology consisted of a self-constructed questionnaire, which focused on the gathering of psychological, health and biological-related ...

  4. Stimulation-Induced Transient Non-Motor Psychiatric Symptoms Following Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease: Association with Clinical Outcomes and Neuroanatomical Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulseoud, Osama A.; Kasasbeh, Aimen; Min, Hoon-Ki; Fields, Julie A.; Tye, Susannah J.; Goerss, Stephan; Knight, Emily J.; Sampson, Shirlene M.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Matsumoto, Joseph Y.; Stoppel, Cynthia; Lee, Kendall H.; Frye, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinical and neurobiological underpinnings of transient non-motor (TNM) psychiatric symptoms during the optimization of stimulation parameters in the course of STN-DBS remain under intense investigation. Methods Forty-nine patients with refractory PD underwent bilateral STN-DBS implants and were enrolled in a 24-week prospective, naturalistic follow-up study. Patients who exhibited transient non-motor (TNM) psychiatric manifestations during DBS parameter optimization were evaluated for potential associations with clinical outcome measures. Results Twenty nine TNM(+) episodes were reported by 15 patients. No differences between TNM(+) and TNM(−) groups were found in motor outcome. However, unlike the TNM(−) group, TNM(+) patients did not report improvement in subsyndromal depression or quality of life. TNM(+) episodes were more likely to emerge during bilateral monopolar stimulation of the medial STN. Conclusions The occurrence of TNM psychiatric symptoms during optimization of stimulation parameters was associated with the persistence of subsyndromal depression and with lower quality of life ratings at 6 months. The neurobiological underpinnings of TNM are investigated yet remain difficult to explain. PMID:27093641

  5. Beyond symptom management: Family relations, unmet needs of persons living with severe mental illnesses, and potential implications for social work in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Burns, Jonathan K; King, Howard; Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Davis, Glen P; Mtshemla, Sisanda; Nene, Siphumelele; Susser, Ezra

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the quality of family relationships and its associations with the severity of unmet needs of individuals admitted to a tertiary psychiatric hospital in South Africa. The quality of family relations and perceived unmet needs were assessed using the Lehman Quality of Life Interview and Camberwell Assessment of Needs, respectively. The results show that higher total unmet needs were associated with lower quality of family relations. The main areas of serious unmet needs included accessing government benefits and information, and establishing social relations. The results have implications for hospital-based social workers beyond managing psychiatric symptoms in South Africa.

  6. Parent Attributions About Child Symptoms Related to Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Battista, Ashley; Dupuis, Lee L; Cassidy, Marilyn; Portwine, Carol; Johnston, Donna L; Pradier Silva, Mariana; Sung, Lillian; Barrera, Maru

    2016-01-29

    Symptom assessment is an emergent area of research in pediatric cancer. Our team previously reported on the development of a questionnaire to be completed by parents to determine symptom prevalence and bother. This exploratory study examined parental nonprobed, free-text comments about their child's treatment-related symptoms reported on the questionnaire. Participants were parents of children aged 4 to 18 years who had been diagnosed with cancer at least 2 months prior to enrolment and had received intravenous chemotherapy within the past month at 1 of 5 pediatric cancer centers. The questionnaire consisted of 69 or 71 items (based on child's age) addressing physical and psychological sequelae. Each symptom query was accompanied by a blank space in which parents could comment on their response. Comments were analyzed guided by content analysis methodology. Five major themes emerged: parental attributions for the symptoms experienced in their child; coping patterns and communication styles within the family; evidence of anticipatory, procedural, and other anxieties; interruption of daily life; and changes in the child's physical appearance. These exploratory findings provide context to parental perception of their child's treatment-related symptoms and may contribute to a better understanding of parental perception of child and the family coping and communicating style. These findings may assist in the development of psychoeducational interventions aimed at promoting open communication styles within the family and reducing child and parent burden during treatment procedures. © 2016 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  7. Trauma-related psychiatric comorbidity of somatization disorder among women in eastern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taycan, Okan; Sar, Vedat; Celik, Cihat; Erdogan-Taycan, Serap

    2014-11-01

    This study sought to determine the trauma-related psychiatric comorbidity of somatization disorder among women who applied to an outpatient psychiatric unit of a general hospital in eastern Turkey. Forty women with somatization disorder and 40 non-clinical controls recruited from the same geographic region participated in the study. Somatization disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (including its criterion A traumatic events checklist), Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule, Dissociative Experiences Scale (Taxon), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire were administered to all participants. A significant proportion of the women with somatization disorder had the concurrent diagnoses of major depression, PTSD, dissociative disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Women with somatization disorder reported traumatic experiences of childhood and/or adulthood more frequently than the comparison group. A significant proportion of these patients reported possession and/or paranormal experiences. Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that current major depression, being married, total number of traumatic events in adulthood, and reports of possession and/or paranormal experiences were independent risk factors for somatization disorder diagnosis. Among women with endemically high exposition to traumatic stress, multiple somatic complaints were in a significant relationship with major depressive disorder and lifelong cumulative traumatization. While accompanying experiences of possession and paranormal phenomena may lead to seeking help by paramedical healers, the challenge of differential diagnosis may also limit effective service to this group of somatizing women with traumatic antecedents and related psychiatric comorbidities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Relation between stages of change and motivation in the treatment of psychiatric patients1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilov-Jerković Vesna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Main aim of this research was to investigate the relation between psychiatric patients’ motivation for their participation in treatment and a stage of change they were in. Hypothesis on relation quality of examined variables have been defined from the perspective of transtheoretical model created by Prochaska and associates. Decision balance, specific and general self-efficacy and inclination to relapse have been examined as indicators of motivation. One hundred and twenty-nine psychiatric patients with diagnosis of neurosis or personality disorders have been examined in this research. Results have shown that stages of changes are significantly related to inspected motivational variables. Patients in higher stages of readiness express specific motivational profile characterized by the proactive optimism, which means that they rely on their own resources and expect positive outcome of the treatment. Patients in lower stages of readiness express motivational profile characterized by passive resignation receptiveness, by inclination towards demoralization and low trust in their own strength. Results of this research are in conformity with the basic hypothesis of transtheoretical model of change. .

  9. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  10. Abstinence phenomena of chronic cannabis-addicts prospectively monitored during controlled inpatient detoxification (Part II): Psychiatric complaints and their relation to delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites in serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Udo; Borda, Thorsten; Scherbaum, Norbert; Specka, Michael

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the impact of inpatient detoxification treatment on psychiatric symptoms of chronic cannabis addicts and to analyze the influence of serum cannabinoid levels on the severity of these symptoms. Thirty five treatment-seeking, not active co-morbid chronic cannabis dependents (ICD-10) were studied on admission and on abstinence days 8 and 16, using several observational and self-report scales, such as Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Simultaneously obtained serum was analyzed with regard to levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its main metabolites 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH) and 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH). At admission, nearly 90% of the patients were not, or only mildly, affected by depression, anxiety or manic symptoms. In contrast, patients' self-description indicated a strong psychiatric burden in approximately 60% of the cases. All patients improved significantly within 16 days of the treatment. Effect sizes ranged from 0.7 to 1.4. (Cohen's d) for the respective scales. Serum THC-levels were positively associated with impairment of cognition in HAMA and motor retardation in BPRS. All other test results were not significantly related to the serum levels of the measured cannabinoids. Effects of the cannabis withdrawal syndrome and executive dysfunctions might explain the discrepancy between the observer ratings and self-reported psychiatric burden. Inpatient cannabis detoxification treatment significantly improved psychiatric symptoms. Serum THC-levels were not associated with affective symptoms and anxiety but predicted cognitive impairment and motor retardation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. [Does routine outcome monitoring have a promising future? An investigation into the use of shared decision-making combined with ROM for patients with a combination of physical and psychiatric symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Feltz-Cornelis, C M; Andrea, H; Kessels, E; Duivenvoorden, H J; Biemans, H; Metz, M

    2014-01-01

    Although routine outcome monitoring (ROM) has been developed and widely used in the course of patient centered outcome research in the Netherlands, so far the technique has hardly ever been used to improve the treatment of individual patients. To describe how a rom technique based on the principles of shared decision-making (SDM) was developed and evaluated at the Center for Body, Mind and Health at GGz Breburg, a specialised mental health institution in the Netherlands. We have developed a conceptual model for SDM that involves patient participation and the use of evidence-based decision-aids with cut-off scores. According to the conceptual model for SDM that we developed, the patient and the health professional involved took 'shared' decisions in three phases; the decisions related to triage, the drawing-up of a treatment plan and a follow-up treatment course. At the end of the 6 month intake-phase 7 of the 67 patients who were deemed eligible for ROM/SDM were dropped from the study because they were incapable of performing ROM assessments. Due to diagnostic advice and referral at the end of the intake-phase, 25 patients did not require further treatment. Of the remaining 35 patients, 33 delivered at least one follow-up ROM assessment during the subsequent treatment phases. In these patients somatic and psychiatric symptoms were found to be significantly reduced. ROM combined with sdm can be used successfully with patients who have a combination of physical and psychiatric symptoms and the technique can be applied by the professional in charge. Very few patients dropped out of the follow-up measurements and somatic as well as depressive or psychiatric symptoms diminished significantly. These findings indicate that a Randomised Clinical Trial is warranted in order to test the effectiveness of sdm combined with ROM as a decision-making instrument.

  12. The association between childhood physical and sexual abuse and functioning and psychiatric symptoms in a sample of U.S. Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Abby E; Polusny, Melissa A; Murdoch, Maureen

    2011-02-01

    We examined associations between abusive childhood experiences and functioning and psychiatric symptoms in an active duty sample of U.S. Army soldiers. Cross-sectional survey of 204 soldiers stationed at a southern U.S. Army facility. Forty-six percent of individuals reported childhood physical abuse alone, whereas 25% reported both childhood physical and sexual abuse. Soldiers' work, role, and social functioning; physical functioning; depression severity; and severity of alcohol misuse did not differ significantly with childhood abuse status (p > 0.22 for all). However, individuals who reported both childhood physical and sexual abuse reported severer posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms than did soldiers who reported no childhood abuse or childhood physical abuse only (p = 0.007). Although abusive childhood experiences were common, soldiers with such experiences reported functioning as well as those soldiers without such experiences. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were significantly elevated only in those who reported both childhood physical and sexual abuse.

  13. Symptom report in detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu MR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mei R Fu,1 Deborah Axelrod,2,3 Charles M Cleland,1 Zeyuan Qiu,4 Amber A Guth,2,3 Robin Kleinman,2 Joan Scagliola,2 Judith Haber1 1College of Nursing, New York University, 2Department of Surgery, NYU School of Medicine, 3NYU Clinical Cancer Center, New York, NY, 4Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, USA Abstract: Breast cancer-related lymphedema is a syndrome of abnormal swelling coupled with multiple symptoms resulting from obstruction or disruption of the lymphatic system associated with cancer treatment. Research has demonstrated that with increased number of symptoms reported, breast cancer survivors' limb volume increased. Lymphedema symptoms in the affected limb may indicate a latent stage of lymphedema in which changes cannot be detected by objective measures. The latent stage of lymphedema may exist months or years before overt swelling occurs. Symptom report may play an important role in detecting lymphedema in clinical practice. The purposes of this study were to: 1 examine the validity, sensitivity, and specificity of symptoms for detecting breast cancer-related lymphedema and 2 determine the best clinical cutoff point for the count of symptoms that maximized the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Data were collected from 250 women, including healthy female adults, breast cancer survivors with lymphedema, and those at risk for lymphedema. Lymphedema symptoms were assessed using a reliable and valid instrument. Validity, sensitivity, and specificity were evaluated using logistic regression, analysis of variance, and areas under receiver operating characteristic curves. Count of lymphedema symptoms was able to differentiate healthy adults from breast cancer survivors with lymphedema and those at risk for lymphedema. A diagnostic cutoff of three symptoms discriminated breast cancer survivors with lymphedema from healthy women with a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 97

  14. Side effects related to potentially inappropriate medications in elderly psychiatric patients under everyday pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefner, Gudrun; Stieffenhofer, Viktoria; Gabriel, Susanne; Palmer, Gerlind; Müller, Kay-Maria; Röschke, Joachim; Hiemke, Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) is suggested to give rise to adverse drug events. To study this suggestion for elderly psychiatric patients, an observational analysis related prescription of PRISCUS PIMs and drug-induced side effects in old aged (≥65 years) psychiatric inpatients and outpatients under conditions of everyday pharmacotherapy. Request forms from a therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) survey and medical files were screened for medication to identify PIMs of the PRISCUS list and assessed using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser (UKU) side effect rating scale. From 914 TDM request forms, data were available for 168 patients (64.3 % female). Patients (mean ± SD age 73.0 ± 5.5 years) received by mean 6.4 ± 3.9 drugs per day. More than half of them (53.0 %, n = 89) had at least one PIM, inpatients 0.9 ± 0.8 and outpatients 0.5 ± 0.7. Predominant PIMs were hypnotic drugs (69 %) in inpatients and antipsychotic drugs (35.6 %) in outpatients. The number of PIMs correlated with the total number of drugs administered per day (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.225, p  0.05) with number of PIMs. However, only 6 of 77 patients who took no PRISCUS PIMs but 2 of 3 patients who took 3 PRISCUS PIMs exhibited severe side effects. Though the prevalence for PIMs and side effects was high in old aged psychiatric inpatients and outpatients, PIMs could not be identified as major determinants of overall unwanted side effects. Nevertheless, prescription of PIMs should be minimized, especially of hypnotic drugs, to improve safety.

  15. Unique relations between post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and patient functioning in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Juth, Vanessa; Trief, Paula; Wallston, Kenneth; Ulbrecht, Jan; Smyth, Joshua M

    2017-08-01

    This study examined reported post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in adults with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who had no history of psychiatric diagnosis or treatment ( n = 184, MHbA1c = 9.13%, standard deviation = 1.68). Participants reported moderate to severe intensity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms ( M = 19.17, SD = 17.58). Together, depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accounted for 10-40 percent of the variance in type 2 diabetes outcomes; post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with elevated diabetes distress and more frequent exercise and self-blood glucose testing (unique R2 ~ 3%). Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may be overlooked in type 2 diabetes among patients without formal psychiatric diagnoses, and warrant increased attention.

  16. Information and decision-making needs of psychiatric patients: the perspective of relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Liebherz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Mental illness may strongly affect relatives’ lives. Therefore, it is important to empower relatives by providing health information according to their preferences. Methods An online cross-sectional survey was conducted using a purpose-designed questionnaire on online health information and decision-support needs. Results Prevalent reasons for online health information search of the 185 participating relatives were the need for general information and the insufficiency of the information given by the health care provider. The most difficult treatment decisions concerned the treatment setting (inpatient or outpatient as well as the psychopharmacological treatment. Discussion Since psychiatric patients’ relatives report extensive information and decision-support needs, it is essential to address their needs in health information material. Assessment of relatives’ needs when developing health information materials is recommended.

  17. Symptom Management: The Effects of Self-Affirmation on Chemotherapy-Related Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Meltem; Gulsoy, Hatice; Batmaz, Makbule; Ozgat, Cansu; Yesilbursali, Gulser; Aydin, Reyhan; Ekiz, Sedanur

    2017-02-01

    Positive effects of auditory stimulations are common in symptom management. However, the effect of self-affirmations on symptom management is not well known. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of self-affirmations and nature sounds on chemotherapy-related symptoms. This randomized, controlled experimental study was conducted with 140 patients receiving chemotherapy. The first experimental group listened to affirmations, the second listened to nature sounds, and the third listened to both. In the affirmation group, pain, tiredness, drowsiness, lack of appetite, depression, anxiety, and lack of well-being scores were lower. In the affirmation and nature sounds group, drowsiness, depression, anxiety, and lack of well-being scores were reduced. In the nature sounds group, tiredness, drowsiness, and lack of well-being scores were reduced. In the control group, tiredness, drowsiness, nausea, and lack of well-being scores were higher.

  18. Relation between psychotic symptoms, parental care and childhood trauma in severe mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalan, Ana; Angosto, Virxina; Díaz, Aida; Valverde, Cristina; de Artaza, Maider Gonzalez; Sesma, Eva; Maruottolo, Claudio; Galletero, Iñaki; Bustamante, Sonia; Bilbao, Amaia; van Os, Jim; Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel

    2017-05-01

    A relation between different types of parental care, trauma in childhood and psychotic symptoms in adulthood has been proposed. The nature of this association is not clear and if it is more related to psychotic disorders per se or to a cluster of symptoms such as positive psychotic symptoms remains undefined. We have analysed the presence of childhood trauma using the CTQ scale and types of parental care using the PBI scale in three groups of subjects: borderline personality disorder patients (n=36), first psychotic episode patients (n=61) and healthy controls (n=173). Positive psychotic symptomatology was assessed with the CAPE scale. General linear models were used to study the relation between positive psychotic symptomatology and variables of interest. BPD patients had the highest rate of any kind of trauma, followed by FEP patients. We found a positive relationship between psychotic symptomatology and the existence of trauma in childhood in all groups. Moreover, an affectionless control rearing style was directly associated with the existence of trauma. Furthermore, subjects with trauma presented less probability of having an optimal parenting style in childhood. The relation between psychotic symptoms and trauma remained statistically significant after adjusting for other variables including parental rearing style. There seems to be a link between trauma in childhood and psychotic symptomatology across different populations independently of psychiatric diagnosis. Taking into account that there is an association between trauma and psychosis and that trauma is a modifiable factor, clinicians should pay special attention to these facts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. EMDR as Add-On Treatment for Psychiatric and Traumatic Symptoms in Patients with Substance Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletto, Sara; Oliva, Francesco; Barnato, Micaela; Antonelli, Teresa; Cardia, Antonina; Mazzaferro, Paolo; Raho, Carolina; Ostacoli, Luca; Fernandez, Isabel; Pagani, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Background: Substance use disorders (SUD) are patterns of substance use leading to severe impairment on social, working and economic levels. In vivo and clinical findings have enhanced the role of the brain's stress-related system in maintaining SUD behaviors. Several studies have also revealed a high prevalence of post-traumatic symptoms among SUD patients, suggesting that a trauma-informed treatment approach could lead to better treatment outcomes. However, only few studies have evaluated the use of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in SUD without consistent results. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a combined trauma-focused (TF) and addiction-focused (AF) EMDR intervention in treating post-traumatic and stress-related symptoms of patients with SUD. Methods: Forty patients with different SUD were enrolled in the study. Twenty patients underwent treatment as usual (TAU), the other 20 patients were treated with TAU plus 24 weekly sessions of EMDR. All patients were assessed before and after intervention for several psychological dimensions using specific tools (i.e., BDI-II, DES, IES-R, STAI, and SCL-90-GSI). A repeated measure MANOVA was performed to evaluate both between groups (TAU + EMDR vs. TAU) and within group (pre- vs. post-intervention) effects and interactions. A secondary outcome was the dichotomous variable yielded by the urine drug testing immunoassay (yes/no). Results: The RM-MANOVA revealed both a significant pre–post main effect (p EMDR group than TAU group. No differences were found between TAU and TAU + EMDR groups in terms of urine drug immunoassay results before and after the interventions. Conclusions: The TAU + EMDR group showed a significant improvement of post-traumatic and dissociative symptoms, accompanied by a reduction in anxiety and overall psychopathology levels, whereas TAU group showed a significant reduction only in post-traumatic symptoms. Although our results can only be

  20. EMDR as Add-On Treatment for Psychiatric and Traumatic Symptoms in Patients with Substance Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Carletto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance use disorders (SUD are patterns of substance use leading to severe impairment on social, working and economic levels. In vivo and clinical findings have enhanced the role of the brain's stress-related system in maintaining SUD behaviors. Several studies have also revealed a high prevalence of post-traumatic symptoms among SUD patients, suggesting that a trauma-informed treatment approach could lead to better treatment outcomes. However, only few studies have evaluated the use of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR in SUD without consistent results. The aim of the present pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a combined trauma-focused (TF and addiction-focused (AF EMDR intervention in treating post-traumatic and stress-related symptoms of patients with SUD.Methods: Forty patients with different SUD were enrolled in the study. Twenty patients underwent treatment as usual (TAU, the other 20 patients were treated with TAU plus 24 weekly sessions of EMDR. All patients were assessed before and after intervention for several psychological dimensions using specific tools (i.e., BDI-II, DES, IES-R, STAI, and SCL-90-GSI. A repeated measure MANOVA was performed to evaluate both between groups (TAU + EMDR vs. TAU and within group (pre- vs. post-intervention effects and interactions. A secondary outcome was the dichotomous variable yielded by the urine drug testing immunoassay (yes/no.Results: The RM-MANOVA revealed both a significant pre–post main effect (p < 0.001, and a significant group-by-time main effect (p < 0.001. Significant improvements on IES-R, DES, and SCL-90-GSI scales were shown in both groups according to time effects (p < 0.05. However, significant greater effects were found for TAU + EMDR group than TAU group. No differences were found between TAU and TAU + EMDR groups in terms of urine drug immunoassay results before and after the interventions.Conclusions: The TAU + EMDR group showed a

  1. Work-related symptoms and hazard preventative measures among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of work-related symptoms among oral health workers other than the dentist in Nigeria and the preventive measures put in place to reduce exposure to hazardous agents and practices. The study was by means of self-administered questionnaires filled by all cadres of oral ...

  2. HIV-related symptoms and management in HIV and antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV-related symptoms and management in HIV and antiretroviral therapy patients in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A longitudinal study. ... Overall, the participants reported medications as the most frequently occurring management strategy, with the second being spiritual, and the third being complementary or traditional ...

  3. Pilot evaluation of the impact of structured child-centered interventions on psychiatric symptom profile of parents with serious somatic illness: struggle for life trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Mika; Repo, Jenni; Wahlberg, Karl-Erik; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Sami

    2012-01-01

    This is a trial of cancer patients who are seriously somatically ill and of how their distress affects their spouse or children. In the pilot phase the authors examined whether there are changes in psychiatric symptom profile of seriously somatically ill and healthy parents between assessments concerning a situation before the onset of parental illness, in current situation before intervention and 4 months after the intervention. The study is a family cluster, randomized, controlled treatment trial for parents and children in families with a parent who has a serious somatic illness. Global Severity Index (GSI) and psychiatric symptom profile of parents was assessed with the Symptoms Checklist-90 for adults. At pilot evaluation phase of the Struggle for Life trial, a total of 19 families (16 patients, 15 spouses) participated in the baseline assessment conducted before intervention, and 10 families (seven patients, seven spouses) also at the 4-month follow-up after the intervention. The interventions used in this study were the short Let's Talk about Children including two meetings with parents and more intensive Family Talk Intervention consisting of six to eight meetings with parents, children, and whole family. At the 4-month follow-up the GSI score of the patients and spouses was significantly decreased compared to the baseline score. At the baseline the GSI score of the patients was at the same level as that of the psychiatric outpatient sample, whereas at the 4-month follow-up it was at the same level as in the general population. This study lends support to previous studies that recommend that treatment practice should include structured interventions with parents concerning parenting and the wellbeing of children.

  4. A 5-year retrospective study of demographic, anamnestic, and clinical factors related to psychiatric hospitalizations of adolescent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lorenzo R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosaria Di Lorenzo,1 Nina Cimino,2 Elena Di Pietro,3 Gabriella Pollutri,4 Vittoria Neviani,5 Paola Ferri2 1Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment, Department of Mental Health, AUSL Modena, Modena, 2School of Nursing, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 3School of Neuro-Psychiatry, 4School of Psychiatry, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 5 “The Medlar”, Villa Igea Hospital, Modena, Italy Background: Psychiatric emergencies of children and adolescents have greatly increased during the last years, but this phenomenon has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between acute psychiatric hospitalizations of adolescents and selected variables to highlight risk factors for psychiatric emergencies. Methods: This retrospective research was conducted in the acute psychiatric public ward, Service of Psychiatric Diagnosis and Treatment (SPDT, and in the residential facility for adolescents, “The Medlar”, located in Modena. The sample was constituted by all adolescent patients (n=101, age range 14–18 who had acute hospitalizations (n=140 in SPDT and had been successively transferred to “The Medlar” (n=83, from February 2, 2010 to January 31, 2015. From clinical charts, we extracted demographic and anamnestic characteristics of patients and clinical variables related to hospitalizations. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: Sixty-one percent of our patients lived with one divorced parent, with adoptive or immigrant family, or in institutions; 51% had experienced stressful events during childhood; 81% had a normal intellective level, but only 6% presented regular school performance. Parental psychiatric illness was negatively related, in a statistically significantly way, with onset age of adolescent mental disorders (coefficient -2.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.53 to 1.01, P<0.001, single linear regression; odds ratio: 4.39, 95% CI: 1.43–13.47, P<0.010, single logistic

  5. Associations and Costs of Parental Symptoms of Psychiatric Distress in a Multi-Diagnosis Group of Children with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, S.; Paul, L.; Loney, P.; Ye, C.; Wong, M.; Browne, G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Families supporting children with complex needs are significantly more distressed and economically disadvantaged than families of children without disability and delay. What is not known is the associations and costs of parental psychiatric distress within a multi-diagnosis group of special needs children. Methods: In this…

  6. Personality disorder symptoms are differentially related to divorce frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Krystle L; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-12-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55-64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Personality Disorder Symptoms Are Differentially Related to Divorce Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, Krystle L.; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55–64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM–IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM–IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains. PMID:23244459

  8. Work-Related Respiratory Symptoms and Airway Disease in Hairdressers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI Skoufi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hairdressers are occupationally exposed to a number of agents in their workplace that result in respiratory symptoms and changes in pulmonary function. Objective: To evaluate associations between occupational exposure and respiratory function and reported symptoms in a group of hairdressers compared to a control group. Methods: A questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and workplace characteristics was completed by 94 hairdressers and 39 age- and sex-matched controls. Spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO measurements were also performed. Results: Hairdressers reported more severe dyspnea (p=0.03 and eye (p=0.001 and throat (p=0.007 irritation, compared to the control group, at the workplace; no differences were noted at home. Lower FEV1/FVC (p<0.001 and higher FeNO values (p=0.012 were observed in hairdressers. A larger working area and presence of window ventilation were associated with better pulmonary function. Conclusion: Worsening of symptoms and pulmonary function at workplace, and alleviating the symptoms at home, indicate that they may be related to occupational exposure.

  9. Breast cancer in relation to childhood parental divorce and early adult psychiatric disorder in a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokugamage, A U; Hotopf, M; Hardy, R; Mishra, G; Butterworth, S; Wadsworth, M E J; Kuh, D

    2006-09-01

    Jacobs and Bovasso reported (Psychological Medicine 2000, 30, 669-678) that maternal death in childhood and chronic severe depression in adulthood were associated with subsequent breast cancer. We have examined the effects of parental loss in childhood and psychiatric disorder in adult life on breast cancer risk using a national birth cohort study. Eighty-three cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in a study of 2253 women followed from birth to age 59 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test whether breast cancer rates were higher in women who experienced parental death and divorce before age 16, psychiatric disorders between 15 and 32 years, symptoms of anxiety and depression at 36 years, or use of antidepressant medication at 31 or 36 years than in women who did not have these experiences. There was no overall association between parental death, parental divorce or psychiatric disorder and the incidence of breast cancer. There was some evidence that women with more severe psychiatric disorders between the ages of 15 and 32 years were more likely to develop breast cancer early. The interaction between parental divorce and severe psychiatric disorder was non-significant (p=0.1); however, the group who experienced both these events had an increased breast cancer risk compared with those who experienced neither [hazard ratio (HR) 2.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-6.19]. Our study does not provide strong support for the hypothesis that early loss or adult psychiatric disorders are associated with breast cancer. A meta-analysis is needed that uses data from all available cohort studies and investigates possible interactive effects on breast cancer risk.

  10. Influence of sexual abuse on HIV-related attitudes and behaviors in adolescent psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L K; Kessel, S M; Lourie, K J; Ford, H H; Lipsitt, L P

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the associations between sexual abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related attitudes and behaviors of adolescents with a psychiatric disorder. HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were examined by self-report assessment of adolescents admitted to a psychiatric hospital (N = 100). A subsample (n = 30) completed a role-playing exercise regarding HIV-preventive behavior that was scored for the degree of effective communication by raters blind to the subjects' abuse history. HIV-related risk behaviors were prevalent, including unprotected sexual intercourse (67%) and multiple partners (27%) among the sexually active (71% of the total). Also frequent were alcohol and drug use (25%) and sharing cutting instruments (22%) among those engaged in self-cutting behavior (62%). The 38% of the sample identified as having a history of sexual abuse indicated significantly poorer self-efficacy concerning condom use than their peers. Abused females scored significantly lower on the self-efficacy of condom use scale and reported significantly more frequent alcohol use than nonabused females (p = .003). A hierarchical multiple regression that controlled for consistency of condom use and tolerance of people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome found that abuse history uniquely accounted for 16% of the variance in condom use self-efficacy. Analysis of the videotaped role-play found that abused adolescents were significantly less competent and had more difficulty in effective communication than their peers (p = .003). A history of sexual abuse is associated with impaired safe sexual decision-making and HIV-preventive communication skills, even in this already at-risk group. This study also underscores the importance of actively addressing these issues in the context of clinical care.

  11. Obesity is related to increased menopausal symptoms among Spanish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alonso, Ana M; Cuadros, José L; Chedraui, Peter; Mendoza, Marcela; Cuadros, Angela M; Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2010-09-01

    To assess the metabolic syndrome (METS) and its components in postmenopausal women using updated diagnostic criteria and explore their relation to menopausal symptom severity. Medical records of the first visit of 574 postmenopausal Caucasian Spanish women attending a menopause clinic were retrospectively reviewed. Recorded information included general demographic data, type of menopause, menopausal symptom intensity (Kupperman index) and baseline hormonal and metabolic parameters. METS was established if three or more of the following criteria were met: body mass index (BMI) >28.8 kg/m(2), fasting glycaemia ≥100 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) menopause and 38.9% were obese. In all, 23.1% met diagnostic criteria for METS who were significantly older and displayed higher rates of being married, obesity and abnormal glucose, triglyceride, HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure values, when compared with those without the syndrome. The mean Kupperman index score for the whole sample was 26.4±10.6, with 73.8% displaying moderate to severe scores (20 or more). Logistic regression analysis determined that obesity and marriage status were independent risk factors related to more severe menopausal symptoms (Kupperman index scores of 20 or more). Although METS was observed in a lower frequency than previous reports, obesity was associated with more severe menopausal symptoms among postmenopausal Spanish women.

  12. Factors related to positive and negative outcomes in psychiatric inpatients in a General Hospital Psychiatric Unit: a proposal for an outcomes index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUGO KARLING MORESCHI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background General Hospital Psychiatric Units have a fundamental importance in the mental health care systems. However, there is a lack of studies regarding the level of improvement of patients in this type of facility. Objective To assess factors related to good and poor outcomes in psychiatric inpatients using an index composed by clinical parameters easily measured. Methods Length of stay (LOS, Global Assessment of Functioning (variation and at discharge and Clinical Global Impression (severity and improvement were used to build a ten-point improvement index (I-Index. Records of psychiatric inpatients of a general hospital during an 18-month period were analyzed. Three groups (poor, intermediate and good outcomes were compared by univariate and multivariate models according to clinical and sociodemographic variables. Results Two hundred and fifty patients were included, with a percentage in the groups with poor, regular and good outcomes of 16.4%, 59,6% and 24.0% respectively. Poor outcome at the discharge was associated mainly with lower education, transient disability, antipsychotics use, chief complaint “behavioral change/aggressiveness” and psychotic features. Multivariate analysis found a higher OR for diagnoses of “psychotic disorders” and “personality disorders” and others variables in relation to protective categories in the poor outcome group compared to the good outcome group. Discussion Our I-Index proved to be an indicator of that allows an easy and more comprehensive evaluation to assess outcomes of inpatients than just LOS. Different interventions addressed to conditions such as psychotic disorders and disruptive chief complaints are necessary.

  13. Subject-chosen activities in occupational therapy for the improvement of psychiatric symptoms of inpatients with chronic schizophrenia: a controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshii, Junko; Yotsumoto, Kayano; Tatsumi, Eri; Tanaka, Chito; Mori, Takashi; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2013-07-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects of subject-chosen and therapist-chosen activities in occupational therapy for inpatients with chronic schizophrenia. Prospective comparative study. A psychiatric hospital in Japan. Fifty-nine patients with chronic schizophrenia who had been hospitalized for many years. The subjects received six-months occupational therapy, participating in either activities of their choice (subject-chosen activity group, n = 30) or activities chosen by occupational therapists based on treatment recommendations and patient consent (therapist-chosen activity group, n = 29). The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale were used to evaluate psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial function, respectively. After six-months occupational therapy, suspiciousness and hostility scores of the positive scale and preoccupation scores of the general psychopathology scale significantly improved in the subject-chosen activity group compared with the therapist-chosen activity group, with 2(2) (median (interquartile range)) and 3(1.25), 2(1) and 2.5(1), and 2(1) and 3(1), respectively. There were no significant differences in psychosocial functions between the two groups. In within-group comparisons before and after occupational therapy, suspiciousness scores of the positive scale, preoccupation scores of the general psychopathology scale, and psychosocial function significantly improved only in the subject-chosen activity group, with 3(1) to 2(2), 3(1) to 2(1), and 40(9) to 40(16) respectively, but not in the therapist-chosen activity group. The results suggested that the subject-chosen activities in occupational therapy could improve the psychiatric symptoms, suspiciousness, and preoccupation of the inpatients with chronic schizophrenia.

  14. Correlates in the Endorsement of Psychotic Symptoms and Services Use: Findings from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, Armando; Yamada, Ann-Marie; Lee, Karen Kyeunghae; Barrio, Concepción

    2016-08-01

    Endorsement of psychotic symptoms serves as an indicator of significant health issues and interpersonal distress. Seeking services is the ultimate recourse for many individuals, yet few studies have assessed the help-seeking process in a nationally representative sample. This study, guided by Lewis-Fernández et al.'s (J Nerv Ment Dis 197(5):337-347, 2009) analyses, examined the association of lifetime endorsement of psychotic symptoms with demographic, clinical and support system variables and types of services received. Based on nationally weighted epidemiological data, 11.6 % of adults reported one or more psychotic symptoms. Psychotic symptoms were associated with poor physical and mental health, specifically depressive, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Respondents were more likely to receive services from both informal and mental health providers and were more likely to be hospitalized than those not endorsing psychotic symptoms. Study findings inform community efforts to develop comprehensive services for individuals experiencing psychotic symptoms.

  15. Cognition-related brain networks underpin the symptoms of unipolar depression: Evidence from a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Genevieve; Jackson, Graeme; Wilson, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    This systematic review sources the latest neuroimaging evidence for the role of cognition-related brain networks in depression, and relates their abnormal functioning to symptoms of the disorder. Using theoretically informed and rigorous inclusion criteria, we integrate findings from 59 functional neuroimaging studies of adults with unipolar depression using a narrative approach. Results demonstrate that two distinct neurocognitive networks, the autobiographic memory network (AMN) and the cognitive control network (CCN), are central to the symptomatology of depression. Specifically, hyperactivity of the introspective AMN is linked to pathological brooding, self-blame, rumination. Anticorrelated under-engagement of the CCN is associated with indecisiveness, negative automatic thoughts, poor concentration, distorted cognitive processing. Downstream effects of this imbalance include reduced regulation of networks linked to the vegetative and affective symptoms of depression. The configurations of these networks can change between individuals and over time, plausibly accounting for both the variable presentation of depressive disorders and their fluctuating course. Framing depression as a disorder of neurocognitive networks directly links neurobiology to psychiatric practice, aiding researchers and clinicians alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Knowledge and Attitude of Patients with Psychiatric Disorders and their Relatives Toward Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Amitava; Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho

    2014-07-01

    Knowledge and attitude regarding electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the important parameters for acceptance of ECT as a safe and effective treatment option. Several factors shape the knowledge and attitude of general people such as previous experience of ECT, sources of their information about ECT and prevailing myths about ECT. The present study attempted to examine the knowledge and attitude concerning ECT among patients with psychiatric disorders and their relatives. Knowledge and attitudes regarding ECT were assessed using the Bengali version of the ECT knowledge and attitude questionnaires, between 100 clinically stable patients with mental illnesses and their healthy relatives. Majority of the patients and relatives were unaware of the basic facts about ECT. Relatives were somewhat better informed and more positive about ECT than patients, but the differences between the two groups were not significant. Previous experience of ECT did not have any major impact in knowledge and attitude in both patients and relative groups. Patients obtained information, mostly from media (44%), doctors (23%), and from personal experiences (13%). On the other hand, relatives obtained information almost equally from media (26%), doctors (27%), and experience of friends or relatives (28%). No significant difference was observed in knowledge and attitude in patients who had obtained their facts from doctors (n=23) and from other sources (n=77). Among relatives, those who had obtained their information from doctors (n=27) were better informed than those who had obtained so from other sources (n=73). Since patients and relatives have poor knowledge and negative attitude toward ECT, medical professionals should impart proper information about ECT to patients and relatives to increase the acceptability of this treatment.

  17. Acupuncture in the treatment of cancer-related psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nadia Elisabeth; Palesh, Oxana

    2014-09-01

    Acupuncture is being adopted by cancer patients for a wide range of cancer-related symptoms including highly prevalent psychological symptoms like depression, anxiety, insomnia, and impairment in quality of life. Pharmacological treatment of prevalent symptoms like anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance can contribute to the high chemical burden already carried by cancer patients, creating additional side effects. As a result, patients and providers alike are interested in evidence-based nonpharmacologic alternatives like acupuncture for these symptoms. This article reviews the current literature (January 2000 through April 2013) for acupuncture in cancer-related psychological symptoms with attention to both efficacy and acupuncture-specific methodology. All published studies that met our review criteria demonstrate a positive signal for acupuncture for the treatment of depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance, and for improving quality of life with most results showing statistical significance. However, there are only a handful of acupuncture studies that were specifically designed to evaluate depression, sleep disturbance, and quality of life as primary outcomes, and no studies were found that looked at anxiety as a primary outcome in this population. Published studies in cancer patients and survivors show that acupuncture treatment is not only safe but also more acceptable with fewer side effects than standard of care pharmacological treatments like antidepressants. Finally, there is wide variability in both the implementation and reporting of acupuncture methods in the literature, with only 2 of 12 studies reporting full details of acupuncture methods as outlined in the revised Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture guidelines, published in 2010 and providing an essential framework for the reporting of acupuncture methodology. This lack of methodological detail affects outcomes, generalizability, and validity of research

  18. Impulsivity-related traits distinguish women with co-occurring bulimia nervosa in a psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reas, Deborah L; Pedersen, Geir; Rø, Øyvind

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated impulsivity-related personality traits using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R) in women diagnosed with co-occurring bulmia nervosa and borderline personality disorder (BN-BPD), borderline personality disorder (BPD no-BN), or major depressive disorder (MDD-only). The sample included 672 adult female admissions to a psychiatric day hospital treatment program. The NEO PI-R facets of impulsiveness (N5), excitement-seeking (E5), self-discipline (C5), and deliberation (C6) provided a proxy assessment of impulsivity-related traits tapping negative urgency, sensation-seeking, lack of perseverance, and lack of premeditation/planning. After adjusting for age, BN-BPD displayed significantly higher levels of negative urgency and lack of premeditation than BPD without co-occurring BN. Women with BN-BPD also had significantly higher levels of impulsivity traits than MDD across domains, except for lack of perseverance. Impulsivity-related traits of negative urgency and lack of premeditation significantly differentiated women with versus without co-occurring BN among women with borderline personality disorder. Lower levels of impulsivity-related traits in women with MDD indicated that effects were not simply attributable to any form of psychopathology. Of the impulsivity traits, negative urgency demonstrated the strongest effect, providing further evidence of the important relationship between negative urgency and the expression of bulimic symptomology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:1093-1096). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mental health related Internet use among psychiatric patients: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalckreuth, Sophie; Trefflich, Friederike; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2014-12-24

    The Internet is of great importance in today's health sector, as most Internet users utilize online functions for health related purposes. Concerning the mental health care sector, little data exist about the Internet use of psychiatric patients. It is the scope of this current study to analyze the quantity and pattern of Internet usage among mental health patients. Patients from all services of the Department of Psychiatry at a university hospital were surveyed by completing a 29-item questionnaire. The data analysis included evaluation of frequencies, as well as group comparisons. 337 patients participated in the survey, of whom 79.5% were Internet users. Social media was utilized by less than half of the users: social networks (47.8%), forums (19.4%), chats (18.7%), blogs (12.3%). 70.9% used the Internet for mental health related reasons. The contents accessed by the patients included: information on mental disorders (57.8%), information on medication (43.7%), search for mental health services (38.8%), platforms with other patients (19.8%) and platforms with mental health professionals (17.2%). Differences in the pattern of use between users with low, medium and high frequency of Internet use were statistically significant for all entities of social media (p mental health services (p = 0.017) and usage of platforms with mental health professionals (p = 0. 048). The analysis of differences in Internet use depending on the participants' type of mental disorder revealed no statistically significant differences, with one exception. Regarding the Internet's role in mental health care, the participants showed differing opinions: 36.2% believe that the Internet has or may have helped them in coping with their mental disorder, while 38.4% stated the contrary. Most psychiatric patients are Internet users. Mental health related Internet use is common among patients, mainly for information seeking. The use of social media is generally less frequent. It varies

  20. Psychiatric history and subthreshold symptoms as predictors of the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorder within 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, Julie; Hartman, Catharina A; Smit, Johannes H; Zitman, Frans G; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Cuijpers, Pim; van der Does, A J Willem; Ormel, Johan; Nolen, Willem A; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2011-03-01

    Past episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders and subthreshold symptoms have both been reported to predict the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorders. It is unclear to what extent the two factors interact or predict these disorders independently. To examine the extent to which history, subthreshold symptoms and their combination predict the occurrence of depressive (major depressive disorder, dysthymia) or anxiety disorders (social phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalised anxiety disorder) over a 2-year period. This was a prospective cohort study with 1167 participants: the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Anxiety and depressive disorders were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, subthreshold symptoms were determined with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Occurrence of depressive disorder was best predicted by a combination of a history of depression and subthreshold symptoms, followed by either one alone. Occurrence of anxiety disorder was best predicted by both a combination of a history of anxiety disorder and subthreshold symptoms and a combination of a history of depression and subthreshold symptoms, followed by any subthreshold symptoms or a history of any disorder alone. A history and subthreshold symptoms independently predicted the subsequent occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorder. Together these two characteristics provide reasonable discriminative value. Whereas anxiety predicted the occurrence of an anxiety disorder only, depression predicted the occurrence of both depressive and anxiety disorders.

  1. A 30-month prospective follow-up study of psychological symptoms, psychiatric diagnoses, and their effects on quality of life in children witnessing a single incident of death at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sook-Hyung; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Choi, Nam-Hee; Ryu, Jeong; McDermott, Brett; Cobham, Vanessa; Park, Subin; Kim, Jae-Won; Hong, Soon-Beom; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee-Jeong; Cho, Soo-Churl

    2012-05-01

    We explored the course of trauma-related psychological symptoms and psychiatric diagnoses in 167 children who, as fourth graders, witnessed death at school and assessed the long-term effects of their symptoms on quality of life and their parents' rearing stress. 167 children were evaluated using diverse self-rating symptom scales at 2 days (T1: May 19, 2007), 2 months (T2: July 16, 2007), 6 months (T3: November 12-17, 2007), and 30 months (T4: November 16-21, 2009) after the accident. All children were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Version IV (DISC-IV) at T1. High-risk children were assessed with the DISC-IV at T3 and T4. Children's quality of life and parental stress were assessed in all children and parents using the Parenting Stress Index and the Child Health and Illness Profile at T4. The mean scores and prevalence of severe posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anxiety symptoms decreased significantly over time (P depressive symptoms did not. Although the prevalence of DISC-IV-based diverse anxiety disorders decreased significantly over time, 45% of high-risk subjects evaluated with the DISC-IV met criteria for an anxiety or depressive disorder at T4. Linear and logistic regression analyses showed that depressive symptoms at 6 months predicted more severe parental stress (β = 0.51; odds ratio [OR] = 2.88), less satisfaction (β = -0.25; OR = 2.66), and lower achievement (β = -0.41; OR = 1.50) at 30 months. PTSD symptoms were not associated with parental stress or quality of life at T4. This study provides new evidence regarding the long-term course of trauma-related symptoms and diagnostic changes in children exposed to a single trauma. Children's depressive symptoms predicted lower children's quality of life and higher parental rearing stress after 2 years. Careful assessment and management of depressive symptoms can potentially reduce parental stress and improve quality of life of children. © Copyright 2012 Physicians

  2. Menopause-related symptoms: traditional Chinese medicine vs hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Hoda; Feng Liu, Yan; Du, Lin; Hua Wang, Chao; Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza; Ollah Esmaily, Habib; Azizi, Hamideh; Ou Xue, Xiao

    2011-01-01

    To compare the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), acupuncture, and hormone therapy on menopause- related symptoms of peri- and postmenopausal women. Fifty-seven Chinese women completed 2 months of treatment with either CHM (5 g twice daily, n = 22), acupuncture plus CHM (Kun Bao Wan) 5 g twice daily plus sessions of acupuncture, n = 20), or hormone therapy (n = 15). Kupperman index score, levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol, and the number of symptoms before and after treatment were the main outcome measures. CHM, acupuncture plus CHM, and hormone therapy significantly decreased Kupperman score (P acupuncture plus CHM and CHM with significantly better results by acupuncture plus CHM. Acupuncture plus CHM, as well as hormone therapy, significantly reduced the level of FSH (P .05). The mean difference in the level of FSH between baseline and 2 months among the three groups was significantly different (P = .02). This difference was only between CHM and hormone therapy with significantly better results by hormone therapy. The three treatments didn't make any significant increase in the level of E2 (P > .05). application of the combination of Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture proved as effective as hormone therapy in the treatment of menopause-related symptoms, and it achieved better outcomes than herbal medicine alone.

  3. Clinical, functional and health-related quality of life correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Nguyen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical, functional and health-related quality of life (HRQoL correlates of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc. METHODS: Three-hundred-and-eighty-one patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology and/or the Leroy and Medsger criteria for SSc were assessed for visceral involvement, disability and HRQoL (assessed by SF-36. Clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HAD (defined cut-off≥8. RESULTS: 9.2% the patients had limited SSc, 50.5% limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc, and 40.3% diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc. Overall, 40.4% and 58.8% of the patients had clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of depression, patients with clinically significant symptoms of depression had poorer health status, HRQoL mental and physical component, and greater global disability, hand disability and aesthetic impairment. Compared to patients without clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, patients with clinically significant symptoms of anxiety had poorer SF-36 mental and physical component scores. On multivariable analysis, excluding mental component score of SF-36, variables independently associated with clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety were global disability and physical component of SF-36, plus female gender for clinically significant symptoms of anxiety only. Remarkably, patients with and without clinically significant psychiatric symptoms were comparable for all disease-related clinical features assessed. CONCLUSION: High levels of clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression are observed among SSc patients. Clinically significant psychiatric symptoms are rather associated with increased disability and altered HRQoL, than with disease-specific organ

  4. Does cervical kyphosis relate to symptoms following whiplash injury?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Mats Peter; Baann Liane, Martin Skogheim; Bendix, Tom

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms for developing long-lasting neck pain after whiplash injuries are still largely unrevealed. In the present study it was investigated whether a kyphotic deformity of the cervical spine, as opposed to a straight or a lordotic spine, was associated with the symptoms at baseline......, and with the prognosis one year following a whiplash injury. MRI was performed in 171 subjects about 10 d after the accident, and 104 participated in the pain recording at 1-year follow-up. It was demonstrated that postures as seen on MRI can be reliably categorized and that a straight spine is the most frequent...... appearance of the cervical spine in supine MRI. In relation to symptoms it was seen that a kyphotic deformity was associated with reporting the highest intensities of headache at baseline, but not with an increased risk of long-lasting neck pain or headache. In conclusion, a kyphotic deformity...

  5. Stress-Related Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation: The Roles of Rumination and Depressive Symptoms Vary by Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco-Roman, Lillian; Gomez, Judelysse; Miranda, Regina; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of literature suggesting that reactions to stressful life events, such as intrusive thoughts, physiological hyperarousal, and cognitive/behavioral avoidance (i.e., stress-related symptoms) may increase risk for thinking about and attempting suicide. Cognitive vulnerability models have identified rumination (i.e., perseverating on a negative mood) as a maladaptive response that may increase risk for suicidal behavior, as it has also been linked to depression. The present study examined the direct and indirect effects of stress-related symptoms on suicidal ideation through rumination and depressive symptoms. Participants were 1375 young adults, primarily non-White (78 %) females (72 %), recruited from a public university in the Northeastern U.S., who completed measures of stress-related symptoms (as a response to a stressful event), rumination, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation. The relation between stress-related symptoms and suicidal ideation was accounted for by the brooding subtype of rumination and depressive symptoms among females. Depressive symptoms, but not rumination, better accounted for suicidal ideation among males. These findings suggest that the role of brooding and depressive symptoms in the relationship between stress-related symptoms and suicidal ideation may vary by gender. PMID:27695146

  6. Prevalence of Sleep Related Symptoms in Four Latin American Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouscoulet, Luis Torre; Vázquez-García, Juan Carlos; Muiño, Adriana; Márquez, Maria; López, Maria Victorina; de Oca, Maria Montes; Talamo, Carlos; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Pertuze, Julio; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: to estimate the prevalence of the most common sleep related symptoms (SRS) in the metropolitan areas of Mexico City, Montevideo (Uruguay), Santiago (Chile), and Caracas (Venezuela). Methods: The study consisted of a multistage cluster sampling of adults aged ≥ 40 years living in metropolitan areas. All participants completed a questionnaire on sleep related symptoms. Simplified respiratory polygraphy during sleep was conducted on 188 subjects from Mexico City. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome was defined as Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥ 11 and respiratory disturbance index (RDI) ≥ 15 events/h; a cut-off of 15 was chosen because of its high sensitivity and specificity in association with the portable monitor used in the study. Results: The study included 4,533 subjects (1,062 in Mexico City, 941 in Montevideo, 1,173 in Santiago, and 1,357 in Caracas). Snoring was reported by 60.2% (95% CI 58.8% to 61.6%), excessive daytime sleepiness by 16.4% (15.3% to 17.5%), observed apneas by 12.3% (11.4% to 13.3%), insomnia by 34.7% (33.3% to 36%), sedative use by 15.1% (14.1% to 16.2%), daytime napping by 29.2% (27.7% to 30.6%), and a combination of snoring, sleepiness, and observed apneas by 3.4% (2.9% to 4%). Men had a higher frequency of snoring and daytime napping, whereas women reported more insomnia and sedative use. Prevalence of OSAS varied from 2.9% among subjects who denied snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, and observed apneas, to 23.5% among those reporting these 3 symptoms. Conclusions: A high prevalence of sleep related symptoms and undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea in Latin America was observed. Citation: Bouscoulet LT; Vázquez-García JC; Muiño A; Márquez M; López MV; Montes de Oca M; Talamo C; Valdivia G; Pertuze J; Menezes AMB; Pérez-Padilla R. Prevalence of Sleep Related Symptoms in Four Latin American Cities. J Clin Sleep Med 2008;4(6):579-585. PMID:19110888

  7. Serotonin-related pathways and developmental plasticity: relevance for psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayer, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Risk for adult psychiatric disorders is partially determined by early-life alterations occurring during neural circuit formation and maturation. In this perspective, recent data show that the serotonin system regulates key cellular processes involved in the construction of cortical circuits. Translational data for rodents indicate that early-life serotonin dysregulation leads to a wide range of behavioral alterations, ranging from stress-related phenotypes to social deficits. Studies in humans have revealed that serotonin-related genetic variants interact with early-life stress to regulate stress-induced cortisol responsiveness and activate the neural circuits involved in mood and anxiety disorders. Emerging data demonstrate that early-life adversity induces epigenetic modifications in serotonin-related genes. Finally, recent findings reveal that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can reinstate juvenile-like forms of neural plasticity, thus allowing the erasure of long-lasting fear memories. These approaches are providing new insights on the biological mechanisms and clinical application of antidepressants. PMID:24733969

  8. [Promoting "successful aging" in community psychiatric care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimura, Hidehito; Nemoto, Takahiro; Sakuma, Kei; Mizuno, Masafumi

    2011-01-01

    Recently, patients with schizophrenia have been progressively aging in a way similar to that of the general population. In Japan, community mental health care has become more active in the context of the policy of promoting the discharge of patients from psychiatric hospitals. Patients with chronic schizophrenia who have been discharged are already approaching old age. "Successful aging" may be a key concept in their community-based psychiatric care. Successful aging does not emphasize a loss of youth, but focuses on gains and growth achieved with aging. In the Sasagawa Project, 78 patients with schizophrenia were gradually transferred from a psychiatric hospital to a community dwelling. Eight years have passed since the project began. Elder patients (>60 years old) showed stable psychiatric symptoms and were rarely readmitted to the psychiatric ward. They were, however, more often readmitted to hospital due to physical disease (for example, lifestyle-related disease or fracture) than were middle -aged patients (aging, but they are not sufficiently prepared for old age. In the mental health care of aging psychiatric patients, it is necessary to not only control psychiatric symptoms, but also promote and improve their quality of life by maintaining their ability to continue living in the community (for example, by supporting their preparations for old age).

  9. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson′s disease (PD is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control, sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD.

  10. Integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program to reduce multiple psychiatric symptoms of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden: randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, T.J.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Lee, J. van der; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Beekman, A.T.; Ribbe, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of an integrative psychotherapeutic nursing home program (integrative reactivation and rehabilitation [IRR]) to reduce multiple neuropsychiatry symptoms (MNPS) of cognitively impaired patients and caregiver burden (CB). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial.

  11. Measuring Limit-Setting Practices Used by Family Members Towards Relatives with Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrum, Travis; Walk, Marlene; Solomon, Phyllis L

    2016-09-01

    Family members often set limits with relatives with psychiatric disorders (PD), however, no scale currently exists measuring the use of such limit-setting practices. The present article describes the development and results of a new measure, the Family Limit-Setting Scale (FLSS). Via a national online survey, the FLSS was completed by 573 adults residing in the U.S. who report having an adult relative with PD. We conducted exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, examined internal consistencies and other indicators of construct validity, and performed invariance analyses assessing the generality of the optimal factor model to men, women, Caucasian respondents, and non-Caucasian respondents. Results indicate that the FLSS has an acceptable two factor structure (routine limit-setting and crisis prevention limit-setting) with both factors being highly generalizable to all groups of respondents examined. Internal consistencies and other indicators provide additional evidence of the FLSS' construct validity. Use of the FLSS will enable the conduction of quantitative research in this area. In addition, this measure may be employed in education/support organizations for families with a member with mental illness in an effort to identify persons using high levels of limit-setting practices who may benefit from extra support and/or guidance.

  12. The expected psychiatric impact of detention in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and related considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Grant Hilary

    2010-01-01

    What are the likely mental and related physical health consequences of prolonged exposure to common stressors to detainees at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba? Significant distress leads to high rates of psychiatric disorders, medical problems, and functional impairments. The consequences are severe, physically and psychologically, affecting the individual, his or her family, and the culture at large. Damaging conditions endured by detainees are multiple and severe and are reviewed here in detail. The author identifies parallels between Guantanamo detainees and similarly mistreated populations (e.g., prisoners of war, asylum seekers, prisoners) to draw inferences from existing research regarding likely outcomes for Guantanamo detainees. Protective factors normally present are systematically disrupted at Guantanamo. Overall, it is likely that detainees and their families are experiencing significant mental and physical health problems as a result of overlapping severe and chronic stressors related to detention and that this will worsen over time, particularly in the absence of appropriate assessment and treatment. The author addresses political and ethical factors, as well as basic implications for assessment, treatment, and advocacy, although these are not the focus of the article. Researchers and clinicians will face challenges in providing care for this population and understanding the long-term effects of such mistreatment. Sources reviewed are current up to September 2009.

  13. Neurodegenerative diseases, suicide and depressive symptoms in relation to EMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbom, A

    2001-01-01

    In 1979 the first study was published which indicated that environmental exposure to power frequency, electric and magnetic fields (EMF), might increase the risk of chronic disease. This was a study on cancer. However, this research area has gradually evolved and come also to include outcomes other than cancer. The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the literature on neurodegenerative diseases and on suicide and depressive symptoms in relation to EMF by using a meta-analysis technique. It is concluded that for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, there are relatively strong data indicating that electric utility work may be associated with an increased risk. However, EMF exposure is only one of several possible explanations to this. For Alzheimer's disease the combined data on an association with EMF are weaker than that for ALS. For suicide an overall assessment yields the conclusion that the support for an association is weak. For depressive symptoms the assessment is more complex, but the overall conclusion is nevertheless that the evidence is relatively weak. For other diseases, such as Parkinson's, there is not enough information for an assessment. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Psychiatric disorders and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "SH. Akhondzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are common in women during their childbearing years. Special considerations are needed when psychotic disorders present during pregnancy. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy can prevent morbidity in pregnancy and in postpartum with the concomitant risks to mother and baby. Nevertheless, diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy is made more difficult by the overlap between symptoms of the disorders and symptoms of pregnancy. In majority of cases both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy should be considered. However, psychiatric disorders in pregnancy are often under treated because of concerns about potential harmful effects of medication. This paper reviews findings about the presentation and course of major psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.

  15. Salivary Melatonin in Relation to Depressive Symptom Severity in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isak Sundberg

    Full Text Available Reduced levels of melatonin have been associated with severe depression. The aim was to investigate the correlation between salivary melatonin and dimensional measures of depressive symptom severity in young adult psychiatric patients. Levels of melatonin were analyzed in six saliva samples during waking hours from 119 young adult patients under outpatient psychiatric care. Melatonin levels were tested for association with the severity of depressive symptoms using the self-rating version of the Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S. Where possible, depressive symptoms were assessed again after 6±2 months of treatment. Response was defined as decrease in MADRS-S by ≥50% between baseline and follow-up. Patients with levels of melatonin in the lowest quartile at bedtime had an increased probability of a high MADRS-S score compared to those with the highest levels of melatonin (odds ratio 1.39, 95% CI 1.15-1.69, p<0.01. A post hoc regression analysis found that bedtime melatonin levels predicted response (odds ratio 4.4, 95% CI 1.06-18.43, p<0.05. A negative relationship between salivary melatonin and dimensional measures of depressive symptom severity was found in young patients under outpatient psychiatric care. Bedtime salivary melatonin levels may have prognostic implications.

  16. Breaking down the barriers: the gut microbiome, intestinal permeability and stress-related psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John R.; Kennedy, Paul J.; Cryan, John F.; Dinan, Timothy G.; Clarke, Gerard; Hyland, Niall P.

    2015-01-01

    The emerging links between our gut microbiome and the central nervous system (CNS) are regarded as a paradigm shift in neuroscience with possible implications for not only understanding the pathophysiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders, but also their treatment. Thus the gut microbiome and its influence on host barrier function is positioned to be a critical node within the brain-gut axis. Mounting preclinical evidence broadly suggests that the gut microbiota can modulate brain development, function and behavior by immune, endocrine and neural pathways of the brain-gut-microbiota axis. Detailed mechanistic insights explaining these specific interactions are currently underdeveloped. However, the concept that a “leaky gut” may facilitate communication between the microbiota and these key signaling pathways has gained traction. Deficits in intestinal permeability may underpin the chronic low-grade inflammation observed in disorders such as depression and the gut microbiome plays a critical role in regulating intestinal permeability. In this review we will discuss the possible role played by the gut microbiota in maintaining intestinal barrier function and the CNS consequences when it becomes disrupted. We will draw on both clinical and preclinical evidence to support this concept as well as the key features of the gut microbiota which are necessary for normal intestinal barrier function. PMID:26528128

  17. Disentangling depression and anxiety in relation to neuroticism, extraversion, suicide, and self-harm among adult psychiatric inpatients with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Allen, Jon G; Frueh, B Christopher; Elhai, Jon D; Fowler, J Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about depression-anxiety comorbidity and its association with personality traits and suicide/self-harm in adult psychiatric inpatients with serious mental illness (SMI), impacting clinical assessment and treatment. This study sought to determine the symptom structure of depression-anxiety comorbidity and its relation to neuroticism, extraversion, and suicide/self-harm behaviour in this high-risk population. Nine hundred and sixty-two adults receiving inpatient care at a private psychiatric hospital completed questionnaires at admission. Confirmatory factor analyses compared a bifactor solution specifying a general distress factor and two specific depression and anxiety factors against unidimensional and correlated factors solutions. The bifactor solutions' factors were subsequently correlated with neuroticism and extraversion subscales and pre-hospitalization suicide/self-harm behaviours. The bifactor model rendered superior fit to sample data and a robust general factor - accounting for 77.61% of common item variance - providing the first evidence for a tripartite structure of depression and anxiety among adult inpatients. The bifactor solution-outputted independent general distress, depression, and anxiety factors positively correlated with neuroticism, the personality dimension corresponding to trait negative affectivity. The general distress and depression factors associated with recent self-harm, but factors showed no associations with prior suicidal behaviour. In adult psychiatric inpatients, general distress substantially underlies comorbid depression and anxiety symptom variation and may contribute to recent incidence of self-harm. Transdiagnostic assessments and interventions targeting general distress may temper depression, anxiety, and self-harm in adult inpatients. Clinical implications Depression-anxiety comorbidity symptomology in adult psychiatric inpatients is primarily composed of general distress. General distress and specific

  18. Management of Persistent Cognitive Symptoms After Sport-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Ledbetter, Alexander K

    2016-05-01

    This case review examines treatments speech-language pathologists at our clinic delivered to middle school, high school, and college students for the management of persistent cognitive symptoms after sport-related concussion. The goal is to examine a range of treatment options, describe clinical rationale for selecting those treatments, and report outcomes in order to identify feasible interventions for systematic evaluation through efficacy research. Review of clinic intake data identified 63 cases referred for cognitive rehabilitation over a 36-month period. Twenty-four cases (14 women and 10 men) met selection criteria, including documented sport-related concussion, postconcussion symptoms persisting at least 2 months with deleterious effect on school performance, and enrollment in secondary or postsecondary education. The authors independently coded demographics, treatment approaches, functional goal domains, and outcomes. Treatment approaches fell into 4 broad categories: direct attention training, metacognitive strategy training, training assistive technology for cognition, and psychoeducational supports. Eighty-three percent of clients achieved self-selected functional goals. Research has focused primarily on return to play and provision of academic accommodations in the initial weeks following concussion. Findings from this case series suggest that speech-language pathologists can deliver individualized interventions that lead to positive clinical outcomes. The authors hope findings encourage efficacy research.

  19. Current maternal depression moderates the relation between critical expressed emotion in mothers and depressive symptoms in their adolescent daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Kalpakci, Allison; Sharp, Carla

    2015-06-30

    Prior studies have examined critical expressed emotion (EE-Crit) in mothers in the intergenerational transmission of depression. However, the potential moderating effect of maternal depression diagnostic status in relation to EE-Crit and youth depressive symptoms has yet to be determined. A total of N=121 biological mother/daughter dyads that differed in maternal depression diagnostic status were recruited for the present study: (1) currently depressed mothers (current depression, n=29); (2) formerly depressed mothers (past depression, n=39); and (3) mothers free from any psychiatric history (healthy controls, n=53). Mothers were administered structured clinical interviews and completed self-report measures of EE-Crit and psychopathology, and daughters self-reported depressive symptoms. Results indicated no significant group differences in EE-Crit; however, current maternal depression status moderated EE-Crit such that the magnitude of the relation between EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms was significantly greater in daughters of currently depressed mothers. These findings highlight the importance of considering current maternal depression, rather than a history of maternal depression, in relation to EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms, providing impetus for future investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychiatric history and subthreshold symptoms as predictors of the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorder within 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, Julie; Hartman, Catharina A.; Smit, Johannes H.; Zitman, Frans G.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Cuijpers, Pim; van der Does, A. J. Willem; Ormel, Johan; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda

    BACKGROUND: Past episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders and subthreshold symptoms have both been reported to predict the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorders. It is unclear to what extent the two factors interact or predict these disorders independently. AIMS: To examine the extent to

  1. Efficacy of specialized group psychotherapy for survivors of childhood sexual abuse in reducing symptoms of PTSD and general psychiatric distress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Henriette Kiilsholm; Kristensen, Ellids; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    in women with a history of CSA participating in both analytic and systemic specialized incest group psychotherapy. Improvement was maintained for both groups at 5-year-follow-up. The trajectories of PTSD symptoms and GSI for the two groups differed significantly, however. Implications of the difference...

  2. Psychiatric history and subthreshold symptoms as predictors of the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorder within 2 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, J.; Hartman, C.A.; Smit, J.H.; Zitman, F.G.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Cuijpers, P.; van der Does, A.; Ormel, J.; Nolen, W.A.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Past episodes of depressive or anxiety disorders and subthreshold symptoms have both been reported to predict the occurrence of depressive or anxiety disorders. It is unclear to what extent the two factors interact or predict these disorders independently. Aims: To examine the extent to

  3. Screen time on school days and risks for psychiatric symptoms and self-harm in mainland Chinese adolescents: A multicenter cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingli eLiu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate associations of television and of video game or non-educational computer use (VG/CU exposure volumes in a typical school day with psychiatric symptoms and suicidal ideation/self-injurious behavior (self-harm, in mainland Chinese adolescents.Methods Secondary school pupils (N = 13,659; mean age: 15.18 ± 1.89 from 10 urban areas sampled from different regions of mainland China were recruited. The subjects were divided into the follow four screen exposure volume groups for television and VG/CU respectively based on a self-administered questionnaire: 0 h/d, >0 to ≤1 h/d, >1 to ≤2 h/d, and >2 h/d. Demographic and psychiatric symptoms were recorded for each respondent. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for several types of psychological problems and self-harm were calculated.Results For television, >2 hours per school day was associated with greater risk of depression in both boys (OR = 1.33, 95%CI: 1.02–1.73 and girls (OR = 1.62, 95%CI: 1.19– 2.21, of anxiety in boys (OR = 1.43, 95%CI: 1.05–1.95, of general emotional, behavioral, and social problems (GEBSPs in girls (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.01–2.39, and of oppositional defiant problems (ODPs in girls (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.09–2.50, compared with the reference group. Conversely, television exposure of >0 to ≤1 hour per school day was associated with lower self-harm risk in boys (OR = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.67–0.99 compared with the no television exposure group. For VG/CU, higher risks of anxiety (OR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.06–1.86 and of attention deficit/hyperactivity problems (ADHPs (OR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.02–2.38 were associated with excessive VG/CU time (>2 h per school day in boys compared with the no VG/CU exposure group. Higher risks of self-harm and all other psychiatric problems (including anxiety and ADHPs in girls were associated with any school-day VG/CU exposure, compared to no VG/CU exposure, in both genders.Conclusion For mainland Chinese

  4. Recurrent abdominal pain in children: psychiatric diagnoses and parental psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, J; Zeman, J; Walker, L S

    1990-07-01

    Approximately 12% of children report recurrent episodes of abdominal pain. In only about 10% of these cases, however, can an organic etiology be identified, and therefore it often is assumed that these children have emotional problems. To test this hypothesis, children with recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) with no identifiable organic cause were compared to children with an organic diagnosis for their abdominal pain, children with psychiatric disorders, and healthy controls. Both groups of children with abdominal pain had significantly more psychiatric disorders (predominantly anxiety and depression) than did the healthy group. Both RAP and psychiatric children had significantly higher Child Behavior Checklist internalizing scores; psychiatric children were rated as significantly more maladjusted on the Children's Global Assessment Scale. Mothers of RAP children were significantly more anxious than mothers of organic pain and healthy children. Psychiatric children were significantly more likely than the other three groups to underreport their psychiatric symptoms relative to their mothers.

  5. Psychiatric and somatic health in relation to experience of parental divorce in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2012-01-01

    The outcome of studies about the experience of parental divorce and its effects on mental and physical health differs, a result possibly caused by the use of different questionnaires and instruments, varying length of time since the divorce and divergent drop-out of participants. To study the presence of psychiatric records and number of diagnosed somatic and mental healthcare visits in a group of young adults with childhood experience of parental divorce in comparison to a group without this experience. The presence of records at public psychiatric clinics and 10 years of administrative healthcare data (somatic and mental) were checked for both groups. Significantly more persons from the divorce group appeared in child and adolescent psychiatric care; this was most pronounced in females. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in the number of persons seeking adult psychiatry or in the number of psychiatric consultations. Experience of parental divorce was not found to be an indicator of larger somatic health problems. Experience of parental divorce in childhood is not an indicator of adult psychiatric or somatic need of care.

  6. Building-related risk factors and work-related lower respiratory symptoms in 80 office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.; Naco, G.M.; Wilcox, T.G.; Sieber, W.K.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed building-related risk factors for lower respiratory symptoms in office workers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health in 1993 collected data during indoor environmental health investigations of workplaces. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess relationships between lower respiratory symptoms in office workers and risk factors plausibly related to microbiologic contamination. Among 2,435 occupants in 80 office buildings, frequent, work-related multiple lower respiratory symptoms were strongly associated, in multivariate models, with two risk factors for microbiologic contamination: poor pan drainage under cooling coils and debris in outside air intake. Associations tended to be stronger among those with a history of physician-diagnosed asthma. These findings suggest that adverse lower respiratory health effects from indoor work environments, although unusual, may occur in relation to poorly designed or maintained ventilation systems, particularly among previously diagnosed asthmatics. These findings require confirmation in more representative buildings.

  7. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms Relate to Distinct Components of Pain Experience among Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Galloway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a leading cancer diagnosis among women worldwide, with more than 210,000 new cases and 40,000 deaths per year in the United States. Pain, anxiety, and depression can be significant factors during the course of breast cancer. Pain is a complex experience with sensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions. While depression and anxiety symptoms are relatively common among breast cancer patients, little is known about the relation between these psychiatric factors and distinct components of the pain experience. In the present study 60 females presenting to an NCI-designated Cancer Center with newly diagnosed breast cancer completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies 10-item Depression Scale, the State Instrument of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. Findings indicate that anxiety and depression are common among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients; furthermore, patients experience an appreciable amount of pain even before oncologic treatment starts. State anxiety serves as a predictor of the sensory dimension of the pain experience, whereas depression serves as a predictor of the affective dimension of the pain experience.

  8. Remission of Cognitive Deficits in Parkinson’s Disease: Recovery from a Nonamnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment or Psychiatric Symptoms Remission?

    OpenAIRE

    de Paula, Jonas Jardim; Cintra, Marco Túlio Gualberto; Miranda, Débora Marques; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida Camargos; Moares, Edgar Nunes; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment is a clinical condition more frequent in patients with Parkinson's disease than in general population. The nonamnestic presentations, usually characterized by executive dysfunction, are most prevalent. We present a case report of a Parkinson's disease patient diagnosed with nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment that showed complete remission of cognitive symptoms after one year. We discuss the possible causes for the remission, focusing on the treatment of medical co...

  9. Caregiver Expressed Emotion and Psychiatric Symptoms in African-Americans with Schizophrenia: An Attempt to Understand the Paradoxical Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurak, Kayla; Weisman de Mamani, Amy

    2017-06-01

    Expressed emotion (EE) is a family environmental construct that assesses how much criticism, hostility, and/or emotional over-involvement a family member expresses about a patient (Hooley, Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 2007, 3, 329). Having high levels of EE within the family environment has generally been associated with poorer patient outcomes for schizophrenia and a range of other disorders. Paradoxically, for African-American patients, high-EE may be associated with a better symptom course (Rosenfarb, Bellack, & Aziz, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2006, 115, 112). However, this finding is in need of additional support and, if confirmed, clarification. In line with previous research, using a sample of 30 patients with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers, we hypothesized that having a caregiver classified as low-EE would be associated with greater patient symptom severity. We also aimed to better understand why this pattern may exist by examining the content of interviews taken from the Five-Minute Speech Sample. Results supported study hypotheses. In line with Rosenfarb et al. (2006), having a low-EE caregiver was associated with greater symptom severity in African-American patients. A content analysis uncovered some interesting patterns that may help elucidate this finding. Results of this study suggest that attempts to lower high-EE in African Americans may, in fact, be counterproductive. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  10. Exploring the Relations between Parent Depressive Symptoms, Family Religious Involvement, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: A Test of Moderation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lisa M.; Caroline R. Newman

    2011-01-01

    Building on previous research, the current study examined the relations between parent depressive symptoms, family religious involvement, and adolescent depressive symptoms in a convenience sample of 74 parent-adolescent dyads of southern U.S. families. We used hierarchical regression analysis to explore whether family religious involvement…

  11. Programming for Stimulation-Induced Transient Nonmotor Psychiatric Symptoms after Bilateral Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stimulation-induced transient nonmotor psychiatric symptoms (STPSs are side effects following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients. We designed algorithms which (1 determine the electrode contacts that induce STPSs and (2 provide a programming protocol to eliminate STPS and maintain the optimal motor functions. Our objective is to test the effectiveness of these algorithms. Materials and Methods. 454 PD patients who underwent programming sessions after STN-DBS implantations were retrospectively analyzed. Only STPS patients were enrolled. In these patients, the contacts inducing STPS were found and the programming protocol algorithms used. Results. Eleven patients were diagnosed with STPS. Of these patients, two had four episodes of crying, and two had four episodes of mirthful laughter. In one patient, two episodes of abnormal sense of spatial orientation were observed. Hallucination episodes were observed twice in one patient, while five patients recorded eight episodes of hypomania. There were no statistical differences between the UPDRS-III under the final stimulation parameter (without STPS and previous optimum UPDRS-III under the STPSs (p=1.000. Conclusion. The flow diagram used for determining electrode contacts that induce STPS and the programming protocol employed in the treatment of these symptoms are effective.

  12. Occurrence of post traumatic stress symptoms and their relationship to professional quality of life (ProQoL in nursing staff at a forensic psychiatric security unit: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonstad Kåre

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence is frequent towards nurses in forensic mental health hospitals. Implications of this high risk environment have not been systematically explored. This paper explores occurrence of symptoms on post traumatic stress and their relationship to professional quality of life. Methods Self report questionnaires assessing symptoms of post traumatic stress and professional quality of life were distributed among psychiatric nurses in a high security forensic psychiatric unit with high frequency of violent behaviour. Relationships between post traumatic stress symptoms, forensic nursing experience, type of ward and compassion satisfaction, burnout and compassion fatigue were explored. Results The prevalence of post traumatic stress symptoms was low. Low scores were found on compassion satisfaction. Length of psychiatric nursing experience and low scores on compassion satisfaction were correlated to increased post traumatic stress symptoms. Conclusion Although high violence frequency, low rate of post traumatic stress symptoms and low compassion satisfaction scores was found. High staff/patient ratio and emotional distance between staff and patients are discussed as protective factors.

  13. Lennox-lombroso lecture, 2013: psychiatric comorbidities through the life of the seizure disorder: a complex relation with a not so complex solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, Andres M

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities are relatively frequent in people with epilepsy, occurring in one of every three patients, with mood and anxiety disorders predominating. They are the expression of a complex interaction between a previous psychiatric history (and/or genetic predisposition for psychiatric disorder), neurobiologic changes associated with the underlying epilepsy, peri-ictal phenomena, iatrogenic and reactive processes. Furthermore, a bidirectional relation between psychiatric disorders and epilepsy has added another level of complexity, while at the same time opening an opportunity of the recognition of potential pathogenic mechanisms that are responsible for the high comorbid occurrence of these disorders. This article highlights the clinical implications of understanding the course of psychiatric comorbidities relative to the onset of the seizure disorder to minimize their risk of recurrence and their interference in the management of the seizure disorder.

  14. Relations between dietary restraint, depressive symptoms, and binge eating; A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, S.T.P.; Stice, E.; Bekker, M.H.J.; Strien, T. van; Croon, M.A.; Heck, G.L. van

    2006-01-01

    Temporal relations between dietary restraint, depressive symptoms, and binge eating are tested through three competing models that demonstrate the relationship between future binge eating, dietary restraint and depressive symptoms. The pattern of relations and effect sizes suggest that depressive

  15. Changes in positive affect and mindfulness predict changes in cortisol response and psychiatric symptoms: a latent change score modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wai Kai; Ng, Sin Man; Wan, Jacky Ho Yin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether and how changes in positive affect and mindfulness predicted changes in cortisol secretion and psychological distress in adaptation to examination stress. A sample of 105 college students completed a questionnaire set and provided salivary samples before (T1), during (T2) and after (T3) an examination period. Latent change score modelling revealed that T1-T2 and T2-T3 increases in mindfulness were associated with larger T2-T3 decrease in area-under-the-curve ground of cortisol awakening response (CARg), whereas T2-T3 increases in both positive affect and mindfulness were associated with larger T2-T3 decrease in anxiety symptoms (comparative fit index = .96; Tucker-Lewis index = .93-.95; root-mean-square error of approximation = .04-.08; standardised root-mean-square residual = .08-.10). T1-T2 and T2-T3 increases in positive affect were not associated T2-T3 decrease in CARg, whereas T1-T2 increases in positive affect and mindfulness were not associated with T2-T3 decrease in anxiety symptoms. The levels of post-stress recovery from anxiety symptoms could depend on concurrent increases in positive affect and mindfulness, whereas the levels of post-stress decline in cortisol secretion could depend on increases in mindfulness both during and after stress. Directions for translating the present findings into stress management programmes in college settings are discussed.

  16. A survey of HIV-related knowledge among adult psychiatric patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hughes E, Gray R. HIV prevention for people with serious mental illness: A survey of mental health workers' attitudes, knowledge and practice. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2008;. 18:591-600. 8. Naber D, Pajonk FG, Perro C, Lohmer B. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody test and seroprevalence in psychiatric patients.

  17. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A.; Glantz, S.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  18. Changes in symptom severity, schemas and modes in heterogeneous psychiatric patient groups following short-term schema cognitive-behavioural group therapy: a naturalistic pre-treatment and post-treatment design in an outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vreeswijk, M F; Spinhoven, P; Eurelings-Bontekoe, E H M; Broersen, J

    2014-01-01

    Schema therapy has proven to be an effective treatment for patients with borderline personality disorder. However, little is known of its merits in other psychiatric (personality) disorders. This study investigated whether schema therapy in a group setting (group schema cognitive-behavioural therapy [SCBT-g]) was associated with changes in symptom and schema and mode severity. Furthermore, the aim was to search for baseline predictors and possible mediators of treatment outcome. Sixty-three heterogeneous psychiatric outpatients who attended the SCBT-g were included as participants. In this naturalistic pre-treatment and post-treatment design, data were available on the Symptom Checklist 90, the Schema Questionnaire and the Young-Atkinson Mode Inventory. All outcome measurements showed changes with moderate to high effect sizes, with 53.2% of the patients showing a significant reduction in severity of psychiatric symptoms and schemas and modes. Higher pre-treatment levels of the schema domain Other Directedness predicted greater symptom reduction. Pre-treatment to mid-treatment changes in schema severity predicted subsequent symptom improvement, but change in symptoms and schemas proved to be strongly correlated. In this naturalistic study, SCBT-g was associated with reduced symptom and schema and mode severity in more than half of the psychiatric outpatients. Furthermore, the results suggest that changes in schemas and symptomatology mutually reinforce each other. Over 50% of ambulatory patients show clinical improvement after treatment in a short-term schema therapy group. Other Directedness seems to be a predictor of schema group therapy success. More randomized controlled trial studies and prediction and mediation studies on (short-term) schema group therapy are sorely needed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an Allergic Reaction to Food Symptoms of an Allergic Reaction to Food Learn about the mild and severe ... the food to which you are allergic. An allergic reaction to food can affect the skin, the gastrointestinal ...

  20. A comparison of symptoms and drug use between patients with methamphetamine associated psychoses and patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in two acute psychiatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhus, Sigrid; Mordal, Jon; Holm, Bjørn; Mørland, Jørg; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2013-03-30

    Psychosis induced by the use of amphetamine or methamphetamine leads to dramatic symptoms and frequent readmissions and poses diagnostic challenges. Earlier studies have often relied on history taking and/or urine samples to reveal drug use. The aim of this study was to compare the psychotic symptoms of two groups: (1) acutely admitted patients who tested positive for methamphetamines and were diagnosed with drug-induced or methamphetamine-induced psychoses and (2) acutely admitted patients who tested negative for methamphetamines and were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Blood and urine samples were used. In addition, we investigated whether the severity of symptoms, in those who tested positive, was related to the blood concentration of methamphetamine. Of 285 patients who volunteered blood and/or urine samples within 48h of admission, 37 (13%) had recently taken methamphetamine. Positive psychotic symptoms between the two groups were compared by PANSS using the positive subscale. The results showed no differences in positive psychotic symptoms between the two groups. The severity of positive psychotic symptoms in patients with three different levels of urine/blood methamphetamine concentrations, were compared. We found no clinically or statistically significant relationship between blood methamphetamine levels and severity of psychotic symptoms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychiatric symptoms in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, A C C O; Braga, A A; Soares-Filho, G; Pereira, V; Nardi, A E; Silva, A C

    2014-04-01

    This article is a systematic review of the available literature on the benefits that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) offers patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and confirms its effectiveness. After receiving the device, some patients fear that it will malfunction, or they remain in a constant state of tension due to sudden electrical discharges and develop symptoms of anxiety and depression. A search with the key words "anxiety", "depression", "implantable cardioverter", "cognitive behavioral therapy" and "psychotherapy" was carried out. The search was conducted in early January 2013. Sources for the search were ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and PsycINFO. A total of 224 articles were retrieved: 155 from PubMed, 69 from ISI Web of Knowledge. Of these, 16 were written in a foreign language and 47 were duplicates, leaving 161 references for analysis of the abstracts. A total of 19 articles were eliminated after analysis of the abstracts, 13 were eliminated after full-text reading, and 11 articles were selected for the review. The collection of articles for literature review covered studies conducted over a period of 13 years (1998-2011), and, according to methodological design, there were 1 cross-sectional study, 1 prospective observational study, 2 clinical trials, 4 case-control studies, and 3 case studies. The criterion used for selection of the 11 articles was the effectiveness of the intervention of CBT to decrease anxiety and depression in patients with ICD, expressed as a ratio. The research indicated that CBT has been effective in the treatment of ICD patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Research also showed that young women represented a risk group, for which further study is needed. Because the number of references on this theme was small, further studies should be carried out.

  2. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychiatric symptoms in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.C.O. Maia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a systematic review of the available literature on the benefits that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT offers patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs and confirms its effectiveness. After receiving the device, some patients fear that it will malfunction, or they remain in a constant state of tension due to sudden electrical discharges and develop symptoms of anxiety and depression. A search with the key words “anxiety”, “depression”, “implantable cardioverter”, “cognitive behavioral therapy” and “psychotherapy” was carried out. The search was conducted in early January 2013. Sources for the search were ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and PsycINFO. A total of 224 articles were retrieved: 155 from PubMed, 69 from ISI Web of Knowledge. Of these, 16 were written in a foreign language and 47 were duplicates, leaving 161 references for analysis of the abstracts. A total of 19 articles were eliminated after analysis of the abstracts, 13 were eliminated after full-text reading, and 11 articles were selected for the review. The collection of articles for literature review covered studies conducted over a period of 13 years (1998-2011, and, according to methodological design, there were 1 cross-sectional study, 1 prospective observational study, 2 clinical trials, 4 case-control studies, and 3 case studies. The criterion used for selection of the 11 articles was the effectiveness of the intervention of CBT to decrease anxiety and depression in patients with ICD, expressed as a ratio. The research indicated that CBT has been effective in the treatment of ICD patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Research also showed that young women represented a risk group, for which further study is needed. Because the number of references on this theme was small, further studies should be carried out.

  3. Social phobia in a population-based female adolescent twin sample: co-morbidity and associated suicide-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E C; Grant, J D; Bucholz, K K; Glowinski, A; Madden PAF; Reich, W; Heath, A C

    2000-07-01

    This report attempted to replicate and extend prior work examining social phobia (SP), co-morbid psychiatric illnesses, and the risk of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts incurred by their adolescent sufferers. SP, alcohol dependence (ALD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) diagnoses, and suicide-related symptoms, were assessed in a population-based adolescent female twin sample. The differentiation of risks as a function of co-morbidity was explored. A trivariate model was fitted to estimate sharing of genetic and environmental vulnerability between SP and co-morbid disorders. The lifetime prevalence of SP was 16.3 %. Significant risk for co-morbid MDD (OR = 3.2) and ALD (OR = 2.1) was observed. Strong evidence for shared genetic vulnerability between SP and MDD (respective heritabilities 28%, 45%; genetic r = 1.0) was observed with moderate support noted for similar sharing between SP and ALD (genetic r = 0.52, heritability for ALD 63%). SP with co-morbid MDD was associated with elevated risk for ALD and for suicide-related symptoms. SP is a common illness often followed by co-morbid MDD and ALD. SP with comorbid MDD predicts a substantially elevated risk of ALD and suicide-related symptoms, stressing the need for early SP detection.

  4. Development of a symptoms questionnaire for complex regional pain syndrome and potentially related illnesses: the Trauma Related Neuronal Dysfunction Symptoms Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, S.; van Hilten, J.J.; Marinus, J.J.; Zuurmond, W.W.A.; de Lange, J.J.; Perez, R.S.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Collins S, van Hilten JJ, Marinus J, Zuurmond WW, de Lange JJ, Perez RS. Development of a symptoms questionnaire for complex regional pain syndrome and potentially related illnesses: the Trauma Related Neuronal Dysfunction Symptoms Inventory. Objective: To develop a questionnaire to evaluate

  5. Mindfulness-Based Crisis Interventions for patients with psychotic symptoms on acute psychiatric wards (amBITION study): Protocol for a feasibility randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Pamela; Peters, Emmanuelle; Chadwick, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Inpatient psychiatric care is a scarce and expensive resource in the National Health Service (NHS), with chronic bed shortages being partly driven by high re-admission rates. People often need to go into hospital when they have a mental health crisis due to overwhelming distressing psychotic symptoms, such as hearing voices (hallucinations) or experiencing unusual beliefs (delusions). Brief talking therapies may be helpful for people during an acute inpatient admission as an adjunct to medication in reducing re-admission rates, and despite promising findings from trials in the USA, there have not yet been any clinical trials on this kind of intervention within NHS settings. The amBITION study is a feasibility randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a manualised brief talking therapy (Mindfulness-Based Crisis Intervention; MBCI). Inpatients on acute psychiatric wards are eligible for the study if they report at least one positive psychotic symptom, and are willing and able to engage in a talking therapy. In addition to treatment as usual (TAU), participants will be randomly allocated to receive either MBCI or a control intervention (Social Activity Therapy; SAT) which will be based on doing activities on the ward with the therapist. The primary objective of the study is to find out whether it is possible to carry out this kind of trial successfully within UK inpatient settings and to find out whether patients and staff find it an acceptable intervention. The secondary objective is to collect pilot data on primary and secondary outcome measures, including re-admission rates at 6 month follow-up. This will provide information on the appropriateness of re-admission as the primary outcome measure for future efficacy trials, as well as data on the acceptability and utility of the clinical self-report measures. The results of the feasibility trial will indicate whether a subsequent efficacy pilot trial is warranted, and if so, will provide vital information for the planning

  6. Assessing work-related musculoskeletal symptoms among otolaryngology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kevin; Grundfast, Kenneth M; Levi, Jessica R

    Previous studies have suggested that musculoskeletal symptoms are common among practicing otolaryngologists. Early training can be the ideal time to foster knowledge of ergonomics and develop safe work habits, however, little data exists regarding musculoskeletal symptoms in residents. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize musculoskeletal symptoms in a preliminary sample of otolaryngology residents. A cross-sectional survey incorporating the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was sent to 30 Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery residencies to examine musculoskeletal symptoms among residents. A two-sample test of proportions was performed to compare symptoms between male and female residents. In total, 141 respondents (response rate=34.7%) completed the survey. Fifty-five percent of survey respondents were male and 45% were female. Musculoskeletal symptoms were most frequently reported in the neck (82.3%), followed by the lower back (56%), upper back (40.4%), and shoulders (40.4%). The most common symptoms were stiffness in the neck (71.6%), pain in the neck (61.7%), and pain in the lower back (48.2%). In total, 6.4% of residents missed work and 16.3% of residents stopped during an operation at some point due to their symptoms. Most residents (88.3%) believed their musculoskeletal symptoms were attributed to their surgical training. Female residents were significantly more likely to experience neck (p<0.0001) and wrist/hand (p=0.019) discomfort compared to male residents. Musculoskeletal symptoms were common among residents, approaching rates similar to those previously identified in practicing otolaryngologists. Increased emphasis on surgical ergonomics is warranted to improve workplace safety and prevent future injury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The Relationship between Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Work-related Risk Factors in Hotel Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jin Woo; Lee, Ju Jong; Mun, Hyeon Je; Lee, Kyung-Jae; Kim, Joo Ja

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and any associated work-related risk factors, focusing on structural labor factors among hotel workers. Methods A total of 1,016 hotel workers (620 men and 396 women) were analyzed. The questionnaire surveyed participants’ socio-demographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, and work-related musculoskeletal symptoms. Work-related musculoskeletal symptoms were assessed using the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire. All...

  8. Relation between psychiatric disorder and abnormal illness behaviour in patients undergoing operations for cervical discectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, R.; Creed, F; Hughes, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To test the hypothesis that depression in patients being considered for cervical disc surgery is associated with severe organic pathology. Secondly, to test whether depression and abnormal illness attitudes recorded preoperatively would predict poorer recovery.
METHODS—Seventy four patients with pain and disability from cervical arthrosis were examined during investigations before potential cervical surgery. The prevalence of psychiatric disorder was assessed using...

  9. Psychiatric morbidity following Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, D; Mellman, T A; Mendoza, L M; Kulick-Bell, R; Ironson, G; Schneiderman, N

    1996-07-01

    The nature of psychiatric morbidity in previously non-ill subjects from the area most affected by Hurricane Andrew was investigated at 6-12 months posthurricane. Preliminary associations of morbidity with personal and event-related risk factors were also determined. Fifty one percent (31/61) met criteria for a new-onset disorder, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in 36%, major depression (MD) in 30%, and other anxiety disorders in 20%. Thirty four subjects (56%) had significant symptoms persisting beyond 6 months. Having sustained "severe damage" was the risk factor most strongly associated with outcome. Our data underscore the range of psychiatric morbidity related to a natural disaster, and suggest a relationship to chronic stressors.

  10. Exposure to terrorism, stress-related mental health symptoms, and coping behaviors among a nationally representative sample in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Avraham; Gelkopf, Marc; Solomon, Zahava

    2003-08-06

    /506 [5.3%]). Female sex, sense of safety, and use of tranquilizers, alcohol, and cigarettes to cope were associated with TSR symptoms and symptom criteria for PTSD; level of exposure and objective risk were not. The most prevalent coping mechanisms were active information search about loved ones and social support. Considering the nature and length of the Israeli traumatic experience, the psychological impact may be considered moderate. Although the survey participants showed distress and lowered sense of safety, they did not develop high levels of psychiatric distress, which may be related to a habituation process and to coping mechanisms.

  11. Gluten intolerance: gender- and age-related differences in symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Maria Teresa; Fredella, Clara; Saladino, Valeria; Trovato, Cristina; Cesana, Bruno Mario; Quatrini, Maurizio; Prampolini, Luigia

    2005-01-01

    Gluten intolerance is a common, immunologically mediated disorder with a widely variable clinical presentation that affects genetically predisposed subjects. Women seem to be more frequently affected although data on sex differences are poor. In this study the prevalence of different clinical pictures according to sex and age is analysed in a large series of patients. A total of 1436 patients with gluten intolerance were retrospectively considered, diagnosed from January 1975 to August 2001 based on compatible small-bowel biopsy and response to a gluten-free diet, plus immunofluorescent detection of granular IgA in papillary derma for dermatitis herpetiformis. The clinical picture at onset (classic, non-classic, silent) and age at diagnosis ( 2 and 14 years) was recorded; 362 parents of coeliac probands undergoing a familial screening were also studied. The relations among sex, age class and symptoms were analysed using the chi2 test with Yates's correction. The overall female/male ratio was 2.3:1 but the inter-sex difference was significant only when the diagnosis was made in adulthood where a significant association between iron-deficiency anaemia as manifestation at onset in adult women (34% versus 7%) was found. Low weight, dyspepsia and hypertransaminasaemia were more common in adult men than women (20%, 14% and 7% versus 13%, 3% and 2%, respectively). Dermatitis herpetiformis was present more frequently in men (16% versus 9%). The prevalence of silent cases was 6% in men and 3% in women. Familial screening showed the same prevalence (9.3%) of current coeliac disease in fathers and mothers. Diagnosis of coeliac disease is more frequent in women but physicians' awareness of sex- and age-related differences in clinical presentation could improve diagnostic performances in men.

  12. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  13. Child anxiety symptoms related to longitudinal cortisol trajectories and acute stress responses: evidence of developmental stress sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Wright, Dorianne B; Fisher, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children's (n = 107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9-10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress-reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure-may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Identifying Dyscalculia Symptoms Related to Magnocellular Reasoning Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Greger Siem; Babic, Ankica

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study that has developed a mobile software application for assisting diagnosis of learning disabilities in mathematics, called dyscalculia, and measuring correlations between dyscalculia symptoms and magnocellular reasoning. Usually, software aids for dyscalculic individuals are focused on both assisting diagnosis and teaching the material. The software developed in this study however maintains a specific focus on the former, and in the process attempts to capture alleged correlations between dyscalculia symptoms and possible underlying causes of the condition. Classification of symptoms is performed by k-Nearest Neighbor algorithm classifying five parameters evaluating user's skills, returning calculated performance in each category as well as correlation strength between detected symptoms and magnocellular reasoning abilities. Expert evaluations has found the application to be appropriate and productive for its intended purpose, proving that mobile software is a suitable and valuable tool for assisting dyscalculia diagnosis and identifying root causes of developing the condition.

  15. Symptoms in relation to chemicals and dampness in newly built dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Y; Kishi, R; Sata, F; Katakura, Y; Urashima, Y; Hatakeyama, A; Kobayashi, S; Jin, K; Kurahashi, N; Kondo, T; Gong, Y Y; Umemura, T

    2004-10-01

    As the airtightness of dwellings has recently increased, problems associated with indoor air pollution and dampness have become important environmental health issues. The aim of this study was to clarify whether symptoms in residents living in newly built dwellings were related to chemicals and dampness. Symptoms of 317 residents were surveyed by standardized questionnaires, and the concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and 17 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their homes were measured. Dampness (condensation on window panes and/or walls, and mold growth) was identified by questionnaires given to the householders or their partners. Some VOCs (toluene, butyl acetate, ethylbenzene, alpha-pinene, p-dichlorobenzene, nonanal, and xylene) were significantly related to the symptoms, and the sum of all VOCs (all identified VOCs) was significantly related to throat and respiratory symptoms [odds ratio (OR) for eye symptoms =2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-5.5], although the concentrations of VOCs were relatively low. As for the dampness index, condensation on window panes and/or walls was related to all symptoms, and mold growth was related to all symptoms except skin, throat and respiratory and general symptoms. As the number of dampness signs increased, the ORs increased for the symptoms except general symptoms (OR for nose symptoms = 4.4, 95% CI 1.6-11.9). Both VOCs and dampness were significantly related to symptoms. We should take measures to reduce the concentrations of VOCs, dampness and microbial growth in dwellings.

  16. Depressive symptoms and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in women after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaers, Stefanie; Waschke, Melanie; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the course of psychological problems in women from late pregnancy to six months postpartum, the rates of psychiatric, especially depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms and possible related antecedent variables. During late pregnancy, one to three days postpartum, six weeks and six months postpartum, 47 of the 60 participating women completed a battery of questionnaires including the General Health Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the PTSD Symptom Scale. In general, most women recovered from psychiatric and somatic problems over the period of investigation. However, depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms in particular were not found to decline significantly. Six weeks postpartum, 22% of the women had depressive symptoms, with this figure remaining at 21.3% six months postpartum. In addition, 6% of the women studied reported clinically significant PTSD symptoms at six weeks postpartum with 14.9% reporting such symptoms at six months postpartum. The most important predictor for depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms was the block variable "anxiety in late pregnancy". Other predictors were the variables "psychiatric symptoms in late pregnancy", "critical life events" and the "experience of delivery". The results of our study show a high prevalence rate of psychiatric symptoms in women after childbirth and suggest, besides the experience of the delivery itself, a vulnerability or predisposing history that makes the development of psychiatric symptoms after childbirth more probable.

  17. Benzodiazepine prescription in relation to psychiatric diagnosis and patient characteristics: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nađa P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Benzodiazepines are widely used drugs which are often misused. Analysis of psychotropic drugs prescription in Serbia showed high prescription rate of benzodiazepines in the psychiatric patient population, with an increasing trend. Potential association between psychiatric diagnostic categories (organic brain syndrome, psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder, unipolar depression, anxiety disorder, personality disorder, or the sociodemographic characteristics of patients (gender, age, education, marital state and benzodiazepine prescribing practice was not thoroughly tested. Aim: By analyzing routine practice of the university clinic, the aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between clinical or socio-demographic characteristics of the patients and benzodiazepine prescribing practice. Material and methods: This study was carried out by retrospective analysis of the patient's medical charts after hospital discharge (n=102. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, testing the difference between groups and correlation analysis. Results: At the discharge, 94.1% of patients had benzodiazepines prescribed, with an average dose of 4.6 ± 3.2mg lorazepam dose equivalents. It is shown that female patients were prescribed with higher doses of benzodiazepines than male patients (p=0.018, that the average dose was higher for patients treated with an overall larger number of psychiatric drugs (p = 0.013, as well as that hospital inpatients had higher doses compared to day hospital-treated patients (p = 0.011. Patients with a diagnosis of personality disorder had a slight upward trend of benzodiazepine dose (p=0.078. Conclusion: Current research provided a clear insight into the actual practice of benzodiazepine prescription at local university center. Similarly to our region, indications for prescribing benzodiazepines appear to be quite broad and not specific enough worldwide. This is why it is important to

  18. Relational Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Moderating Effects of Mother, Father, and Peer Emotional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence heralds a unique period of vulnerability to depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined relational victimization in adolescents’ peer relationships as a unique predictor of depressive symptoms among a primarily (85%) Caucasian sample of 540 youth (294 females) concurrently and across a 6-year period. The moderating effects of emotional support received from mothers, fathers, and peers on the association between relational victimization and adolescents’ depressive symptoms were also investigated. Findings revealed that adolescents who were relationally victimized consistently had higher depressive symptoms than their non-victimized peers. However, high levels of emotional support from fathers buffered this relationship over time. Emotional support from mothers and peers also moderated the longitudinal relationship between relational victimization and depressive symptoms, with high levels of support predicting increases in adolescents’ symptoms. Relational victimization presents a clear risk for depressive symptoms in adolescence, and emotional support may serve either a protective or vulnerability-enhancing role depending on the source of support. PMID:20577897

  19. Molecular Pathways Bridging Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eZanardini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The overlap of symptoms between neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases has been reported. Neuropsychiatric alterations are commonly observed in dementia, especially in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, which is the most common clinical FTD subtype. At the same time, psychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia, can display symptoms of dementia, including features of frontal dysfunction with relative sparing of memory. In the present review we discuss common molecular features in these pathologies with a special focus on FTD. Molecules like Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF and progranulin are linked to the pathophysiology of both neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. In these brain-associated illnesses, the presence of disease-associated variants in BDNF and progranulin (GRN genes cause a reduction of circulating proteins levels, through alterations in proteins expression or secretion. For these reasons, we believe that prevention and therapy of psychiatric and neurological disorders could be achieved enhancing both BDNF and progranulin levels thanks to drug discovery efforts.

  20. Psychological and psychiatric symptoms of terminally ill patients with cancer and their family caregivers in the home-care setting: A nation-wide survey from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayakawa, Makoto; Ogawa, Asao; Konno, Michiko; Kurata, Akiko; Hamano, Jun; Morita, Tatsuya; Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo; Aoyama, Maho; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2017-12-01

    The psychological and psychiatric symptoms of terminally ill cancer patients are highly problematic and have been associated with greater burden among caregivers. Until now, the extent of these problems in the home care setting was unclear. This retrospective study was conducted as part of a nationwide survey from the perspective of bereaved family members in Japan (J-HOPE3). The bereaved family members rated the symptoms of delirium and suicidal ideation of patients with cancer, and the sleeplessness and depressed mood of family caregivers utilizing home care services in the one month before the patients' deaths. Regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with caregivers' sleeplessness or depressed mood. Of the 532 subjects analyzed, between 17% and 65% of patients experienced various symptoms of delirium, and 27% suicidal ideation. Among family caregivers, 60% experienced sleeplessness and 35% experienced depressed mood at least once during the week. Caregivers' psychological symptoms were associated with their own poor health status, being the spouse of the patient, and the patients' psychological or psychiatric symptoms. To manage patients' symptoms, 11% of caregivers had consulted psychiatrists or psychologists while another 11% wanted to do so. Psychological problems assessed were common among patients with cancer and their family caregivers in the one month of home care prior to the patient's death. An effective complementary care system, run by home-visit physicians, nurses, and experts in mental disorders, is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Close relations to parents and emotional symptoms among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Holstein, Bjørn E; Koushede, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationship between trustful communication with parents and frequency of emotional symptoms in schoolchildren and whether this relationship was modified by the family's socio-economic position. METHODS: Pooled data (n = 15,646) from the Danish Health Behaviour...... to children with trustful communication. This association appears unaffected by family occupational class. A substantial socio-economic gradient in emotional symptoms persisted, independent of parent-child communication. CONCLUSIONS: Trustful communication with parents might have a fundamental importance......, regardless of socio-economic position....

  2. Death anxiety as related to somatic symptoms in two cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Lester, David

    2009-10-01

    Two undergraduate samples from Kuwait (52 men, 157 women; M age = 21.2 yr., SD =2.1) and the USA (46 men, 145 women; M age = 22.4 yr., SD = 5.3) answered the Somatic Symptoms Inventory, the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, and the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale. The Kuwaiti sample obtained significantly higher mean scores on all the scales than the American sample. Scores on the Somatic Symptoms Inventory were positively correlated with Death Anxiety scores, indicating that people who enjoy good physical health are less concerned with death.

  3. A critical view of transgender health care in Germany: Psychopathologizing gender identity - Symptom of 'disordered' psychiatric/psychological diagnostics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güldenring, Annette

    2015-01-01

    After explaining the essential trans* terminology, I offer a short historical overview of the way health care has dealt with the subject of gender, trans* and health in different times. In the third section, I compare the world's most important diagnostic manuals, namely the International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD) and the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM), i.e. their criteria for 'gender identity disorders' (ICD-10) and 'gender dysphoria' (DSM-5). The fourth section branch out the factors which influence every diagnostic conception - of no matter whom - in the health care system. The last section discusses the implications resulting from this diagnostic dilemma for the health situation of gender nonconforming people.

  4. Parricide: Psychiatric morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunjić Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Parricide is defined as a murder of parents by their children; the patricide is murder of father, while matricide is murder of mother. This entity is classified as homicide, but it differs in the fact that victims are parents and the killers are their children. Mostly, it is associated with psychiatric morbidity. OBJECTIVE To describe sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics of parricide committers and to analyze circumstances of parricide and psychiatric morbidity in order to achieve better recognition and prevention of risks. METHOD This retrospective study included all homicide autopsy records (1991-2005 performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical School, University of Belgrade. For further analyses, all parricide records were selected out. The study analyzed all available parameters, which concerned parricide committers, victims and the act itself. Methods of descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS Between 1991 and 2005, there were 948 cases of homicide; of these, 3.5% were parricides. The committers of parricide were on average 31.2±11.9 years old, 87.8% were males, 60.6% with psychiatric symptoms most commonly with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, personality disorder etc. Victims were on average 63.7±11.9 years old, 54.5% males, and 21.2% had a diagnosed mental illness. CONCLUSION Parricide is a rare kind of homicide accounting for 3% of all homicides. Committers are mostly unemployed males in early adulthood who have mental disorder. The phenomenon of parricide deserves a detailed analysis of the committer (individual bio-psycho-social profile and the environ- mental factors (family, closely related circumstances to enable a precise prediction of the act and prevention of the fatal outcome, which logically imposes the need of further studies.

  5. Preinjury somatization symptoms contribute to clinical recovery after sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lindsay D; Tarima, Sergey; LaRoche, Ashley A; Hammeke, Thomas A; Barr, William B; Guskiewicz, Kevin; Randolph, Christopher; McCrea, Michael A

    2016-05-17

    To determine the degree to which preinjury and acute postinjury psychosocial and injury-related variables predict symptom duration following sport-related concussion. A total of 2,055 high school and collegiate athletes completed preseason evaluations. Concussed athletes (n = 127) repeated assessments serially (history variables; baseline psychological, neurocognitive, and balance functioning; acute injury characteristics; and postinjury clinical measures. Preinjury somatic symptom score (Brief Symptom Inventory-18 somatization scale) was the strongest premorbid predictor of symptom duration. Acute (24-hour) postconcussive symptom burden (Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-3 symptom severity) was the best injury-related predictor of recovery. These 2 predictors were moderately correlated (r = 0.51). Path analyses indicated that the relationship between preinjury somatization symptoms and symptom recovery was mediated by postinjury concussive symptoms. Preinjury somatization symptoms contribute to reported postconcussive symptom recovery via their influence on acute postconcussive symptoms. The findings highlight the relevance of premorbid psychological factors in postconcussive recovery, even in a healthy athlete sample relatively free of psychopathology or medical comorbidities. Future research should elucidate the neurobiopsychosocial mechanisms that explain the role of this individual difference variable in outcome following concussive injury. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Evren, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Participants (n=190) were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity) predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor) are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients with AUD.

  7. The influence of psychosocial factors on pregnancy related pelvic symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, G. van de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis encloses studies which are separate analyses of the PRIMIS Study. In the PRIMIS Study a cohort of healthy women who expected their first child was followed up from early pregnancy to one year after delivery. Self-report questionnaires regarding psychosocial factors, urogenital symptoms

  8. Life Stress: Related Symptoms, Subjective Appraisal and Coping Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, James E.; And Others

    Stress and its influence upon physiological and emotional functioning has been well documented in research literature. In order to extend this research to study the relationship between accumulated life stress, symptoms, and coping responses, 202 college graduates and undergraduates, (144 females and 58 males) responded to three self-report…

  9. Unhealthy food in relation to posttraumatic stress symptoms among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilija, Malinauskiene; Romualdas, Malinauskas

    2014-03-01

    The linkage between mood states and unhealthy food consumption has been under investigation in the recent years. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms after lifetime traumatic experiences and daily unhealthy food consumption among adolescents, taking into account the possible effects of physical inactivity, smoking, and a sense of coherence. A self-administered questionnaire measured symptoms of PTS, lifetime traumatic experiences, food frequency scale, sense of coherence scale in a representative sample of eighth grade pupils of the Kaunas, Lithuania, secondary schools (N=1747; 49.3% girls and 50.7% boys). In the logistic regression models, all lifetime traumatic events were associated with PTS symptoms, as well as were unhealthy foods, (including light alcoholic drinks, spirits, soft and energy drinks, flavored milk, coffee, fast food, chips and salty snacks, frozen processed foods; excluding sweet snacks, biscuits and pastries) and sense of coherence weakened the strength of the associations. However, physical inactivity and smoking showed no mediating effect for the majority of unhealthy foods. In conclusion, we found that intervention and preventive programs on PTS symptoms may be beneficial while dealing with behavioral problems (unhealthy diet, smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity) among adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Menstrually related worsening of symptoms in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorgdrager, A; DeKeyser, J

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether the menstrual cycle influences multiple sclerosis (MS) symptoms. Seventy-two normally menstruating women (aged 20-50 years) with MS were interviewed. Of the 60 patients with a relapsing-remitting form of MS (RR-MS), 26 (43%) regularly

  11. Prevalence of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome-Related Symptoms among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic fatigue syndrome among 1,474 nurses was addressed through a mailed questionnaire (202 respondents). Demographic characteristics, symptoms, and possible prevalence rates are presented and discussed. Implications of these findings are considered, and the methodology used is analyzed. Suggestions are made for conducting…

  12. A Comparative Study of United States Service Members With and Without a History of Inpatient Psychiatric Hospitalization on Post Deployment Trauma, Depression, and Hazardous Alcohol Use Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    regression analyses were conducted to test study hypotheses. Results: Previously psychiatrically hospitalized service members demonstrated...predicting positive Two-Item Conjoint Screen (TICS) from history of inpatient psychiatric hospitalization (N = 492...positive Two-Item Conjoint Screen (TICS) in inpatient cases (Group 1; N = 246) . 63 Table 6. Summary of logistic regression model predicting positive Two

  13. [Psychiatric comorbidity related to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at schools in Sfax, Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemakhem, K; Ayedi, H; Moalla, Y; Yaich, S; Hadjkacem, I; Walha, A; Damak, J; Ghribi, F

    2015-02-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent behavioral disorder particularly noticed among school children. It is often associated with other psychological troubles at the origin of an additional difficulty that has to be overcome. Our research's aim was to study the comorbidity of school-aged children diagnosed with ADHD in Sfax, Tunisia. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from 1st April 2008 to 1st October 2008. Five hundred and thirteen pupils aged between 6 and 12, from primary arbitrarily chosen schools from Sfax were subjected to this study. Measurements were carried out in two steps: parents and teachers of each child filled in separately Conners questionnaire, then children with a score in subscales inattention, hyperactivity impulsivity higher than 70 were selected for psychiatric interview that was intended to confirm or to invalidate the ADHD diagnosis and the possible comorbid diagnosis. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV-TR. We have noticed that 109 pupils exhibited at least one pathological score on the Conners questionnaire. After interviewing these 109 pupils, the results have shown that 51 among them fulfilled criteria of ADHD. Prevalence of ADHD was found to be 9.94 %. About 72.54 % of children with ADHD had one or more comorbid disorder: learning disabilities (23.52 % of cases), anxiety disorder (31.37 % of cases), oppositional defiant disorder in (15.68 % of cases), mood disorder (3.92 % of cases), enuresis (13.72 % of cases) and slight mental retardation (1.95 % of cases). We can say that this study has shown that ADHD school children's psychiatric comorbidity is similar to any other previous study. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are associated with psychiatric comorbidities, behavioral and clinical problems: a population-based study of Brazilian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Pedro G; do Rosario, Maria C; Cesar, Raony C; Manfro, Gisele G; Moriyama, Tais S; Bloch, Michael H; Shavitt, Roseli G; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Coughlin, Catherine G; Leckman, James F; Miguel, Euripedes C

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is underdiagnosed, and many affected children are untreated. The present study seeks to evaluate the presence and the clinical impact of OCD and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large sample of school-age children. In Phase I, we performed an initial screening using the Family History Screen (FHS). In Phase II, we identified an "at-risk" sample, as well as a randomly selected group of children. A total of 2,512 children (6-12 years old) were assessed using the FHS, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Data analyses included descriptive and multivariate analytical techniques. 2,512 children (mean age: 8.86 ± 1.84 years; 55.0% male) were categorized into one of the three diagnostic groups: OCD (n = 77), OCS (n = 488), and unaffected controls (n = 1,947). There were no significant socio-demographic differences (age, gender, socioeconomic status) across groups. The OCS group resembled the OCD on overall impairment, including school problems and delinquent behaviors. However, the OCD group did have significantly higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, including separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, and major depressive disorder, than OCS or unaffected controls. Moreover, the OCD group also scored higher than the SDQ, as well as on each of CBCL items rated by the parent. Our findings suggest that there is a psychopathological continuum between OCS and OCD in school-aged children. The presence of OCS is associated with functional impairment, which needs further investigation in longitudinal studies.

  15. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder dimensions and sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms in relation to college students' sleep functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Luebbe, Aaron M; Langberg, Joshua M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined separate inattentive, hyperactive, and impulsive dimensions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms, in relation to college students' sleep functioning. Participants were 288 college students (ages 17-24; 65 % female; 90 % non-Hispanic White; 12 % self-reported having an ADHD diagnoses) who completed measures of ADHD/SCT symptoms and sleep functioning. Participants reported obtaining an average of 6.8 h of sleep per night (only 26 % reported obtaining ≥8 h of sleep) and having a sleep onset latency of 25 min. 63 % were classified as "poor sleepers," and poor sleepers had higher rates of ADHD and SCT symptoms than "good sleepers". Path analysis controlling for ADHD status and psychiatric medication use was used to determine associations between psychopathology and sleep functioning domains. Above and beyond covariates and other psychopathologies, hyperactivity (but not impulsivity) was significantly associated with poorer sleep quality, longer sleep latency, shorter sleep duration, and more use of sleep medications. SCT symptoms (but not inattention) were significantly associated with poorer sleep quality and increased nighttime sleep disturbance (e.g., having bad dreams, waking up in the middle of the night, feeling too cold or too hot). Both inattention and SCT were associated with greater daytime dysfunction. Regression analyses demonstrated that hyperactivity predicted sleep quality above and beyond the influence of daytime dysfunction, and inattention and SCT predicted daytime dysfunction above and beyond sleep quality. Further studies are needed to examine the interrelations of nighttime sleep functioning, ADHD/SCT, and daytime dysfunction, as well to elucidate mechanisms contributing to related functional impairments.

  16. ADHD Symptoms Moderate the Relation between ASD Status and Internalizing Symptoms in 3-6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Beverly J.; Manangan, Christen N.; Dauterman, Hayley A.; Davis, Heather N.

    2014-01-