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Sample records for psychiatric gwas consortium

  1. Gene-Based Analysis of Regionally Enriched Cortical Genes in GWAS Data Sets of Cognitive Traits and Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ersland, Kari M; Christoforou, Andrea; Stansberg, Christine

    2012-01-01

    the regionally enriched cortical genes to mine a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the Norwegian Cognitive NeuroGenetics (NCNG) sample of healthy adults for association to nine psychometric tests measures. In addition, we explored GWAS data sets for the serious psychiatric disorders schizophrenia (SCZ) (n...

  2. Expression QTL analysis of top loci from GWAS meta-analysis highlights additional schizophrenia candidate genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Simone; van Eijk, Kristel R; Zeegers, Dave W L H

    2012-01-01

    of the Psychiatric GWAS consortium (PGC) yielded five novel loci for schizophrenia. In this study, we aim to highlight additional schizophrenia susceptibility loci from the PGC study by combining the top association findings from the discovery stage (9394 schizophrenia cases and 12 462 controls) with expression QTLs...

  3. Interactions between household air pollution and GWAS-identified lung cancer susceptibility markers in the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia (FLCCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosgood, H Dean; Song, Minsun; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Yin, Zhihua; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Wang, Zhaoming; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Zheng, Wei; Caporaso, Neil; Burdette, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Berndt, Sonja I; Landi, Maria Teresa; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chang, Gee-Chen; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Wang, Chih-Liang; Hung, Jen-Yu; Lin, Chien-Chung; Perng, Reury-Perng; Chen, Chih-Yi; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Li, Yao-Jen; Yu, Chong-Jen; Chen, Yi-Song; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Kim, Christopher; Seow, Wei Jie; Bassig, Bryan A; Wu, Wei; Guan, Peng; He, Qincheng; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Qiuyin; Chow, Wong-Ho; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Lin, Dongxin; Wu, Chen; Wu, Yi-Long; Shin, Min-Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul; Matsuo, Keitaro; Chen, Kexin; Wong, Maria Pik; Lu, Dara; Jin, Li; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Seow, Adeline; Wu, Tangchun; Shen, Hongbing; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Chang, I-Shou; Zhou, Baosen; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2015-03-01

    We previously carried out a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) on lung cancer among never smokers in the Female Lung Cancer Consortium in Asia (FLCCA) (6,609 cases, 7,457 controls) that identified novel susceptibility loci at 10q25.2, 6q22.2, and 6p21.32, and confirmed two previously identified loci at 5p15.33 and 3q28. Household air pollution (HAP) attributed to solid fuel burning for heating and cooking, is the leading cause of the overall disease burden in Southeast Asia, and is known to contain lung carcinogens. To evaluate the gene-HAP interactions associated with lung cancer in loci independent of smoking, we analyzed data from studies participating in FLCCA with fuel use information available (n = 3; 1,731 cases; 1,349 controls). Coal use was associated with a 30% increased risk of lung cancer (OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6). Among the five a priori SNPs identified by our GWAS, two showed a significant interaction with coal use (HLA Class II rs2395185, p = 0.02; TP63 rs4488809 (rs4600802), p = 0.04). The risk of lung cancer associated with coal exposure varied with the respective alleles for these two SNPs. Our observations provide evidence that genetic variation in HLA Class II and TP63 may modify the association between HAP and lung cancer risk. The roles played in the cell cycle and inflammation pathways by the proteins encoded by these two genes provide biological plausibility for these interactions; however, additional replication studies are needed in other non-smoking populations.

  4. Publisher Correction: Whole genome sequencing in psychiatric disorders: the WGSPD consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Stephan J; Neale, Benjamin M; Huang, Hailiang; Werling, Donna M; An, Joon-Yong; Dong, Shan; Abecasis, Goncalo; Arguello, P Alexander; Blangero, John; Boehnke, Michael; Daly, Mark J; Eggan, Kevin; Geschwind, Daniel H; Glahn, David C; Goldstein, David B; Gur, Raquel E; Handsaker, Robert E; McCarroll, Steven A; Ophoff, Roel A; Palotie, Aarno; Pato, Carlos N; Sabatti, Chiara; State, Matthew W; Willsey, A Jeremy; Hyman, Steven E; Addington, Anjene M; Lehner, Thomas; Freimer, Nelson B

    2018-03-16

    In the version of this article initially published, the consortium authorship and corresponding authors were not presented correctly. In the PDF and print versions, the Whole Genome Sequencing for Psychiatric Disorders (WGSPD) consortium was missing from the author list at the beginning of the paper, where it should have appeared as the seventh author; it was present in the author list at the end of the paper, but the footnote directing readers to the Supplementary Note for a list of members was missing. In the HTML version, the consortium was listed as the last author instead of as the seventh, and the line directing readers to the Supplementary Note for a list of members appeared at the end of the paper under Author Information but not in association with the consortium name itself. Also, this line stated that both member names and affiliations could be found in the Supplementary Note; in fact, only names are given. In all versions of the paper, the corresponding author symbols were attached to A. Jeremy Willsey, Steven E. Hyman, Anjene M. Addington and Thomas Lehner; they should have been attached, respectively, to Steven E. Hyman, Anjene M. Addington, Thomas Lehner and Nelson B. Freimer. As a result of this shift, the respective contact links in the HTML version did not lead to the indicated individuals. The errors have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

  5. The AraGWAS Catalog: a curated and standardized Arabidopsis thaliana GWAS catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togninalli, Matteo; Seren, Ümit; Meng, Dazhe; Fitz, Joffrey; Nordborg, Magnus; Weigel, Detlef

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The abundance of high-quality genotype and phenotype data for the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana enables scientists to study the genetic architecture of many complex traits at an unprecedented level of detail using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). GWAS have been a great success in A. thaliana and many SNP-trait associations have been published. With the AraGWAS Catalog (https://aragwas.1001genomes.org) we provide a publicly available, manually curated and standardized GWAS catalog for all publicly available phenotypes from the central A. thaliana phenotype repository, AraPheno. All GWAS have been recomputed on the latest imputed genotype release of the 1001 Genomes Consortium using a standardized GWAS pipeline to ensure comparability between results. The catalog includes currently 167 phenotypes and more than 222 000 SNP-trait associations with P < 10−4, of which 3887 are significantly associated using permutation-based thresholds. The AraGWAS Catalog can be accessed via a modern web-interface and provides various features to easily access, download and visualize the results and summary statistics across GWAS. PMID:29059333

  6. Investigating the Causal Relationship of C-Reactive Protein with 32 Complex Somatic and Psychiatric Outcomes: A Large-Scale Cross-Consortium Mendelian Randomization Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram P Prins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP is associated with immune, cardiometabolic, and psychiatric traits and diseases. Yet it is inconclusive whether these associations are causal.We performed Mendelian randomization (MR analyses using two genetic risk scores (GRSs as instrumental variables (IVs. The first GRS consisted of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the CRP gene (GRSCRP, and the second consisted of 18 SNPs that were significantly associated with CRP levels in the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS to date (GRSGWAS. To optimize power, we used summary statistics from GWAS consortia and tested the association of these two GRSs with 32 complex somatic and psychiatric outcomes, with up to 123,865 participants per outcome from populations of European ancestry. We performed heterogeneity tests to disentangle the pleiotropic effect of IVs. A Bonferroni-corrected significance level of less than 0.0016 was considered statistically significant. An observed p-value equal to or less than 0.05 was considered nominally significant evidence for a potential causal association, yet to be confirmed. The strengths (F-statistics of the IVs were 31.92-3,761.29 and 82.32-9,403.21 for GRSCRP and GRSGWAS, respectively. CRP GRSGWAS showed a statistically significant protective relationship of a 10% genetically elevated CRP level with the risk of schizophrenia (odds ratio [OR] 0.86 [95% CI 0.79-0.94]; p < 0.001. We validated this finding with individual-level genotype data from the schizophrenia GWAS (OR 0.96 [95% CI 0.94-0.98]; p < 1.72 × 10-6. Further, we found that a standardized CRP polygenic risk score (CRPPRS at p-value thresholds of 1 × 10-4, 0.001, 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 using individual-level data also showed a protective effect (OR < 1.00 against schizophrenia; the first CRPPRS (built of SNPs with p < 1 × 10-4 showed a statistically significant (p < 2.45 × 10-4 protective effect with an OR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99. The CRP GRSGWAS showed that a

  7. Statistical methods to detect novel genetic variants using publicly available GWAS summary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Wu, Baolin

    2018-03-01

    We propose statistical methods to detect novel genetic variants using only genome-wide association studies (GWAS) summary data without access to raw genotype and phenotype data. With more and more summary data being posted for public access in the post GWAS era, the proposed methods are practically very useful to identify additional interesting genetic variants and shed lights on the underlying disease mechanism. We illustrate the utility of our proposed methods with application to GWAS meta-analysis results of fasting glucose from the international MAGIC consortium. We found several novel genome-wide significant loci that are worth further study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Power in GWAS: lifting the curse of the clinical cut-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, S.; Posthuma, D.; Nivard, M.G.; Verhage, M.; Dolan, C.V.

    2013-01-01

    Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS), in general, facilitated important discovery of new biological knowledge about diseases,1, 2, 3 identified variants for psychiatric disorders explain little variation, and insight into the role of genes in highly heritable psychiatric traits remains

  9. Genomewide Association Studies: History, Rationale, and Prospects for Psychiatric Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cichon, S.; Craddock, N.; Daly, M.J.; Faraone, S.V.; Gejman, P.V.; Kelsoe, J.; Lehner, T.; Levinson, D.F.; Moran, A.P.; Sklar, P.; Sullivan, P.F.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Posthuma, D.; Willemsen, G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors conducted a review of the history and empirical basis of genomewide association studies (GWAS), the rationale for GWAS of psychiatric disorders, results to date, limitations, and plans for GWAS meta-analyses. Method: A literature review was carried out, power and other issues

  10. Genomewide association studies: history, rationale, and prospects for psychiatric disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cichon, S.; Craddock, N.; Daly, M.; Faraone, S.V.; Gejman, P.V.; Kelsoe, J.; Lehner, T.; Levinson, D.F.; Moran, A.; Sklar, P.; Sullivan, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a review of the history and empirical basis of genomewide association studies (GWAS), the rationale for GWAS of psychiatric disorders, results to date, limitations, and plans for GWAS meta-analyses. METHOD: A literature review was carried out, power and other issues

  11. Estimating Effect Sizes and Expected Replication Probabilities from GWAS Summary Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, Dominic; Wang, Yunpeng; Thompson, Wesley K

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) result in millions of summary statistics ("z-scores") for single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with phenotypes. These rich datasets afford deep insights into the nature and extent of genetic contributions to complex phenotypes such as psychiatric......-scores, as such knowledge would enhance causal SNP and gene discovery, help elucidate mechanistic pathways, and inform future study design. Here we present a parsimonious methodology for modeling effect sizes and replication probabilities, relying only on summary statistics from GWAS substudies, and a scheme allowing...... for estimating the degree of polygenicity of the phenotype and predicting the proportion of chip heritability explainable by genome-wide significant SNPs in future studies with larger sample sizes. We apply the model to recent GWAS of schizophrenia (N = 82,315) and putamen volume (N = 12,596), with approximately...

  12. Microbial genome-wide association studies: lessons from human GWAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert A; Parkhill, Julian; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2017-01-01

    The reduced costs of sequencing have led to whole-genome sequences for a large number of microorganisms, enabling the application of microbial genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Given the successes of human GWAS in understanding disease aetiology and identifying potential drug targets, microbial GWAS are likely to further advance our understanding of infectious diseases. These advances include insights into pressing global health problems, such as antibiotic resistance and disease transmission. In this Review, we outline the methodologies of GWAS, the current state of the field of microbial GWAS, and how lessons from human GWAS can direct the future of the field.

  13. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  14. Multispecies, Integrative GWAS for Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments...is a frequent cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD. We investigated the genetic basis of FSGS and recruited a heterogeneous population of...understanding the complex genetic mechanisms of FSGS. 15. SUBJECT TERMS FSGS, MCD, GWAS, CNV  16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT uu

  15. GWAS meta-analysis and replication identifies three new susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Ramus, Susan J.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Goode, Ellen L.; Lawrenson, Kate; Price, Melissa; Fridley, Brooke L.; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Shen, Howard; Weber, Rachel; Karevan, Rod; Larson, Melissa C.; Song, Honglin; Tessier, Daniel C.; Bacot, François; Vincent, Daniel; Cunningham, Julie M.; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Aben, Katja K.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Armasu, Sebastian M.; Baglietto, Laura; Bandera, Elisa V.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Birrer, Michael J.; Bloom, Greg; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brenton, James D.; Brinton, Louise A.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Brown, Robert; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian; Carney, Michael E; Carvalho, Renato S.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Y. Anne; Chen, Zhihua; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cicek, Mine S.; Coetzee, Gerhard; Cook, Linda S.; Cramer, Daniel W.; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Despierre, Evelyn; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Edwards, Robert; Ekici, Arif B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Fenstermacher, David; Flanagan, James; Gao, Yu-Tang; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham; Gjyshi, Anxhela; Gore, Martin; Gronwald, Jacek; Guo, Qi; Halle, Mari K; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hillemanns, Peter; Hoatlin, Maureen; Høgdall, Estrid; Høgdall, Claus K.; Hosono, Satoyo; Jakubowska, Anna; Jensen, Allan; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Konecny, Gottfried E.; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Nathan; Lee, Janet; Leminen, Arto; Lim, Boon Kiong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lubiński, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Lurie, Galina; Massuger, Leon F.A.G.; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Nakanishi, Toru; Narod, Steven A.; Ness, Roberta B.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Nickels, Stefan; Noushmehr, Houtan; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara; Orlow, Irene; Paul, James; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jenny; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Qu, Xiaotao; Risch, Harvey A.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B.; Schwaab, Ira; Severi, Gianluca; Shen, Hui; Shridhar, Vijayalakshmi; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Sieh, Weiva; Southey, Melissa C.; Spellman, Paul; Tajima, Kazuo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tworoger, Shelley S.; van Altena, Anne M.; Berg, David Van Den; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A.; Vitonis, Allison F.; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wik, Elisabeth; Winterhoff, Boris; Woo, Yin Ling; Wu, Anna H; Yang, Hannah P.; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Zulkifli, Famida; Goodman, Marc T.; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F; Pearce, Celeste L; Berchuck, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Iversen, Edwin; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Sellers, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified four susceptibility loci for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with another two loci being close to genome-wide significance. We pooled data from a GWAS conducted in North America with another GWAS from the United Kingdom. We selected the top 24,551 SNPs for inclusion on the iCOGS custom genotyping array. Follow-up genotyping was carried out in 18,174 cases and 26,134 controls from 43 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We validated the two loci at 3q25 and 17q21 previously near genome-wide significance and identified three novel loci associated with risk; two loci associated with all EOC subtypes, at 8q21 (rs11782652, P=5.5×10-9) and 10p12 (rs1243180; P=1.8×10-8), and another locus specific to the serous subtype at 17q12 (rs757210; P=8.1×10-10). An integrated molecular analysis of genes and regulatory regions at these loci provided evidence for functional mechanisms underlying susceptibility that implicates CHMP4C in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. PMID:23535730

  16. Psychiatric genome-wide association study analyses implicate neuronal, immune and histone pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dushlaine, Colm; Rossin, Lizzy; Lee, Phil H.; Duncan, Laramie; Parikshak, Neelroop N.; Newhouse, Stephen; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Posthuma, Danielle; Nurnberger, John I.; Lee, S. Hong; Faraone, Stephen V.; Perlis, Roy H.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Thapar, Anita; Goddard, Michael E.; Witte, John S.; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A.; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Anttila, Verneri; Arking, Dan E.; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H.; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayes, Monica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E.; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Bruggeman, Richard; Nolen, Willem A.; Penninx, Brenda W.

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of psychiatric disorders have identified multiple genetic associations with such disorders, but better methods are needed to derive the underlying biological mechanisms that these signals indicate. We sought to identify biological pathways in GWAS data from

  17. Psychiatric genome-wide association study analyses implicate neuronal, immune and histone pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Dushlaine, Colm; Rossin, Lizzy; Lee, Phil H.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of psychiatric disorders have identified multiple genetic associations with such disorders, but better methods are needed to derive the underlying biological mechanisms that these signals indicate. We sought to identify biological pathways in GWAS data from ...

  18. Psychiatric genome-wide association study analyses implicate neuronal, immune and histone pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Dushlaine, Colm; Rossin, Lizzy; Lee, Phil H.; Duncan, Laramie; Parikshak, Neelroop N.; Newhouse, Stephen; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Posthuma, Danielle; Nurnberger, John I.; Lee, S. Hong; Faraone, Stephen V.; Perlis, Roy H.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Thapar, Anita; Goddard, Michael E.; Witte, John S.; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A.; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Anttila, Verneri; Arking, Dan E.; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H.; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayés, Mònica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E.; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Black, Donald W.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Linszen, Don H.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of psychiatric disorders have identified multiple genetic associations with such disorders, but better methods are needed to derive the underlying biological mechanisms that these signals indicate. We sought to identify biological pathways in GWAS data from

  19. Efficient Software for Multi-marker, Region-Based Analysis of GWAS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleal S. Sanjak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have associated many single variants with complex disease, yet the better part of heritable complex disease risk remains unexplained. Analytical tools designed to work under specific population genetic models are needed. Rare variants are increasingly shown to be important in human complex disease, but most existing GWAS data do not cover rare variants. Explicit population genetic models predict that genes contributing to complex traits and experiencing recurrent, unconditionally deleterious, mutation will harbor multiple rare, causative mutations of subtle effect. It is difficult to identify genes harboring rare variants of large effect that contribute to complex disease risk via the single marker association tests typically used in GWAS. Gene/region-based association tests may have the power detect associations by combining information from multiple markers, but have yielded limited success in practice. This is partially because many methods have not been widely applied. Here, we empirically demonstrate the utility of a procedure based on the rank truncated product (RTP method, filtered to reduce the effects of linkage disequilibrium. We apply the procedure to the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC data set, and uncover previously unidentified associations, some of which have been replicated in much larger studies. We show that, in the absence of significant rare variant coverage, RTP based methods still have the power to detect associated genes. We recommend that RTP-based methods be applied to all existing GWAS data to maximize the usefulness of those data. For this, we provide efficient software implementing our procedure.

  20. Controlling the Rate of GWAS False Discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzyski, Damian; Peterson, Christine B; Sobczyk, Piotr; Candès, Emmanuel J; Bogdan, Malgorzata; Sabatti, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    With the rise of both the number and the complexity of traits of interest, control of the false discovery rate (FDR) in genetic association studies has become an increasingly appealing and accepted target for multiple comparison adjustment. While a number of robust FDR-controlling strategies exist, the nature of this error rate is intimately tied to the precise way in which discoveries are counted, and the performance of FDR-controlling procedures is satisfactory only if there is a one-to-one correspondence between what scientists describe as unique discoveries and the number of rejected hypotheses. The presence of linkage disequilibrium between markers in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) often leads researchers to consider the signal associated to multiple neighboring SNPs as indicating the existence of a single genomic locus with possible influence on the phenotype. This a posteriori aggregation of rejected hypotheses results in inflation of the relevant FDR. We propose a novel approach to FDR control that is based on prescreening to identify the level of resolution of distinct hypotheses. We show how FDR-controlling strategies can be adapted to account for this initial selection both with theoretical results and simulations that mimic the dependence structure to be expected in GWAS. We demonstrate that our approach is versatile and useful when the data are analyzed using both tests based on single markers and multiple regression. We provide an R package that allows practitioners to apply our procedure on standard GWAS format data, and illustrate its performance on lipid traits in the North Finland Birth Cohort 66 cohort study. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  1. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  2. Novel loci associated with usual sleep duration: the CHARGE Consortium Genome-Wide Association Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottlieb, D.J.; Hek, K.; Chen, T.H.; Watson, N.F.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Byrne, E.M.; Cornelis, M.; Warby, S.C.; Bandinelli, S.; Cherkas, L.; Evans, D.S.; Grabe, H.J.; Lahti, J.; Li, M.; Lehtimäki, T.; Lumley, T.; Marciante, K.; Pérusse, L.; Psaty, B.M.; Robbins, J.; Tranah, G.; Vink, J.M.; Wilk, J.B.; Stafford, J.M.; Bellis, M.; Biffar, R.; Bouchard, C.; Cade, B.; Curhan, G.C.; Eriksson, J.G.; Ewert, R.; Ferrucci, L.; Fülöp, T.; Gehrman, P.R.; Goodloe, R.; Harris, T.B.; Heath, A.C.; Hernandez, D.; Hofman, A.; Hottenga, J.J.; Hunter, D.J.; Jensen, M.K.; Johnson, A.D.; Kähönen, M.; Kao, L.; Kraft, P.; Larkin, E.K.; Lauderdale, D.S.; Luik, A.I.; Medici, M.; Montgomery, G.W.; Palotie, A.; Patel, S.R.; Pistis, G.; Porcu, E.; Quaye, L.; Raitakari, O.; Redline, S.; Rimm, E.B.; Rotter, J.I.; Smith, A.V.; Spector, T.D.; Teumer, A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Vohl, M.-C.; Widén, E.; Willemsen, G.; Young, T.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Blanger, J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Gudnason, V.; Hu, F.; Mangino, M.; Martin, N.G.; O'Connor, G.T.; Stone, K.L.; Tanaka, T.; Viikari, J.; Gharib, S.A.; Punjabi, N.M.; Räikkönen, K.; Völzke, H.; Mignot, E.; Tiemeier, H.

    2015-01-01

    Usual sleep duration is a heritable trait correlated with psychiatric morbidity, cardiometabolic disease and mortality, although little is known about the genetic variants influencing this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of usual sleep duration was conducted using 18 population-based

  3. Novel loci associated with usual sleep duration: The CHARGE Consortium Genome-Wide Association Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Gottlieb (Daniel J); K. Hek (Karin); T.-H. Chen; N.F. Watson; G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); E.M. Byrne; M. Cornelis (Marilyn); S.C. Warby; S. Bandinelli; L. Cherkas (Lynn); D.S. Evans (Daniel); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); J. Lahti (Jari); M. Li (Man); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); T. Lumley (Thomas); K. Marciante (Kristin); L. Perusse (Louis); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); J. Robbins; G.J. Tranah (Gregory); J.M. Vink; J.B. Wilk; J.M. Stafford; C. Bellis (Claire); R. Biffar; C. Bouchard (Claude); B. Cade; G.C. Curhan (Gary); J. Eriksson; R. Ewert; L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Fülöp; P.R. Gehrman (Philip); R. Goodloe (Robert); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); A. Hofman (Albert); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); D. Hunter (David); M.K. Jensen (Majken K.); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); M. Kähönen (Mika); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); P. Kraft (Peter); E.K. Larkin; D.S. Lauderdale; A.I. Luik (Annemarie I); M. Medici; G.W. Montgomery (Grant W.); A. Palotie; S.R. Patel (Sanjay); G. Pistis (Giorgio); E. Porcu; L. Quaye (Lydia); O. Raitakari (Olli); S. Redline (Susan); E.B. Rimm (Eric B.); J.I. Rotter; A.V. Smith; T.D. Spector (Timothy); A. Teumer (Alexander); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); E. Widen; G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); T.L. Young (Terri L.); X. Zhang; Y. Liu; J. Blangero (John); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); F. Hu; M. Mangino; N.G. Martin (Nicholas); G.T. O'Connor (George); K.L. Stone (Katie L); T. Tanaka; J. Viikari (Jorma); S.A. Gharib (Sina); N.M. Punjabi (Naresh); K. Räikkönen (Katri); H. Völzke (Henry); E. Mignot; H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractUsual sleep duration is a heritable trait correlated with psychiatric morbidity, cardiometabolic disease and mortality, although little is known about the genetic variants influencing this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of usual sleep duration was conducted using 18

  4. UPDG: Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Daniel WH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite being a well-established strategy for cost reduction in disease gene mapping, pooled DNA association study is much less popular than the individual DNA approach. This situation is especially true for pooled DNA genomewide association study (GWAS, for which very few computer resources have been developed for its data analysis. This motivates the development of UPDG (Utilities package for data analysis of Pooled DNA GWAS. Results UPDG represents a generalized framework for data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS with the integration of Unix/Linux shell operations, Perl programs and R scripts. With the input of raw intensity data from GWAS, UPDG performs the following tasks in a stepwise manner: raw data manipulation, correction for allelic preferential amplification, normalization, nested analysis of variance for genetic association testing, and summarization of analysis results. Detailed instructions, procedures and commands are provided in the comprehensive user manual describing the whole process from preliminary preparation of software installation to final outcome acquisition. An example dataset (input files and sample output files is also included in the package so that users can easily familiarize themselves with the data file formats, working procedures and expected output. Therefore, UPDG is especially useful for users with some computer knowledge, but without a sophisticated programming background. Conclusions UPDG provides a free, simple and platform-independent one-stop service to scientists working on pooled DNA GWAS data analysis, but with less advanced programming knowledge. It is our vision and mission to reduce the hindrance for performing data analysis of pooled DNA GWAS through our contribution of UPDG. More importantly, we hope to promote the popularity of pooled DNA GWAS, which is a very useful research strategy.

  5. Comprehensive evaluation of disease- and trait-specific enrichment for eight functional elements among GWAS-identified variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markunas, Christina A; Johnson, Eric O; Hancock, Dana B

    2017-07-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS)-identified variants are enriched for functional elements. However, we have limited knowledge of how functional enrichment may differ by disease/trait and tissue type. We tested a broad set of eight functional elements for enrichment among GWAS-identified SNPs (p Enrichment analyses were conducted using logistic regression, with Bonferroni correction. Overall, a significant enrichment was observed for all functional elements, except sequence motifs. Missense SNPs showed the strongest magnitude of enrichment. eQTLs were the only functional element significantly enriched across all diseases/traits. Magnitudes of enrichment were generally similar across diseases/traits, where enrichment was statistically significant. Blood vs. brain tissue effects on enrichment were dependent on disease/trait and functional element (e.g., cardiovascular disease: eQTLs P TissueDifference  = 1.28 × 10 -6 vs. enhancers P TissueDifference  = 0.94). Identifying disease/trait-relevant functional elements and tissue types could provide new insight into the underlying biology, by guiding a priori GWAS analyses (e.g., brain enhancer elements for psychiatric disease) or facilitating post hoc interpretation.

  6. Transethnic differences in GWAS signals: A simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Daniela; Weale, Michael E

    2018-05-07

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have allowed researchers to identify thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other variants associated with particular complex traits. Previous studies have reported differences in the strength and even the direction of GWAS signals across different populations. These differences could be due to a combination of (1) lack of power, (2) allele frequency differences, (3) linkage disequilibrium (LD) differences, and (4) true differences in causal variant effect sizes. To determine whether properties (1)-(3) on their own might be sufficient to explain the patterns previously noted in strong GWAS signals, we simulated case-control data of European, Asian and African ancestry, applying realistic allele frequencies and LD from 1000 Genomes data but enforcing equal causal effect sizes across populations. Much of the observed differences in strong GWAS signals could indeed be accounted for by allele frequency and LD differences, enhanced by the Euro-centric SNP bias and lower SNP coverage found in older GWAS panels. While we cannot rule out a role for true transethnic effect size differences, our results suggest that strong causal effects may be largely shared among human populations, motivating the use of transethnic data for fine-mapping. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  7. GWAS as a Driver of Gene Discovery in Cardiometabolic Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atanasovska, Biljana; Kumar, Vinod; Fu, Jingyuan; Wijmenga, Cisca; Hofker, Marten H.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiometabolic diseases represent a common complex disorder with a strong genetic component. Currently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have yielded some 755 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encompassing 366 independent loci that may help to decipher the molecular basis of

  8. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas; Ingelsson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Adiposity is strongly heritable and one of the leading risk factors for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and premature death. In the past 8 years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have greatly increased our understanding of the genes and biological pathways that regulate...

  9. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elton

    2004-01-01

    The Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium is a unique, forward-thinking, community-based healthcare service project organized around 5 not-for-profit community hospitals located throughout Louisiana and Mississippi...

  10. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elton

    2003-01-01

    The Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium is a unique, forward-thinking, community-based healthcare service project organized around 5 not-for-profit community hospitals located throughout Louisiana and Mississippi...

  11. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Jr, Elton L

    2007-01-01

    The Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium is a unique, forward-thinking, community-based healthcare service project organized around 5 not-for-profit community hospitals located throughout Louisiana and Mississippi...

  12. GWAS meta-analysis and replication identifies three new susceptibility loci for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pharoah, Paul D P; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Ramus, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified four susceptibility loci for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), with another two suggestive loci reaching near genome-wide significance. We pooled data from a GWAS conducted in North America with another GWAS from the UK. We selected the top 24...

  13. Characterizing associations and SNP-environment interactions for GWAS-identified prostate cancer risk markers--results from BPC3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lindstrom

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with prostate cancer risk. However, whether these associations can be consistently replicated, vary with disease aggressiveness (tumor stage and grade and/or interact with non-genetic potential risk factors or other SNPs is unknown. We therefore genotyped 39 SNPs from regions identified by several prostate cancer GWAS in 10,501 prostate cancer cases and 10,831 controls from the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3. We replicated 36 out of 39 SNPs (P-values ranging from 0.01 to 10⁻²⁸. Two SNPs located near KLK3 associated with PSA levels showed differential association with Gleason grade (rs2735839, P = 0.0001 and rs266849, P = 0.0004; case-only test, where the alleles associated with decreasing PSA levels were inversely associated with low-grade (as defined by Gleason grade < 8 tumors but positively associated with high-grade tumors. No other SNP showed differential associations according to disease stage or grade. We observed no effect modification by SNP for association with age at diagnosis, family history of prostate cancer, diabetes, BMI, height, smoking or alcohol intake. Moreover, we found no evidence of pair-wise SNP-SNP interactions. While these SNPs represent new independent risk factors for prostate cancer, we saw little evidence for effect modification by other SNPs or by the environmental factors examined.

  14. Unsupervised text mining for assessing and augmenting GWAS results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailem, Melissa; Role, François; Nadif, Mohamed; Demenais, Florence

    2016-04-01

    Text mining can assist in the analysis and interpretation of large-scale biomedical data, helping biologists to quickly and cheaply gain confirmation of hypothesized relationships between biological entities. We set this question in the context of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), an actively emerging field that contributed to identify many genes associated with multifactorial diseases. These studies allow to identify groups of genes associated with the same phenotype, but provide no information about the relationships between these genes. Therefore, our objective is to leverage unsupervised text mining techniques using text-based cosine similarity comparisons and clustering applied to candidate and random gene vectors, in order to augment the GWAS results. We propose a generic framework which we used to characterize the relationships between 10 genes reported associated with asthma by a previous GWAS. The results of this experiment showed that the similarities between these 10 genes were significantly stronger than would be expected by chance (one-sided p-value<0.01). The clustering of observed and randomly selected gene also allowed to generate hypotheses about potential functional relationships between these genes and thus contributed to the discovery of new candidate genes for asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Genomic Standards Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, Dawn; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Cochrane, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Standards Consortium (GSC), an open-membership organization that drives community-based standardization activities, Here we provide a short history of the GSC, provide an overview of its range of current activities, and make a call for the scientific community to join forces to improve the quality...

  16. Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Lam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a large (n = 107,207 genome-wide association study (GWAS of general cognitive ability (“g”, further enhanced by combining results with a large-scale GWAS of educational attainment. We identified 70 independent genomic loci associated with general cognitive ability. Results showed significant enrichment for genes causing Mendelian disorders with an intellectual disability phenotype. Competitive pathway analysis implicated the biological processes of neurogenesis and synaptic regulation, as well as the gene targets of two pharmacologic agents: cinnarizine, a T-type calcium channel blocker, and LY97241, a potassium channel inhibitor. Transcriptome-wide and epigenome-wide analysis revealed that the implicated loci were enriched for genes expressed across all brain regions (most strongly in the cerebellum. Enrichment was exclusive to genes expressed in neurons but not oligodendrocytes or astrocytes. Finally, we report genetic correlations between cognitive ability and disparate phenotypes including psychiatric disorders, several autoimmune disorders, longevity, and maternal age at first birth.

  17. Hemoglobin genetics: recent contributions of GWAS and gene editing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elenoe C.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2016-01-01

    The β-hemoglobinopathies are inherited disorders resulting from altered coding potential or expression of the adult β-globin gene. Impaired expression of β-globin reduces adult hemoglobin (α2β2) production, the hallmark of β-thalassemia. A single-base mutation at codon 6 leads to formation of HbS (α2βS2) and sickle cell disease. While the basis of these diseases is known, therapy remains largely supportive. Bone marrow transplantation is the only curative therapy. Patients with elevated levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF, α2γ2) as adults exhibit reduced symptoms and enhanced survival. The β-globin gene locus is a paradigm of cell- and developmental stage-specific regulation. Although the principal erythroid cell transcription factors are known, mechanisms responsible for silencing of the γ-globin gene were obscure until application of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here, we review findings in the field. GWAS identified BCL11A as a candidate negative regulator of γ-globin expression. Subsequent studies have established BCL11A as a quantitative repressor. GWAS-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms lie within an essential erythroid enhancer of the BCL11A gene. Disruption of a discrete region within the enhancer reduces BCL11A expression and induces HbF expression, providing the basis for gene therapy using gene editing tools. A recently identified, second silencing factor, leukemia/lymphoma-related factor/Pokemon, shares features with BCL11A, including interaction with the nucleosome remodeling deacetylase repressive complex. These findings suggest involvement of a common pathway for HbF silencing. In addition, we discuss other factors that may be involved in γ-globin gene silencing and their potential manipulation for therapeutic benefit in treating the β-hemoglobinopathies. PMID:27340226

  18. IPD-Work consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Virtanen, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    of countries. The aim of the consortium is to estimate reliably the associations of work-related psychosocial factors with chronic diseases, disability, and mortality. Our findings are highly cited by the occupational health, epidemiology, and clinical medicine research community. However, some of the IPD-Work......'s findings have also generated disagreement as they challenge the importance of job strain as a major target for coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention, this is reflected in the critical discussion paper by Choi et al (1). In this invited reply to Choi et al, we aim to (i) describe how IPD-Work seeks......Established in 2008 and comprising over 60 researchers, the IPD-Work (individual-participant data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium is a collaborative research project that uses pre-defined meta-analyses of individual-participant data from multiple cohort studies representing a range...

  19. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenbacher, Don [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  20. Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph E.; Strauss, John; Strohmaier, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Findings from family and twin studies suggest that genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders do not in all cases map to present diagnostic categories. We aimed to identify specific variants underlying genetic effects shared between the five disorders in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium: a......: autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia.......Findings from family and twin studies suggest that genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders do not in all cases map to present diagnostic categories. We aimed to identify specific variants underlying genetic effects shared between the five disorders in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium...

  1. easyGWAS: A Cloud-Based Platform for Comparing the Results of Genome-Wide Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Dominik G; Roqueiro, Damian; Salomé, Patrice A; Kleeberger, Stefan; Greshake, Bastian; Zhu, Wangsheng; Liu, Chang; Lippert, Christoph; Stegle, Oliver; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Weigel, Detlef; Borgwardt, Karsten M

    2017-01-01

    The ever-growing availability of high-quality genotypes for a multitude of species has enabled researchers to explore the underlying genetic architecture of complex phenotypes at an unprecedented level of detail using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The systematic comparison of results obtained from GWAS of different traits opens up new possibilities, including the analysis of pleiotropic effects. Other advantages that result from the integration of multiple GWAS are the ability to replicate GWAS signals and to increase statistical power to detect such signals through meta-analyses. In order to facilitate the simple comparison of GWAS results, we present easyGWAS, a powerful, species-independent online resource for computing, storing, sharing, annotating, and comparing GWAS. The easyGWAS tool supports multiple species, the uploading of private genotype data and summary statistics of existing GWAS, as well as advanced methods for comparing GWAS results across different experiments and data sets in an interactive and user-friendly interface. easyGWAS is also a public data repository for GWAS data and summary statistics and already includes published data and results from several major GWAS. We demonstrate the potential of easyGWAS with a case study of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana , using flowering and growth-related traits. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. GWAS of clinically defined gout and subtypes identifies multiple susceptibility loci that include urate transporter genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakayama, A.; Nakaoka, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Sakiyama, M.; Shaukat, A.; Toyoda, Y.; Okada, Y.; Kamatani, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Takada, T.; Inoue, K.; Yasujima, T.; Yuasa, H.; Shirahama, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Shimizu, S.; Higashino, T.; Kawamura, Y.; Ogata, H.; Kawaguchi, M.; Ohkawa, Y.; Danjoh, I.; Tokumasu, A.; Ooyama, K.; Ito, T.; Kondo, T.; Wakai, K.; Stiburkova, B.; Pavelka, K.; Stamp, L.K.; Dalbeth, N.; Sakurai, Y.; Suzuki, H; Hosoyamada, M.; Fujimori, S.; Yokoo, T.; Hosoya, T.; Inoue, I.; Takahashi, A.; Kubo, M.; Ooyama, H.; Shimizu, T.; Ichida, K.; Shinomiya, N.; Merriman, T.R.; Matsuo, H.; Andres, M; Joosten, L.A.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Jansen, T.L.; Liote, F.; Radstake, T.R.; Riches, P.L.; So, A.; Tauches, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gout and its subtypes was performed to identify novel gout loci, including those that are subtype-specific. METHODS: Putative causal association signals from a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1213 controls from Japanese males were

  3. Extending the use of GWAS data by combining data from different genetic platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iperen, E. P. A.; Hovingh, G. K.; Asselbergs, F. W.; Zwinderman, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade many Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) were performed that discovered new associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and various phenotypes. Imputation methods are widely used in GWAS. They facilitate the phenotype association with variants that are not

  4. MZ twin pairs or MZ singletons in population family-based GWAS? More power in pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minica, C.C.; Boomsma, D.I.; Vink, J.M.; Dolan, C.V.

    2014-01-01

    Family-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS) involve testing the genetic association of (many) genetic variants with the phenotype of interest, while taking into account the relatedness among family members. Occasionally in family-based GWAS, including monozygotic (MZ) twins, the data from

  5. The International Human Epigenome Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Hirst, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The International Human Epigenome Consortium (IHEC) coordinates the generation of a catalog of high-resolution reference epigenomes of major primary human cell types. The studies now presented (see the Cell Press IHEC web portal at http://www.cell.com/consortium/IHEC) highlight the coordinated ac...

  6. Hawaii Space Grant Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Luke P.

    2005-01-01

    The Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium is composed of ten institutions of higher learning including the University of Hawai'i at Manoa, the University of Hawai'i at Hilo, the University of Guam, and seven Community Colleges spread over the 4 main Hawaiian islands. Geographic separation is not the only obstacle that we face as a Consortium. Hawai'i has been mired in an economic downturn due to a lack of tourism for almost all of the period (2001 - 2004) covered by this report, although hotel occupancy rates and real estate sales have sky-rocketed in the last year. Our challenges have been many including providing quality educational opportunities in the face of shrinking State and Federal budgets, encouraging science and technology course instruction at the K-12 level in a public school system that is becoming less focused on high technology and more focused on developing basic reading and math skills, and assembling community college programs with instructors who are expected to teach more classes for the same salary. Motivated people can overcome these problems. Fortunately, the Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium (HSGC) consists of a group of highly motivated and talented individuals who have not only overcome these obstacles, but have excelled with the Program. We fill a critical need within the State of Hawai'i to provide our children with opportunities to pursue their dreams of becoming the next generation of NASA astronauts, engineers, and explorers. Our strength lies not only in our diligent and creative HSGC advisory board, but also with Hawai'i's teachers, students, parents, and industry executives who are willing to invest their time, effort, and resources into Hawai'i's future. Our operational philosophy is to FACE the Future, meaning that we will facilitate, administer, catalyze, and educate in order to achieve our objective of creating a highly technically capable workforce both here in Hawai'i and for NASA. In addition to administering to programs and

  7. GAS STORAGE TECHNOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert W. Watson

    2004-10-18

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. To accomplish this objective, the project is divided into three phases that are managed and directed by the GSTC Coordinator. The first phase, Phase 1A, was initiated on September 30, 2003, and was completed on March 31, 2004. Phase 1A of the project included the creation of the GSTC structure, development and refinement of a technical approach (work plan) for deliverability enhancement and reservoir management. This report deals with Phase 1B and encompasses the period July 1, 2004, through September 30, 2004. During this time period there were three main activities. First was the

  8. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  9. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.H.; Ripke, S.; Neale, B.; Faraone, S.V.; Purcell, S.M.; Perlis, R.H.; Mowry, B. J.; Thapar, A.; Goddard, M.E.; Witte, J.S.; Absher, D.; Agartz, I.; Akil, H.; Amin, F.; Andreassen, O.A.; Anjorin, A.; Anney, R.; Anttila, V.; Arking, D.E.; Asherson, P.; Azevedo, M.H.; Backlund, L.; Badner, J.A.; Bailey, A.J.; Banaschewski, T.; Barchas, J.D.; Barnes, M.R.; Barrett, T.B.; Bass, N.; Battaglia, A.; Bauer, M.; Bayés, M.; Bellivier, F.; Bergen, S.E.; Berrettini, W.; Betancur, C.; Bettecken, T.; Biederman, J; Binder, E.B.; Black, D.W.; Blackwood, D.H.; Bloss, C.S.; Boehnke, M.; Boomsma, D.I.; Breen, G.; Breuer, R.; Bruggeman, R.; Cormican, P.; Buccola, N.G.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Bunney, W.E.; Buxbaum, J.D.; Byerley, W. F.; Byrne, E.M.; Caesar, S.; Cahn, W.; Cantor, R.M.; Casas, M.; Chakravarti, A.; Chambert, K.; Choudhury, K.; Cichon, S.; Cloninger, C. R.; Collier, D.A.; Cook, E.H.; Coon, H.; Corman, B.; Corvin, A.; Coryell, W.H.; Craig, D.W.; Craig, I.W.; Crosbie, J.; Cuccaro, M.L.; Curtis, D.; Czamara, D.; Datta, S.; Dawson, G.; Day, R.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Degenhardt, F.; Djurovic, S.; Donohoe, G.; Doyle, A.E.; Duan, J.; Dudbridge, F.; Duketis, E.; Ebstein, R.P.; Edenberg, H.J.; Elia, J.; Ennis, S.; Etain, B.; Fanous, A.; Farmer, A.E.; Ferrier, I.N.; Flickinger, M.; Fombonne, E.; Foroud, T.; Frank, J.; Franke, B.; Fraser, C.; Freedman, R.; Freimer, N.B.; Freitag, C.; Friedl, M.; Frisén, L.; Gallagher, L.; Gejman, P.V.; Georgieva, L.; Gershon, E.S.; Geschwind, D.H.; Giegling, I.; Gill, M.; Gordon, S.D.; Gordon-Smith, K.; Green, E.K.; Greenwood, T.A.; Grice, D.E.; Gross, M.; Grozeva, D.; Guan, W.; Gurling, H.; de Haan, L.; Haines, J.L.; Hakonarson, H.; Hallmayer, J.; Hamilton, S.P.; Hamshere, M.L.; Hansen, T.F.; Hartmann, A.M.; Hautzinger, M.; Heath, A.C.; Henders, A.K.; Herms, S.; Hickie, I.B.; Hipolito, M.; Hoefels, S.; Holmans, P.A.; Holsboer, F.; Hoogendijk, W.J.G.; Hottenga, J.J.; Hultman, C. M.; Hus, V.; Ingason, A.; Ising, M.; Jamain, S.; Jones, E.G.; Jones, I.; Jones, L.; Tzeng, J.Y.; Kähler, A.K.; Kahn, R.S.; Kandaswamy, R.; Keller, M.C.; Kennedy, J.L.; Kenny, E.; Kent, L.; Kim, Y.; Kirov, G. K.; Klauck, S.M.; Klei, L.; Knowles, J.A.; Kohli, M.A.; Koller, D.L.; Konte, B.; Korszun, A.; Krabbendam, L.; Krasucki, R.; Kuntsi, J.; Kwan, P.; Landén, M.; Langstrom, N.; Lathrop, M.; Lawrence, J.; Lawson, W.B.; Leboyer, M.; Ledbetter, D.H.; Lee, P.H.; Lencz, T.; Lesch, K.P.; Levinson, D.F.; Lewis, C.M.; Li, J.; Lichtenstein, P.; Lieberman, J. A.; Lin, D.Y.; Linszen, D.H.; Liu, C.; Lohoff, F.W.; Loo, S.K.; Lord, C.; Lowe, J.K.; Lucae, S.; MacIntyre, D.J.; Madden, P.A.F.; Maestrini, E.; Magnusson, P.K.E.; Mahon, P.B.; Maier, W.; Malhotra, A.K.; Mane, S.M.; Martin, C.L.; Martin, N.G.; Mattheisen, M.; Matthews, K.; Mattingsdal, M.; McCarroll, S.A.; McGhee, K.A.; McGough, J.J.; McGrath, P.J.; McGuffin, P.; McInnis, M.G.; McIntosh, A.; McKinney, R.; McLean, A.W.; McMahon, F.J.; McMahon, W.M.; McQuillin, A.; Medeiros, H.; Medland, S.E.; Meier, S.; Melle, I.; Meng, F.; Meyer, J.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Middleton, L.; Milanova, V.; Miranda, A.; Monaco, A.P.; Montgomery, G.W.; Moran, J.L.; Moreno-De Luca, D.; Morken, G.; Morris, D.W.; Morrow, E.M.; Moskvina, V.; Muglia, P.; Mühleisen, T.W.; Muir, W.J.; Müller-Myhsok, B.; Murtha, M.; Myers, R.M.; Myin-Germeys, I.; Neale, M.C.; Nelson, S.F.; Nievergelt, C.M.; Nikolov, I.; Nimgaonkar, V.L.; Nolen, W.A.; Nöthen, M.M.; Nurnberger, J.I.; Nwulia, E.A.; Nyholt, DR; O'Dushlaine, C.; Oades, R.D.; Olincy, A.; Oliveira, G.; Olsen, L.; Ophoff, R.A.; Osby, U.; Owen, M.J.; Palotie, A.; Parr, J.R.; Paterson, A.D.; Pato, C.N.; Pato, M.T.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Pergadia, M.L.; Pericak-Vance, M.A.; Pickard, B.S.; Pimm, J.; Piven, J.; Posthuma, D.; Potash, J.B.; Poustka, F.; Propping, P.; Puri, V.; Quested, D.; Quinn, E.M.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Rasmussen, H.B.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Rehnström, K.; Reif, A.; Ribasés, M.; Rice, J.P.; Rietschel, M.; Roeder, K.; Roeyers, H.; Rossin, L.; Rothenberger, A.; Rouleau, G.; Ruderfer, D.; Rujescu, D.; Sanders, A.R.; Sanders, S.J.; Santangelo, S.; Sergeant, J.A.; Schachar, R.; Schalling, M.; Schatzberg, A.F.; Scheftner, W.A.; Schellenberg, G.D.; Scherer, S.W.; Schork, N.J.; Schulze, T.G.; Schumacher, J.; Schwarz, M.; Scolnick, E.; Scott, L.J.; Shi, J.; Shilling, P.D.; Shyn, S.I.; Silverman, J.M.; Slager, S.L.; Smalley, S.L.; Smit, J.H.; Smith, E.N.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.; St Clair, D.; State, M.; Steffens, M; Steinhausen, H.C.; Strauss, J.; Strohmaier, J.; Stroup, T.S.; Sutcliffe, J.; Szatmari, P.; Szelinger, S.; Thirumalai, S.; Thompson, R.C.; Todorov, A.A.; Tozzi, F.; Treutlein, J.; Uhr, M.; van den Oord, E.J.C.G.; Grootheest, G.; van Os, J.; Vicente, A.; Vieland, V.; Vincent, J.B.; Visscher, P.M.; Walsh, C.A.; Wassink, T.H.; Watson, S.J.; Weissman, M.M.; Werge, T.; Wienker, T.F.; Wijsman, E.M.; Willemsen, G.; Williams, N.; Willsey, A.J.; Witt, S.H.; Xu, W.; Young, A.H.; Yu, T.W.; Zammit, S.; Zandi, P.P.; Zhang, P.; Zitman, F.G.; Zöllner, S.; Devlin, B.; Kelsoe, J.; Sklar, P.; Daly, M.J.; O'Donovan, M.C.; Craddock, N.; Sullivan, P.F.; Smoller, J.W.; Kendler, K.S.; Wray, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases

  10. GWAS-based machine learning approach to predict duloxetine response in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciukiewicz, Malgorzata; Marshe, Victoria S; Hauschild, Anne-Christin; Foster, Jane A; Rotzinger, Susan; Kennedy, James L; Kennedy, Sidney H; Müller, Daniel J; Geraci, Joseph

    2018-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and is commonly treated with antidepressant drugs. However, large variability is observed in terms of response to antidepressants. Machine learning (ML) models may be useful to predict treatment outcomes. A sample of 186 MDD patients received treatment with duloxetine for up to 8 weeks were categorized as "responders" based on a MADRS change >50% from baseline; or "remitters" based on a MADRS score ≤10 at end point. The initial dataset (N = 186) was randomly divided into training and test sets in a nested 5-fold cross-validation, where 80% was used as a training set and 20% made up five independent test sets. We performed genome-wide logistic regression to identify potentially significant variants related to duloxetine response/remission and extracted the most promising predictors using LASSO regression. Subsequently, classification-regression trees (CRT) and support vector machines (SVM) were applied to construct models, using ten-fold cross-validation. With regards to response, none of the pairs performed significantly better than chance (accuracy p > .1). For remission, SVM achieved moderate performance with an accuracy = 0.52, a sensitivity = 0.58, and a specificity = 0.46, and 0.51 for all coefficients for CRT. The best performing SVM fold was characterized by an accuracy = 0.66 (p = .071), sensitivity = 0.70 and a sensitivity = 0.61. In this study, the potential of using GWAS data to predict duloxetine outcomes was examined using ML models. The models were characterized by a promising sensitivity, but specificity remained moderate at best. The inclusion of additional non-genetic variables to create integrated models may improve prediction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Psychiatric Genomics: An Update and an Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick F; Agrawal, Arpana; Bulik, Cynthia M; Andreassen, Ole A; Børglum, Anders D; Breen, Gerome; Cichon, Sven; Edenberg, Howard J; Faraone, Stephen V; Gelernter, Joel; Mathews, Carol A; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Smoller, Jordan W; O'Donovan, Michael C

    2018-01-01

    The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) is the largest consortium in the history of psychiatry. This global effort is dedicated to rapid progress and open science, and in the past decade it has delivered an increasing flow of new knowledge about the fundamental basis of common psychiatric disorders. The PGC has recently commenced a program of research designed to deliver "actionable" findings-genomic results that 1) reveal fundamental biology, 2) inform clinical practice, and 3) deliver new therapeutic targets. The central idea of the PGC is to convert the family history risk factor into biologically, clinically, and therapeutically meaningful insights. The emerging findings suggest that we are entering a phase of accelerated genetic discovery for multiple psychiatric disorders. These findings are likely to elucidate the genetic portions of these truly complex traits, and this knowledge can then be mined for its relevance for improved therapeutics and its impact on psychiatric practice within a precision medicine framework. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1946: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia Franz Kallmann's influential twin study of schizophrenia in 691 twin pairs was the largest in the field for nearly four decades. (Am J Psychiatry 1946; 103:309-322 )].

  12. Effect of sample stratification on dairy GWAS results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Li

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination and genetic selection are major factors contributing to population stratification in dairy cattle. In this study, we analyzed the effect of sample stratification and the effect of stratification correction on results of a dairy genome-wide association study (GWAS. Three methods for stratification correction were used: the efficient mixed-model association expedited (EMMAX method accounting for correlation among all individuals, a generalized least squares (GLS method based on half-sib intraclass correlation, and a principal component analysis (PCA approach. Results Historical pedigree data revealed that the 1,654 contemporary cows in the GWAS were all related when traced through approximately 10–15 generations of ancestors. Genome and phenotype stratifications had a striking overlap with the half-sib structure. A large elite half-sib family of cows contributed to the detection of favorable alleles that had low frequencies in the general population and high frequencies in the elite cows and contributed to the detection of X chromosome effects. All three methods for stratification correction reduced the number of significant effects. EMMAX method had the most severe reduction in the number of significant effects, and the PCA method using 20 principal components and GLS had similar significance levels. Removal of the elite cows from the analysis without using stratification correction removed many effects that were also removed by the three methods for stratification correction, indicating that stratification correction could have removed some true effects due to the elite cows. SNP effects with good consensus between different methods and effect size distributions from USDA’s Holstein genomic evaluation included the DGAT1-NIBP region of BTA14 for production traits, a SNP 45kb upstream from PIGY on BTA6 and two SNPs in NIBP on BTA14 for protein percentage. However, most of these consensus effects had

  13. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to

  14. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts for Families Guide Facts for Families - Vietnamese Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation No. 52; Updated October 2017 Evaluation ... with serious emotional and behavioral problems need a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. Comprehensive psychiatric evaluations usually require a ...

  15. Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortium

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — n 2000, the US EPA granted authority to establish up to five Estuarine Indicator Research Programs. These Programs were designed to identify, evaluate, recommend and...

  16. NCI Pediatric Preclinical Testing Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI has awarded grants to five research teams to participate in its Pediatric Preclinical Testing Consortium, which is intended to help to prioritize which agents to pursue in pediatric clinical trials.

  17. Hickory Consortium 2001 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-02-01

    As with all Building America Program consortia, systems thinking is the key to understanding the processes that Hickory Consortium hopes to improve. The Hickory Consortium applies this thinking to more than the whole-building concept. Their systems thinking embraces the meta process of how housing construction takes place in America. By understanding the larger picture, they are able to identify areas where improvements can be made and how to implement them.

  18. GWAS of clinically defined gout and subtypes identifies multiple susceptibility loci that include urate transporter genes

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Ken; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Shaukat, Amara; Toyoda, Yu; Okada, Yukinori; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takada, Tappei; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Yasujima, Tomoya; Yuasa, Hiroaki; Shirahama, Yuko; Nakashima, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gout and its subtypes was performed to identify novel gout loci, including those that are subtype-specific. Methods Putative causal association signals from a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1213 controls from Japanese males were replicated with 1396 cases and 1268 controls using a custom chip of 1961 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also first conducted GWASs of gout subtypes. Replication with Caucasian and New Zeala...

  19. qqman: an R package for visualizing GWAS results using Q-Q and manhattan plots

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of human trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. Here, I describe a freely available R package for visualizing GWAS results using Q-Q and manhattan plots. The qqman package enables the flexible creation of manhattan plots, both genome-wide and for single chromosomes, with optional highlighting of SNPs of interest. Availability: qqman is released under the GNU General Public License, and is freely available on ...

  20. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  1. Evaluation of European Schizophrenia GWAS Loci in Asian Populations via Comprehensive Meta-Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Luo, Xiong-Jian; Chang, Hong; Liu, Zichao; Li, Ming

    2017-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe and highly heritable neuropsychiatric disorder. Recent genetic analyses including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated multiple genome-wide significant variants for schizophrenia among European populations. However, many of these risk variants were not largely validated in other populations of different ancestry such as Asians. To validate whether these European GWAS significant loci are associated with schizophrenia in Asian populations, we conducted a systematic literature search and meta-analyses on 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Asian populations by combining all available case-control and family-based samples, including up to 30,000 individuals. We employed classical fixed (or random) effects inverse variance weighted methods to calculate summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Among the 19 GWAS loci, we replicated the risk associations of nine markers (e.g., SNPs at VRK2, ITIH3/4, NDST3, NOTCH4) surpassing significance level (two-tailed P Asian replication samples and initial European GWAS findings, and the successful replications of these GWAS loci in a different ethnic group provide stronger evidence for their clinical associations with schizophrenia. Further studies, focusing on the molecular mechanisms of these GWAS significant loci, will become increasingly important for understanding of the pathogenesis to schizophrenia.

  2. GenToS: Use of Orthologous Gene Information to Prioritize Signals from Human GWAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm S Hoppmann

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS evaluate associations between genetic variants and a trait or disease of interest free of prior biological hypotheses. GWAS require stringent correction for multiple testing, with genome-wide significance typically defined as association p-value <5*10-8. This study presents a new tool that uses external information about genes to prioritize SNP associations (GenToS. For a given list of candidate genes, GenToS calculates an appropriate statistical significance threshold and then searches for trait-associated variants in summary statistics from human GWAS. It thereby allows for identifying trait-associated genetic variants that do not meet genome-wide significance. The program additionally tests for enrichment of significant candidate gene associations in the human GWAS data compared to the number expected by chance. As proof of principle, this report used external information from a comprehensive resource of genetically manipulated and systematically phenotyped mice. Based on selected murine phenotypes for which human GWAS data for corresponding traits were publicly available, several candidate gene input lists were derived. Using GenToS for the investigation of candidate genes underlying murine skeletal phenotypes in data from a large human discovery GWAS meta-analysis of bone mineral density resulted in the identification of significantly associated variants in 29 genes. Index variants in 28 of these loci were subsequently replicated in an independent GWAS replication step, highlighting that they are true positive associations. One signal, COL11A1, has not been discovered through GWAS so far and represents a novel human candidate gene for altered bone mineral density. The number of observed genes that contained significant SNP associations in human GWAS based on murine candidate gene input lists was much greater than the number expected by chance across several complex human traits (enrichment p-value as

  3. Heritability and GWAS Analyses of Acne in Australian Adolescent Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina-Vargas, Angela; Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Grasby, Katrina; Zhu, Gu; Gordon, Scott; Medland, Sarah E; Martin, Nicholas G

    2017-12-01

    Acne vulgaris is a skin disease with a multifactorial and complex pathology. While several twin studies have estimated that acne has a heritability of up to 80%, the genomic elements responsible for the origin and pathology of acne are still undiscovered. Here we performed a twin-based structural equation model, using available data on acne severity for an Australian sample of 4,491 twins and their siblings aged from 10 to 24. This study extends by a factor of 3 an earlier analysis of the genetic factors of acne. Acne severity was rated by nurses on a 4-point scale (1 = absent to 4 = severe) on up to three body sites (face, back, chest) and on up to three occasions (age 12, 14, and 16). The phenotype that we analyzed was the most severe rating at any site or age. The polychoric correlation for monozygotic twins was higher (r MZ = 0.86, 95% CI [0.81, 0.90]) than for dizygotic twins (r DZ = 0.42, 95% CI [0.35, 0.47]). A model that includes additive genetic effects and unique environmental effects was the most parsimonious model to explain the genetic variance of acne severity, and the estimated heritability was 0.85 (95% CI [0.82, 0.87]). We then conducted a genome-wide analysis including an additional 271 siblings - for a total of 4,762 individuals. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) scan did not detect loci associated with the severity of acne at the threshold of 5E-08 but suggestive association was found for three SNPs: rs10515088 locus 5q13.1 (p = 3.9E-07), rs12738078 locus 1p35.5 (p = 6.7E-07), and rs117943429 locus 18q21.2 (p = 9.1E-07). The 5q13.1 locus is close to PIK3R1, a gene that has a potential regulatory effect on sebocyte differentiation.

  4. The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Schill, Lyndele; Ivory, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) program is designed to increase the number of underrepresented minority students into STEM and STEM careers by providing unique summer research experiences followed by long-term mentoring and cohort support. Hallmarks of the NAC program include: research or internship opportunities at one of the NAC partner sites, a framework to continue research over the academic year, peer and faculty mentoring, monthly virtual hangouts, and much more. NAC students also participate in two professional travel opportunities each year: the annual NAC conference at Howard University and poster presentation at the annual AAS winter meeting following their summer internship.The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) is a program led by the National Radio Astronomy Consortium (NRAO) and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), in partnership with the National Society of Black Physicist (NSBP), along with a number of minority and majority universities.

  5. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  6. The OncoArray Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amos, Christopher I; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Zhaoming

    2017-01-01

    by Illumina to facilitate efficient genotyping. The consortium developed standard approaches for selecting SNPs for study, for quality control of markers, and for ancestry analysis. The array was genotyped at selected sites and with prespecified replicate samples to permit evaluation of genotyping accuracy...... among centers and by ethnic background. RESULTS: The OncoArray consortium genotyped 447,705 samples. A total of 494,763 SNPs passed quality control steps with a sample success rate of 97% of the samples. Participating sites performed ancestry analysis using a common set of markers and a scoring...

  7. The ocean sampling day consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate...... the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our...

  8. In-silico analysis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD GWAS loci to novel connections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mesbah-Uddin

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWASs for many complex diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, produced hundreds of disease-associated loci-the majority of which are noncoding. The number of GWAS loci is increasing very rapidly, but the process of translating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from these loci to genomic medicine is lagging. In this study, we investigated 4,734 variants from 152 IBD associated GWAS loci (IBD associated 152 lead noncoding SNPs identified from pooled GWAS results + 4,582 variants in strong linkage-disequilibrium (LD (r2 ≥0.8 for EUR population of 1K Genomes Project using four publicly available bioinformatics tools, e.g. dbPSHP, CADD, GWAVA, and RegulomeDB, to annotate and prioritize putative regulatory variants. Of the 152 lead noncoding SNPs, around 11% are under strong negative selection (GERP++ RS ≥2; and ~30% are under balancing selection (Tajima's D score >2 in CEU population (1K Genomes Project--though these regions are positively selected (GERP++ RS <0 in mammalian evolution. The analysis of 4,734 variants using three integrative annotation tools produced 929 putative functional SNPs, of which 18 SNPs (from 15 GWAS loci are in concordance with all three classifiers. These prioritized noncoding SNPs may contribute to IBD pathogenesis by dysregulating the expression of nearby genes. This study showed the usefulness of integrative annotation for prioritizing fewer functional variants from a large number of GWAS markers.

  9. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Consortium Agreement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asada, Haruhiko

    1999-01-01

    ... of Phase 2 of the Home Automation and Healthcare Consortium. This report describes all major research accomplishments within the last six months since we launched the second phase of the consortium...

  10. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  11. Familiality of Psychiatric Disorders and Risk of Postpartum Psychiatric Episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Anna E; Maegbaek, Merete L; Liu, Xiaoqin

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Postpartum psychiatric disorders are common and morbid complications of pregnancy. The authors sought to evaluate how family history of psychiatric disorders is associated with postpartum psychiatric disorders in proband mothers with and without a prior psychiatric history by assessing...

  12. Methods to improve genomic prediction and GWAS using combined Holstein populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujin

    The thesis focuses on methods to improve GWAS and genomic prediction using combined Holstein populations and investigations G by E interaction. The conclusions are: 1) Prediction reliabilities for Brazilian Holsteins can be increased by adding Nordic and Frensh genotyped bulls and a large G by E...... interaction exists between populations. 2) Combining data from Chinese and Danish Holstein populations increases the power of GWAS and detects new QTL regions for milk fatty acid traits. 3) The novel multi-trait Bayesian model efficiently estimates region-specific genomic variances, covariances...

  13. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  14. Virginia ADS consortium - thorium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myneni, Ganapati

    2015-01-01

    A Virginia ADS consortium, consisting of Virginia Universities (UVa, VCU, VT), Industry (Casting Analysis Corporation, GEM*STAR, MuPlus Inc.), Jefferson Lab and not-for-profit ISOHIM, has been organizing International Accelerator-Driven Sub-Critical Systems (ADS) and Thorium Utilization (ThU) workshops. The third workshop of this series was hosted by VCU in Richmond, Virginia, USA Oct 2014 with CBMM and IAEA sponsorship and was endorsed by International Thorium Energy Committee (IThEC), Geneva and Virginia Nuclear Energy Consortium Authority. In this presentation a brief summary of the successful 3 rd International ADS and ThU workshop proceedings and review the worldwide ADS plans and/or programs is given. Additionally, a report on new start-ups on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) systems is presented. Further, a discussion on potential simplistic fertile 232 Th to fissile 233 U conversion is made

  15. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  16. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-01-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A ampersand E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton's initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force

  17. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  18. Integrated GWAS and Pathway profiling for feed efficiency traits in pigs leads to novel genes and their molecular pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Ostersen, Tage; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2013-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) are being extensively used in revealing genetic architecture of complex traits. However, GWAS offer limited understanding of the biological role of significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting complex traits. Pathway analysis using GWAS results...... is an important step where we firstly detect genes located near GWAS-detected SNPs and subsequently we detect enrichment of these genes in various biological processes and pathways. The objective of this study was to apply these steps to identify relevant pathways involved in residual feed intake (RFI) in pigs....... Residual feed intake is a feed efficiency measure and is highly economically important in animal production. In our study, a total of 596 Yorkshire boars had phenotypic and genotypic records. After quality control, 37,915 SNPs were available for GWAS which was implemented in the DMU software package...

  19. Investigating the genetic relationship between Alzheimer’s disease and cancer using GWAS summary statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Yen Chen Anne; Cho, Kelly; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Cormack, Jean; Blalock, Kendra; Campbell, Peter T.; Casey, Graham; Conti, David V.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Figueiredo, Jane; James Gauderman, W.; Gong, Jian; Green, Roger C.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Harju, John F.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Jacobs, Eric J; Jenkins, Mark A.; Jiao, Shuo; Li, Li; Lin, Yi; Manion, Frank J.; Moreno, Victor; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Peters, Ulrike; Raskin, Leon; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Seminara, Daniela; Severi, Gianluca; Stenzel, Stephanie L.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Hunter, David J.; Lindström, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Ahsan, Habib; Whittemore, Alice S.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckman, Lars; Crisponi, Laura; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Easton, Douglas F.; Turnbull, Clare A.; Rahman, Nazneen; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Neal, David E.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher; Schumacher, Fred; Travis, Ruth C.; Riboli, Elio; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Han, Younghun; Su, Li; Wei, Yongyue; Hung, Rayjean J.; Brhane, Yonathan; McLaughlin, John; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.; Bickeböller, Heike; Rosenberger, Albert; Houlston, Richard S.; Caporaso, Neil E; Landi, Maria Teresa; Heinrich, Joachim; Risch, Angela; Wu, Xifeng; Ye, Yuanqing; Christiani, David C.; Amos, Christopher I; Liang, Liming; Driver, Jane A.; IGAP Consortium, Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study (CORECT); Discovery, Biology, and Risk of Inherited Variants in Breast Cancer (DRIVE)

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence from both epidemiology and basic science suggest an inverse association between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cancer. We examined the genetic relationship between AD and various cancer types using GWAS summary statistics from the IGAP and GAME-ON consortia. Sample size ranged from

  20. Functional validation of GWAS gene candidates for abnormal liver function during zebrafish liver development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Y. Liu

    2013-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed numerous associations between many phenotypes and gene candidates. Frequently, however, further elucidation of gene function has not been achieved. A recent GWAS identified 69 candidate genes associated with elevated liver enzyme concentrations, which are clinical markers of liver disease. To investigate the role of these genes in liver homeostasis, we narrowed down this list to 12 genes based on zebrafish orthology, zebrafish liver expression and disease correlation. To assess the function of gene candidates during liver development, we assayed hepatic progenitors at 48 hours post fertilization (hpf and hepatocytes at 72 hpf using in situ hybridization following morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos. Knockdown of three genes (pnpla3, pklr and mapk10 decreased expression of hepatic progenitor cells, whereas knockdown of eight genes (pnpla3, cpn1, trib1, fads2, slc2a2, pklr, mapk10 and samm50 decreased cell-specific hepatocyte expression. We then induced liver injury in zebrafish embryos using acetaminophen exposure and observed changes in liver toxicity incidence in morphants. Prioritization of GWAS candidates and morpholino knockdown expedites the study of newly identified genes impacting liver development and represents a feasible method for initial assessment of candidate genes to instruct further mechanistic analyses. Our analysis can be extended to GWAS for additional disease-associated phenotypes.

  1. LocusTrack: Integrated visualization of GWAS results and genomic annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Renteria, Miguel E; MacGregor, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are an important tool for the mapping of complex traits and diseases. Visual inspection of genomic annotations may be used to generate insights into the biological mechanisms underlying GWAS-identified loci. We developed LocusTrack, a web-based application that annotates and creates plots of regional GWAS results and incorporates user-specified tracks that display annotations such as linkage disequilibrium (LD), phylogenetic conservation, chromatin state, and other genomic and regulatory elements. Currently, LocusTrack can integrate annotation tracks from the UCSC genome-browser as well as from any tracks provided by the user. LocusTrack is an easy-to-use application and can be accessed at the following URL: http://gump.qimr.edu.au/general/gabrieC/LocusTrack/. Users can upload and manage GWAS results and select from and/or provide annotation tracks using simple and intuitive menus. LocusTrack scripts and associated data can be downloaded from the website and run locally.

  2. GWAS for executive function and processing speed suggests involvement of the CADM2 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); J. Bressler; S. Debette (Stéphanie); M. Schuur (Maaike); A.V. Smith; J.C. Bis (Joshua); G. Davies (Gail); S. Trompet (Stella); J.A. Smith; A. Björnsson (Asgeir); L.B. Chibnik (Lori); Y. Liu; V. Vitart (Veronique); M. Kirin (Mirna); K. Petrovic (Katja); O. Polasek (Ozren); L. Zgaga (Lina); C. Fawns-Ritchie; P. Hoffmann (Per); J. Karjalainen (Juha); J. Lahti; D.J. Llewellyn; C.O. Schmidt (Carsten O.); R. Mather; V. Chouraki (Vincent); Q. Sun; S. Resnick (Susan); L.M. Rose (Lynda M.); C. Oldmeadow (Christopher); M. Stewart; B.H. Smith; V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); Q. Yang (Qiong); S.S. Mirza (Saira); J.W. Jukema; P.L. DeJager (Philip L.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); D.C. Liewald (David C.); N. Amin (Najaf); L.H. Coker (Laura); O. Stegle (Oliver); O.L. Lopez; R. Schmidt; A. Teumer (Alexander); I. Ford; N. Karbalai (Nazanin); J.T. Becker (James); M.K. Jonsdottir (Maria K.); R. Au; R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); S. Herms (Stefan); M.A. Nalls (Michael); W. Zhao; S.T. Turner; K. Yaffe; K. Lohman (Kurt); J.C. van Swieten (John); S.L.R. Kardia; D.S. Knopman (David); W.M. Meeks (William); G. Heiss (Gerardo); E.G. Holliday (Elizabeth); P.W. Schofield; T. Tanaka (Toshiko); D.J. Stott (David J.); J. Wang (Jing); P.M. Ridker (Paul); A.J. Gow; A. Pattie (Alison); J.M. Starr (John); L.J. Hocking; N.J. Armstrong (Nicola J.); S. McLachlan (Stela); L. Shulman (Lee); L.C. Pilling (Luke); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); R.J. Scott; N.A. Kochan (Nicole A.); A. Palotie; Y.-C. Hsieh; J.G. Eriksson (Johan G.); A.D. Penman (Alan); R.F. Gottesman (Rebecca); B.A. Oostra (Ben); L. Yu; A.L. DeStefano (Anita L.); A. Beiser; M. Garcia; J.I. Rotter; M.M. Nöthen; A. Hofman (Albert); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); R.G.J. Westendorp; B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); P.A. Wolf; A.G. Uitterlinden (André); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); F. Grodstein (Francine); K. Räikkönen (Katri); J.-C. Lambert; D.J. Porteous (David J.); J.F. Price (Jackie F.); P.S. Sachdev (Perminder); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); J. Attia (John); I. Rudan (Igor); C. Hayward; A.F. Wright; J.F. Wilson (James F); S. Cichon (Sven); L. Franke (Lude); H. Schmidt; J. Ding (Jingzhong); A.J. de Craen (Anton); M. Fornage (Myriam); D.A. Bennett (David); I.J. Deary (Ian); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); L.J. Launer (Lenore); A.L. Fitzpatrick; S. Seshadri (Sudha); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); T.H. Mosley (Thomas H.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTo identify common variants contributing to normal variation in two specific domains of cognitive functioning, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of executive functioning and information processing speed in non-demented older adults from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and

  3. meQTL analysis of asthma GWAS loci and DNA methylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Ashish; Soderhall, Cilla; Merid, Simon Kebede; Xu, Chengjian; Koppelman, Gerard; Melen, Erik; Gruzieva, Olena; Kere, Juha; Pershagen, Goran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asthma is characterized as a chronic inflammation disease and has increased in prevalence over the decades. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with varying risk estimates for asthma, but the etiology is still not fully

  4. A genome-wide association scan (GWAS) for mean telomere length within the COGS project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pooley, Karen A; Bojesen, Stig E; Weischer, Maren

    2013-01-01

    Mean telomere length (TL) in blood cells is heritable and has been reported to be associated with risks of several diseases, including cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis of three GWAS for TL (total n=2240) and selected 1629 variants for replication via the "iCOGS" custom genotyping array. All...

  5. Targeted exonic sequencing of GWAS loci in the high extremes of the plasma lipids distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, Aniruddh P.; Peloso, Gina M.; Pirruccello, James P.; Johansen, Christopher T.; Dubé, Joseph B.; Larach, Daniel B.; Ban, Matthew R.; Dallinge-Thie, Geesje M.; Gupta, Namrata; Boehnke, Michael; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Kastelein, John J. P.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hegele, Robert A.; Rader, Daniel J.; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for plasma lipid levels have mapped numerous genomic loci, with each region often containing many protein-coding genes. Targeted re-sequencing of exons is a strategy to pinpoint causal variants and genes. We performed solution-based hybrid selection of 9008

  6. Analysis and visualization of Arabidopsis thaliana GWAS using web 2.0 technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu S; Horton, Matthew; Vilhjálmsson, Bjarni J; Seren, Umit; Meng, Dazhe; Meyer, Christopher; Ali Amer, Muhammad; Borevitz, Justin O; Bergelson, Joy; Nordborg, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    With large-scale genomic data becoming the norm in biological studies, the storing, integrating, viewing and searching of such data have become a major challenge. In this article, we describe the development of an Arabidopsis thaliana database that hosts the geographic information and genetic polymorphism data for over 6000 accessions and genome-wide association study (GWAS) results for 107 phenotypes representing the largest collection of Arabidopsis polymorphism data and GWAS results to date. Taking advantage of a series of the latest web 2.0 technologies, such as Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML), GWT (Google-Web-Toolkit), MVC (Model-View-Controller) web framework and Object Relationship Mapper, we have created a web-based application (web app) for the database, that offers an integrated and dynamic view of geographic information, genetic polymorphism and GWAS results. Essential search functionalities are incorporated into the web app to aid reverse genetics research. The database and its web app have proven to be a valuable resource to the Arabidopsis community. The whole framework serves as an example of how biological data, especially GWAS, can be presented and accessed through the web. In the end, we illustrate the potential to gain new insights through the web app by two examples, showcasing how it can be used to facilitate forward and reverse genetics research. Database URL: http://arabidopsis.usc.edu/

  7. Re-Ranking Sequencing Variants in the Post-GWAS Era for Accurate Causal Variant Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Laura L.; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Kraft, Peter; Bull, Shelley B.; Sun, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Next generation sequencing has dramatically increased our ability to localize disease-causing variants by providing base-pair level information at costs increasingly feasible for the large sample sizes required to detect complex-trait associations. Yet, identification of causal variants within an established region of association remains a challenge. Counter-intuitively, certain factors that increase power to detect an associated region can decrease power to localize the causal variant. First, combining GWAS with imputation or low coverage sequencing to achieve the large sample sizes required for high power can have the unintended effect of producing differential genotyping error among SNPs. This tends to bias the relative evidence for association toward better genotyped SNPs. Second, re-use of GWAS data for fine-mapping exploits previous findings to ensure genome-wide significance in GWAS-associated regions. However, using GWAS findings to inform fine-mapping analysis can bias evidence away from the causal SNP toward the tag SNP and SNPs in high LD with the tag. Together these factors can reduce power to localize the causal SNP by more than half. Other strategies commonly employed to increase power to detect association, namely increasing sample size and using higher density genotyping arrays, can, in certain common scenarios, actually exacerbate these effects and further decrease power to localize causal variants. We develop a re-ranking procedure that accounts for these adverse effects and substantially improves the accuracy of causal SNP identification, often doubling the probability that the causal SNP is top-ranked. Application to the NCI BPC3 aggressive prostate cancer GWAS with imputation meta-analysis identified a new top SNP at 2 of 3 associated loci and several additional possible causal SNPs at these loci that may have otherwise been overlooked. This method is simple to implement using R scripts provided on the author's website. PMID:23950724

  8. Consortium for Health and Military Performance (CHAMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center's work addresses a wide scope of trauma exposure from the consequences of combat, operations other than war, terrorism, natural and humanmade disasters,...

  9. Meta-analysis of human genome-microbiome association studies: the MiBioGen consortium initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Kurilshikov, Alexander; Radjabzadeh, Djawad; Turpin, Williams; Croitoru, Kenneth; Bonder, Marc Jan; Jackson, Matthew A; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Frost, Fabian; Homuth, Georg; Rühlemann, Malte; Hughes, David; Kim, Han-Na; Spector, Tim D; Bell, Jordana T; Steves, Claire J; Timpson, Nicolas; Franke, Andre; Wijmenga, Cisca; Meyer, Katie; Kacprowski, Tim; Franke, Lude; Paterson, Andrew D; Raes, Jeroen; Kraaij, Robert; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    2018-06-08

    In recent years, human microbiota, especially gut microbiota, have emerged as an important yet complex trait influencing human metabolism, immunology, and diseases. Many studies are investigating the forces underlying the observed variation, including the human genetic variants that shape human microbiota. Several preliminary genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been completed, but more are necessary to achieve a fuller picture. Here, we announce the MiBioGen consortium initiative, which has assembled 18 population-level cohorts and some 19,000 participants. Its aim is to generate new knowledge for the rapidly developing field of microbiota research. Each cohort has surveyed the gut microbiome via 16S rRNA sequencing and genotyped their participants with full-genome SNP arrays. We have standardized the analytical pipelines for both the microbiota phenotypes and genotypes, and all the data have been processed using identical approaches. Our analysis of microbiome composition shows that we can reduce the potential artifacts introduced by technical differences in generating microbiota data. We are now in the process of benchmarking the association tests and performing meta-analyses of genome-wide associations. All pipeline and summary statistics results will be shared using public data repositories. We present the largest consortium to date devoted to microbiota-GWAS. We have adapted our analytical pipelines to suit multi-cohort analyses and expect to gain insight into host-microbiota cross-talk at the genome-wide level. And, as an open consortium, we invite more cohorts to join us (by contacting one of the corresponding authors) and to follow the analytical pipeline we have developed.

  10. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) for molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnisch, Jan; Thiering, Elisabeth; Heitmüller, Daniela; Tiesler, Carla M T; Grallert, Harald; Heinrich-Weltzien, Roswitha; Hickel, Reinhard; Heinrich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    This genome-wide association study (GWAS) investigated the relationship between molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) and possible genetic loci. Clinical and genetic data from the 10-year follow-up of 668 children from the Munich GINI-plus and LISA-plus birth cohort studies were analyzed. The dental examinations included the diagnosis of MIH according to the criteria of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD). Children with MIH were categorized as those with a minimum of one hypomineralized first permanent molar. A GWAS was implemented following a quality-control step and an additive genetic effect was assumed. A total of 2,013,491 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were available for analysis. Rs13058467, which is located near the SCUBE1 gene on chromosome 22 (p MIH when using a threshold of p value MIH.

  11. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service...

  12. Results of a "GWAS plus:" general cognitive ability is substantially heritable and massively polygenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M Kirkpatrick

    Full Text Available We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS for general cognitive ability (GCA plus three other analyses of GWAS data that aggregate the effects of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in various ways. Our multigenerational sample comprised 7,100 Caucasian participants, drawn from two longitudinal family studies, who had been assessed with an age-appropriate IQ test and had provided DNA samples passing quality screens. We conducted the GWAS across ∼ 2.5 million SNPs (both typed and imputed, using a generalized least-squares method appropriate for the different family structures present in our sample, and subsequently conducted gene-based association tests. We also conducted polygenic prediction analyses under five-fold cross-validation, using two different schemes of weighting SNPs. Using parametric bootstrapping, we assessed the performance of this prediction procedure under the null. Finally, we estimated the proportion of variance attributable to all genotyped SNPs as random effects with software GCTA. The study is limited chiefly by its power to detect realistic single-SNP or single-gene effects, none of which reached genome-wide significance, though some genomic inflation was evident from the GWAS. Unit SNP weights performed about as well as least-squares regression weights under cross-validation, but the performance of both increased as more SNPs were included in calculating the polygenic score. Estimates from GCTA were 35% of phenotypic variance at the recommended biological-relatedness ceiling. Taken together, our results concur with other recent studies: they support a substantial heritability of GCA, arising from a very large number of causal SNPs, each of very small effect. We place our study in the context of the literature-both contemporary and historical-and provide accessible explication of our statistical methods.

  13. Tri-District Arts Consortium Summer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Charlotte O.

    1990-01-01

    The Tri-District Arts Consortium in South Carolina was formed to serve artistically gifted students in grades six-nine. The consortium developed a summer program offering music, dance, theatre, and visual arts instruction through a curriculum of intense training, performing, and hands-on experiences with faculty members and guest artists. (JDD)

  14. Increasing Sales by Developing Production Consortiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher A.; Russo, Robert

    Intended to help rehabilitation facility administrators increase organizational income from manufacturing and/or contracted service sources, this document provides a decision-making model for the development of a production consortium. The document consists of five chapters and two appendices. Chapter 1 defines the consortium concept, explains…

  15. A simulation study of gene-by-environment interactions in GWAS implies ample hidden effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigorta, Urko M.; Gibson, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The switch to a modern lifestyle in recent decades has coincided with a rapid increase in prevalence of obesity and other diseases. These shifts in prevalence could be explained by the release of genetic susceptibility for disease in the form of gene-by-environment (GxE) interactions. Yet, the detection of interaction effects requires large sample sizes, little replication has been reported, and a few studies have demonstrated environmental effects only after summing the risk of GWAS alleles into genetic risk scores (GRSxE). We performed extensive simulations of a quantitative trait controlled by 2500 causal variants to inspect the feasibility to detect gene-by-environment interactions in the context of GWAS. The simulated individuals were assigned either to an ancestral or a modern setting that alters the phenotype by increasing the effect size by 1.05–2-fold at a varying fraction of perturbed SNPs (from 1 to 20%). We report two main results. First, for a wide range of realistic scenarios, highly significant GRSxE is detected despite the absence of individual genotype GxE evidence at the contributing loci. Second, an increase in phenotypic variance after environmental perturbation reduces the power to discover susceptibility variants by GWAS in mixed cohorts with individuals from both ancestral and modern environments. We conclude that a pervasive presence of gene-by-environment effects can remain hidden even though it contributes to the genetic architecture of complex traits. PMID:25101110

  16. Genetic variation in HTR4 and lung function: GWAS follow-up in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, John S; Li, Huiling; DeGraff, Laura M; Flake, Gordon; Zeldin, Darryl C; London, Stephanie J

    2015-01-01

    Human genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified numerous associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and pulmonary function. Proving that there is a causal relationship between GWAS SNPs, many of which are noncoding and without known functional impact, and these traits has been elusive. Furthermore, noncoding GWAS-identified SNPs may exert trans-regulatory effects rather than impact the proximal gene. Noncoding variants in 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 4 (HTR4) are associated with pulmonary function in human GWASs. To gain insight into whether this association is causal, we tested whether Htr4-null mice have altered pulmonary function. We found that HTR4-deficient mice have 12% higher baseline lung resistance and also increased methacholine-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) as measured by lung resistance (27%), tissue resistance (48%), and tissue elastance (30%). Furthermore, Htr4-null mice were more sensitive to serotonin-induced AHR. In models of exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, bleomycin, and allergic airway inflammation induced by house dust mites, pulmonary function and cytokine profiles in Htr4-null mice differed little from their wild-type controls. The findings of altered baseline lung function and increased AHR in Htr4-null mice support a causal relationship between genetic variation in HTR4 and pulmonary function identified in human GWAS. © FASEB.

  17. Improved Use of Small Reference Panels for Conditional and Joint Analysis with GWAS Summary Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yangqing; Pan, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Due to issues of practicality and confidentiality of genomic data sharing on a large scale, typically only meta- or mega-analyzed genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data, not individual-level data, are publicly available. Reanalyses of such GWAS summary data for a wide range of applications have become more and more common and useful, which often require the use of an external reference panel with individual-level genotypic data to infer linkage disequilibrium (LD) among genetic variants. However, with a small sample size in only hundreds, as for the most popular 1000 Genomes Project European sample, estimation errors for LD are not negligible, leading to often dramatically increased numbers of false positives in subsequent analyses of GWAS summary data. To alleviate the problem in the context of association testing for a group of SNPs, we propose an alternative estimator of the covariance matrix with an idea similar to multiple imputation. We use numerical examples based on both simulated and real data to demonstrate the severe problem with the use of the 1000 Genomes Project reference panels, and the improved performance of our new approach. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Consortium for military LCD display procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Gregg

    2002-08-01

    International Display Consortium (IDC) is the joining together of display companies to combined their buying power and obtained favorable terms with a major LCD manufacturer. Consolidating the buying power and grouping the demand enables the rugged display industry of avionics, ground vehicles, and ship based display manufacturers to have unencumbered access to high performance AMLCDs while greatly reducing risk and lowering cost. With an unrestricted supply of AMLCD displays, the consortium members have total control of their risk, cost, deliveries and added value partners. Every display manufacturer desires a very close relationship with a display vender. With IDC each consortium member achieves a close relationship. Consortium members enjoy cost effective access to high performance, industry standard sized LCD panels, and modified commercial displays with 100 degree C clearing points and portrait configurations. Consortium members also enjoy proposal support, technical support and long-term support.

  19. HiView: an integrative genome browser to leverage Hi-C results for the interpretation of GWAS variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Guosheng; Duan, Qing; Chai, Shengjie; Zhang, Baqun; Wu, Cong; Jin, Fulai; Yue, Feng; Li, Yun; Hu, Ming

    2016-03-11

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of genetic variants associated with complex traits and diseases. However, most of them are located in the non-protein coding regions, and therefore it is challenging to hypothesize the functions of these non-coding GWAS variants. Recent large efforts such as the ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics projects have predicted a large number of regulatory elements. However, the target genes of these regulatory elements remain largely unknown. Chromatin conformation capture based technologies such as Hi-C can directly measure the chromatin interactions and have generated an increasingly comprehensive catalog of the interactome between the distal regulatory elements and their potential target genes. Leveraging such information revealed by Hi-C holds the promise of elucidating the functions of genetic variants in human diseases. In this work, we present HiView, the first integrative genome browser to leverage Hi-C results for the interpretation of GWAS variants. HiView is able to display Hi-C data and statistical evidence for chromatin interactions in genomic regions surrounding any given GWAS variant, enabling straightforward visualization and interpretation. We believe that as the first GWAS variants-centered Hi-C genome browser, HiView is a useful tool guiding post-GWAS functional genomics studies. HiView is freely accessible at: http://www.unc.edu/~yunmli/HiView .

  20. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  1. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  2. Psychiatric morbidity in prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Daria, Usha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prisoners are having high percentage of psychiatric disorders. Majority of studies done so far on prisoners are from Western countries and very limited studies from India. Aim: Study socio-demographic profile of prisoners of a central jail and to find out current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in them. Materials and Methods: 118 prisoners were selected by random sampling and interviewed to obtain socio-demographic data and assessed on Indian Psychiatric Interview Schedule (IPIS) with additional required questions to diagnose psychiatric disorders in prisoners. Results: Mean age of prisoners was 33.7 years with 97.5% males, 57.6% from rural areas and 65.3% were married. Average education in studied years was 6.6 years and 50.8% were unskilled workers. 47.4% were murderers while 20.3% of drugs related crimes. 47.5% were convicted and history of criminal behavior in family was in 32.2% prisoners. Current prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 33%. Psychotic, depressive, and anxiety disorders were seen in 6.7%, 16.1%, and 8.5% prisoners respectively. 58.8% had history of drug abuse/dependence prior to imprisonment. Conclusion: One prison of Hadoti region of Rajasthan is full of people with mental-health problems who collectively generate significant levels of unmet psychiatric treatment need. Prisons are detrimental to mental-health. Beginning of reforms is the immediate need. PMID:24459308

  3. Gene Ontology Consortium: going forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO; http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that supplies information about gene product function using ontologies to represent biological knowledge. Here we describe improvements and expansions to several branches of the ontology, as well as updates that have allowed us to more efficiently disseminate the GO and capture feedback from the research community. The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) has expanded areas of the ontology such as cilia-related terms, cell-cycle terms and multicellular organism processes. We have also implemented new tools for generating ontology terms based on a set of logical rules making use of templates, and we have made efforts to increase our use of logical definitions. The GOC has a new and improved web site summarizing new developments and documentation, serving as a portal to GO data. Users can perform GO enrichment analysis, and search the GO for terms, annotations to gene products, and associated metadata across multiple species using the all-new AmiGO 2 browser. We encourage and welcome the input of the research community in all biological areas in our continued effort to improve the Gene Ontology. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Associations between Polygenic Risk for Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Caitlin E; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Hartz, Sarah M; Lynskey, Michael T; Nelson, Elliot C; Bierut, Laura J; Bogdan, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e., ranging from ever-use to severe dependence) among 2573 non-Hispanic European-American participants from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for cross-disorder psychopathology (CROSS) were generated based on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium's Cross-Disorder meta-analysis and then tested for associations with a factor representing general liability to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, nicotine, and opioid involvement (GENSUB). Follow-up analyses evaluated specific associations between each of the five psychiatric disorders which comprised CROSS-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (AUT), bipolar disorder (BIP), major depressive disorder (MDD), and schizophrenia (SCZ)-and involvement with each component substance included in GENSUB. CROSS PRS explained 1.10% of variance in GENSUB in our sample (p cannabis use, (B) MDD PRS and severe cocaine dependence, (C) SCZ PRS and non-problem cannabis use and severe cannabis dependence, and (D) SCZ PRS and severe cocaine dependence. These results suggest that shared covariance from common genetic variation contributes to psychiatric and substance involvement comorbidity.

  5. The bioleaching potential of a bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Mauricio; Cortés, María Paz; Travisany, Dante; Di Genova, Alex; Budinich, Marko; Reyes-Jara, Angélica; Hödar, Christian; González, Mauricio; Parada, Pilar; Bobadilla-Fazzini, Roberto A; Cambiazo, Verónica; Maass, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    This work presents the molecular foundation of a consortium of five efficient bacteria strains isolated from copper mines currently used in state of the art industrial-scale biotechnology. The strains Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans Licanantay, Acidiphilium multivorum Yenapatur, Leptospirillum ferriphilum Pañiwe, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Wenelen and Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans Cutipay were selected for genome sequencing based on metal tolerance, oxidation activity and bioleaching of copper efficiency. An integrated model of metabolic pathways representing the bioleaching capability of this consortium was generated. Results revealed that greater efficiency in copper recovery may be explained by the higher functional potential of L. ferriphilum Pañiwe and At. thiooxidans Licanantay to oxidize iron and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds. The consortium had a greater capacity to resist copper, arsenic and chloride ion compared to previously described biomining strains. Specialization and particular components in these bacteria provided the consortium a greater ability to bioleach copper sulfide ores. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Update on the US Government's Biometric Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    .... The goals of the consortium remain largely the same under this new leadership. The current emphasis is on the formal approval of our charter and on the establishment of a national biometric test and evaluation laboratory.

  7. NASA space radiation transport code development consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, L. W.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, NASA established a consortium involving the Univ. of Tennessee (lead institution), the Univ. of Houston, Roanoke College and various government and national laboratories, to accelerate the development of a standard set of radiation transport computer codes for NASA human exploration applications. This effort involves further improvements of the Monte Carlo codes HETC and FLUKA and the deterministic code HZETRN, including developing nuclear reaction databases necessary to extend the Monte Carlo codes to carry out heavy ion transport, and extending HZETRN to three dimensions. The improved codes will be validated by comparing predictions with measured laboratory transport data, provided by an experimental measurements consortium, and measurements in the upper atmosphere on the balloon-borne Deep Space Test Bed (DSTB). In this paper, we present an overview of the consortium members and the current status and future plans of consortium efforts to meet the research goals and objectives of this extensive undertaking. (authors)

  8. The LBNL/JSU/AGMUS Science Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report discusses the 11 year of accomplishments of the science consortium of minority graduates from Jackson State University and Ana G. Mendez University at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  9. International Radical Cystectomy Consortium: A way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Johar Raza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC is an emerging operative alternative to open surgery for the management of invasive bladder cancer. Studies from single institutions provide limited data due to the small number of patients. In order to better understand the related outcomes, a world-wide consortium was established in 2006 of patients undergoing RARC, called the International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium (IRCC. Thus far, the IRCC has reported its findings on various areas of operative interest and continues to expand its capacity to include other operative modalities and transform it into the International Radical Cystectomy Consortium. This article summarizes the findings of the IRCC and highlights the future direction of the consortium.

  10. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A consortium designed to enhance collaboration among epidemiologists studying lymphoma, to provide a forum for the exchange of research ideas, and to create a framework for collaborating on analyses that pool data from multiple studies

  11. Contrasting results from GWAS and QTL mapping on wing length in great reed warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Bengt; Sigeman, Hanna; Stervander, Martin; Tarka, Maja; Ponnikas, Suvi; Strandh, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2018-04-15

    A major goal in evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic basis of adaptive traits. In migratory birds, wing morphology is such a trait. Our previous work on the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) shows that wing length is highly heritable and under sexually antagonistic selection. Moreover, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analysis detected a pronounced QTL for wing length on chromosome 2, suggesting that wing morphology is partly controlled by genes with large effects. Here, we re-evaluate the genetic basis of wing length in great reed warblers using a genomewide association study (GWAS) approach based on restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) data. We use GWAS models that account for relatedness between individuals and include covariates (sex, age and tarsus length). The resulting association landscape was flat with no peaks on chromosome 2 or elsewhere, which is in line with expectations for polygenic traits. Analysis of the distribution of p-values did not reveal biases, and the inflation factor was low. Effect sizes were however not uniformly distributed on some chromosomes, and the Z chromosome had weaker associations than autosomes. The level of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the population decayed to background levels within c. 1 kbp. There could be several reasons to why our QTL study and GWAS gave contrasting results including differences in how associations are modelled (cosegregation in pedigree vs. LD associations), how covariates are accounted for in the models, type of marker used (multi- vs. biallelic), difference in power or a combination of these. Our study highlights that the genetic architecture even of highly heritable traits is difficult to characterize in wild populations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Further support for association between GWAS variant for positive emotion and reward systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, T M; Ihssen, N; Brindley, L M; Linden, D E J

    2017-01-31

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified a significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for trait-positive emotion at rs322931 on chromosome 1, which was also associated with brain activation in the reward system of healthy individuals when observing positive stimuli in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. In the current study, we aimed to further validate the role of variation at rs322931 in reward processing. Using a similar fMRI approach, we use two paradigms that elicit a strong ventral striatum (VS) blood oxygen-level dependency (BOLD) response in a sample of young, healthy individuals (N=82). In the first study we use a similar picture-viewing task to the discovery sample (positive>neutral stimuli) to replicate an effect of the variant on emotion processing. In the second study we use a probabilistic reversal learning procedure to identify reward processing during decision-making under uncertainly (reward>punishment). In a region of interest (ROI) analysis of the bilateral VS, we show that the rs322931 genotype was associated with BOLD in the left VS during the positive>neutral contrast (P ROI-CORRECTED =0.045) and during the reward>punishment contrast (P ROI-CORRECTED =0.018), although the effect of passive picture viewing was in the opposite direction from that reported in the discovery sample. These findings suggest that the recently identified GWAS hit may influence positive emotion via individual differences in activity in the key hubs of the brain's reward system. Furthermore, these effects may not be limited to the passive viewing of positive emotional scenes, but may also be observed during dynamic decision-making. This study suggests that future studies of this GWAS locus may yield further insight into the biological mechanisms of psychopathologies characterised by deficits in reward processing and positive emotion.

  13. Molecular genetic studies in Saudi population; identified variants from GWAS and meta-analysis in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Khalid Khalaf; Ali Khan, Imran; Alotaibi, Mohammad Abdullah; Saud Aloyaid, Abdullah; Al-Basheer, Haifa Abdulaziz; Alghamdi, Naelah Abdullah; Al-Baradie, Raid Saleem; Al-Sulaiman, A M

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is a multifactorial and heterogeneous disorder, correlates with heritability and considered as one of the major diseases. The prior reports performed the variable models such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), replication, case-control, cross-sectional and meta-analysis studies and still, we lack diagnostic marker in the global world. There are limited studies were carried out in Saudi population, and we aim to investigate the molecular association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified through GWAS and meta-analysis studies in stroke patients in the Saudi population. In this case-control study, we have opted gender equality of 207 cases and 207 controls from the capital city of Saudi Arabia in King Saud University Hospital. The peripheral blood (5 ml) sample will be collected in two different vacutainers, and three mL of the coagulated blood will be used for lipid analysis (biochemical tests) and two mL will be used for DNA analysis (molecular tests). Genomic DNA will be extracted with the collected blood samples, and specific primers will be designed for the opted SNPs ( SORT1 -rs646218 and OLR1 -rs11053646 polymorphisms) and PCR-RFLP will be performed and randomly DNA sequencing will be carried out to cross check the results. The rs646218 and rs11053646 polymorphisms were significantly associated with allele, genotype and dominant models with and without crude odds ratios (OR's) and Multiple logistic regression analysis (p Saudi population. The current results were in the association with the prior study results documented through GWAS and meta-analysis association. However, other ethnic population studies should be performed to rule out in the human hereditary diseases.

  14. Replication of LDL GWAs hits in PROSPER/PHASE as validation for future (pharmacogenetic analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stott David J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PHArmacogenetic study of Statins in the Elderly at risk (PHASE is a genome wide association study in the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at risk for vascular disease (PROSPER that investigates the genetic variation responsible for the individual variation in drug response to pravastatin. Statins lower LDL-cholesterol in general by 30%, however not in all subjects. Moreover, clinical response is highly variable and adverse effects occur in a minority of patients. In this report we first describe the rationale of the PROSPER/PHASE project and second show that the PROSPER/PHASE study can be used to study pharmacogenetics in the elderly. Methods The genome wide association study (GWAS was conducted using the Illumina 660K-Quad beadchips following manufacturer's instructions. After a stringent quality control 557,192 SNPs in 5,244 subjects were available for analysis. To maximize the availability of genetic data and coverage of the genome, imputation up to 2.5 million autosomal CEPH HapMap SNPs was performed with MACH imputation software. The GWAS for LDL-cholesterol is assessed with an additive linear regression model in PROBABEL software, adjusted for age, sex, and country of origin to account for population stratification. Results Forty-two SNPs reached the GWAS significant threshold of p = 5.0e-08 in 5 genomic loci (APOE/APOC1; LDLR; FADS2/FEN1; HMGCR; PSRC1/CELSR5. The top SNP (rs445925, chromosome 19 with a p-value of p = 2.8e-30 is located within the APOC1 gene and near the APOE gene. The second top SNP (rs6511720, chromosome 19 with a p-value of p = 5.22e-15 is located within the LDLR gene. All 5 genomic loci were previously associated with LDL-cholesterol levels, no novel loci were identified. Replication in WOSCOPS and CARE confirmed our results. Conclusion With the GWAS in the PROSPER/PHASE study we confirm the previously found genetic associations with LDL-cholesterol levels. With this proof

  15. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  16. A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D McKay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ≤ 5 × 10⁻⁷. Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1×10⁻⁸ located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10⁻⁸ located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10⁻⁸; rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10⁻⁹; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02. These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.

  17. A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKay, James D

    2011-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ≤ 5 × 10⁻⁷). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p = 1×10⁻⁸) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10⁻⁸) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10⁻⁸); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10⁻⁹; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.

  18. Genetic Susceptibility to Vitiligo: GWAS Approaches for Identifying Vitiligo Susceptibility Genes and Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Changbing; Gao, Jing; Sheng, Yujun; Dou, Jinfa; Zhou, Fusheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ko, Randy; Tang, Xianfa; Zhu, Caihong; Yin, Xianyong; Sun, Liangdan; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by areas of depigmented skin resulting from loss of epidermal melanocytes. Genetic factors are known to play key roles in vitiligo through discoveries in association studies and family studies. Previously, vitiligo susceptibility genes were mainly revealed through linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Recently, our understanding of the genetic basis of vitiligo has been rapidly advancing through genome-wide association study (GWAS). More than 40 robust susceptible loci have been identified and confirmed to be associated with vitiligo by using GWAS. Most of these associated genes participate in important pathways involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Many susceptible loci with unknown functions in the pathogenesis of vitiligo have also been identified, indicating that additional molecular mechanisms may contribute to the risk of developing vitiligo. In this review, we summarize the key loci that are of genome-wide significance, which have been shown to influence vitiligo risk. These genetic loci may help build the foundation for genetic diagnosis and personalize treatment for patients with vitiligo in the future. However, substantial additional studies, including gene-targeted and functional studies, are required to confirm the causality of the genetic variants and their biological relevance in the development of vitiligo. PMID:26870082

  19. A Powerful Approach to Estimating Annotation-Stratified Genetic Covariance via GWAS Summary Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiongshi; Li, Boyang; Ou, Derek; Erlendsdottir, Margret; Powles, Ryan L; Jiang, Tony; Hu, Yiming; Chang, David; Jin, Chentian; Dai, Wei; He, Qidu; Liu, Zefeng; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Crane, Paul K; Zhao, Hongyu

    2017-12-07

    Despite the success of large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on complex traits, our understanding of their genetic architecture is far from complete. Jointly modeling multiple traits' genetic profiles has provided insights into the shared genetic basis of many complex traits. However, large-scale inference sets a high bar for both statistical power and biological interpretability. Here we introduce a principled framework to estimate annotation-stratified genetic covariance between traits using GWAS summary statistics. Through theoretical and numerical analyses, we demonstrate that our method provides accurate covariance estimates, thereby enabling researchers to dissect both the shared and distinct genetic architecture across traits to better understand their etiologies. Among 50 complex traits with publicly accessible GWAS summary statistics (N total ≈ 4.5 million), we identified more than 170 pairs with statistically significant genetic covariance. In particular, we found strong genetic covariance between late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), two major neurodegenerative diseases, in single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with high minor allele frequencies and in SNPs located in the predicted functional genome. Joint analysis of LOAD, ALS, and other traits highlights LOAD's correlation with cognitive traits and hints at an autoimmune component for ALS. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exploration of large, rare copy number variants associated with psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in individuals with anorexia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yilmaz, Zeynep; Szatkiewicz, Jin P; Crowley, James J; Ancalade, NaEshia; Brandys, Marek K; van Elburg, Annemarie; de Kovel, Carolien G F; Adan, Roger A H; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Gratacos, Monica; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Escaramis, Georgia; Gonzalez, Juan R; Estivill, Xavier; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sullivan, Patrick F; Bulik, Cynthia M; Genetic Consortium for Anorexia Nervosa, Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 3

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious and heritable psychiatric disorder. To date, studies of copy number variants (CNVs) have been limited and inconclusive because of small sample sizes. We conducted a case-only genome-wide CNV survey in 1983 female AN cases included in the Genetic Consortium for

  1. Effects of GWAS-associated genetic variants on lncRNAs within IBD and T1D candidate loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirza, Aashiq H; Kaur, Simranjeet; Brorsson, Caroline A

    2014-01-01

    -nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) lie outside of the protein coding regions, and map to the non-coding intervals. However, the relationship between phenotype-associated loci and the non-coding regions including the long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is poorly understood. Here......, we systemically identified all annotated IBD and T1D loci-associated lncRNAs, and mapped nominally significant GWAS/ImmunoChip SNPs for IBD and T1D within these lncRNAs. Additionally, we identified tissue-specific cis-eQTLs, and strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) signals associated with these SNPs...... within and in close proximity (+/-5 kb flanking regions) of IBD and T1D loci-associated candidate genes, suggesting that these RNA conformation-altering polymorphisms might be associated with diseased-phenotype. Disruption of lncRNA secondary structure due to presence of GWAS SNPs provides valuable...

  2. Evaluation of common genetic variants identified by GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity in population-based samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Hoed, M; Luan, J; Langenberg, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis of case-control genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for early onset and morbid obesity identified four variants in/near the PRL, PTER, MAF and NPC1 genes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate association of these variants with obesity-related traits in population-based sam......BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis of case-control genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for early onset and morbid obesity identified four variants in/near the PRL, PTER, MAF and NPC1 genes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate association of these variants with obesity-related traits in population......, these variants, which were identified in a GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity, do not seem to influence obesity-related traits in the general population....

  3. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated...

  4. [Psychiatric treatment sentences.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Hanne; Nordentoft, Merete; Agerbo, Esben

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous Danish studies of the increasing number of sentences to psychiatric treatment (SPT) have compared prevalent populations of persons undergoing treatment with incident measures of reported crimes. Examining the period 1990-2006, we studied incident sentences, taking the type...

  5. Eponymous Psychiatric Syndromes Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguy, Ahmed

    2018-02-22

    This report provides an anthology of psychiatric eponyms. Clinically, many of these described syndromes represent valid diagnostic constructs and may accommodate the atypical cases that defy the official diagnostic designation in the current classificatory systems in psychiatry. © Copyright 2018 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  6. Psychiatric Advance Directives: Getting Started

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Legal Issues Search for: About PADs A psychiatric advance directive (PAD) is a legal document that ... decisions during a mental health crisis. Getting Started Psychiatric advance directives (PADs) are relatively new legal instruments ...

  7. A Markov blanket-based method for detecting causal SNPs in GWAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bing

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detecting epistatic interactions associated with complex and common diseases can help to improve prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. With the development of genome-wide association studies (GWAS, designing powerful and robust computational method for identifying epistatic interactions associated with common diseases becomes a great challenge to bioinformatics society, because the study of epistatic interactions often deals with the large size of the genotyped data and the huge amount of combinations of all the possible genetic factors. Most existing computational detection methods are based on the classification capacity of SNP sets, which may fail to identify SNP sets that are strongly associated with the diseases and introduce a lot of false positives. In addition, most methods are not suitable for genome-wide scale studies due to their computational complexity. Results We propose a new Markov Blanket-based method, DASSO-MB (Detection of ASSOciations using Markov Blanket to detect epistatic interactions in case-control GWAS. Markov blanket of a target variable T can completely shield T from all other variables. Thus, we can guarantee that the SNP set detected by DASSO-MB has a strong association with diseases and contains fewest false positives. Furthermore, DASSO-MB uses a heuristic search strategy by calculating the association between variables to avoid the time-consuming training process as in other machine-learning methods. We apply our algorithm to simulated datasets and a real case-control dataset. We compare DASSO-MB to other commonly-used methods and show that our method significantly outperforms other methods and is capable of finding SNPs strongly associated with diseases. Conclusions Our study shows that DASSO-MB can identify a minimal set of causal SNPs associated with diseases, which contains less false positives compared to other existing methods. Given the huge size of genomic dataset

  8. Testing Genetic Pleiotropy with GWAS Summary Statistics for Marginal and Conditional Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yangqing; Pan, Wei

    2017-12-01

    There is growing interest in testing genetic pleiotropy, which is when a single genetic variant influences multiple traits. Several methods have been proposed; however, these methods have some limitations. First, all the proposed methods are based on the use of individual-level genotype and phenotype data; in contrast, for logistical, and other, reasons, summary statistics of univariate SNP-trait associations are typically only available based on meta- or mega-analyzed large genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Second, existing tests are based on marginal pleiotropy, which cannot distinguish between direct and indirect associations of a single genetic variant with multiple traits due to correlations among the traits. Hence, it is useful to consider conditional analysis, in which a subset of traits is adjusted for another subset of traits. For example, in spite of substantial lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) with statin therapy, some patients still maintain high residual cardiovascular risk, and, for these patients, it might be helpful to reduce their triglyceride (TG) level. For this purpose, in order to identify new therapeutic targets, it would be useful to identify genetic variants with pleiotropic effects on LDL and TG after adjusting the latter for LDL; otherwise, a pleiotropic effect of a genetic variant detected by a marginal model could simply be due to its association with LDL only, given the well-known correlation between the two types of lipids. Here, we develop a new pleiotropy testing procedure based only on GWAS summary statistics that can be applied for both marginal analysis and conditional analysis. Although the main technical development is based on published union-intersection testing methods, care is needed in specifying conditional models to avoid invalid statistical estimation and inference. In addition to the previously used likelihood ratio test, we also propose using generalized estimating equations under the

  9. Methods for meta-analysis of multiple traits using GWAS summary statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Debashree; Boehnke, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for complex diseases have focused primarily on single-trait analyses for disease status and disease-related quantitative traits. For example, GWAS on risk factors for coronary artery disease analyze genetic associations of plasma lipids such as total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides (TGs) separately. However, traits are often correlated and a joint analysis may yield increased statistical power for association over multiple univariate analyses. Recently several multivariate methods have been proposed that require individual-level data. Here, we develop metaUSAT (where USAT is unified score-based association test), a novel unified association test of a single genetic variant with multiple traits that uses only summary statistics from existing GWAS. Although the existing methods either perform well when most correlated traits are affected by the genetic variant in the same direction or are powerful when only a few of the correlated traits are associated, metaUSAT is designed to be robust to the association structure of correlated traits. metaUSAT does not require individual-level data and can test genetic associations of categorical and/or continuous traits. One can also use metaUSAT to analyze a single trait over multiple studies, appropriately accounting for overlapping samples, if any. metaUSAT provides an approximate asymptotic P-value for association and is computationally efficient for implementation at a genome-wide level. Simulation experiments show that metaUSAT maintains proper type-I error at low error levels. It has similar and sometimes greater power to detect association across a wide array of scenarios compared to existing methods, which are usually powerful for some specific association scenarios only. When applied to plasma lipids summary data from the METSIM and the T2D-GENES studies, metaUSAT detected genome-wide significant loci beyond the ones identified by univariate analyses

  10. Using prior information from the medical literature in GWAS of oral cancer identifies novel susceptibility variant on chromosome 4--the AdAPT method.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johansson, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) require large sample sizes to obtain adequate statistical power, but it may be possible to increase the power by incorporating complementary data. In this study we investigated the feasibility of automatically retrieving information from the medical literature and leveraging this information in GWAS.

  11. Gene set analysis of GWAS data for human longevity highlights the relevance of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling and telomere maintenance pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Deelen (Joris); H.-W. Uh; R. Monajemi (Ramin); D. van Heemst (Diana); P.E. Thijssen (Peter); S. Böhringer (Stefan); E.B. van den Akker (Erik); A.J.M. de Craen (Anton J.M.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); R.G.J. Westendorp (Rudi); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.J. Goeman (Jelle); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); J.J. Houwing-Duistermaat (Jeanine); M. Beekman (Marian)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex traits, single SNP analysis is still the most applied approach. However, the identified SNPs have small effects and provide limited biological insight. A more appropriate approach to interpret GWAS data of complex traits is to analyze

  12. A population genetic interpretation of GWAS findings for human quantitative traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullaughey, Kevin; Hudson, Richard R.; Sella, Guy

    2018-01-01

    Human genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are revealing the genetic architecture of anthropomorphic and biomedical traits, i.e., the frequencies and effect sizes of variants that contribute to heritable variation in a trait. To interpret these findings, we need to understand how genetic architecture is shaped by basic population genetics processes—notably, by mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. Because many quantitative traits are subject to stabilizing selection and because genetic variation that affects one trait often affects many others, we model the genetic architecture of a focal trait that arises under stabilizing selection in a multidimensional trait space. We solve the model for the phenotypic distribution and allelic dynamics at steady state and derive robust, closed-form solutions for summary statistics of the genetic architecture. Our results provide a simple interpretation for missing heritability and why it varies among traits. They predict that the distribution of variances contributed by loci identified in GWASs is well approximated by a simple functional form that depends on a single parameter: the expected contribution to genetic variance of a strongly selected site affecting the trait. We test this prediction against the results of GWASs for height and body mass index (BMI) and find that it fits the data well, allowing us to make inferences about the degree of pleiotropy and mutational target size for these traits. Our findings help to explain why the GWAS for height explains more of the heritable variance than the similarly sized GWAS for BMI and to predict the increase in explained heritability with study sample size. Considering the demographic history of European populations, in which these GWASs were performed, we further find that most of the associations they identified likely involve mutations that arose shortly before or during the Out-of-Africa bottleneck at sites with selection coefficients around s = 10−3. PMID

  13. GWAS of clinically defined gout and subtypes identifies multiple susceptibility loci that include urate transporter genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Ken; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Shaukat, Amara; Toyoda, Yu; Okada, Yukinori; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takada, Tappei; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Yasujima, Tomoya; Yuasa, Hiroaki; Shirahama, Yuko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Seiko; Higashino, Toshihide; Kawamura, Yusuke; Ogata, Hiraku; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Danjoh, Inaho; Tokumasu, Atsumi; Ooyama, Keiko; Ito, Toshimitsu; Kondo, Takaaki; Wakai, Kenji; Stiburkova, Blanka; Pavelka, Karel; Stamp, Lisa K; Dalbeth, Nicola; Sakurai, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Fujimori, Shin; Yokoo, Takashi; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Inoue, Ituro; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Merriman, Tony R; Matsuo, Hirotaka

    2017-05-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of gout and its subtypes was performed to identify novel gout loci, including those that are subtype-specific. Putative causal association signals from a GWAS of 945 clinically defined gout cases and 1213 controls from Japanese males were replicated with 1396 cases and 1268 controls using a custom chip of 1961 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We also first conducted GWASs of gout subtypes. Replication with Caucasian and New Zealand Polynesian samples was done to further validate the loci identified in this study. In addition to the five loci we reported previously, further susceptibility loci were identified at a genome-wide significance level (pgout cases, and NIPAL1 and FAM35A for the renal underexcretion gout subtype. While NIPAL1 encodes a magnesium transporter, functional analysis did not detect urate transport via NIPAL1, suggesting an indirect association with urate handling. Localisation analysis in the human kidney revealed expression of NIPAL1 and FAM35A mainly in the distal tubules, which suggests the involvement of the distal nephron in urate handling in humans. Clinically ascertained male patients with gout and controls of Caucasian and Polynesian ancestries were also genotyped, and FAM35A was associated with gout in all cases. A meta-analysis of the three populations revealed FAM35A to be associated with gout at a genome-wide level of significance (p meta =3.58×10 -8 ). Our findings including novel gout risk loci provide further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of gout and lead to a novel concept for the therapeutic target of gout/hyperuricaemia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Geographic Differences in Genetic Susceptibility to IgA Nephropathy: GWAS Replication Study and Geospatial Risk Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Li, Yifu; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Rohanizadegan, Mersedeh; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Eitner, Frank; Snyder, Holly J.; Choi, Murim; Hou, Ping; Scolari, Francesco; Izzi, Claudia; Gigante, Maddalena; Gesualdo, Loreto; Savoldi, Silvana; Amoroso, Antonio; Cusi, Daniele; Zamboli, Pasquale; Julian, Bruce A.; Novak, Jan; Wyatt, Robert J.; Mucha, Krzysztof; Perola, Markus; Kristiansson, Kati; Viktorin, Alexander; Magnusson, Patrik K.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Boland, Anne; Metzger, Marie; Thibaudin, Lise; Wanner, Christoph; Jager, Kitty J.; Goto, Shin; Maixnerova, Dita; Karnib, Hussein H.; Nagy, Judit; Panzer, Ulf; Xie, Jingyuan; Chen, Nan; Tesar, Vladimir; Narita, Ichiei; Berthoux, Francois; Floege, Jürgen; Stengel, Benedicte; Zhang, Hong; Lifton, Richard P.; Gharavi, Ali G.

    2012-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN), major cause of kidney failure worldwide, is common in Asians, moderately prevalent in Europeans, and rare in Africans. It is not known if these differences represent variation in genes, environment, or ascertainment. In a recent GWAS, we localized five IgAN susceptibility

  15. Emerging applications of genome-editing technology to examine functionality of GWAS-associated variants for complex traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J P; Deloukas, Panos; Munroe, Patricia B

    2018-04-13

    Over the last decade, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have propelled the discovery of thousands of loci associated with complex diseases. The focus is now turning towards the function of these association signals, determining the causal variant(s) amongst those in strong linkage disequilibrium, and identifying their underlying mechanisms, such as long-range gene regulation. Genome-editing techniques utilising zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeats with Cas9 nuclease (CRISPR-Cas9), are becoming the tools of choice to establish functionality for these variants, due to the ability to assess effects of single variants in vivo. This review will discuss examples of how these technologies have begun to aid functional analysis of GWAS loci for complex traits such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity and autoimmune disease. We focus on analysis of variants occurring within non-coding genomic regions, as these comprise the majority of GWAS variants, providing the greatest challenges to determining functionality, and compare editing strategies that provide different levels of evidence for variant functionality. The review describes molecular insights into some of these potentially causal variants, and how these may relate to the pathology of the trait, and look towards future directions for these technologies in post-GWAS analysis, such as base-editing.

  16. New technologies provide insights into genetic basis of psychiatric disorders and explain their co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudan, Igor

    2010-06-01

    The completion of Human Genome Project and the "HapMap" project was followed by translational activities from companies within the private sector. This led to the introduction of genome-wide scans based on hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphysms (SNP). These scans were based on common genetic variants in human populations. This new and powerful technology was then applied to the existing DNA-based datasets with information on psychiatric disorders. As a result, an unprecedented amount of novel scientific insights related to the underlying biology and genetics of psychiatric disorders was obtained. The dominant design of these studies, so called "genome-wide association studies" (GWAS), used statistical methods which minimized the risk of false positive reports and provided much greater power to detect genotype-phenotype associations. All findings were entirely data-driven rather than hypothesis-driven, which often made it difficult for researchers to understand or interpret the findings. Interestingly, this work in genetics is indicating how non-specific some genes are for psychiatric disorders, having associations in common for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. This suggests that the earlier stages of psychiatric disorders may be multi-valent and that early detection, coupled with a clearer understanding of the environmental factors, may allow prevention. At the present time, the rich "harvest" from GWAS still has very limited power to predict the variation in psychiatric disease status at individual level, typically explaining less than 5% of the total risk variance. The most recent studies of common genetic variation implicated the role of major histocompatibility complex in schizophrenia and other disorders. They also provided molecular evidence for a substantial polygenic component to the risk of psychiatric diseases, involving thousands of common alleles of very small effect. The studies of structural genetic variation, such as copy

  17. A Staff Education Consortium: One Model for Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetler, Cheryl Beth; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the development, organization, activities, problems, and future of a staff education consortium of five medical center hospitals in Boston. The purposes of the consortium are mutual sharing, reduction in duplication, and cost containment of educational programing. (JOW)

  18. [Tinnitus and psychiatric comorbidities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, G

    2015-04-01

    Tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon characterized by the sensation of sounds without objectively identifiable sound sources. To date, its causes are not well understood. The perceived severity of tinnitus correlates more closely to psychological and general health factors than to audiometric parameters. Together with limbic structures in the ventral striatum, the prefrontal cortex forms an internal "noise cancelling system", which normally helps to block out unpleasant sounds, including the tinnitus signal. If this pathway is compromised, chronic tinnitus results. Patients with chronic tinnitus show increased functional connectivity in corticolimbic pathways. Psychiatric comorbidities are common in patients who seek help for tinnitus or hyperacusis. Clinicians need valid screening tools in order to identify patients with psychiatric disorders and to tailor treatment in a multidisciplinary setting.

  19. The psychiatric interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    interview. We address the ontological status of pathological experience, the notions of symptom, sign, prototype and Gestalt, and the necessary second-person processes which are involved in converting the patient's experience (originally lived in the first-person perspective) into an "objective" (third......There is a glaring gap in the psychiatric literature concerning the nature of psychiatric symptoms and signs, and a corresponding lack of epistemological discussion of psycho-diagnostic interviewing. Contemporary clinical neuroscience heavily relies on the use of fully structured interviews...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...

  20. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Griffith (Linda); M. Cowan (Morton); L.D. Notarangelo (Luigi Daniele); R. Kohn (Robert); J. Puck (Jennifer); S.-Y. Pai (Sung-Yun); B. Ballard (Barbara); S.C. Bauer (Sarah); J. Bleesing (Jack); M. Boyle (Marcia); R.W. Brower (Ronald); R.H. Buckley (Rebecca); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); L.M. Burroughs (Lauri); F. Candotti (Fabio); A. Cant (Andrew); T. Chatila (Talal); C. Cunningham-Rundles (Charlotte); M.C. Dinauer (Mary); J. Dvorak (Jennie); A. Filipovich (Alexandra); L.A. Fleisher (Lee); H.B. Gaspar (Bobby); T. Gungor (Tayfun); E. Haddad (Elie); E. Hovermale (Emily); F. Huang (Faith); A. Hurley (Alan); M. Hurley (Mary); S.K. Iyengar (Sudha); E.M. Kang (Elizabeth); B.R. Logan (Brent); J.R. Long-Boyle (Janel); H. Malech (Harry); S.A. McGhee (Sean); S. Modell (Sieglinde); S. Modell (Sieglinde); H.D. Ochs (Hans); R.J. O'Reilly (Richard); R. Parkman (Robertson); D. Rawlings (D.); J.M. Routes (John); P. Shearer (P.); T.N. Small (Trudy); H. Smith (H.); K.E. Sullivan (Kathleen); P. Szabolcs (Paul); A.J. Thrasher (Adrian); D. Torgerson; P. Veys (Paul); K. Weinberg (Kenneth); J.C. Zuniga-Pflucker (Juan Carlos)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases. Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for severe combined immunodeficiency

  1. Maryland Family Support Services Consortium. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, James F.; Markowitz, Ricka Keeney

    The Maryland Family Support Services Consortium is a 3-year demonstration project which developed unique family support models at five sites serving the needs of families with a developmentally disabled child (ages birth to 21). Caseworkers provided direct intensive services to 224 families over the 3-year period, including counseling, liaison and…

  2. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*

  3. AprioriGWAS, a new pattern mining strategy for detecting genetic variants associated with disease through interaction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingrun; Long, Quan; Ott, Jurg

    2014-06-01

    Identifying gene-gene interaction is a hot topic in genome wide association studies. Two fundamental challenges are: (1) how to smartly identify combinations of variants that may be associated with the trait from astronomical number of all possible combinations; and (2) how to test epistatic interaction when all potential combinations are available. We developed AprioriGWAS, which brings two innovations. (1) Based on Apriori, a successful method in field of Frequent Itemset Mining (FIM) in which a pattern growth strategy is leveraged to effectively and accurately reduce search space, AprioriGWAS can efficiently identify genetically associated genotype patterns. (2) To test the hypotheses of epistasis, we adopt a new conditional permutation procedure to obtain reliable statistical inference of Pearson's chi-square test for the [Formula: see text] contingency table generated by associated variants. By applying AprioriGWAS to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) data, we found that: (1) angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1) and four retinal genes interact with Complement Factor H (CFH). (2) GO term "glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic process" was enriched in AMD interacting genes. The epistatic interactions newly found by AprioriGWAS on AMD data are likely true interactions, since genes interacting with CFH are retinal genes, and GO term enrichment also verified that interaction between glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and CFH plays an important role in disease pathology of AMD. By applying AprioriGWAS on Bipolar disorder in WTCCC data, we found variants without marginal effect show significant interactions. For example, multiple-SNP genotype patterns inside gene GABRB2 and GRIA1 (AMPA subunit 1 receptor gene). AMPARs are found in many parts of the brain and are the most commonly found receptor in the nervous system. The GABRB2 mediates the fastest inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. GRIA1 and GABRB2 are relevant to mental disorders supported by multiple

  4. Integrating eQTL data with GWAS summary statistics in pathway-based analysis with application to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chong; Pan, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Many genetic variants affect complex traits through gene expression, which can be exploited to boost statistical power and enhance interpretation in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) as demonstrated by the transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) approach. Furthermore, due to polygenic inheritance, a complex trait is often affected by multiple genes with similar functions as annotated in gene pathways. Here, we extend TWAS from gene-based analysis to pathway-based analysis: we integrate public pathway collections, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) data and GWAS summary association statistics (or GWAS individual-level data) to identify gene pathways associated with complex traits. The basic idea is to weight the SNPs of the genes in a pathway based on their estimated cis-effects on gene expression, then adaptively test for association of the pathway with a GWAS trait by effectively aggregating possibly weak association signals across the genes in the pathway. The P values can be calculated analytically and thus fast. We applied our proposed test with the KEGG and GO pathways to two schizophrenia (SCZ) GWAS summary association data sets, denoted by SCZ1 and SCZ2 with about 20,000 and 150,000 subjects, respectively. Most of the significant pathways identified by analyzing the SCZ1 data were reproduced by the SCZ2 data. Importantly, we identified 15 novel pathways associated with SCZ, such as GABA receptor complex (GO:1902710), which could not be uncovered by the standard single SNP-based analysis or gene-based TWAS. The newly identified pathways may help us gain insights into the biological mechanism underlying SCZ. Our results showcase the power of incorporating gene expression information and gene functional annotations into pathway-based association testing for GWAS. © 2018 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  5. Establishing a Consortium for the Study of Rare Diseases: The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminara, Jennifer; Tuchman, Mendel; Krivitzky, Lauren; Krischer, Jeffrey; Lee, Hye-Seung; LeMons, Cynthia; Baumgartner, Matthias; Cederbaum, Stephen; Diaz, George A.; Feigenbaum, Annette; Gallagher, Renata C.; Harding, Cary O.; Kerr, Douglas S.; Lanpher, Brendan; Lee, Brendan; Lichter-Konecki, Uta; McCandless, Shawn E.; Merritt, J. Lawrence; Oster-Granite, Mary Lou; Seashore, Margretta R.; Stricker, Tamar; Summar, Marshall; Waisbren, Susan; Yudkoff, Marc; Batshaw, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) was created as part of a larger network established by the National Institutes of Health to study rare diseases. This paper reviews the UCDC’s accomplishments over the first six years, including how the Consortium was developed and organized, clinical research studies initiated, and the importance of creating partnerships with patient advocacy groups, philanthropic foundations and biotech and pharmaceutical companies. PMID:20188616

  6. Joint analysis of psychiatric disorders increases accuracy of risk prediction for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Robert; Moser, Gerhard; Chen, Guo-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Genetic risk prediction has several potential applications in medical research and clinical practice and could be used, for example, to stratify a heterogeneous population of patients by their predicted genetic risk. However, for polygenic traits, such as psychiatric disorders, the accuracy of risk...... number of GWAS datasets of correlated traits, it is a flexible and powerful tool to maximize prediction accuracy. With current sample size, risk predictors are not useful in a clinical setting but already are a valuable research tool, for example in experimental designs comparing cases with high and low...

  7. Discovery and fine-mapping of adiposity loci using high density imputation of genome-wide association studies in individuals of African ancestry: African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Maggie C Y; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lu, Yingchang; Justice, Anne E; Mudgal, Poorva; Liu, Ching-Ti; Young, Kristin; Yanek, Lisa R; Feitosa, Mary F; Wojczynski, Mary K; Rand, Kristin; Brody, Jennifer A; Cade, Brian E; Dimitrov, Latchezar; Duan, Qing; Guo, Xiuqing; Lange, Leslie A; Nalls, Michael A; Okut, Hayrettin; Tajuddin, Salman M; Tayo, Bamidele O; Vedantam, Sailaja; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Chen, Guanjie; Chen, Wei-Min; Chesi, Alessandra; Irvin, Marguerite R; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Smith, Jennifer A; Zheng, Wei; Allison, Matthew A; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; Bartz, Traci M; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bottinger, Erwin P; Carpten, John; Chanock, Stephen J; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Conti, David V; Cooper, Richard S; Fornage, Myriam; Freedman, Barry I; Garcia, Melissa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Hsu, Yu-Han H; Hu, Jennifer; Huff, Chad D; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Kittles, Rick; Klein, Eric; Li, Jin; McKnight, Barbara; Nayak, Uma; Nemesure, Barbara; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Olshan, Andrew; Press, Michael F; Rohde, Rebecca; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Salako, Babatunde; Sanderson, Maureen; Shao, Yaming; Siscovick, David S; Stanford, Janet L; Stevens, Victoria L; Stram, Alex; Strom, Sara S; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Witte, John S; Yao, Jie; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Ziegler, Regina G; Zonderman, Alan B; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Ambs, Stefan; Cushman, Mary; Faul, Jessica D; Hakonarson, Hakon; Levin, Albert M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Ware, Erin B; Weir, David R; Zhao, Wei; Zhi, Degui; Arnett, Donna K; Grant, Struan F A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Oloapde, Olufunmilayo I; Rao, D C; Rotimi, Charles N; Sale, Michele M; Williams, L Keoki; Zemel, Babette S; Becker, Diane M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Evans, Michele K; Harris, Tamara B; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Li, Yun; Patel, Sanjay R; Psaty, Bruce M; Rotter, Jerome I; Wilson, James G; Bowden, Donald W; Cupples, L Adrienne; Haiman, Christopher A; Loos, Ruth J F; North, Kari E

    2017-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >300 loci associated with measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), but few have been identified through screening of the African ancestry genomes. We performed large scale meta-analyses and replications in up to 52,895 individuals for BMI and up to 23,095 individuals for WHRadjBMI from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC) using 1000 Genomes phase 1 imputed GWAS to improve coverage of both common and low frequency variants in the low linkage disequilibrium African ancestry genomes. In the sex-combined analyses, we identified one novel locus (TCF7L2/HABP2) for WHRadjBMI and eight previously established loci at P African ancestry individuals. An additional novel locus (SPRYD7/DLEU2) was identified for WHRadjBMI when combined with European GWAS. In the sex-stratified analyses, we identified three novel loci for BMI (INTS10/LPL and MLC1 in men, IRX4/IRX2 in women) and four for WHRadjBMI (SSX2IP, CASC8, PDE3B and ZDHHC1/HSD11B2 in women) in individuals of African ancestry or both African and European ancestry. For four of the novel variants, the minor allele frequency was low (African ancestry sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses, 26 BMI loci and 17 WHRadjBMI loci contained ≤ 20 variants in the credible sets that jointly account for 99% posterior probability of driving the associations. The lead variants in 13 of these loci had a high probability of being causal. As compared to our previous HapMap imputed GWAS for BMI and WHRadjBMI including up to 71,412 and 27,350 African ancestry individuals, respectively, our results suggest that 1000 Genomes imputation showed modest improvement in identifying GWAS loci including low frequency variants. Trans-ethnic meta-analyses further improved fine mapping of putative causal variants in loci shared between the African and European ancestry populations.

  8. GWAS of agronomic traits in soybean collection included in breeding pool in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatybekov, Alibek; Abugalieva, Saule; Didorenko, Svetlana; Gerasimova, Yelena; Sidorik, Ivan; Anuarbek, Shynar; Turuspekov, Yerlan

    2017-11-14

    In recent years soybean is becoming one of the most important oilseed crops in Kazakhstan. Only within the last ten years (2006-2016), the area under soybean is expanded from 45 thousand hectares (ha) in 2006 to 120 thousand ha in 2016. The general trend of soybean expansion is from south-eastern to eastern and northern regions of the country, where average temperatures are lower and growing seasons are shorter. These new soybean growing territories were poorly examined in terms of general effects on productivity level among the diverse sample of soybean accessions. In this study, phenotypic data were collected in three separate regions of Kazakhstan and entire soybean sample was genotyped for identification of marker-trait associations (MTA). In this study, the collection of 113 accessions representing five different regions of the World was planted in 2015-2016 in northern, eastern, and south-eastern regions of Kazakhstan. It was observed that North American accessions showed the highest yield in four out of six trials especially in Northern Kazakhstan in both years. The entire sample was genotyped with 6 K SNP Illumina array. 4442 SNPs found to be polymorphic and were used for whole genome genotyping purposes. Obtained SNP markers data and field data were used for GWAS (genome-wide association study). 30 SNPs appear to be very significant in 42 MTAs in six studied environments. The study confirms the efficiency of GWAS for the identification of molecular markers which tag important agronomic traits. Overall thirty SNP markers associated with time to flowering and maturation, plant height, number of fertile nodes, seeds per plant and yield were identified. Physical locations of 32 identified out of 42 total MTAs coincide well with positions of known analogous QTLs. This result indicates importance of revealed MTAs for soybean growing regions in Kazakhstan. Obtained results would serve as required prerequisite for forming and realization of specific breeding

  9. Overview of the Inland California Translational Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkas, Linda H.

    2017-05-01

    The mission of the Inland California Translational Consortium (ICTC), an independent research consortium comprising a unique hub of regional institutions (City of Hope [COH], California Institute of Technology [Caltech], Jet Propulsion Laboratory [JPL], University of California Riverside [UCR], and Claremont Colleges Keck Graduate Institute [KGI], is to institute a new paradigm within the academic culture to accelerate translation of innovative biomedical discoveries into clinical applications that positively affect human health and life. The ICTC actively supports clinical translational research as well as the implementation and advancement of novel education and training models for the translation of basic discoveries into workable products and practices that preserve and improve human health while training and educating at all levels of the workforce using innovative forward-thinking approaches.

  10. Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkert, Wynn; Kumar, Arvind; Becker, Bryan; Schwinke, Victor; Gonzalez, Angel; McGregor, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium (MNSEC) is to enhance the scope, quality and integration of educational and research capabilities of nuclear sciences and engineering (NS/E) programs at partner schools in support of the U.S. nuclear industry (including DOE laboratories). With INIE support, MNSEC had a productive seven years and made impressive progress in achieving these goals. Since the past three years have been no-cost-extension periods, limited -- but notable -- progress has been made in FY10. Existing programs continue to be strengthened and broadened at Consortium partner institutions. The enthusiasm generated by the academic, state, federal, and industrial communities for the MNSEC activities is reflected in the significant leveraging that has occurred for our programs.

  11. Consortium for Verification Technology Fellowship Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadler, Lorraine E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    As one recipient of the Consortium for Verification Technology (CVT) Fellowship, I spent eight days as a visiting scientist at the University of Michigan, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS). During this time, I participated in multiple department and research group meetings and presentations, met with individual faculty and students, toured multiple laboratories, and taught one-half of a one-unit class on Risk Analysis in Nuclear Arms control (six 1.5 hour lectures). The following report describes some of the interactions that I had during my time as well as a brief discussion of the impact of this fellowship on members of the consortium and on me/my laboratory’s technical knowledge and network.

  12. Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Wynn Volkert; Dr. Arvind Kumar; Dr. Bryan Becker; Dr. Victor Schwinke; Dr. Angel Gonzalez; Dr. DOuglas McGregor

    2010-12-08

    The objective of the Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium (MNSEC) is to enhance the scope, quality and integration of educational and research capabilities of nuclear sciences and engineering (NS/E) programs at partner schools in support of the U.S. nuclear industry (including DOE laboratories). With INIE support, MNSEC had a productive seven years and made impressive progress in achieving these goals. Since the past three years have been no-cost-extension periods, limited -- but notable -- progress has been made in FY10. Existing programs continue to be strengthened and broadened at Consortium partner institutions. The enthusiasm generated by the academic, state, federal, and industrial communities for the MNSEC activities is reflected in the significant leveraging that has occurred for our programs.

  13. The COPD Biomarker Qualification Consortium (CBQC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaburi, Richard; Celli, Bartolome; Crapo, James

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge about the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has advanced dramatically over the last 30 years. Unfortunately, this has had little impact in terms of new treatments. Over the same time frame, only one new class of medication for COPD......, and no interested party has been in a position to undertake such a process. In order to facilitate the development of novel tools to assess new treatments, the Food and Drug Administration, in collaboration with the COPD Foundation, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and scientists from the pharmaceutical...... industry and academia conducted a workshop to survey the available information that could contribute to new tools. Based on this, a collaborative project, the COPD Biomarkers Qualification Consortium, was initiated. The Consortium in now actively preparing integrated data sets from existing resources...

  14. The ARC (Astrophysical Research Consortium) telescope project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K. S.

    A consortium of universities intends to construct a 3.5 meter optical-infrared telescope at a site in south-central New Mexico. The use of innovative mirror technology, a fast primary, and an alt-azimuth mounting results in a compact and lightweight instrument. This telescope will be uniquely well-suited for addressing certain observational programs by virtue of its capability for fully remote operation and rapid instrument changes.

  15. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Consortium Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    This is the third progress report of the M.I.T. Home Automation and Healthcare Consortium-Phase Two. It covers majority of the new findings, concepts...research projects of home automation and healthcare, ranging from human modeling, patient monitoring, and diagnosis to new sensors and actuators, physical...aids, human-machine interface and home automation infrastructure. This report contains several patentable concepts, algorithms, and designs.

  16. GWAS in a box: statistical and visual analytics of structured associations via GenAMap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Xing

    Full Text Available With the continuous improvement in genotyping and molecular phenotyping technology and the decreasing typing cost, it is expected that in a few years, more and more clinical studies of complex diseases will recruit thousands of individuals for pan-omic genetic association analyses. Hence, there is a great need for algorithms and software tools that could scale up to the whole omic level, integrate different omic data, leverage rich structure information, and be easily accessible to non-technical users. We present GenAMap, an interactive analytics software platform that 1 automates the execution of principled machine learning methods that detect genome- and phenome-wide associations among genotypes, gene expression data, and clinical or other macroscopic traits, and 2 provides new visualization tools specifically designed to aid in the exploration of association mapping results. Algorithmically, GenAMap is based on a new paradigm for GWAS and PheWAS analysis, termed structured association mapping, which leverages various structures in the omic data. We demonstrate the function of GenAMap via a case study of the Brem and Kruglyak yeast dataset, and then apply it on a comprehensive eQTL analysis of the NIH heterogeneous stock mice dataset and report some interesting findings. GenAMap is available from http://sailing.cs.cmu.edu/genamap.

  17. Removal of Triphenylmethane Dyes by Bacterial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihane Cheriaa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila-(CM-4 was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50 mg/L and malachite green (50 mg/L dyes within 24 h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2 h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD removal increases after 24 h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes.

  18. Fasting Glucose GWAS Candidate Region Analysis across Ethnic Groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen-Torvik, L. J.; Guo, X.; Bowden, D. W.; Bertoni, A. G.; Sale, M. M.; Yao, J.; Bluemke, D. A.; Goodarzi, M. O.; Chen, Y. I.; Vaidya, D.; Raffel, L. J.; Papanicolaou, G.J.; Meigs, J. B.; Pankow, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variants associated with fasting glucose in European ancestry populations are increasingly well understood. However, the nature of the associations between these SNPs and fasting glucose in other racial and ethnic groups is unclear. We sought to examine regions previously identified to be associated with fasting glucose in Caucasian GWAS across multiple ethnicities in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Non-diabetic MESA participants with fasting glucose measured at the ...

  19. Genome-wide prediction models that incorporate de novo GWAS are a powerful new tool for tropical rice improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindel, J E; Begum, H; Akdemir, D; Collard, B; Redoña, E; Jannink, J-L; McCouch, S

    2016-01-01

    To address the multiple challenges to food security posed by global climate change, population growth and rising incomes, plant breeders are developing new crop varieties that can enhance both agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. Current breeding practices, however, are unable to keep pace with demand. Genomic selection (GS) is a new technique that helps accelerate the rate of genetic gain in breeding by using whole-genome data to predict the breeding value of offspring. Here, we describe a new GS model that combines RR-BLUP with markers fit as fixed effects selected from the results of a genome-wide-association study (GWAS) on the RR-BLUP training data. We term this model GS + de novo GWAS. In a breeding population of tropical rice, GS + de novo GWAS outperformed six other models for a variety of traits and in multiple environments. On the basis of these results, we propose an extended, two-part breeding design that can be used to efficiently integrate novel variation into elite breeding populations, thus expanding genetic diversity and enhancing the potential for sustainable productivity gains. PMID:26860200

  20. Migraine and its psychiatric comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minen, Mia Tova; Begasse De Dhaem, Olivia; Kroon Van Diest, Ashley; Powers, Scott; Schwedt, Todd J; Lipton, Richard; Silbersweig, David

    2016-07-01

    Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling neurological disorder associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. In this manuscript, we provide an overview of the link between migraine and several comorbid psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder. We present data on psychiatric risk factors for migraine chronification. We discuss the evidence, theories and methods, such as brain functional imaging, to explain the pathophysiological links between migraine and psychiatric disorders. Finally, we provide an overview of the treatment considerations for treating migraine with psychiatric comorbidities. In conclusion, a review of the literature demonstrates the wide variety of psychiatric comorbidities with migraine. However, more research is needed to elucidate the neurocircuitry underlying the association between migraine and the comorbid psychiatric conditions and to determine the most effective treatment for migraine with psychiatric comorbidity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Delar K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…

  2. Psychiatric comorbidity : fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Hanna; Romeijn, Johannes

    The frequent occurrence of comorbidity has brought about an extensive theoretical debate in psychiatry. Why are the rates of psychiatric comorbidity so high and what are their implications for the ontological and epistemological status of comorbid psychiatric diseases? Current explanations focus

  3. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Other Psychiatric Disorders In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ... and other substance use disorders are defined as psychiatric disorders. Many individuals who misuse alcohol also abuse ...

  4. Predicting cell types and genetic variations contributing to disease by combining GWAS and epigenetic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gerasimova

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWASs identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are enriched in individuals suffering from a given disease. Most disease-associated SNPs fall into non-coding regions, so that it is not straightforward to infer phenotype or function; moreover, many SNPs are in tight genetic linkage, so that a SNP identified as associated with a particular disease may not itself be causal, but rather signify the presence of a linked SNP that is functionally relevant to disease pathogenesis. Here, we present an analysis method that takes advantage of the recent rapid accumulation of epigenomics data to address these problems for some SNPs. Using asthma as a prototypic example; we show that non-coding disease-associated SNPs are enriched in genomic regions that function as regulators of transcription, such as enhancers and promoters. Identifying enhancers based on the presence of the histone modification marks such as H3K4me1 in different cell types, we show that the location of enhancers is highly cell-type specific. We use these findings to predict which SNPs are likely to be directly contributing to disease based on their presence in regulatory regions, and in which cell types their effect is expected to be detectable. Moreover, we can also predict which cell types contribute to a disease based on overlap of the disease-associated SNPs with the locations of enhancers present in a given cell type. Finally, we suggest that it will be possible to re-analyze GWAS studies with much higher power by limiting the SNPs considered to those in coding or regulatory regions of cell types relevant to a given disease.

  5. Pathway analysis of GWAS provides new insights into genetic susceptibility to 3 inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariklia Eleftherohorinou

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the introduction of genome-wide association studies (GWAS have greatly increased the number of genes associated with common diseases, only a small proportion of the predicted genetic contribution has so far been elucidated. Studying the cumulative variation of polymorphisms in multiple genes acting in functional pathways may provide a complementary approach to the more common single SNP association approach in understanding genetic determinants of common disease. We developed a novel pathway-based method to assess the combined contribution of multiple genetic variants acting within canonical biological pathways and applied it to data from 14,000 UK individuals with 7 common diseases. We tested inflammatory pathways for association with Crohn's disease (CD, rheumatoid arthritis (RA and type 1 diabetes (T1D with 4 non-inflammatory diseases as controls. Using a variable selection algorithm, we identified variants responsible for the pathway association and evaluated their use for disease prediction using a 10 fold cross-validation framework in order to calculate out-of-sample area under the Receiver Operating Curve (AUC. The generalisability of these predictive models was tested on an independent birth cohort from Northern Finland. Multiple canonical inflammatory pathways showed highly significant associations (p 10(-3-10(-20 with CD, T1D and RA. Variable selection identified on average a set of 205 SNPs (149 genes for T1D, 350 SNPs (189 genes for RA and 493 SNPs (277 genes for CD. The pattern of polymorphisms at these SNPS were found to be highly predictive of T1D (91% AUC and RA (85% AUC, and weakly predictive of CD (60% AUC. The predictive ability of the T1D model (without any parameter refitting had good predictive ability (79% AUC in the Finnish cohort. Our analysis suggests that genetic contribution to common inflammatory diseases operates through multiple genes interacting in functional pathways.

  6. GWAS-based pathway analysis differentiates between fluid and crystallized intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoforou, A; Espeseth, T; Davies, G; Fernandes, C P D; Giddaluru, S; Mattheisen, M; Tenesa, A; Harris, S E; Liewald, D C; Payton, A; Ollier, W; Horan, M; Pendleton, N; Haggarty, P; Djurovic, S; Herms, S; Hoffman, P; Cichon, S; Starr, J M; Lundervold, A; Reinvang, I; Steen, V M; Deary, I J; Le Hellard, S

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive abilities vary among people. About 40-50% of this variability is due to general intelligence (g), which reflects the positive correlation among individuals' scores on diverse cognitive ability tests. g is positively correlated with many life outcomes, such as education, occupational status and health, motivating the investigation of its underlying biology. In psychometric research, a distinction is made between general fluid intelligence (gF) - the ability to reason in novel situations - and general crystallized intelligence (gC) - the ability to apply acquired knowledge. This distinction is supported by developmental and cognitive neuroscience studies. Classical epidemiological studies and recent genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have established that these cognitive traits have a large genetic component. However, no robust genetic associations have been published thus far due largely to the known polygenic nature of these traits and insufficient sample sizes. Here, using two GWAS datasets, in which the polygenicity of gF and gC traits was previously confirmed, a gene- and pathway-based approach was undertaken with the aim of characterizing and differentiating their genetic architecture. Pathway analysis, using genes selected on the basis of relaxed criteria, revealed notable differences between these two traits. gF appeared to be characterized by genes affecting the quantity and quality of neurons and therefore neuronal efficiency, whereas long-term depression (LTD) seemed to underlie gC. Thus, this study supports the gF-gC distinction at the genetic level and identifies functional annotations and pathways worthy of further investigation. © 2014 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior published by International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Migrating from Informal to Formal Consortium — COSTLI Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdie, C.; Patil, Y. M.

    2010-10-01

    There are many models of library consortia which have come into existence due to various reasons and compulsions. FORSA (Forum for Resource Sharing in Astronomy) is an informal consortium born from the links between academic institutions specializing in astronomy in India. FORSA is a cooperative venture initiated by library professionals. Though this consortium was formed mainly for inter-lending activities and bibliographic access, it has matured over the years to adopt the consortium approach on cooperative acquisitions, due to increased requirements.

  8. Latest Developments of the Isprs Student Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detchev, I.; Kanjir, U.; Reyes, S. R.; Miyazaki, H.; Aktas, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    The International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) Student Consortium (SC) is a network for young professionals studying or working within the fields of photogrammetry, remote sensing, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and other related geo-spatial sciences. The main goal of the network is to provide means for information exchange for its young members and thus help promote and integrate youth into the ISPRS. Over the past four years the Student Consortium has successfully continued to fulfil its mission in both formal and informal ways. The formal means of communication of the SC are its website, newsletter, e-mail announcements and summer schools, while its informal ones are multiple social media outlets and various social activities during student related events. The newsletter is published every three to four months and provides both technical and experiential content relevant for the young people in the ISPRS. The SC has been in charge or at least has helped with organizing one or more summer schools every year. The organization's e-mail list has over 1,100 subscribers, its website hosts over 1,300 members from 100 countries across the entire globe, and its public Facebook group currently has over 4,500 joined visitors, who connect among one another and share information relevant for their professional careers. These numbers show that the Student Consortium has grown into a significant online-united community. The paper will present the organization's on-going and past activities for the last four years, its current priorities and a strategic plan and aspirations for the future four-year period.

  9. External RNA Controls Consortium Beta Version Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hangnoh; Pine, P Scott; McDaniel, Jennifer; Salit, Marc; Oliver, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Spike-in RNAs are valuable controls for a variety of gene expression measurements. The External RNA Controls Consortium developed test sets that were used in a number of published reports. Here we provide an authoritative table that summarizes, updates, and corrects errors in the test version that ultimately resulted in the certified Standard Reference Material 2374. We have noted existence of anti-sense RNA controls in the material, corrected sub-pool memberships, and commented on control RNAs that displayed inconsistent behavior.

  10. University Research Consortium annual review meeting program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This brochure presents the program for the first annual review meeting of the University Research Consortium (URC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). INEL is a multiprogram laboratory with a distinctive role in applied engineering. It also conducts basic science research and development, and complex facility operations. The URC program consists of a portfolio of research projects funded by INEL and conducted at universities in the United States. In this program, summaries and participant lists for each project are presented as received from the principal investigators

  11. University Research Consortium annual review meeting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This brochure presents the program for the first annual review meeting of the University Research Consortium (URC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). INEL is a multiprogram laboratory with a distinctive role in applied engineering. It also conducts basic science research and development, and complex facility operations. The URC program consists of a portfolio of research projects funded by INEL and conducted at universities in the United States. In this program, summaries and participant lists for each project are presented as received from the principal investigators.

  12. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1994 Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high {Tc} superconductivity. During the past year, 27 projects produced over 123 talks and 139 publications. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in August and January); with the second MISCON Workshop held in August; 13 external speakers; 79 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 48 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temperature superconductors.

  13. History of the Tinnitus Research Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, James B

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the creation and accomplishments of the Tinnitus Research Consortium (TRC), founded and supported through philanthropy and intended to enrich the field of tinnitus research. Bringing together a group of distinguished auditory researchers, most of whom were not involved in tinnitus research, over the fifteen years of its life it developed novel research approaches and recruited a number of new investigators into the field. The purpose of this special issue is to highlight some of the significant accomplishments of the investigators supported by the TRC. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Tinnitus". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1994 Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high T c superconductivity. During the past year, 27 projects produced over 123 talks and 139 publications. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in August and January); with the second MISCON Workshop held in August; 13 external speakers; 79 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 48 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temperature superconductors

  15. Psychiatric morbidity in perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit L Jagtap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women in the perimenopausal period are reported to be vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. Aim: To assess the psychiatric morbidity in perimenopausal women aged 45–55 years. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, hospital-based study was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care hospital attached to a medical college. The study sample consisted of consecutive women in perimenopause as diagnosed by a gynecologist and written informed consent for inclusion in the study. Women with a previous history of psychiatric illnesses, with a major medical illness, or who had undergone surgical menopause were excluded from the study. All women were evaluated with a brief questionnaire for collecting demographic and clinical information and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for assessing psychiatric disorders. Results: Of the 108 women in perimenopause included in the study, 31% had depressive disorder, 7% had anxiety, while 5% had depressive disorder with anxiety features. Psychiatric morbidity was significantly more in women having lesser education, from rural background, with a history of psychiatric illness in the family, a later age of menarche, and in the late stage of perimenopause. Conclusions: Women in the perimenopause affected by psychiatric morbidity were most commonly diagnosed with depression. As perimenopause is a time of vulnerability in women, attention to signs and symptoms of depression may be required so that they may lead a more productive life.

  16. Understanding migraine and psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Elizabeth K; Seng, Cynthia D

    2016-06-01

    This article describes recent trends in our understanding of the role of psychiatric disorders in the experience and treatment of migraine, and the role of migraine in the experience and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although the majority of studies evaluating psychiatric comorbidity in migraine have focused on depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorders are highly associated with migraine and relevant for prognosis and treatment planning. Comorbid psychiatric disorders may be associated with poorer treatment response for some acute pharmacotherapies; however, people with comorbid migraine and mood or anxiety disorders can achieve large responses to preventive pharmacologic and behavioral therapies. Emerging research is developing and evaluating behavioral treatments designed to manage cooccurring migraine and mood or anxiety disorders. Stigma related to psychiatric disorders has been well characterized, and could exacerbate extant migraine-related stigma. Anxiety and mood disorders are prevalent in people with migraine, although not ubiquitous. Psychiatric comorbidity is associated with greater migraine symptoms and disability; however, people with comorbid depression or anxiety are amenable to preventive migraine treatment. Research regarding migraine treatment strategies optimized for people with comorbid psychiatric disorders is critical to advancing care and reducing stigma for this important subpopulation of people with migraine.

  17. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph ePhillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  18. Psychiatric disorders in myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Inés Ybarra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. METHOD: Forty-one patients with MG answered to a structured psychiatric interview (MINI-Plus. RESULTS: Eleven (26.1% patients were diagnosed with a depressive disorder and 19 (46.3% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Patients with dysthymia were older (p=0.029 and had longer disease duration (p=0.006. Patients with social phobia also had longer disease duration (p=0.039. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders in MG are common, especially depressive and anxiety disorders.

  19. Care systematization in psychiatric nursing within the psychiatric reform context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirdes, A; Kantorski, L P

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to approach care systematization in psychiatric nursing in two psychiatric disorder patients who attended 'Nossa Casa', São Lourenço do Sul, RS, Brazil. Nossa Casa services psychiatric patients in the community, focussing on: (i) permanence in their environment, allowing patients to remain close to their families and social spheres; (ii) integral attendance to meet individual needs; (iii) respecting individual differences; (iv) rehabilitation practices; and (v) social reinsertion. Concepts and assumptions of the psychiatric reform and the Irving's nursing process were used as theoretical-methodological references to elaborate this systematization. A therapeutic project for the psychiatric patient was elaborated, in accordance with the interdisciplinary proposal accepted by Nossa Casa. Interdisciplinary team intervention, guided by a previously discussed common orientation and defined through an individualized therapeutic project, allowed for an effective process of psychosocial rehabilitation. The authors concluded that a therapeutic project based on the mentioned premises leads to consistent, comprehensive, dialectical and ethical assistance in mental health, thereby reinstating the citizenship of psychiatric patients.

  20. BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE BY A MICROORGANISM CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alimohammadi, A. R. Mesdaghinia, M. Mahmoodi, S. Nasseri, A. H. Mahvi and J. Nouri

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE is one of the ether oxygenates which its use has been increased within the last twenty years. This compound is produced from isobutylene and methanol reaction that is used as octane index enhancer and also increases dissolved oxygen in gasoline and decreases carbon monoxide emission in four phased motors because of better combustion of gasoline. High solubility in water (52 g/L, high vapor pressure (0.54 kg/cm3, low absorption to organic carbon of soil and presence of MTBE in the list of potentially-carcinogens of U.S EPA has made its use of great concern. The culture media used in this study was Mineral Salt Medium (MSM. The study lasted for 236 days and in three different concentrations of MTBE of 200, 5 and 0.8 mg/L. A control sample was also used to compare the results. This research studied the isolation methods of microbial consortium in the MTBE polluted soils in Tehran and Abadan petroleum refinery besides MTBE degradation. The results showed the capability of bacteria in consuming MTBE as carbon source. Final microbial isolation was performed with several microbial passages as well as keeping consortium in a certain amount of MTBE as the carbon source.

  1. Fermentative hydrogen production by microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maintinguer, Sandra I.; Fernandes, Bruna S.; Duarte, Iolanda C.S.; Saavedra, Nora Katia; Adorno, M. Angela T.; Varesche, M. Bernadete [Department of Hydraulics and Sanitation, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense, 400, 13566-590 Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2008-08-15

    Heat pre-treatment of the inoculum associated to the pH control was applied to select hydrogen-producing bacteria and endospores-forming bacteria. The source of inoculum to the heat pre-treatment was from a UASB reactor used in the slaughterhouse waste treatment. The molecular biology analyses indicated that the microbial consortium presented microorganisms affiliated with Enterobacter cloacae (97% and 98%), Clostridium sp. (98%) and Clostridium acetobutyricum (96%), recognized as H{sub 2} and volatile acids' producers. The following assays were carried out in batch reactors in order to verify the efficiencies of sucrose conversion to H{sub 2} by the microbial consortium: (1) 630.0 mg sucrose/L, (2) 1184.0 mg sucrose/L, (3) 1816.0 mg sucrose/L and (4) 4128.0 mg sucrose/L. The subsequent yields were obtained as follows: 15% (1.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), 20% (1.6 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), 15% (1.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose) and 4% (0.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), respectively. The intermediary products were acetic acid, butyric acid, methanol and ethanol in all of the anaerobic reactors. (author)

  2. Overview of the carbon products consortium (CPC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, C.L. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Carbon Products Consortium (CPC) is an industry, university, government cooperative research team which has evolved over the past seven years to produce and evaluate coal-derived feedstocks for carbon products. The members of the Carbon Products Consortium are UCAR Carbon Company, Koppers Industries, CONOCO, Aluminum Company of America, AMOCO Polymers, and West Virginia University. The Carbon and Insulation Materials Technology Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Fiber Materials Inc., and BASF Corporation are affiliates of the CPC. The initial work on coal-derived nuclear graphites was supported by a grant to WVU, UCAR Carbon, and ORNL from the U.S. DOE New Production Reactor program. More recently, the CPC program has been supported through the Fossil Energy Materials program and through PETC`s Liquefaction program. The coal processing technologies involve hydrogenation, extraction by solvents such as N-methyl pyrolidone and toluene, material blending, and calcination. The breadth of carbon science expertise and manufacturing capability available in the CPC enables it to address virtually all research and development issues of importance to the carbon products industry.

  3. Psychiatric diagnoses, trauma, and suicidiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elklit Ask

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to examine the associations between psychiatric diagnoses, trauma and suicidiality in psychiatric patients at intake. Methods During two months, all consecutive patients (n = 139 in a psychiatric hospital in Western Norway were interviewed (response rate 72%. Results Ninety-one percent had been exposed to at least one trauma; 69 percent had been repeatedly exposed to trauma for longer periods of time. Only 7% acquired a PTSD diagnosis. The comorbidity of PTSD and other psychiatric diagnoses were 78%. A number of diagnoses were associated with specific traumas. Sixty-seven percent of the patients reported suicidal thoughts in the month prior to intake; thirty-one percent had attempted suicide in the preceding week. Suicidal ideation, self-harming behaviour, and suicide attempts were associated with specific traumas. Conclusion Traumatised patients appear to be under- or misdiagnosed which could have an impact on the efficiency of treatment.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of adolescent psychotic-like experiences shows genetic overlap with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Oliver; Dudbridge, Frank; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Lu, Yi; Lundstrom, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul; Ronald, Angelica

    2018-03-31

    This study aimed to test for overlap in genetic influences between psychotic-like experience traits shown by adolescents in the community, and clinically-recognized psychiatric disorders in adulthood, specifically schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression. The full spectra of psychotic-like experience domains, both in terms of their severity and type (positive, cognitive, and negative), were assessed using self- and parent-ratings in three European community samples aged 15-19 years (Final N incl. siblings = 6,297-10,098). A mega-genome-wide association study (mega-GWAS) for each psychotic-like experience domain was performed. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-heritability of each psychotic-like experience domain was estimated using genomic-relatedness-based restricted maximum-likelihood (GREML) and linkage disequilibrium- (LD-) score regression. Genetic overlap between specific psychotic-like experience domains and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression was assessed using polygenic risk score (PRS) and LD-score regression. GREML returned SNP-heritability estimates of 3-9% for psychotic-like experience trait domains, with higher estimates for less skewed traits (Anhedonia, Cognitive Disorganization) than for more skewed traits (Paranoia and Hallucinations, Parent-rated Negative Symptoms). Mega-GWAS analysis identified one genome-wide significant association for Anhedonia within IDO2 but which did not replicate in an independent sample. PRS analysis revealed that the schizophrenia PRS significantly predicted all adolescent psychotic-like experience trait domains (Paranoia and Hallucinations only in non-zero scorers). The major depression PRS significantly predicted Anhedonia and Parent-rated Negative Symptoms in adolescence. Psychotic-like experiences during adolescence in the community show additive genetic effects and partly share genetic influences with clinically-recognized psychiatric disorders, specifically schizophrenia and

  5. Psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M

    1984-03-01

    An attempt is made to identify and document the problems of comparative evaluation of the more recent studies of psychiatric morbidity after abortion and to determine the current consensus so that when the results of the joint RCGP/RCOG study of the sequelae of induced abortion become available they can be viewed in a more informed context. The legalization of abortion has provided more opportunities for studies of subsequent morbidity. New laws have contributed to the changing attitudes of society, and the increasing acceptability of the operation has probably influenced the occurrence of psychiatric sequelae. The complexity of measuring psychiatric sequelae is evident from the many terms used to describe symptomatology and behavioral patterns and from the number of assessment techniques involved. Numerous techniques have been used to quantify psychiatric sequelae. Several authors conclude that few psychiatric problems follow an induced abortion, but many studies were deficient in methodology, material, or length of follow-up. A British study in 1975 reported a favorable outcome for a "representative sample" of 50 National Health Service patients: 68% of these patients had an absence of or only mild feelings of guilt, loss, or self reproach and considered abortion as the best solution to their problem. The 32% who had an adverse outcome reported moderate to severe feelings of guilt, regret, loss, and self reproach, and there was evidence of mental illness. In most of these cases the adverse outcome was related to the patient's environment since the abortion. A follow-up study of 126 women, which compared the overall reaction to therapeutic abortion between women with a history of previous mild psychiatric illness and those without reported that a significantly different emotional reaction could not be demonstrated between the 2 groups. In a survey among women seeking an abortion 271 who were referred for a psychiatric opinion regarding terminations of pregnancy

  6. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  7. Mechanistic phenotypes: an aggregative phenotyping strategy to identify disease mechanisms using GWAS data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Mosley

    Full Text Available A single mutation can alter cellular and global homeostatic mechanisms and give rise to multiple clinical diseases. We hypothesized that these disease mechanisms could be identified using low minor allele frequency (MAF<0.1 non-synonymous SNPs (nsSNPs associated with "mechanistic phenotypes", comprised of collections of related diagnoses. We studied two mechanistic phenotypes: (1 thrombosis, evaluated in a population of 1,655 African Americans; and (2 four groupings of cancer diagnoses, evaluated in 3,009 white European Americans. We tested associations between nsSNPs represented on GWAS platforms and mechanistic phenotypes ascertained from electronic medical records (EMRs, and sought enrichment in functional ontologies across the top-ranked associations. We used a two-step analytic approach whereby nsSNPs were first sorted by the strength of their association with a phenotype. We tested associations using two reverse genetic models and standard additive and recessive models. In the second step, we employed a hypothesis-free ontological enrichment analysis using the sorted nsSNPs to identify functional mechanisms underlying the diagnoses comprising the mechanistic phenotypes. The thrombosis phenotype was solely associated with ontologies related to blood coagulation (Fisher's p = 0.0001, FDR p = 0.03, driven by the F5, P2RY12 and F2RL2 genes. For the cancer phenotypes, the reverse genetics models were enriched in DNA repair functions (p = 2×10-5, FDR p = 0.03 (POLG/FANCI, SLX4/FANCP, XRCC1, BRCA1, FANCA, CHD1L while the additive model showed enrichment related to chromatid segregation (p = 4×10-6, FDR p = 0.005 (KIF25, PINX1. We were able to replicate nsSNP associations for POLG/FANCI, BRCA1, FANCA and CHD1L in independent data sets. Mechanism-oriented phenotyping using collections of EMR-derived diagnoses can elucidate fundamental disease mechanisms.

  8. Evaluation of novel candidate variations and their interactions related to bipolar disorders: Analysis of GWAS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acikel C

    2016-11-01

    , have prioritized similar SNP profiles as predictors of bipolar disorders, in contrast to MDR, which has found different SNPs through analysis of two-way and three-way interactions. The reduced number of associated SNPs discovered by MDR, without loss in the classification performance, would facilitate validation studies and decision support models, and would reduce the cost to develop predictive and diagnostic tests. Nevertheless, we need to emphasize that translation of genomic models to the clinical setting requires models with higher classification performance. Keywords: Bipolar disorders, GWAS, MDR, Data Mining, SNP, Decision Support

  9. Inpatient Suicide in a Chinese Psychiatric Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Ran, Mao-Sheng; Hao, Yuantao; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Guo, Yangbo; Su, Jinghua; Lu, Huixian

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about the risk factors for suicide among psychiatric inpatients in China. In this study we identified the risk factors of suicide among psychiatric inpatients at Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital. All psychiatric inpatients who died by suicide during the 1956-2005 period were included in this study. Using a case-control design, 64…

  10. Psychiatric aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L

    2011-08-01

    Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.

  11. Assessment of Five Chilling Tolerance Traits and GWAS Mapping in Rice Using the USDA Mini-Core Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Schläppi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is often exposed to cool temperatures during spring planting in temperate climates. A better understanding of genetic pathways regulating chilling tolerance will enable breeders to develop varieties with improved tolerance during germination and young seedling stages. To dissect chilling tolerance, five assays were developed; one assay for the germination stage, one assay for the germination and seedling stage, and three for the seedling stage. Based on these assays, five chilling tolerance indices were calculated and assessed using 202 O. sativa accessions from the Rice Mini-Core (RMC collection. Significant differences between RMC accessions made the five indices suitable for genome-wide association study (GWAS based quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping. For young seedling stage indices, japonica and indica subspecies clustered into chilling tolerant and chilling sensitive accessions, respectively, while both subspecies had similar low temperature germinability distributions. Indica subspecies were shown to have chilling acclimation potential. GWAS mapping uncovered 48 QTL at 39 chromosome regions distributed across all 12 rice chromosomes. Interestingly, there was no overlap between the germination and seedling stage QTL. Also, 18 QTL and 32 QTL were in regions discovered in previously reported bi-parental and GWAS based QTL mapping studies, respectively. Two novel low temperature seedling survivability (LTSS–QTL, qLTSS3-4 and qLTSS4-1, were not in a previously reported QTL region. QTL with strong effect alleles identified in this study will be useful for marker assisted breeding efforts to improve chilling tolerance in rice cultivars and enhance gene discovery for chilling tolerance.

  12. Genetic dissection of photoperiod response based on GWAS of pre-anthesis phase duration in spring barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M Alqudah

    Full Text Available Heading time is a complex trait, and natural variation in photoperiod responses is a major factor controlling time to heading, adaptation and grain yield. In barley, previous heading time studies have been mainly conducted under field conditions to measure total days to heading. We followed a novel approach and studied the natural variation of time to heading in a world-wide spring barley collection (218 accessions, comprising of 95 photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1 and 123 accessions with reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1 to long-day (LD through dissecting pre-anthesis development into four major stages and sub-phases. The study was conducted under greenhouse (GH conditions (LD; 16/8 h; ∼20/∼16°C day/night. Genotyping was performed using a genome-wide high density 9K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs chip which assayed 7842 SNPs. We used the barley physical map to identify candidate genes underlying genome-wide association scans (GWAS. GWAS for pre-anthesis stages/sub-phases in each photoperiod group provided great power for partitioning genetic effects on floral initiation and heading time. In addition to major genes known to regulate heading time under field conditions, several novel QTL with medium to high effects, including new QTL having major effects on developmental stages/sub-phases were found to be associated in this study. For example, highly associated SNPs tagged the physical regions around HvCO1 (barley CONSTANS1 and BFL (BARLEY FLORICAULA/LEAFY genes. Based upon our GWAS analysis, we propose a new genetic network model for each photoperiod group, which includes several newly identified genes, such as several HvCO-like genes, belonging to different heading time pathways in barley.

  13. Aims, organization and activities of the consortium for underground storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucky, G.

    1977-01-01

    The consortium of Swiss authorities interested in underground storage (the petroleum oil and gas industries, for fuel storage; the nuclear industry for radioactive waste disposal), was initiated in 1972. The author outlines the motives behind the formation of the consortium and outlines its structure and objectives. The envisaged projects are outlined. (F.Q.)

  14. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force - Year 21 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), comprised of representatives of large cities and counties in the United States, is a subgroup of the Urban Consortium, an organization of the nation's largest cities and counties joined together to identify, develop and deploy innovative approaches and technological solutions to pressing urban issues.

  15. GWAS for plant growth stages and yield components in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harvested in three regions of Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuspekov, Yerlan; Baibulatova, Aida; Yermekbayev, Kanat; Tokhetova, Laura; Chudinov, Vladimir; Sereda, Grigoriy; Ganal, Martin; Griffiths, Simon; Abugalieva, Saule

    2017-11-14

    Spring wheat is the largest agricultural crop grown in Kazakhstan with an annual sowing area of 12 million hectares in 2016. Annually, the country harvests around 15 million tons of high quality grain. Despite environmental stress factors it is predicted that the use of new technologies may lead to increases in productivity from current levels of 1.5 to up to 3 tons per hectare. One way of improving wheat productivity is by the application of new genomic oriented approaches in plant breeding projects. Genome wide association studies (GWAS) are emerging as powerful tools for the understanding of the inheritance of complex traits via utilization of high throughput genotyping technologies and phenotypic assessments of plant collections. In this study, phenotyping and genotyping data on 194 spring wheat accessions from Kazakhstan, Russia, Europe, and CIMMYT were assessed for the identification of marker-trait associations (MTA) of agronomic traits by using GWAS. Field trials in Northern, Central and Southern regions of Kazakhstan using 194 spring wheat accessions revealed strong correlations of yield with booting date, plant height, biomass, number of spikes per plant, and number of kernels per spike. The accessions from Europe and CIMMYT showed high breeding potential for Southern and Central regions of the country in comparison with the performance of the local varieties. The GGE biplot method, using average yield per plant, suggested a clear separation of accessions into their three breeding origins in relationship to the three environments in which they were evaluated. The genetic variation in the three groups of accessions was further studied using 3245 polymorphic SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers. The application of Principal Coordinate analysis clearly grouped the 194 accessions into three clades according to their breeding origins. GWAS on data from nine field trials allowed the identification of 114 MTAs for 12 different agronomic traits. Field

  16. GWAS signals across the HLA regions: revealing a clue for common etiology underlying infectious tumors and other immunity diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Yao Shugart; Ying Wang; Wei-Hua Jia; Yi-Xin Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that multiple genes in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) regions play an important role in development of cancers and immunity disorders. However, the biological mechanisms of the HLA associations are not well understood. We recently conducted a survey of all genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with significant findings in the HLA regions and concluded that diseases such as cancer and immune disorders are more likely to be associated with genetic variants located in the HLA regions than other diseases. This finding is suggestive for testing a hypothesis of a common etiology of infectious tumors and other immunity diseases.

  17. Replication of LDL GWAs hits in PROSPER/PHASE as validation for future (pharmaco)genetic analyses

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Trompet, Stella

    2011-10-06

    Abstract Background The PHArmacogenetic study of Statins in the Elderly at risk (PHASE) is a genome wide association study in the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at risk for vascular disease (PROSPER) that investigates the genetic variation responsible for the individual variation in drug response to pravastatin. Statins lower LDL-cholesterol in general by 30%, however not in all subjects. Moreover, clinical response is highly variable and adverse effects occur in a minority of patients. In this report we first describe the rationale of the PROSPER\\/PHASE project and second show that the PROSPER\\/PHASE study can be used to study pharmacogenetics in the elderly. Methods The genome wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using the Illumina 660K-Quad beadchips following manufacturer\\'s instructions. After a stringent quality control 557,192 SNPs in 5,244 subjects were available for analysis. To maximize the availability of genetic data and coverage of the genome, imputation up to 2.5 million autosomal CEPH HapMap SNPs was performed with MACH imputation software. The GWAS for LDL-cholesterol is assessed with an additive linear regression model in PROBABEL software, adjusted for age, sex, and country of origin to account for population stratification. Results Forty-two SNPs reached the GWAS significant threshold of p = 5.0e-08 in 5 genomic loci (APOE\\/APOC1; LDLR; FADS2\\/FEN1; HMGCR; PSRC1\\/CELSR5). The top SNP (rs445925, chromosome 19) with a p-value of p = 2.8e-30 is located within the APOC1 gene and near the APOE gene. The second top SNP (rs6511720, chromosome 19) with a p-value of p = 5.22e-15 is located within the LDLR gene. All 5 genomic loci were previously associated with LDL-cholesterol levels, no novel loci were identified. Replication in WOSCOPS and CARE confirmed our results. Conclusion With the GWAS in the PROSPER\\/PHASE study we confirm the previously found genetic associations with LDL-cholesterol levels. With this proof

  18. The Black Rock Forest Consortium: A narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzetto-More, Nicole Antoinette

    The Black Rock Forest is a 3,785-acre wilderness area whose richly forested landscape represents the splendor of the Hudson Valley Region of New York State. Although originally intended to become the home of wealthy banker James Stillman, it was his son Ernest whose love of conservation caused him to embrace the then new and revolutionary practice of sustainable forestry and establish Black Rock in 1928. Due to Ernest Stillman's foresight, the property was protected from development and bequeathed to Harvard University following his death for the establishment of an experimental forest. The modern environmental movement in America began when the Black Rock Forest was threatened with development by Consolidated Edison, and the people of the surrounding community banded together, battling tirelessly for over 17 years to stop the degradation of this historic forest. The outcome of this crusade marked a hallmark win for the environment leaving an illustrious and inveterate legacy. The campaign resulted in the watershed legislation the National Environmental Policy Act, the formation of several environmental advocacy groups, the creation of the Council on Environmental Quality of the Executive Office of the President, as well as set a precedent for communities to initiate and win cases against major corporations in order to safeguard natural resources. In the midst of the controversy it became apparent that alternative futures for the Forest needed to be explored. As a result of a committee report and one man's vision, the idea emerged to create a consortium that would purchase and steward the Forest. With a formation that took nearly fifteen years, the Black Rock Forest Consortium was formed, a unique amalgamation of K--12 public and private schools, colleges and universities, and science and cultural centers that successfully collaborate to enhance scientific research, environmental conservation, and education. The Consortium works to bridge the gaps between learners

  19. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1995 Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high Tc superconductivity. During the past year, 26 projects produced over 133 talks and 127 publications. Three Master`s Degrees and 9 Doctor`s of Philosophy Degrees were granted to students working on MISCON projects. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in January and July); the third MISCON Summer School held in July; 12 external speakers; 81 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 54 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temp superconductors.

  20. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1995 Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high Tc superconductivity. During the past year, 26 projects produced over 133 talks and 127 publications. Three Master's Degrees and 9 Doctor's of Philosophy Degrees were granted to students working on MISCON projects. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in January and July); the third MISCON Summer School held in July; 12 external speakers; 81 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 54 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temp superconductors

  1. The International Human Epigenome Consortium Data Portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, David; Morais, David Anderson de Lima; Gauthier, Carol; Côté, Catherine; Caron, Maxime; Kwan, Tony; Chen, Kuang Chung; Laperle, Jonathan; Markovits, Alexei Nordell; Pastinen, Tomi; Caron, Bryan; Veilleux, Alain; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne; Bourque, Guillaume

    2016-11-23

    The International Human Epigenome Consortium (IHEC) coordinates the production of reference epigenome maps through the characterization of the regulome, methylome, and transcriptome from a wide range of tissues and cell types. To define conventions ensuring the compatibility of datasets and establish an infrastructure enabling data integration, analysis, and sharing, we developed the IHEC Data Portal (http://epigenomesportal.ca/ihec). The portal provides access to >7,000 reference epigenomic datasets, generated from >600 tissues, which have been contributed by seven international consortia: ENCODE, NIH Roadmap, CEEHRC, Blueprint, DEEP, AMED-CREST, and KNIH. The portal enhances the utility of these reference maps by facilitating the discovery, visualization, analysis, download, and sharing of epigenomics data. The IHEC Data Portal is the official source to navigate through IHEC datasets and represents a strategy for unifying the distributed data produced by international research consortia. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Perspectives of International Human Epigenome Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Bum Bae

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available As the International Human Epigenome Consortium (IHEC launched officially at the 2010 Washington meeting, a giant step toward the conquest of unexplored regions of the human genome has begun. IHEC aims at the production of 1,000 reference epigenomes to the international scientific community for next 7-10 years. Seven member institutions, including South Korea, Korea National Institute of Health (KNIH, will produce 25-200 reference epigenomes individually, and the produced data will be publically available by using a data center. Epigenome data will cover from whole genome bisulfite sequencing, histone modification, and chromatin access information to miRNA-seq. The final goal of IHEC is the production of reference maps of human epigenomes for key cellular status relevant to health and disease.

  3. Functional consortium for denitrifying sulfide removal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Liu, Lihong; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2010-03-01

    Denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process simultaneously converts sulfide, nitrate, and chemical oxygen demand from industrial wastewaters to elemental sulfur, nitrogen gas, and carbon dioxide, respectively. This investigation utilizes a dilution-to-extinction approach at 10(-2) to 10(-6) dilutions to elucidate the correlation between the composition of the microbial community and the DSR performance. In the original suspension and in 10(-2) dilution, the strains Stenotrophomonas sp., Thauera sp., and Azoarcus sp. are the heterotrophic denitrifiers and the strains Paracoccus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. are the sulfide-oxidizing denitrifers. The 10(-4) dilution is identified as the functional consortium for the present DSR system, which comprises two functional strains, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain Paracoccus sp. At 10(-6) dilution, all DSR performance was lost. The functions of the constituent cells in the DSR granules were discussed based on data obtained using the dilution-to-extinction approach.

  4. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  5. The nature of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-02-01

    A foundational question for the discipline of psychiatry is the nature of psychiatric disorders. What kinds of things are they? In this paper, I review and critique three major relevant theories: realism, pragmatism and constructivism. Realism assumes that the content of science is real and independent of human activities. I distinguish two "flavors" of realism: chemistry-based, for which the paradigmatic example is elements of the periodic table, and biology-based, for which the paradigm is species. The latter is a much better fit for psychiatry. Pragmatism articulates a sensible approach to psychiatric disorders just seeking categories that perform well in the world. But it makes no claim about the reality of those disorders. This is problematic, because we have a duty to advocate for our profession and our patients against other physicians who never doubt the reality of the disorders they treat. Constructivism has been associated with anti-psychiatry activists, but we should admit that social forces play a role in the creation of our diagnoses, as they do in many sciences. However, truly socially constructed psychiatric disorders are rare. I then describe powerful arguments against a realist theory of psychiatric disorders. Because so many prior psychiatric diagnoses have been proposed and then abandoned, can we really claim that our current nosologies have it right? Much of our current nosology arose from a series of historical figures and events which could have gone differently. If we re-run the tape of history over and over again, the DSM and ICD would not likely have the same categories on every iteration. Therefore, we should argue more confidently for the reality of broader constructs of psychiatric illness rather than our current diagnostic categories, which remain tentative. Finally, instead of thinking that our disorders are true because they correspond to clear entities in the world, we should consider a coherence theory of truth by which disorders

  6. OCCUPATIONAL ROLE AFTER PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GH.R GHASSEMI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Severe Psychiatricillness is accompanied by gross disturbances in patient's occupational role. This study presents a comparative picture of work performance before and after psychiatric hospitalization. Method: Subjects comprised 440 psychiatric admitters from Noor Medical center - Isfahan - Iran, who were followed from November 1999 to November 2000. Their work adjustment was measured by means of Weiss man's index. Data were computer analyzed using SPSS by running paired t- student and ANOVA. Results: Majority of the patients (53 % were without permanent sources of income before psychiatric hospitalization, about 12 percent of those who were working prior to hospitalization lost their job after being discharged from hospital. Better work adjustment before hospitalization was positively correlated with better work adjustment after discharge for working patients (r =0/66. Working ability of the patients after discharge was lesser than before the attack f9r patients with regular and irregular job (P < 001. Discussion: Job loss or poor working ability after psychiatric admission reported by several researchers and has bean confirmed in this study as well. These observatoins have been discussed in view of the current socio economic problems in the society and nature of psychiatric disturbances.

  7. Japan PGx Data Science Consortium Database: SNPs and HLA genotype data from 2994 Japanese healthy individuals for pharmacogenomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitsuji, Shigeo; Matsuda, Takashi; Nishimura, Koichi; Endo, Seiko; Wada, Chisa; Watanabe, Kenji; Hasegawa, Koichi; Hishigaki, Haretsugu; Masuda, Masatoshi; Kuwahara, Yusuke; Tsuritani, Katsuki; Sugiura, Kenkichi; Kubota, Tomoko; Miyoshi, Shinji; Okada, Kinya; Nakazono, Kazuyuki; Sugaya, Yuki; Yang, Woosung; Sawamoto, Taiji; Uchida, Wataru; Shinagawa, Akira; Fujiwara, Tsutomu; Yamada, Hisaharu; Suematsu, Koji; Tsutsui, Naohisa; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Liou, Shyh-Yuh

    2015-06-01

    Japan Pharmacogenomics Data Science Consortium (JPDSC) has assembled a database for conducting pharmacogenomics (PGx) studies in Japanese subjects. The database contains the genotypes of 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 5 human leukocyte antigen loci from 2994 Japanese healthy volunteers, as well as 121 kinds of clinical information, including self-reports, physiological data, hematological data and biochemical data. In this article, the reliability of our data was evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) and association analysis for hematological and biochemical traits by using genome-wide SNP data. PCA of the SNPs showed that all the samples were collected from the Japanese population and that the samples were separated into two major clusters by birthplace, Okinawa and other than Okinawa, as had been previously reported. Among 87 SNPs that have been reported to be associated with 18 hematological and biochemical traits in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the associations of 56 SNPs were replicated using our data base. Statistical power simulations showed that the sample size of the JPDSC control database is large enough to detect genetic markers having a relatively strong association even when the case sample size is small. The JPDSC database will be useful as control data for conducting PGx studies to explore genetic markers to improve the safety and efficacy of drugs either during clinical development or in post-marketing.

  8. Comment on 'Large-Scale Cognitive GWAS Meta-Analysis Reveals Tissue-Specific Neural Expression and Potential Nootropic Drug Targets' by Lam et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W David

    2018-04-01

    Intelligence and educational attainment are strongly genetically correlated. This relationship can be exploited by Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS (MTAG) to add power to Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) of intelligence. MTAG allows the user to meta-analyze GWASs of different phenotypes, based on their genetic correlations, to identify association's specific to the trait of choice. An MTAG analysis using GWAS data sets on intelligence and education was conducted by Lam et al. (2017). Lam et al. (2017) reported 70 loci that they described as 'trait specific' to intelligence. This article examines whether the analysis conducted by Lam et al. (2017) has resulted in genetic information about a phenotype that is more similar to education than intelligence.

  9. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  10. A GWAS follow-up study reveals the association of the IL12RB2 gene with systemic sclerosis in Caucasian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Martin, Jose-Ezequiel; Broen, Jasper; Gorlova, Olga; Simeón, Carmen P.; Beretta, Lorenzo; Vonk, Madelon C.; Luis Callejas, Jose; Castellví, Ivan; Carreira, Patricia; José García-Hernández, Francisco; Fernández Castro, Mónica; Coenen, Marieke J.H.; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Witte, Torsten; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Kreuter, Alexander; Distler, Jörg H.W.; Koeleman, Bobby P.; Voskuyl, Alexandre E.; Schuerwegh, Annemie J.; Palm, Øyvind; Hesselstrand, Roger; Nordin, Annika; Airó, Paolo; Lunardi, Claudio; Scorza, Raffaella; Shiels, Paul; van Laar, Jacob M.; Herrick, Ariane; Worthington, Jane; Denton, Christopher; Tan, Filemon K.; Arnett, Frank C.; Agarwal, Sandeep K.; Assassi, Shervin; Fonseca, Carmen; Mayes, Maureen D.; Radstake, Timothy R.D.J.; Martin, Javier

    2012-01-01

    A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at the IL12RB2 locus showed a suggestive association signal in a previously published genome-wide association study (GWAS) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Aiming to reveal the possible implication of the IL12RB2 gene in SSc, we conducted a follow-up study of this locus in different Caucasian cohorts. We analyzed 10 GWAS-genotyped SNPs in the IL12RB2 region (2309 SSc patients and 5161 controls). We then selected three SNPs (rs3790567, rs3790566 and rs924080) based on their significance level in the GWAS, for follow-up in an independent European cohort comprising 3344 SSc and 3848 controls. The most-associated SNP (rs3790567) was further tested in an independent cohort comprising 597 SSc patients and 1139 controls from the USA. After conditional logistic regression analysis of the GWAS data, we selected rs3790567 [PMH= 1.92 × 10−5 odds ratio (OR) = 1.19] as the genetic variant with the firmest independent association observed in the analyzed GWAS peak of association. After the first follow-up phase, only the association of rs3790567 was consistent (PMH= 4.84 × 10−3 OR = 1.12). The second follow-up phase confirmed this finding (Pχ2 = 2.82 × 10−4 OR = 1.34). After performing overall pooled-analysis of all the cohorts included in the present study, the association found for the rs3790567 SNP in the IL12RB2 gene region reached GWAS-level significant association (PMH= 2.82 × 10−9 OR = 1.17). Our data clearly support the IL12RB2 genetic association with SSc, and suggest a relevant role of the interleukin 12 signaling pathway in SSc pathogenesis. PMID:22076442

  11. Renewable Generators' Consortium: ensuring a market for green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This project summary focuses on the objectives and key achievements of the Renewable Generators Consortium (RGC) which was established to help renewable energy projects under the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) to continue to generate in the open liberated post-1998 electricity market. The background to the NFFO is traced, and the development of the Consortium, and the attitudes of generators and suppliers to the Consortium are discussed along with the advantages of collective negotiations through the RGC, the Heads of Terms negotiations, and the success of RGC which has demonstrated the demand for green electricity

  12. Establishing an International Soil Modelling Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan

    2015-04-01

    -change-feedback processes, bridge basic soil science research and management, and facilitate the communication between science and society . To meet these challenges an international community effort is required, similar to initiatives in systems biology, hydrology, and climate and crop research. We therefore propose to establish an international soil modelling consortium with the aims of 1) bringing together leading experts in modelling soil processes within all major soil disciplines, 2) addressing major scientific gaps in describing key processes and their long term impacts with respect to the different functions and ecosystem services provided by soil, 3) intercomparing soil model performance based on standardized and harmonized data sets, 4) identifying interactions with other relevant platforms related to common data formats, protocols and ontologies, 5) developing new approaches to inverse modelling, calibration, and validation of soil models, 6) integrating soil modelling expertise and state of the art knowledge on soil processes in climate, land surface, ecological, crop and contaminant models, and 7) linking process models with new observation, measurement and data evaluation technologies for mapping and characterizing soil properties across scales. Our consortium will bring together modelers and experimental soil scientists at the forefront of new technologies and approaches to characterize soils. By addressing these aims, the consortium will contribute to improve the role of soil modeling as a knowledge dissemination instrument in addressing key global issues and stimulate the development of translational research activities. This presentation will provide a compelling case for this much-needed effort, with a focus on tangible benefits to the scientific and food security communities.

  13. SEEA SOUTHEAST CONSORTIUM FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Timothy [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance; Ball, Kia [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance; Fournier, Ashley [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance

    2014-01-21

    In 2010 the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA) received a $20 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Building Neighborhood Program (BBNP). This grant, funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, also included sub-grantees in 13 communities across the Southeast, known as the Southeast Consortium. The objective of this project was to establish a framework for energy efficiency retrofit programs to create models for replication across the Southeast and beyond. To achieve this goal, SEEA and its project partners focused on establishing infrastructure to develop and sustain the energy efficiency market in specific localities across the southeast. Activities included implementing minimum training standards and credentials for marketplace suppliers, educating and engaging homeowners on the benefits of energy efficiency through strategic marketing and outreach and addressing real or perceived financial barriers to investments in whole-home energy efficiency through a variety of financing mechanisms. The anticipated outcome of these activities would be best practice models for program design, marketing, financing, data collection and evaluation as well as increased market demand for energy efficiency retrofits and products. The Southeast Consortium’s programmatic impacts along with the impacts of the other BBNP grantees would further the progress towards the overall goal of energy efficiency market transformation. As the primary grantee SEEA served as the overall program administrator and provided common resources to the 13 Southeast Consortium sub-grantees including contracted services for contractor training, quality assurance testing, data collection, reporting and compliance. Sub-grantee programs were located in cities across eight states including Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Each sub

  14. Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayman Hawari; Nolan Hertel; Mohamed Al-Sheikhly; Laurence Miller; Abdel-Moeze Bayoumi; Ali Haghighat; Kenneth Lewis

    2010-12-29

    2 Project Summary: The Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium (MUSIC) was established in response to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program. MUSIC was established as a consortium composed of academic members and national laboratory partners. The members of MUSIC are the nuclear engineering programs and research reactors of Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), North Carolina State University (NCSU), University of Maryland (UMD), University of South Carolina (USC), and University of Tennessee (UTK). The University of Florida (UF), and South Carolina State University (SCSU) were added to the MUSIC membership in the second year. In addition, to ensure proper coordination between the academic community and the nation’s premier research and development centers in the fields of nuclear science and engineering, MUSIC created strategic partnerships with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project and the Joint Institute for Neutron Scattering (JINS), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A partnership was also created with the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) with the aim of utilizing their reactor in research if funding becomes available. Consequently, there are three university research reactors (URRs) within MUSIC, which are located at NCSU (1-MW PULSTAR), UMD (0.25-MW TRIGA) and UF (0.10-MW Argonaut), and the AFRRI reactor (1-MW TRIGA MARK F). The overall objectives of MUSIC are: a) Demonstrate that University Research Reactors (URR) can be used as modern and innovative instruments of research in the basic and applied sciences, which include applications in fundamental physics, materials science and engineering, nondestructive examination, elemental analysis, and contributions to research in the health and medical sciences, b) Establish a strong technical collaboration between the nuclear engineering

  15. Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawari, Ayman; Hertel, Nolan; Al-Sheikhly, Mohamed; Miller, Laurence; Bayoumi, Abdel-Moeze; Haghighat, Ali; Lewis, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium (MUSIC) was established in response to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program. MUSIC was established as a consortium composed of academic members and national laboratory partners. The members of MUSIC are the nuclear engineering programs and research reactors of Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), North Carolina State University (NCSU), University of Maryland (UMD), University of South Carolina (USC), and University of Tennessee (UTK). The University of Florida (UF), and South Carolina State University (SCSU) were added to the MUSIC membership in the second year. In addition, to ensure proper coordination between the academic community and the nation's premier research and development centers in the fields of nuclear science and engineering, MUSIC created strategic partnerships with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project and the Joint Institute for Neutron Scattering (JINS), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A partnership was also created with the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) with the aim of utilizing their reactor in research if funding becomes available. Consequently, there are three university research reactors (URRs) within MUSIC, which are located at NCSU (1-MW PULSTAR), UMD (0.25-MW TRIGA) and UF (0.10-MW Argonaut), and the AFRRI reactor (1-MW TRIGA MARK F). The overall objectives of MUSIC are: (a) Demonstrate that University Research Reactors (URR) can be used as modern and innovative instruments of research in the basic and applied sciences, which include applications in fundamental physics, materials science and engineering, nondestructive examination, elemental analysis, and contributions to research in the health and medical sciences, (b) Establish a strong technical collaboration between the nuclear engineering faculty and the MUSIC URRs

  16. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  17. Network-Based Integration of GWAS and Gene Expression Identifies a HOX-Centric Network Associated with Serous Ovarian Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kar, Siddhartha P; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Li, Qiyuan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have so far reported 12 loci associated with serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. We hypothesized that some of these loci function through nearby transcription factor (TF) genes and that putative target genes of these TFs as identified...... in the unified microarray dataset of 489 serous EOC tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genes represented in this dataset were subsequently ranked using a gene-level test based on results for germline SNPs from a serous EOC GWAS meta-analysis (2,196 cases/4,396 controls). RESULTS: Gene set enrichment analysis...

  18. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, S Hong; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases...... and controls in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We apply univariate and bivariate methods for the estimation of genetic variation within and covariation between disorders. SNPs explained 17......-29% of the variance in liability. The genetic correlation calculated using common SNPs was high between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (0.68 ± 0.04 s.e.), moderate between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (0.43 ± 0.06 s.e.), bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (0.47 ± 0.06 s.e.), and ADHD...

  19. SNPranker 2.0: a gene-centric data mining tool for diseases associated SNP prioritization in GWAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merelli, Ivan; Calabria, Andrea; Cozzi, Paolo; Viti, Federica; Mosca, Ettore; Milanesi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    The capability of correlating specific genotypes with human diseases is a complex issue in spite of all advantages arisen from high-throughput technologies, such as Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS). New tools for genetic variants interpretation and for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) prioritization are actually needed. Given a list of the most relevant SNPs statistically associated to a specific pathology as result of a genotype study, a critical issue is the identification of genes that are effectively related to the disease by re-scoring the importance of the identified genetic variations. Vice versa, given a list of genes, it can be of great importance to predict which SNPs can be involved in the onset of a particular disease, in order to focus the research on their effects. We propose a new bioinformatics approach to support biological data mining in the analysis and interpretation of SNPs associated to pathologies. This system can be employed to design custom genotyping chips for disease-oriented studies and to re-score GWAS results. The proposed method relies (1) on the data integration of public resources using a gene-centric database design, (2) on the evaluation of a set of static biomolecular annotations, defined as features, and (3) on the SNP scoring function, which computes SNP scores using parameters and weights set by users. We employed a machine learning classifier to set default feature weights and an ontological annotation layer to enable the enrichment of the input gene set. We implemented our method as a web tool called SNPranker 2.0 (http://www.itb.cnr.it/snpranker), improving our first published release of this system. A user-friendly interface allows the input of a list of genes, SNPs or a biological process, and to customize the features set with relative weights. As result, SNPranker 2.0 returns a list of SNPs, localized within input and ontologically enriched genes, combined with their prioritization scores. Different

  20. Astroparticle Physics European Consortium Town Meeting Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Astroparticle Physics European Consortium (APPEC) invites you to a town meeting at the Grand Amphithéatre de Sorbonne in Paris on the 6th and 7th April 2016 to discuss an update of the 2011 APPEC Astroparticle Physics roadmap, to be published in September 2016. In 2014 APPEC decided to launch an update of the 2011 Roadmap, transforming it to a “resource aware” roadmap. The intention was to gauge the financial impact of the beginnings of operation of the large global scale observatories put forward in the previous roadmap and to examine the possibilities of international coordination of future global initiatives. The APPEC Scientific Advisory Committee examined the field and prepared a set of recommendations. Based on these recommendations, the APPEC General Assembly drafted a set of “considerations” to be published by end of February 2016 and be debated in an open dialogue with the community, through the web page but primarily at the town meeting of 6-7 April. Based on this debate the final re...

  1. Psychiatric Services • In Matabeleland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-05-04

    May 4, 1974 ... To provide some basis for planning psychiatric services in Matabeleland, a ... medicine. and at the same time up-grade mental health services.' Tn the .... We present a survey of some of the changes in a population of African ...

  2. Job satisfaction in psychiatric nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M; Cowman, S

    2007-08-01

    In recent years, mental health services across Europe have undergone major organizational change with a move from institutional to community care. In such a context, the impact of change on the job satisfaction of psychiatric nurses has received little attention in the literature. This paper reports on the job satisfaction of psychiatric nurses and data were collected in 2003. The population of qualified psychiatric nurses (n = 800) working in a defined geographical health board area was surveyed. Methodological triangulation with a between-methods approach was used in the study. Data were collected on job satisfaction using a questionnaire adopted from the Occupational Stress Indicator. A response rate of 346 (43%) was obtained. Focus groups were used to collect qualitative data. Factors influencing levels of job satisfaction predominantly related to the nurses work location. Other factors influencing job satisfaction included choice of work location, work routine, off duty/staff allocation arrangements, teamwork and working environment. The results of the study highlight to employers of psychiatric nurses the importance of work location, including the value of facilitating staff with choices in their working environment, which may influence the recruitment and retention of nurses in mental health services.

  3. [Insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Konno, Chisato; Furihata, Ryuji; Osaki, Koichi; Uchiyama, Makoto

    2009-08-01

    Most psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, mood disorders, or neurotic disorders are associated with sleep disorders of various kinds, among which insomnia is most prevalent and important in psychiatric practice. Almost all patients suffering from major depression complain of insomnia. Pharmacological treatment of insomnia associated with major depression shortens the duration to achieve remission of depression. Insomnia has been recently reported to be a risk factor for depression. In patients with schizophrenia, insomnia is often an early indicator of the aggravation of psychotic symptoms. Electroencephalographic sleep studies have also revealed sleep abnormalities characteristic to mood disorders, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. A shortened REM sleep latency has been regarded as a biological marker of depression. Reduced amount of deep non-REM sleep has been reported to be correlated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Recently, REM sleep abnormalities were found in teenagers having post-traumatic stress disorder after a boat accident. Although these facts indicate that insomnia plays an important role in the development of psychiatric disorders, there are few hypotheses explaining the cause and effect of insomnia in these disorders. Here, we reviewed recent articles on insomnia associated with psychiatric disorders together with their clinical managements.

  4. Management of Current Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnel, François; David, Michel; Norton, Joanna; Bourrel, Gérard; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Capdevielle, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe and analyse the experience of family physicians in managing current psychiatric disorders to obtain a better understanding of the underlying reasons of under-detection and inadequate prescribing identified in studies. Methods: A qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Sample of 15 practicing family physicians, recruited by telephone from a precedent cohort (Sesame1) with a maximum variation: sex, age, single or group practice, urban or rural. Qualitative method is inspired by the completed grounded theory of a verbatim semiopragmatic analysis from 2 experts in this approach. Results: Family physicians found that current psychiatric disorders were related to psychological symptoms in reaction to life events. Their role was to make patients aware of a psychiatric symptom rather than establish a diagnosis. Their management responsibility was considered in contrasting ways: it was claimed or endured. They defined their position as facilitating compliance to psychiatrist consultations, while assuring a complementary psychotherapeutic approach. Prescribing medication was not a priority for them. Conclusions: The identified under-detection is essentially due to inherent frontline conditions and complexity of clinical forms. The family physician role, facilitating compliance to psychiatrist consultations while assuring a support psychotherapy is the main result of this study. More studies should be conducted to define more accurately the clinical reality, management and course of current psychiatric disorders in primary care.

  5. The nation's first consortium to address waste management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikel, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    On July 26, 1989, the secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE), Admiral James Watkins, announced approval of the Waste-Management Education and Research Consortium (WERC). The consortium is composed of New Mexico State University (NMSU), the University of New Mexico, the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. This pilot program is expected to form a model for other regional and national programs. The WERC mission is to expand the national capability to address issues associated with the management of hazardous, radioactive, and solid waste. Research, technology transfer, and education/training are the three areas that have been identified to accomplish the objectives set by the consortium. The members of the consortium will reach out to the DOE facilities, other government agencies and facilities, and private institutions across the country. Their goal is to provide resources for solutions to waste management problems

  6. Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium studies the etiology of this common cancer and build on resources from existing studies by combining data across studies in order to advance the understanding of the etiology of this disease.

  7. Regional Development and the European Consortium of Innovative Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Saskia Loer; Kokkeler, Ben; van der Sijde, P. C.

    2002-01-01

    The European Consortium of Innovative Universities is a network that shares information not just among universities but with affiliated incubators, research parks, and other regional entities. The learning network contributes to regional development.(JOW)

  8. PSYCHIATRIC MORBIDITY IN A NIGERIAN NEUROLOGY CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-05-28

    May 28, 2013 ... in Psychiatrry, Department of Behavioural Sciences,University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria,. M. K. Jimba ... Psychiatric diagnosis was based .... The second stage: Clinical psychiatric interview was.

  9. Skin disorders in chronic psychiatric illness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, E.J.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Hovens, J.E.; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.; Loonen, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic psychiatric patients are prone to develop skin diseases. However, epidemiological data are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of skin complaints and dermatological disorders in residential psychiatric patients. METHODS: Ninety-one randomly chosen patients of the

  10. Skin disorders in chronic psychiatric illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, E. J.; van de Kerkhof, P. C. M.; Hovens, J. E. J. M.; Brouwers, J. R. B. J.; Loonen, A. J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic psychiatric patients are prone to develop skin diseases. However, epidemiological data are scarce. Objective To describe the prevalence of skin complaints and dermatological disorders in residential psychiatric patients. Methods Ninety-one randomly chosen patients of the

  11. Anxiety disorders: Psychiatric comorbidities and psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-05-24

    May 24, 2018 ... psychiatric disorders, including other anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance use disorders ... psychiatric comorbidities present among adults at a tertiary ..... clinical files as well as unclear handwriting and missing.

  12. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenberg, P.L.; David, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders,

  13. Regionalised tertiary psychiatric residential facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Alain; Groden, David; Goldner, Elliot M; Gelinas, Daniel; Arnold, Leslie M

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric hospitals remain the main venue for long-term mental health care and, despite widespread closures and downsizing, no country that built asylums in the last century has done away with them entirely--with the recent exception of Italy. Differentiated community-based residential alternatives have been developed over the past decades, with staffing levels that range from full-time professional, to daytime only, to part-time/on-call. This paper reviews the characteristics of community-based psychiatric residential care facilities as an alternative to long-term care in psychiatric hospitals. It describes five factors decision makers should consider: 1. number of residential places needed; 2. staffing levels; 3. physical setting; 4. programming; and 5. governance and financing. In Italy, facilities with full-time professional staff have been developed since the mid-1990s to accommodate the last cohorts of patients discharged from psychiatric hospitals. In the United Kingdom, experiments with hostel wards since the 1980s have shown that home-like, small-scale facilities with intensive treatment and rehabilitation programming can be effective for the most difficult-to-place patients. More recently in Australia, Community Care Units (CCUs) have been applying this concept. In the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC), Tertiary Psychiatric Residential Facilities (TPRFs) have been developed as part of an effort to regionalise health and social services and downsize and ultimately close its only psychiatric hospital. This type of service must be further developed in addition to the need for forensic, acute-care and intermediate-level beds, as well as for community-based care such as assertive community treatment and intensive case management. All these types of services, together with long-term community-based residential care, constitute the elements of a balanced mental health care system. As part of a region's balanced mental health care plan, these Tertiary

  14. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  15. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokai, Masahiro; Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-01-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  16. Psychiatric comorbidity in adult eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, J; Romanos, M; Pfennig, A; Leopold, K; Meurer, M

    2009-10-01

    Atopic eczema (AE) is a common dermatological condition that causes significant problems in everyday life and high levels of illness-related stress in substantial proportions of patients. The extent to which adult AE is associated with clinically relevant psychiatric morbidity is unclear. To investigate the association between adult AE and major psychiatric/psychosomatic disorders. Case-control study utilizing the GKV database Saxony, an interdisciplinary administrative outpatient database from Germany. All patients documented as having AE at least twice within the study period (2003-2004) (n = 3769, mean age 44 years) were individually matched by age and sex to 3769 controls without AE. Logistic regression models were fitted to investigate the relationship of AE with affective, stress-related, behaviour and schizophrenic disorders, considering sociodemographic characteristics, consulting behaviour and allergic comorbidities as potential confounding factors. Eczema was independently associated with affective [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.79], stress-related (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.35-1.77), behaviour (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.03-2.23) and schizophrenic disorders (OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.22-3.71). For each psychiatric condition the likelihood of being affected significantly increased with each physician visit due to AE, suggesting that the risk of psychiatric comorbidity increases with the severity of AE. This study indicates psychiatric comorbidity of adults with AE. Collaboration between dermatologists and mental health specialists may optimize medical care for a significant subgroup of patients with AE.

  17. Continuity of pharmaceutical care for psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdullah-Koolmees, Heshu

    2015-01-01

    Psychiatric diseases are common. The effective treatment of a psychiatric disease, its (somatic) side effects and any concurrent somatic diseases is important for the patient’s overall health and wellbeing. The studies conducted in psychiatric patients generally focus on the continuation of

  18. 42 CFR 415.184 - Psychiatric services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Psychiatric services. 415.184 Section 415.184 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Psychiatric services. To qualify for physician fee schedule payment for psychiatric services furnished under...

  19. Translating Genomewide Association Findings into New Therapeutics for Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Gerome; Li, Qingqin; Roth, Bryan L; O’Donnell, Patricio; Didriksen, Michael; Dolmetsch, Ricardo; O’Reilly, Paul; Gaspar, Helena; Manji, Husseini; Huebel, Christopher; Kelsoe, John R; Malhotra, Dheeraj; Bertolino, Alessandro; Posthuma, Danielle; Sklar, Pamela; Kapur, Shitij; Sullivan, Patrick F; Collier, David A; Edenberg, Howard J

    2017-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in psychiatry, once they reach sufficient sample size and power, have been enormously successful. The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) aims for mega-analyses with sample sizes that will grow to (cumulatively) >1 million individuals in the next 5 years. This should lead to hundreds of new findings for common genetic variants across nine psychiatric disorders studied by the PGC. The new targets discovered by GWAS have the potential to restart largely stalled psychiatric drug development pipelines, and the translation of GWAS findings into the clinic is a key aim of the recently funded phase 3 of the PGC. This is not without considerable technical challenges. These approaches complement the other main aim of GWAS studies on risk prediction approaches for improving detection, differential diagnosis, and clinical trial design. This paper outlines the motivations, technical and analytical issues, and the plans for translating PGC3 findings into new therapeutics. PMID:27786187

  20. Association between GWAS-identified lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility loci and EGFR mutations in never-smoking Asian women, and comparison with findings from Western populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shiraishi, Kouya; Song, Minsun; Kim, Hee Nam; Wong, Maria Pik; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hosgood, H. Dean; Wang, Zhaoming; Chang, I-Shou; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Hu; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Zheng, Wei; Kim, Jin Hee; Zhou, Baosen; Caporaso, Neil E; Albanes, Demetrius; Shin, Min-Ho; Chung, Lap Ping; An, She-Juan; Wang, Ping; Zheng, Hong; Yatabe, Yasushi; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Kim, Young Tae; Shu, Xiao Ou; Kim, Young-Chul; Bassig, Bryan A.; Chang, Jiang; Ho, James Chung Man; Ji, Bu Tian; Kubo, Michiaki; Daigo, Yataro; Ito, Hidemi; Momozawa, Yukihide; Ashikawa, Kyota; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Honda, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Yohei; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Matsumoto, Shingo; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Goto, Koichi; Yin, Zhihua; Shi, Jianxin; Takahashi, Atsushi; Goto, Akiteru; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Tanaka, Kazumi; Wu, Tangchun; Wei, Fusheng; Wong, Jason Y Y; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Su, Jian; Kim, Yeul Hong; Oh, In-Jae; Song, Fengju; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chang, Gee-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Seow, Adeline; Park, Jae Yong; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chien-Jen; Li, Haixin; Gao, Yu Tang; Wu, Chen; Qian, Biyun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Wang, Wen-Chang; Chung, Charles C.; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Hutchinson, Amy; Berndt, Sonja I.; He, Xingzhou; Wu, Wei; Wang, Junwen; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Wang, Chih-Liang; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Yu, Chong-Jen; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Liu, Jie; Yamaji, Taiki; Yang, Yang; Hicks, Belynda; Wyatt, Kathleen; Li, Shengchao A; Dai, Juncheng; Ma, Hongxia; Jin, Guangfu; Song, Bao; Wang, Zhehai; Cheng, Sensen; Li, Xuelian; Ren, Yangwu; Cui, Ping; Iwasaki, Motoki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Zhu, Junjie; Jiang, Gening; Fei, Ke; Wu, Guoping; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chen, Hui-Ling; Su, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Chen, Yi-Song; Yu, Jinming; Stevens, Victoria L; Laird-Offringa, Ite A; Marconett, Crystal N; Lin, Dongxin; Chen, Kexin; Wu, Yi-Long; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Kohno, Takashi; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lan, Qing

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate associations by EGFR mutation status for lung adenocarcinoma risk among never-smoking Asian women, we conducted a meta-analysis of 11 loci previously identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Genotyping in an additional 10,780 never-smoking cases and 10,938 never-smoking

  1. Replication and meta-analysis of GWAS identified susceptibility loci in Kawasaki disease confirm the importance of B lymphoid tyrosine kinase (BLK) in disease susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, Chia-Jung; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Chang, Jeng-Sheng; Lee, Jong-Keuk; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Chang, Li-Ching; Chen, Shih-Ping; Ko, Tai-Ming; Liu, Yi-Min; Chen, Ying-Ju; Hong, Young Mi; Jang, Gi Young; Hibberd, Martin L.; Kuijpers, Taco; Burgner, David; Levin, Michael; Burns, Jane C.; Davila, Sonia; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Lee, Yi-Ching; Liang, Chi-Di; Hwang, Kao-Pin; Chang, Luan-Yin; Huang, Li-Min; Chen, Ming-Ren; Chi, Hsin; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Lee, Meng-Luen; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Hwang, Betau; Lee, Pi-Chang; Yoo, Jeong-Jin; Park, In-Sook; Hong, Soo-Jong; Kim, Kwi-Joo; Kim, Jae-Jung; Sohn, Saejung; Young Jang, Gi; Ha, Kee-Soo; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Byeon, Jung-Hye; Yun, Sin Weon; Han, Myung Ki; Kuipers, Irene M.; Ottenkamp, Jaap J.; Biezeveld, Maarten

    2013-01-01

    The BLK and CD40 loci have been associated with Kawasaki disease (KD) in two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) conducted in a Taiwanese population of Han Chinese ancestry (Taiwanese) and in Japanese cohorts. Here we build on these findings with replication studies of the BLK and CD40 loci in

  2. 25 CFR 1000.73 - Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain information from a non-BIA bureau? 1000.73 Section 1000.73 Indians OFFICE OF THE... § 1000.73 Once a Tribe/Consortium has been awarded a grant, may the Tribe/Consortium obtain information...

  3. Simultaneous inference of phenotype-associated genes and relevant tissues from GWAS data via Bayesian integration of multiple tissue-specific gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengmeng; Lin, Zhixiang; Ma, Shining; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Rui; Wong, Wing Hung

    2017-12-01

    Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified thousands of genomic loci associated with hundreds of complex traits in the past decade, the debate about such problems as missing heritability and weak interpretability has been appealing for effective computational methods to facilitate the advanced analysis of the vast volume of existing and anticipated genetic data. Towards this goal, gene-level integrative GWAS analysis with the assumption that genes associated with a phenotype tend to be enriched in biological gene sets or gene networks has recently attracted much attention, due to such advantages as straightforward interpretation, less multiple testing burdens, and robustness across studies. However, existing methods in this category usually exploit non-tissue-specific gene networks and thus lack the ability to utilize informative tissue-specific characteristics. To overcome this limitation, we proposed a Bayesian approach called SIGNET (Simultaneously Inference of GeNEs and Tissues) to integrate GWAS data and multiple tissue-specific gene networks for the simultaneous inference of phenotype-associated genes and relevant tissues. Through extensive simulation studies, we showed the effectiveness of our method in finding both associated genes and relevant tissues for a phenotype. In applications to real GWAS data of 14 complex phenotypes, we demonstrated the power of our method in both deciphering genetic basis and discovering biological insights of a phenotype. With this understanding, we expect to see SIGNET as a valuable tool for integrative GWAS analysis, thereby boosting the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human inherited diseases and eventually facilitating precision medicine.

  4. Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP Calculator Shows that Hiding Heritability Is Partially Due to Imperfect Genetic Correlations across Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald de Vlaming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale genome-wide association results are typically obtained from a fixed-effects meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from multiple studies spanning different regions and/or time periods. This approach averages the estimated effects of genetic variants across studies. In case genetic effects are heterogeneous across studies, the statistical power of a GWAS and the predictive accuracy of polygenic scores are attenuated, contributing to the so-called 'missing heritability'. Here, we describe the online Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP calculator (available at www.devlaming.eu which quantifies this attenuation based on a novel multi-study framework. By means of simulation studies, we show that under a wide range of genetic architectures, the statistical power and predictive accuracy provided by this calculator are accurate. We compare the predictions from the MetaGAP calculator with actual results obtained in the GWAS literature. Specifically, we use genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood to estimate the SNP heritability and cross-study genetic correlation of height, BMI, years of education, and self-rated health in three large samples. These estimates are used as input parameters for the MetaGAP calculator. Results from the calculator suggest that cross-study heterogeneity has led to attenuation of statistical power and predictive accuracy in recent large-scale GWAS efforts on these traits (e.g., for years of education, we estimate a relative loss of 51-62% in the number of genome-wide significant loci and a relative loss in polygenic score R2 of 36-38%. Hence, cross-study heterogeneity contributes to the missing heritability.

  5. Psychiatric effects of cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunving, K

    1985-09-01

    That cannabis use may provoke mental disturbances is well known to Scandinavian psychiatrists today. A review of the psychiatric aspects of cannabis use is given, and the clinical signs of 70 cases of cannabis psychoses collected in Sweden are described. The bluntness and "amotivation" following chronic cannabis use are discussed. Anxiety reactions, flashbacks, dysphoric reactions and an abstinence syndrome are all sequels of cannabis use. Three risk groups begin to emerge: a) Young teenage cannabis users who lose some of their capacity to learn complex functions and who flee from reality to a world of dreams. With its sedative effect, cannabis could modify such emotions as anger and anxiety and slow down the liberation process of adolescence. b) Heavy daily users, often persons who cannot cope with depression or their life circumstances. c) Psychiatric patients whose resistance to relapses into psychotic reactions might be diminished according to the psychotropic effects of cannabis.

  6. Dysfunctions in public psychiatric bureaucracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, L R

    1988-03-01

    The author describes common dysfunctions in public psychiatric organizations according to the model of bureaucracy articulated by Max Weber. Dysfunctions are divided into the categories of goal displacement, outside interference, unclear authority structure and hierarchy, and informal relations in the work place. The author emphasizes the bureaucratic nature of public psychiatry and the need for mental health professionals to understand the dysfunctions of the organizations in which they work, including the impact of these dysfunctions on the provision of quality care.

  7. [General considerations on psychiatric interconsultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpinacci, J A

    1975-03-01

    This paper attempts to follow the evolution of some general ideas on Psychiatric Interconsulting. It is the result of six years' work at Ramos Mejía Hospital, Buenos Aires. Progressive transformations were imposed by daily practice on our team's theoretical and technical conceptions. We started with an individualistic-phenomenical approach, and we were forced to switch to a dynamical-situational one. The general working model we use at present is briefly summarized, emphasizing the important role played by Psychiatric Interconsulting in the change of the medical cultural patterns prevailing at present in our milieu. Two main factors for the role of privilege played by the Interconsulting team are set forth: one is conceptual, the other is pragmatic. From a conceptual standpoint, the theoretical basis of Psychiatric Interconsulting is much broader than those of other specialities, like clinical practice or surgery, for it includes, besides Biology, the Psychological and Socio-Historical determinants of the disturbance the diseases man suffers. From a pragmatic standpoint, the boundaries of human and physical fields within which Psychiatric Interconsulting is operating, go beyond the scope of daily medical practice. Their place could be located in between formal traditional wefts, relating to institutional structures as well as to specific medical practice. Professionals working at Interconsulting are usually required at general wards, at consulting offices, at emergency wards, in corridors, or even at the bar. They are interested not only in specific medical problems; they encompass the whole range of personal and institutional framework, and consider the whole situation in a comprehensive approach. Knowledge acquired in this widened professional field, together with actual experience in dealing with people in distress, are the main sources for theoretical conceptualization of new activities, as well as for building pragmatic tools to modify the official medical

  8. Parasitic Diseases and Psychiatric Illness

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Mitchell Gralnick

    1994-01-01

    Distinguishing parasitic diseases from other infections and tropical medical disorders based on microbiological classification is a matter of convenience. Organic brain syndromes are associated with both protozoan and helminthic infections; side-effects of drugs commonly used to treat parasitoses may impair mood and cause anxiety, agitation or psychosis. Emotional states may in turn affect the experience of medical illness. Psychiatrically significant features of medical illness are determine...

  9. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK; Rajesh SAGAR

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  10. Psychiatric trainees in Finland 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkonen, Hanna; Holi, Matti; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Korkeila, Jyrki; Eronen, Markku

    2005-01-01

    This study examined Finnish psychiatric trainees' views on their education. This was a survey study of nationwide data on Finnish psychiatric trainees in 2001. The quality of training was considered at least moderate by 84% of the respondents. Training on epidemiology, on taking history and status, and on psychopharmacology was considered the best. Quality was rated bad for training in leadership and administration, and educating the community. Research was done by 20%, and a personal clinical supervisor was appointed to 52% of the respondents. Offensive treatment had been experienced by 49% of the trainees in this study. Generally, studies of training also reflect strengths and weaknesses of the profession. Based on our results, it seems especially that training in leadership and in educating the community need to be improved; both of these are quintessential skills to survive in the struggle for economic and human resources. Furthermore, treatment of the trainees could still be better; attention should be paid to supervision of all trainees. Moreover, research must become more attractive. Psychiatry can be developed by the development of psychiatric training.

  11. Downregulation of the psychiatric susceptibility gene Cacna1c promotes mitochondrial resilience to oxidative stress in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Susanne; Ganjam, Goutham K; Martins, Helena; Schratt, Gerhard M; Wöhr, Markus; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Culmsee, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    Affective disorders such as major depression and bipolar disorder are among the most prevalent forms of mental illness and their etiologies involve complex interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors. Over the past ten years, several genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified CACNA1C as one of the strongest genetic risk factors for the development of affective disorders. However, its role in disease pathogenesis is still largely unknown. Vulnerability to affective disorders also involves diverse environmental risk factors such as perinatal insults, childhood maltreatment, and other adverse pathophysiological or psychosocial life events. At the cellular level, such environmental influences may activate oxidative stress pathways, thereby altering neuronal plasticity and function. Mitochondria are the key organelles of energy metabolism and, further, highly important for the adaptation to oxidative stress. Accordingly, multiple lines of evidence including post-mortem brain and neuro-imaging studies suggest that psychiatric disorders are accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of Cacna1c downregulation in combination with glutamate-induced oxidative stress on mitochondrial function, Ca 2+ homeostasis, and cell viability in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. We found that the siRNA-mediated knockdown of Cacna1c preserved mitochondrial morphology, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP levels after glutamate treatment. Further, Cacna1c silencing inhibited excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species formation and calcium influx, and protected the HT22 cells from oxidative cell death. Overall, our findings suggest that the GWAS-confirmed psychiatric risk gene CACNA1C plays a major role in oxidative stress pathways with particular impact on mitochondrial integrity and function.

  12. Consortium Negotiations with Publishers - Past and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Carbone

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid nineties, with the development of online access to information (journals, databases, e-books, libraries strengthened their cooperation. They set up consortia at different levels around the world, generally with the support of the public authorities, for negotiating collectively with the publishers and information providers general agreements for access to these resources. This cooperation has been reinforced at the international level with the exchange of experiences and the debates in the ICOLC seminars and statements. So did the French consortium Couperin, which is now gathering more than 200 academic and research institutions. The level of access and downloading from these resources is growing with geometrical progression, and reaches a scale with no comparison to ILL or access to printed documents, but the costs did not reduce and the libraries budgets did not increase. At first, agreements with the major journal publishers were based on cross-access, and evolved rapidly to the access at a large bundle of titles in the so-called Big deal. After experiencing the advantages of the Big deal, the libraries are now more sensitive to the limits and lack of flexibility and to cost-effectiveness. These Big deals were based on a model where online access fee is built on the cost of print subscriptions, and the problem for the consortia and for the publishers is now to evolve from this print plus online model to an e-only model, no more based on the historical amount of the print subscriptions, to a new deal. In many European countries, VAT legislation is an obstacle to e-only, and this problem must be discussed at the European level. This change to e-only takes place at a moment where changes in the scientific publishing world are important (mergers of publishing houses, growth of research and of scientific publishing in the developing countries, open access and open archives movement. The transition to e-only leads also the library

  13. Suicide with psychiatric diagnosis and without utilization of psychiatric service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Paul WC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable attention has been focused on the study of suicides among those who have received help from healthcare providers. However, little is known about the profiles of suicide deceased who had psychiatric illnesses but made no contact with psychiatric services prior to their death. Behavioural model of health service use is applied to identify factors associated with the utilization of psychiatric service among the suicide deceased. Methods With respect to completed suicide cases, who were diagnosed with a mental disorder, a comparison study was made between those who had (contact group; n = 52; 43.7% and those who had not made any contact (non-contact group; n = 67; 56.3% with a psychiatrist during the final six months prior to death. A sample of 119 deceased cases aged between 15 and 59 with at least one psychiatric diagnosis assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID I were selected from a psychological autopsy study in Hong Kong. Results The contact and non-contact group could be well distinguished from each other by "predisposing" variables: age group & gender, and most of the "enabling", and "need" variables tested in this study. Multiple logistic regression analysis has found four factors are statistically significantly associated with non-contact suicide deceased: (i having non-psychotic disorders (OR = 13.5, 95% CI:2.9-62.9, (ii unmanageable debts (OR = 10.5, CI:2.4-45.3, (iii being full/partially/self employed at the time of death (OR = 10.0, CI:1.6-64.1 and (iv having higher levels of social problem-solving ability (SPSI (OR = 2.0, CI:1.1-3.6. Conclusion The non-contact group was clearly different from the contact group and actually comprised a larger proportion of the suicide population that they could hardly be reached by usual individual-based suicide prevention efforts. For this reason, both universal and strategic suicide prevention measures need to be developed specifically in non

  14. Genome-wide association mapping including phenotypes from relatives without genotypes in a single-step (ssGWAS for 6-week body weight in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyu eWang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare results obtained from various methodologies for genome-wide association studies, when applied to real data, in terms of number and commonality of regions identified and their genetic variance explained, computational speed, and possible pitfalls in interpretations of results. Methodologies include: two iteratively reweighted single-step genomic BLUP procedures (ssGWAS1 and ssGWAS2, a single-marker model (CGWAS, and BayesB. The ssGWAS methods utilize genomic breeding values (GEBVs based on combined pedigree, genomic and phenotypic information, while CGWAS and BayesB only utilize phenotypes from genotyped animals or pseudo-phenotypes. In this study, ssGWAS was performed by converting GEBVs to SNP marker effects. Unequal variances for markers were incorporated for calculating weights into a new genomic relationship matrix. SNP weights were refined iteratively. The data was body weight at 6 weeks on 274,776 broiler chickens, of which 4553 were genotyped using a 60k SNP chip. Comparison of genomic regions was based on genetic variances explained by local SNP regions (20 SNPs. After 3 iterations, the noise was greatly reduced of ssGWAS1 and results are similar to that of CGWAS, with 4 out of the top 10 regions in common. In contrast, for BayesB, the plot was dominated by a single region explaining 23.1% of the genetic variance. This same region was found by ssGWAS1 with the same rank, but the amount of genetic variation attributed to the region was only 3%. These finding emphasize the need for caution when comparing and interpreting results from various methods, and highlight that detected associations, and strength of association, strongly depends on methodologies and details of implementations. BayesB appears to overly shrink regions to zero, while overestimating the amount of genetic variation attributed to the remaining SNP effects. The real world is most likely a compromise between methods and remains to

  15. The effect of menstruation on psychiatric hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Jaclyn; Speroni, Karen Gabel; Ellis, Terri; Daniel, Marlon G

    2012-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of menstruation on psychiatric hospitalization. We conducted a retrospective chart review of the medical records of 177 women who met the eligibility criteria. Data collected included demographic details, primary and secondary diagnoses, date of last menstrual period (LMP), medication adherence, psychiatric hospitalization length of stay, previous psychiatric admissions (including those related to menstruation), discharge referrals, and readmissions. The majority of women were admitted for major depression, were single, Caucasian, and had a mean age of 34. A disproportionate percentage (37%) of women had their LMP within 5 days of psychiatric hospitalization (p = 0.0006). The overall average length of stay was 4.37 days, and 48.3% had a previous psychiatric admission. Medication adherence was routinely not documented (77.4%). Psychiatric hospitalizations for women are significantly greater within 5 days of their LMP. Nursing education and improved documentation are warranted to decrease the potential for readmission. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Encopresis: a guide for psychiatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lyons T

    2009-10-01

    Encopresis is an elimination disorder that involves symptoms of fecal incontinence in children. It affects an estimated 1.5% to 7.5% of children ages 6 to 12 and accounts for approximately 3% to 6% of psychiatric referrals. The etiology of encopresis is thought to be related to physiologic problems such as constipation; however, it is also a psychiatric diagnosis and anecdotally may have some association with psychiatric problems. Publications on this association and publications directed toward psychiatric nurses are limited. Encopresis is typically treated with nutritional and medical management along with behavioral modification. Psychiatric nurses working with patients who have encopresis in inpatient settings will have unique concerns and challenges. This article gives an overview of published literature from the past 10 years on the etiology and treatment of encopresis. Specific suggestions for inpatient psychiatric nurses based on published literature and the author's professional experience are provided.

  17. Augmentation of a Microbial Consortium for Enhanced Polylactide (PLA) Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nimisha R; Sekhar, Vini C; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2016-03-01

    Bioplastics are eco-friendly and derived from renewable biomass sources. Innovation in recycling methods will tackle some of the critical issues facing the acceptance of bioplastics. Polylactic acid (PLA) is the commonly used and well-studied bioplastic that is presumed to be biodegradable. Considering their demand and use in near future, exploration for microbes capable of bioplastic degradation has high potential. Four PLA degrading strains were isolated and identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Serratia marcescens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. A consortium of above strains degraded 44 % (w/w) PLA in 30 days time in laboratory conditions. Subsequently, the microbial consortium employed effectively for PLA composting.

  18. [Gender aspects of psychiatric publications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidl, Marion; Unger, Annemarie; Vyssoki, Benjamin; Wancata, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Are authors of German language psychiatric journals more often male or female? Are there gender differences regarding scientific topics? Analysis of publications of two German-language journals (Neuropsychiatrie, Psychiatrische Praxis) for the period 2008-2009. We could not find any gender differences concerning the number of first authors, but the number of male co-authors was nearly double as high as of female co-authors. Qualitative research methods were used more often by female researchers, but there were no significant differences regarding scientific topics. Overall, we found fewer gender differences than expected concerning authorship.

  19. Cultural relativism and psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrega, H

    1989-07-01

    Psychiatry has had a long-standing association with sociology and, especially, cultural anthropology. These social sciences have been influential in developing the concept of cultural relativism and applying it to psychiatry, sometimes in a challenging way and with much detriment. The concept has been used by some antipsychiatrists in attempts to discredit psychiatric practice. Contemporary psychiatrists endorsing a form of biological determinism have tended to either disregard the concept or judge it as trivial if not nonsensical. This study describes the concept of cultural relativism, reviews its applications to illness, and analyzes its implications from a historical and theoretical point of view. Its varied aspects, power, and limitations are discussed.

  20. Psychiatric diagnosis in legal settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Allan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available When asked to give a diagnosis in legal settings practitioners should be mindful of the tentative nature of psychiatric diag- noses and that courts require that such a diagnosis must have scientific credibility. South African courts are not explicit about the test they will apply to determine whether a diagno- sis is scientifically credible, but some guidance can be found in United States case law. This paper examines these criteria with reference to the disorders included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR.

  1. Psychiatric specialty training in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, M; Kontaxakis, V; Ploumpidis, D

    2017-01-01

    The reform and development of psychiatric services require, in addition to financial resources, reserves in specialized human resources. The role of psychiatrists in this process, and at reducing the consequences of mental morbidity is evident. Psychiatrists are required to play a multifaceted role as clinicians, as experts in multidisciplinary team environments and as advisors in the recognition of public needs in mental health issues, as teachers and mentors for students and other health professionals, as researchers in order to enrich our knowledge in the scientific field of psychiatry, and as public health specialists in the development of the mental health services system. This multifaceted role requires the continuous education of modern psychiatrists, but above all a broad, substantial and comprehensive training regime in the initial stage of their professional career, that is to say during specialization. Training in Psychiatry, as indeed has happened in all other medical specialties, has evolved considerably in recent decades, both in the content of education due to scientific advances in the fields of neurobiology, cognitive neuroscience, genetics, psychopharmacology, epidemiology and psychiatric nosology, and also because of advances in the educational process itself. Simple apprenticeship next to an experienced clinician, despite its importance in the clinical training of young psychiatrists, is no longer sufficient to meet the increased demands of the modern role of psychiatrists, resulting in the creation of educational programs defined by setting and pursuing minimum, though comprehensive educational objectives. This development has created the global need to develop organizations intended to supervise training programs. These organizations have various forms worldwide. In the European Union, the competent supervising body for medical specialties is the UEMS (European Union of Medical Specialities) and particularly in the case of the psychiatric

  2. Probing genetic control of swine responses to PRRSV infection: current progress of the PRRS host genetics consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunney Joan K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the role of host genetics in resistance to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV infection, and the effects of PRRS on pig health and related growth, are goals of the PRRS Host Genetics Consortium (PHGC. Methods The project uses a nursery pig model to assess pig resistance/susceptibility to primary PRRSV infection. To date, 6 groups of 200 crossbred pigs from high health farms were donated by commercial sources. After acclimation, the pigs were infected with PRRSV in a biosecure facility and followed for 42 days post infection (dpi. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 dpi for serum and whole blood RNA gene expression analyses; weekly weights were recorded for growth traits. All data have been entered into the PHGC relational database. Genomic DNAs from all PHGC1-6 pigs were prepared and genotyped with the Porcine SNP60 SNPchip. Results Results have affirmed that all challenged pigs become PRRSV infected with peak viremia being observed between 4-21 dpi. Multivariate statistical analyses of viral load and weight data have identified PHGC pigs in different virus/weight categories. Sera are now being compared for factors involved in recovery from infection, including speed of response and levels of immune cytokines. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS are underway to identify genes and chromosomal locations that identify PRRS resistant/susceptible pigs and pigs able to maintain growth while infected with PRRSV. Conclusions Overall, the PHGC project will enable researchers to discover and verify important genotypes and phenotypes that predict resistance/susceptibility to PRRSV infection. The availability of PHGC samples provides a unique opportunity to continue to develop deeper phenotypes on every PRRSV infected pig.

  3. Two‐phase designs for joint quantitative‐trait‐dependent and genotype‐dependent sampling in post‐GWAS regional sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espin‐Garcia, Osvaldo; Craiu, Radu V.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We evaluate two‐phase designs to follow‐up findings from genome‐wide association study (GWAS) when the cost of regional sequencing in the entire cohort is prohibitive. We develop novel expectation‐maximization‐based inference under a semiparametric maximum likelihood formulation tailored for post‐GWAS inference. A GWAS‐SNP (where SNP is single nucleotide polymorphism) serves as a surrogate covariate in inferring association between a sequence variant and a normally distributed quantitative trait (QT). We assess test validity and quantify efficiency and power of joint QT‐SNP‐dependent sampling and analysis under alternative sample allocations by simulations. Joint allocation balanced on SNP genotype and extreme‐QT strata yields significant power improvements compared to marginal QT‐ or SNP‐based allocations. We illustrate the proposed method and evaluate the sensitivity of sample allocation to sampling variation using data from a sequencing study of systolic blood pressure. PMID:29239496

  4. Time Perception and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ceviz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.

  5. [Compulsive buying and psychiatric comorbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mühlhans, Barbara; Silbermann, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Mertens, Christian; Horbach, Thomas; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an excessive behavior that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The current study provides an overview of research on compulsive buying and examines the psychiatric co-morbidity in a German female treatment seeking compulsive buying sample in comparison with age and gender-matched normal buying control groups. Thirty women suffering from compulsive buying disorder, 30 community controls, and 30 bariatric surgery candidates were assessed with the German versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). Women with compulsive buying disorder showed significantly higher prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and eating disorders compared to community controls, and suffered significantly more often from affective and anxiety disorders compared to bariatric surgery candidates. The compulsive buying group presented with the highest rates of personality disorders, most commonly avoidant, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorder, and reported the highest prevalence rates of other impulse control disorders, especially for intermittent explosive disorder. The findings suggest an elevated psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with compulsive buying disorder.

  6. Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatric Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2015-06-01

    American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services.

  7. Psychiatric rehabilitation education for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Abraham; Eastwood, Diane

    2013-06-01

    As part of a rapidly spreading reform toward recovery-oriented services, mental health care systems are adopting Psychiatric/Psychosocial Rehabilitation (PSR). Accordingly, PSR education and training programs are now available and accessible. Although psychiatrists and sometimes other physicians (such as family physicians) provide important services to people with serious mental illnesses and may, therefore, need knowledge and skill in PSR, it seems that the medical profession has been slow to participate in PSR education. Based on our experience working in Canada as academic psychiatrists who are also Certified Psychiatric Rehabilitation Practitioners (CPRPs), we offer descriptions of several Canadian initiatives that involve physicians in PSR education. Multiple frameworks guide PSR education for physicians. First, guidance is provided by published PSR principles, such as the importance of self-determination (www.psrrpscanada.ca). Second, guidance is provided by adult education (andragogy) principles, emphasizing the importance of addressing attitudes in addition to knowledge and skills (Knowles, Holton, & Swanson, 2011). Third, guidance in Canada is provided by Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS) principles, which delineate the multiple roles of physicians beyond that of medical expert (Frank, 2005) and have recently been adopted in Australia (Boyce, Spratt, Davies, & McEvoy, 2011). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Psychotherapy in Contemporary Psychiatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjipavlou, George; Hernandez, Carlos A Sierra; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: American data suggest a declining trend in the provision of psychotherapy by psychiatrists. Nevertheless, the extent to which such findings generalize to psychiatric practice in other countries is unclear. We surveyed psychiatrists in British Columbia to examine whether the reported decline in psychotherapy provision extends to the landscape of Canadian psychiatric practice. Method: A survey was mailed to the entire population of fully licensed psychiatrists registered in British Columbia (n = 623). The survey consisted of 30 items. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and psychotherapy practice patterns. Associations between variables were evaluated using nonparametric tests. Results: A total of 423 psychiatrists returned the survey, yielding a response rate of 68%. Overall, 80.9% of psychiatrists (n = 342) reported practicing psychotherapy. A decline in the provision of psychotherapy was not observed; in fact, there was an increase in psychotherapy provision among psychiatrists entering practice in the last 10 years. Individual therapy was the predominant format used by psychiatrists. The most common primary theoretical orientation was psychodynamic (29.9%). Regarding actual practice, supportive psychotherapy was practiced most frequently. Professional time constraints were perceived as the most significant barrier to providing psychotherapy. The majority (85%) of clinicians did not view remuneration as a significant barrier to treating patients with psychotherapy. Conclusions: Our findings challenge the prevailing view that psychotherapy is in decline among psychiatrists. Psychiatrists in British Columbia continue to integrate psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy in clinical practice, thus preserving their unique place in the spectrum of mental health services. PMID:26175328

  9. Computational Astrophysics Consortium 3 - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, Stan [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2014-08-29

    Final project report for UCSC's participation in the Computational Astrophysics Consortium - Supernovae, Gamma-Ray Bursts and Nucleosynthesis. As an appendix, the report of the entire Consortium is also appended.

  10. ASD, a Psychiatric Disorder, or Both? Psychiatric Diagnoses in Adolescents with High-Functioning ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Oswald, Donald P.; Day, Taylor N.; Eack, Shaun M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Varied presentations of emotion dysregulation in autism complicate diagnostic decision making and may lead to inaccurate psychiatric diagnoses or delayed autism diagnosis for high-functioning children. This pilot study aimed to determine the concordance between prior psychiatric diagnoses and the results of an autism-specific psychiatric interview…

  11. Comparing Analytic Methods for Longitudinal GWAS and a Case-Study Evaluating Chemotherapy Course Length in Pediatric AML. A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Vujkovic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Regression analysis is commonly used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS to test genotype-phenotype associations but restricts the phenotype to a single observation for each individual. There is an increasing need for analytic methods for longitudinally collected phenotype data. Several methods have been proposed to perform longitudinal GWAS for family-based studies but few methods are described for unrelated populations. We compared the performance of three statistical approaches for longitudinal GWAS in unrelated subjectes: (1 principal component-based generalized estimating equations (PC-GEE; (2 principal component-based linear mixed effects model (PC-LMEM; (3 kinship coefficient matrix-based linear mixed effects model (KIN-LMEM, in a study of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on the duration of 4 courses of chemotherapy in 624 unrelated children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML genotyped on the Illumina 2.5M OmniQuad from the COG studies AAML0531 and AAML1031.In this study we observed an exaggerated type I error with PC-GEE in SNPs with minor allele frequencies < 0.05, wheras KIN-LMEM produces more than expected type II errors. PC-MEM showed balanced type I and type II errors for the observed versus expected P-values in comparison to competing approaches. In general, a strong concordance was observed between the P-values with the different approaches, in particular among P-values < 0.01 where the between-method AUCs exceed 99%. PC-LMEM accounts for genetic relatedness and correlations among repeated phenotype measures, shows minimal genome-wide inflation of type I errors, and yields high power. We therefore recommend PC-LMEM as a robust analytic approach for GWAS of longitudinal data in unrelated populations.

  12. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Micrococcus spp on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil was carried out using standard microbiological methods. Spectrophotometer, gas chromatography and viable count which determined the optical density, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ...

  13. An efficient Azorean thermophilic consortium for lignocellulosic biomass degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Rita; Teixeira, Mário; Toubarro, Duarte; Simões, Nelson; Domingues, Lucília; Teixeira, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    [Excerpt] Lignocellulosic plant biomass is being envisioned by biorefinery industry as an alternative to current petroleum platform because of the large scale availability, low cost and environmentally benign production. The industrial bioprocessing designed to transform lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels are harsh and the enzymatic reactions may be severely compromised reducing the production of fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacteria consortium are a potent...

  14. The Consortium for Advancing Renewable Energy Technology (CARET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, E. M.; Henderson, D. O.; Buffinger, D. R.; Fuller, C. W.; Uribe, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Consortium for Advancing Renewable Energy (CARET) is a research and education program which uses the theme of renewable energy to build a minority scientist pipeline. CARET is also a consortium of four universities and NASA Lewis Research Center working together to promote science education and research to minority students using the theme of renewable energy. The consortium membership includes the HBCUs (Historically Black Colleges and Universities), Fisk, Wilberforce and Central State Universities as well as Kent State University and NASA Lewis Research Center. The various stages of this pipeline provide participating students experiences with a different emphasis. Some emphasize building enthusiasm for the classroom study of science and technology while others emphasize the nature of research in these disciplines. Still others focus on relating a practical application to science and technology. And, of great importance to the success of the program are the interfaces between the various stages. Successfully managing these transitions is a requirement for producing trained scientists, engineers and technologists. Presentations describing the CARET program have been given at this year's HBCU Research Conference at the Ohio Aerospace Institute and as a seminar in the Solar Circle Seminar series of the Photovoltaic and Space Environments Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. In this report, we will describe the many positive achievements toward the fulfillment of the goals and outcomes of our program. We will begin with a description of the interactions among the consortium members and end with a description of the activities of each of the member institutions .

  15. The Worker Rights Consortium Makes Strides toward Legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Werf, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the rapid growth of the Workers Rights Consortium, a student-originated group with 44 member institutions which opposes sweatshop labor conditions especially in the apparel industry. Notes disagreements about the number of administrators on the board of directors and about the role of industry representives. Compares this group with the…

  16. Academic Library Consortium in Jordan: An Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mustafa H.; Suleiman, Raid Jameel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the current financial and managerial difficulties that are encountered by libraries in public universities in Jordan and the geographical diffusion of these academic institutions, the idea of establishing a consortium was proposed by the Council of Higher Education to combine these libraries. This article reviews the reality of…

  17. Characteristics of a bioflocculant produced by a consortium of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characteristics of a bioflocculant produced by a consortium of 2 bacteria belonging to the genera Cobetia and Bacillus was investigated. The extracellular bioflocculant was composed of 66% uronic acid and 31% protein and showed an optimum flocculation (90% flocculating activity) of kaolin suspension at a dosage of ...

  18. Zijm Consortium: Engineering a Sustainable Supply Chain System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knofius, Nils; Rahimi Ghahroodi, Sajjad; van Capelleveen, Guido Cornelis; Yazdanpanah, Vahid

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we address one of the current major research areas of the Zijm consortium; engineering sustainable supply chain systems by transforming traditionally linear practices to circular systems. We illustrate this field of research with a case consisting of a network of three firms Willem

  19. A Novel Methylotrophic Bacterial Consortium for Treatment of Industrial Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingurao, Krushi; Nerurkar, Anuradha

    2018-01-01

    Considering the importance of methylotrophs in industrial wastewater treatment, focus of the present study was on utilization of a methylotrophic bacterial consortium as a microbial seed for biotreatment of a variety of industrial effluents. For this purpose, a mixed bacterial methylotrophic AC (Ankleshwar CETP) consortium comprising of Bordetella petrii AC1, Bacillus licheniformis AC4, Salmonella subterranea AC5, and Pseudomonas stutzeri AC8 was used. The AC consortium showed efficient biotreatment of four industrial effluents procured from fertilizer, chemical and pesticide industries, and common effluent treatment plant by lowering their chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 950-2000 mg/l to below detection limit in 60-96 h in 6-l batch reactor and 9-15 days in 6-l continuous reactor. The operating variables of wastewater treatment, viz. COD, BOD, pH, MLSS, MLVSS, SVI, and F/M ratio of these effluents, were also maintained in the permissible range in both batch and continuous reactors. Therefore, formation of the AC consortium has led to the development of an efficient microbial seed capable of treating a variety of industrial effluents containing pollutants generated from their respective industries.

  20. The Research Consortium, 1977-2010: Contributions, Milestones, and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Claman, Gayle

    2010-01-01

    Research and innovation are a cornerstone of any progressive organization. The Research Consortium (RC) has served as the principal organization fulfilling this function on behalf of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) throughout much of its history. The RC is an organization of approximately 5,000…

  1. Identification of loci governing eight agronomic traits using a GBS-GWAS approach and validation by QTL mapping in soya bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonah, Humira; O'Donoughue, Louise; Cober, Elroy; Rajcan, Istvan; Belzile, François

    2015-02-01

    Soya bean is a major source of edible oil and protein for human consumption as well as animal feed. Understanding the genetic basis of different traits in soya bean will provide important insights for improving breeding strategies for this crop. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to accelerate molecular breeding for the improvement of agronomic traits in soya bean. A genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach was used to provide dense genome-wide marker coverage (>47,000 SNPs) for a panel of 304 short-season soya bean lines. A subset of 139 lines, representative of the diversity among these, was characterized phenotypically for eight traits under six environments (3 sites × 2 years). Marker coverage proved sufficient to ensure highly significant associations between the genes known to control simple traits (flower, hilum and pubescence colour) and flanking SNPs. Between one and eight genomic loci associated with more complex traits (maturity, plant height, seed weight, seed oil and protein) were also identified. Importantly, most of these GWAS loci were located within genomic regions identified by previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for these traits. In some cases, the reported QTLs were also successfully validated by additional QTL mapping in a biparental population. This study demonstrates that integrating GBS and GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary approach to classical biparental mapping for dissecting complex traits in soya bean. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Analysis of 60 reported glioma risk SNPs replicates published GWAS findings but fails to replicate associations from published candidate-gene studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle M; Anderson, Erik; Hansen, Helen M; Decker, Paul A; Kosel, Matt L; Kollmeyer, Thomas; Rice, Terri; Zheng, Shichun; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Chang, Jeffrey S; McCoy, Lucie S; Bracci, Paige M; Wiemels, Joe L; Pico, Alexander R; Smirnov, Ivan; Lachance, Daniel H; Sicotte, Hugues; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E; Wiencke, John K; Jenkins, Robert B; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2013-02-01

    Genomewide association studies (GWAS) and candidate-gene studies have implicated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in at least 45 different genes as putative glioma risk factors. Attempts to validate these associations have yielded variable results and few genetic risk factors have been consistently replicated. We conducted a case-control study of Caucasian glioma cases and controls from the University of California San Francisco (810 cases, 512 controls) and the Mayo Clinic (852 cases, 789 controls) in an attempt to replicate previously reported genetic risk factors for glioma. Sixty SNPs selected from the literature (eight from GWAS and 52 from candidate-gene studies) were successfully genotyped on an Illumina custom genotyping panel. Eight SNPs in/near seven different genes (TERT, EGFR, CCDC26, CDKN2A, PHLDB1, RTEL1, TP53) were significantly associated with glioma risk in the combined dataset (P 0.05). Although several confirmed associations are located near genes long known to be involved in gliomagenesis (e.g., EGFR, CDKN2A, TP53), these associations were first discovered by the GWAS approach and are in noncoding regions. These results highlight that the deficiencies of the candidate-gene approach lay in selecting both appropriate genes and relevant SNPs within these genes. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  3. Understanding psychiatric nursing care with nonsuicidal self-harming patients in acute psychiatric admission units: the views of psychiatric nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Aine; Gijbels, Harry

    2006-08-01

    Self-harm in the absence of suicidal intent is an underexplored area in psychiatric nursing research. This article reports on findings of a study undertaken in two acute psychiatric admission units in Ireland. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the practices of psychiatric nurses in relation to people who self-harm but who are not considered suicidal. Semistructured interviews were held with eight psychiatric nurses. Content analysis revealed several themes, some of which will be presented and discussed in this article, namely, the participants' understanding of self-harm, their approach to care, and factors in the acute psychiatric admission setting, which impacted on their care. Recommendations for further research are offered.

  4. Inland valley research in sub-Saharan Africa; priorities for a regional consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamin, J.Y.; Andriesse, W.; Thiombiano, L.; Windmeijer, P.N.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings are an account of an international workshop in support of research strategy development for the Inland Valley Consortium in sub-Saharan Africa. This consortium aims at concerted research planning for rice-based cropping systems in the lower parts of inland valleys. The Consortium

  5. Psychiatric consultations and the management of associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychiatric consultations and the management of associated comorbid medical conditions in a regional referral hospital. NSZ Tema, ABR Janse van Rensburg. Abstract. Background. Psychiatrists are often called upon to evaluate patients with a medical condition and psychiatric symptoms, either as a complication thereof or ...

  6. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.

  7. Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalum, Anette Ellegaard; Arnfred, Sidse Marie

    2014-01-01

    Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern......Søg 1 - 1 ud af 1 Smartphone apps as a new psychiatric treatment. Anette Ellegaard Dalum, Sidse Arnfred, 2014, vol. 176, nummer 34, 2014. Ugeskrift for laeger Artikel Importer Fjern...

  8. Psychiatric sequelae of traumatic brain injury: Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health problem and is associated with many complications. However little is known about the psychiatric sequelae of TBI in Nigeria. This study described the pattern and determinants of psychiatric sequelae among subjects with TBI. Materials and Methods: The study is a ...

  9. Psychiatric service users' experiences of emergency departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Kathrine; Lou, Stina; Jensen, Lotte Groth

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increased clinical and political attention towards integrating general and psychiatric emergency departments (ED). However, research into psychiatric service users’ experiences regarding general EDs is limited. Aim: To identify and summarize current, qualitative evidence rega...... the discomfort. Overall, the results of this review speak in favour of integrated EDs where service users’ needs are more likely to be recognized and accommodated....

  10. Cultural Issues in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses cultural issues in psychiatric administration and leadership through two issues: (1) the changing culture of psychiatric practice based on new clinician performance metrics and (2) the culture of psychiatric administration and leadership in light of organizational cultural competence. Regarding the first issue, some observers have discussed the challenges of creating novel practice environments that balance business values of efficient performance with fiduciary values of treatment competence. This paper expands upon this discussion, demonstrating that some metrics from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the nation's largest funder of postgraduate medical training, may penalize clinicians for patient medication behaviors that are unrelated to clinician performance. A focus on pharmacotherapy over psychotherapy in these metrics has unclear consequences for the future of psychiatric training. Regarding the second issue, studies of psychiatric administration and leadership reveal a disproportionate influence of older men in positions of power despite efforts to recruit women, minorities, and immigrants who increasingly constitute the psychiatric workforce. Organizational cultural competence initiatives can diversify institutional cultures so that psychiatric leaders better reflect the populations they serve. In both cases, psychiatric administrators and leaders play critical roles in ensuring that their organizations respond to social challenges.

  11. Stress levels of psychiatric nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looff, P.C. de; Kuijpers, E.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2014-01-01

    During a total of 30 shifts, the arousal levels of 10 psychiatric nurses were assessed while working on a (forensic) psychiatric admissions ward. Arousal was assessed by means of a small device (wristband) by which the Skin Conductance Level (SCL) of the participating nurses was monitored. Each

  12. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Koelen, J.A.; Smit, H.F.E.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in

  13. Psychiatric disorders in women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Kjaer, S K; Albieri, V

    2013-01-01

    Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?......Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?...

  14. Triage in psychiatric emergency services in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæbye, Ditte; Høegh, Erica Bernt; Knop, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Inspired by the Australasian triage system, a regional psychiatric triage system was introduced in the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen in 2011. Our aim of the study is to determine the characteristics of the patient according to the defined triage criteria and check...

  15. Cultural Issues in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses cultural issues in psychiatric administration and leadership through two issues: (1) the changing culture of psychiatric practice based on new clinician performance metrics and (2) the culture of psychiatric administration and leadership in light of organizational cultural competence. Regarding the first issue, some observers have discussed the challenges of creating novel practice environments that balance business values of efficient performance with fiduciary values of treatment competence. This paper expands upon this discussion, demonstrating that some metrics from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the nation’s largest funder of postgraduate medical training, may penalize clinicians for patient medication behaviors that are unrelated to clinician performance. A focus on pharmacotherapy over psychotherapy in these metrics has unclear consequences for the future of psychiatric training. Regarding the second issue, studies of psychiatric administration and leadership reveal a disproportionate influence of older men in positions of power despite efforts to recruit women, minorities, and immigrants who increasingly constitute the psychiatric workforce. Organizational cultural competence initiatives can diversify institutional cultures so that psychiatric leaders better reflect the populations they serve. In both cases, psychiatric administrators and leaders play critical roles in ensuring that their organizations respond to social challenges. PMID:26071640

  16. Animal cruelty and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyzer, Roman; Felthous, Alan R; Holzer, Charles E

    2002-01-01

    Animal cruelty in childhood, although generally viewed as abnormal or deviant, for years was not considered symptomatic of any particular psychiatric disorder. Although animal cruelty is currently used as a diagnostic criterion for conduct disorder, research establishing the diagnostic significance of this behavior is essentially nonexistent. In the current study, investigators tested the hypothesis that a history of substantial animal cruelty is associated with a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (APD) and looked for associations with other disorders commonly diagnosed in a population of criminal defendants. Forty-eight subjects, criminal defendants who had histories of substantial animal cruelty, were matched with defendants without this history. Data were systematically obtained from the files by using four specifically designed data retrieval outlines. A history of animal cruelty during childhood was significantly associated with APD, antisocial personality traits, and polysubstance abuse. Mental retardation, psychotic disorders, and alcohol abuse showed no such association.

  17. Diffusion formation and psychiatric diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Kulikovski, J.

    2015-01-01

    The basic principle behind diffusion is Brownian motion. The diffusion parameters obtained in a clinical association provide information on the spatial distribution of water molecule mobility and, therefore, evidence of the morphological integrity of the white and grey matters of the brain. In recent years functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) could contribute to obtaining a detailed understanding of the cortical and subcortical cerebral networks. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) investigations can demonstrate the extent of anisotropy and the fiber pathways in so-called parametric images. For example, in Alzheimer's disease DTI reveals a reduced structural connectivity between the posterior cingulum and the hippocampus. This article shows examples of the application of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in psychiatric disorders. (orig.) [de

  18. Molecular pathways towards psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela-Flores, J.

    1987-07-01

    The observed fibrillar-neuronal organization of the cerebral cortex suggests that in the aetiology of certain psychiatric disorders the genomic response of the neuron to the challenge presented by stress or insults at various stages of development, is to set off a programmed chain of molecular events (or ''pathways''), as demonstrated in previous genetic studies. The understanding of these pathways is important in order to enhance our ability to influence these illnesses, and are hypothesized to be initiated by a nucleolar mechanism for inducing abnormal synthesis of the nerve growth factor (NGF). The hypothesis is used to approach tentatively the still open question regarding the pathogenesis of mental retardation (MR) and senile dementia (SD). (author). 25 refs

  19. Parental psychiatric hospitalisation and offspring schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Reinisch, June M

    2009-01-01

    The risk of schizophrenia has been linked with a family history of schizophrenia and less strongly with other psychiatric disorders in family members. Using data from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort and from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register, we studied the relationship between offspring risk...... of schizophrenia and a range of psychotic and non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses in parents. Psychiatric admission data after 1969 were available for 7047 cohort members born between 1959 and 1961, and for 7006 mothers and 6993 fathers. Univariate analysis showed that neurosis, alcohol and substance dependence...... in both parents were associated with elevated risk of offspring schizophrenia; in addition, maternal schizophrenia, affective disorder and personality disorder were associated with elevated risk. Controlling for parental age, parental social status, and parental psychiatric co-diagnosis, offspring risk...

  20. The more from East-Asian, the better: risk prediction of colorectal cancer risk by GWAS-identified SNPs among Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makiko; Ito, Hidemi; Oze, Isao; Nomura, Masatoshi; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2017-12-01

    Little is known about the difference of genetic predisposition for CRC between ethnicities; however, many genetic traits common to colorectal cancer have been identified. This study investigated whether more SNPs identified in GWAS in East Asian population could improve the risk prediction of Japanese and explored possible application of genetic risk groups as an instrument of the risk communication. 558 Patients histologically verified colorectal cancer and 1116 first-visit outpatients were included for derivation study, and 547 cases and 547 controls were for replication study. Among each population, we evaluated prediction models for the risk of CRC that combined the genetic risk group based on SNPs from GWASs in European-population and a similarly developed model adding SNPs from GWASs in East Asian-population. We examined whether adding East Asian-specific SNPs would improve the discrimination. Six SNPs (rs6983267, rs4779584, rs4444235, rs9929218, rs10936599, rs16969681) from 23 SNPs by European-based GWAS and five SNPs (rs704017, rs11196172, rs10774214, rs647161, rs2423279) among ten SNPs by Asian-based GWAS were selected in CRC risk prediction model. Compared with a 6-SNP-based model, an 11-SNP model including Asian GWAS-SNPs showed improved discrimination capacity in Receiver operator characteristic analysis. A model with 11 SNPs resulted in statistically significant improvement in both derivation (P = 0.0039) and replication studies (P = 0.0018) compared with six SNP model. We estimated cumulative risk of CRC by using genetic risk group based on 11 SNPs and found that the cumulative risk at age 80 is approximately 13% in the high-risk group while 6% in the low-risk group. We constructed a more efficient CRC risk prediction model with 11 SNPs including newly identified East Asian-based GWAS SNPs (rs704017, rs11196172, rs10774214, rs647161, rs2423279). Risk grouping based on 11 SNPs depicted lifetime difference of CRC risk. This might be useful for

  1. The guideline "consultation psychiatry" of the Netherlands Psychiatric Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leentjens, A.F.G.; Boenink, A.D.; Sno, H.N.; Strack van Schijndel, R.J.M.; Croonenborg, van J.J.; Everdingen, van J.J.E.; Feltz - Cornelis, van der C.M.; Laan, van der S.; Marwijk, van H.W.J.; Os, T.W.D.P. Van

    2009-01-01

    Background: In 2008, the Netherlands Psychiatric Association authorized a guideline "consultation psychiatry." Aim: To set a standard for psychiatric consultations in nonpsychiatric settings. The main objective of the guideline is to answer three questions: Is psychiatric consultation effective and,

  2. VIDEOCARE: Decentralised psychiatric emergency care through videoconferencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trondsen Marianne V

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today the availability of specialists is limited for psychiatric patients in rural areas, especially during psychiatric emergencies. To overcome this challenge, the University Hospital of North Norway has implemented a new decentralised on-call system in psychiatric emergencies, by which psychiatrists are accessible by videoconference 24/7. In September 2011, the new on-call system was established in clinical practice for patients and health staff at three regional psychiatric centres in Northern Norway. Although a wide variety of therapies have been successfully delivered by videoconference, there is limited research on the use of videoconferenced consultations with patients in psychiatric emergencies. The aim of this study is to explore the use of videoconference in psychiatric emergencies based on the implementation of this first Norwegian tele-psychiatric service in emergency care. Methods/design The research project is an exploratory case study of a new videoconference service in operation. By applying in-depth interviews with patients, specialists and local health-care staff, we will identify factors that facilitate and hinder use of videoconferencing in psychiatric emergencies, and explore how videoconferenced consultations matter for patients, professional practice and cooperation between levels in psychiatric care. By using an on-going project as the site of research, the case is especially well-suited for generating reliable and valid empirical data. Discussion Results from the study will be of importance for understanding of how videoconferencing may support proper treatment and high-quality health care services in rural areas for patients in psychiatric emergencies.

  3. Brain tumors in patients primarly treated psychiatrically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović-Ristić Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychiatric symptoms are not rare manifestations of brain tumors. Brain tumors presented by symptoms of raised intracranial pressure, focal neurological signs, or convulsions are usually first seen by the neurologist or less frequently by the neurosurgeon in routine diagnostic procedures. On the other hand, when psychiatric symptoms are the first manifestation in “neurologically silent” brain tumors, the patients are sent to the psychiatrist for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms and brain tumors are left misdiagnosed for a long period of time. Case Report. We presented three patients with the diagnosed brain tumor where psychiatrist had been the first specialist to be consulted. In all three cases neurological examination was generally unremarkable with no focal signs or features of raised intracranial pressure. CT scan demonstrated right insular tumor in a female patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; right parietal temporal tumor in a patient with delusions and depression and left frontal tumor in a patient with history of alcohol dependency. Conclusion. Psychiatric symptoms/disorders in patients with brain tumors are not specific enough and can have the same clinical presentation as the genuine psychiatric disorder. Therefore, we emphasize the consideration of neuroimaging in patients with abrupt beginning of psychiatric symptoms, in those with a change in mental status, or when headaches suddenly appear or in cases of treatment resistant psychiatric disorders regardless the lack of neurological symptoms.

  4. An historical framework for psychiatric nosology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S

    2009-12-01

    This essay, which seeks to provide an historical framework for our efforts to develop a scientific psychiatric nosology, begins by reviewing the classificatory approaches that arose in the early history of biological taxonomy. Initial attempts at species definition used top-down approaches advocated by experts and based on a few essential features of the organism chosen a priori. This approach was subsequently rejected on both conceptual and practical grounds and replaced by bottom-up approaches making use of a much wider array of features. Multiple parallels exist between the beginnings of biological taxonomy and psychiatric nosology. Like biological taxonomy, psychiatric nosology largely began with 'expert' classifications, typically influenced by a few essential features, articulated by one or more great 19th-century diagnosticians. Like biology, psychiatry is struggling toward more soundly based bottom-up approaches using diverse illness characteristics. The underemphasized historically contingent nature of our current psychiatric classification is illustrated by recounting the history of how 'Schneiderian' symptoms of schizophrenia entered into DSM-III. Given these historical contingencies, it is vital that our psychiatric nosologic enterprise be cumulative. This can be best achieved through a process of epistemic iteration. If we can develop a stable consensus in our theoretical orientation toward psychiatric illness, we can apply this approach, which has one crucial virtue. Regardless of the starting point, if each iteration (or revision) improves the performance of the nosology, the eventual success of the nosologic process, to optimally reflect the complex reality of psychiatric illness, is assured.

  5. Connectomics in psychiatric research: advances and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Miao Cao,* Zhijiang Wang,* Yong He State Key Laboratory of Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning and IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Psychiatric disorders disturb higher cognitive functions and severely compromise human health. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders are very complex, and understanding these mechanisms remains a great challenge. Currently, many psychiatric disorders are hypothesized to reflect “faulty wiring” or aberrant connectivity in the brains. Imaging connectomics is arising as a promising methodological framework for describing the structural and functional connectivity patterns of the human brain. Recently, alterations of brain networks in the connectome have been reported in various psychiatric disorders, and these alterations may provide biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis for the evaluation of treatment efficacy. Here, we summarize the current achievements in both the structural and functional connectomes in several major psychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and autism based on multi-modal neuroimaging data. We highlight the current progress in the identification of these alterations and the hypotheses concerning the aberrant brain networks in individuals with psychiatric disorders and discuss the research questions that might contribute to a further mechanistic understanding of these disorders from a connectomic perspective.Keywords: psychiatric disorders, connectome, graph theory, functional connectivity, structural connectivity

  6. Psychiatric disorders in bone marrow transplant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.G.; Irfan, M.; Shamsi, T.S.; Hussain, M.

    2007-01-01

    To identify the psychiatric illnesses in patients with hematological/oncological disorders encountered during blood and bone marrow transplantation. All consecutive patients, aged 15 years and above, who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria and underwent blood and bone marrow transplantation, were enrolled in this study. Psychiatric assessment comprised of a semi-structured interview based on Present Status Examination (PSE). The psychiatric diagnosis was made on the basis of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) system of classification devised by W.H.O. Eighty patients, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were inducted in this study. Thirty (37.5%) cases were found to have psychiatric disorders. Out of the total, 60 (75%) were males and 20 (25%) females. Adjustment disorder was the most frequent diagnosis (n=12), followed by major depression (n=7). Rest of the diagnoses made were generalized anxiety disorder, acute psychotic disorder, delirium and depressive psychosis. High psychiatric morbidity associated with blood and bone marrow transplantation was observed. It indicates the importance of psychiatric intervention during the isolation period of BMT as well as pre-transplant psychiatric assessment and counseling regarding procedure. (author)

  7. [Long-term psychiatric hospitalizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, L; Amariei, A

    2017-02-01

    Long-term hospitalizations in psychiatry raise the question of desocialisation of the patients and the inherent costs. Individual indicators were extracted from a medical administrative database containing full-time psychiatric hospitalizations for the period 2011-2013 of people over 16 years old living in the French region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais. We calculated the proportion of people who had experienced a hospitalization with a duration of 292 days or more during the study period. A bivariate analysis was conducted, then ecological data (level of health-care offer, the deprivation index and the size of the municipalities of residence) were included into a multilevel regression model in order to identify the factors significantly related to variability of long-term hospitalization rates. Among hospitalized individuals in psychiatry, 2.6% had had at least one hospitalization of 292 days or more during the observation period; the number of days in long-term hospitalization represented 22.5% of the total of days of full-time hospitalization in psychiatry. The bivariate analysis revealed that seniority in the psychiatric system was strongly correlated with long hospitalization rates. In the multivariate analysis, the individual indicators the most related to an increased risk of long-term hospitalization were: total lack of autonomy (OR=9.0; 95% CI: 6.7-12.2; P<001); diagnoses of psychological development disorders (OR=9.7; CI95%: 4.5-20.6; P<.001); mental retardation (OR=4.5; CI95%: 2.5-8.2; P<.001): schizophrenia (OR=3.0; CI95%: 1.7-5.2; P<.001); compulsory hospitalization (OR=1.7; CI95%: 1.4-2.1; P<.001); having experienced therapeutic isolation (OR=1.8; CI95%: 1.5-2.1; P<.001). Variations of long-term hospitalization rates depending on the type of establishment were very high, but the density of hospital beds or intensity of ambulatory activity services were not significantly linked to long-term hospitalization. The inhabitants of small urban units had

  8. Establishment of a local psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1981-01-01

    of senile psychoses. The total increase amounts to 2.4 times the admission rates of psychiatric cases to the General Hospital and 4.4 times the admission rates to the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing in the last years prior to the start of the local service. The outpatient department has grown steadily...... patients were referred to the local General Hospital and about half of the patients in each diagnostic group were sent on the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing on Zealand, Denmark. Since the establishment of the department, admissions have increased in all diagnostic groups, especially in the group...

  9. Cyberbullying: implications for the psychiatric nurse practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Lindsey M; Hubbard, Grace B

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to inform and educate psychiatric nurse practitioners about the pervasiveness of the rapidly increasing problem of cyberbullying. As more children and adolescents obtain access to the Internet, mobile devices, and social networking sites, the exposure to bullying in the virtual format increases. Cyberbullying is a growing public health concern and can affect mental health and school performance. Cyberbullying often results in a range of psychiatric symptoms and has been linked to suicide attempts and completions. The psychiatric nurse practitioner is uniquely prepared to provide a range of interventions for patients, families, and communities who have experienced cyberbullying. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Establishment of a local psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1981-01-01

    patients were referred to the local General Hospital and about half of the patients in each diagnostic group were sent on the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing on Zealand, Denmark. Since the establishment of the department, admissions have increased in all diagnostic groups, especially in the group...... of senile psychoses. The total increase amounts to 2.4 times the admission rates of psychiatric cases to the General Hospital and 4.4 times the admission rates to the Psychiatric Hospital in Nykøbing in the last years prior to the start of the local service. The outpatient department has grown steadily...

  11. Technological Advances in Psychiatric Nursing: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostrom, Andrea C

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and treating mental illness has improved in many ways as a result of the fast pace of technological advances. The technologies that have the greatest potential impact are those that (1) increase the knowledge of how the brain functions and changes based on interventions, (2) have the potential to personalize interventions based on understanding genetic factors of drug metabolism and pharmacodynamics, and (3) use information technology to provide treatment in the absence of an adequate mental health workforce. Technologies are explored for psychiatric nurses to consider. Psychiatric nurses are encouraged to consider the experiences of psychiatric patients, including poor health, stigmatization, and suffering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Myths and realities of psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farjam, A.

    2001-01-01

    Prevalence of psychiatric disorders is on the rise and causing massive global health burden which myths and misconceptions about psychiatric disorders and their available treatment abound in our society. Stigma attached with these disorders is phenomenal. This leads to avoidance of the patients in seeking prompt and appropriate treatment. This demands an instant realization of the gravity of the problems related with mental health and adoption of appropriate measures to increase awareness, in both masses and the health professionals of psychiatric disorders and their scientific treatment. (author)

  13. DoD Alcohol and Substance Abuse Consortium Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    formerly ORG 34517) in Veterans with Co-morbid PTSD/AUD” (Principal Investigator: Dewleen G. Baker, MD) The primary objective of this study is to...test the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a novel GR antagonist PT150 (formerly ORG 34517) for AUD/PTSD dual diagnosis treatment in veterans. The...Pharmacotherapies for Alcohol and Substance Abuse (PASA) Consortium PI: Rick Williams, PhD & Thomas Kosten, MD Org : RTI International Study Research Planning

  14. p-Cresol mineralization by a nitrifying consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva-Luna, C. D.; Gomez, J.; Houbron, E.; Cuervo Lopez, F. M.; Texier, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrification and denitrification processes are considered economically feasible technologies for nitrogen removal from wastewater. Knowledge of the toxic or inhibitory effects of cresols on the nitrifying respiratory process is still insufficient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinetic behavior and oxidizing ability of a nitrifying consortium exposed to p-cresol in batch cultures. Biotransformation of p-cresol was investigated by identifying the different intermediates formed. (Author)

  15. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium, Post Traumatic Hypopituitarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    10 Aug 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Mission Connect MTBI Translational Research Consortium 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Post traumatic hypopituitarism 5b...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is to identify the incidence of post traumatic hypopituitarism ...June 21, 2010; however, none have reached the six month milestone for blood testing 15. SUBJECT TERMS post traumatic hypopituitarism 16. SECURITY

  16. Neuroreceptor imaging in psychiatric disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankle, W.G.; Laruelle, M.

    2002-01-01

    Molecular imaging, the study of receptors, transporters and enzymes, as well as other cellular processes, has grown in recent years to be one of the most active neuroimaging areas. The application of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques to the study of psychiatric illness has lead to increased understanding of disease processes as well as validated, in vivo, theories of illness etiology. Within the field of psychiatry these techniques have been applied most widely to the study of schizophrenia. Studies within schizophrenia are largely limited to either the dopamine or serotonin system. This is due in large part to the availability of suitable radiotracers as well as the current theories on the etiology of the illness. Two basic study designs are used when studying schizophrenia using molecular imaging and make up the majority of studies reviewed in this manuscript. The first type, termed ''clinical studies'', compares the findings from PET and SPECT studies in those with schizophrenia to normal controls in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of the illness. The second study design, termed ''occupancy studies'', uses these techniques to enhance the understanding of the mechanism of action of the medications used in treating this illness. This review will focus on the findings of molecular imaging studies in schizophrenia, focusing, for the most part, on the serotonin and dopamine systems. Emphasis will be placed on how these findings and techniques are currently being used to inform the development of novel treatments for schizophrenia. (author)

  17. Mapping of HKT1;5 Gene in Barley Using GWAS Approach and Its Implication in Salt Tolerance Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzouri, Khaled M.; Khraiwesh, Basel; Amiri, Khaled M. A.; Pauli, Duke; Blake, Tom; Shahid, Mohammad; Mullath, Sangeeta K.; Nelson, David; Mansour, Alain L.; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh; Purugganan, Michael; Masmoudi, Khaled

    2018-01-01

    Sodium (Na+) accumulation in the cytosol will result in ion homeostasis imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. Studies of salinity tolerance in the diploid wheat ancestor Triticum monococcum showed that HKT1;5-like gene was a major gene in the QTL for salt tolerance, named Nax2. In the present study, we were interested in investigating the molecular mechanisms underpinning the role of the HKT1;5 gene in salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare). A USDA mini-core collection of 2,671 barley lines, part of a field trial was screened for salinity tolerance, and a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) was performed. Our results showed important SNPs that are correlated with salt tolerance that mapped to a region where HKT1;5 ion transporter located on chromosome four. Furthermore, sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) content analysis revealed that tolerant lines accumulate more sodium in roots and leaf sheaths, than in the sensitive ones. In contrast, sodium concentration was reduced in leaf blades of the tolerant lines under salt stress. In the absence of NaCl, the concentration of Na+ and K+ were the same in the roots, leaf sheaths and leaf blades between the tolerant and the sensitive lines. In order to study the molecular mechanism behind that, alleles of the HKT1;5 gene from five tolerant and five sensitive barley lines were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis did not show the presence of any polymorphism that distinguishes between the tolerant and sensitive alleles. Our real-time RT-PCR experiments, showed that the expression of HKT1;5 gene in roots of the tolerant line was significantly induced after challenging the plants with salt stress. In contrast, in leaf sheaths the expression was decreased after salt treatment. In sensitive lines, there was no difference in the expression of HKT1;5 gene in leaf sheath under control and saline conditions, while a slight increase in the expression was observed in roots after salt treatment. These results provide

  18. Mapping of HKT1;5 Gene in Barley Using GWAS Approach and Its Implication in Salt Tolerance Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled M. Hazzouri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sodium (Na+ accumulation in the cytosol will result in ion homeostasis imbalance and toxicity of transpiring leaves. Studies of salinity tolerance in the diploid wheat ancestor Triticum monococcum showed that HKT1;5-like gene was a major gene in the QTL for salt tolerance, named Nax2. In the present study, we were interested in investigating the molecular mechanisms underpinning the role of the HKT1;5 gene in salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare. A USDA mini-core collection of 2,671 barley lines, part of a field trial was screened for salinity tolerance, and a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS was performed. Our results showed important SNPs that are correlated with salt tolerance that mapped to a region where HKT1;5 ion transporter located on chromosome four. Furthermore, sodium (Na+ and potassium (K+ content analysis revealed that tolerant lines accumulate more sodium in roots and leaf sheaths, than in the sensitive ones. In contrast, sodium concentration was reduced in leaf blades of the tolerant lines under salt stress. In the absence of NaCl, the concentration of Na+ and K+ were the same in the roots, leaf sheaths and leaf blades between the tolerant and the sensitive lines. In order to study the molecular mechanism behind that, alleles of the HKT1;5 gene from five tolerant and five sensitive barley lines were cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis did not show the presence of any polymorphism that distinguishes between the tolerant and sensitive alleles. Our real-time RT-PCR experiments, showed that the expression of HKT1;5 gene in roots of the tolerant line was significantly induced after challenging the plants with salt stress. In contrast, in leaf sheaths the expression was decreased after salt treatment. In sensitive lines, there was no difference in the expression of HKT1;5 gene in leaf sheath under control and saline conditions, while a slight increase in the expression was observed in roots after salt treatment. These

  19. Identification and Verification of QTL Associated with Frost Tolerance Using Linkage Mapping and GWAS in Winter Faba Bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Ahmed; Arbaoui, Mustapha; El-Esawi, Mohamed; Abshire, Nathan; Martsch, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Frost stress is one of the abiotic stresses that causes a significant reduction in winter faba bean yield in Europe. The main objective of this work is to genetically improve frost tolerance in winter faba bean by identifying and validating QTL associated with frost tolerance to be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two different genetic backgrounds were used: a biparental population (BPP) consisting of 101 inbred lines, and 189 genotypes from single seed descent (SSD) from the Gottingen Winter bean Population (GWBP). All experiments were conducted in a frost growth chamber under controlled conditions. Both populations were genotyped using the same set of 189 SNP markers. Visual scoring for frost stress symptoms was used to define frost tolerance in both populations. In addition, leaf fatty acid composition (FAC) and proline content were analyzed in BPP as physiological traits. QTL mapping (for BPP) and genome wide association studies (for GWBP) were performed to detect QTL associated with frost tolerance. High genetic variation between genotypes, and repeatability estimates, were found for all traits. QTL mapping and GWAS identified new putative QTL associated with promising frost tolerance and related traits. A set of 54 SNP markers common in both genetic backgrounds showed a high genetic diversity with polymorphic information content (PIC) ranging from 0.31 to 0.37 and gene diversity ranging from 0.39 to 0.50. This indicates that these markers may be polymorphic for many faba bean populations. Five SNP markers showed a significant marker-trait association with frost tolerance and related traits in both populations. Moreover, synteny analysis between Medicago truncatula (a model legume) and faba bean genomes was performed to identify candidate genes for these markers. Collinearity was evaluated between the faba bean genetic map constructed in this study and the faba bean consensus map, resulting in identifying possible genomic regions in faba bean which may

  20. Identification and Verification of QTL Associated with Frost Tolerance Using Linkage Mapping and GWAS in Winter Faba Bean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Ahmed; Arbaoui, Mustapha; El-Esawi, Mohamed; Abshire, Nathan; Martsch, Regina

    2016-01-01

    Frost stress is one of the abiotic stresses that causes a significant reduction in winter faba bean yield in Europe. The main objective of this work is to genetically improve frost tolerance in winter faba bean by identifying and validating QTL associated with frost tolerance to be used in marker-assisted selection (MAS). Two different genetic backgrounds were used: a biparental population (BPP) consisting of 101 inbred lines, and 189 genotypes from single seed descent (SSD) from the Gottingen Winter bean Population (GWBP). All experiments were conducted in a frost growth chamber under controlled conditions. Both populations were genotyped using the same set of 189 SNP markers. Visual scoring for frost stress symptoms was used to define frost tolerance in both populations. In addition, leaf fatty acid composition (FAC) and proline content were analyzed in BPP as physiological traits. QTL mapping (for BPP) and genome wide association studies (for GWBP) were performed to detect QTL associated with frost tolerance. High genetic variation between genotypes, and repeatability estimates, were found for all traits. QTL mapping and GWAS identified new putative QTL associated with promising frost tolerance and related traits. A set of 54 SNP markers common in both genetic backgrounds showed a high genetic diversity with polymorphic information content (PIC) ranging from 0.31 to 0.37 and gene diversity ranging from 0.39 to 0.50. This indicates that these markers may be polymorphic for many faba bean populations. Five SNP markers showed a significant marker-trait association with frost tolerance and related traits in both populations. Moreover, synteny analysis between Medicago truncatula (a model legume) and faba bean genomes was performed to identify candidate genes for these markers. Collinearity was evaluated between the faba bean genetic map constructed in this study and the faba bean consensus map, resulting in identifying possible genomic regions in faba bean which may

  1. Social-Psychiatric Aspects of Epilepsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TYDSKRIF. 1035. Social-Psychiatric Aspects of Epilepsy ... watersrand, as well as with the Department of Psychiatry, .... Is the response to therapy different in the three groups? 6. .... epilepsy in the occupational and the social spheres and.

  2. The effectiveness of anticonvulsants in psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunze, Heinz C. R.

    2008-01-01

    Anticonvulsant drugs are widely used in psychiatric indications. These include mainly alcohol and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes, panic and anxiety disorders, dementia, schizophrenia, affective disorders, bipolar affective disorders in particular, and, to some extent, personality disorders, A further area in which neurology and psychiatry overlap is pain conditions, in which some anticonvulsants, and also typical psychiatric medications such as antidepressants, are helpful. From the beginning of their psychiatric use, anticonvulsants have also been used to ameliorate specific symptoms of psychiatric disorders independently of their causality and underlying illness, eg, aggression, and, more recently, cognitive impairment, as seen in affective disorders and schizophrenia. With new anticonvulsants currently under development, it is likely that their use in psychiatry will further increase, and that psychiatrists need to learn about their differential efficacy and safety profiles to the same extent as do neurologists. PMID:18472486

  3. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among Residents of a ... mental healthcare resources, availability of data on mental health needs of children ... gender-matched school going adolescents were evaluated for the presence of ...

  4. Chromosomal abnormalities in a psychiatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, K.E.; Lubetsky, M.J.; Wenger, S.L.; Steele, M.W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (United States)

    1995-02-27

    Over a 3.5 year period of time, 345 patients hospitalized for psychiatric problems were evaluated cytogenetically. The patient population included 76% males and 94% children with a mean age of 12 years. The criteria for testing was an undiagnosed etiology for mental retardation and/or autism. Cytogenetic studies identified 11, or 3%, with abnormal karyotypes, including 4 fragile X positive individuals (2 males, 2 females), and 8 with chromosomal aneuploidy, rearrangements, or deletions. While individuals with chromosomal abnormalities do not demonstrate specific behavioral, psychiatric, or developmental problems relative to other psychiatric patients, our results demonstrate the need for an increased awareness to order chromosomal analysis and fragile X testing in those individuals who have combinations of behavioral/psychiatric, learning, communication, or cognitive disturbance. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Anxiety disorders: Psychiatric comorbidities and psychosocial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anxiety disorders: Psychiatric comorbidities and psychosocial stressors ... were present for 98.1% of patients and 36.9% had multiple anxiety disorders. ... and the comorbidity of anxiety and personality disorders should receive further attention.

  6. Barriers in the treatment of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric illnesses are very common in prevalence. But not everyone who has a mental illness gets a psychiatric consultation. The causes are many. First, many time people don’t recognise and accept mental illnesses in them as a result of lack of insight and awareness. Secondly, even if they know they have a mental illness, they don’t feel comfortable in disclosing it. Third, after knowing that they have some problems which require help from a doctor, they don’t know whom to consult, where to consult, and how to consult. Fourth, in spite of all possible awareness, there may not be psychiatric facilities nearby. Thus, it becomes utmost necessary to discuss those factors which stop people with psychiatric illnesses to get adequate help so that remedial steps could be taken.

  7. [History of psychiatric legislation in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Ester; Dario, Claudia; Piazzi, Gioia; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The different models of mental illness which have followed one another in Italian psychiatry have been linked to the history of psychiatric legislation and its various attempts at reform. The first law of the newly United State which unified legislations and former procedures, whose prevalent psychiatric theories were those that referred to degeneration, was the law 36/1904 that set up the asylums. Accordingly psychiatric praxis was focused on social protection and custody, given that the mentally ill was seen as incurable; Fascism added the inmate's obligation to be enrolled in the judicial register. Afterwards numerous attempts to reform the psychiatric legislation were made that eventually gave rise to law 431/1968 which paved the way to territorial psychiatry. Law 180/1978 changed the organization of Italian psychiatry abolishing asylums and the concept of dangerousness, including psychiatry in the National Health Service but adopting an idea of mental illness as simply social unease.

  8. Inpatient Psychiatric Prospective Payment System (IPF PPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This file contains case level data for inpatient psychiatric stays and is derived from 2011 MEDPAR data file and the latest available provider specific file. The...

  9. The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, A L; Nielsen, L P; Poulsen, B K

    2014-01-01

    The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric PatientsSoerensen AL1,2, Nielsen LP3,4, Poulsen BK3, Lisby M3,5, Mainz J6,7 1Danish Center for Healthcare Improvements, Faculty of Social Sciences and Faculty of Health Sciences, Aalborg University, Denmark; 2University College of Northern Denmark; 3......, Aalborg; Denmark OBJECTIVES: Prescribing for adult psychiatric patients is often highly complex due to the nature of psychiatric conditions, but also due to somatic comorbidity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify prevalence and types of potential inappropriate prescribing (PIP), asses...... the severity of potential clinical consequences and identify possible predictive factors of PIP.METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective study of PIP using medication reviews. Patients who were admitted during a 4 month period (August 2013 - November 2013) to a psychiatric university hospital were...

  10. Psychiatric emergency services in Copenhagen 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Katinka; Høegh, Erica B; Sæbye, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the first publication of the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen 1985, outpatient facilities have undergone considerable changes. Our aim is to examine how these changes have influenced the activities in the PEUs in the same catchment area. METHODS: We conducted...... the 27-year follow-up period. In 1985, 20.7% of the visits ended up without any referrals, compared with 4.8% in 2012. The rate of acute admissions into a psychiatric ward was 60.8% in 2012 compared with 35.65% in 1985. CONCLUSION: The extension of the psychiatric outpatients' facilities since 1985 has...... reduced the number of visits in the PEUs considerably. The results have shown a change of diagnostic distribution and more severe conditions requiring acute admissions for emergency treatment. Close collaboration with the patients' families, GPs, social authorities and specialized psychiatric outpatient...

  11. The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt

    2014-01-01

    The Quality of Prescribing for Psychiatric Patients Soerensen AL1,2, Nielsen LP3,4, Poulsen BK3, Lisby M3,5, Mainz J6,7 1Danish Center for Healthcare Improvements, Faculty of Social Sciences and Faculty of Health Sciences, Aalborg University, Denmark; 2University College of Northern Denmark; 3......, Aalborg; Denmark OBJECTIVES: Prescribing for adult psychiatric patients is often highly complex due to the nature of psychiatric conditions, but also due to somatic comorbidity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify prevalence and types of potential inappropriate prescribing (PIP), asses...... the severity of potential clinical consequences and identify possible predictive factors of PIP. METHODS: The study was designed as a prospective study of PIP using medication reviews. Patients who were admitted during a 4 month period (August 2013 - November 2013) to a psychiatric university hospital were...

  12. Properties and modeling of GWAS when complex disease risk is due to non-complementing, deleterious mutations in genes of large effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Thornton

    Full Text Available Current genome-wide association studies (GWAS have high power to detect intermediate frequency SNPs making modest contributions to complex disease, but they are underpowered to detect rare alleles of large effect (RALE. This has led to speculation that the bulk of variation for most complex diseases is due to RALE. One concern with existing models of RALE is that they do not make explicit assumptions about the evolution of a phenotype and its molecular basis. Rather, much of the existing literature relies on arbitrary mapping of phenotypes onto genotypes obtained either from standard population-genetic simulation tools or from non-genetic models. We introduce a novel simulation of a 100-kilobase gene region, based on the standard definition of a gene, in which mutations are unconditionally deleterious, are continuously arising, have partially recessive and non-complementing effects on phenotype (analogous to what is widely observed for most Mendelian disorders, and are interspersed with neutral markers that can be genotyped. Genes evolving according to this model exhibit a characteristic GWAS signature consisting of an excess of marginally significant markers. Existing tests for an excess burden of rare alleles in cases have low power while a simple new statistic has high power to identify disease genes evolving under our model. The structure of linkage disequilibrium between causative mutations and significantly associated markers under our model differs fundamentally from that seen when rare causative markers are assumed to be neutral. Rather than tagging single haplotypes bearing a large number of rare causative alleles, we find that significant SNPs in a GWAS tend to tag single causative mutations of small effect relative to other mutations in the same gene. Our results emphasize the importance of evaluating the power to detect associations under models that are genetically and evolutionarily motivated.

  13. Forensic Psychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Soysal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders is an important psychiatric disorder group which draws attention in recent years. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other classical disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder and compulsive buying could be evasuated under this topic. The aim of this article is to review forensic psychiatric aspects of impulse control disorders and evaluate the disorders in terms of their legal status. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 16-29

  14. Implications of Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Combat Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Yonkers KA, Otto MW, et al; Influence of psychiatric comor- bidity on recovery and recurrence in generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia , and panic...phys- ical and social functioning, a diminished likelihood of recov- ery, and increased rates of attempted and completed suicide compared with those... RV , Ravelli A, van Zessen G; Prevalence of psychiatric disorder in the general population: results of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and

  15. Psychiatric aspects of Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson′s disease (PD is essentially characterized by the motor symptoms in the form of resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia. However, over the years it has been recognized that motor symptoms are just the "tip of the iceberg" of clinical manifestations of PD. Besides motor symptoms, PD characterized by many non-motor symptoms, which include cognitive decline, psychiatric disturbances (depression, psychosis and impulse control, sleep difficulties, autonomic failures (gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, urinary, thermoregulation and pain syndrome. This review evaluates the various aspects of psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline and sleep disturbances in patients with PD. The prevalence rate of various psychiatric disorders is high in patients with PD. In terms of risk factors, various demographic, clinical and treatment-related variables have been shown to be associated with higher risk of development of psychiatric morbidity. Evidence also suggests that the presence of psychiatric morbidity is associated with poorer outcome. Randomized controlled trials, evaluating the various pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD are meager. Available evidence suggests that tricyclic antidepressants like desipramine and nortriptyline are efficacious for management of depression. Among the antipsychotics, clozapine is considered to be the best choice for management of psychosis in patients with PD. Among the various cognitive enhancers, evidence suggest efficacy of rivastigmine in management of dementia in patients with PD. To conclude, this review suggests that psychiatric morbidity is highly prevalent in patients with PD. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach must be followed to improve the overall outcome of PD. Further studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of various other measures for management of psychiatric morbidity in patients with PD.

  16. Hyperhidrosis-psychiatric Study and Behaviour Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Pradhan

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleven patients suffering from hyperhidrosis were psychiatrically studied. Seven of them were given behaviour therapy. Majority of the patients had -an unhappy childhood and long - standing and continuing psychological stress. None of them had obvious, coexisting psychiatric condition.. Thus, hyperhidrosis was the sole, expression of their psychological conflicts. Of the 7 patients treated 71% showed improvement with relaxation and systemic desentiziation which,was maintained for a_ period of at least 6 months.

  17. [Initiating psychiatric care for young, isolated foreigners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestelandt, Laure; Touhami, Fatima; Radjack, Rahmeth; Moro, Marie Rose; Lachal, Jonathan

    The various traumatic events experienced by young isolated foreigners can weaken them psychologically and cause psychiatric decompensation. A qualitative study, carried out by the Maison de Solenn and the Avicenne hospital, aimed to provide better understanding of the conditions for initiating psychiatric care with these adolescents. The different results show that this type of care for these young migrants must be cross-cultural and multi-disciplinary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. A genome-wide association scan (GWAS) for mean telomere length within the COGS project: identified loci show little association with hormone-related cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Pooley, K. A.; Bojesen, S. E.; Weischer, M.; Nielsen, S. F.; Thompson, D.; Amin Al Olama, A.; Michailidou, K.; Tyrer, J. P.; Benlloch, S.; Brown, J.; Audley, T.; Luben, R.; Khaw, K.-T.; Neal, D. E.; Hamdy, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Mean telomere length (TL) in blood cells is heritable and has been reported to be associated with risks of several diseases, including cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis of three GWAS for TL (total n=2240) and selected 1629 variants for replication via the ?iCOGS? custom genotyping array. All ?200 000 iCOGS variants were analysed with TL, and those displaying associations in healthy controls (n = 15 065) were further tested in breast cancer cases (n = 11 024). We found a novel TL associatio...

  19. Concurrent Medical and Psychiatric Disorders among Schizophrenic and Neurotic Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Bruno R.; Pai, Shaila

    Although the occurrence of medical illnesses in psychiatric patients is quite high, medical illnesses manifested by psychiatric symptoms are often overlooked. The higher mortality rates among psychiatric patients when compared to the general population may be a reflection of neglect or inadequate treatment of the psychiatric patients' medical…

  20. 42 CFR 456.482 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Inpatient Psychiatric..., psychiatric, and social evaluations. If a facility provides inpatient psychiatric services to a recipient...

  1. 42 CFR 456.170 - Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical, psychiatric, and social evaluations. 456... Hospitals Medical, Psychiatric, and Social Evaluations and Admission Review § 456.170 Medical, psychiatric... recipient's need for care in the hospital; and appropriate professional personnel must make a psychiatric...

  2. Efficiency of consortium for in-situ bioremediation and CO2 evolution method of refines petroleum oil in microcosms study

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Shreyasri; Singh, Padma

    2017-01-01

    An in-situ bioremediation study was conducted in a laboratory by using mixed microbial consortium. An indigenous microbial consortium was developed by assemble of two Pseudomonas spp. and two Aspergillus spp. which were isolated from various oil contaminated sites of India. The laboratory feasibility study was conducted in a 225 m2 block. Six treatment options-Oil alone, Oil+Best remediater, Oil+Bacterial consortium, Oil+Fungal consortium, Oil+Mixed microbial consortium, Oil+Indigenous microf...

  3. PSYCHIATRIC COMORBIDITY IN PATIENTS WITH OPIOID DEPENDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihab Kattukulathil

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Opioid dependence is a major public health problem in Kerala. Presence of psychiatric disorder among opioid dependent patients worsens the scenario. To date no attempts have been made to analyse the magnitude and pattern of comorbid psychiatric disorders in the state. MATERIALS AND METHODS We assessed 30 patients with ICD-10 diagnosis of opioid dependence syndrome for the presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders using structured clinical interview for DSM IV Axis 1 disorder (SCID-1. Patients with opioid withdrawal state, delirium and acute medical emergencies were excluded. RESULTS 56.7% of our subjects had a comorbid psychiatric disorder. Major depressive disorder was the most common one (n=7, 23.3%. Prevalence of other disorders were generalised anxiety disorder (n=6, 20%, bipolar affective disorder (n=3, 10% and schizophrenia (n=1, 3.3%. CONCLUSION Comorbid Psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent in opioid dependence. There is a need for further large sample studies in the areas of comorbidities and in the integrated strategies for the identification and management of both opioid dependence and comorbid psychiatric disorders.

  4. Psychiatric disorders associated with Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratek, Agnieszka; Koźmin-Burzyńska, Agnieszka; Górniak, Eliza; Krysta, Krzysztof

    2015-09-01

    Cushing's syndrome is the term used to describe a set of symptoms associated with hypercortisolism, which in most cases is caused by hypophysial microadenoma over-secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone. This endocrine disorder is often associated with psychiatric comorbidities. The most important include mood disorders, psychotic disorders, cognitive dysfunctions and anxiety disorders. The aim of this article was to review the prevalence, symptoms and consequences of psychiatric disorders in the course of Cushing's syndrome. We therefore performed a literature search using the following keywords: Cushing's syndrome and psychosis, Cushing's syndrome and mental disorders, Cushing's syndrome and depression, Cushing's syndrome and anxiety. The most prevalent psychiatric comorbidity of Cushing's syndrome is depression. Psychiatric manifestations can precede the onset of full-blown Cushing's syndrome and therefore be misdiagnosed. Despite the fact that treatment of the underlying endocrine disease in most cases alleviates psychiatric symptoms, the loss of brain volume persists. It is important to be alert to the symptoms of hypercortisolism in psychiatric patients to avoid misdiagnosis and enable them receiving adequate treatment.

  5. [Prescription drug abuse in elderly psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, Tilman; Schneider, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Due to demographic changes there will be a fraction of elderly patients with substance use disorders. However, only a few data have been published about elderly abusers of prescription drugs. Since substance abuse is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, treatment in a psychiatric hospital is often needed. In this explorative study elderly people with prescription drug abuse who required psychiatric inpatient treatment should be characterized. This study was part of the gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of the data of all older inpatients (≥ 65 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital within a period of 3 years. Among 1266 documented admissions in 110 cases (8.7 %) (mean age: 75.7 ± 7.1 years) prescription drug abuse, mostly of benzodiazepines was diagnosed. Females showed benzodiazepine abuse more often than males. In only a small proportion of the cases the reason for admission was withdrawal of prescribed drugs. 85.5 % suffered from psychiatric comorbidity, mostly depression. As risk factors for abuse depressive symptoms (OR: 3.32) as well as concurrent nicotine (OR: 2.69) or alcohol abuse (OR: 2.14) were calculated. Psychiatric inpatient treatment was primarily not necessary because of prescription drug abuse but because of other psychopathological symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Migraine: Clinical pattern and psychiatric comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeet Singh Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is a common disorder which has psychiatric sequelae. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the clinical pattern and psychiatric comorbidity of migraine. Materials and Methods: 100 cases of migraine seen over a period of one year were analysed to know the sociodemographic characteristics, clinical pattern and psychiatric morbidity. Results: Maximum patients were between 31-40 years of age group (40%, females (78.0%, married (76% and housewives (56.0%. Family history of migraine was present in 12% cases. Average age of onset was 22 years. Unilateral and throbbing type of headache was most common. The commonest frequency was one to two per week. Migraine without aura was commonest sub-type (80%. Generalized anxiety disorder (F41.1 was the most common psychiatric disorder (34%, followed by mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (F41.2 (18% and depressive episode (F32 (14%. In 22% cases, no psychiatric disorder could be elicited. Conclusion: The present study confirms that majority patients with migraine had psychiatric disorders. This needs timely detection and appropriate intervention to treat and control the migraine effectively.

  7. [Psychiatric readmissions: individual and organizational factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancke, Laurent; Amariei, Alina; Flament, Clara; Dumesnil, Chloé

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric readmission often constitutes a criterion to assess the effects of various therapies, as well as the impact of organizational changes in the healthcare system. It is used to characterize relapse or decompensation. The purpose of this study was to determine readmission rates and identify individual and organizational factors associated with significant variations in these rates. Adult psychiatric readmissions were identified from the full-time hospital stays registered in psychiatric wards in 2011-2012 in the Nord and Pas-de-Calais departments of France, available in the medical the RimP psychiatric admission database. Readmission rates for various follow-up periods after discharge were measured by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazards model. Approximately 30,000 adults were hospitalized full-time in psychiatric units of the region during the study period. The 24-month readmission rate was 51.6% (95%CI: 50.8-52.3%). The Cox model showed that a diagnosis of schizophrenia (F2 - HR = 1.72 - 95%CI: 1.61-1.84 - p Psychiatric readmission is a very frequent event and is linked to organizational as well as individual factors.

  8. A meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies of survival to age 90 years or older: the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anne B; Walter, Stefan; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Garcia, Melissa E; Slagboom, P Eline; Christensen, Kaare; Arnold, Alice M; Aspelund, Thor; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Benjamin, Emelia J; Christiansen, Lene; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Franceschini, Nora; Glazer, Nicole L; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Kaplan, Robert; Karasik, David; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Kiel, Douglas P; Launer, Lenore J; Marciante, Kristin D; Massaro, Joseph M; Miljkovic, Iva; Nalls, Michael A; Hernandez, Dena; Psaty, Bruce M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V; Taylor, Kent D; Tiemeier, Henning; Uh, Hae-Won; Uitterlinden, André G; Vaupel, James W; Walston, Jeremy; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Harris, Tamara B; Lumley, Thomas; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Murabito, Joanne M

    2010-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may yield insights into longevity. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS in Caucasians from four prospective cohort studies: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Rotterdam Study participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Longevity was defined as survival to age 90 years or older (n = 1,836); the comparison group comprised cohort members who died between the ages of 55 and 80 years (n = 1,955). In a second discovery stage, additional genotyping was conducted in the Leiden Longevity Study cohort and the Danish 1905 cohort. There were 273 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with p < .0001, but none reached the prespecified significance level of 5 x 10(-8). Of the most significant SNPs, 24 were independent signals, and 16 of these SNPs were successfully genotyped in the second discovery stage, with one association for rs9664222, reaching 6.77 x 10(-7) for the combined meta-analysis of CHARGE and the stage 2 cohorts. The SNP lies in a region near MINPP1 (chromosome 10), a well-conserved gene involved in regulation of cellular proliferation. The minor allele was associated with lower odds of survival past age 90 (odds ratio = 0.82). Associations of interest in a homologue of the longevity assurance gene (LASS3) and PAPPA2 were not strengthened in the second stage. Survival studies of larger size or more extreme or specific phenotypes may support or refine these initial findings.

  9. Prototype diagnosis of psychiatric syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    WESTEN, DREW

    2012-01-01

    resolve the thorny issue of the relation between psychiatric diagnosis and functional impairment. PMID:22294998

  10. Neuroreceptor imaging in psychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, W.G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY, (United States). Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons; Laruelle, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). New York State Psychiatric Inst.

    2002-11-01

    Molecular imaging, the study of receptors, transporters and enzymes, as well as other cellular processes, has grown in recent years to be one of the most active neuroimaging areas. The application of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques to the study of psychiatric illness has lead to increased understanding of disease processes as well as validated, in vivo, theories of illness etiology. Within the field of psychiatry these techniques have been applied most widely to the study of schizophrenia. Studies within schizophrenia are largely limited to either the dopamine or serotonin system. This is due in large part to the availability of suitable radiotracers as well as the current theories on the etiology of the illness. Two basic study designs are used when studying schizophrenia using molecular imaging and make up the majority of studies reviewed in this manuscript. The first type, termed ''clinical studies'', compares the findings from PET and SPECT studies in those with schizophrenia to normal controls in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of the illness. The second study design, termed ''occupancy studies'', uses these techniques to enhance the understanding of the mechanism of action of the medications used in treating this illness. This review will focus on the findings of molecular imaging studies in schizophrenia, focusing, for the most part, on the serotonin and dopamine systems. Emphasis will be placed on how these findings and techniques are currently being used to inform the development of novel treatments for schizophrenia. (author)

  11. Engram Formation in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Gebicke-Haerter

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors substantially influence beginning and progression of mental illness, reinforcing or reducing the consequences of genetic vulnerability. Often initiated by early traumatic events, engrams or memories are formed that may give rise to a slow and subtle progression of psychiatric disorders. The large delay between beginning and time of onset (diagnosis may be explained by efficient compensatory mechanisms observed in brain metabolism that use optional pathways in highly redundant molecular interactions.To this end, research has to deal with mechanisms of learning and long-term memory formation, which involves a epigenetic changes, b altered neuronal activities and c changes in neuron-glia communication. On the epigenetic level, apparently DNA-methylations are more stable than histone modifications, although both closely interact. Neuronal activities basically deliver digital information, which clearly can serve as basis for memory formation (LTP. However, research in this respect has long time neglected the importance of glia. They are more actively involved in the control of neuronal activities than thought before. They can both reinforce and inhibit neuronal activities by transducing neuronal information from frequency-encoded to amplitude and frequency-modulated calcium wave patterns spreading in the glial syncytium by use of gap junctions. In this way, they serve integrative functions. In conclusion, we are dealing with two concepts of encoding information that mutually control each other and synergize: a digital (neuronal and a wave-like (glial computing, forming neuron-glia functional units with inbuilt feedback loops to maintain balance of excitation and inhibition. To better understand mental illness, we have to gain more insight into the dynamics of adverse environmental impact on those cellular and molecular systems. This report summarizes existing knowledge and draws some outline about further research in molecular

  12. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of 6q25 breast cancer hits from Asian and European Genome Wide Association Studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Hein

    Full Text Available The 6q25.1 locus was first identified via a genome-wide association study (GWAS in Chinese women and marked by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs2046210, approximately 180 Kb upstream of ESR1. There have been conflicting reports about the association of this locus with breast cancer in Europeans, and a GWAS in Europeans identified a different SNP, tagged here by rs12662670. We examined the associations of both SNPs in up to 61,689 cases and 58,822 controls from forty-four studies collaborating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, of which four studies were of Asian and 39 of European descent. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Case-only analyses were used to compare SNP effects in Estrogen Receptor positive (ER+ versus negative (ER- tumours. Models including both SNPs were fitted to investigate whether the SNP effects were independent. Both SNPs are significantly associated with breast cancer risk in both ethnic groups. Per-allele ORs are higher in Asian than in European studies [rs2046210: OR (A/G = 1.36 (95% CI 1.26-1.48, p = 7.6 × 10(-14 in Asians and 1.09 (95% CI 1.07-1.11, p = 6.8 × 10(-18 in Europeans. rs12662670: OR (G/T = 1.29 (95% CI 1.19-1.41, p = 1.2 × 10(-9 in Asians and 1.12 (95% CI 1.08-1.17, p = 3.8 × 10(-9 in Europeans]. SNP rs2046210 is associated with a significantly greater risk of ER- than ER+ tumours in Europeans [OR (ER- = 1.20 (95% CI 1.15-1.25, p = 1.8 × 10(-17 versus OR (ER+ = 1.07 (95% CI 1.04-1.1, p = 1.3 × 10(-7, p(heterogeneity = 5.1 × 10(-6]. In these Asian studies, by contrast, there is no clear evidence of a differential association by tumour receptor status. Each SNP is associated with risk after adjustment for the other SNP. These results suggest the presence of two variants at 6q25.1 each independently associated with breast cancer risk in Asians and in Europeans. Of these two, the one tagged by rs2046210 is associated with a greater

  14. Cultivation of algae consortium in a dairy farm wastewater for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hena

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farm wastewaters are potential resources for production of microalgae biofuels. A study was conducted to evaluate the capability of production of biodiesel from consortium of native microalgae culture in dairy farm treated wastewater. Native algal strains were isolated from dairy farm wastewaters collection tank (untreated wastewater as well as from holding tank (treated wastewater. The consortium members were selected on the basis of fluorescence response after treating with Nile red reagent. Preliminary studies of two commercial and consortium of ten native strains of algae showed good growth in wastewaters. A consortium of native strains was found capable to remove more than 98% nutrients from treated wastewater. The biomass production and lipid content of consortium cultivated in treated wastewater were 153.54 t ha−1 year−1 and 16.89%, respectively. 72.70% of algal lipid obtained from consortium could be converted into biodiesel.

  15. Northern New Jersey Nursing Education Consortium: a partnership for graduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinless, F W; Levin, R F

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution and implementation of the Northern New Jersey Nursing Education consortium--a consortium of seven member institutions established in 1992. Details regarding the specific functions of the consortium relative to cross-registration of students in graduate courses, financial disbursement of revenue, faculty development activities, student services, library privileges, and institutional research review board mechanisms are described. The authors also review the administrative organizational structure through which the work conducted by the consortium occurs. Both the advantages and disadvantages of such a graduate consortium are explored, and specific examples of recent potential and real conflicts are fully discussed. The authors detail governance and structure of the consortium as a potential model for replication in other environments.

  16. An historical framework for psychiatric nosology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K. S.

    2009-01-01

    This essay, which seeks to provide an historical framework for our efforts to develop a scientific psychiatric nosology, begins by reviewing the classificatory approaches that arose in the early history of biological taxonomy. Initial attempts at species definition used top-down approaches advocated by experts and based on a few essential features of the organism chosen a priori. This approach was subsequently rejected on both conceptual and practical grounds and replaced by bottom-up approaches making use of a much wider array of features. Multiple parallels exist between the beginnings of biological taxonomy and psychiatric nosology. Like biological taxonomy, psychiatric nosology largely began with ‘expert’ classifications, typically influenced by a few essential features, articulated by one or more great 19th-century diagnosticians. Like biology, psychiatry is struggling toward more soundly based bottom-up approaches using diverse illness characteristics. The underemphasized historically contingent nature of our current psychiatric classification is illustrated by recounting the history of how ‘Schneiderian’ symptoms of schizophrenia entered into DSM-III. Given these historical contingencies, it is vital that our psychiatric nosologic enterprise be cumulative. This can be best achieved through a process of epistemic iteration. If we can develop a stable consensus in our theoretical orientation toward psychiatric illness, we can apply this approach, which has one crucial virtue. Regardless of the starting point, if each iteration (or revision) improves the performance of the nosology, the eventual success of the nosologic process, to optimally reflect the complex reality of psychiatric illness, is assured. PMID:19368761

  17. Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-03-31

    On September 30, 2008, the US Department of Energy (DoE), issued a cooperative agreement award, DE-FC26-08NT01914, to the Metropolitan Energy Center (MEC), for a project known as “Kansas Consortium Plug-in Hybrid Medium Duty Certification” project. The cooperative agreement was awarded pursuant to H15915 in reference to H. R. 2764 Congressionally Directed Projects. The original agreement provided funding for The Consortium to implement the established project objectives as follows: (1) to understand the current state of the development of a test protocol for PHEV configurations; (2) to work with industry stakeholders to recommend a medium duty vehicle test protocol; (3) to utilize the Phase 1 Eaton PHEV F550 Chassis or other appropriate PHEV configurations to conduct emissions testing; (4) and to make an industry PHEV certification test protocol recommendation for medium duty trucks. Subsequent amendments to the initial agreement were made, the most significant being a revised Scope of Project Objectives (SOPO) that did not address actual field data since it was not available as originally expected. This project was mated by DOE with a parallel project award given to the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in California. The SCAQMD project involved designing, building and testing of five medium duty plug-in hybrid electric trucks. SCAQMD had contracted with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to manage the project. EPRI provided the required match to the federal grant funds to both the SCAQMD project and the Kansas Consortium project. The rational for linking the two projects was that the data derived from the SCAQMD project could be used to validate the protocols developed by the Kansas Consortium team. At the same time, the consortium team would be a useful resource to SCAQMD in designating their test procedures for emissions and operating parameters and determining vehicle mileage. The years between award of the cooperative

  18. The Integration of Epistasis Network and Functional Interactions in a GWAS Implicates RXR Pathway Genes in the Immune Response to Smallpox Vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett A McKinney

    Full Text Available Although many diseases and traits show large heritability, few genetic variants have been found to strongly separate phenotype groups by genotype. Complex regulatory networks of variants and expression of multiple genes lead to small individual-variant effects and difficulty replicating the effect of any single variant in an affected pathway. Interaction network modeling of GWAS identifies effects ignored by univariate models, but population differences may still cause specific genes to not replicate. Integrative network models may help detect indirect effects of variants in the underlying biological pathway. In this study, we used gene-level functional interaction information from the Integrative Multi-species Prediction (IMP tool to reveal important genes associated with a complex phenotype through evidence from epistasis networks and pathway enrichment. We test this method for augmenting variant-based network analyses with functional interactions by applying it to a smallpox vaccine immune response GWAS. The integrative analysis spotlights the role of genes related to retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA, which has been implicated in a previous epistasis network analysis of smallpox vaccine.

  19. PR Interval Associated Genes, Atrial Remodeling and Rhythm Outcome of Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation—A Gene-Based Analysis of GWAS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Husser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: PR interval prolongation has recently been shown to associate with advanced left atrial remodeling and atrial fibrillation (AF recurrence after catheter ablation. While different genome-wide association studies (GWAS have implicated 13 loci to associate with the PR interval as an AF endophenotype their subsequent associations with AF remodeling and response to catheter ablation are unknown. Here, we perform a gene-based analysis of GWAS data to test the hypothesis that PR interval candidate genes also associate with left atrial remodeling and arrhythmia recurrence following AF catheter ablation.Methods and Results: Samples from 660 patients with paroxysmal (n = 370 or persistent AF (n = 290 undergoing AF catheter ablation were genotyped for ~1,000,000 SNPs. Gene-based association was investigated using VEGAS (versatile gene-based association study. Among the 13 candidate genes, SLC8A1, MEIS1, ITGA9, SCN5A, and SOX5 associated with the PR interval. Of those, ITGA9 and SOX5 were significantly associated with left atrial low voltage areas and left atrial diameter and subsequently with AF recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation.Conclusion: This study suggests contributions of ITGA9 and SOX5 to AF remodeling expressed as PR interval prolongation, low voltage areas and left atrial dilatation and subsequently to response to catheter ablation. Future and larger studies are necessary to replicate and apply these findings with the aim of designing AF pathophysiology-based multi-locus risk scores.

  20. Integration of liver gene co-expression networks and eGWAs analyses highlighted candidate regulators implicated in lipid metabolism in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Maria; Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Revilla, Manuel; Corominas, Jordi; Castelló, Anna; Estellé, Jordi; Fernández, Ana I; Folch, Josep M

    2017-04-19

    In the present study, liver co-expression networks and expression Genome Wide Association Study (eGWAS) were performed to identify DNA variants and molecular pathways implicated in the functional regulatory mechanisms of meat quality traits in pigs. With this purpose, the liver mRNA expression of 44 candidates genes related with lipid metabolism was analysed in 111 Iberian x Landrace backcross animals. The eGWAS identified 92 eSNPs located in seven chromosomal regions and associated with eight genes: CROT, CYP2U1, DGAT1, EGF, FABP1, FABP5, PLA2G12A, and PPARA. Remarkably, cis-eSNPs associated with FABP1 gene expression which may be determining the C18:2(n-6)/C18:3(n-3) ratio in backfat through the multiple interaction of DNA variants and genes were identified. Furthermore, a hotspot on SSC8 associated with the gene expression of eight genes was identified and the TBCK gene was pointed out as candidate gene regulating it. Our results also suggested that the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway plays an important role in the control of the analysed genes highlighting nuclear receptors as the NR3C1 or PPARA. Finally, sex-dimorphism associated with hepatic lipid metabolism was identified with over-representation of female-biased genes. These results increase our knowledge of the genetic architecture underlying fat composition traits.

  1. Timing of psychiatric consultations - The impact of social vulnerability and level of psychiatric dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, P; Huyse, FJ; Ruinemans, GMF; Stiefel, FC; Lyons, JS; Slaets, JPJ

    2000-01-01

    The authors examined the timing of patient referrals to a psychiatric consultation-liaison service in relation to the patient's social vulnerability and level of psychiatric dysfunction. One hundred consecutive patients were assessed with the INTERMED, a method to document biopsychosocial and health

  2. Joint crisis plans and psychiatric advance directives in German psychiatric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radenbach, Katrin; Falkai, Peter; Weber-Reich, Traudel; Simon, Alfred

    2014-05-01

    This study explores the attitude of German psychiatrists in leading positions towards joint crisis plans and psychiatric advance directives. This topic was examined by contacting 473 medical directors of German psychiatric hospitals and departments. They were asked to complete a questionnaire developed by us. That form contained questions about the incidence and acceptance of joint crisis plans and psychiatric advance directives and previous experiences with them. 108 medical directors of psychiatric hospitals and departments responded (response rate: 22.8%). Their answers demonstrate that in their hospitals these documents are rarely used. Among the respondents, joint crisis plans are more accepted than psychiatric advance directives. There is a certain uncertainty when dealing with these instruments. Our main conclusion is that German psychiatry needs an intensified discussion on the use of instruments for patients to constitute procedures for future critical psychiatric events. For this purpose it will be helpful to collect more empirical data. Furthermore, the proposal of joint crisis plans in psychiatric hospitals and departments should be discussed as well as the possibility of consulting an expert during the preparation of a psychiatric advance directive.

  3. Psychiatric disorders in opioid dependants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Jamshid; Toobaee, Shahin; Kharras, Mohammad; Radmehr, Mohammad

    2003-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common among substance dependants. The objectives of this study were to assess the rate of neurotic disorders among opioid addicts, and reassess the rate of those neurotic disorders two weeks after complete detoxification of the patients. Data were gathered from 500 (496 men and 4 women) opioid dependants, using DSM-IV criteria. The Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ) was used to measure free-floating anxiety, depression, phobia, obsession, hysteria and somatization. Four hundred and ninety-six (99.2%) of the subjects were men of whom the majority (65.2%) were married, 26.4% single and the others were divorced or separated. Three hundred and thirty-four (66.8%) were in age range of 20 to 39 years. Of the subjects 154 (30.8) were self-employed, 116 (23.2%) were factory workers, 100 (20%) unemployed, 64 (12.8%) employees and 32 (6.4%) retailers. The majority, 322 (64.4%), reported elementary and high school as their level of education and only 20 (4%) were illiterate. The means for neurotic disorders (using the MHQ) before and two weeks after detoxification were 10.12 and 9.98 for anxiety, 7.54 and 7.41 for phobia, 10.10 and 9.76 for depression, 11.11 and 11.05 for obsession, 8.47 and 8.49 for hysteria and 9.82 and 9.46 for somatization, respectively. The mean difference was significant only for depression. Present findings indicated that the rate of neurotic disorders in opioid dependants is high and (except for depression) was not significantly different before detoxification and two weeks after detoxification. Opium was found to be the most prevalent form of opioid used. Also it can be concluded that during the last years some demographic characteristics of Iranian opioid addicts in this sample have changed. Cultural attitudes toward substance use quite likely affect the pattern of substance use. These findings can be considered when planning preventive and therapeutic programs.

  4. Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salín-Pascual, Rafael J; Alcocer-Castillejos, Natasha V; Alejo-Galarza, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is the single largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Smoking is not any more just a bad habit, but a substance addiction problem. The pharmacological aspects of nicotine show that this substance has a broad distribution in the different body compartnents, due mainly to its lipophilic characteristic. There are nicotinic receptors as members of cholinergic receptors' family. They are located in neuromuscular junction and in the central nervous system (CNS). Although they are similar, pentameric structure with an ionic channel to sodium, there are some differences in the protein chains characteristics. Repeated administration of nicotine in rats, results in the sensitization phenomenon, which produces increase in the behavioral locomotor activity response. It has been found that most psychostimulants-induced behavioral sensitization through a nicotine receptor activation. Nicotine receptors in CNS are located mainly in presynaptic membrane and in that way they regulated the release of several neurotransmitters, among them acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. In some activities like sleep-wake cycle, nicotine receptors have a functional significance. Nicotine receptor stimulation promotes wake time, reduces both, total sleep time and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). About nicotine dependence, this substance full fills all the criteria for dependence and withdrawal syndrome. There are some people that have more vulnerability for to become nicotine dependent, those are psychiatric patients. Among them schizophrenia, major depression, anxiety disorders and attention deficit disorder, represent the best example in this area. Nicotine may have some beneficial effects, among them are some neuroprotective effects in disorders like Parkinson's disease, and Gilles de la Tourette' syndrome. Also there are several evidences that support the role of nicotine in cognitive improvement functions like attention

  5. Bioremoval of Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive wasters by bacterial consortiums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua; Lima, Josenilson B. de; Gomes, Mirella C.; Borba, Tania R.; Bellini, Maria Helena; Marumo, Julio Takehiro; Sakata, Solange Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the capacity of two bacterial consortiums of impacted areas in removing the Am-241 and Cs-137 from liquid radioactive wastes.The experiments indicated that the two study consortiums were able to remove 100% of the Cs-137 and Am-241 presents in the waste from 4 days of contact. These results suggest that the bio removal with the selected consortiums, can be a viable technique for the treatment of radioactive wastes containing Am-241 and Cs-137

  6. Legacy Clinical Data from the Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-2-0026 TITLE: Legacy Clinical Data from the Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium PRINCIPAL...2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Legacy Clinical Data from the Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Consortium 5b. GRANT...mTBI) Translational Research Consortium was to improve the diagnosis and treatment of mTBI. We enrolled a total of 88 mTBI patients and 73 orthopedic

  7. Geodesy and the UNAVCO Consortium: Three Decades of Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L. R.; Miller, M. M.; Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    UNAVCO, a non-profit, university consortium that supports geoscience research using geodesy, began with the ingenious recognition that the nascent Global Positioning System constellation (GPS) could be used to investigate earth processes. The consortium purchased one of the first commercially available GPS receivers, Texas Instrument's TI-4100 NAVSTAR Navigator, in 1984 to measure plate deformation. This early work was highlighted in a technology magazine, GPSWorld, in 1990. Over a 30-year period, UNAVCO and the community have helped advance instrument design for mobility, flexibility, efficiency and interoperability, so research could proceed with higher precision and under ever challenging conditions. Other innovations have been made in data collection, processing, analysis, management and archiving. These innovations in tools, methods and data have had broader impacts as they have found greater utility beyond research for timing, precise positioning, safety, communication, navigation, surveying, engineering and recreation. Innovations in research have expanded the utility of geodetic tools beyond the solid earth science through creative analysis of the data and the methods. For example, GPS sounding of the atmosphere is now used for atmospheric and space sciences. GPS reflectrometry, another critical advance, supports soil science, snow science and ecological research. Some research advances have had broader impacts for society by driving innovations in hazards risk reduction, hazards response, resource management, land use planning, surveying, engineering and other uses. Furthermore, the geodetic data is vital for the design of space missions, testing and advancing communications, and testing and dealing with interference and GPS jamming. We will discuss three decades (and counting) of advances by the National Science Foundation's premiere geodetic facility, consortium and some of the many geoscience principal investigators that have driven innovations in

  8. The IRIS consortium: international cooperation in advanced reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.; Petrovic, B.; Miller, K.; Lombardi, C.; Ricotti, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Besides its many outstanding technical innovations in the design and safety, the most innovative feature of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), is perhaps the international cooperation which carries on its development. IRIS is designed by an international consortium which currently numbers 21 organizations from ten countries across four continents. It includes reactor, fuel and fuel cycle vendors, component manufacturers, laboratories, academia, architect engineers and power producers. The defining organizational characteristics of IRIS is that while Westinghouse has overall lead and responsibility, this lead is of the type of 'primus inter pares' (first among equals) rather than the traditional owner versus suppliers/contractors relationship. All members of the IRIS consortium contribute and expect to have a return, should IRIS be successfully deployed, commensurate to their investment. The nature of such return will be tailored to the type of each organization, because it will of course be of a different nature for say a component manufacturer, university, or architect engineer. One fundamental tenet of the consortium is that all members, regardless of their amount of contribution, have equal access to all information developed within the project. Technical work is thus being coordinated by integrated subgroups and the whole team meets twice a year to perform an overall review of the work, discuss policy and strategy and plan future activities. Personnel from consortium members have performed internships, mostly at Westinghouse locations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Windsor, Connecticut, but also at other members, as it has been the case for several graduate students. In fact, more than one hundred students at the various universities have been working on IRIS, most of them conducting graduate theses at the master or doctoral level. The IRIS experience has proved very helpful to the students in successfully landing their employment choice

  9. Psychiatric care in the German prison system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the nature of medical care within the German penal system. German prison services provide health care for all inmates, including psychiatric care. The reached level of equivalence of care and ethical problems and resource limitations are discussed and the way of legislation in this field since 2006 reform on federal law is described. The article summarizes basic data on German prison health care for mentally ill inmates. The legislation process and factors of influence are pointed out. A description of how psychiatric care is organized in German prisons follows. It focuses on the actual legal situation including European standards of prison health care and prevention of torture, psychiatric care in German prisons themselves, self harm and addiction. Associated problems such as blood born diseases and tuberculosis are included. The interactions between prison staff and health care personal and ethic aspects are discussed. The legislation process is still going on and there is still a chance to improve psychiatric care. Mental health problems are the major challenge for prison health care. Factors such as special problems of migrants, shortage of professionals and pure statistic data are considered. The paper provides a general overview on psychiatric services in prison and names weak points and strengths of the system.

  10. Who's boarding in the psychiatric emergency service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Scott A; Joesch, Jutta M; West, Imara I; Pasic, Jagoda

    2014-09-01

    When a psychiatric patient in the emergency department requires inpatient admission, but no bed is available, they may become a "boarder." The psychiatric emergency service (PES) has been suggested as one means to reduce psychiatric boarding, but the frequency and characteristics of adult PES boarders have not been described. We electronically extracted electronic medical records for adult patients presenting to the PES in an urban county safety-net hospital over 12 months. Correlative analyses included Student's t-tests and multivariate regression. 521 of 5363 patient encounters (9.7%) resulted in boarding. Compared to non-boarding encounters, boarding patient encounters were associated with diagnoses of a primary psychotic, anxiety, or personality disorder, or a bipolar manic/mixed episode. Boarders were also more likely to be referred by family, friends or providers than self-referred; arrive in restraints; experience restraint/seclusion in the PES; or be referred for involuntary hospitalization. Boarders were more likely to present to the PES on the weekend. Substance use was common, but only tobacco use was more likely associated with boarding status in multivariate analysis. Boarding is common in the PES, and boarders have substantial psychiatric morbidity requiring treatment during extended PES stays. We question the appropriateness of PES boarding for seriously ill psychiatric patients.

  11. Receptor study of psychiatric disorders using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhara, Tetsuya

    1992-01-01

    Recent receptor studies of psychiatric disorders using PET have been focused on the change in the number of D 2 dopamine receptors in the striatum of drug-naive schizophrenic patients. One study confirmed an increase in D 2 receptors, while another study denied it. Although there were some differences in the approaches of the two groups, the reason for the discrepancy is not clear yet. Looking to psychiatric disorders other than schizophrenia, our recent study revealed a possible role of dopamine D 1 receptors in bipolar mood disorders. However, some problems must be resolved for further receptor studies with PET. For example, our recent study shows that desipamine decreases the in vivo binding of dopramine D 1 and D 2 receptors whereas these is no effect on dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptors in vitro. Additionally significant methodological problems lie in the method of evaluation of the non-specific binding and the effect of endogenous neurotransmitters. Moreover, difficulties in the diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and ethical problems in psychiatric research are critical factors in receptor studies with PET in psychiatric disorders. (author)

  12. Narcissism and relational representations among psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy, David; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Joyce, Anthony S; Steinberg, Paul I; Piper, William E

    2015-06-01

    Pathological narcissism is associated with maladaptive interpersonal behavior, although less is known regarding the internal relational representations of narcissistic patients. The authors examined the relationship between pathological narcissism and two constructs that reflect internal representations of relational patterns: quality of object relations and attachment style. Patients attending a psychiatric day treatment program (N = 218) completed measures of narcissism, general psychiatric distress, and attachment style in terms of attachment avoidance and anxiety. A semistructured interview was used to assess quality of object relations. Multiple regression analysis was conducted, controlling for general psychiatric distress. Pathological narcissism was associated with anxious attachment, but not with avoidant attachment. Narcissism was also associated with lower levels of quality of object relations. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of internal representations of self-other relations.

  13. Psychiatric Problems in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munevver Tunel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a physical disorder with concurrent mental and social components. During cancer, the feelings of fear, hopelessness, guilt, helplessness, abandonment perceived as a crisis leading to destruction in the suffering person. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients is approximately 50% and most of disorders are related with the occurrence of cancer and cancer treatment. Majority of patients present with major depression, adjustment disorder, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, suicidial ideation, and delirium. Treatment of psychiatric disorders and cancer therapy should be conducted along with special consideration of drug interactions. This article reviews the adaptation process experienced by individuals during diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, it psychological effects, resulting psychiatric comorbidites and their treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 189-219

  14. Wireless physiological monitoring system for psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademeyer, A J; Blanckenberg, M M; Scheffer, C

    2009-01-01

    Patients in psychiatric hospitals that are sedated or secluded are at risk of death or injury if they are not continuously monitored. Some psychiatric patients are restless and aggressive, and hence the monitoring device should be robust and must transmit the data wirelessly. Two devices, a glove that measures oxygen saturation and a dorsally-mounted device that measures heart rate, skin temperature and respiratory rate were designed and tested. Both devices connect to one central monitoring station using two separate Bluetooth connections, ensuring a completely wireless setup. A Matlab graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for signal processing and monitoring of the vital signs of the psychiatric patient. Detection algorithms were implemented to detect ECG arrhythmias such as premature ventricular contraction and atrial fibrillation. The prototypes were manufactured and tested in a laboratory setting on healthy volunteers.

  15. Ayahuasca in adolescence: a preliminary psychiatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier; Grob, Charles S; de Rios, Marlene Dobkin; Lopez, Enrique; Alonso, Luisa K; Tacla, Cristiane; Doering-Silveira, Evelyn

    2005-06-01

    Ayahuasca is believed to be harmless for those (including adolescents) drinking it within a religious setting. Nevertheless controlled studies on the mental/ psychiatric status of ritual hallucinogenic ayahuasca concoction consumers are still lacking. In this study, 40 adolescents from a Brazilian ayahuasca sect were compared with 40 controls matched on sex, age, and educational background for psychiatric symptomatology. Screening scales for depression, anxiety, alcohol consumption patterns (abuse), attentional problems, and body dysmorphic disorders were used. It was found that, compared to controls, considerable lower frequencies of positive scoring for anxiety, body dismorphism, and attentional problems were detected among ayahuasca-using adolescents despite overall similar psychopathological profiles displayed by both study groups. Low frequencies of psychiatric symptoms detected among adolescents consuming ayahuasca within a religious context may reflect a protective effect due to their religious affiliation. However further studies on the possible interference of other variables in the outcome are necessary.

  16. Substance use among Danish psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tina; Jespersen, Hans Søe Riis; Vinberg, Maj

    2018-01-01

    a questionnaire regarding their use of alcohol and other drugs of abuse. The questionnaire was based on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), supplemented by questions regarding use of tobacco and illicit drugs. The results were compared with those uses in the general population. Results: In total...... equivalents. Compared to the general population, the psychiatric patients had higher odds of being current smokers and having used illicit drugs within the past month. Women with psychiatric disorders were twice as likely to binge drink on a monthly basis. No significant difference was found in the patients......’ AUDIT scores compared to the general population. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a substantial and problematic use of tobacco and illicit drugs among Danish psychiatric patients, greater than in the general population....

  17. The serotonin transporter in psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spies, Marie; Knudsen, Karen Birgitte Moos; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, psychotropics affecting the serotonergic system have been used extensively in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Molecular imaging, in particular PET, has allowed for elucidation of the essential contribution of the serotonin transporter to the pathophysiology...... of various psychiatric disorders and their treatment. We review studies that use PET to measure cerebral serotonin transporter activity in psychiatric disorders, focusing on major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment. We also discuss opportunities and limitations in the application...... of this neuroimaging method in clinical practice. Although results from individual studies diverge, meta-analysis indicates a trend towards reduced serotonin transporter availability in patients with major depressive disorder. Inconsistencies in results might suggest symptom heterogeneity in major depressive disorder...

  18. Ethical Challenges in Psychiatric Administration and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffic, H Steven; Saeed, Sy Atezaz; Silver, Stuart; Koh, Steve

    2015-09-01

    As with all professional ethical principles, those in psychiatry have to evolve over time and societal changes. The current ethical challenges for psychiatric administration and leadership, especially regarding for-profit managed care, need updated solutions. One solution resides in the development by the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators (AAPA) of the first set of ethical principles designed specifically for psychiatric administrators. These principles build on prior Psychological Theories of leadership, such as those of Freud, Kernberg, and Kohut. Supplementing these theories are the actual real life models of psychiatrist leadership as depicted in the memoirs of various psychiatrists. Appreciating these principles, theories, and models may help emerging leaders to better recognize the importance of ethical challenges. A conclusion is that psychiatrists should have the potential to assume more successful leadership positions once again. In such positions, making the skills and well-being of all in the organization seems now to be the foremost ethical priority.

  19. Glycan array data management at Consortium for Functional Glycomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Maha; Sasisekharan, Ram; Raman, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Glycomics or the study of structure-function relationships of complex glycans has reshaped post-genomics biology. Glycans mediate fundamental biological functions via their specific interactions with a variety of proteins. Recognizing the importance of glycomics, large-scale research initiatives such as the Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG) were established to address these challenges. Over the past decade, the Consortium for Functional Glycomics (CFG) has generated novel reagents and technologies for glycomics analyses, which in turn have led to generation of diverse datasets. These datasets have contributed to understanding glycan diversity and structure-function relationships at molecular (glycan-protein interactions), cellular (gene expression and glycan analysis), and whole organism (mouse phenotyping) levels. Among these analyses and datasets, screening of glycan-protein interactions on glycan array platforms has gained much prominence and has contributed to cross-disciplinary realization of the importance of glycomics in areas such as immunology, infectious diseases, cancer biomarkers, etc. This manuscript outlines methodologies for capturing data from glycan array experiments and online tools to access and visualize glycan array data implemented at the CFG.

  20. Determinism and Contingency Shape Metabolic Complementation in an Endosymbiotic Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-de-Leon, Miguel; Tamarit, Daniel; Calle-Espinosa, Jorge; Mori, Matteo; Latorre, Amparo; Montero, Francisco; Pereto, Juli

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts and their insect hosts establish an intimate metabolic relationship. Bacteria offer a variety of essential nutrients to their hosts, whereas insect cells provide the necessary sources of matter and energy to their tiny metabolic allies. These nutritional complementations sustain themselves on a diversity of metabolite exchanges between the cell host and the reduced yet highly specialized bacterial metabolism-which, for instance, overproduces a small set of essential amino acids and vitamins. A well-known case of metabolic complementation is provided by the cedar aphid Cinara cedri that harbors two co-primary endosymbionts, Buchnera aphidicola BCc and Ca . Serratia symbiotica SCc, and in which some metabolic pathways are partitioned between different partners. Here we present a genome-scale metabolic network (GEM) for the bacterial consortium from the cedar aphid i BSCc. The analysis of this GEM allows us the confirmation of cases of metabolic complementation previously described by genome analysis (i.e., tryptophan and biotin biosynthesis) and the redefinition of an event of metabolic pathway sharing between the two endosymbionts, namely the biosynthesis of tetrahydrofolate. In silico knock-out experiments with i BSCc showed that the consortium metabolism is a highly integrated yet fragile network. We also have explored the evolutionary pathways leading to the emergence of metabolic complementation between reduced metabolisms starting from individual, complete networks. Our results suggest that, during the establishment of metabolic complementation in endosymbionts, adaptive evolution is significant in the case of tryptophan biosynthesis, whereas vitamin production pathways seem to adopt suboptimal solutions.

  1. Inner-City Energy and Environmental Education Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-11

    The numbers of individuals with adequate education and training to participate effectively in the highly technical aspects of environmental site cleanup are insufficient to meet the increasing demands of industry and government. Young people are particularly sensitive to these issues and want to become better equipped to solve the problems which will confront them during their lives. Educational institutions, on the other hand, have been slow in offering courses and curricula which will allow students to fulfill these interests. This has been in part due to the lack of federal funding to support new academic programs. This Consortium has been organized to initiate focused educational effort to reach inner-city youth with interesting and useful energy and environmental programs which can lead to well-paying and satisfying careers. Successful Consortium programs can be replicated in other parts of the nation. This report describes a pilot program in Washington, DC, Philadelphia, and Baltimore with the goal to attract and retain inner-city youth to pursue careers in energy-related scientific and technical areas, environmental restoration, and waste management.

  2. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, L. E.; Casas, J. P.; Herrera, V. M.; Miranda, J. J.; Perel, P.; Pichardo, R.; González, A.; Sanchez, J. R.; Ferreccio, C.; Aguilera, X.; Silva, E.; Oróstegui, M.; Gómez, L. F.; Chirinos, J. A.; Medina-Lezama, J.; Pérez, C. M.; Suárez, E.; Ortiz, A. P.; Rosero, L.; Schapochnik, N.; Ortiz, Z.; Ferrante, D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Current, high-quality data are needed to evaluate the health impact of the epidemic of obesity in Latin America. The Latin American Consortium of Studies of Obesity (LASO) has been established, with the objectives of (i) Accurately estimating the prevalence of obesity and its distribution by sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) Identifying ethnic, socioeconomic and behavioural determinants of obesity; (iii) Estimating the association between various anthropometric indicators or obesity and major cardiovascular risk factors and (iv) Quantifying the validity of standard definitions of the various indexes of obesity in Latin American population. To achieve these objectives, LASO makes use of individual data from existing studies. To date, the LASO consortium includes data from 11 studies from eight countries (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Peru, Puerto Rico and Venezuela), including a total of 32 462 subjects. This article describes the overall organization of LASO, the individual studies involved and the overall strategy for data analysis. LASO will foster the development of collaborative obesity research among Latin American investigators. More important, results from LASO will be instrumental to inform health policies aiming to curtail the epidemic of obesity in the region. PMID:19438980

  3. Multiple Syntrophic Interactions in a Terephthalate-Degrading Methanogenic Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Chen, Chia-Lung; Tringe, Susannah G.; McHardy, Alice C.; Copeland, Alex 5; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2010-08-05

    Terephthalate (TA) is one of the top 50 chemicals produced worldwide. Its production results in a TA-containing wastewater that is treated by anaerobic processes through a poorly understood methanogenic syntrophy. Using metagenomics, we characterized the methanogenic consortium tinside a hyper-mesophilic (i.e., between mesophilic and thermophilic), TA-degrading bioreactor. We identified genes belonging to dominant Pelotomaculum species presumably involved in TA degradation through decarboxylation, dearomatization, and modified ?-oxidation to H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} and acetate. These intermediates are converted to CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} by three novel hyper-mesophilic methanogens. Additional secondary syntrophic interactions were predicted in Thermotogae, Syntrophus and candidate phyla OP5 and WWE1 populations. The OP5 encodes genes capable of anaerobic autotrophic butyrate production and Thermotogae, Syntrophus and WWE1 have the genetic potential to oxidize butyrate to COsub 2}/H{sub 2} and acetate. These observations suggest that the TA-degrading consortium consists of additional syntrophic interactions beyond the standard H{sub 2}-producing syntroph ? methanogen partnership that may serve to improve community stability.

  4. A programmable Escherichia coli consortium via tunable symbiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Kerner

    Full Text Available Synthetic microbial consortia that can mimic natural systems have the potential to become a powerful biotechnology for various applications. One highly desirable feature of these consortia is that they can be precisely regulated. In this work we designed a programmable, symbiotic circuit that enables continuous tuning of the growth rate and composition of a synthetic consortium. We implemented our general design through the cross-feeding of tryptophan and tyrosine by two E. coli auxotrophs. By regulating the expression of genes related to the export or production of these amino acids, we were able to tune the metabolite exchanges and achieve a wide range of growth rates and strain ratios. In addition, by inverting the relationship of growth/ratio vs. inducer concentrations, we were able to "program" the co-culture for pre-specified attributes with the proper addition of inducing chemicals. This programmable proof-of-concept circuit or its variants can be applied to more complex systems where precise tuning of the consortium would facilitate the optimization of specific objectives, such as increasing the overall efficiency of microbial production of biofuels or pharmaceuticals.

  5. Birth order and postpartum psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Jones, Ian; Laursen, Thomas Munk

    2014-05-01

    Primiparity is a well-established and significant risk factor for postpartum psychosis and especially bipolar affective disorders. However, no studies have, to our knowledge, quantified the risk of psychiatric disorders after the first, second, or subsequent births. The overall aim of the present study was to study the risk of first-time psychiatric episodes requiring inpatient treatment after the birth of the first, second, or third child. A cohort comprising 750,127 women was defined using information from Danish population registries. Women were followed individually from the date of birth of their first, second, or third child through the following 12 months over the period 1970-2011. The outcome of interest was defined as first-time admissions to a psychiatric hospital with any type of psychiatric disorder. Women who had a first psychiatric episode which required inpatient treatment after their first (n = 1,327), second (n = 735), or third (n = 238) delivery were included. The highest risk was found in primiparous mothers 10-19 days postpartum [relative risk (RR) = 8.65; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.89-10.85]. After the second birth, the highest risk was at 60-89 days postpartum (RR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.52-2.65), and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The effect of primiparity was strongest for bipolar disorders. Primiparity is a significant risk factor for experiencing a first-time episode with a psychiatric disorder, especially bipolar disorders. A second birth was associated with a smaller risk, and there was no increased risk after the third birth. The risk of postpartum episodes after the second delivery increased with increasing inter-pregnancy intervals, a result which warrants further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Zachar, P; Craver, C

    2011-06-01

    This essay explores four answers to the question 'What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders?' Essentialist kinds are classes whose members share an essence from which their defining features arise. Although elegant and appropriate for some physical (e.g. atomic elements) and medical (e.g. Mendelian disorders) phenomena, this model is inappropriate for psychiatric disorders, which are multi-factorial and 'fuzzy'. Socially constructed kinds are classes whose members are defined by the cultural context in which they arise. This model excludes the importance of shared physiological mechanisms by which the same disorder could be identified across different cultures. Advocates of practical kinds put off metaphysical questions about 'reality' and focus on defining classes that are useful. Practical kinds models for psychiatric disorders, implicit in the DSM nosologies, do not require that diagnoses be grounded in shared causal processes. If psychiatry seeks to tie disorders to etiology and underlying mechanisms, a model first proposed for biological species, mechanistic property cluster (MPC) kinds, can provide a useful framework. MPC kinds are defined not in terms of essences but in terms of complex, mutually reinforcing networks of causal mechanisms. We argue that psychiatric disorders are objectively grounded features of the causal structure of the mind/brain. MPC kinds are fuzzy sets defined by mechanisms at multiple levels that act and interact to produce the key features of the kind. Like species, psychiatric disorders are populations with central paradigmatic and more marginal members. The MPC view is the best current answer to 'What kinds of things are psychiatric disorders?'

  7. Two Cases Of Multiple Sclerosis Accompanying Psychiatric Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Şengel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific bacground: It has been reported that; Multiple Sclerosis (MS may be presented with many psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety, depression, mania and psychosis. MS cases, presented with psychiatric symptoms were also reported. Cases: Two MS cases, diagnosed as psychotic and bipolar disorder respectively, were reported in this paper. Both of the cases were responded to the steroid treatment, and neurological and psychiatric examinations were found to be normal after one month. CONCLUSION: MS cases might be presented with psychiatric complaints and symptoms except neurological ones. We conclude that; psychiatric evaluation as well as the neurological evaluation is important in the MS cases presented with psychiatric symptoms

  8. Valuing psychiatric patients' stories: belief in and use of the supernatural in the Jamaican psychiatric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Caryl C A B; Carpenter, Karen A; Peltzer, Karl; Weaver, Steve

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine illness presentation and understand how psychiatric patients make meaning of the causes of their mental illnesses. Six Jamaican psychiatric patients were interviewed using the McGill Illness Narrative Interview Schedule. Of the 6, 3 representative case studies were chosen. The hermeneutic phenomenological approach and the common sense model were used in the formulation of patients' explanatory models. Results indicate that psychiatric patients actively conceptualized the causes and resultant treatment of their mental illnesses. Patients' satisfaction and compliance with treatment were dependent on the extent to which practitioners' conceptualization matched their own, as well as practitioners' acknowledgement of patients' concerns about causation, prognosis, and treatment.

  9. Clinically useful predictors for premature mortality among psychiatric patients visiting a psychiatric emergency room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Jørgen; Buus, Niels; Wernlund, Andreas Glahn

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine changes in the distribution of causes of death and mortality rates among psychiatric patients visiting a psychiatric emergency room (PER), to determine clinically useful predictors for avoiding premature mortality among these patients and to discuss...... linked to the Cause of Death Register and the Central Psychiatric Research Register, and logistic predictor analyses for premature death were performed. RESULTS: The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of all visitors compared to the general Danish population was approximately 5. Overall, patients...

  10. The Impact of Psychiatric Patient Boarding in Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Nicks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of emergency department (ED boarding. This study examines the impact of resource utilization, throughput, and financial impact for psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement. Methods. The authors retrospectively studied all psychiatric and non-psychiatric adult admissions in an Academic Medical Center ED (>68,000 adult visits from January 2007-2008. The main outcomes were ED length of stay (LOS and associated reimbursement. Results. 1,438 patients were consulted to psychiatry with 505 (35.1% requiring inpatient psychiatric care management. The mean psychiatric patient age was 42.5 years (SD 13.1 years, with 2.7 times more women than men. ED LOS was significantly longer for psychiatric admissions (1089 min, CI (1039–1140 versus 340 min, CI (304–375; <0.001 when compared to non-psychiatric admissions. The financial impact of psychiatric boarding accounted for a direct loss of ($1,198 compared to non-psychiatric admissions. Factoring the loss of bed turnover for waiting patients and opportunity cost due to loss of those patients, psychiatric patient boarding cost the department $2,264 per patient. Conclusions. Psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement remain in the ED 3.2 times longer than non-psychiatric patients, preventing 2.2 bed turnovers (additional patients per psychiatric patient, and decreasing financial revenue.

  11. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Cabellos, O.; Kodeli, I.; Koning, A.; Konobeyev, A.Yu.; Leeb, H.; Rochman, D.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Sauvan, P.; Sublet, J.-C.; Trkov, A.; Dupont, E.; Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations

  12. 77 FR 43237 - Genome in a Bottle Consortium-Work Plan Review Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... in human whole genome variant calls. A principal motivation for this consortium is to enable... standards and quantitative performance metrics are needed to achieve the confidence in measurement results... principal motivation for this consortium is to enable science-based regulatory oversight of clinical...

  13. Consortium de recherche pour le développement de l'agriculture en ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research Consortium for the Development of Agriculture in Haiti. Even before it was hit by a devastating earthquake in January 2010, Haiti's children suffered some of the worst rates of undernutrition in Latin America and the Caribbean. View moreResearch Consortium for the Development of Agriculture in Haiti ...

  14. A Long Island Consortium Takes Shape. Occasional Paper No. 76-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William R.

    This occasional paper, the first in a "new" series, describes the background, activities, and experiences of the Long Island Consortium, a cooperative effort of two-year and four-year colleges committed to organizing a model program of faculty development. The consortium was organized under an initial grant from the Lilly Endowment. In May and…

  15. The creation of the SAVE consortium – Saving Asia's Vultures from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the background to this problem, caused mainly by the veterinary drug diclofenac, and the establishment and structure of the SAVE consortium created to help coordinate the necessary conservation response. The lessons learnt in Asia and the working model of such a consortium are presented, which ...

  16. Ophthalmic epidemiology in Europe : the "European Eye Epidemiology" (E3) consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delcourt, Cecile; Korobelnik, Jean-Francois; Buitendijk, Gabrielle H. S.; Foster, Paul J.; Hammond, Christopher J.; Piermarocchi, Stefano; Peto, Tunde; Jansonius, Nomdo; Mirshahi, Alireza; Hogg, Ruth E.; Bretillon, Lionel; Topouzis, Fotis; Deak, Gabor; Grauslund, Jakob; Broe, Rebecca; Souied, Eric H.; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Sahel, Jose; Daien, Vincent; Lehtimaki, Terho; Hense, Hans-Werner; Prokofyeva, Elena; Oexle, Konrad; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Cumberland, Phillippa M.; Schmitz-Valckenberg, Steffen; Fauser, Sascha; Bertelsen, Geir; Hoyng, Carel; Bergen, Arthur; Silva, Rufino; Wolf, Sebastian; Lotery, Andrew; Chakravarthy, Usha; Fletcher, Astrid; Klaver, Caroline C. W.

    The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) consortium is a recently formed consortium of 29 groups from 12 European countries. It already comprises 21 population-based studies and 20 other studies (case-control, cases only, randomized trials), providing ophthalmological data on approximately 170,000

  17. The Activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), RO-077125 Magurele (Romania); Cabellos, O. [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Kodeli, I. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Koning, A. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Konobeyev, A.Yu. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Leeb, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Atominstitut, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8–10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Rochman, D. [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755 LE Petten (Netherlands); Pereslavtsev, P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physic and Reactor Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sauvan, P. [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, C. Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sublet, J.-C. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Trkov, A. [Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI), Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dupont, E. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France); Leichtle, D.; Izquierdo, J. [Fusion for Energy, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-06-15

    This paper presents an overview of the activities of the European Consortium on Nuclear Data Development and Analysis for Fusion. The Consortium combines available European expertise to provide services for the generation, maintenance, and validation of nuclear data evaluations and data files relevant for ITER, IFMIF and DEMO, as well as codes and software tools required for related nuclear calculations.

  18. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium Annual Report - 1988 Parallel Vision. Volume 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    supports the Northeast Aritificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). Volume 9 Parallel Vision Report submitted by Christopher M. Brown Randal C. Nelson...NORTHEAST ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONSORTIUM ANNUAL REPORT - 1988 Parallel Vision Syracuse University Christopher M. Brown and Randal C. Nelson...Technical Director Directorate of Intelligence & Reconnaissance FOR THE COMMANDER: IGOR G. PLONISCH Directorate of Plans & Programs If your address has

  19. 34 CFR 636.5 - What are the matching contribution and planning consortium requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the matching contribution and planning... PROGRAM General § 636.5 What are the matching contribution and planning consortium requirements? (a) The... agreed to by the members of a planning consortium. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1136b, 1136e) ...

  20. Measuring Consortium Impact on User Perceptions: OhioLINK and LibQUAL+[TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatten, Jeffrey N.

    2004-01-01

    What is the impact of an academic library consortium on the perceptions of library services experienced by users of the member institutions' libraries? What is the impact of an academic library consortium on the perceptions of library services experienced by users of the member institutions libraries? In 2002 and 2003, OhioLINK (Ohio's consortium…

  1. Activities of the Alabama Consortium on forestry education and research, 1993-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas

    2002-01-01

    The Alabama Consortium on Forestry Education and Research was established in 1992 to promote communication and collaboration among diverse institutions involved in forestry in the State of Alabama. It was organized to advance forestry education and research in ways that could not be accomplished by individual members alone. This report tells the story of the consortium...

  2. MiRNA-Related SNPs and Risk of Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Barrett's Esophagus: Post Genome-Wide Association Analysis in the BEACON Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F Buas

    Full Text Available Incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA has increased substantially in recent decades. Multiple risk factors have been identified for EA and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus (BE, such as reflux, European ancestry, male sex, obesity, and tobacco smoking, and several germline genetic variants were recently associated with disease risk. Using data from the Barrett's and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma Consortium (BEACON genome-wide association study (GWAS of 2,515 EA cases, 3,295 BE cases, and 3,207 controls, we examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that potentially affect the biogenesis or biological activity of microRNAs (miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs implicated in post-transcriptional gene regulation, and deregulated in many cancers, including EA. Polymorphisms in three classes of genes were examined for association with risk of EA or BE: miRNA biogenesis genes (157 SNPs, 21 genes; miRNA gene loci (234 SNPs, 210 genes; and miRNA-targeted mRNAs (177 SNPs, 158 genes. Nominal associations (P0.50, and we did not find evidence for interactions between variants analyzed and two risk factors for EA/BE (smoking and obesity. This analysis provides the most extensive assessment to date of miRNA-related SNPs in relation to risk of EA and BE. While common genetic variants within components of the miRNA biogenesis core pathway appear unlikely to modulate susceptibility to EA or BE, further studies may be warranted to examine potential associations between unassessed variants in miRNA genes and targets with disease risk.

  3. Experience of the Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joussaume, Sylvie; Pacteau, Chantal; Vanderlinden, Jean Paul

    2016-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that the complexity of climate change issues translates itself into a need for interdisciplinary approaches to science. This allows to first achieve a more comprehensive vision of climate change and, second, to better inform the decision-making processes. However, it seems that willingness alone is rarely enough to implement interdisciplinarity. The purpose of this presentation is to mobilize reflexivity to revisit and analyze the experience of the Paris Consortium for Climate-Environment-Society. The French Consortium Climate-Environment-Society aims to develop, fund and coordinate interdisciplinary research into climate change and its impacts on society and environment. Launched in 2007, the consortium relies on the research expertise of 17 laboratories and federation in the Paris area working mainly in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology, health sciences, and the humanities and social sciences. As examples, economists and climatologists have studied greenhouse gas emission scenarios compatible with climate stabilization goals. Historical records have provided both knowledge about past climate change and vulnerability of societies. Some regions, as the Mediterranean and the Sahel, are particularly vulnerable and already have to cope with water availability, agricultural production and even health issues. A project showed that millet production in West Africa is expected to decline due to warming in a higher proportion than observed in recent decades. Climate change also raises many questions concerning health: combined effects of warming and air quality, impacts on the production of pollens and allergies, impacts on infectious diseases. All these issues lead to a need for approaches integrating different disciplines. Furthermore, climate change impacts many ecosystems which, in turn, affect its evolution. Our experience shows that interdisciplinarity supposes, in order to take shape, the conjunction between programming

  4. The fungal consortium of Andromeda polifolia in bog habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Filippova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Andromeda polifolia (bog rosemary is a common plant species in northern circumboreal peatlands. While not a major peat-forming species in most peatlands, it is characterised by a substantial woody below-ground biomass component that contributes directly to the accumulation of organic matter below the moss surface, as well as sclerophyllous leaf litter that contributes to the accumulation of organic matter above the moss surface. Rather little is known about the fungal communities associated with this plant species. Hence, we investigated the fungal consortium of A. polifolia in three distinct vegetation communities of ombrotrophic bogs near Khanty-Mansiysk, West Siberia, Russia, in 2012 and 2013. These vegetation communities were forested bog (Tr = treed, Sphagnum-dominated lawn (Ln, and Eriophorum-Sphagnum-dominated hummock (Er. (2 In total, 37 fungal taxa, belonging to five classes and 16 families, were identified and described morphologically. Seven fungal species were previously known from Andromeda as host. Others are reported for the first time, thus considerably expanding the fungal consortium of this dwarf shrub. Most taxa were saprobic on fallen leaves of A. polifolia found amongst Sphagnum in the bog. Two taxa were parasitic on living plant tissues and one taxon was saprobic on dead twigs. Three taxa, recorded only on A. polifolia leaves and on no other plant species or materials, may be host-specific to this dwarf shrub. (3 A quantitative analysis of the frequency of occurrence of all taxa showed that one taxon (Coccomyces duplicarioides was very abundant, 64 % of the taxa occurred frequently, and 32 % of the taxa occurred infrequently. The mean Shannon diversity index of the community was 2.4. (4 There were no statistical differences in the fungal community composition of A. polifolia in the three vegetation communities investigated in this study. Redundancy analysis suggested that some fungal taxa were positively, and others

  5. [The architectural design of psychiatric care buildings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunet, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    The architectural design of psychiatric care buildings. In addition to certain "classic" creations, the Dunet architectural office has designed several units for difficult patients as well as a specially adapted hospitalisation unit. These creations which are demanding in terms of the organisation of care require close consultation with the nursing teams. Testimony of an architect who is particularly engaged in the universe of psychiatry.

  6. Psychiatric epidemiology and disaster exposure in Australia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reifels, L.; Mills, K.; Dückers, M.L.A.; O'Donnell, M.L.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. To examine the lifetime prevalence and risk of psychiatric disorders associated with natural and man-made disaster exposure in Australia. Methods. We utilised data from a nationally representative population survey (N = 8841) which were analysed through univariate and multivariate logistic

  7. Sexual Attitude Reassessment for Psychiatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincin, Jerry; Wise, Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Sexuality programs are one part of the program at Thresholds, a rehabilitation center for psychiatric patients (17 to 50 years old). A 16 week sexuality group includes seven phases: initial interview; beginning group development (health care, contraception, reproduction, sexuality); masturbation; intercourse; homosexuality; coed group discussion;…

  8. Chronic psychiatric status and satisfaction with life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch; Luteijn, F.

    The present study represents the first to administer the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) as part of a. semi-structured interview to a large sample of psychiatric patients with severe mental illness. psychometric appraisal of the SWLS demonstrated that figures on its internal structure were quite

  9. Novel Therapeutic GPCRs for Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetoshi Komatsu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are the most common targets of the neuropharmacological drugs in the central nervous system (CNS. GPCRs are activated by manifold neurotransmitters, and their activation in turn evokes slow synaptic transmission. They are deeply involved in multiple neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and schizophrenia. In the brain, the striatum is strongly innervated by the ventral tegmental area (VTA and plays a central role in manifestation of psychiatric disorders. Recently, anatomical and comprehensive transcriptome analysis of the non-odorant GPCR superfamily revealed that the orphan GPCRs GPR88, GPR6, and GPR52, as well as dopamine D1 and D2 receptors and the adenosine A2a receptor, are the most highly enriched in the rodent striatum. Genetically engineered animal models and molecular biological studies have suggested that these striatally enriched GPCRs have a potential to be therapeutic psychiatric receptors. This review summarizes the current understanding of the therapeutic GPCR candidates for psychiatric disorders.

  10. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  11. Can Psychiatric Rehabilitation Be Core to CORE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Marjorie F.; Gill, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we seek to determine whether psychiatric rehabilitation principles and practices have been more fully incorporated into the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) standards, the extent to which they are covered in four rehabilitation counseling "foundations" textbooks, and how they are reflected in the…

  12. The Contextual Nature of Psychiatric Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhan, David L.

    1975-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnoses are powerfully influenced by the contexts in which patients are found and the expectations of diagnosticians. The observations of Millon, Spitzer, and Weiner on Rosenhan's "On Being Sane in Insane Places" (AA 521 951) were examined for the implications they held for the meanings of sanity and insanity. (Editor/RK)

  13. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alpha-Mannosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, D.; Pantel, J.; Linaker, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several…

  14. Physician assisted death in psychiatric practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewoud, J.H.; van der Maas, P.J.; van der Wal, G.; Hengeveld, M.W.; Tholen, A.J.; Schudel, W.J.; van der Heide, A.

    1997-01-01

    Background: In 1994 the Dutch Supreme Court ruled that in exceptional instances, physician-assisted suicide might be justifiable for patients with unbearable mental suffering but no physical illness. We studied physician- assisted suicide and euthanasia in psychiatric practice in the Netherlands.

  15. Association of Oxidative Stress with Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Castro-Gomes, Vitor; Mohammadzai, Imdadullah; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    When concentrations of both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species exceed the antioxidative capability of an organism, the cells undergo oxidative impairment. Impairments in membrane integrity and lipid and protein oxidation, protein mutilation, DNA damage, and neuronal dysfunction are some of the fundamental consequences of oxidative stress. The purpose of this work was to review the associations between oxidative stress and psychological disorders. The search terms were the following: "oxidative stress and affective disorders," "free radicals and neurodegenerative disorders," "oxidative stress and psychological disorders," "oxidative stress, free radicals, and psychiatric disorders," and "association of oxidative stress." These search terms were used in conjunction with each of the diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Genetic, pharmacological, biochemical, and preclinical therapeutic studies, case reports, and clinical trials were selected to explore the molecular aspects of psychological disorders that are associated with oxidative stress. We identified a broad spectrum of 83 degenerative syndromes and psychiatric disorders that were associated with oxidative stress. The multi-dimensional information identified herein supports the role of oxidative stress in various psychiatric disorders. We discuss the results from the perspective of developing novel therapeutic interventions.

  16. Psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schwarzbold

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Schwarzbold1, Alexandre Diaz1, Evandro Tostes Martins2, Armanda Rufino1, Lúcia Nazareth Amante1,3, Maria Emília Thais1, João Quevedo4, Alexandre Hohl1, Marcelo Neves Linhares1,5,6, Roger Walz1,61Núcleo de Pesquisas em Neurologia Clínica e Experimental (NUPNEC, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 2Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 3Departamento de Enfermagem, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 4Laboratório de Neurociências, UNESC, Criciúma, SC, Brazil; 5Departamento de Cirurgia, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 6Centro de Cirurgia de Epilepsia de Santa Catarina (CEPESC, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, BrazilAbstract: Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI are frequent. Researches in this area are important for the patients’ care and they may provide hints for the comprehension of primary psychiatric disorders. Here we approach epidemiology, diagnosis, associated factors and treatment of the main psychiatric disorders after TBI. Finally, the present situation of the knowledge in this field is discussed.Keywords: psychiatric disorders, traumatic brain injury, neuropsychiatry, diagnostic, epidemiology, pathophysiology

  17. HIV infection: psychiatric findings in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sno, H. N.; Storosum, J. G.; Swinkels, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    A psychiatric consultation was requested in 51 in-patient cases of HIV infection. Reasons for referral included counselling, the evaluation of depressive symptoms, and the treatment of delirium. The most common DSM-III diagnoses included: delirium (n = 13), major depressive disorders (n = 12),

  18. Psychiatric comorbidity in gender dysphoric adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.L.C.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; Steensma, T.D.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study examined psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with a gender identity disorder (GID). We focused on its relation to gender, type of GID diagnosis and eligibility for medical interventions (puberty suppression and cross-sex hormones). Methods: To ascertain DSM-IV diagnoses,

  19. Psychiatric reflections on the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Louis Jolyon

    1975-07-01

    Capital punishment is outdated, immoral, wasteful, cruel, brutalizing, unfair, irrevocable, useless, dangerous, and obstructive to justice. In addition, psychiatric observations reveal that it generates disease through the torture of death row; it perverts the identity of physicians from trials to prison wards to executions; and, paradoxically, it breeds more murder than it deters.

  20. Psychiatric nurses' experiences with inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.L.I.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.E.; Jansen, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatienaggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff members

  1. Psychiatric nurses' experiences with inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.; Jansen, G.

    2005-01-01

    Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatient aggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this "Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale" (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff

  2. Psychiatric Assessment and Rehabilitation of Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Akarsu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psychiatric rehabilitation has gained significance owing to improved healthcare facilities for burn injuries and decreased mortality/ morbidity rates. Burn traumas may result in psychiatric signs such as denial, anger, guilt, confusion, disgrace, anxiety, distress, and nervousness. Psychiatric disorders such as delirium, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems can also be encountered. Therefore, it is necessary to look for these signs and disorders through regular sessions with burn patients and appropriate psychometric tests. This study aims at examining the process of psychological rehabilitation for burn patients in light of the current literature. Material and Methods: This study has been carried out in the light of the main and current literature review. The study intends to put forth the data observed in the course of the psychological diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of burn patients. The study has been conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration Guidelines. Results: Treatment and rehabilitation process requires a multidisciplinary teamwork that consists of physicians, dieticians, psychologists, social service specialists, and other healthcare workers who can meet the needs of burn patients and their families. It is necessary for the team to contribute both to the hospitalization process and the social environment of the patients and their families. Conclusion: It is observed that the quality of life of these patients can be considerably improved with the effective assessment of psychiatric signs that occur during or after the injury and with appropriate treatment methods.

  3. Onconeural Antibodies in Acute Psychiatric Inpatient Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæther, Sverre Georg; Schou, Morten; Stoecker, Winfried

    2017-01-01

    , GLRA1B, DPPX, GRM1, GRM5, DNER, Yo, ZIC4, GAD67, amphiphysin, CV2, Hu, Ri, Ma2, and recoverin. Only one sample was positive (antirecoverin IgG). The present findings suggest that serum onconeural antibody positivity is rare among patients acutely admitted for inpatient psychiatric care. The clinical...

  4. Qualify of Life of Forensic Psychiatric Inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, C. van; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the quality of life (QoL) of mentally disordered offenders was investigated. The data of 44 forensic psychiatric inpatients were analyzed using the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile (LQoLP), Rehabilitation Evaluation Hall and Baker (REHAB), and the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised

  5. Mitochondrial Mutations in Subjects with Psychiatric Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Sequeira (Vasco); S.M. Rollins; C. Magnan (Christophe); M. van Oven (Mannis); P. Baldi (Pierre); R.M. Myers (Richard M.); J.D. Barchas (Jack D.); A.F. Schatzberg (Alan F); S.J. Watson (Stanley J); H. Akil (Huda); W.E. Bunney (William E.); M.P. Vawter (Marquis)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractA considerable body of evidence supports the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric disorders and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are known to alter brain energy metabolism, neurotransmission, and cause neurodegenerative disorders. Genetic studies focusing on common nuclear

  6. The use of restraints in psychiatric patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-17

    Sep 17, 2009 ... In South Africa, according to the Mental Health Care Act No. 17 of 2002 .... and staff composition, type of ward and ward atmosphere. The type of ... (e.g. psychiatric diagnosis, strengths, family history), and restraint should be ...

  7. Sociodemographic Characteristic, Oath Taking and Psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is common knowledge that Nigeria is a source and route of transit for victims of human trafficking. Yet studies on psychiatric morbidity among the victims in the country are rare. In addition, previous studies were among post destination victims. The present study is aimed at determining the prevalence of ...

  8. The medication process in a psychiatric hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Lisby, Marianne; Nielsen, Lars Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the frequency, type, and potential severity of errors in several stages of the medication process in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Methods: A cross-sectional study using three methods for detecting errors: (1) direct observation; (2) unannounced control visits in the w......Purpose: To investigate the frequency, type, and potential severity of errors in several stages of the medication process in an inpatient psychiatric setting. Methods: A cross-sectional study using three methods for detecting errors: (1) direct observation; (2) unannounced control visits...... in the wards collecting dispensed drugs; and (3) chart reviews. All errors, except errors in discharge summaries, were assessed for potential consequences by two clinical pharmacologists. Setting: Three psychiatric wards with adult patients at Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark, from January 2010–April 2010...... process are common in psychiatric wards to an extent which resembles error rates in somatic care. Despite a substantial proportion of errors with potential to harm patients, very few errors were considered potentially fatal. Medical staff needs greater awareness of medication safety and guidelines related...

  9. Sexual Health Education: A Psychiatric Resident's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waineo, Eva; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Morreale, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This report discusses psychiatric residents' perceptions of sexual health education and their opinions regarding curricular improvements. Methods: An anonymous, web-based survey was sent to residents in one general psychiatry program (N = 33). The response rate was 69.7%. Results: Residents reported inadequate experience in multiple…

  10. Mineralization of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate by a four-member aerobic bacterial consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, L.; Breen, A.; Thomas, N.; Sayler, G.S.; Federle, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    A bacterial consortium capable of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) mineralization under aerobic conditions was isolated from a chemostat inoculated with activated sludge. The consortium, designated KJB, consisted of four members, all of which were gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that grew in pairs and short chains. Three isolates had biochemical properties characteristic of Pseudomonas spp.; the fourth showed characteristics of the Aeromonas spp. Cell suspensions were grown together in minimal medium with [ 14 C]LAS as the only carbon source. After 13 days of incubation, more than 25% of the [ 14 C]LAS was mineralized to 14 CO 2 by the consortium. Pure bacterial cultures and combinations lacking any one member of the KJB bacterial consortium did not mineralize LAS. Three isolates carried out primary biodegradation of the surfactant, and one did not. This study shows that the four bacteria complemented each other and synergistically mineralized LAS, indicating catabolic cooperation among the four consortium members

  11. Association between GWAS-identified lung adenocarcinoma susceptibility loci and EGFR mutations in never-smoking Asian women, and comparison with findings from Western populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, Wei Jie; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Shiraishi, Kouya; Song, Minsun; Kim, Hee Nam; Wong, Maria Pik; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hosgood, H Dean; Wang, Zhaoming; Chang, I-Shou; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Tucker, Margaret; Wei, Hu; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Zheng, Wei; Kim, Jin Hee; Zhou, Baosen; Caporaso, Neil E; Albanes, Demetrius; Shin, Min-Ho; Chung, Lap Ping; An, She-Juan; Wang, Ping; Zheng, Hong; Yatabe, Yasushi; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Kim, Young Tae; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Kim, Young-Chul; Bassig, Bryan A; Chang, Jiang; Ho, James Chung Man; Ji, Bu-Tian; Kubo, Michiaki; Daigo, Yataro; Ito, Hidemi; Momozawa, Yukihide; Ashikawa, Kyota; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Honda, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-Ichi; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Miyagi, Yohei; Nakayama, Haruhiko; Matsumoto, Shingo; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Goto, Koichi; Yin, Zhihua; Shi, Jianxin; Takahashi, Atsushi; Goto, Akiteru; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Tanaka, Kazumi; Wu, Tangchun; Wei, Fusheng; Wong, Jason Y Y; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Su, Jian; Kim, Yeul Hong; Oh, In-Jae; Song, Fengju; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Yuh-Min; Chang, Gee-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Lin, Hsien-Chih; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Seow, Adeline; Park, Jae Yong; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Chen, Chien-Jen; Li, Haixin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Wu, Chen; Qian, Biyun; Lu, Daru; Liu, Jianjun; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Sung, Jae Sook; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Jung, Yoo Jin; Guo, Huan; Hu, Zhibin; Wang, Wen-Chang; Chung, Charles C; Lawrence, Charles; Burdett, Laurie; Yeager, Meredith; Jacobs, Kevin B; Hutchinson, Amy; Berndt, Sonja I; He, Xingzhou; Wu, Wei; Wang, Junwen; Li, Yuqing; Choi, Jin Eun; Park, Kyong Hwa; Sung, Sook Whan; Liu, Li; Kang, Chang Hyun; Hu, Lingmin; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Xu, Jun; Guan, Peng; Tan, Wen; Wang, Chih-Liang; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Chen, Ying; Choi, Yi Young; Hung, Jen-Yu; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Cai, Qiuyin; Lin, Chien-Chung; Park, In Kyu; Xu, Ping; Dong, Jing; Kim, Christopher; He, Qincheng; Perng, Reury-Perng; Chen, Chih-Yi; Vermeulen, Roel; Wu, Junjie; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Chan, John K C; Chu, Minjie; Li, Yao-Jen; Li, Jihua; Chen, Hongyan; Yu, Chong-Jen; Jin, Li; Lo, Yen-Li; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Liu, Jie; Yamaji, Taiki; Yang, Yang; Hicks, Belynda; Wyatt, Kathleen; Li, Shengchao A; Dai, Juncheng; Ma, Hongxia; Jin, Guangfu; Song, Bao; Wang, Zhehai; Cheng, Sensen; Li, Xuelian; Ren, Yangwu; Cui, Ping; Iwasaki, Motoki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Zhu, Junjie; Jiang, Gening; Fei, Ke; Wu, Guoping; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chen, Hui-Ling; Su, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Chen, Yi-Song; Yu, Jinming; Stevens, Victoria L; Laird-Offringa, Ite A; Marconett, Crystal N; Lin, Dongxin; Chen, Kexin; Wu, Yi-Long; Landi, Maria Teresa; Shen, Hongbing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Kohno, Takashi; Chanock, Stephen J; Lan, Qing

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate associations by EGFR mutation status for lung adenocarcinoma risk among never-smoking Asian women, we conducted a meta-analysis of 11 loci previously identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Genotyping in an additional 10,780 never-smoking cases and 10,938 never-smoking controls from Asia confirmed associations with eight known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Two new signals were observed at genome-wide significance (P Asian women and highlight the importance of how the germline could inform risk for specific tumour mutation patterns, which could have important translational implications. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Common adverse drug reactions with psychiatric medications and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Common adverse drug reactions with psychiatric medications and an approach to their management: Adverse drug reactions are as important in psychiatric practice as they are in any other branch of medicine.

  13. Community Based Survey on Psychiatric Morbidity in Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Mohan Shyangwa

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Community prevalence rate of some common psychiatric disorders is high which calls for special attention to address depressive and alcohol related disorder from all quarters of society particularly from government. Keywords: community survey; mental illness; psychiatric morbidity.

  14. The Experience of Being Diagnosed with a Psychiatric Disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    psychiatric disorder who live outside rather than inside the psychiatric ..... behaviours, signs and symptoms (Frances & Egger,. 1999). .... and a student at university. He was ..... This experience of being misinterpreted, of being perceived as a ...

  15. Inpatient Psychiatric Facility Quality Measure Data – by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Psychiatric facilities that are eligible for the Inpatient Psychiatric Facility Quality Reporting (IPFQR) program are required to meet all program requirements,...

  16. Psychiatric morbidity in a Nigerian neurology clinic | Ajiboye | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychiatric morbidity in a Nigerian neurology clinic. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The study supports previous reports that psychiatric disorders are quite common among patients with neurological disorders.

  17. Psychiatric disorders among war-abducted and non-abducted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychiatric disorders among war-abducted and non-abducted adolescents in Gulu district, ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... and the Mini International Neural-Psychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents English ...

  18. STUDY ON PSYCHIATRIC CO - MORBIDITY IN PSORIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant B.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is relatively common , chronic inflammatory and hyper - proliferative skin disease that affects 1.4% to 2.0% of the population. Presence of itching , chronic recurrent course of disease and incomplete cure may contribute to great deal of psychiatric co - morbidity in these patients. the most persuasive indications of a link between stress and psoriasis comes from patients themselves , with studies illustrating that the majority of patients believe that stress or psychological distress is a factor in the manifestations of their condition . Depression and anxiety are the most common disorders that are associated with psoriasis , but the proportion of patient also having other psychiatric co - morbid diseases which include social phobia , generalize anxiety disorder , panic disorder , psychotic diso rder , etc. Moreover , symptoms of psoriasis , especially pruritus , are related to depression. OBJECTIVES : To evaluate different psychiatric illnesses their prevalence and severity in psoriasis patients. METHODOLOGY : This was cross - sectional observational stu dy comprised of 70 consecutive patients of psoriasis attending the out - patient department of Dermatology. All the patients were subjected to detailed examinations including the elicitation of dermatological and psychiatric profile after getting written con sent for study . Data was collected using self - developed , pre tested , semi structured Pro format by interview method. RESULTS : The profile of psychiatric diagnoses obtained in the present study depressive disorder 31.4% {18.57% depression , 12.85% Depression with anxiety symptoms} , anxiety disorder 25.7% (7.14% GAD , 8.17% panic disorder , 5.71% social phobia , 4.28 specific phobia. Severity of major depressive disorder was determined with HAM - D score 53.8% had mild depression , 30.7% moderate depression and 15. 5% severe depression. Similarly when HAM - A scale was used to determined severity of generalized

  19. Accounting for eXentricities: analysis of the X chromosome in GWAS reveals X-linked genes implicated in autoimmune diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Chang

    Full Text Available Many complex human diseases are highly sexually dimorphic, suggesting a potential contribution of the X chromosome to disease risk. However, the X chromosome has been neglected or incorrectly analyzed in most genome-wide association studies (GWAS. We present tailored analytical methods and software that facilitate X-wide association studies (XWAS, which we further applied to reanalyze data from 16 GWAS of different autoimmune and related diseases (AID. We associated several X-linked genes with disease risk, among which (1 ARHGEF6 is associated with Crohn's disease and replicated in a study of ulcerative colitis, another inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Indeed, ARHGEF6 interacts with a gastric bacterium that has been implicated in IBD. (2 CENPI is associated with three different AID, which is compelling in light of known associations with AID of autosomal genes encoding centromere proteins, as well as established autosomal evidence of pleiotropy between autoimmune diseases. (3 We replicated a previous association of FOXP3, a transcription factor that regulates T-cell development and function, with vitiligo; and (4 we discovered that C1GALT1C1 exhibits sex-specific effect on disease risk in both IBDs. These and other X-linked genes that we associated with AID tend to be highly expressed in tissues related to immune response, participate in major immune pathways, and display differential gene expression between males and females. Combined, the results demonstrate the importance of the X chromosome in autoimmunity, reveal the potential of extensive XWAS, even based on existing data, and provide the tools and incentive to properly include the X chromosome in future studies.

  20. A low frequency variant within the GWAS locus of MTNR1B affects fasting glucose concentrations: genetic risk is modulated by obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, L F; Hatfield, J L; Shankar, A; Aston, C E; Ralhan, S; Wander, G S; Mehra, N K; Singh, J R; Mulvihill, J J; Sanghera, D K

    2012-11-01

    Two common variants (rs1387153, rs10830963) in MTNR1B have been reported to have independent effects on fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels with increased risk to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS). In this investigation, we report the association of these two variants, and an additional variant (rs1374645) within the GWAS locus of MTNR1B with FBG, 2h glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA IR), β-cell function (HOMA B), and T2D in our sample of Asian Sikhs from India. Our cohort comprised 2222 subjects [1201 T2D, 1021 controls]. None of these SNPs was associated with T2D in this cohort. Our data also could not confirm association of rs1387153 and rs10830963 with FBG phenotype. However, upon stratifying data according to body mass index (BMI) (low ≤ 25 kg/m(2) and high > 25 kg/m(2)) in normoglycemic subjects (n = 1021), the rs1374645 revealed a strong association with low FBG levels in low BMI group (β = -0.073, p = 0.002, Bonferroni p = 0.01) compared to the high BMI group (β = 0.015, p = 0.50). We also detected a strong evidence of interaction between rs1374645 and BMI with respect to FBG levels (p = 0.002). Our data provide new information about the significant impact of another MTNR1B variant on FBG levels that appears to be modulated by BMI. Future confirmation on independent datasets and functional studies will be required to define the role of this variant in fasting glucose variation. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Network-Based Integration of GWAS and Gene Expression Identifies a HOX-Centric Network Associated with Serous Ovarian Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Siddhartha P; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Li, Qiyuan; Lawrenson, Kate; Aben, Katja K H; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Baker, Helen; Bandera, Elisa V; Bean, Yukie T; Beckmann, Matthias W; Berchuck, Andrew; Bisogna, Maria; Bjørge, Line; Bogdanova, Natalia; Brinton, Louise; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Butzow, Ralf; Campbell, Ian; Carty, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Yian Ann; Chen, Zhihua; Cook, Linda S; Cramer, Daniel; Cunningham, Julie M; Cybulski, Cezary; Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Agnieszka; Dennis, Joe; Dicks, Ed; Doherty, Jennifer A; Dörk, Thilo; du Bois, Andreas; Dürst, Matthias; Eccles, Diana; Easton, Douglas F; Edwards, Robert P; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Fridley, Brooke L; Gao, Yu-Tang; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Giles, Graham G; Glasspool, Rosalind; Goode, Ellen L; Goodman, Marc T; Grownwald, Jacek; Harrington, Patricia; Harter, Philipp; Hein, Alexander; Heitz, Florian; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Hillemanns, Peter; Hogdall, Estrid; Hogdall, Claus K; Hosono, Satoyo; Iversen, Edwin S; Jakubowska, Anna; Paul, James; Jensen, Allan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Karlan, Beth Y; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kelemen, Linda E; Kellar, Melissa; Kelley, Joseph; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Krakstad, Camilla; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lambrechts, Diether; Lambrechts, Sandrina; Le, Nhu D; Lee, Alice W; Lele, Shashi; Leminen, Arto; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A; Liang, Dong; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Karen; Lubinski, Jan; Lundvall, Lene; Massuger, Leon; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuire, Valerie; McLaughlin, John R; McNeish, Iain A; Menon, Usha; Modugno, Francesmary; Moysich, Kirsten B; Narod, Steven A; Nedergaard, Lotte; Ness, Roberta B; Nevanlinna, Heli; Odunsi, Kunle; Olson, Sara H; Orlow, Irene; Orsulic, Sandra; Weber, Rachel Palmieri; Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Pejovic, Tanja; Pelttari, Liisa M; Permuth-Wey, Jennifer; Phelan, Catherine M; Pike, Malcolm C; Poole, Elizabeth M; Ramus, Susan J; Risch, Harvey A; Rosen, Barry; Rossing, Mary Anne; Rothstein, Joseph H; Rudolph, Anja; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Rzepecka, Iwona K; Salvesen, Helga B; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Schwaab, Ira; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Sieh, Weiva; Song, Honglin; Southey, Melissa C; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Tangen, Ingvild L; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Kathryn L; Thompson, Pamela J; Timorek, Agnieszka; Tsai, Ya-Yu; Tworoger, Shelley S; van Altena, Anne M; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vergote, Ignace; Vierkant, Robert A; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Walsh, Christine; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Whittemore, Alice S; Wicklund, Kristine G; Wilkens, Lynne R; Woo, Yin-Ling; Wu, Xifeng; Wu, Anna; Yang, Hannah; Zheng, Wei; Ziogas, Argyrios; Sellers, Thomas A; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Freedman, Matthew L; Gayther, Simon A; Pharoah, Paul D P

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have so far reported 12 loci associated with serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. We hypothesized that some of these loci function through nearby transcription factor (TF) genes and that putative target genes of these TFs as identified by coexpression may also be enriched for additional EOC risk associations. We selected TF genes within 1 Mb of the top signal at the 12 genome-wide significant risk loci. Mutual information, a form of correlation, was used to build networks of genes strongly coexpressed with each selected TF gene in the unified microarray dataset of 489 serous EOC tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genes represented in this dataset were subsequently ranked using a gene-level test based on results for germline SNPs from a serous EOC GWAS meta-analysis (2,196 cases/4,396 controls). Gene set enrichment analysis identified six networks centered on TF genes (HOXB2, HOXB5, HOXB6, HOXB7 at 17q21.32 and HOXD1, HOXD3 at 2q31) that were significantly enriched for genes from the risk-associated end of the ranked list (P < 0.05 and FDR < 0.05). These results were replicated (P < 0.05) using an independent association study (7,035 cases/21,693 controls). Genes underlying enrichment in the six networks were pooled into a combined network. We identified a HOX-centric network associated with serous EOC risk containing several genes with known or emerging roles in serous EOC development. Network analysis integrating large, context-specific datasets has the potential to offer mechanistic insights into cancer susceptibility and prioritize genes for experimental characterization. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) and Genome-Wide Environment Interaction Study (GWEIS) of Depressive Symptoms in African American and Hispanic/Latina Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C.; Wiste, Anna; Radmanesh, Farid; Almli, Lynn M.; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Sofer, Tamar; Faul, Jessica D.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Weir, David R.; Zhao, Wei; Soare, Thomas W.; Mirza, Saira S.; Hek, Karin; Tiemeier, Henning W.; Goveas, Joseph S.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Snively, Beverly M.; Cornelis, Marilyn; Koenen, Karestan C.; Kraft, Peter; Purcell, Shaun; Ressler, Kerry J.; Rosand, Jonathan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been unable to identify variants linked to depression. We hypothesized that examining depressive symptoms and considering gene-environment interaction (G×E) might improve efficiency for gene discovery. We therefore conducted a GWAS and genome-wide environment interaction study (GWEIS) of depressive symptoms. Methods Using data from the SHARe cohort of the Women’s Health Initiative, comprising African Americans (n=7179) and Hispanics/Latinas (n=3138), we examined genetic main effects and G×E with stressful life events and social support. We also conducted a heritability analysis using genome-wide complex trait analysis (GCTA). Replication was attempted in four independent cohorts. Results No SNPs achieved genome-wide significance for main effects in either discovery sample. The top signals in African Americans were rs73531535 (located 20kb from GPR139, p=5.75×10−8) and rs75407252 (intronic to CACNA2D3, p=6.99×10−7). In Hispanics/Latinas, the top signals were rs2532087 (located 27kb from CD38, p=2.44×10−7) and rs4542757 (intronic to DCC, p=7.31×10−7). In the GWEIS with stressful life events, one interaction signal was genome-wide significant in African Americans (rs4652467; p=4.10×10−10; located 14kb from CEP350). This interaction was not observed in a smaller replication cohort. Although heritability estimates for depressive symptoms and stressful life events were each less than 10%, they were strongly genetically correlated (rG=0.95), suggesting that common variation underlying depressive symptoms and stressful life event exposure, though modest on their own, were highly overlapping in this sample. Conclusions Our results underscore the need for larger samples, more GWEIS, and greater investigation into genetic and environmental determinants of depressive symptoms in minorities. PMID:27038408

  3. Self-Esteem Deficits Among Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. After a detailed literature review, it was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. The sample of the present study consisted of 260 participants, who were further divided into two groups: clinical group (n = 140 and normal controls (n = 120. The age range of the participants in both the samples were 18 to 25 years (with the mean age of 22.14 years for psychiatric patients and 21.18 years for normal controls, and they belonged to middle socioeconomic status. The clinical group consisted of diagnosed psychiatric patients according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR criteria and further divided into four subgroups, including patients of (a schizophrenia (n = 40, (b major depressive disorder (n = 40, (c obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 40, and (d opioid dependence disorder (n = 20. The semi-structured interview form of Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. Descriptive Statistics and one-way ANOVA were applied to analyze and interpret the data in statistical terminology. Results indicate significant differences among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls on the variable of self-esteem (F = 30.513, df = 4, 255, p< .05. The finding has implications for clinical interventions and also suggests avenues for future research.

  4. Consortium for Offshore Aviation Research : description of current projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The five projects which are currently underway or being evaluated through the Consortium for Offshore Aviation Research (COAR) were described. The projects are: (1) the use of narrow-beam, high intensity searchlights as approach aids for helicopter landings on helidecks in low visibility conditions, (2) establishment of a precipitation and fog characterization facility forecasting, (3) use of ice-phobic materials for airframe anti-icing, (4) use of differential global positioning satellite systems for offshore operations, and (5) the development of a virtual reality head-up-display for the approach to the Hibernia helideck (or any other helideck) to facilitate low visibility landings. Seed funding for these projects has been provided by the European Space Agency. Additional support is being provided by Hibernia, Petro-Canada, Husky Oil and Chevron Oil Canada. Initiatives to increase the number of partners are underway. 1 fig

  5. Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-COMM) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Stephen P. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-12-04

    The Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-Comm) was established in 2010 to conduct research to enable commercial viability of alternative liquid fuels produced from algal biomass. The main objective of CAB-Comm was to dramatically improve the viability of algae as a source of liquid fuels to meet US energy needs, by addressing several significant barriers to economic viability. To achieve this goal, CAB-Comm took a diverse set of approaches on three key aspects of the algal biofuels value chain: crop protection; nutrient utilization and recycling; and the development of genetic tools. These projects have been undertaken as collaboration between six academic institutions and two industrial partners: University of California, San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Rutgers University; University of California, Davis; Johns Hopkins University; Sapphire Energy; and Life Technologies.

  6. Caspian Pipeline Consortium, Bellwether of Russia's Investment climate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellecker, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC), a shipper-owned oil pipeline carrying Caspian oil to Russia's Black Sea port of Novorossyisk, remains to this day the only oil export pipeline on Russian territory that is not under the control of the state company Transneft. Completed in 2001, the CPC was, from the start, the product of a fragile balance of power between states eager to maintain control of hydrocarbon flows and private companies able to finance the necessary infrastructure. Despite its economic success, the future of the CPC currently hinges on a share-holding dispute pitting Russia against private shareholders. This essay places the CPC dossier in the broader context of Russia's investment climate and argues that the dispute's dynamic is an important bellwether of the Russian energy policy. (author)

  7. On the Need to Establish an International Soil Modeling Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, H.; Vanderborght, J.; Schnepf, A.

    2014-12-01

    Soil is one of the most critical life-supporting compartments of the Biosphere. Soil provides numerous ecosystem services such as a habitat for biodiversity, water and nutrients, as well as producing food, feed, fiber and energy. To feed the rapidly growing world population in 2050, agricultural food production must be doubled using the same land resources footprint. At the same time, soil resources are threatened due to improper management and climate change. Despite the many important functions of soil, many fundamental knowledge gaps remain, regarding the role of soil biota and biodiversity on ecosystem services, the structure and dynamics of soil communities, the interplay between hydrologic and biotic processes, the quantification of soil biogeochemical processes and soil structural processes, the resilience and recovery of soils from stress, as well as the prediction of soil development and the evolution of soils in the landscape, to name a few. Soil models have long played an important role in quantifying and predicting soil processes and related ecosystem services. However, a new generation of soil models based on a whole systems approach comprising all physical, mechanical, chemical and biological processes is now required to address these critical knowledge gaps and thus contribute to the preservation of ecosystem services, improve our understanding of climate-change-feedback processes, bridge basic soil science research and management, and facilitate the communication between science and society. To meet these challenges an international community effort is required, similar to initiatives in systems biology, hydrology, and climate and crop research. Our consortium will bring together modelers and experimental soil scientists at the forefront of new technologies and approaches to characterize soils. By addressing these aims, the consortium will contribute to improve the role of soil modeling as a knowledge dissemination instrument in addressing key

  8. Signalling in malaria parasites – The MALSIG consortium#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doerig C.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Depending on their developmental stage in the life cycle, malaria parasites develop within or outside host cells, and in extremely diverse contexts such as the vertebrate liver and blood circulation, or the insect midgut and hemocoel. Cellular and molecular mechanisms enabling the parasite to sense and respond to the intra- and the extra-cellular environments are therefore key elements for the proliferation and transmission of Plasmodium, and therefore are, from a public health perspective, strategic targets in the fight against this deadly disease. The MALSIG consortium, which was initiated in February 2009, was designed with the primary objective to integrate research ongoing in Europe and India on i the properties of Plasmodium signalling molecules, and ii developmental processes occurring at various points of the parasite life cycle. On one hand, functional studies of individual genes and their products in Plasmodium falciparum (and in the technically more manageable rodent model Plasmodium berghei are providing information on parasite protein kinases and phosphatases, and of the molecules governing cyclic nucleotide metabolism and calcium signalling. On the other hand, cellular and molecular studies are elucidating key steps of parasite development such as merozoite invasion and egress in blood and liver parasite stages, control of DNA replication in asexual and sexual development, membrane dynamics and trafficking, production of gametocytes in the vertebrate host and further parasite development in the mosquito. This article, which synthetically reviews such signalling molecules and cellular processes, aims to provide a glimpse of the global frame in which the activities of the MALSIG consortium will develop over the next three years.

  9. International technical assistance example. Consortium action in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattei, J.M.; Milhem, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    The safety status achieved last year at the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and the capability of the Bulgarian Nuclear Safety Authority (BNSA) to assess the safety of the plant and the adequacy of proposed improvements have been matters of international concern. However, the Kozloduy NPP contributes 35-40 per cent of the electrical generating capacity in Bulgaria. For further operation of the plants, it is therefore, essential that safety is improved. In july 1991, the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) instituted a Six Months Emergency Action Programme for Bulgaria under the PHARE regional nuclear safety programme. The programme consisted of three parts: - an industrial emergency programme supporting the utility of the Kozloduy NPP, - a study to evaluate Bulgaria's electricity needs, - technical assistance for reinforcement of the Bulgarian Nuclear Safety Authority. For the third part, complementary to the industrial emergency programme carried out by the WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators), a Consortium of expert institutions and regulatory from EC member states was established by CEC for assistance to BNSA. The Consortium consisted of: - Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), France, technical support of the French regulatory body, - Gesellschaft fur Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Germany, an organization in safety engineering, technical support of governmental regulatory body, - AIB-Vincotte Nuclear (AVN), Belgium, the organization authorized by the Belgian Government for licensing and inspection of nuclear power plants, - UK Atomic Energy Authority (AEA Technology), an independent UK Government owned nuclear R and D and consultancy organization, - Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the Health and Safety Executive, United Kingdom, the nuclear regulatory body for the United Kingdom

  10. Psychiatric features in perpetrators of homicide-unsuccessful ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... The high rate of psychiatric disorders diagnosed is in keeping with court referrals occurring ... was collected if available, and included gender, age, employment history, marital ... psychiatric symptoms and of psychiatric illness and treatment, as reported by the ... The identity of alleged perpetrators was kept ...

  11. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    % for any somatoform disorder. Multivariable analyses showed that female sex and unemployment were predictors of a psychiatric disorder, whereas living with children below 18 years and being a skilled worker carried a reduced risk of a psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of psychiatric...

  12. Psychiatric, Psychological and “Witchcraft” Defences to Murder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Expert psychiatric testimony may be relevant in certain instances of homicide especially murder. However, the exposure of most psychiatric trainees may be inadequate in relation to the range of psychological defences available to an offender accused of homicide. Aim: To describe the psychiatric and ...

  13. Prevalence of substance use and association with psychiatric illness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of substance use among inpatients of a Psychiatric Hospital in Uyo, Nigeria, to determine the association with onset of psychiatric illness. A total of 124 inpatients admitted into a Psychiatric Unit of the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital were assessed for substance ...

  14. Psychiatric Nursing Care for Adult Survivors of Child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yvonne van der Zalm; Willem Nugteren; Thóra Hafsteinsdóttir; Cokky van der Venne; Nienke Kool; prof Berno van Meijel

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine what is known from the literature about nursing care of psychiatric patients with a history of child maltreatment. CONCLUSIONS: Psychiatric nurses underline the importance of a routine inquiry of child abuse on admission of patients to psychiatric care, but are reluctant to

  15. 28 CFR 551.114 - Medical, psychiatric and psychological.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical, psychiatric and psychological... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Pretrial Inmates § 551.114 Medical, psychiatric and psychological. (a) Staff shall provide the pretrial inmate with the same level of basic medical (including dental), psychiatric, and...

  16. 28 CFR 549.43 - Involuntary psychiatric treatment and medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Involuntary psychiatric treatment and... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT MEDICAL SERVICES Administrative Safeguards for Psychiatric Treatment and Medication § 549.43 Involuntary psychiatric treatment and medication. Title 18 U.S.C. 4241-4247 and federal court...

  17. College Student Utilization of a Comprehensive Psychiatric Emergency Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Sharon L.; Kader, Mahrin; Haggerty, Melinda Z.; Bakhai, Yogesh D.; Warren, Calvert G.

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to identify college students at risk for experiencing a mental health crisis that warranted a psychiatric evaluation at a hospital and/or a psychiatric hospitalization. A retrospective chart review of college students evaluated at a comprehensive psychiatric emergency program during a 1-year period was conducted. Demographic…

  18. Impact of boarding pediatric psychiatric patients on a medical ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudius, Ilene; Donofrio, J Joelle; Lam, Chun Nok; Santillanes, Genevieve

    2014-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders account for an increasing number of pediatric hospitalizations. Due to lack of psychiatric beds, patients on involuntary psychiatric holds may be admitted to medical units. Our objectives were to evaluate the rate of admission of psychiatric patients to a medical unit, psychiatric care provided, and estimated cost of care. The study involved retrospective chart review of all patients on involuntary psychiatric holds presenting to 1 pediatric emergency department from July 2009 to December 2010. We determined the rate of admission to a medical unit, the rate of counseling or psychiatric medication administration, and the estimated cost of nonmedical admissions (boarding) of patients on the medical unit. A total of 555 (50.1%) of 1108 patients on involuntary psychiatric holds were admitted to the pediatric medical unit. The majority (523 [94.2%]) were admitted for boarding because no psychiatric bed was available. Thirty-two (6.1%) patients admitted for isolated psychiatric reasons had counseling documented, and 105 (20.1%) received psychiatric medications. Patients admitted to an affiliated psychiatric hospital were significantly more likely to receive counseling and medications. Psychiatric patients were boarded in medical beds for 1169 days at an estimated cost of $2 232 790 or $4269 per patient over the 18-month period. We found high admission rates of patients on involuntary psychiatric holds to a pediatric medical unit with little psychiatric treatment in 1 hospital. Further research in other centers is required to determine the extent of the issue. Future studies of longer term outcomes (including readmission rates and assessments of functioning) are needed.

  19. The Effect of Psychiatric Rehabilitation on the Activity and Participation Level of Clients with Long-Term Psychiatric Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, Tom van; Felling, Albert; Persoon, Jean

    2003-01-01

    During the last decades of the 20th century, many psychiatric hospitals changed the living environments of their clients with long-term psychiatric disabilities. We investigated the effect of this environmental psychiatric rehabilitation and normalization process on the activity and participation

  20. International technical assistance example. Consortium action in Bulgaria; Exemple d`assistance internationale. Cas de la Bulgarie, action du consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattei, J M; Milhem, J L [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Heuser, F W; Kelm, P [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

    1993-03-01

    The safety status achieved last year at the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) and the capability of the Bulgarian Nuclear Safety Authority (BNSA) to assess the safety of the plant and the adequacy of proposed improvements have been matters of international concern. However, the Kozloduy NPP contributes 35-40 per cent of the electrical generating capacity in Bulgaria. For further operation of the plants, it is therefore, essential that safety is improved. In july 1991, the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) instituted a Six Months Emergency Action Programme for Bulgaria under the PHARE regional nuclear safety programme. The programme consisted of three parts: - an industrial emergency programme supporting the utility of the Kozloduy NPP, - a study to evaluate Bulgaria`s electricity needs, - technical assistance for reinforcement of the Bulgarian Nuclear Safety Authority. For the third part, complementary to the industrial emergency programme carried out by the WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators), a Consortium of expert institutions and regulatory from EC member states was established by CEC for assistance to BNSA. The Consortium consisted of: - Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN), France, technical support of the French regulatory body, - Gesellschaft fur Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Germany, an organization in safety engineering, technical support of governmental regulatory body, - AIB-Vincotte Nuclear (AVN), Belgium, the organization authorized by the Belgian Government for licensing and inspection of nuclear power plants, - UK Atomic Energy Authority (AEA Technology), an independent UK Government owned nuclear R and D and consultancy organization, - Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the Health and Safety Executive, United Kingdom, the nuclear regulatory body for the United Kingdom.

  1. Suicidal attempts in psychiatric institutions: a report of two cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jiménez Genchi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been estimated that 5% of suicides occur inside of the psychiatric institutions. This report describes two cases of suicide inside of a psychiatric hospital which illustrate, on one hand, the characteristics of suicidal risk among psychiatric inpatients, and on the other hand, the limitations, we may have, to prevent suicide. The rate of suicides inside psychiatric hospitals are explained by the very low presentation of this behavior, among patients and the poor specificity for suicidal risk, that may provide the clinical evaluation with standard clinical criteria . Nevertheless, hospitalization in psychiatric institutions avoids more suicide attempts and suicides than those are committed inside of them.

  2. [Differences between patients in consultation psychiatry and psychiatric inpatients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterecker, Stefan; Maloney, Julia; Pfuhlmann, Bruno; Deckert, Jürgen; Warrings, Bodo

    2014-05-01

    To optimize psychiatric consultation service epidemiological information is needed. We compared data on gender, age and diagnoses of patients in the consultation service to psychiatric inpatients. In psychiatric consultation service patients are older (56.6 vs. 44.9 years, p psychiatric consultation service is contacted more often in cases of organic disorders, for females in adjustment disorders (p psychiatric consultation service is different for males and females with relevance for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Ecotoxicological effects of enrofloxacin and its removal by monoculture of microalgal species and their consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jiu-Qiang; Kurade, Mayur B; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2017-07-01

    Enrofloxacin (ENR), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, has gained big scientific concern due to its ecotoxicity on aquatic microbiota. The ecotoxicity and removal of ENR by five individual microalgae species and their consortium were studied to correlate the behavior and interaction of ENR in natural systems. The individual microalgal species (Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlamydomonas mexicana, Chlorella vulgaris, Ourococcus multisporus, Micractinium resseri) and their consortium could withstand high doses of ENR (≤1 mg L -1 ). Growth inhibition (68-81%) of the individual microalgae species and their consortium was observed in ENR (100 mg L -1 ) compared to control after 11 days of cultivation. The calculated 96 h EC 50 of ENR for individual microalgae species and microalgae consortium was 9.6-15.0 mg ENR L -1 . All the microalgae could recover from the toxicity of high concentrations of ENR during cultivation. The biochemical characteristics (total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde) were significantly influenced by ENR (1-100 mg L -1 ) stress. The individual microalgae species and microalgae consortium removed 18-26% ENR at day 11. Although the microalgae consortium showed a higher sensitivity (with lower EC 50 ) toward ENR than the individual microalgae species, the removal efficiency of ENR by the constructed microalgae consortium was comparable to that of the most effective microalgal species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. NASA Systems Engineering Research Consortium: Defining the Path to Elegance in Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Farrington, Phillip A.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Systems Engineering Research Consortium was formed at the end of 2010 to study the approaches to producing elegant systems on a consistent basis. This has been a transformative study looking at the engineering and organizational basis of systems engineering. The consortium has engaged in a variety of research topics to determine the path to elegant systems. In the second year of the consortium, a systems engineering framework emerged which structured the approach to systems engineering and guided our research. This led in the third year to set of systems engineering postulates that the consortium is continuing to refine. The consortium has conducted several research projects that have contributed significantly to the understanding of systems engineering. The consortium has surveyed the application of the NASA 17 systems engineering processes, explored the physics and statistics of systems integration, and considered organizational aspects of systems engineering discipline integration. The systems integration methods have included system exergy analysis, Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), State Variable Analysis, Multidisciplinary Coupling Analysis (MCA), Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO), System Cost Modelling, System Robustness, and Value Modelling. Organizational studies have included the variability of processes in change evaluations, margin management within the organization, information theory of board structures, social categorization of unintended consequences, and initial looks at applying cognitive science to systems engineering. Consortium members have also studied the bidirectional influence of policy and law with systems engineering.

  5. The impact of psychiatric patient boarding in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, B A; Manthey, D M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of emergency department (ED) boarding. This study examines the impact of resource utilization, throughput, and financial impact for psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement. Methods. The authors retrospectively studied all psychiatric and non-psychiatric adult admissions in an Academic Medical Center ED (>68,000 adult visits) from January 2007-2008. The main outcomes were ED length of stay (LOS) and associated reimbursement. Results. 1,438 patients were consulted to psychiatry with 505 (35.1%) requiring inpatient psychiatric care management. The mean psychiatric patient age was 42.5 years (SD 13.1 years), with 2.7 times more women than men. ED LOS was significantly longer for psychiatric admissions (1089 min, CI (1039-1140) versus 340 min, CI (304-375); P boarding accounted for a direct loss of ($1,198) compared to non-psychiatric admissions. Factoring the loss of bed turnover for waiting patients and opportunity cost due to loss of those patients, psychiatric patient boarding cost the department $2,264 per patient. Conclusions. Psychiatric patients awaiting inpatient placement remain in the ED 3.2 times longer than non-psychiatric patients, preventing 2.2 bed turnovers (additional patients) per psychiatric patient, and decreasing financial revenue.

  6. Psychiatric problems among Iranian immigrants in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, A

    1992-02-01

    The number of Iranian immigrants in Canada has been increasing since 1979. This study is the result of a review of 111 charts of Iranian patients who were referred for psychiatric treatment between 1985 and 1988. Ninety-eight percent of them arrived in Canada after the Iranian revolution, which started in 1979, and the Iran-Iraq war of 1980. Ten percent were experiencing trauma as a result of their involvement with the revolutionary government or the war. The symptoms were in accordance with the DSM-III-R criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Sixty percent met the criteria for adjustment disorder with depressed or anxious mood. Six percent had been subjected to physical and psychological torture and confinement. This is the first study that looks at the prevalence of psychiatric illness among Iranians and illustrates the effect of migration and displacement in the integrity of the psychic life of this population.

  7. Phobias, other psychiatric comorbidities and chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corchs, Felipe; Mercante, Juliane P P; Guendler, Vera Z; Vieira, Domingos S; Masruha, Marcelo R; Moreira, Frederico R; Bernik, Marcio; Zukerman, Eliova; Peres, Mario F P

    2006-12-01

    Comorbidity of chronic migraine (CM) with psychiatric disorders, mostly anxiety and mood disorders, is a well-recognized phenomenon. Phobias are one of the most common anxiety disorders in the general population. Phobias are more common in migraineurs than non-migraineurs. The clinical profile of phobias in CM has never been studied. We investigated the psychiatric profile in 56 patients with CM using the SCID I/P interview. Lifetime criteria for at least one mental disorder was found in 87.5% of the sample; 75% met criteria for at least one lifetime anxiety disorder and 60.7% of our sample fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for lifetime phobic avoidant disorders. Mood and anxiety scores were higher in phobic patients than in non-phobic CM controls. Number of phobias correlated with higher levels of anxiety and depression. Phobias are common in CM. Its recognition may influence its management. Early treatment may lead to better prognosis.

  8. Cotard syndrome in neurological and psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Bermudez, Jesus; Aguilar-Venegas, Luis C; Crail-Melendez, Daniel; Espinola-Nadurille, Mariana; Nente, Francisco; Mendez, Mario F

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the frequency and characteristics of Cotard syndrome among neurological and psychiatric inpatients at a tertiary referral center. All inpatients from the National Institute of Neurology of Mexico (March 2007-May 2009) requiring neuropsychiatric consultation were reviewed. Among 1,321 inpatient consultations, 63.7% had neurological disease and one (0.11%) had viral encephalitis and Cotard syndrome. Of inpatients, 36.2% had pure psychiatric disorders and three (0.62%) had Cotard syndrome, associated with psychotic depression, depersonalization, and penile retraction (koro syndrome). This review discusses potential mechanisms for Cotard syndrome, including the role of a perceptual-emotional dissociation in self-misattribution in the deliré des negations.

  9. Developmental Origins of Stress and Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Francesca L; Guest, Paul C

    2018-01-01

    Over the last few decades, evidence has emerged that the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia can involve perturbations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and other neuroendocrine systems. Variations in the manifestation of these effects could be related to differences in clinical symptoms between affected individuals and to differences in treatment response. Such effects can also arise from the complex interaction between genes and environmental factors. Here, we review the effects of maternal stress on abnormalities in HPA axis regulation and the development of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Studies in this area may prove critical for increasing our understanding of the multidimensional nature of mental disorders and could lead to the development of improved diagnostics and novel therapeutic approaches for treating individuals who suffer from these conditions.

  10. Tension‑Type Headache - Psychiatric Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Campos Mendes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The tension‑type headaches (Ctt are the most frequent headaches in the general population and those with higher socio‑economic impact, given the high degree of disability they cause. Objective: The authors propose to conduct a review of the available literature on the subject, from a psychiatric perspective. Discussion: Several studies have identified a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, personality traits and ineffective coping mechanisms in patients with Ctt, so it is essential to understand this relationship and the impact of these psychopathological factors on this kind of headaches. Conclusion: Their clinical and therapeutic approach is hampered by these and other factors and multiple strategies of pharmacological and psycho‑behavioral treatment have been used on them, however, scientific evidence is still scarce.

  11. Cultural challenges to the psychiatric enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrega, H

    1995-01-01

    Two challenges to psychiatry emanating from the study of cultural differences in mental illness are reviewed. The first challenge, conducted under the banner of cultural relativism, appeared to undermine the validity of psychiatric disorders. The misconceptions of this challenge, as embodied in the excesses of the labeling theory of sociology, were associated with the writings of antipsychiatrists and rejection of the community mental health movement. The result of all this was a devaluation of insights inherent in the cultural perspective. The second challenge draws emphasis to the pervasive role played by cultural differences in every facet of the psychiatric enterprise. Its relevance and contributions are briefly summarized. The study of the cultural sciences as they pertain to psychiatry offers a necessary corrective to the increasing impersonality and reductionism that is coming to characterize the neurobiologic approach.

  12. Risk of suicide according to level of psychiatric treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Madsen, Trine; Agerbo, Esben

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knowledge of the epidemiology of suicide is a necessary prerequisite of suicide prevention. We aimed to conduct a nationwide study investigating suicide risk in relation to level of psychiatric treatment. METHODS: Nationwide nested case-control study comparing individuals who died from...... suicide between 1996 and 2009 to age-, sex-, and year-matched controls. Psychiatric treatment in the previous year was graded as "no treatment," "medicated," "outpatient contact," "psychiatric emergency room contact," or "admitted to psychiatric hospital." RESULTS: There were 2,429 cases and 50......,323 controls. Compared with people who had not received any psychiatric treatment in the preceding year, the adjusted rate ratio (95 % confidence interval) for suicide was 5.8 (5.2-6.6) for people receiving only psychiatric medication, 8.2 (6.1-11.0) for people with at most psychiatric outpatient contact, 27...

  13. Psychiatric morbidity develops after onset of pediatric multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangsberg Boesen, Magnus; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Uldall, Peter Vilhelm

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) affects life at a stage vital for social and educational achievements and psychiatric co-morbidity is common after MS onset. Few studies have examined psychiatric morbidity before MS onset. METHODS: In this nationwide study, detailed case...... with psychiatric morbidity as exposure and MS as outcome, and a matched cohort study with MS as exposure and psychiatric co-morbidity as outcome. Hazard ratios (HR) including 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox regression. RESULTS: We identified 212 children with MS and 1060 controls....... No association between psychiatric morbidity and the rate of MS was found before MS onset. After MS onset, children with MS had two times higher hazard for psychiatric co-morbidity compared with children without MS (HR=2.0; 95% CI=1.3-3.1; pPsychiatric morbidity seems to commence after MS...

  14. Association between psychiatric symptoms and erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Ricca, Valdo; Bandini, Elisa; Mannucci, Edoardo; Petrone, Luisa; Fisher, Alessandra D; Lotti, Francesco; Balercia, Giancarlo; Faravelli, Carlo; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2008-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often associated with a wide array of psychiatric symptoms, although few studies systematically address their specific association with ED determinants. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between ED (as assessed by SIEDY Structured Interview, a 13-item tool which identifies and quantifies the contribution of organic, relational, and intrapsychic domains of ED) and different psychopathological symptoms (as assessed by the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire, a self-reported test for the screening of mental disorders in a nonpsychiatric setting). A consecutive series of 1,388 (mean age 51 +/- 13 years) male patients with ED was studied. Several hormonal and biochemical parameters were investigated, along with SIEDY Interview and the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. Psychiatric symptoms resulted differentially associated with SIEDY domains. Depressive and phobic-anxiety symptoms were associated with the relational domain, somatization with the organic one, while free-floating anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, and phobic symptoms were significantly related with higher intrapsychic SIEDY scores. In addition, relevant depressive symptomatology was associated with hypogonadism, the presence of low frequency of intercourse, hypoactive sexual desire (HSD), and conflictual relationships within the couple and the family. Patients with high free-floating anxiety symptoms were younger, and complained of an unsatisfactory work and a conflictual relationship within family. Conversely, subjects with higher phobic anxious symptoms displayed a more robust relational functioning. Similar results were observed in subjects with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, who also reported a lower prevalence of HSD. Finally, subjects with somatization symptoms showed the worst erectile function. The main value of this study is that it alters various clinicians' belief that many psychiatric symptoms can be found among ED patients. Systematic testing of

  15. PSYCHIATRIC EVALUATION OF LIMB FRACTURE PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    CHAUDHURY, S; JOHN, TR; KUMAR, A; SINGH, HARCHARAN

    2002-01-01

    The study included 70 consecutive patients with fracture of the lower and upper limbs each and an equal number of age and sex matched normal control subjects. All the subjects were screened using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Carroll Rating Scale for Depression (CRSD), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Impact of Events Scale (IES), Fatigue Scale (FS) and the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ). Probable “Psychiatric cases” identifi...

  16. Connectomic intermediate phenotypes for psychiatric disorders

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    Alex eFornito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A and APOE, may be higher for intermediate phenotypes characterised at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localised brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of

  17. Premenstrual Syndrome and Psychiatric Co-morbidities.

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    Ziba Taghizadeh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n    "nObjective: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is a common disorder with prevalence rate of approximately 30%; its concurrence with psychiatric symptoms will make it a disabling condition that resists usual treatment. Objective: This study was enrolled to assess the co-morbidity of PMS and psychiatric disorders in a sample of girls with PMS compared to those without PMS. "n    "nMaterial and method : This study was conducted through a cross sectional method with 362 participants (166 with PMS and 196 healthy girls who were selected randomly and completed the demographic questionnaire, premenstrual syndrome symptom daily record scale and the symptom checklist 90-revised (SCL-90-R. "n    "nResult: According to the result of the independent t test, the mean score of all the psychiatric symptoms in the PMS group was significantly higher than those in healthy group (P<0.001. According to SCL-90-R measurement, most of the participants in the PMS group were categorized as extremely sick for somatization (44% ,obsessive-compulsive (59%, depression (58.4%, anxiety (64.5%, hostility (47% and psychoticism (69.3%; most of the participants were diagnosed as having borderline severity of disorders for interpersonal sensitivity (44.6% and paranoid (42.8% and most of the respondents with PMS (46.4% were diagnosed as healthy only for phobic anxiety. "n    "nConclusion: There is a considerable relationship between PMS and different psychiatric symptoms that can complicate the diagnosis of PMS and its treatment for the health care providers. Therefore, all health care providers who are in contact with women in their reproductive age should be sensitive to mental health status in women with PMS.

  18. Stress among employees in psychiatric nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urška Nemec

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evidence suggests that stressful situations are frequent in the field of psychiatry and that professionals working in this speciality are more prone to stress. Stressful situations may be compounded by ignoring the principles and strategies of therapeutic communication in all interactions with patients. The purpose of the research was to determine the presence of stress among the nursing team members. Methods: The research is based on a quantitative methodology; the data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. The sample consisted of 73 nurses working in a special social welfare institution (n = 37 and in a psychiatric hospital (n = 36. The survey was conducted in the first half of the year 2016. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test were used. Results: The list of stress factors most frequently reported by the participants include low pay (n = 40, 55 %, poor interpersonal relationships in the workplace (n = 23, 32 %, and the sense of insecurity due to unpredictable behaviour of patients (n = 32, 44 %. One fifth of the respondents are regularly subjected to patient physical violence and psychological abuse in the workplace (n = 14, 19 % and a large majority (n = 53, 72.5 % are frequently exposed to dangerous situations. The respondents are not fully aware of the crucial importance of therapeutic communication with the patients (n = 38, 52 %. Discussion and conclusion: It is impossible to completely avoid stressful situations in psychiatric settings. Psychiatric nurses should possess good communication skills and the ability to develop good interpersonal relationships.

  19. [Psychiatric assessment in civil law questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedopil, N

    2009-05-01

    Psychiatric reports in German civil law cases are required if questions are raised of legal capacity, capacity to express a testamentary will, ability to sue or be sued, capacity to marry, ability of mentally disordered patients to consent to treatment, and when custody or hospital orders of these patients is considered or compensation is due for mental disorders resulting from accidents. Many reports must decide whether the ability to decide using sound reason or motives is or was impaired by a mental disorder. This capability is attributed to every adult person; only if incapability is claimed must it be proven by psychiatric assessment. As in most psychiatric court reports, such assessments must be structured in several steps. First a clinical diagnosis has to be established which must then be translated into legal terminology. After this has been accomplished, the psychiatrist must describe the functional impairments caused by the disorder and define the probability with which these impairments might affect the legal act in question. Most reports are prepared in the context of custody law, which centers on helping those patients who, due to a mental disorder, cannot manage their own legal matters.

  20. Home treatment for acute psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, C; Gadd, E M

    1990-11-03

    To determine the factors influencing the successful outcome of community treatment for severe acute psychiatric illnesses that are traditionally treated in hospital. All patients from a single electoral ward who were either admitted to hospital or treated at home over a two year period (1 October 1987 to 30 September 1989) were included in the study and their case notes audited. The second year of the study is reported. Electoral ward of Sparkbrook, Birmingham. 99 Patients aged 16-65 with severe acute psychiatric illness. 65 Patients were managed by home treatment alone; 34 required admission to hospital. The location of treatment was significantly (all p less than 0.05) influenced by social characteristics of the patients (marital state, age (in men), ethnicity, and living alone) and by characteristics of the referral (occurring out of hours; assessment taking place at hospital or police station). DSM-III-R diagnosis was more weakly associated with outcome. Violence during the episode was significantly related to admission, although deliberate self harm was not. Home treatment is feasible for most patients with acute psychiatric illness. A 24 hour on call assessment service increases the likelihood of success because admission is determined more strongly by social characteristics of the patient and the referral than by illness factors. Admission will still be required for some patients. A locally based mental health resource centre, a 24 hour on call service, an open referral system, and an active follow up policy increase the effectiveness of a home treatment service.

  1. Links between circadian rhythms and psychiatric disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia N Karatsoreos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the cause of psychiatric disorders is a goal of modern neuroscience, and will hopefully lead to the discovery of treatments to either prevent or alleviate the suffering caused by these diseases. One roadblock to attaining this goal is the realization that neuropsychiatric diseases are rarely due to a single gene polymorphism, environmental exposure, or developmental insult. Rather, it is a complex interaction between these various influences that likely leads to the development of clinically relevant syndromes. Our lab is exploring the links between environmental exposures and neurobehavioral function by investigating how disruption of the circadian (daily clock alters the structure and function of neural circuits, with the hypothesis that disrupting this crucial homeostatic system can directly contribute to altered vulnerability of the organism to other factors that interact to produce psychiatric illness. This review explores some historical and more recent findings that link disrupted circadian clocks to neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly depression, mania, and schizophrenia. We take a comparative approach by exploring the effects observed in human populations, as well as some experimental models used in the laboratory to unravel mechanistic and causal relationships between disruption of the circadian clock and behavioral abnormalities. This is a rich area of research that we predict will contribute greatly to our understanding of how genes, environment, and development interact to modulate an individual’s vulnerability to psychiatric disorders.

  2. Impulse control disorders in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Astrid; Rein, Katharina; Kollei, Ines; Jacobi, Andrea; Rotter, Andrea; Schütz, Patricia; Hillemacher, Thomas; de Zwaan, Martina

    2011-08-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders (ICDs) in a European psychiatric inpatient sample. Two hundred thirty four consecutive psychiatric inpatients (62% female) were examined using a module of the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) that has been developed for ICDs (SCID-ICD). In addition to intermittent explosive disorder, pyromania, kleptomania, pathological gambling, and trichotillomania, the proposed ICDs not otherwise specified were assessed, including compulsive buying, nonparaphilic compulsive sexual behavior, pathological internet use, and pathological skin picking. Based on the SCID-ICD, a lifetime ICD rate of 23.5% and a current ICD rate of 18.8% were found. The most frequent ICDs were pathological skin picking (lifetime 7.3%, current 6.8%), compulsive buying (lifetime 6.8%, current 6.0%), and intermittent explosive disorder (lifetime 5.6%, current 3.4%). In contrast, referring to admission diagnoses taken from patients' charts only 3.8% of the inpatients were diagnosed with any current ICD. Individuals with comorbid ICD were significantly younger and had more admission diagnoses other than ICD. The results suggest high rates of ICDs among psychiatric inpatients that remain to be under-diagnosed in clinical routine. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychiatric diagnosis and aggression before acute hospitalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colasanti, A; Natoli, A; Moliterno, D; Rossattini, M; De Gaspari, I F; Mauri, M C

    2008-09-01

    To examine the predictors of aggressive behaviours occurring before acute hospitalisation. We analysed 350 acute admissions to a psychiatric ward during a 12-month period. The diagnoses were formulated according to the DSM IV axis I and II criteria. Aggressive behaviours occurring in the week before admission were retrospectively assessed using the modified overt aggression scale. The patients' clinical and sociodemographic variables, concurrent drug or alcohol abuse, and admission status were recorded at the time of admission. Aggressive and violent behaviours were highly prevalent, respectively, in 45% and 33% of the cases. Violence before admission was independently associated with drug abuse, involuntary admission status, and severe psychopathology. A diagnosis of a psychotic disorder did not increase the risk of aggression or violence, compared to the other psychiatric diagnoses. Personality disorders were significantly more associated to aggressive behaviours than psychotic disorders. The diagnosis of psychotic disorder is a poor predictor of aggression in a sample of psychiatric patients. Other clinical and non-clinical variables are associated to aggression before hospitalisation: they include drug abuse, involuntary admission status, general severity of symptoms, and diagnosis of personality disorder.

  4. [Mentally Ill Parents in Psychiatric Hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwort, Ilka; Schmitz-Buhl, Mario; Christiansen, Hanna; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne

    2016-09-01

    Offsprings of psychiatric patients are burdened and they are at risk of developing a mental disorder themselves. All admissions in a psychiatric hospital within a period of 6 months were screened for parenthood of underaged children. They were given standardized questionnaires for child behavior (SDQ), parenting behavior and subjective need for help in parenting. 21.5 % (N = 439) of the patients had underaged children, 194 patients participated in the study. They considered their children as having more psychological/behavioral problems than a control group (N = 97). Patients with personality or affective disorders and patients with a high level of psychiatric comorbidity rated their children most problematic. Although patients did not differ from controls in the evaluation of their parenting style, they expressed a higher need for help in parenting. Parenting and education issues need to be considered in the treatment of mentally ill patients. Effective support could be a relief for families and help to prevent mental disorders in offsprings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Psychiatric referrals in two general hospitals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doongaji D

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available A prospective study was undertaken to compare the patterns of psychiatric referrals in two general hospitals in Bombay viz. the King Edward Memorial Hospital (64 cases and the Jaslok Hospital and Research Centre (62 cases. It was observed that depressive symptoms were the most common presenting symptoms in these patients attending either of the hospitals. Similarly, the commonest diagnoses were depression and organic mental disorder. Attempted suicide with organophosphorous compounds was the commonest reason for hospitalization at K.E.M. Hospital (p less than 0.001. A significant number of these patients were females (p less than 0.05. The psychiatric referrals at Jaslok had been hospitalized mainly for suspected medical or neurological illness (p less than 0.001. These patients belonged to higher economic strata and hence had a better paying capacity compared to patients at KEM hospital, a significant number of whom were unemployed (p less than 0.001. The duration of pre-referred illness of patients and their stay at Jaslok hospital were longer as compared to those at KEM Hospital (p less than 0.01. The number of non-relevant special investigations carried out on patients in Jaslok was more (p less than 0.01. Further analysis of diagnoses revealed that a significant number of patients at KEM Hospital were admitted as primary psychiatric illness (p less than 0.05.

  6. Psychiatric symptomatology after delirium: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Clare; Sarode, Deep P; Russ, Tom C; Shenkin, Susan D; Carson, Alan; Maclullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-09-01

    Delirium is an acute and usually transient severe neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with significant long-term physical morbidity. However, its chronic psychiatric sequelae remain poorly characterized. To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, namely anxiety, depressive, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms after delirium, a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases was performed independently by two authors in March 2016. Bibliographies were hand-searched, and a forward- and backward-citation search using Web of Science was performed for all included studies. Of 6411 titles, we included eight prospective cohort studies, including 370 patients with delirium and 1073 without delirium. Studies were heterogeneous and mostly included older people from a range of clinical groups. Consideration of confounders was variable. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was almost three times higher in patients with delirium than in patients without delirium (22.2% vs 8.0%, risk ratio = 2.79; 95% confidence interval = 1.36-5.73). There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of anxiety symptoms between patients with and without delirium. The prevalence of PTSD symptoms after delirium was inconclusive: only one study investigated this and no association between PTSD symptoms after delirium was reported. There is limited published evidence of the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms after non-ICU delirium and the strongest evidence is for depressive symptoms. Further longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and PTSD symptoms. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  7. [Historic evolution of psychiatric care paradigms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Pablo M; Fernández Bruno, Mónica

    2017-09-01

    The rehabilitation of severely mentally-ill patients and their return to the community are related to historical progress. Their potential of achieving these goals is higher or lower depending on the presence of more or less stigma attached to their condition. Watts and Bennett have divided psychiatric rehabilitation into three phases: Phase 1: Very little was done because there was not much to be done. Patients were rejected and received mistreatment. Phase 2: Their vulnerability was admitted and protection was given to the disabled; services were provided by charity and voluntary religious institutions; there was no clear distinction between illness and poverty. Phase 3: Modern psychiatric rehabilitation began after the two World Wars in the 20th century, with attempts to modify and to oppose disability with the development of other skills. Psychiatric rehabilitation programs help these patients to resume life in the community and prevent their social isolation. By ensuring continuity of their treatment, rehabilitation programs reduce relapses and hospitalizations, thereby contributing to preserve family life and social inclusion. This reduces treatment costs to both families and communities, while promoting patients' reinsertion and recovery in the community according to their individual needs.

  8. Psychiatric Prescribers' Experiences With Doctor Shoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie; Johnson, Mary; Karnik, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Doctor shopping is a primary method of prescription medication diversion. After opioids, benzodiazepines and stimulants are the next most common prescription medications used nonmedically. Studies have shown that patients who engage in doctor shopping find it fun, exciting, and easy to do. There is a lack of research on the prescriber's perspective on the phenomenon of doctor shopping. This study investigates the experiences of prescribers in psychiatry with patients who engage in doctor shopping. Fifteen prescribers including psychiatrists and psychiatric nurse practitioners working in outpatient psychiatry were interviewed to elicit detailed information about their experiences with patients who engage in doctor shopping. Themes found throughout the interview were that psychiatric prescribers' experience with patients who engage in doctor shopping includes (a) detecting red flags, (b) negative emotional responding, (c) addressing the patient and the problem, and (d) inconsistently implementing precautions. When red flags were detected when prescribing controlled drugs, prescribers in psychiatry experienced both their own negative emotional responses such as disappointment and resentment as well as the negative emotions of the patients such as anger and other extreme emotional responses. Psychiatric prescribers responded to patient's doctor shopping in a variety of ways such as changing their practice, discharging the patients or taking steps to not accept certain patients identified as being at risk for doctor shopping, as well as by talking to the patient and trying to offer them help. Despite experiencing doctor shopping, the prescribers inconsistently implemented precautionary measures such as checking prescription drug monitoring programs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Psychiatric units in Brazilian general hospitals: a growing philanthropic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botega, Neury José

    2002-06-01

    Some countries, mainly in North America and Europe, have adopted psychiatric wards in the general hospital as an alternative to the classic psychiatric hospital. In Brazil there are 6,169 general hospitals, 1.3% of which with a psychiatric unit. This service strategy is scarcely developed in the country and comprises only 4% of all psychiatric admissions. There was no information on the facilities and functioning of the psychiatric units in general hospitals. To determine the main characteristics of psychiatric units in Brazilian general hospitals and to assess the current trends in the services provided. A mailing survey assessed all 94 Brazilian general hospitals which made psychiatric admissions. A two-page questionnaire was designed to determine the main characteristics of each institution and of the psychiatric unit. Seventy-nine (84%) questionnaires were returned. In contrast to the 1970s and 1980s, in the last decade the installation of psychiatric units has spread to smaller philanthropic institutions that are not linked to medical schools. A fifth of hospitals admit psychiatric patients to medical wards because there is no specialist psychiatric ward. They try to meet all the local emergency demands, usually alcohol-dependent patients who need short term admission. This could signal the beginning of a program through which mental health professionals may become an integral part of general health services. The inauguration of psychiatric wards in philanthropic hospitals, as well as the admission of psychiatric patients in their medical wards, is a phenomenon peculiar to this decade. The installation of psychiatric services in these and other general hospitals would overcome two of major difficulties encountered: prejudice and a lack of financial resources.

  10. ISPRS STUDENT CONSORTIUM: THE NETWORK OF YOUTH IN GEOINFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Kivilcim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The ISPRS Student Consortium (SC initiative started at the 20th ISPRS Congress in Istanbul, 2004.After four years of volunteer activity, an official structure for volunteers was needed. With the implementation of the SC Statutes in the ISPRS Beijing Congress in 2008, the first ISPRS Student Consortium Board Members were elected. Since this day, SC volunteers and supporters have continued to contribute through numerous activities in order to promote the Society and connect young people with a similar interest in the profession. So far, promotional activities have taken place in various places in Europe, North and Central America, Asia and Australia. SC members have not only participated in the events, but also organized activities, taken responsibilities and represented youth in ISPRS midterm symposiums and ISPRS Centenary Celebrations as well as other related events. Summer schools, as the main SC event, are organized with the help of ISPRS TC VI/5 and are focused on the needs and interests of scientific communities around the world. The SC community has been constantly growing with almost 750 members over 85 countries at present, registered through our self-developed website. The organization also publishes its own Newsletter four times per year, with the intention to transmit the messages and news from ISPRS and the SC. The Newsletter is a perfect platform for presenting useful technical, educational and informational material prepared by members and distributed freely among the supporters. Throughout time, the SC has received guiding, motivational and administrative support from WG VI/5 as well as TC VI and the ISPRS Council. Activities have been financially supported by foundations, commercial enterprises and academic organizations and many SC members have received grants to present their work in different scientific events. In addition, the SC has started and established permanent connections and signed agreements for better networking with

  11. The Dubai Community Psychiatric Survey: acculturation and the prevalence of psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghubash, R; Hamdi, E; Bebbington, P

    1994-02-01

    Dubai, an Emirate in the Gulf region, has experienced spectacular social change as a result of the exploitation of its oil reserves. The Dubai Community Psychiatric Survey was designed to study the effects of this social change on the mental health of female nationals. In this paper, we approach the problem by quantifying social change in two main ways: the first focused on social change at the individual level as measured by the Socio-cultural Change Questionnaire (Bebbington et al. 1993). The second examined the effect of social change at the community level by identifying areas of residence at different levels of development. We hypothesized that attitudes and behaviours markedly at odds with traditional prescriptions would be associated with high rates of psychiatric morbidity. On the individual level, the association between psychiatric morbidity and the amount of social change reflected in the behaviours and views of the subjects was not significant. However, there was a significant association between morbidity and between social attitudes and behaviours. At the community level, in contrast, the relationship between psychiatric morbidity and social change was significant: there was more psychiatric morbidity in areas at the extremes of the social change continuum. The hypothesis put forward in this study must be modified accordingly.

  12. Price elasticity of demand for psychiatric consultation in a Nigerian psychiatric service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, Oluyomi

    2016-12-01

    This paper addresses price elasticity of demand (PED) in a region where most patients make payments for consultations out of pocket. PED is a measure of the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of goods or services to changes in price. The study was done in the context of an outpatient psychiatric clinic in a sub -Saharan African country. The study was performed at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Aggregate data were collected on weekly clinic attendance over a 24-month period October 2008 - September 2010 representing 12 months before, to 12months after a 67% increase in price of outpatient psychiatric consultation. The average weekly clinic attendance prior to the increase was compared to the average clinic attendance after the price increase. Arc-PED for consultation was also estimated. Clinic attendance dropped immediately and significantly in the weeks following the price increase. There was a 34.4% reduction in average weekly clinic attendance. Arc-PED for psychiatric consultation was -0.85. In comparison to reported PED on health care goods and services, this study finds a relatively high PED in psychiatric consultation following an increase in price of user fees of psychiatric consultation.

  13. Replication study for the association of 9 East Asian GWAS-derived loci with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in a Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Sakai

    Full Text Available AIMS: East Asian genome-wide association studies (GWAS for type 2 diabetes identified 8 loci with genome-wide significance, and 2 loci with a borderline association. However, the associations of these loci except MAEA locus with type 2 diabetes have not been evaluated in independent East Asian cohorts. We performed a replication study to investigate the association of these susceptibility loci with type 2 diabetes in an independent Japanese population. METHODS: We genotyped 7,379 Japanese participants (5,315 type 2 diabetes and 2,064 controls for each of the 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs7041847 in GLIS3, rs6017317 in FITM2-R3HDML-HNF4A, rs6467136 near GCCI-PAX4, rs831571 near PSMD6, rs9470794 in ZFAND3, rs3786897 in PEPD, rs1535500 in KCNK16, rs16955379 in CMIP, and rs17797882 near WWOX. Because the sample size in this study was not sufficient to replicate single SNP associations, we constructed a genetic risk score (GRS by summing a number of risk alleles of the 9 SNPs, and examined the association of the GRS with type 2 diabetes using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: With the exception of rs1535500 in KCNK16, all SNPs had the same direction of effect (odds ratio [OR]>1.0 as in the original reports. The GRS constructed from the 9 SNPs was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population (p = 4.0 × 10(-4, OR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.09. In quantitative trait analyses, rs16955379 in CMIP was nominally associated with a decreased homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and with increased fasting plasma glucose, but neither the individual SNPs nor the GRS showed a significant association with the glycemic traits. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that 9 loci that were identified in the East Asian GWAS meta-analysis have a significant effect on the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in the Japanese population.

  14. Effects of a psychiatric intensive care unit in an acute psychiatric department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaler, A E; Morken, G; Fløvig, J C; Iversen, V C; Linaker, O M

    2006-01-01

    Psychiatric acute units use different levels of segregation to satisfy needs for containment and decrease in sensory input for behaviourally disturbed patients. Controlled studies evaluating the effects of the procedure are lacking. The aim of the present study was to compare effects in acutely admitted patients with the use of a psychiatric intensive care unit (PICU) and not in a psychiatric acute department. In a naturalistic study, one group of consecutively referred patients had access only to the PICU, the other group to the whole acute unit. Data were obtained for 56 and 62 patients using several scales. There were significant differences in reduction of behaviour associated with imminent, threatening incidents (Broset Violence Checklist), and actual number of such incidents (Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised) in favour of the group that was treated in a PICU. The principles of patient segregation in PICUs have favourable effects on behaviours associated with and the actual numbers of violent and threatening incidents.

  15. Registration, psychiatric evaluation and adherence to psychiatric treatment after suicide attempt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Søgaard, Mette

    2005-01-01

    Persons who are treated at hospital after attempted suicide comprise a high-risk group for suicide. The proposal for a National Programme for Prevention of Suicide and Suicide Attempt in Denmark recommends that all persons who attempt suicide should be offered treatment and that treatment should....... Only few patients were not referred to any treatment at all, but among the patients referred to psychiatric treatment, only those admitted involuntarily received treatment in 100% of the planned cases. For outpatient treatment in the suicide prevention clinic, the percentage that attended planned...... be implemented, using a supportive and guiding principle. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether patients receive psychiatric evaluation after a suicide attempt, and whether they receive the psychiatric treatment to which they are referred. In the Copenhagen Hospital Corporation in four emergency...

  16. The Climate Change Consortium of Wales (C3W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, K. R.; Reis, J.; Hall, I. R.

    2011-12-01

    In response to the complexity and multidisciplinary nature of climate change research, the Climate Change Consortium of Wales (C3W) was formed in 2009 by the Welsh universities of Aberystwyth, Bangor, Cardiff and Swansea. Initially funded by Welsh Government, through the Higher Education Funding Council for Wales, the Countryside Council for Wales and the universities, C3W aims to bring together climate change researchers from a wide range of disciplines to explore scientific and sociological drivers, impacts and implications at local, national and international scale. The specific aims are to i) improve our fundamental understanding of the causes, nature, timing and consequences of climate change on Planet Earth's environment and on humanity, and ii) to reconfigure climate research in Wales as a recognisable centre of excellence on the world stage. In addition to improving the infrastructure for climate change research, we aim to improve communication, networking, collaborative research, and multidisciplinary data assimilation within and between the Welsh universities, and other UK and international institutions. Furthermore, C3W aims to apply its research by actively contributing towards national policy development, business development and formal and informal education activities within and beyond Wales.

  17. Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium: Overview, Progress and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Amy L; Ball, Karen L; Clancy, Marianne; Comi, Anne M; Faughnan, Marie E; Gopal-Srivastava, Rashmi; Jacobs, Thomas P; Kim, Helen; Krischer, Jeffrey; Marchuk, Douglas A; McCulloch, Charles E; Morrison, Leslie; Moses, Marsha; Moy, Claudia S; Pawlikowska, Ludmilla; Young, William L

    2013-04-01

    Brain vascular malformations are resource-intensive to manage effectively, are associated with serious neurological morbidity, lack specific medical therapies, and have no validated biomarkers for disease severity and progression. Investigators have tended to work in "research silos" with suboptimal cross-communication. We present here a paradigm for interdisciplinary collaboration to facilitate rare disease research. The Brain Vascular Malformation Consortium (BVMC) is a multidisciplinary, inter-institutional group of investigators, one of 17 consortia in the Office of Rare Disease Research Rare Disease Clinical Research Network (RDCRN). The diseases under study are: familial Cerebral Cavernous Malformations type 1, common Hispanic mutation (CCM1-CHM); Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS); and brain arteriovenous malformation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Each project is developing biomarkers for disease progression and severity, and has established scalable, relational databases for observational and longitudinal studies that are stored centrally by the RDCRN Data Management and Coordinating Center. Patient Support Organizations (PSOs) are a key RDCRN component in the recruitment and support of participants. The BVMC PSOs include Angioma Alliance, Sturge Weber Foundation , and HHT Foundation International . Our networks of clinical centers of excellence in SWS and HHT, as well as our PSOs, have enhanced BVMC patient recruitment. The BVMC provides unique and valuable resources to the clinical neurovascular community, and recently reported findings are reviewed. Future planned studies will apply successful approaches and insights across the three projects to leverage the combined resources of the BVMC and RDCRN in advancing new biomarkers and treatment strategies for patients with vascular malformations.

  18. Dedicated Beamline Facilities for Catalytic Research. Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingguang [Columbia Univ., New York, NY; Frenkel, Anatoly [Yeshiva Univ., New York, NY (United States); Rodriguez, Jose [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Adzic, Radoslav [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bare, Simon R. [UOP LLC, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Hulbert, Steve L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Karim, Ayman [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mullins, David R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Overbury, Steve [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Synchrotron spectroscopies offer unique advantages over conventional techniques, including higher detection sensitivity and molecular specificity, faster detection rate, and more in-depth information regarding the structural, electronic and catalytic properties under in-situ reaction conditions. Despite these advantages, synchrotron techniques are often underutilized or unexplored by the catalysis community due to various perceived and real barriers, which will be addressed in the current proposal. Since its establishment in 2005, the Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC) has coordinated significant efforts to promote the utilization of cutting-edge catalytic research under in-situ conditions. The purpose of the current renewal proposal is aimed to provide assistance, and to develop new sciences/techniques, for the catalysis community through the following concerted efforts: Coordinating the implementation of a suite of beamlines for catalysis studies at the new NSLS-II synchrotron source; Providing assistance and coordination for catalysis users at an SSRL catalysis beamline during the initial period of NSLS to NSLS II transition; Designing in-situ reactors for a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic studies; Assisting experimental set-up and data analysis by a dedicated research scientist; Offering training courses and help sessions by the PIs and co-PIs.

  19. Consortium analysis of 7 candidate SNPs for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, S.J.; Vierkant, R.A.; Johnatty, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium selected 7 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), for which there is evidence from previous studies of an association with variation in ovarian cancer or breast cancer risks. The SNPs selected for analysis were F31I (rs2273535) in AURKA, N372H...... (rs144848) in BRCA2, rs2854344 in intron 17 of RB1, rs2811712 5' flanking CDKN2A, rs523349 in the 3' UTR of SRD5A2, D302H (rs1045485) in CASP8 and L10P (rs1982073) in TGFB1. Fourteen studies genotyped 4,624 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 8,113 controls of white non-Hispanic origin...... was suggestive although no longer statistically significant (ordinal OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.79-1.06). This SNP has also been shown to have an association with decreased risk in breast cancer. There was a suggestion of an association for AURKA, when one study that caused significant study heterogeneity was excluded...

  20. SUNrises on the International Plant Nucleus Consortium: SEB Salzburg 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graumann, Katja; Bass, Hank W; Parry, Geraint

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear periphery is a dynamic, structured environment, whose precise functions are essential for global processes-from nuclear, to cellular, to organismal. Its main components-the nuclear envelope (NE) with inner and outer nuclear membranes (INM and ONM), nuclear pore complexes (NPC), associated cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal components as well as chromatin are conserved across eukaryotes (Fig. 1). In metazoans in particular, the structure and functions of nuclear periphery components are intensely researched partly because of their involvement in various human diseases. While far less is known about these in plants, the last few years have seen a significant increase in research activity in this area. Plant biologists are not only catching up with the animal field, but recent findings are pushing our advances in this field globally. In recognition of this developing field, the Annual Society of Experimental Biology Meeting in Salzburg kindly hosted a session co-organized by Katja Graumann and David E. Evans (Oxford Brookes University) highlighting new insights into plant nuclear envelope proteins and their interactions. This session brought together leading researchers with expertise in topics such as epigenetics, meiosis, nuclear pore structure and functions, nucleoskeleton and nuclear envelope composition. An open and friendly exchange of ideas was fundamental to the success of the meeting, which resulted in founding the International Plant Nucleus Consortium. This review highlights new developments in plant nuclear envelope research presented at the conference and their importance for the wider understanding of metazoan, yeast and plant nuclear envelope functions and properties.