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Sample records for psychiatric disorder conclusions

  1. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  2. Psychiatric disorders in myasthenia gravis

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    Mariana Inés Ybarra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. METHOD: Forty-one patients with MG answered to a structured psychiatric interview (MINI-Plus. RESULTS: Eleven (26.1% patients were diagnosed with a depressive disorder and 19 (46.3% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Patients with dysthymia were older (p=0.029 and had longer disease duration (p=0.006. Patients with social phobia also had longer disease duration (p=0.039. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders in MG are common, especially depressive and anxiety disorders.

  3. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

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    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  4. Psychiatric disorders and pregnancy

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    "SH. Akhondzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are common in women during their childbearing years. Special considerations are needed when psychotic disorders present during pregnancy. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy can prevent morbidity in pregnancy and in postpartum with the concomitant risks to mother and baby. Nevertheless, diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy is made more difficult by the overlap between symptoms of the disorders and symptoms of pregnancy. In majority of cases both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy should be considered. However, psychiatric disorders in pregnancy are often under treated because of concerns about potential harmful effects of medication. This paper reviews findings about the presentation and course of major psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.

  5. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Baldaçara,Leonardo; Borgio,João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda,Acioly Luiz Tavares de; Jackowski,Andrea Parolin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electron...

  6. Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Eliza L

    2014-09-01

    Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldaçara, Leonardo; Borgio, João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Tavares de; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electronic search was done up to April 2008. Structural and functional cerebellar abnormalities have been reported in many psychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, dementia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported smaller total cerebellar and vermal volumes in schizophrenia, mood disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies using cognitive paradigms have shown alterations in cerebellar activity in schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In dementia, the cerebellum is affected in later stages of the disease. Contrasting with early theories, cerebellum appears to play a major role in different brain functions other than balance and motor control, including emotional regulation and cognition. Future studies are clearly needed to further elucidate the role of cerebellum in both normal and pathological behavior, mood regulation, and cognitive functioning.

  8. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

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    Lin Hung-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.

  9. Lamotrigine in psychiatric disorders.

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    Reid, Jennifer G; Gitlin, Michael J; Altshuler, Lori L

    2013-07-01

    Owing to the prevalence of medication side effects and treatment resistance, prescribers often consider off-label uses of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agents for the treatment of persistent symptoms. The authors review the available literature on the FDA-approved and non-FDA-approved uses of lamotrigine in adults with psychiatric disorders. We used PubMed, MEDLINE, and a hand search of relevant literature to find studies published between 1990 and 2012 and available in English language. The following keywords were searched: lamotrigine, psychiatric, mood disorders, depression, personality disorders, anxiety, schizophrenia, side effects, and rash. Data were selected from 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). When RCTs were not available, open-label trials (6), retrospective case reviews (10), and case series (4) were summarized. We extracted results of monotherapy and augmentation trials of lamotrigine on primary and secondary outcome measures. Lamotrigine is generally well tolerated, with the best evidence for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder, particularly in prevention of depressive episodes. In acute bipolar depression, meta-analyses suggested a modest benefit, especially for more severely depressed subjects, with switch rates similar to placebo. In unipolar depression, double-blind RCTs noted benefit on subsets of symptoms and improved response in more severely depressed subjects. Data are limited but promising in borderline personality disorder. Use of lamotrigine in schizophrenia and anxiety disorders has little supportive evidence. Lamotrigine is recommended in bipolar maintenance when depression is prominent. It also has a role in treating acute bipolar depression and unipolar depression, though the latter warrants more research. Data are too limited in other psychiatric disorders to recommend its use at this time. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

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    Joseph ePhillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  11. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly.

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    Skoog, Ingmar

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has shown that depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis are more common than previously supposed in elderly populations without dementia. It is unclear whether the frequency of these disorders increases or decreases with age. Clinical expression of psychiatric disorders in old age may be different from that seen in younger age groups, with less and often milder symptoms. Concurrently, comorbidity between different psychiatric disorders is immense, as well as comorbidity with somatic disorders. Cognitive function is often decreased in people with depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis, but whether these disorders are risk factors for dementia is unclear. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly are often related to cerebral neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease, although psychosocial risk factors are also important. Psychiatric disorders, common among the elderly, have consequences that include social deprivation, poor quality of life, cognitive decline, disability, increased risk for somatic disorders, suicide, and increased nonsuicidal mortality.

  12. The six most essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis: a pluralogue. Part 4: general conclusion

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    Phillips James

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the conclusion to this multi-part article I first review the discussions carried out around the six essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis – the position taken by Allen Frances on each question, the commentaries on the respective question along with Frances’ responses to the commentaries, and my own view of the multiple discussions. In this review I emphasize that the core question is the first – what is the nature of psychiatric illness – and that in some manner all further questions follow from the first. Following this review I attempt to move the discussion forward, addressing the first question from the perspectives of natural kind analysis and complexity analysis. This reflection leads toward a view of psychiatric disorders – and future nosologies – as far more complex and uncertain than we have imagined.

  13. Gene therapy for psychiatric disorders.

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    Gelfand, Yaroslav; Kaplitt, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy has become of increasing interest in clinical neurosurgery with the completion of numerous clinical trials for Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and pediatric genetic disorders. With improved understanding of the dysfunctional circuitry mediating various psychiatric disorders, deep brain stimulation for refractory psychiatric diseases is being increasingly explored in human patients. These factors are likely to facilitate development of gene therapy for psychiatric diseases. Because delivery of gene therapy agents would require the same surgical techniques currently being employed for deep brain stimulation, neurosurgeons are likely to lead the development of this field, as has occurred in other areas of clinical gene therapy for neurologic disorders. We review the current state of gene therapy for psychiatric disorders and focus specifically on particular areas of promising research that may translate into human trials for depression, drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Issues that are relatively unique to psychiatric gene therapy are also discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    examined persons in Phase 2 showed by binomial tests the following frequencies: any psychiatric disorder 57%, any depression 42%, and any anxiety 18%. In Phase 1, representative for everyone on LSA, the frequencies were 48% for any psychiatric disorder, 35% for any depression, 15% for any anxiety, and 7......% for any somatoform disorder. Multivariable analyses showed that female sex and unemployment were predictors of a psychiatric disorder, whereas living with children below 18 years and being a skilled worker carried a reduced risk of a psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of psychiatric...

  15. Transposable elements and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, Guia; Gaudi, Simona; Fallon, James H; Sobell, Janet; Potkin, Steven G; Pato, Carlos; Macciardi, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    Transposable Elements (TEs) or transposons are low-complexity elements (e.g., LINEs, SINEs, SVAs, and HERVs) that make up to two-thirds of the human genome. There is mounting evidence that TEs play an essential role in genomic architecture and regulation related to both normal function and disease states. Recently, the identification of active TEs in several different human brain regions suggests that TEs play a role in normal brain development and adult physiology and quite possibly in psychiatric disorders. TEs have been implicated in hemophilia, neurofibromatosis, and cancer. With the advent of next-generation whole-genome sequencing approaches, our understanding of the relationship between TEs and psychiatric disorders will greatly improve. We will review the biology of TEs and early evidence for TE involvement in psychiatric disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Genetic counseling for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuang, D W; Faraone, S V; Tsuang, M T

    2001-04-01

    Like other medical conditions, some psychiatric disorders are inherited, whereas others are not. Human genetics research is moving at a rapid pace. Genes for over 450 genetic disorders have been cloned and many disease-causing mutations have also been identified. The explosion of this new knowledge has created many new exciting opportunities in the diagnosis of these heritable disorders. The rapid pace of gene discovery will aid the identification of susceptibility genes for psychiatric disorders. Indeed, we can look forward to answers to many clinical and research questions. These are some of the gifts that the expanding field of human genetics research will continue to bring to medical science. However, as genetic tests for the detection of psychiatric disorders become available, many ethical, legal, and social implications will need to be considered. In this article, we review the principles of genetic counseling for psychiatric disorders, as well as the social and ethical dilemmas that genetic testing may bring. Although medical and scientific advances may bring many gifts, we should approach this new knowledge with caution, as one of the gifts may be a Pandora's box.

  17. Conclusions:

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Conclusions: Extended objects – “D-branes” – appear naturally in theories of strings. They manifest themselves as new types of physical particles in string models. They provide a powerful handle on the symmetries and dynamics of strings. Branes will play a key role ...

  18. Conclusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Conclusion. Power Quality Definitions are familiarised. Effects of PQ Problems. Causes of PQ problems. Mitigation of PQ Problems by. Power Filters for Retrofit Applications. Multi-pulse AC-DC converters. IPQC for Single Phase and Three Phase, Isolated and Non Isolated ...

  19. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

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    Koelen Jurrijn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. Methods The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18–65. The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location. The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement. Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation. Results Higher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders. The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders. Conclusion Psychiatric disorders are more

  20. Treatment Adherence in Psychiatric Disorders

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    Mehmet Emin Demirkol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite developments in treatment options there is no significant increase in treatment adherence ratios. Inadherence in psychiatric disorders is higher than the other diseases. Loss of insight, drugs' side effects, sociodemographic features, personality traits are major factors affecting the treatment adherence. Determining and overcoming these factors for each disorder will help to improve adherence and reduce the treatment costs and hospitalization. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 85-93

  1. Psychiatric disorders after radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokai, Masahiro [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Soejima, Toshinori; Wang, Shangdong; Shinfuku, Naotaka

    2001-04-01

    This review focuses on the mental and psychological effects of medical radiation exposure, the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island, the Chernobyl disaster, atomic bomb explosions at Nagasaki and Hiroshima, and accidents at nuclear power plants and nuclear waste plants. Studies have shown that anxiety about the adverse effects of radiation in medicine (such as infertility, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity) and fear for exposure has caused psychiatric disorders. Several studies on the mental health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island were conducted, and the results indicated that psychiatric distress persisted for a certain period of time, particularly in pregnant women and women who have children, even when no evidence of substantial of radiation exposure is seen clinically. The psychological consequences of the Chernobyl disaster have been investigated continuously, and various problems, e.g., acute stress reaction, neurosis, and psychosis, have been identified, although no physical damage due to the radiation or PTSD have been reported. By contrast, PTSD has been seen in survivors of the Nagasaki and Hiroshima nuclear explosions. A study in Ohio, (United States), which has a nuclear waste plant, investigated PTSD in people living near the plant and found that the symptom level was mild. In general, the most common symptoms among people with mental and psychological disorders due to radiation exposure are depression and anxiety, with many people having associated somatoform disorders, and some people complain of PTSD. Vague anxiety and fear of sequelae, regardless of the exposure dose, appears to cause such psychiatric disorders. Although it is rare for psychiatrists to see such cases of psychiatric disorders due to radiation exposure, their number may increase as psychiatric services become more widely available. (K.H.)

  2. Animal cruelty and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyzer, Roman; Felthous, Alan R; Holzer, Charles E

    2002-01-01

    Animal cruelty in childhood, although generally viewed as abnormal or deviant, for years was not considered symptomatic of any particular psychiatric disorder. Although animal cruelty is currently used as a diagnostic criterion for conduct disorder, research establishing the diagnostic significance of this behavior is essentially nonexistent. In the current study, investigators tested the hypothesis that a history of substantial animal cruelty is associated with a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (APD) and looked for associations with other disorders commonly diagnosed in a population of criminal defendants. Forty-eight subjects, criminal defendants who had histories of substantial animal cruelty, were matched with defendants without this history. Data were systematically obtained from the files by using four specifically designed data retrieval outlines. A history of animal cruelty during childhood was significantly associated with APD, antisocial personality traits, and polysubstance abuse. Mental retardation, psychotic disorders, and alcohol abuse showed no such association.

  3. Postpartum psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G E; Stewart, D E

    1986-01-01

    Postpartum blues, postpartum neurotic depression and puerperal psychoses have distinct clinical features; they affect women in all social classes and in all cultures, and despite numerous studies they have not been linked definitively with any biologic or psychosocial variables. The only possible exception is puerperal psychosis, which emerges much more often in women with a personal or family history of a bipolar affective disorder than in women without, a finding that probably explains the reluctance of some researchers to recognize puerperal psychotic episodes as distinct from psychotic episodes at other times. If postpartum blues last longer than 2 weeks and are disabling they are classified as neurotic depression and warrant treatment, often requiring both psychosocial approaches and psychotropic drug therapy. Antidepressants, major tranquillizers, electroconvulsive therapy and lithium have proved effective in the treatment of postpartum psychoses, depending on the symptoms. Both lithium and diazepam have been reported to cause deleterious side effects on breast-fed infants, and as the side effects of other psychotropic drugs given to a nursing mother are imperfectly understood, bottle feeding seems prudent. PMID:3510069

  4. Forensic Psychiatric Aspects of Impulse Control Disorders

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    Huseyin Soysal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Impulse control disorders is an important psychiatric disorder group which draws attention in recent years. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and other classical disorders like pyromania, kleptomania, intermittent explosive disorder and compulsive buying could be evasuated under this topic. The aim of this article is to review forensic psychiatric aspects of impulse control disorders and evaluate the disorders in terms of their legal status. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(1: 16-29

  5. Time Perception and Psychiatric Disorders

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    Hatice Ceviz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.

  6. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in HIV patients in the Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The psychiatric conditions identi ed were mood disorders (depression and mania) and anxiety disorders (General anxiety, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post traumatic stress disorder). Conclusion: Findings suggest that there is need to consider mental and psychological care of clients ...

  7. Epigenetic signaling in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Catherine J; Bagot, Rosemary C; Labonté, Benoit; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-10-09

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial illnesses involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors are important in the etiology of disorders such as depression and addiction, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly indicate the importance of additional mechanisms. Environmental factors such as stress or prior drug exposure are known to play a role in the onset of these illnesses. Such exposure to environmental insults induces stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior, and these maladaptations appear distinct between developmental and adult exposures. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression and addiction can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations (e.g., chronic stress, drug administration). Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models reveals new insight into disease mechanisms in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Variants of psychiatric disorders in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

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    T A Lisitsyna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze prevalence and structure of psychiatric disorders in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE examining in the Institute of rheumatology of RAMS. Material and methods. 115 pts with SLE with median age 34 [24; 45] years and median disease duration 8 [4; 17] years were included. SLE activity was assessed with SLEDAI. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed by a psychiatrist according to ICD-10 using some psychiatric and psychological scales. Results. Psychiatric disorders were revealed in 76 from 115 (66% pts. Anxiety-depressive spectrum disorders prevailed (83%: depressive episode (40%, adjustment disorders (24%, generalized anxiety disorder (10%, dysthymia (9%. Severe cognitive dysfunction was revealed in 7% of pts. Pts with and without psychiatric disorders did not significantly differ in age, sex, duration and activity of the disease, duration of treatment and cumulative dose of prednisolone and cytotoxic drugs. Conclusion. Psychiatric disorders are frequent in pts with SLE (66%. Anxiety-depressive disorders prevail among them (83%. Relationship between SLE and psychiatric disorders requires further examination.

  9. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

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    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  10. Sleep in Children With Psychiatric Disorders.

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    Ramtekkar, Ujjwal; Ivanenko, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in pediatric psychiatric disorders and constitute key elements in diagnostic symptomatology of various primary psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, depression, and anxiety disorder. Although sleep is not included in key defining criteria of some impairing illnesses such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia, these disorders present with a very high prevalence of sleep disturbances. The interaction between sleep and psychopathology is very complex with significant interrelationship in development, severity, and prognosis of psychiatric disorders and comorbid sleep disturbances. The research ranging from small intervention case series to large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the role of specific sleep complaints in specific psychiatric diagnoses. However, the research using objective instruments such as polysomnography and actigraphy remains limited in youth with psychiatric disorders. The intervention studies using pharmaceutical treatment specifically focusing on sleep disturbances in psychiatric disorders are also sparse in the pediatric literature. Early identification of sleep disturbances and behavioral management using cognitive behavior therapy-based tools appear to be the most effective approach for treatment. The use of psychotropic medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of primary psychiatric disorder often alleviate the psychological barriers for sleep but may lead to emergence of other sleep issues such as restless leg syndrome. The safety and efficacy data of hypnotics for primary sleep disorders are limited in pediatrics and should be avoided or used with extreme caution in children with comorbid sleep and psychiatric problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A review of Indian research on co-occurring cannabis use disorders& psychiatric disorders

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    Shalini Singh

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: A review of Indian literature on cannabis use and its association with psychiatric disorders indicates a high co-prevalence of psychotic disorders, especially in vulnerable individuals as well as high rates of co-occurrence of other psychiatric comorbidities. However, there is limited focus on exploring the aetiological association between cannabis use and psychiatric disorders; understanding the neurobiology of this association and management-related issues.

  12. Fatty acids and oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders

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    Tonello Lucio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether there is published evidence for increased oxidative stress in neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods A PubMed search was carried out using the MeSH search term 'oxidative stress' in conjunction with each of the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association in order to identify potential studies. Results There was published evidence of increased oxidative stress in the following DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categories: mental retardation; autistic disorder; Rett's disorder; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; delirium; dementia; amnestic disorders; alcohol-related disorders; amphetamine (or amphetamine-like-related disorders; hallucinogen-related disorders; nicotine-related disorders; opioid-related disorders; schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders; mood disorders; anxiety disorders; sexual dysfunctions; eating disorders; and sleep disorders. Conclusion Most psychiatric disorders are associated with increased oxidative stress. Patients suffering from that subgroup of these psychiatric disorders in which there is increased lipid peroxidation might therefore benefit from fatty acid supplementation (preferably with the inclusion of an antioxidant-rich diet while patients suffering from all these psychiatric disorders might benefit from a change to a whole-food plant-based diet devoid of refined carbohydrate products.

  13. Prevalence of Alcohol and Substance Use Disorder among Psychiatric Inpatients

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    Gonca Karakus

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Professionals dealing with treatment of psychiatric disorders should always be aware of substance use disorder comorbidity, and start treatment immediately without causing any delay in treatment. Obviously we need future large prospective studies to get more insight into these dual-diagnose disorders. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1: 37-48

  14. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Juliana; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Salles, José Inácio; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study presented here analyzed the patterns of relationship between oculomotor performance and psychopathology, focusing on depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety disorder. Methods Scientific articles published from 1967 to 2013 in the PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time), though electrophysiological measures are absent. PMID:24072973

  15. Attitude of Khorramabad high school students towards psychiatric disorders

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    mitra Safa

    2004-01-01

    54% of the students believed that parents inattention to their children and 46.3% believed that physical punishment by parents or school staff could effect on occurrence of psychiatric disorders . 90% of the students interested in receiving education by psychiatrist or psychologist in their schools . Conclusion: Results of this study show that high school students, attitude in Khorramabad city to psychiatric disorders is negative . It seems that with exact perception of this problem and proper planning we can develop a positive change in students, attitude to psychiatric disorders and take effective steps to improve mental health of the adolescents .

  16. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Koelen, J.A.; Smit, H.F.E.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a

  17. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.M.; Peen, J.; Koelen, J.A.; Smit, H.F.E.; Schoevers, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in

  18. Psychiatric disorders in women with fertility problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldur-Felskov, Birgitte; Kjaer, S K; Albieri, V

    2013-01-01

    Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?......Do women who don't succeed in giving birth after an infertility evaluation have a higher risk of psychiatric disorders compared with women who do?...

  19. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Patients with Diabetes Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alireza Sajjadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders are important complications of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus.Materials and method: In this descriptive study, 80 patients with diabetes type 2 referred to diabetes clinic of Zahedan in 2009. They were selected by simple randomized method, screened by General Health Questionnaire and assessed by psychiatric interview, if it was necessary.Results: Totally, 67.5% required an interview and 43.75% were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. Major depression were more prevalent (13.5% than adjustment disorders (15%.Conclusion: High prevalence of depression and adjustment disorder in diabetic patients needs psychiatric assessment and treatment as the main part, in the diabetes clinics

  20. Psychiatric disorder in male veterans and nonveterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norquist, G S; Hough, R L; Golding, J M; Escobar, J I

    1990-05-01

    Prevalences of Diagnostic Interview Schedule/DSM-III psychiatric disorders for male veterans and nonveterans from four war eras were estimated using data from over 7500 male community respondents interviewed by the Epidemiologic Catchment Area program at five geographic areas across the country. Veterans serving after Vietnam (Post-Vietnam era) had greater lifetime and 6-month prevalences of psychiatric disorder than their nonveteran counterparts, whereas the reverse tended to be the case for the Vietnam, Korean, and World War II war eras. Comparisons across war eras revealed a trend for more psychiatric disorder, especially substance abuse, in younger veterans and nonveterans than in older respondents.

  1. Subjectivity and severe psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, John

    2011-01-01

    To have a complete human science in the mental health field it is essential to give adequate attention to both the objective and the subjective data related to people with psychiatric disorders. The tendency in the past has been to ignore or discount one or the other of these data sources. Subjective data are particularly neglected, sometimes considered (only) part of the "art" of medicine since the usual methodologies of the physical sciences in themselves are not adequate to reflect the nature, elusiveness, and complexity of human subjective experience. The complete experience of hallucinated voices, for instance, often includes not only the voices themselves but also terrible anguish and terrifying inability to concentrate. But even such descriptors fall unnecessarily short of reflecting the data of the experience, thus leaving research, theory, and treatment with incomplete information. To represent adequately the subjective data it is essential to recognize that besides the usual discursive knowledge and methods of traditional physical science, a second kind of knowledge and method is required to reflect the depth of human experience. To accomplish this, we must employ approaches to narrative and the arts that are uniquely capable of capturing the nature of these experiences. Only by attending seriously in our research, training, theory, and practice to the unique nature of subjective data is it possible to have a true human science for our field.

  2. Impulse control disorders in adult psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Levine, Laura; Kim, Daniel; Potenza, Marc N

    2005-11-01

    The authors' goal was to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in psychiatric inpatients. They used the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview, a semistructured clinical interview assessing pathological gambling, trichotillomania, kleptomania, pyromania, intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive buying, and compulsive sexual behavior, to screen 204 consecutively admitted psychiatric inpatients. One hundred twelve of the inpatients were women (54.9%), and the mean age of the 204 inpatients was 40.5 years (SD=13.2, range=18-83). Patients whose screen was positive for an impulse control disorder were evaluated with structured clinical interviews. Sixty-three patients (30.9%) were diagnosed with at least one current impulse control disorder. The most common impulse control disorders were compulsive buying (N=19 [9.3%]), kleptomania (N=16 [7.8%]), and pathological gambling (N=14 [6.9%]). Patients with and without co-occurring impulse control disorders did not differ significantly from each other on demographic measures or number or type of psychiatric diagnoses other than impulse control disorders. Impulse control disorders appear common among psychiatric inpatients. Additional, larger studies are needed to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in the general population and specific psychiatric groups.

  3. Prevalence of Alcohol and Substance Use Disorder among Psychiatric Inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of alcohol and substance use disorders in psychiatric inpatient clinics and determine the frequencies of alcohol and substance use disorder among psychiatric disease groups and find out the differences in between these groups. Material and Methods: Thus all patients admitted to inpatients psychiatric clinics of in one year period were approached for inclusion into this study, and 155 patients with a hospitalization period longer than one day who provided informed consent were included in the study. All patients included in the study were interviewed with a semi structured interview scale to get information regarding the presence of alcohol, nicotine and other substance use disorder. Results: The results of this study confirmed high rates of alcohol, nicotine and substance use disorder comorbidity in psychiatric inpatients. The results of one year prospective follow up study revealed that 57.4% of patients had nicotine dependence, 21.9% alcohol dependence and misuse and 9% had sedative misuse or dependence. The rate of substance use disorder was high among all psychiatric disorder subgroups. Considering all substances including nicotine together, 55% of patients with psychotic disorder had at least one substance use disorder whereas these figures were 61% and 81% for affective disorders and anxiety disorders respectively. Conclusion: Professionals dealing with treatment of psychiatric disorders should always be aware of substance use disorder comorbidity, and start treatment immediately without causing any delay in treatment. Obviously we need future large prospective studies to get more insight into these dual-diagnose disorders. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1.000: 37-48

  4. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Koelen Jurrijn; Peen Jaap; Dekker Jack; Smit Filip; Schoevers Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. Method...

  5. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence -- a population-based cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    examined persons in Phase 2 showed by binomial tests the following frequencies: any psychiatric disorder 57%, any depression 42%, and any anxiety 18%. In Phase 1, representative for everyone on LSA, the frequencies were 48% for any psychiatric disorder, 35% for any depression, 15% for any anxiety, and 7......% for any somatoform disorder. Multivariable analyses showed that female sex and unemployment were predictors of a psychiatric disorder, whereas living with children below 18 years and being a skilled worker carried a reduced risk of a psychiatric disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of psychiatric...

  6. Dissociative identity disorder in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, A; Ghisalbert, D; Dimatou, S; Jin, C; Sethi, M

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to replicate reports of a high rate of dissociative identity disorder in psychiatric inpatients. Subjects were 100 randomly selected women, 16-50 years old, who had recently been admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital. Diagnoses were made by two interviewers through use of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. One percent (N = 1) of the interviewed subjects had dissociative identity disorder. Contrary to previous studies, the authors found a low rate of dissociative identity disorder, perhaps because of the different methodology used.

  7. [Circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatric diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromundt, Vivien

    2014-11-01

    Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are prevalent among psychiatric patients. This is most probable due to a close relationship between functional disturbances of the internal clock, sleep regulation and mental health. Mechanisms on molecular level of the circadian clock and neurotransmitter signalling are involved in the development of both disorders. Moreover, circadian disorders and psychiatric diseases favour each other by accessory symptoms such as stress or social isolation. Actimetry to objectively quantify the rest-activity cycle and salivary melatonin profiles as marker for the circadian phase help to diagnose circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatric patients. Chronotherapeutics such as bright light therapy, dark therapy, melatonin administration, and wake therapy are used to synchronise and consolidate circadian rhythms and help in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders, but are still neglected in medicine. More molecular to behavioural research is needed for the understanding of the development of circadian disorders and their relationship to psychiatric illnesses. This will help to boost the awareness and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatry.

  8. Cognitive functioning in psychiatric disorders following deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, Isidoor O; Mantione, Mariska; Hoogendoorn, Mechteld L C; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is routinely used as a treatment for treatment-refractory Parkinson's disease and has recently been proposed for psychiatric disorders such as Tourette syndrome (TS), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Although cognitive deterioration has repeatedly been shown in patients with Parkinson's disease following DBS, the impact of DBS on cognitive functioning in psychiatric patients has not yet been reviewed. Reviewing the available literature on cognitive functioning following DBS in psychiatric patients. A systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science, last updated in September 2012, found 1470 papers. Abstracts were scrutinized and 26 studies examining cognitive functioning of psychiatric patients following DBS were included on basis of predetermined inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported cognitive functioning of 130 psychiatric patients following DBS (37 TS patients, 56 OCD patients, 28 MDD patients, 6 patients with Alzheimer's disease, and 3 patients with other disorders). None of the studies reported substantial cognitive decline following DBS. On the contrary, 13 studies reported cognitive improvement following DBS. Preliminary results suggest that DBS in psychiatric disorders does not lead to cognitive decline. In selected cases cognitive functioning was improved following DBS. However, cognitive improvement cannot be conclusively attributed to DBS since studies are hampered by serious limitations. We discuss the outcomes in light of these limitations and offer suggestions for future work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The incidence and prevalence of psychiatric disorders in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reingold, Stephen; Cohen, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    -based studies, the prevalence of anxiety was 21.9% (95% CI: 8.76%-35.0%), while it was 14.8% for alcohol abuse, 5.83% for bipolar disorder, 23.7% (95% CI: 17.4%-30.0%) for depression, 2.5% for substance abuse, and 4.3% (95% CI: 0%-10.3%) for psychosis. CONCLUSION: This review confirms that psychiatric...... comorbidity, particularly depression and anxiety, is common in MS. However, the incidence of psychiatric comorbidity remains understudied. Future comparisons across studies would be enhanced by developing a consistent approach to measuring psychiatric comorbidity, and reporting of age-, sex-, and ethnicity...

  10. Violence, Burnout and Minor Psychiatric Disorders in Hospital Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Dal Pai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying the violence suffered by the health team workers and their association with Burnout and minor psychiatric disorders. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 269 health team professionals of a public hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected through the use of the Survey Questionnaire: Workplace Violence in the Health Sector, Maslach Inventory Burnout and Self-Report Questionnaire. RESULTS Workplace violence struck 63.2% of workers, prevailing mostly in women (p = 0.001, among nursing auxiliaries/technicians (p=0.014 and was associated with minor psychiatric disorders (p<0.05, as exposure to different forms of violence increased the chances of these disorders by 60% (CI 95%: 1.2-2.1. The three Burnout dimensions were also associated to violence at work (p<0.05. CONCLUSION Health workers experience violence in the workplace and this exposure is associated with Burnout symptoms and minor psychiatric disorders.

  11. Violence, Burnout and Minor Psychiatric Disorders in Hospital Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Dal Pai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying the violence suffered by the health team workers and their association with Burnout and minor psychiatric disorders. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 269 health team professionals of a public hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected through the use of the Survey Questionnaire: Workplace Violence in the Health Sector, Maslach Inventory Burnout and Self-Report Questionnaire. RESULTS Workplace violence struck 63.2% of workers, prevailing mostly in women (p = 0.001, among nursing auxiliaries/technicians (p=0.014 and was associated with minor psychiatric disorders (p<0.05, as exposure to different forms of violence increased the chances of these disorders by 60% (CI 95%: 1.2-2.1. The three Burnout dimensions were also associated to violence at work (p<0.05. CONCLUSION Health workers experience violence in the workplace and this exposure is associated with Burnout symptoms and minor psychiatric disorders.

  12. Out and Down: Incarceration and Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittker, Jason; Massoglia, Michael; Uggen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are unusually prevalent among current and former inmates, but it is not known what this relationship reflects. A putative causal relationship is contaminated by assorted influences, including childhood disadvantage, the early onset of most disorders, and the criminalization of substance use. Using the National Comorbidity…

  13. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…

  14. Lipids in psychiatric disorders and preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Miriam; Levant, Beth; Reichel, Martin; Gulbins, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes; Müller, Christian P

    2017-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders like mood disorders, schizophrenia, or drug addiction affect a sizeable proportion of the human population and severely compromise quality of life. Therefore, measures to prevent the manifestation, and treatments to ameliorate the symptoms, of these disorders are in high demand. Brain lipids determine the localization and function of proteins in the cell membrane of neurons. Lipids may also act as neurotransmitters or other signalling molecules. The lipid composition of the brain can be influenced by nutrition, environmental factors, and by behavioural activity. Thus, lipids represent a target for preventive medicine of psychiatric disorders. Here we review how brain lipids contribute to normal behaviour and to major psychiatric disorders with the focus on phospholipids/fatty acids, sphingolipids, and endocannabinoids. Accumulating evidence suggests a crucial role for membrane forming and signalling lipids in the brain in the etiopathologies of depression, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Lipids also represent potential preventive interventions for these psychiatric disorders by either targeted dietary supplementation or pharmacological manipulation of lipid regulating enzymes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The serotonin transporter in psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spies, Marie; Knudsen, Karen Birgitte Moos; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    of various psychiatric disorders and their treatment. We review studies that use PET to measure cerebral serotonin transporter activity in psychiatric disorders, focusing on major depressive disorder and antidepressant treatment. We also discuss opportunities and limitations in the application...... of this neuroimaging method in clinical practice. Although results from individual studies diverge, meta-analysis indicates a trend towards reduced serotonin transporter availability in patients with major depressive disorder. Inconsistencies in results might suggest symptom heterogeneity in major depressive disorder...... and might therefore be relevant for stratification of patients into clinical subsets. PET has enabled the elucidation of mechanisms of response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and hence provides a basis for rational pharmacological treatment of major depressive disorder. Such imaging...

  16. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap; Koelen, Jurrijn; Smit, Filip; Schoevers, Robert

    2008-01-17

    Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV) in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18-65). The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location. The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF) and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement). Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation. Higher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders). The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders) in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders. Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among the inhabitants of more urbanized areas

  17. Frequency of Different Psychiatric Disorders in Patients With Functional Bowel Disorders: A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Functional gastrointestinal (GI disorders are very common and many patients with such disorders are not satisfied with treatment outcomes. Psychological aspects of functional disorders need special attention that may play an important role in patient management. Objectives In this study, psychology evaluation was performed for a population of patients with functional bowel disorders. Patients and Methods One hundred patients with functional bowel disorders including 50 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS referred to GI clinics were candidates for psychiatry evaluation; of those 60 patients completed the study. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using a structured clinical interview based on diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV (DSM IV. Results Of 60 patients with functional bowel disorders (including 39 IBS, 51 (85% were diagnosed with at least one psychiatry disorder. The most common disorders were dysthymia (25% and obsessive-compulsive disorder (20%. There was no significant difference between IBS patients and other functional bowel disorders regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Psychiatric disorders are very prevalent among patients with functional bowel disorders. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate management of associated psychiatric disorders along with GI targeted treatments may lead to a better outcome in these patients.

  18. Psychiatric Disorders Among People Living With HIV/AIDS Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the study population was found to be 38.3%. Mood disorders accounted for 78.3% of psychiatric disorders (Major Depressive Disorder 52.2%; Dysthymia 26.1%), Anxiety disorders 15.6% (Panic disorder 6.1%; Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder 5.2%; Social Phobia 4.3%), ...

  19. Psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schwarzbold

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Schwarzbold1, Alexandre Diaz1, Evandro Tostes Martins2, Armanda Rufino1, Lúcia Nazareth Amante1,3, Maria Emília Thais1, João Quevedo4, Alexandre Hohl1, Marcelo Neves Linhares1,5,6, Roger Walz1,61Núcleo de Pesquisas em Neurologia Clínica e Experimental (NUPNEC, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 2Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 3Departamento de Enfermagem, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 4Laboratório de Neurociências, UNESC, Criciúma, SC, Brazil; 5Departamento de Cirurgia, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 6Centro de Cirurgia de Epilepsia de Santa Catarina (CEPESC, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, BrazilAbstract: Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI are frequent. Researches in this area are important for the patients’ care and they may provide hints for the comprehension of primary psychiatric disorders. Here we approach epidemiology, diagnosis, associated factors and treatment of the main psychiatric disorders after TBI. Finally, the present situation of the knowledge in this field is discussed.Keywords: psychiatric disorders, traumatic brain injury, neuropsychiatry, diagnostic, epidemiology, pathophysiology

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Psychiatric Disorders among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Research has established that psychiatric disorders are common among children and adolescents within the juvenile justice system. However, the bulk of these researches had been from the developed countries, with very limited data from sub-Sahara Africa. In a region like sub-Sahara Africa with acute ...

  1. Saccadic eye movement applications for psychiatric disorders

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    Bittencourt J

    2013-09-01

    Med/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were reviewed. Results: Saccadic eye movement appears to be heavily involved in psychiatric diseases covered in this review via a direct mechanism. The changes seen in the execution of eye movement tasks in patients with psychopathologies of various studies confirm that eye movement is associated with the cognitive and motor system. Conclusion: Saccadic eye movement changes appear to be heavily involved in the psychiatric disorders covered in this review and may be considered a possible marker of some disorders. The few existing studies that approach the topic demonstrate a need to improve the experimental paradigms, as well as the methods of analysis. Most of them report behavioral variables (latency/reaction time, though electrophysiological measures are absent. Keywords: depression, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder

  2. Dissociative disorders in the psychiatric emergency ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Koyuncu, Ahmet; Ozturk, Erdinc; Yargic, L Ilhan; Kundakci, Turgut; Yazici, Ahmet; Kuskonmaz, Ekrem; Aksüt, Didem

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among emergency psychiatric admissions. Forty-three of the 97 consecutive outpatients admitted to the psychiatric emergency unit of a university hospital were screened using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Seventeen (39.5% of the 43 evaluated) patients with a DES score above 25.0 were then interviewed with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the Structured Clinical Interview for Dissociative Disorders. Fifteen emergency unit patients (34.9% of the 43 evaluated participants) were diagnosed as having a dissociative disorder. Six (14.0%) patients had dissociative identity disorder, 6 (14.0%) had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, and 3 (7.0%) had dissociative amnesia. The average DES score of dissociative patients was 43.7. A majority of them had comorbid major depression, somatization disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Most of the patients with dissociative disorder reported auditory hallucinations, symptoms associated with psychogenic amnesia, flashback experiences, and childhood abuse and/or neglect. Dissociative disorders constitute one of the diagnostic groups with high relevance in emergency psychiatry.

  3. Smoking and psychiatric disorders: a comorbidity survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes F.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown a positive correlation between smoking and psychiatric disorders. To investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking, 277 psychiatric outpatients with anxiety or depressive disorders (DSM-IV answered a self-evaluation questionnaire about smoking behavior and were compared with a group of 68 control subjects. The diagnoses (N = 262 were: 30.2% (N = 79 major depressive disorder, 23.3% (N = 61 panic disorder, 15.6% (N = 41 social anxiety disorder, 7.3% (N = 19 other anxiety disorders, and 23.7% (N = 62 comorbidity disorders. Among them, 26.3% (N = 69 were smokers, 23.7% (N = 62 were former smokers and 50.0% (N = 131 were nonsmokers. The prevalence of nicotine dependence among the smokers was 59.0% (DSM-IV. The frequency of cigarette smoking did not show any significant difference among the five classes of diagnosis. The social anxiety disorder patients were the heaviest smokers (75.0%, with more unsuccessful attempts to stop smoking (89.0%. The frequency of former smokers was significantly higher among older subjects and nonsmokers were significantly younger (chi² = 9.13, d.f. = 2, P = 0.01. Our data present some clinical implications suggesting that in our psychiatric outpatient sample with anxiety disorder, major depression and comorbidity (anxiety disorder and major depression, the frequency of cigarette smoking did not differ from the frequency found in the control group or in general population studies. Some specific features of our population (outpatients, anxiety and depressive disorders might be responsible for these results.

  4. Herbal Medicines In The Treatment of Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Akhondzadeh

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This review will indicate the quality of the evidence supporting the clinical effects of a number of commonly used types of herbal medicines for psychiatric and neurological disorders. Method: We conducted a review of literature to understand the biochemical and evidential bases for the use of herbs in psychiatric and neurological disorders as follow: 1 Alzheimer’s disease, 2 Depression, 3 Anxiety, 4 Insomnia, 5 Substance use disorders, 6 Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, 7 Migraine. Results: Evidences support use of Ginkgo biloba, Huperzine A, Galantamine, Melissa officinalis,and Salvia officinalis for Alzheimer’s disease; St. John’s wort, Lavender, and Saffron for depression; Passionflower, and Kava, for anxiety disorders; Valerian, and English Lavender for sleep disorders; Hypericum for substance related disorders; Ginkgo biloba, and Passionflower for ADHD; and feverfew, and Butterbur root for migraine. The highest level of confidence derives from well-designed, randomized, double blind controlled studies. Conclusion: Herbs may have beneficial effects in variety of psychiatric and neurological disorder; however we must consider their potential side effects and drug-drug interactions.

  5. Deep brain stimulation for intractable psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Wayne K; Alterman, Ron L

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has virtually replaced ablative neurosurgery for use in medication-refractory movement disorders. DBS is now being studied in severe psychiatric conditions, such as treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Effects of DBS have been reported in ∼100 cases of OCD and ∼50 cases of TRD for seven (five common) anatomic targets. Although these published reports differ with respect to study design and methodology, the overall response rate appears to exceed 50% in OCD for some DBS targets. In TRD, >50% of patients responded during acute and long-term bilateral electrical stimulation in a different target. DBS was generally well tolerated in both OCD and TRD, but some unique, target- and stimulation-specific adverse effects were observed (e.g., hypomania). Further research is needed to test the efficacy and safety of DBS in psychiatric disorders, compare targets, and identify predictors of response.

  6. Use of Modafinil in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modafinil, is a psychostimulant drug with neurochemical and behavourial effects, distinct from those of amphetamine. It is used to treat patients with narcolepsy and other excessive sleepiness. Modafinil has dopaminergic, noradrenergic, histaminergic, glutamergic, serotonergic and GABAergic interactions. It is also shown that modafinil has neuroprotective effects via antioxidative mechanisms. Besides modafinil shows initial promise for a variety of off-label indications in psychiatry, including bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia . The aim of this article is to review the literature on clinical use of modafinil in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 42-51

  7. Neuroreceptor imaging in psychiatric disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, W.G. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY, (United States). Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons; Laruelle, M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). New York State Psychiatric Inst.

    2002-11-01

    Molecular imaging, the study of receptors, transporters and enzymes, as well as other cellular processes, has grown in recent years to be one of the most active neuroimaging areas. The application of single photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques to the study of psychiatric illness has lead to increased understanding of disease processes as well as validated, in vivo, theories of illness etiology. Within the field of psychiatry these techniques have been applied most widely to the study of schizophrenia. Studies within schizophrenia are largely limited to either the dopamine or serotonin system. This is due in large part to the availability of suitable radiotracers as well as the current theories on the etiology of the illness. Two basic study designs are used when studying schizophrenia using molecular imaging and make up the majority of studies reviewed in this manuscript. The first type, termed ''clinical studies'', compares the findings from PET and SPECT studies in those with schizophrenia to normal controls in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of the illness. The second study design, termed ''occupancy studies'', uses these techniques to enhance the understanding of the mechanism of action of the medications used in treating this illness. This review will focus on the findings of molecular imaging studies in schizophrenia, focusing, for the most part, on the serotonin and dopamine systems. Emphasis will be placed on how these findings and techniques are currently being used to inform the development of novel treatments for schizophrenia. (author)

  8. Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Arab Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amr, Mostafa; Raddad, Dahoud; El-Mehesh, Fatima; Bakr, Ashraf; Sallam, Khalid; Amin, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study is to estimate the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) recruited from three Arab countries. We also examine the relationship between comorbidity and children's cognitive functioning and gender. Children who received a diagnosis of ASD (n = 60) from a…

  9. Psychiatric disorders in Danish children aged 5-7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Hanne; Linneberg, Allan; Ulrikka Rask, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    from Danish national registries. RESULTS: The prevalence of any ICD-10 psychiatric disorder was 5.7% (95%CI: 4.4-7.1). Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) were found in 1.3% (95%CI: 0.8-1.8) and behavioural and hyperkinetic disorders were found in 1.5% (95%CI: 0.9-2.1) and 1.0% (95%CI: 0.......4-1.6), respectively. Emotional disorders were found in 2.9% (95%CI: 1.9-40). More boys were diagnosed with PDD, behavioural disorders and tics. No gender differences were found in hyperactivity disorders (HD) and emotional disorders. Co-morbidity was frequent, in particular between HD and PDD, but also between HD...... and emotional disorder and behavioural disorder. Teenage mothers, single parents and low household income the first two years after the child's birth were associated with a three-to fourfold increased risk of psychiatric disorder in the child at age 5-7 years. CONCLUSION: The study results point to two "windows...

  10. Prevalence of dissociative disorders in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Brad; Smolin, Yvette; Kaplan, Margaret; Legatt, Michael E; Lipschitz, Deborah

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of DSM-IV dissociative disorders in an inner-city outpatient psychiatric population. Subjects were 231 consecutive admissions (84 men and 147 women, mean age=37 years) to an inner-city, hospital-based outpatient psychiatric clinic. The subjects completed self-report measures of dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale) and trauma history (Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire). Eighty-two patients (35%) completed a structured interview for dissociative disorders (Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule). The 82 patients who were interviewed did not differ significantly on any demographic measure or on the self-report measures of trauma and dissociation from the 149 patients who were not interviewed. Twenty-four (29%) of the 82 interviewed patients received a diagnosis of a dissociative disorder. Dissociative identity disorder was diagnosed in five (6%) patients. Compared to the patients without a dissociative disorder diagnosis, patients with a dissociative disorder were significantly more likely to report childhood physical abuse (71% versus 27%) and childhood sexual abuse (74% versus 29%), but the two groups did not differ significantly on any demographic measure, including gender. Chart review revealed that only four (5%) patients in whom a dissociative disorder was identified during the study had previously received a dissociative disorder diagnosis. Dissociative disorders were highly prevalent in this clinical population and typically had not been previously diagnosed clinically. The high prevalence of dissociative disorders found in this study may be related to methodological factors (all patients were offered an interview rather than only those who had scored high on a screening self-report measure) and epidemiological factors (extremely high prevalence rates for childhood physical and sexual abuse were present in the overall study population).

  11. Caffeine, mental health, and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Diogo R

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine intake is so common that its pharmacological effects on the mind are undervalued. Since it is so readily available, individuals can adjust their own dose, time of administration and dose intervals of caffeine, according to the perceived benefits and side effects of each dose. This review focuses on human studies of caffeine in subjects with and without psychiatric disorders. Besides the possibility of mild drug dependence, caffeine may bring benefits that contribute to its widespread use. These benefits seem to be related to adaptation of mental energy to the context by increasing alertness, attention, and cognitive function (more evident in longer or more difficult tasks or situations of low arousal) and by elevating mood. Accordingly, moderate caffeine intake (caffeine can induce psychotic and manic symptoms, and more commonly, anxiety. Patients with panic disorder and performance social anxiety disorder seem to be particularly sensitive to the anxiogenic effects of caffeine, whereas preliminary data suggests that it may be effective for some patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The threshold for the anxiogenic effect of caffeine is influenced by a polymorphism of the A2A receptor. In summary, caffeine can be regarded as a pharmacological tool to increase energy and effortful behavior in daily activities. More populational (cross-sectional and prospective) and experimental studies are necessary to establish the role of caffeine intake in psychiatric disorders, especially its putative efficacy on depressive mood and cognitive/attentional disorders.

  12. Connectomic intermediate phenotypes for psychiatric disorders

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    Alex eFornito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are phenotypically heterogeneous entities with a complex genetic basis. To mitigate this complexity, many investigators study so-called intermediate phenotypes that putatively provide a more direct index of the physiological effects of candidate genetic risk variants than overt psychiatric syndromes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is a particularly popular technique for measuring such phenotypes because it allows interrogation of diverse aspects of brain structure and function in vivo. Much of this work however, has focused on relatively simple measures that quantify variations in the physiology or tissue integrity of specific brain regions in isolation, contradicting an emerging consensus that most major psychiatric disorders do not arise from isolated dysfunction in one or a few brain regions, but rather from disturbed interactions within and between distributed neural circuits; i.e., they are disorders of brain connectivity. The recent proliferation of new MRI techniques for comprehensively mapping the entire connectivity architecture of the brain, termed the human connectome, has provided a rich repertoire of tools for understanding how genetic variants implicated in mental disorder impact distinct neural circuits. In this article, we review research using these connectomic techniques to understand how genetic variation influences the connectivity and topology of human brain networks. We highlight recent evidence from twin and imaging genetics studies suggesting that the penetrance of candidate risk variants for mental illness, such as those in SLC6A4, MAOA, ZNF804A and APOE, may be higher for intermediate phenotypes characterised at the level of distributed neural systems than at the level of spatially localised brain regions. The findings indicate that imaging connectomics provides a powerful framework for understanding how genetic risk for psychiatric disease is expressed through altered structure and function of

  13. Psychiatric disorders prior to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, M.; Goldacre, R; Talbot, K; Goldacre, MJ

    2016-01-01

    It is recognized that neuropsychiatric conditions are overrepresented in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient kindreds and psychiatric symptoms may precede the onset of motor symptoms. Using a hospital record linkage database, hospitalization with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, or anxiety was significantly associated with a first diagnosis of ALS within the following year. This is likely to specifically reflect the clinicopathological overlap of ALS with fr...

  14. Psychiatric disorders and obesity: A review of association studies

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    T M Rajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inconsistent evidence exists regarding the strength, direction, and moderators in the relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders. Aim: This study aims to summarize the evidence on the association between psychiatric illness and obesity with particular attention to the strength and direction of association and also the possible moderators in each postulated link. Materials and Methods: Systematic electronic searches of MEDLINE through PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were carried out from inception till October 2016. Generated abstracts were screened for eligibility to be included in the review. Study designs that evaluated the strength of relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders were included in the study. Quality assessment of included studies was done using the Newcastle–Ottawa checklist tool. Results: From a total of 2424 search results, 21 eligible articles were identified and reviewed. These included studies on obesity and depression (n = 15, obesity and anxiety (four and one each on obesity and personality disorders, eating disorder (ED, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and alcohol use. Maximal evidence existed for the association between depression and obesity with longitudinal studies demonstrating a bidirectional link between the two conditions. The odds ratios (ORs were similar for developing depression in obesity (OR: 1.21–5.8 and vice versa (OR: 1.18–3.76 with a stronger association observed in women. For anxiety disorders, evidence was mostly cross-sectional, and associations were of modest magnitude (OR: 1.27–1.40. Among other disorders, obesity, and EDs appear to have a close link (OR: 4.5. Alcohol use appears to be a risk factor for obesity and not vice versa but only among women (OR: 3.84. Conclusion: Obesity and depression have a significant and bidirectional association. Evidence is modest for anxiety disorders and inadequate for other psychiatric

  15. Psychiatric disorders and obesity: A review of association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, TM; Menon, V

    2017-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent evidence exists regarding the strength, direction, and moderators in the relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders. Aim: This study aims to summarize the evidence on the association between psychiatric illness and obesity with particular attention to the strength and direction of association and also the possible moderators in each postulated link. Materials and Methods: Systematic electronic searches of MEDLINE through PubMed, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar were carried out from inception till October 2016. Generated abstracts were screened for eligibility to be included in the review. Study designs that evaluated the strength of relationship between obesity and psychiatric disorders were included in the study. Quality assessment of included studies was done using the Newcastle–Ottawa checklist tool. Results: From a total of 2424 search results, 21 eligible articles were identified and reviewed. These included studies on obesity and depression (n = 15), obesity and anxiety (four) and one each on obesity and personality disorders, eating disorder (ED), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and alcohol use. Maximal evidence existed for the association between depression and obesity with longitudinal studies demonstrating a bidirectional link between the two conditions. The odds ratios (ORs) were similar for developing depression in obesity (OR: 1.21–5.8) and vice versa (OR: 1.18–3.76) with a stronger association observed in women. For anxiety disorders, evidence was mostly cross-sectional, and associations were of modest magnitude (OR: 1.27–1.40). Among other disorders, obesity, and EDs appear to have a close link (OR: 4.5). Alcohol use appears to be a risk factor for obesity and not vice versa but only among women (OR: 3.84). Conclusion: Obesity and depression have a significant and bidirectional association. Evidence is modest for anxiety disorders and inadequate for other psychiatric conditions

  16. Sex differences in animal models of psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokras, N; Dalla, C

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are characterized by sex differences in their prevalence, symptomatology and treatment response. Animal models have been widely employed for the investigation of the neurobiology of such disorders and the discovery of new treatments. However, mostly male animals have been used in preclinical pharmacological studies. In this review, we highlight the need for the inclusion of both male and female animals in experimental studies aiming at gender-oriented prevention, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders. We present behavioural findings on sex differences from animal models of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, substance-related disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. Moreover, when available, we include studies conducted across different stages of the oestrous cycle. By inspection of the relevant literature, it is obvious that robust sex differences exist in models of all psychiatric disorders. However, many times results are conflicting, and no clear conclusion regarding the direction of sex differences and the effect of the oestrous cycle is drawn. Moreover, there is a lack of considerable amount of studies using psychiatric drugs in both male and female animals, in order to evaluate the differential response between the two sexes. Notably, while in most cases animal models successfully mimic drug response in both sexes, test parameters and treatment-sensitive behavioural indices are not always the same for male and female rodents. Thus, there is an increasing need to validate animal models for both sexes and use standard procedures across different laboratories. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24697577

  17. [Psychotherapy for pregnant women with psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Mielimąka, Michał; Sobański, Jerzy; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a major life change for many women. The related biological changes, especially complications in its course and in the course of delivery, carry a risk of developing a variety of psychological problems and mental disorders. However, their treatment is challenging due to the teratogenic effects of most psychoactive drugs and specific requirements for entering different psychotherapeutic programs. Mental disorders during pregnancy are undoubtedly an important issue for both gynecology and psychiatry. There is still a discussion considering the question whether psychotherapy during pregnancy is safe, although no scientifically valid data contradicting the safety of psychotherapy during pregnancy has been published so far. Together with psychotherapy - as a treatment of choice - clinicians approve some other relatively safe treatment methods for psychiatric disorders in pregnant women. Light therapy, limited pharmacotherapy, ECT are included. The goal of this paper is to review current opinions of clinicians and researches concerning possibilities, indications and outcome of psychological treatments as a way to help pregnant women who suffer from different psychiatric conditions, and also because this subject is not yet present in Polish psychiatric journals.

  18. Hair loss related to primary psychiatric disorders

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    Emine Çığıl Fettahoğlu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Scalp hair has greater social and psychological importance than its' biological significance. In the hair disorder consultation services there are lots of patients who are often considered as "difficult" or "problematic", because of their biopsychosocial problems. When it’s considered that the hair loss patients refer to the dermatology clinics in the first step, we can understand the importance of the awareness of the clinicians about the causal and/or consequential relationship between hair diseases and the psychological problems. In this paper, hair loss diseases that are related to primary psychiatric disorders are reviewed.

  19. Puerperal Psychiatric Disorders: A 6 - Year Retrospective Review at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: About 1.7% of new cases seen during the period had a post partum psychiatric disorder. Depression (50%) was the commonest type of post-partum psychiatric illness, followed by mania (21.3%), bipolar affective disorder (12.5%) and schizophrenia (10.3%). Most had onset of psychiatric symptoms less than 4 ...

  20. Psychiatric disorders and clinical correlates of suicidal patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Tokyo

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    Ishimoto Kayo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital with suicidal behavior (SB are considered to be especially at high risk of suicide. However, the number of studies that have addressed this patient population remains insufficient compared to that of studies on suicidal patients in emergency or medical settings. The purpose of this study is to seek features of a sample of newly admitted suicidal psychiatric patients in a metropolitan area of Japan. Method 155 suicidal patients consecutively admitted to a large psychiatric center during a 20-month period, admission styles of whom were mostly involuntary, were assessed using Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I CV and SCID-II and SB-related psychiatric measures. Associations of the psychiatric diagnoses and SB-related characteristics with gender and age were examined. Results The common DSM-IV axis I diagnoses were affective disorders 62%, anxiety disorders 56% and substance-related disorders 38%. 56% of the subjects were diagnosed as having borderline PD, and 87% of them, at least one type of personality disorder (PD. SB methods used prior to admission were self-cutting 41%, overdosing 32%, self-strangulation 15%, jumping from a height 12% and attempting traffic death 10%, the first two of which were frequent among young females. The median (range of the total number of SBs in the lifetime history was 7 (1-141. Severity of depressive symptomatology, suicidal intent and other symptoms, proportions of the subjects who reported SB-preceding life events and life problems, and childhood and adolescent abuse were comparable to those of the previous studies conducted in medical or emergency service settings. Gender and age-relevant life-problems and life events were identified. Conclusions Features of the studied sample were the high prevalence of affective disorders, anxiety disorders and borderline PD, a variety of SB methods used prior to admission

  1. Suicide Risk, Aggression and Violence in Major Psychiatric Disorders

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    G Mousavi

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aggression, violence and Suicide are important problems of mental health in our society. They almost always cause disability, death, or other social problems. Appropriate measures can be taken if the distribution of behaviors and suicide risk are well studied in various psychiatric disorders. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. We studied 801 psychiatric patients who were admitted in a psychiatric emergency unit in Isfahan, Iran, for aggression, violence and risk of suicide. Information was obtained from a 30-item questionnaire, filled by the same physician. Results: About one-third of patients had aggression and/or violence on admission or during hours before it. It was most prevalent in men of 12-26 years old and in bipolar mood disorder patients. "High suicide risk" was markedly found in patients with major depressive disorder. Differences of these phenomena were statistically Conclusion: Our findings show a higher rate of aggression and violence in emergency psychiatric patients than in studies done in other countries. It may be due to higher prevalence of bipolar patients in the study field. The finding of "High suicidal risk" in major depression patients warrent systematic preventive programs. Keywords: Suicide risk, Aggression, Violence

  2. Psychiatric comorbidities in patients with major depressive disorder

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    Thaipisuttikul P

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Papan Thaipisuttikul, Pichai Ittasakul, Punjaporn Waleeprakhon, Pattarabhorn Wisajun, Sudawan Jullagate Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Background: Psychiatric comorbidities are common in major depressive disorder (MDD. They may worsen outcome and cause economic burden. The primary objective was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in MDD. The secondary objectives were to compare the presence of comorbidities between currently active and past MDD, and between patients with and without suicidal risk.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 250 patients with lifetime MDD and age ≥18 years were enrolled. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, Thai version, was used to confirm MDD diagnosis and classify comorbidities. MDD diagnosis was confirmed in 190, and 60 patients were excluded due to diagnosis of bipolar disorder.Results: Of the 190 MDD patients, 25.8% had current MDD and 74.2% had past MDD. Eighty percent were women. The mean age at enrollment was 50 years, and at MDD onset was 41 years. Most patients were married (53.2%, employed (54.8%, and had ≥12 years of education (66.9%. There were 67 patients (35.3% with one or more psychiatric comorbidities. Comorbidities included dysthymia (19.5%, any anxiety disorders (21.1% (panic disorder [6.8%], agoraphobia [5.8%], social phobia [3.7%], obsessive–compulsive disorder [OCD] [4.7%], generalized anxiety disorder [5.3%], and post-traumatic stress disorder [4.2%], alcohol dependence (0.5%, psychotic disorder (1.6%, antisocial personality (1.1%, and eating disorders (0%. Compared with past MDD, the current MDD group had significantly higher OCD (P<0.001, psychotic disorder (P=0.048, past panic disorder (P=0.017, and suicidal risk (P<0.001. Suicidal risk was found in 32.1% of patients. Patients with suicidal risk had more comorbid anxiety disorder of any type (P=0.019 and

  3. Lifetime Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among Parents of Children with Bipolar I Disorder: Parental Difference

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    Shahrokh Amiri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evaluation of family system is an important area in the context of child and adolescent mental health. This study aimed to estimate psychiatric disorders in parents of children and adolescents with bipolar I disorder (BID. Methods and Materials. In this cross-sectional study, during 2012-2013, all of the children and adolescents diagnosed with BID based on Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version were included. All of the parents (both mother and father were evaluated by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR. Statistical Analysis. Prevalence rates are reported and independent-sample t-test and chi-square test were used when appropriate. Results. A total of 108 families were interviewed. 25% of mothers and 33% of fathers met the criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder, with major depressive disorder, BMD, and cluster B personality disorder being more prevalent. Fathers were more likely to receive a dual psychiatric diagnosis. Cluster B personality disorder and substance dependence were more prevalent among fathers while major depressive disorder was more prevalent among mothers. Conclusion. This study confirmed a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders in parents of children with BID and emphasizes parental evolution.

  4. Mitochondria and the central nervous system: searching for a pathophysiological basis of psychiatric disorders

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    Emilio L. Streck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been postulated to participate in the development of many neuropsychiatric disorders, but there is no consensus as to its role. The aim of this paper is to review recent studies and to outline the current understanding of the association between mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Methodology: We reviewed articles that evaluated mitochondrial dysfunction and psychiatric disorders, with a particular focus on depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and autism spectrum disorder, and the association between mitochondrial dysfunction and development of these disorders. Results: Evidence suggests that alterations in mitochondrial morphology, brain energy metabolism, and mitochondrial enzyme activity may be involved in the pathophysiology of different neuropsychiatric disorders, given their key role in energy metabolism in the cell. Conclusions: Understanding the interactions between mitochondrial dysfunction and development of psychiatric disorders may help establish more effective therapeutic strategies for these disorders and thus lead to better outcomes for affected subjects.

  5. [Psychodynamic consequences of a family history with psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwkamp, C G; den Berg, M P Lambregtse-Van; Kievit, A J A; Kushner, S A

    A positive family history for psychiatric disorders is the most important risk indicator for developing psychopathology. Often, the psychological consequences of a positive family history are insufficiently acknowledged. AIM: To provide insight into the psychodynamics of children who grow up in a family with psychopathology, such as psychosis, to demonstrate how these effects can last a lifetime, and to suggest ways in which such effects might be prevented. METHOD: We review the relevant literature, discuss theoretical concepts, and make clinical recommendations. RESULTS: Parental psychopathology, including psychosis, can have a strong and lasting influence on the child's identity and sense of self. CONCLUSION: A positive family history for psychiatric disorders has the potential to seriously disrupt the normal development of identity and sense of self. Various types of psychosocial interventions might be able to reduce these harmful effects.

  6. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire improves recognition of bipolar disorder in psychiatric care

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    Leppämäki Sami

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated our translation of The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder in a psychiatric setting in Finland. Methods In a pilot study for the Jorvi Bipolar Study (JoBS, 109 consecutive non-schizophrenic psychiatric out- and inpatients in Espoo, Finland, were screened for bipolar disorder using the Finnish translation of the MDQ, and 38 of them diagnostically interviewed with the SCID. Results Forty subjects (37% were positive in the MDQ screen. In the SCID interview, twenty patients were found to suffer from bipolar disorder, of whom seven (70% of ten patients with bipolar I but only two (20% of ten with bipolar II disorder had been previously clinically correctly diagnosed. The translated MDQ was found internally consistent (alpha 0.79 and a feasible screening tool. Conclusions Bipolar disorder, particularly type II, remains commonly unrecognized in psychiatric settings. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire is a feasible screen for bipolar disorder, which could well be integrated into psychiatric routine practice.

  7. Postpartum psychiatric disorders: Early diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Shashi; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Indira

    2015-07-01

    Postpartum period is demanding period characterized by overwhelming biological, physical, social, and emotional changes. It requires significant personal and interpersonal adaptation, especially in case of primigravida. Pregnant women and their families have lots of aspirations from the postpartum period, which is colored by the joyful arrival of a new baby. Unfortunately, women in the postpartum period can be vulnerable to a range of psychiatric disorders like postpartum blues, depression, and psychosis. Perinatal mental illness is largely under-diagnosed and can have far reaching ramifications for both the mother and the infant. Early screening, diagnosis, and management are very important and must be considered as mandatory part of postpartum care.

  8. Mitochondrial mutations in subjects with psychiatric disorders.

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    Adolfo Sequeira

    Full Text Available A considerable body of evidence supports the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric disorders and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations are known to alter brain energy metabolism, neurotransmission, and cause neurodegenerative disorders. Genetic studies focusing on common nuclear genome variants associated with these disorders have produced genome wide significant results but those studies have not directly studied mtDNA variants. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using next generation sequencing, the involvement of mtDNA variation in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and methamphetamine use. MtDNA extracted from multiple brain regions and blood were sequenced (121 mtDNA samples with an average of 8,800x coverage and compared to an electronic database containing 26,850 mtDNA genomes. We confirmed novel and rare variants, and confirmed next generation sequencing error hotspots by traditional sequencing and genotyping methods. We observed a significant increase of non-synonymous mutations found in individuals with schizophrenia. Novel and rare non-synonymous mutations were found in psychiatric cases in mtDNA genes: ND6, ATP6, CYTB, and ND2. We also observed mtDNA heteroplasmy in brain at a locus previously associated with schizophrenia (T16519C. Large differences in heteroplasmy levels across brain regions within subjects suggest that somatic mutations accumulate differentially in brain regions. Finally, multiplasmy, a heteroplasmic measure of repeat length, was observed in brain from selective cases at a higher frequency than controls. These results offer support for increased rates of mtDNA substitutions in schizophrenia shown in our prior results. The variable levels of heteroplasmic/multiplasmic somatic mutations that occur in brain may be indicators of genetic instability in mtDNA.

  9. Isoprenoid Pathway And Neurological And Psychiatric Disorders

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    Ravikumar A

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The coexistence of neuronal degeneration, psychiatric manifestation, immune activation and malignant transformation has been documented in literature, suggesting a central dysfunction in the pathophysiology of these disorders. The isoprenoid pathway may be candidate in this respect, in view of the changes in the concentration of some products of this pathway in many of these disorders, however, no detailed study has been carried out in this respect. In view of this, a study was undertaken on the isoprenoid pathway in some of these disorders - primary generalized epilepsy, Parkinson’s disease (PD, schizophrenia, manic depressive psychosis (MDP, CNS glioma, multiple sclerosis, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPEand a familial group with familial coexistence of schizophrenia, PD, primary generalized epilepsy, malignant neoplasia, rheumatoid arthritis and syndrome-X over three generations. The following parameters were studied in the patients of these disorders as compared to age and sex matched control subjects - ubiquinone dolichol, digoxin, activity of HMG CoA reductase in the plasma and erthyorcyte membrane Na -K--ATpase. Increase in the activity of HMG CoA reductase and in the concentration of plasma digoxin and dolichol was observed in most of these cases. On the other hand, there was decrease in the concentration of plasma ubiquinone. Decrease in the activity of erythrocyte membrane Na-K- ATpase activity for which digoxin is an inhibitor was also observed in all the cases studied. These results indicate an upregulation of the isoprenoid pathway in the neurological and psychiatric disorders studied. The implications of this change is discussed in details.

  10. Psychiatric Disorders Among People Living With HIV/AIDS Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection has been associated with development of psychiatric disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). These disorders could occur at any stage of the disease. The presence of these psychiatric disorders may affect the adherence to the use of anti-retroviral medications as ...

  11. Cutaneous factitia in elderly patients: alarm signal for psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anca Chiriac,1 Liliana Foia,2 Cristina Birsan,1 Ancuta Goriuc,2 Caius Solovan3 1Department of Dermatology, Nicolina Medical Center, Iaşi, Romania; 2Surgical Department, Grigore T Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iaşi, Romania; 3Department of Dermatology, Victor Babeş University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timişoara, Romania Background: The factitious disorders, more commonly known in daily practice as pathomimia, are expressed in dermatology units by skin lesions induced voluntarily by the patient, in order to draw attention of the medical staff and/or the family members. The disorder is often challenging to diagnose and even more difficult to document in front of the patient or relatives. It represents a challenge for the physician, and any attempt at treatment may be followed by recurrence of the self-mutilation. This paper describes two cases of pathomimia diagnosed by dermatologists and treated in a psychiatry unit, highlighting the importance of collaboration in these situations. Patients and methods: Two case reports, describing old female patients with pathomimia, hospitalized in a department of dermatology for bizarre skin lesions. Results: The first case was a 77-year-old female with unknown psychiatric problems and atrophic skin lesions on the face, self-induced for many months, with multiple hospitalizations in dermatology units, with no response to different therapeutic patterns, and full recovery after psychiatric treatment for a major depressive syndrome. The second case was a 61-year-old female patient with disseminated atrophic scars on the face, trunk, and limbs. She raised our interest because of possible psychiatric issues, as she had attempted to commit suicide. The prescription of antidepressants led to a significant clinical improvement. Conclusion: These cases indicate that a real psychiatric disease may be recorded in patients suffering from pathomimia. Therefore, complete psychiatric evaluation in order to

  12. Youth Gang Members: Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use

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    Albert John Sargent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Approximately 260,000 of youth in the United States are gang-affiliated. There is a paucity of data available to identify the prevalence of mental health disorders in this population. Gang members share many of the features of “at risk” or juvenile justice involved youth who deny gang membership. The authors identified rates of psychiatric disorders within a juvenile justice population delineated in three categories: gang members, friends of gang members, and non-gang members. Methods: A retrospective review of records obtained by a juvenile probation department. A large detention center conducted mental health screenings on 7,615 youth aged 13–17. The mental health screenings were performed by either a master level or doctoral level mental health professional. Odds ratios were computed as an effect size for gender, race/ethnic differences, and gang-membership associations with self-reported psychiatric and substance use disorders. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders among gang-members and friends of gang members. Diagnostic information was generated through a clinical interview and flexible battery. Results: Of the 7,615 youth in this study, ~50% had contact with gangs; 11% were self-identified gang-members, and 38% acknowledged having at least one friendship with a gang member. Similar to other studies, being male was a risk-factor for gang-membership (2.31 odds. In this multi-racial and ethnic study, Latinos had a greater affiliation with gang membership and association with gang members as friends (1.44 odds. Gang members were found to have increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (1.77 odds, current substance abuse (2.58 odds, oppositional defiant disorder, (1.24 odds and conduct disorder (4.05 odds; however, they were less likely to have an adjustment disorder than non-gang members (0.70 odds. Conclusions: Juveniles who received a mental health assessment

  13. Psychiatric (Axis I) and personality (Axis II) disorders and subjective psychiatric symptoms in chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlsten, Hanna; Taiminen, Tero; Karukivi, Max; Sjösten, Noora; Nikkilä, Johanna; Virtanen, Juuso; Paavola, Janika; Joutsa, Juho; Niinivirta-Joutsa, Katri; Takala, Mari; Holm, Anu; Rauhala, Esa; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Johansson, Reijo; Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2017-11-30

    Chronic tinnitus has been associated with several psychiatric disorders. Only few studies have investigated these disorders using validated diagnostic interviews. The aims were to diagnose psychiatric and personality disorders with structured interviews, to assess self-rated psychiatric symptoms and elucidate temporal relations between psychiatric disorders and tinnitus. Current and lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses of axis-I (psychiatric disorders) and axis-II (personality disorders) were assessed using structured clinical interviews (SCID-I and -II). Current subjective psychiatric symptoms were evaluated via self-rating instruments: the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). 83 patients (mean age 51.7, 59% men) with chronic, disturbing tinnitus and a median Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score of 32. The rates of lifetime and current major depression were 26.5% and 2.4%. The lifetime rate of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (type C) was 8.4%. None of the patients had cluster B personality disorder or psychotic symptoms. The SCL-90 subscales did not differ from the general population, and median DES score was low, 2.4. Tinnitus patients are prone to episodes of major depression and often also have obsessive-compulsive personality features. Psychiatric disorders seem to be comorbid or predisposing conditions rather than consequences of tinnitus. Clinical trial reference: ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT 01929837).

  14. Zinc deficiency is common in several psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Grønli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests a link between low zinc levels and depression. There is, however, little knowledge about zinc levels in older persons with other psychiatric diagnoses. Therefore, we explore the zinc status of elderly patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Clinical data and blood samples for zinc analyzes were collected from 100 psychogeriatric patients over 64 of age. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, clinical interviews and a review of medical records. In addition, a diagnostic interview was conducted using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview instrument. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in patients with depression was compared with the prevalence in patients without depression, and the prevalence in a control group of 882 older persons sampled from a population study. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in zinc deficiency prevalence between the control group (14.4% and the patient group (41.0% (χ(2 = 44.81, df = 1, p<0.001. In a logistic model with relevant predictors, zinc deficiency was positively associated with gender and with serum albumin level. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in the patient group was significantly higher in patients without depression (i.e. with other diagnoses than in patients with depression as a main diagnosis or comorbid depression (χ(2 = 4.36, df = 1, p = 0.037. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc deficiency is quite common among psychogeriatric patients and appears to be even more prominent in patients suffering from other psychiatric disorders than depression. LIMITATIONS: This study does not provide a clear answer as to whether the observed differences represent a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and psychiatric symptoms. The blood sample collection time points

  15. Psychopathology and Comorbidity of Psychiatric Disorders in Patients With Kleptomania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baylé, Franck J; Caci, Hervé; Millet, Bruno; Richa, Sami; Olié, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study compared patients with kleptomania, patients with alcohol abuse or dependence, and psychiatric patients without impulse-control disorders or substance-related disorders on several key...

  16. The influence of adolescent psychiatric disorder on young adult recidivism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of adolescent psychiatric disorder on young adult recidivism and compared findings with earlier studies of juvenile recidivism. Logistic regression analysis examined subsequent adulthood recidivism (through age 23 years) by disorder profile, adjusting for prior

  17. Psychiatric Disorders and Behavior Problems in People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrbakk, Even; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between behavior problems and psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disability is still unresolved. The present study compares the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disability who were assessed on the ABC to have moderate and severe behavior problems and a matched…

  18. The Role of Sleep in Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, Candice A.; Gamble, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep problems often comprise core features of psychiatric disorders, inadequate attention has been paid to the complex, reciprocal relationships involved in the early regulation of sleep, emotion, and behavior. In this paper, we review the pediatric literature examining sleep in children with primary psychiatric disorders as well as…

  19. Comorbid psychiatric disorders and stages of change in cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercilio P. Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether and to what extent cannabis dependence is associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and specific stages of change in treatment-seeking patients. Methods: We evaluated 80 cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients residing in an urban area. Data on cannabis dependence, psychiatric disorders, and motivation were obtained using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA. Results: A diagnosis of schizophrenia was found to correlate with lower motivation scores (p = 0.038, which could have a negative effect on adherence to treatment. Conclusion: The high prevalence of concurrent psychiatric disorders in cannabis-dependent patients should serve as a stimulus for early screening and treatment of such disorders. Health care professionals should be aware of the magnitude of this association to increase the level of motivation in cannabis-dependent patients with severe concurrent psychiatric disorders.

  20. Comparison of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Performance-Enhancing Drug Users and Nonuser Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostovar, Afshin; Haerinejad, Mohammad Javad; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Keshavarz, Mojtaba

    2017-10-01

    Objective: The present study aimed at comparing the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and generalized anxiety disorder between performance-enhancing drug users and nonuser bodybuilders. Moreover, the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders was also reported. Method: In this study, 453 athletes were recruited from Bushehr bodybuilding gyms from February to May 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the participants' information, including demographic characteristics, sports' status and performance-enhancing drug use. According to the condition of performance-enhancing drug use, the participants were divided into current users, non-current users, and nonusers. The psychiatric status of the participants was evaluated using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. We also asked about the acute psychotic disturbances after using performance-enhancing drugs, alcohol use, and history of aggressive behavior in bodybuilders. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests. Results: Prevalence of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, generalized anxiety disorder, and the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the bodybuilders was 19.7%, 3.8%, 1.5%, 16.6%, and 26.7%, respectively. After using performance-enhancing drugs, 33% of the bodybuilders had experienced acute psychological disturbances. There were no significant differences between current, non-current, and nonuser bodybuilding athletes in the measured psychiatric disorders. Conclusion: Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was not significantly different in performance-enhancing drug users and nonusers. Thus, it can be concluded that performance-enhancing drugs do not increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders.

  1. Comparison of the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Performance-Enhancing Drug Users and Nonuser Bodybuilders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Ostovar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed at comparing the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and generalized anxiety disorder between performance-enhancing drug users and nonuser bodybuilders. Moreover, the prevalence of major psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders was also reported.Method: In this study, 453 athletes were recruited from Bushehr bodybuilding gyms from February to May 2015. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the participants’ information, including demographic characteristics, sports’ status and performance-enhancing drug use. According to the condition of performance-enhancing drug use, the participants were divided into current users, non-current users, and nonusers. The psychiatric status of the participants was evaluated using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and schizophrenia. We also asked about the acute psychotic disturbances after using performance-enhancing drugs, alcohol use, and history of aggressive behavior in bodybuilders. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests.Results: Prevalence of major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, generalized anxiety disorder, and the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the bodybuilders was 19.7%, 3.8%, 1.5%, 16.6%, and 26.7%, respectively. After using performance-enhancing drugs, 33% of the bodybuilders had experienced acute psychological disturbances. There were no significant differences between current, non-current, and nonuser bodybuilding athletes in the measured psychiatric disorders.Conclusion: Prevalence of psychiatric disorders was not significantly different in performance-enhancing drug users and nonusers. Thus, it can be concluded that performance-enhancing drugs do not increase the risk of psychiatric disorders in bodybuilders.

  2. Clinical Overlap and Psychiatric Comorbidity in Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adulthood: A Case Report

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    João Picoito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is an early neurodevelopmental disorder that accompanies the individual throughout life. There is a significant clinical overlap of ASD with other psychiatric disorders including personality disorders, psychotic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression. Additionally, the presence of high rates of psychiatric comorbidity, often with atypical presentations, delays the ASD diagnosis and makes it more difficult to manage. Aims: To illustrate the complexity of ASD diagnosis and approach in adults. Methods: Report of a clinical case and review of the literature. Results and Conclusion: This paper presents the case of a 46-year-old patient, with ASD, with a long history of interpersonal difficulties and psychiatric symptomatology. Over the years, different diagnoses have been made, particularly schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders, psychosis not otherwise specified and paranoid schizophrenia, which led to poor adherence to treatment, and prevented a full understanding of the patient’s clinical presentation and lifelong struggles.

  3. [The relation of selected psychiatric disorders to occurrence of suicide attempts among teenage psychiatrically hospitalized patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska, Katarzyna; Gawlik-Kotelnicka, Oliwia; Gmitrowicz, Agnieszka

    2015-06-01

    Suicide is the third cause of death globally in the age group 10-19. Multiple risk factors (genetic, psychiatric, psychological, familial, social) increased number of suicide attempts. The aim of this study was to explore whether mental disorders are associated with the number of suicide attempts among psychiatric hospitalized adolescents. Retrospective, chart-based analysis of 119 patients, aged 13-18, treated in 2013-2014 in the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź. Inclusion criteria was diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders, mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, behavioral and emotional disorders according to ICD 10. Exclusion criteria were other psychiatric diagnosis, incomplete information about intention of self-harm behaviors. For statistical analysis used Statistica 9.1. Among psychiatricaly hospitalized patients, 51.2% of people attempted suicide. No relationship was found (p > 0.05) between psychiatric diagnosis and frequency of suicide attempts in adolescents, but the most common suicide attempts related to people with a diagnosis of mood disorders (59.3%) and neurotic disorders (54.6%), and least frequently in patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia , schizotypal and delusional disorders (40%) and behavioral and emotional disorders (44.4%). There is no relation between the occurrence of suicide attempts and the type of mental disorders among psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  4. Comorbid Psychiatric Diagnoses in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kristen; Anderson, Bryan; Paparella, Tanya; Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Forness, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Although comorbid or co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, depression, and oppositional defiant or conduct disorders have been well studied in children or adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), very little research is available on preschool samples. The current study…

  5. Psychiatric disorders, acne and systemic retinoids: comparison of risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moigne, M; Bulteau, S; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Gerardin, M; Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Jonville-Bera, A P; Jolliet, Pascale; Dreno, Brigitte; Victorri-Vigneau, C

    2017-09-01

    The link between isotretinoin, treatment of a severe form of acne, and psychiatric disorders remains controversial, as acne itself could explain the occurrence of psychiatric disorders. This study aims at assessing the disproportionality of psychiatric adverse events reported with isotretinoin in the French National PharmacoVigilance Database, compared with other systemic acne treatments and systemic retinoids. Data were extracted from the French National PharmacoVigilance Database for systemic acne treatments, systemic retinoids and drugs used as comparators. Each report was subjected to double-blind analysis by two psychiatric experts. A disproportionality analysis was performed, calculating the number of psychiatric ADRs divided by the total number of notifications for each drug of interest. Concerning acne systemic treatments: all 71 reports of severe psychiatric disorders involved isotretinoin, the highest proportion of mild/moderate psychiatric adverse events was reported with isotretinoin (14.1%). Among systemic retinoids, the highest proportion of severe and mild/moderate psychiatric events occurred with isotretinoin and alitretinoin. Our study raises the hypothesis that psychiatric disorders associated with isotretinoin are related to a class effect of retinoids, as a signal emerges for alitretinoin. Complementary studies are necessary to estimate the risk and further determine at-risk populations.

  6. Do defense mechanisms vary according to the psychiatric disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaya Carolina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the defense mechanisms used by depressive and anxious patients without comorbidities compared to those used by controls and to determine whether these patterns differ between diagnoses. METHOD: The sample was composed of 167 psychiatric patients and 36 controls that were evaluated using the Defense Style Questionnaire 40. All subjects were evaluated through a clinical interview, and each evaluation was confirmed through the application of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured psychiatric interview. We used ANOVA and discriminant analysis to assess differences between groups. RESULTS: Neurotic defense mechanisms discriminated controls from all patients except those with social anxiety. Immature defense mechanisms differentiated controls from all patients, as well as distinguished depressive patients from panic disorder and obsessive disorder patients. The discriminant analysis indicated that depressive patients are characterized by projection, panic disorder patients by sublimation and obsessive-compulsive patients by acting out. CONCLUSIONS: Depressive and anxious patients differ from other individuals in their use of defense mechanisms, and each diagnosis has a particular pattern. These findings could lead to the development of specific psychotherapeutic interventions.

  7. Tackling nonadherence in psychiatric disorders: current opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq S

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Saeed Farooq,1,2 Farooq Naeem3 1Staffordshire University, Staffordshire, UK; 2Postgraduate Medical Institute, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar, Pakistan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada Abstract: Nonadherence to treatment is a major challenge in all fields of medicine, and it has been claimed that increasing the effectiveness of adherence interventions may have far greater impact on the health of the population than any improvement in specific medical treatments. However, despite widespread use of terms such as adherence and compliance, there is little agreement on definitions or measurements. Nonadherence can be intermittent or continuous, voluntary or involuntary, and may be specific to single or multiple interventions, which makes reliable measurement problematic. Both direct and indirect methods of assessment have their limitations. The current literature focuses mainly on psychotic disorders. A large number of trials of various psychological, social, and pharmacologic interventions has been reported. The results are mixed, but interventions specifically designed to improve adherence with a more intensive and focused approach and interventions combining elements from different approaches such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, family-based, and community-based approaches have shown better outcomes. Pharmacologic interventions include careful drug selection, switching when a treatment is not working, dose adjustment, simplifying the treatment regimen, and the use of long-acting injections. The results for the most studied pharmacologic intervention, ie, long-acting injections, are far from clear, and there are discrepancies between randomized controlled trials, nationwide cohort studies, and mirror-image studies. Nonadherence with treatment is often paid far less attention in routine clinical practice and psychiatric training. Strategies to measure and improve adherence in clinical practice are based more

  8. Physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and in the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Adults who suffer from psychiatric disorders report low levels of physical activity and the activity levels differ between disorders. Less is known regarding physical activity across psychiatric disorders in adolescence. We investigate the frequency and type of physical activity in adolescent psychiatric patients, compared with adolescents in the general population. Methods A total of 566 adolescent psychiatric patients aged 13–18 years who participated in the CAP survey, Norway, were compared to 8173 adolescents aged 13–19 years who participated in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Young-HUNT 3, Norway. All adolescents completed a questionnaire, including questions about physical activity and participation in team and individual sports. Results Approximately 50% of adolescents with psychiatric disorders and 25% of the population sample reported low levels of physical activity. Within the clinical sample, those with mood disorders (62%) and autism spectrum disorders (56%) were the most inactive and those with eating disorders (36%) the most active. This pattern was the same in individual and team sports. After multivariable adjustment, adolescents with a psychiatric disorder had a three-fold increased risk of lower levels of physical activity, and a corresponding risk of not participating in team and individual sports compared with adolescents in the general population. Conclusions Levels of physical activity were low in adolescent psychiatric patients compared with the general population, yet activity levels differed considerably between various disorders. The findings underscore the importance of assessing physical activity in adolescents with psychiatric disorders and providing early intervention to promote mental as well as physical health in this early stage of life. PMID:24450542

  9. Virtual Reality Objectifies the Diagnosis of Psychiatric Disorders: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bennekom, Martine J; de Koning, Pelle P; Denys, Damiaan

    2017-01-01

    To date, a diagnosis in psychiatry is largely based on a clinical interview and questionnaires. The retrospective and subjective nature of these methods leads to recall and interviewer biases. Therefore, there is a clear need for more objective and standardized assessment methods to support the diagnostic process. The introduction of virtual reality (VR) creates the possibility to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, VR could contribute to the objectivity and reliability in the assessment of psychiatric disorders. In this literature review, we will evaluate the assessment of psychiatric disorders by means of VR environments. First, we investigate if these VR environments are capable of simultaneously provoking and measuring psychiatric symptoms. Next, we compare these measures with traditional diagnostic measures. We performed a systematic search using PubMed, Embase, and Psycinfo; references of selected articles were checked for eligibility. We identified studies from 1990 to 2016 on VR used in the assessment of psychiatric disorders. Studies were excluded if VR was used for therapeutic purposes, if a different technique was used, or in case of limitation to a non-clinical sample. A total of 39 studies were included for further analysis. The disorders most frequently studied included schizophrenia ( n  = 15), developmental disorders ( n  = 12), eating disorders ( n  = 3), and anxiety disorders ( n  = 6). In attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the most comprehensive measurement was used including several key symptoms of the disorder. Most of the studies, however, concerned the use of VR to assess a single aspect of a psychiatric disorder. In general, nearly all VR environments studied were able to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, in 14 studies, significant correlations were found between VR measures and traditional diagnostic measures. Relatively small clinical sample sizes

  10. Psychiatric disorders among the elderly on non-psychiatric wards in an African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasujja, Noeline; Musisi, Seggane; Walugembe, James; Wallace, Daphne

    2007-08-01

    The elderly are vulnerable to illness and particularly to psychiatric illness. Many mentally ill elderly patients end up on non-psychiatric wards owing to somatization of their illnesses. Even for these patients, a psychiatric diagnosis may not be made. The literature on the elderly in Uganda is very scanty. This study aims to establish the prevalence and factors associated with psychiatric disorders among elderly patients admitted to non-psychiatric wards. We carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study of 127 consenting elderly patients. They were administered a standardized questionnaire comprising the Self Reporting Questionnaire 25, the Mini-mental State Examination and the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV. Study variables included socio-demographic characteristics, physical illnesses, psychiatric disorders and the treatment given. The rate of psychiatric morbidity was 48%. The sex ratio was 1:1; however, women had a higher rate of psychiatric illness than men, 54.6% and 41.3% respectively. Being widowed or separated and having cancer were associated with SRQ>5, p=0.02 and p=0.04 respectively. Depressive disorders were the most common at 25.2% and were more common in women. Increasing age was associated with dementia (pUganda. Particular attention should be given to the psychological health of elderly people admitted to general hospitals.

  11. [Psychiatric disorders in velo-cardio-facial syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maesen, A; Claes, S J; Neyrinck, K

    2010-01-01

    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome (vcfs) is a congenital disorder with a markedly variable clinical expression. The majority of those affected have cognitive-behavioural symptoms and psychiatric problems. Most of the somatic characteristics can be treated effectively. The quality of life of patients with vcfs is therefore determined largely by cognitive and behavioural symptoms, including the increased risk of psychiatric disorders. On the basis of a case-study featuring a 41-year-old vcfs patient and by reviewing the literature we describe the psychiatric disorders that can occur in conjunction with this syndrome.

  12. [Ability to detect psychiatric disorders by the family physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Elustondo, Sofía; Reneses, Blanca; Navalón, Aida; Martín, Olga; Ramos, Isabel; Fuentes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    To determine the ability of family physicians to detect psychiatric disorders, comparing the presence of psychiatric disorders detected using validated tests and referrals by family physicians. Cross-sectional, two-phase study. Primary healthcare centres in an urban area of Madrid. Patients between 18 and 65years attending primary healthcare centres for non-administrative purposes. To detect psychiatric disorders in the waiting room, an interview was performed using GHQ-28 and MULTICAGE CAD-4 in the screening phase (considered positive: score of 6 or higher on the GHQ-28 or a score 2 or higher on MULTICAGE CAD-4). Patients with a positive score and 20% with negative were recruited for the second phase (case identification) using MINI interview. During family physician consultation, the patient gave his doctor a card with an identification number to record the presence of psychiatric illness in his/her opinion and whether there was treatment with psychotropic drugs. A total of 628 subjects participated. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders corrected by two phase methodology was 31.7% (95%CI: 27.9 to 35.5). Of the 185 patients with a psychiatric disorder detected, 44.2% (95%CI: 36.7 to 51.7) were identified as patients with psychiatric disorders by their family physician. Disorders best detected were: hypomania, dysthymic disorder, depressive episode with melancholic symptoms, and panic disorder. A significant percentage of patients with possible psychiatric disorders detected with validated test have not been identified by their family physician. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychiatric disorders in an Arctic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggarty, J; Cernovsky, Z; Kermeen, P; Merskey, H

    2000-05-01

    To determine the rates of depression, anxiety, and alcohol abuse, using modern nosology, in a random sample of residents aged 14 to 85 years living in an Arctic community. A cross-sectional 2-step survey of randomly selected households was undertaken, using a self-report questionnaire to screen for anxiety, depression, and alcohol abuse. The survey included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Ewing and Roose's 4-question alcohol screening instrument (the CAGE questionnaire). Cut-off scores for the HADS and CAGE were found by comparing HADS and CAGE scores with scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R (SCID) in a stratified subsample. Estimated rates of depression and anxiety were 26.5% and 19.0% respectively within the past week, and estimated rates of lifetime alcohol abuse were 30.5%. The estimated prevalence of psychiatric disorders in this Arctic community is higher than that indicated in previous findings on Native mental health.

  14. Ethological approaches to psychiatric disorders : focus on depression and schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Erwin; Bruene, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Behavioural observation of psychiatric patient groups using ethological methodology has never been a mainstream approach in psychiatry. In the present review article it is argued that the assessment of non-verbal behaviour in psychiatric disorders has much to offer to clinicians. Based on a Medline

  15. Social class, social mobility and risk of psychiatric disorder--a population-based longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Tiikkaja

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study explored how adult social class and social mobility between parental and own adult social class is related to psychiatric disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, over 1 million employed Swedes born in 1949-1959 were included. Information on parental class (1960 and own mid-life social class (1980 and 1990 was retrieved from the censuses and categorised as High Non-manual, Low Non-manual, High Manual, Low Manual and Self-employed. After identifying adult class, individuals were followed for psychiatric disorder by first admission of schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug dependency, affective psychosis and neurosis or personality disorder (N=24,659 from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate first admission rates of psychiatric disorder per 100,000 person-years and relative risks (RR by adult social class (treated as a time-varying covariate. The RRs of psychiatric disorder among the Non-manual and Manual classes were also estimated by magnitude of social mobility. RESULTS: The rate of psychiatric disorder was significantly higher among individuals belonging to the Low manual class as compared with the High Non-manual class. Compared to High Non-manual class, the risk for psychiatric disorder ranged from 2.07 (Low Manual class to 1.38 (Low Non-manual class. Parental class had a minor impact on these estimates. Among the Non-manual and Manual classes, downward mobility was associated with increased risk and upward mobility with decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. In addition, downward mobility was inversely associated with the magnitude of social mobility, independent of parental class. CONCLUSIONS: Independently of parental social class, the risk of psychiatric disorder increases with increased downward social mobility and decreases with increased upward mobility.

  16. Psychiatric disorders after epilepsy diagnosis: a population-based retrospective cohort study.

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    Hsiu-Ju Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychiatric manifestations after occurrence of epilepsy have often been noted. However, the association between newly diagnosed epilepsy and psychiatric disorders afterward is not completely understood. We conducted two longitudinal cohorts for patients with and without epilepsy to investigate the risk factors and hazard ratios of developing psychiatric disorders after patients were newly diagnosed with epilepsy. METHODS: We identified 938 patients with a new diagnosis of epilepsy and 518,748 participants without epilepsy from the National Health Insurance Research Database in 2000-2002 and tracked them until 2008. We compared the incidence of developing psychiatric disorders between the two cohorts, evaluated risk factors and measured the associated hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs of developing psychiatric disorders. FINDINGS: The incidences of psychiatric disorders for people with and without epilepsy were 94.1 and 22.6 per 1000 person-years, respectively. After adjusting the covariates, the epilepsy cohort showed the highest risks in mental retardation (HR 31.5, 95% CI 18.9 to 52.4, bipolar disorder (HR 23.5, 95% CI 11.4 to 48.3 and alcohol or drug psychosis (HR 18.8, 95% CI 11.1 to 31.8 among psychiatric complications developed after newly diagnosed epilepsy. The risk increased with epileptic general seizure and frequency of outpatient visits for epilepsy, as well as with emergency room visits and hospitalizations for epilepsy, and with older age. Chronologically, the highest risk occurred in the first year after epilepsy diagnosis (HR 11.4, 95% CI 9.88 to 13.2. CONCLUSION: Various psychiatric disorders were demonstrated after newly diagnosed epilepsy and closely related to general seizure and use of medical services for epilepsy. This shows a need for integrated psychiatric care for patients newly diagnosed with epilepsy, especially in the first year.

  17. The relationship of functional pruritus with anger and associated psychiatric disorders

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    İlknur Kıvanç Altunay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Functional itch disorder is assessed among somatization disorders. Suppressed anger may play a role in the development of somatization and, thus, functional itch disorder. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship of severity of itching with anger, expression of anger and psychiatric disorders in patients with functional itch disorder. Materials and Methods: Forty patients who were diagnosed with functional itch disorder were enrolled into the study. Functional itch disorder was diagnosed according to the suggested diagnostic criteria from the French psychodermatology group. Pruritus severity was evaluated using the five-point Likert scale. The State-Trait Anger Expression Index was used to assess state anger, trait anger and anger expression and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I Plus 5.0.0 was used for determining psychiatric status. Results: A total of 40 patients (30 (75% females, 10 (25% males with a mean age 46.55±13.20 years were enrolled in the study. According to the results of the M.I.N.I., psychiatric comorbidities at the time of itching were existent in 29 (72.5% patients, whereas 13 (27.5% patients did not have any other psychiatric symptom. Pruritus duration was correlated with anger trait and anger-in subscale scores in all patients. (r=0.349, p=0.027, r=0.417, p=0.007, respectively. Trait anger and anger-out subscale scores were statistically higher in patients with psychiatric disorders (p<0.05. Anger control scores were also lower in this group. Pruritus duration was correlated with trait-anger and anger-in subscale scores in patients with psychiatric disorder. Conclusions: Functional pruritus (FP as a somatoform psychodermatologic disorder seems to be related with anger levels and anger management styles; and psychiatric disorders are frequently accompanied by functional pruritus

  18. Relationship of psychiatric comorbidity and treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia

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    Latas Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Besides numerous studies that examined various aspects of comorbidity in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and numerous studies that examined efficacy of different treatment modalities in these patients, there was no study that examined relationship of overall psychiatric comorbidity and treatment of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. Objective. The objective of the study was to establish the effect of psychiatric comorbidity on treatment efficiency of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. Method. The sample of the study consisted of 119 patients with primary diagnosis of panic disorder and agoraphobia. The therapy of patients was based on the use of individual integrative model of treatment, which incorporated psycho-pharmaceuticals (benzodiazepines and antidepressants and cognitive- behavior therapy. Symptom severity was estimated by Panic and Agoraphobia Scale before and after the completion of treatment. Patients with comorbidity and patients without any comorbidity were compared by MANOVA and ANOVA with repeated measures. Results. The results of the study showed that 91% of patients met diagnostic criteria of comorbid psychiatric disorder and these patients had more severe clinical picture than patients without any comorbid disorder before the treatment. The results also showed that, after the completion of treatment, there was a significant reduction of all analyzed symptoms, that the effects of treatment were significantly better in patients with psychiatric comorbidity and that comorbid psychiatric disorders had no negative effect on the main goals of the treatment. Conclusion. Based on these results, it may be concluded that: in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and comorbid psychiatric disorders, the pharmacotherapy must be based on simultaneous use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines, while standard cognitive-behavior therapy of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia must

  19. Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding

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    Kay H. Brodersen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM of a visual–parietal–prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78% from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62% or local activity within the same regions (55%. Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71% as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual–parietal–prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a

  20. Psychiatric disorders in a Dutch Health Area: a repeated cross-sectional survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.H.; Mulder, J.; Furer, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decades of psychiatric epidemiology have shown a wide variation in prevalence rates, but a consistent relationship between psychiatric disorder and sociodemographic variables. In this repeated cross-sectional survey, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their distribution in the

  1. The opinion of patients with mental disorder about tobacco and its prohibition in psychiatric hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marques de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the opinion of patients with mental disorder about tobacco and its prohibition during psychiatric hospitalization. Method: An exploratory study with 96 patients smokers with mental disorders hospitalized in a psychiatric ward of a general hospital. The interviews were conducted individually, using an instrument designed for this study. The content from the interviews was recorded, transcribed and submitted to a thematic content analysis. Results: The patients with mental disorder were identified as perceiving smoking during the psychiatric hospitalization as a help to support the difficulties in socialization and in the lack of activities. The permission for smoking is seen as a signal of respect to their needs. The subjects mentioned to not accept the total smoking prohibition. Conclusion: Tobacco helps to face difficulties and conflicts in the psychiatric hospitalization. There is resistance regarding the possibility to totally withdraw the smoking permission during hospitalization.

  2. Cohabitation patterns among patients with severe psychiatric disorders in the entire Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, A F; Olsbjerg, M; Andersen, P K

    2012-01-01

    with schizophrenia and men with bipolar disorder had the highest RR of commencing cohabitation with a cohabitant with a similar diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Cohabitation among individuals with severe psychiatric disorders is increased. This has implications for research and for the clinical management of patients.......BACKGROUND: Assortative mating has been demonstrated in mental disorders but the extent of cohabitation between patients with clinically diagnosed psychiatric disease has been poorly explored. Method We conducted a register-based study of all Danes between 18 and 70 years of age in a 13-year...... observational period, linking data on individuals' contacts with psychiatric services with data on individuals' cohabitation status. Two different Poisson regression analyses were performed: the first comparing the rates of commencing cohabitation with a psychiatric patient between individuals, depending...

  3. Sleep-related problems and minor psychiatric disorders among Brazilian shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Garcez, Anderson; Henn, Ruth Liane; Macagnan, Jamile Block Araldi; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between sleep-related problems with the occurrence of minor psychiatric disorders in shift workers of southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study with 1202 workers (785 females) aged 18-50 years was carried out. Minor psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), and four sleep problems were collected and analyzed: sleep deprivation (≤ 5h), difficulty falling asleep, waking up during sleep, and sleep medication use. Results show that the overall prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 26.8%, but it was more prevalent among females than males (30.2% vs. 20.4%). Nightshift work was significantly associated with the occurrence of sleep-related problems. After adjusting for confounding factors, the number of sleep-related problems showed a positive linear trend with psychiatric disorders in both sexes. Having two or more sleep-related problems was associated with increased probability of psychiatric disorders approximately three-fold among males and two-fold among females, when compared with those without sleep problems. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that sleep-related problems have a strong and independent association with psychiatric disorders among shift workers. Furthermore, the prevalence of both conditions was higher among females than males; however, the strength of these associations was higher in males. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Family Structure, Transitions and Psychiatric Disorders Among Puerto Rican Children

    OpenAIRE

    Santesteban-Echarri, Olga; Eisenberg, Ruth E.; Bird, Hector R.; Canino, Glorisa J.; Duarte, Cristiane S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether family structure and its transitions are associated with internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders among Puerto Rican-origin children. It uses longitudinal data (three waves) from the Boricua Youth Study, which includes probability samples of children in the South Bronx (New York) and San Juan (Puerto Rico) (n = 2,142). We also examine factors which may explain how family structure and transitions may be related to child psychiatric disorders. Our resul...

  5. The Role of Sleep in Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Alfano, Candice A.; Gamble, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep problems often comprise core features of psychiatric disorders, inadequate attention has been paid to the complex, reciprocal relationships involved in the early regulation of sleep, emotion, and behavior. In this paper, we review the pediatric literature examining sleep in children with primary psychiatric disorders as well as evidence for the role of early sleep problems as a risk factor for the development of psychopathology. Based on these cumulative data, possible mechanis...

  6. [Estimating the burden of psychiatric disorder in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyun; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Lee, Hee-Young; Cho, Hee-Sook; Lee, Jin-Yong; Eun, Sang-Jun; Park, Jong-Hyock; Kim, Yoon; Kim, Yong-Ik; Shin, Young-Soo

    2006-01-01

    This study estimated the burden of disease especially caused by psychiatric disorders in Korea by using DALY, a composite indicator that was recently developed by the Global Burden of Disease study group. First, 11 of the major psychiatric disorders in Korea were selected based on the ICD-10. Second, the burden of disease due to premature death was estimated by using YLLs (years of life lost due to premature death). Third, for the calculation of the YLD (years lived with disability), the following parameters were estimated in the formula: the incidence rate, the prevalence rate and the disability weight of each psychiatric disorder. Last, we estimated the DALY of the psychiatric disorders by adding the YLLs and YLDs. The burden of psychiatric disorder per 100,000 people was attributed mainly to unipolar major depression (1,278 person-years), schizophrenia (638 person-years) and alcohol use disorder (287 person-years). For males, schizophrenia (596 person-years) and alcohol use disorder (491 person-years) caused the highest burden. For females, unipolar major depression (1,749 person-years) and schizophrenia (680 person-years) cause the highest burden. As analyzed by gender and age group, alcohol use disorder causes a higher burden than schizophrenia in men aged 40 years and older. For females, unipolar major depression causes the highest burden in all age groups. We found that each of the psychiatric disorders that cause the highest burden is different according to gender and age group. This study's results can provide a rational basis to plan a national health policy regarding the burden of disease caused by psychiatric disorders.

  7. Comorbidity of dementia and psychiatric disorders in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummans, T A; Smith, G E; Lin, S C; Waring, S C; Kokmen, E

    1997-01-01

    To further investigate the relationship between psychiatric disorders and dementia in elderly patients, the authors drew a population-based, age-stratified random sample from residents of Rochester, Minnesota, age 65 and older. A trained paramedic completed a 90-minute screening interview, including the Symptom Checklist-90, Mini-Mental State Exam, and Auditory-Verbal Learning Test. Persons failing the screens were interviewed by a psychiatrist and a neurologist. DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned for dementia and other psychiatric disorders. Of 201 participants, 37 were evaluated further by both neurologist and psychiatrist. One received a psychiatric diagnosis alone. Dementia alone was present in four people. Concurrent psychiatric diagnoses and dementia were found in 17 subjects. Much of the psychopathology found in older persons occurs in people with cognitive impairment. Current diagnostic nosology may not be able to capture the interrelatedness of psychiatric syndromes and cognitive impairment in elderly patients.

  8. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders: where we are now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Daniel R; Ozpinar, Alp; Raslan, Ahmed M; Ko, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    Fossil records showing trephination in the Stone Age provide evidence that humans have sought to influence the mind through physical means since before the historical record. Attempts to treat psychiatric disease via neurosurgical means in the 20th century provided some intriguing initial results. However, the indiscriminate application of these treatments, lack of rigorous evaluation of the results, and the side effects of ablative, irreversible procedures resulted in a backlash against brain surgery for psychiatric disorders that continues to this day. With the advent of psychotropic medications, interest in invasive procedures for organic brain disease waned. Diagnosis and classification of psychiatric diseases has improved, due to a better understanding of psychiatric patho-physiology and the development of disease and treatment biomarkers. Meanwhile, a significant percentage of patients remain refractory to multiple modes of treatment, and psychiatric disease remains the number one cause of disability in the world. These data, along with the safe and efficacious application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for movement disorders, in principle a reversible process, is rekindling interest in the surgical treatment of psychiatric disorders with stimulation of deep brain sites involved in emotional and behavioral circuitry. This review presents a brief history of psychosurgery and summarizes the development of DBS for psychiatric disease, reviewing the available evidence for the current application of DBS for disorders of the mind.

  10. Psychiatric aspects of pediatric epilepsy: Focus on anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujita Kumar Kar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric co-morbidities are commonly seen with pediatric epilepsy, which can be in the form of cognitive deficits like - inattention and intellectual disability, motor disturbances like - hyperactivity, emotional disturbances like - depression and anxiety disorders and behavioral problems like - impulsivity, aggression and even psychotic behavior. Anxiety disorders like - Obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, social phobia, separation anxiety disorder, agoraphobia and panic attacks are commonly seen with pediatric epilepsy. Presence of co-morbid anxiety disorder in pediatric epilepsy is responsible for scholastic decline, peer maladjustment and poor quality of life. Management of anxiety disorders in children with epilepsy is always a challenge. Until, there is no general consensus regarding management of anxiety disorders in pediatric epilepsy. Despite its enormous impact on an individual′s life, this area has not been addressed adequately through clinical research. This review focuses on psychiatric aspects of pediatric epilepsy with specific emphasis on anxiety disorders.

  11. Prevalence of substance use disorders in psychiatric patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study established the national prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among Danish psychiatric patients. Furthermore, patients with SUDs and those without SUDs were compared on a range of socio-demographic, clinical, and treatment characteristics. METHODS: Data were...... obtained from several Danish population-based registers. The study population was defined as all individuals with incidents of schizophrenia, schizotypal disorder, other psychoses, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD...... % for schizophrenia, 35 % for schizotypal disorder, 28 % for other psychoses, 32 % for bipolar disorder, 25 % for depression, 25 % for anxiety, 11 % for OCD, 17% for PTSD, and 46 % for personality disorders. Alcohol use disorder was the most dominating SUD in every psychiatric category (25 % of all included patients...

  12. Psychiatric Disorders and Trends in Resource Use in Pediatric Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, Bonnie T; Rodean, Jonathan; Hall, Matt; Bardach, Naomi S; Coker, Tumaini R; Berry, Jay G

    2016-11-01

    To describe recent, 10-year trends in pediatric hospital resource use with and without a psychiatric diagnosis and examine how these trends vary by type of psychiatric and medical diagnosis cooccurrence. A retrospective, longitudinal cohort analysis using hospital discharge data from 33 tertiary care US children's hospitals of patients ages 3 to 17 years from January 1, 2005 through December 31, 2014. The trends in hospital discharges, hospital days, and total aggregate costs for each psychiatric comorbid group were assessed by using multivariate generalized estimating equations. From 2005 to 2014, the cumulative percent growth in resource use was significantly (all P < .001) greater for children hospitalized with versus without a psychiatric diagnosis (hospitalizations: +137.7% vs +26.0%; hospital days: +92.9% vs 5.9%; and costs: +142.7% vs + 18.9%). During this time period, the most substantial growth was observed in children admitted with a medical condition who also had a cooccurring psychiatric diagnosis (hospitalizations: +160.5%; hospital days: +112.4%; costs: +156.2%). In 2014, these children accounted for 77.8% of all hospitalizations for children with a psychiatric diagnosis; their most common psychiatric diagnoses were developmental disorders (22.3%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (18.1%), and anxiety disorders (14.2%). The 10-year rise in pediatric hospitalizations in US children's hospitals is 5 times greater for children with versus without a psychiatric diagnosis. Strategic planning to meet the rising demand for psychiatric care in tertiary care children's hospitals should place high priority on the needs of children with a primary medical condition and cooccurring psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Barriers in the treatment of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric illnesses are very common in prevalence. But not everyone who has a mental illness gets a psychiatric consultation. The causes are many. First, many time people don’t recognise and accept mental illnesses in them as a result of lack of insight and awareness. Secondly, even if they know they have a mental illness, they don’t feel comfortable in disclosing it. Third, after knowing that they have some problems which require help from a doctor, they don’t know whom to consult, where to consult, and how to consult. Fourth, in spite of all possible awareness, there may not be psychiatric facilities nearby. Thus, it becomes utmost necessary to discuss those factors which stop people with psychiatric illnesses to get adequate help so that remedial steps could be taken.

  14. Treatment of anxiety disorders by psychiatrists from the American Psychiatric Practice Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Sorsdahl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in the United States, and if untreated, result in a number of negative outcomes. This study aimed to investigate psychiatrists' current treatment practices for patients with anxiety disorders in the United States. Methods: Psychiatrist-reported data from the 1997 and 1999 American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education Practice Research Network (PRN Study of Psychiatric Patients and Treatments (SPPT were examined, focusing on patients diagnosed with anxiety disorders. Information related to diagnostic and clinical features and treatments provided were obtained. Results: Anxiety disorders remain underdiagnosed and undertreated, since only 11.4% of the sample received a principal diagnosis of an anxiety disorder in a real world setting. Posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with particularly high comorbidity and disability, and social anxiety disorder was relatively rarely diagnosed and treated. Although combined pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy was commonly used to treat anxiety disorders, anxiolytics were more commonly prescribed than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs. Conclusions: These data provide a picture of diagnosis and practice patterns across a range of psychiatric settings and suggest that anxiety disorders, despite being among the most prevalent of psychiatric disorders remain underdiagnosed and undertreated particularly in respect of the use of psychotherapeutic interventions.

  15. Head Injury as Risk Factor for Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlovska, Sonja; Pedersen, Michael Skaarup; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Studies investigating the relationship between head injury and subsequent psychiatric disorders often suffer from methodological weaknesses and show conflicting results. The authors investigated the incidence of severe psychiatric disorders following hospital contact for head injury....... METHOD: The authors used linkable Danish nationwide population-based registers to investigate the incidence of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, unipolar depression, bipolar disorder, and organic mental disorders in 113,906 persons who had suffered head injuries. Data were analyzed by survival analysis...... and adjusted for gender, age, calendar year, presence of a psychiatric family history, epilepsy, infections, autoimmune diseases, and fractures not involving the skull or spine. RESULTS: Head injury was associated with a higher risk of schizophrenia (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=1.65, 95% CI=1...

  16. Age at fatherhood: heritability and associations with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frans, E M; Lichtenstein, P; Hultman, C M; Kuja-Halkola, R

    2016-10-01

    Advancing paternal age has been linked to psychiatric disorders. These associations might be caused by the increased number of de novo mutations transmitted to offspring of older men. It has also been suggested that the associations are confounded by a genetic liability for psychiatric disorders in parents. The aim of this study was to indirectly test the confounding hypotheses by examining if there is a genetic component to advancing paternal age and if men with a genetic liability for psychiatric disorders have children at older ages. We examined the genetic component to advancing paternal age by utilizing the twin model in a cohort of male twins (N = 14 679). We also studied ages at childbirth in men with or without schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and/or autism spectrum disorder. Ages were examined in: (1) healthy men, (2) affected men, (3) healthy men with an affected sibling, (4) men with healthy spouses, (5) men with affected spouses, and (6) men with healthy spouses with an affected sibling. The twin analyses showed that late fatherhood is under genetic influence (heritability = 0.33). However, affected men or men with affected spouses did not have children at older ages. The same was found for healthy individuals with affected siblings. Instead, these men were generally having children at younger ages. Although there is a genetic component influencing late fatherhood, our data suggest that the associations are not explained by psychiatric disorders or a genetic liability for psychiatric disorders in the parent.

  17. The Association between Psychiatric Disorders and Quality of Life of Patient with Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Baiyewu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Quality of life (QOL assessment has been employed increasingly to evaluate outcome among patients with chronic medical conditions. Such assessment could be adversely affected by psychiatric disorders, co existing with such a medical condition. Method: A cross sectional study of 251 out-patients with diabetes mellitus was done at a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital using the Composite Diagnostic Interview (CIDI for psychiatric assessment and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief version (WHOQOL-BREF to evaluate the QOL. Results: Fifty (20% of the 251 respondents met the ICD-10 criteria for definite psychiatric diagnosis. Depression accounted for 9.6% while twenty-six (10.4% had anxiety disorder. Of the 35 respondents who performed poorly on the overall quality of life, 17(48.57% had psychiatric diagnosis; 9 were depressed and 8 had anxiety disorder. 39 (15.5% scored poor on the physical health domain. 21(53.8% of the 39 respondents with poor score had psychiatric diagnosis: 13 had depression while 8 had anxiety disorder. On domain 1 (physical health, 51 (20.3% scored poor. Twenty-eight (54.9% of the poor scorers had psychiatric diagnosis, 20 were depressed while 8 had anxiety. 51 (20.3% scored poor on psychological domain (domain 2 twenty-eight (54.9% of the poor scorers had psychiatric diagnosis, 20 of which were depressed while 8 had anxiety. 34 (13.5% scored poor on social relations (domain 3. 19 (55.9% of those who scored poor had psychiatric disorder and the diagnosis was depression. Conclusions: Physicians need to increase their surveillance of psychiatric co-morbidity in diabetes mellitus and collaborate with psychiatrists for a more effective liaison to improve the quality of life of patients with diabetes.

  18. Genetic Counselling for Psychiatric Disorders: Accounts of Psychiatric Health Professionals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sian; Arribas-Ayllon, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Genetic counselling is not routinely offered for psychiatric disorders in the United Kingdom through NHS regional clinical genetics departments. However, recent genomic advances, confirming a genetic contribution to mental illness, are anticipated to increase demand for psychiatric genetic counselling. This is the first study of its kind to employ qualitative methods of research to explore accounts of psychiatric health professionals regarding the prospects for genetic counselling services within clinical psychiatry in the UK. Data were collected from 32 questionnaire participants, and 9 subsequent interviewees. Data analysis revealed that although participants had not encountered patients explicitly demanding psychiatric genetic counselling, psychiatric health professionals believe that such a service would be useful and desirable. Genomic advances may have significant implications for genetic counselling in clinical psychiatry even if these discoveries do not lead to genetic testing. Psychiatric health professionals describe clinical genetics as a skilled profession capable of combining complex risk communication with much needed psychosocial support. However, participants noted barriers to the implementation of psychiatric genetic counselling services including, but not limited to, the complexities of uncertainty in psychiatric diagnoses, patient engagement and ethical concerns regarding limited capacity.

  19. Psychiatric symptoms of patients with primary mitochondrial DNA disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inczedy-Farkas Gabriella

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study was to assess psychiatric symptoms in patients with genetically proven primary mutation of the mitochondrial DNA. Methods 19 adults with known mitochondrial mutation (MT have been assessed with the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire 20-item Disability Index (HAQ-DI, the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R, the Beck Depression Inventory-Short Form (BDI-SF, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and the clinical version of the Structured Clinical Interview for the the DSM-IV (SCID-I and SCID-II As control, 10 patients with hereditary sensorimotor neuropathy (HN, harboring the peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22 mutation were examined with the same tools. Results The two groups did not differ significantly in gender, age or education. Mean HAQ-DI score was 0.82 in the MT (range: 0-1.625 and 0.71 in the HN group (range: 0-1.625. Level of disability between the two groups did not differ significantly (p = 0.6076. MT patients scored significantly higher on the BDI-SF and HDRS than HN patients (12.85 versus 4.40, p = 0.031, and 15.62 vs 7.30, p = 0.043, respectively. The Global Severity Index (GSI of SCL-90-R also showed significant difference (1.44 vs 0.46, p = 0.013 as well as the subscales except for somatization. SCID-I interview yielded a variety of mood disorders in both groups. Eight MT patient (42% had past, 6 (31% had current, 5 (26% had both past and current psychiatric diagnosis, yielding a lifetime prevalence of 9/19 (47% in the MT group. In the HN group, 3 patients had both past and current diagnosis showing a lifetime prevalence of 3/10 (30% in this group. SCID-II detected personality disorder in 8 MT cases (42%, yielding 3 avoidant, 2 obsessive-compulsive and 3 personality disorder not otherwise specified (NOS diagnosis. No personality disorder was identified in the HN group. Conclusions Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in patients with

  20. Estimating the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders through a national health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padoin Cintia V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children whose parents have psychiatric disorders experience an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders, and have higher rates of developmental problems and mortality. Assessing the size of this population is important for planning of preventive strategies which target these children. Methods National survey data (CCHS 1.2 was used to estimate the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders. Disorders were diagnosed using the World Psychiatric Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI (12 month prevalence. Data on the number of children below 12 years of age in the home, and the relationship of the respondents with the children, was used to estimate exposure. Parent-child relations were identified, as was single parenthood. Using a design-based analysis, the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders was calculated. Results Almost 570,000 children under 12 live in households where the survey respondent met criteria for one or more mood, anxiety or substance use disorders in the previous 12 months, corresponding to 12.1% of Canadian children under the age of 12. Almost 3/4 of these children have parents that report receiving no mental health care in the 12 months preceding the survey. For 17% of all Canadian children under age 12, the individual experiencing a psychiatric disorder is the only parent in the household. Conclusion The high number of children exposed causes major concern and has important implications. Although these children will not necessarily experience adversities, they possess an elevated risk of accidents, mortality, and of developing psychiatric disorders. We expect these estimates will promote further research and stimulate discussion at both health policy and planning tables.

  1. Psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms in Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzetti, Lidiane; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Mendes, Karina Giane; Theodoro, Heloísa; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the association between minor psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 615 women aged 40 to 65 years treated in a public menopause and gynecological outpatient clinic in the South Region of Brazil. Minor psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and menopause symptoms using the Menopause Rating Scale. Score for menopause symptoms was categorized into three levels of symptoms: mild, moderate, and severe. Multivariate analyses used ordinal logistic regression. The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe menopause symptoms was 34.1% (95% CI 30.3-37.9), 29.6% (95% CI 25.8-33.1), and 36.3% (95% CI 32.4-40.0), respectively. The overall prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 66.6% (95% CI 62.8-70.3). After adjustment, the odds ratio (OR) of the occurrence of menopause symptoms were approximately eight times higher in women relating minor psychiatric disorders compared with those without such disorders (OR = 7.76; 95% CI 5.27-11.44). The following factors were also associated with the menopause symptoms: women older than 50 years, living with a partner, lower educational level, smokers, larger number of pregnancies, obese, and those using psychotropic and/or postmenopause medication. The minor psychiatric disorders exhibited strong association with the presence of menopause symptoms independently of sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors, and of use of psychotropic medication.

  2. An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Hamadan Province , 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Mohammadi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The burden of psychiatric disorders in the developed countries has been identified by the screening questionnaires and standard clinical interviews at a high level, but the epidemiological studies of psychiatric disorders in our country are brief and their numbers are few. Planning for providing essential mental health services to the people requires us to be knowledgeable about the present status of psychiatric disorders in the society. The objective of this research was to carry out the epidemiological study of the psychiatric disorders in the individuals 18 years and above in urban and rural areas of Hamadan province. 664 individuals selected through randomized clustered and systematic sampling methods among the existing families of Hamadan province and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS questionnaires completed by the clinical psychologist. The diagnosis of the disorders was based on DSM-IV classification criteria.The results of the study showed that the overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 11.28% (17.2% in women , 5.8% in men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 5.87 and 2.71% respectively had the highest prevalence in the province. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 0.60% , neuro- cognitive disorders 1.35% and dissociative disorders 0.75%. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.56% and in the group of anxiety disorders, phobia with 2.56% had the higher prevalence. This study showed that 8.13% of studied individuals suffered from at least one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 66 years and above was 13.33%, individuals whose spouses had passed away 18.75%, urban residents of province 9.81%, illiterate individuals 12.80% and housewife individuals 12.31% was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the

  3. Prevalence and change in psychiatric disorders among perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellins, Claude A; Elkington, Katherine S; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Santamaria, E Karina; Dolezal, Curtis; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mckay, Mary M; Abrams, Elaine J

    2012-01-01

    As the pediatric HIV epidemic in resource-rich countries evolves into an adolescent epidemic, there is a substantive need for studies elucidating mental health needs of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV +) youth as they transition through adolescence. This article examines the role of perinatal HIV infection in influencing mental health by comparing the changes in psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders (SUD) in PHIV + and perinatally HIV-exposed, but uninfected (PHIV -) youth over time. Participants were recruited from four medical centers in New York City. Individual interviews were administered at baseline and 18-month follow-up to 166 PHIV + and 114 PHIV- youth (49% male, age 9-16 years at baseline). Youth psychiatric disorder was assessed using the caregiver and youth versions of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Over two-thirds of participants met criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder at either baseline or follow-up, with few group differences. Among PHIV + youth, there was a significant decrease in the prevalence of any psychiatric disorder, as well as anxiety disorders specifically over time, whereas the prevalence of any psychiatric disorder among PHIV- youth remained the same and mood disorders increased. Rates of SUD were low in both groups, increasing slightly by follow-up. PHIV + youth reported more use of mental health services at follow-up. CD4 count and HIV RNA viral load were not associated with the presence or absence of disorder at either time point. In conclusion, among PHIV + and PHIV- youth, the rates of psychiatric disorder were high, even compared to other vulnerable populations, suggesting that factors other than perinatal HIV infection may be important determinants of mental health. PHIV + youth were more likely to improve over the observation period. The data underscore the critical need for mental health interventions for both PHIV + and PHIV- youth.

  4. Prevalence And Detection Of Psychiatric Disorders Among Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate (1) the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents attending a PHC clinic (2) the ability of PHC doctors to identify disorders (3) the performance of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version 2.3 (DISC-2.3) Design: A cross-sectional study of a clinical population

  5. Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in HIV infected mine workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease. Several other psychiatric symptoms and disorders, such as psychosis, secondary mania and depression, have also been ... Bipolar disorder with mania, without concurrent dementia, and major depression was present in 2 patients, respectively. Screening .... refers to the Axis IV diagnosis of psychosocial and.

  6. High psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hasan; Duzman Mutluer, Tuba; Kose, Cigdem; Zoroglu, Salih

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychiatric comorbidity rates and patterns in a sample of clinically referred adolescents diagnosed with dissociative disorders (DD) by using a structured interview. All participants completed a comprehensive test battery, which consisted of a questionnaire for sociodemographic data and clinical history, Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index, Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire and the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. Diagnosis was made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version. A total of 25 adolescent subjects aged 12-18 years participated in the study. Ten adolescents were diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder and 15 of them were diagnosed as having dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders findings. Adolescents with dissociative identity disorder were found to have higher scores on the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index than the dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified group. Sexual and physical abuses were also found to be among the main traumatic events. Incest was reported in six cases of the study sample. All subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were major depressive disorder (n = 25; 100%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 22; 88%). High psychiatric comorbidity rates were found in adolescents diagnosed with DD. A prevalent history of abuse and traumatic events was represented. Clinicians should be aware of the impacts of DD on adolescents' mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  7. Substance use disorders as risk factors for psychiatric hospitalization in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoblyn, Jennifer C; Balt, Steve L; Woodard, Stephanie A; Brooks, John O

    2009-01-01

    This study developed risk profiles of psychiatric hospitalization for veterans diagnosed as having bipolar disorder. This study included 2,963 veterans diagnosed as having bipolar disorder (types I, II, or not otherwise specified) during the 2004 fiscal year. Data were derived from the Veterans Affairs administrative database. Risk profiles for psychiatric hospitalization were generated with an iterative application of the receiver operating characteristic. In this sample 20% of the patients with bipolar disorder were hospitalized psychiatrically during the one-year study period. Patients diagnosed as having both an alcohol use disorder and polysubstance dependence and who also were separated from their spouse or partner had a 100% risk of psychiatric hospitalization; risk of psychiatric hospitalization decreased to 52% if the patients were not separated from their partner. Patients who were not diagnosed as having alcohol use disorders or polysubstance dependence and who were not separated from their partners exhibited the lowest risk of psychiatric hospitalization (12%). Among patients with a psychiatric hospitalization, 41% had longer lengths of stay (<14 days), with the strongest predictor of a longer length of stay being an age older than 77 years, which conferred a 77% risk. Alcohol use and polysubstance dependence can significantly affect the course of bipolar disorder, as evidenced by their associations with psychiatric hospitalizations. Increased focus on substance abuse among older adults with bipolar disorder may decrease length of psychiatric hospitalization. Our findings suggest that implementing substance treatment programs early in the course of bipolar disorder could reduce health service use.

  8. Molecular Pathways Bridging Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration and Psychiatric Disorders

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    Roberta eZanardini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The overlap of symptoms between neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases has been reported. Neuropsychiatric alterations are commonly observed in dementia, especially in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD, which is the most common clinical FTD subtype. At the same time, psychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia, can display symptoms of dementia, including features of frontal dysfunction with relative sparing of memory. In the present review we discuss common molecular features in these pathologies with a special focus on FTD. Molecules like Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF and progranulin are linked to the pathophysiology of both neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. In these brain-associated illnesses, the presence of disease-associated variants in BDNF and progranulin (GRN genes cause a reduction of circulating proteins levels, through alterations in proteins expression or secretion. For these reasons, we believe that prevention and therapy of psychiatric and neurological disorders could be achieved enhancing both BDNF and progranulin levels thanks to drug discovery efforts.

  9. Day hospital versus admission for acute psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Max; Crowther, Ruth; Sledge, William Hurt; Rathbone, John; Soares-Weiser, Karla

    2014-01-01

    Background Inpatient treatment is an expensive way of caring for people with acute psychiatric disorders. It has been proposed that many of those currently treated as inpatients could be cared for in acute psychiatric day hospitals. Objectives To assess the effects of day hospital versus inpatient care for people with acute psychiatric disorders. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (June 2010) which is based on regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. We approached trialists to identify unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of day hospital versus inpatient care, for people with acute psychiatric disorders. Studies were ineligible if a majority of participants were under 18 or over 65, or had a primary diagnosis of substance abuse or organic brain disorder. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted and cross-checked data. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We calculated weighted or standardised means for continuous data. Day hospital trials tend to present similar outcomes in slightly different formats, making it difficult to synthesise data. We therefore sought individual patient data so that we could re-analyse outcomes in a common format. Main results Ten trials (involving 2685 people) met the inclusion criteria. We obtained individual patient data for four trials (involving 646 people). We found no difference in the number lost to follow-up by one year between day hospital care and inpatient care (5 RCTs, n = 1694, RR 0.94 CI 0.82 to 1.08). There is moderate evidence that the duration of index admission is longer for patients in day hospital care than inpatient care (4 RCTs, n = 1582, WMD 27.47 CI 3.96 to 50.98). There is very low evidence that the duration of day patient care (adjusted days/month) is longer for patients in day hospital care than inpatient care (3 RCTs, n = 265, WMD 2.34 days

  10. [Comorbid psychiatric disorders and differential diagnosis of patients with autism spectrum disorder without intellectual disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Sandra; Dziobek, Isabel; Roepke, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) without intellectual disability are often diagnosed late in life. Little is known about co-occurring psychiatric disorders and differential diagnosis of ASC in adulthood, particularly with regard to personality disorders. What kind of comorbid psychiatric disorders occur in ASC? Which are the most prevalent differential diagnoses in a sample of patients who seek autism specific clinical diagnostics? 118 adults who were referred with a presumed diagnosis of autistic disorder, were diagnosed with autism specific instruments and the prevalence of further psychiatric disorders was investigated. 59 (50%) fulfilled the criteria of ASC. 36% of the individuals with ASC fulfilled also criteria for a DSM-IV axis-I psychiatric disorder. Affective disorders (24%) and social phobia (14%) were the most prevalent comorbid disorders. The most frequent differential diagnoses were depression, social phobia, paranoid, avoidant and narcissistic personality disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Antidepressant use during pregnancy and psychiatric disorders in offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Agerbo, Esben; Ingstrup, Katja G

    2017-01-01

    in children, defined as first day of inpatient or outpatient treatment for psychiatric disorders. Hazard ratios of psychiatric disorders were estimated using Cox regression models.Results Overall, psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 32 400 children. The adjusted 15 year cumulative incidence of psychiatric......Objective To investigate the association between in utero exposure to antidepressants and risk of psychiatric disorders.Design Population based cohort study.Setting Danish national registers.Participants 905 383 liveborn singletons born during 1998-2012 in Denmark and followed from birth until July...... disorders was 8.0% (95% confidence interval 7.9% to 8.2%) in the unexposed group, 11.5% (10.3% to 12.9%) in the antidepressant discontinuation group, 13.6% (11.3% to 16.3%) in the continuation group, and 14.5% (10.5% to 19.8%) in the new user group. The antidepressant continuation group had an increased...

  12. Treating Adolescents for Substance Abuse and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Paula D.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has identified a cluster of standardized approaches that effectively treat adolescents with substance abuse disorders. Many of these approaches share elements that may be adopted to improve outcomes in substance treatment programs. In adolescents, treatment goals should be informed by a comprehensive assessment that includes the adolescent patient?s developmental history and evaluation of psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment for behavioral, psychosocial, and psychiatric problems...

  13. Associations between Polygenic Risk for Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Carey

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence of substantial comorbidity between psychiatric disorders and substance involvement, the extent to which common genetic factors contribute to their co-occurrence remains understudied. In the current study, we tested for associations between polygenic risk for psychiatric disorders and substance involvement (i.e., ranging from ever-use to severe dependence among 2573 non-Hispanic European-American participants from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment. Polygenic risk scores (PRS for cross-disorder psychopathology (CROSS were generated based on the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium’s Cross-Disorder meta-analysis and then tested for associations with a factor representing general liability to alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, nicotine, and opioid involvement (GENSUB. Follow-up analyses evaluated specific associations between each of the 5 psychiatric disorders which comprised CROSS—attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, autism spectrum disorder (AUT, bipolar disorder (BIP, major depressive disorder (MDD, and schizophrenia (SCZ—and involvement with each component substance included in GENSUB. CROSS PRS explained 1.10% of variance in GENSUB in our sample (p<0.001. After correction for multiple testing in our follow-up analyses of polygenic risk for each individual disorder predicting involvement with each component substance, associations remained between: A MDD PRS and non-problem cannabis use, B MDD PRS and severe cocaine dependence, C SCZ PRS and non-problem cannabis use and severe cannabis dependence, and D SCZ PRS and severe cocaine dependence. These results suggest that shared covariance from common genetic variation contributes to psychiatric and substance involvement comorbidity.

  14. Psychiatric disorders in preschoolers: continuity from ages 3 to 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Rose, Suzanne; Klein, Daniel N

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that many preschoolers meet diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders. However, data on the continuity of these diagnoses are limited, particularly from studies examining a broad range of disorders in community samples. Such studies are necessary to elucidate the validity and clinical significance of psychiatric diagnoses in young children. The authors examined the continuity of specific psychiatric disorders in a large community sample of preschoolers from the preschool period (age 3) to the beginning of the school-age period (age 6). Eligible families with a 3-year child were recruited from the community through commercial mailing lists. For 462 children, the child's primary caretaker was interviewed at baseline and again when the child was age 6, using the parent-report Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment, a comprehensive diagnostic interview. The authors examined the continuity of DSM-IV diagnoses from ages 3 to 6. Three-month rates of disorders were relatively stable from age 3 to age 6. Children who met criteria for any diagnosis at age 3 were nearly five times as likely as the others to meet criteria for a diagnosis at age 6. There was significant homotypic continuity from age 3 to age 6 for anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder, and heterotypic continuity between depression and anxiety, between anxiety and oppositional defiant disorder, and between ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder. These results indicate that preschool psychiatric disorders are moderately stable, with rates of disorders and patterns of homotypic and heterotypic continuity similar to those observed in samples of older children.

  15. Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use in Homeless Youth: A Preliminary Comparison of San Francisco and Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernika G. Quimby

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Youth homelessness is a growing problem in the United States. The experience of homelessness appears to have numerous adverse consequences, including psychiatric and substance use disorders. This study compared the frequencies of psychiatric disorders, including substance use, between homeless youth (18–24 years-old in San Francisco (N = 31 and Chicago (N = 56. Subjects were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I. to assess DSM-IV-TR diagnoses and substance use disorders. Eighty-seven percent of the San Francisco youth, and 81% of the Chicago youth met criteria for at least one M.I.N.I. psychiatric diagnosis. Nearly two-thirds of the youth in both samples met criteria for a mood disorder. Approximately one-third met criteria for an anxiety disorder. Thirty-two percent of the San Francisco sample and 18% of the Chicago met criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder. Approximately 84% of the San Francisco youth and 48% of the Chicago youth met criteria for a substance-related disorder, and more substances were used by San Francisco youth. In conclusion, the high rate of psychiatric disorders in homeless youth provides clear evidence that the mental health needs of this population are significant. Implications are discussed.

  16. Psychiatric disorders in adults with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, C.S.; Levitas, A.S. [Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Camden, NJ (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a multiple anomaly/mental retardation syndrome currently mapped to 16p13.3 and characterized by microephaly, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, curved nose, elongated nasal columelia and broad thumbs and great toes, often with medial or lateral angulation. Although there are reports of attentional problems and impulsivity among children with RTS there have been no studies to date of behavioral characteristics of the syndrome. Since 1988 we have identified 7 adults with classic RTS and psychiatric disorders among 1500 mentally retarded individuals ascertained primarily for behavioral and psychiatric problems; these patients all had microcephaly, characteristic facies and broad halluces, frequently with angulation. An additional 6 adults with psychiatric disorders had some features suggesting RTS but not classic for the disorder; these patients had microcephaly, characteristic nasal configuration and somewhat broad thumbs but lacked hypertelorism, downslant of palpebral fissures, angulation of halluces, and/or other dysmorphic features typical of classic RTS. Among the seven with classic RTS, three had tic disorder and/or Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, one had Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features and one had Major Depressive Disorder with obsessive-compulsive features. The six with some RTS features had similar psychiatric disorders. All patients were extremely sensitive to side effects of antidopaminergic medication, with the exception of clozapine. This clustering of psychiatric disorders and sensitivity suggests possible dysfunction of dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in at least some patients with RTS. The 16p13.3 region should be examined for possible genes affecting metabolism or receptors of these neurotransmitters.

  17. The mood disorder questionnaire improves recognition of bipolar disorder in psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isometsä, Erkki; Suominen, Kirsi; Mantere, Outi; Valtonen, Hanna; Leppämäki, Sami; Pippingsköld, Marita; Arvilommi, Petri

    2003-07-10

    We investigated our translation of The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder in a psychiatric setting in Finland. In a pilot study for the Jorvi Bipolar Study (JoBS), 109 consecutive non-schizophrenic psychiatric out- and inpatients in Espoo, Finland, were screened for bipolar disorder using the Finnish translation of the MDQ, and 38 of them diagnostically interviewed with the SCID. Forty subjects (37%) were positive in the MDQ screen. In the SCID interview, twenty patients were found to suffer from bipolar disorder, of whom seven (70%) of ten patients with bipolar I but only two (20%) of ten with bipolar II disorder had been previously clinically correctly diagnosed. The translated MDQ was found internally consistent (alpha 0.79) and a feasible screening tool. Bipolar disorder, particularly type II, remains commonly unrecognized in psychiatric settings. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire is a feasible screen for bipolar disorder, which could well be integrated into psychiatric routine practice.

  18. [Violence, Burnout and Minor Psychiatric Disorders in Hospital Work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Daiane Dal; Lautert, Liana; Souza, Sônia Beatriz Cocaro de; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Tavares, Juliana Petri

    2015-06-01

    Identifying the violence suffered by the health team workers and their association with Burnout and minor psychiatric disorders. Cross-sectional study with 269 health team professionals of a public hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected through the use of the Survey Questionnaire: Workplace Violence in the Health Sector, Maslach Inventory Burnout and Self-Report Questionnaire. Workplace violence struck 63.2% of workers, prevailing mostly in women (p = 0.001), among nursing auxiliaries/technicians (p=0.014) and was associated with minor psychiatric disorders (pBurnout dimensions were also associated to violence at work (pworkers experience violence in the workplace and this exposure is associated with Burnout symptoms and minor psychiatric disorders.

  19. Epigenetic signaling in psychiatric disorders: stress and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, Rosemary C; Labonté, Benoit; Peña, Catherine J; Nestler, Eric J

    2014-09-01

    Psychiatric disorders are complex multifactorial disorders involving chronic alterations in neural circuit structure and function. While genetic factors play a role in the etiology of disorders such as depression, addiction, and schizophrenia, relatively high rates of discordance among identical twins clearly point to the importance of additional factors. Environmental factors, such as stress, play a major role in the psychiatric disorders by inducing stable changes in gene expression, neural circuit function, and ultimately behavior. Insults at the developmental stage and in adulthood appear to induce distinct maladaptations. Increasing evidence indicates that these sustained abnormalities are maintained by epigenetic modifications in specific brain regions. Indeed, transcriptional dysregulation and associated aberrant epigenetic regulation is a unifying theme in psychiatric disorders. Aspects of depression can be modeled in animals by inducing disease-like states through environmental manipulations, and these studies can provide a more general understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in psychiatric disorders. Understanding how environmental factors recruit the epigenetic machinery in animal models is providing new insights into disease mechanisms in humans.

  20. Child psychiatric disorders in a primary care Arab population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Al-Sabosy, Moza; Saeed, Mohammed; Sabri, Sufyan

    2004-01-01

    Physical and psychiatric comorbidity is relatively common in general practice but there have been few systematic studies using clinical interviews of children attending the primary care services in the Arab population, and none from the Gulf countries. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and nature of child psychiatric morbidity in primary care in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Systematic psychiatric evaluations were carried out on consecutive children aged 6 to 18 years visiting their primary care doctors in Al Ain. The sample consisted of 141 (50.7%) boys and 137 (49.3%) girls. Forty-three percent of the 278 children received a DSM-IV diagnosis. Of these, 46 (38%) were males and 74 (62%) were females. However, only 1.1% (3/120) of the patients consulted general practitioners for a primary psychiatric symptom. The most common diagnosis was anxiety disorder followed by depression. Obsessive compulsive disorder was present in 11%, conduct disorder in 7%, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in 3% of those with a diagnosis. A statistically significant association was found between DSM-IV caseness and female gender, higher number of children in the household, relationship problems in the family, physical illness and family history of psychiatric disorder. Other factors that did not show any significant association were age, nationality, socioeconomic status, parental education or occupation, scholastic performance or developmental delay in the child, or parental consanguinity. Our findings suggest that psychiatric disorders are common among young people of Arab origin attending primary care facilities, and that doctors need to be vigilant about this possibility.

  1. An Epidemiological Study of Psychiatric Disorders in Lorestan Province (Year 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad reza Mohammadi

    2004-01-01

    Findings: The results of the study showed that the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province was 19.05 percent, which was 23.81 percent in the women, and 14.29 percent in the men. The anxiety and mood disorders with 12.46 and 3.48 percent had the higher prevalence in the province respectively. The prevalence of psychotic disorders in this study was 1.48 percent, neuro-cognitive disorders were 1.47 percent and dissociative disorders 0.18 percent. In the group of mood disorders, major depression with 2.20 percent and in the group of anxiety disorders, generalized anxiety disorder with 5.68 percent had the higher prevalence. Conclusion: This study showed that 11.36 percent of individuals that studied suffered from minimum one of the psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the province among the individuals in the age group of 26-40 with 14.57 percent, divorced or separated individuals with 25 percent, residents of Khorramabad city 14.85 percent, higher educated individuals 19.51 percent and retired individuals 18.75 percent was more than other individuals in the sample. Being aware of this matter reveals the responsibility of the health policy makers and programmers, prevention, treatment and medical education more than before in relation to preparing application and executive plans in Lorestan province for mental health.

  2. Celiac Disease Is Associated with Childhood Psychiatric Disorders: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butwicka, Agnieszka; Lichtenstein, Paul; Frisén, Louise; Almqvist, Catarina; Larsson, Henrik; Ludvigsson, Jonas F

    2017-05-01

    To determine the risk of future childhood psychiatric disorders in celiac disease, assess the association between previous psychiatric disorders and celiac disease in children, and investigate the risk of childhood psychiatric disorders in siblings of celiac disease probands. This was a nationwide registry-based matched cohort study in Sweden with 10 903 children (aged celiac disease and 12 710 of their siblings. We assessed the risk of childhood psychiatric disorders (any psychiatric disorder, psychotic disorder, mood disorder, anxiety disorder, eating disorder, psychoactive substance misuse, behavioral disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], and intellectual disability). HRs of future psychiatric disorders in children with celiac disease and their siblings was estimated by Cox regression. The association between previous diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder and current celiac disease was assessed using logistic regression. Compared with the general population, children with celiac disease had a 1.4-fold greater risk of future psychiatric disorders. Childhood celiac disease was identified as a risk factor for mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, behavioral disorders, ADHD, ASD, and intellectual disability. In addition, a previous diagnosis of a mood, eating, or behavioral disorder was more common before the diagnosis of celiac disease. In contrast, siblings of celiac disease probands were at no increased risk of any of the investigated psychiatric disorders. Children with celiac disease are at increased risk for most psychiatric disorders, apparently owing to the biological and/or psychological effects of celiac disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychiatric comorbidities in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaipisuttikul, Papan; Ittasakul, Pichai; Waleeprakhon, Punjaporn; Wisajun, Pattarabhorn; Jullagate, Sudawan

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities are common in major depressive disorder (MDD). They may worsen outcome and cause economic burden. The primary objective was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in MDD. The secondary objectives were to compare the presence of comorbidities between currently active and past MDD, and between patients with and without suicidal risk. This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 250 patients with lifetime MDD and age ≥18 years were enrolled. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), Thai version, was used to confirm MDD diagnosis and classify comorbidities. MDD diagnosis was confirmed in 190, and 60 patients were excluded due to diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Of the 190 MDD patients, 25.8% had current MDD and 74.2% had past MDD. Eighty percent were women. The mean age at enrollment was 50 years, and at MDD onset was 41 years. Most patients were married (53.2%), employed (54.8%), and had ≥12 years of education (66.9%). There were 67 patients (35.3%) with one or more psychiatric comorbidities. Comorbidities included dysthymia (19.5%), any anxiety disorders (21.1%) (panic disorder [6.8%], agoraphobia [5.8%], social phobia [3.7%], obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD] [4.7%], generalized anxiety disorder [5.3%], and post-traumatic stress disorder [4.2%]), alcohol dependence (0.5%), psychotic disorder (1.6%), antisocial personality (1.1%), and eating disorders (0%). Compared with past MDD, the current MDD group had significantly higher OCD (Panxiety disorder of any type (P=0.019) and psychotic disorder (P=0.032). Several comorbidities were associated with MDD. Patients with active MDD had higher comorbid OCD, psychotic disorder, past panic disorder, and suicidal risk. Patients with suicide risk had higher comorbid anxiety and psychotic disorders.

  4. Signs of bruxism and temporomandibular disorders among psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winocur, Ephraim; Hermesh, Hagay; Littner, Dan; Shiloh, Roni; Peleg, Liat; Eli, Ilana

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of bruxism and signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) among psychiatric patients compared with a healthy population and to assess the effect of psychiatric medications on the parameters studied. Subjects included 77 psychiatric patients under treatment at 2 psychiatric hospitals in Israel and 50 healthy individuals (control). One experienced calibrated examiner performed the clinical examination (presence of bruxism and signs of TMD). Abnormal attrition was evident in 46.8% of the psychiatric patients compared with 20% in the controls (P prevalence of joint clicks and no association between time of receiving treatment with dopamine antagonists (or any other psychotropic drugs) and TMD signs and symptoms. The higher prevalence of bruxism and signs of TMD in psychiatric patients is a major clinical comorbidity. Whether it is a manifestation of the abnormal central nervous system of psychiatric patients or neuroleptic-induced phenomenon deserves further attention. The exact factors that affect the pain experience in these patients should be evaluated as well.

  5. National-scale precision medicine for psychiatric disorders in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Sarah E; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2017-07-07

    Since psychiatric disorders have genetic architectures dominated by common variants of small effects, successful elucidation in psychiatric genetics necessitates large sample sizes. Collaboration and unconventional ascertainment methods are required to fulfill this need. Electronic health records have been increasingly seen as holding great potential for research, although they often pose substantial technical, legal and ethical challenges. Universal health care and national-scale registers with comprehensive medical, developmental, demographic, and geographic information make the Nordic countries ideal for psychiatric genetic epidemiology. The Genomic Aggregation Project in Sweden is gathering genetic data from subjects with and without complex genetic diseases in a single location for standardized processing and use in a wide variety of scientific investigations. Thirty groups with >160 K genotyped samples have joined GAPS. Although GAPS is general across medicine, many psychiatric disorders are represented within GAPS, and initial studies will focus on major depressive disorder. Through in-depth genetic investigations, the genes and pathways that will be identified can be leveraged for predictive and drug-development purposes. Sweden offers exceptional possibilities for psychiatric genetics, and GAPS aims to harness the wealth of available information for research to improve human health. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Psychiatric literacy and the personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Winceslaus, Julian

    2012-01-01

    This study was concerned with investigating the mental health literacy of lay people in regard to the personality disorders. 223 participants responded to a questionnaire entitled 'eccentric people' which contained vignettes of 10 personality disorders which they rated as well as labelled. Lay people recognize people with personality disorders as being unhappy, unsuccessful at work and as having poor personal relationships, but do not associate these problems with psychological causes. Rates of correct labelling were under 7% for 7/10 personality disorders. Cluster A (apart from paranoid) was commonly labelled as depression or as an autism spectrum disorder. Clusters B and C (apart from obsessive-compulsive) were commonly labelled as 'low self-esteem'. History of psychological education and illness were positively correlated with correct recognition of 70 and 60% of the personality disorders, respectively. The mental health literacy of lay people in regard to the personality disorders is low. This raises concerns for health-seeking behaviour and diagnosis, as well as stigma and social neglect of people living with personality disorders. The question of cultural influences on the manifestation, diagnosis and recognition of mental illnesses, and the personality disorders in particular, is discussed. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Psychiatric disorders and general medical conditions: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with severe mental illness have higher than expected prevalence rates of co-morbid general medical conditions, particularly metabolic and cardiovascular disease. They are also at increased risk of contracting HIV. Conversely, these and other medical disorders also increase the risk of developing mental disorders.

  8. Psychiatric disorders and general medical conditions: implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is also happening in psychiatry, where some specialists now only see and treat patients with particular diseases, such as bipolar disorder. Whereas it is understandable that this is happening ... primary treating physician to patients with mental illness. In this paper ... patients with eating disorders and substance abuse.

  9. Adult Autism Spectrum Disorders and its Psychiatric Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in children, the autism spectrum disorders (ASD in adults have not been so extensively studied, with consequent difficulties in diagnosis and management in adulthood, especially in the presence of psychiatric comorbidity. The authors have made a selective review of literature, focusing on ASD definition, its epidemiology, diagnosis and factors that may influence its outcome. The main psychiatric comorbidities in adults will also be focused, as well as its impact in the clinical presentation of psychiatric disorders. Despite the tendency for a progressive symptomatic improvement in adulthood, ASD affect patients during their whole life. Furthermore, it is estimated that they affect a considerable number of patients, making even more relevant a thorough knowledge of these pathologies.

  10. Adult Autism Spectrum Disorders and its Psychiatric Comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ramos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in children, the autism spectrum disorders (ASD in adults have not been so extensively studied, with consequent difficulties in diagnosis and management in adulthood, especially in the presence of psychiatric comorbidity. The authors have made a selective review of literature, focusing on ASD definition, its epidemiology, diagnosis and factors that may influence its outcome. The main psychiatric comorbidities in adults will also be focused, as well as its impact in the clinical presentation of psychiatric disorders. Despite the tendency for a progressive symptomatic improvement in adulthood, ASD affect patients during their whole life. Furthermore, it is estimated that they affect a considerable number of patients, making even more relevant a thorough knowledge of these pathologies.

  11. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Patients from the Addictive Disorders Assistance Units of Galicia: The COPSIAD Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereiro, César; Pino, Carlos; Flórez, Gerardo; Arrojo, Manuel; Becoña, Elisardo

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in patients under treatment within the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia (Spain). Material and Methods A total of 64 healthcare professionals performed clinical diagnosis of mental disorders (on DSM IV-TR criteria) in 2300 patients treated throughout March 2010 in 21 addictive disorders assistance units. Results 56.3% of patients with substance abuse/dependency also showed some other mental disorder, 42.2% of patients suffering from at least an Axis I condition and 20.2% from some Axis II condition. Mood and anxiety disorders and borderline and antisocial personality disorders were the most frequent disorders in both axes. Conclusions A high comorbidity was found between mental and substance use disorders (SUD) in patients seen at the addictive disorders assistance units of Galicia. PMID:23823135

  12. Virtual Reality Objectifies the Diagnosis of Psychiatric Disorders: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine J. van Bennekom

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo date, a diagnosis in psychiatry is largely based on a clinical interview and questionnaires. The retrospective and subjective nature of these methods leads to recall and interviewer biases. Therefore, there is a clear need for more objective and standardized assessment methods to support the diagnostic process. The introduction of virtual reality (VR creates the possibility to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, VR could contribute to the objectivity and reliability in the assessment of psychiatric disorders.ObjectiveIn this literature review, we will evaluate the assessment of psychiatric disorders by means of VR environments. First, we investigate if these VR environments are capable of simultaneously provoking and measuring psychiatric symptoms. Next, we compare these measures with traditional diagnostic measures.MethodsWe performed a systematic search using PubMed, Embase, and Psycinfo; references of selected articles were checked for eligibility. We identified studies from 1990 to 2016 on VR used in the assessment of psychiatric disorders. Studies were excluded if VR was used for therapeutic purposes, if a different technique was used, or in case of limitation to a non-clinical sample.ResultsA total of 39 studies were included for further analysis. The disorders most frequently studied included schizophrenia (n = 15, developmental disorders (n = 12, eating disorders (n = 3, and anxiety disorders (n = 6. In attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the most comprehensive measurement was used including several key symptoms of the disorder. Most of the studies, however, concerned the use of VR to assess a single aspect of a psychiatric disorder.DiscussionIn general, nearly all VR environments studied were able to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, in 14 studies, significant correlations were found between VR measures and traditional diagnostic

  13. Genomewide association studies: history, rationale, and prospects for psychiatric disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Cichon, S.; Craddock, N.; Daly, M.; Faraone, S.V.; Gejman, P.V.; Kelsoe, J.; Lehner, T.; Levinson, D.F.; Moran, A.; Sklar, P.; Sullivan, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors conducted a review of the history and empirical basis of genomewide association studies (GWAS), the rationale for GWAS of psychiatric disorders, results to date, limitations, and plans for GWAS meta-analyses. METHOD: A literature review was carried out, power and other issues

  14. Psychiatric Disorders in Detained Male Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colins, Olivier; Vermeiren, Robert; Vreugdenhil, Coby; van den Brink, Wim; Doreleijers, Theo; Broekaert, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To provide a best estimate of the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among detained male adolescents, with particular emphasis on impairment, multi-informant assessment, and race or ethnicity. Method: Computer-assisted searches were executed to identify relevant studies. Results: Fifteen

  15. Body Awareness in Preschool Children with Psychiatric Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, J.; Leitschuh, C.; Raymaekers, A.; Vandenbussche, I.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the body awareness of preschool children with a psychiatric disorder as measured by the test imitation of gestures (Berges & Lezine, 1978), using the subsections for pointing to body parts (passive vocabulary) and naming body parts (active vocabulary). Seventy-seven children from 37 to 72 months of age…

  16. Earning and learning among Australian community residents with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, Geoff; Chant, David; Lloyd, Chris; Harris, Meredith

    2011-03-30

    At a population level the extent that psychiatric disorders and other health conditions disrupt participation in education and employment is rarely considered simultaneously and remains largely unknown. This is an important issue because policy makers are as concerned with educational attainment, school to work transitions, and workforce skills, as they are with overall labour force participation. We investigated earning or learning, and educational attainment, among Australian community residents by age group and by category of psychiatric disorder. Data files were provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) from a population survey conducted in 2003 using a multi-stage probability sample (N=23,787). Adults with schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety disorders were compared to (1) working age adults with other non-psychiatric health conditions and disabilities; and (2) healthy adults of working age. Participation in formal education and employment was extensively disrupted by all health conditions and by psychiatric disorders in particular. The extent of career-related disruption provides benchmarks for policy makers and service providers attempting to increase participation in formal education and in the labour force. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychiatric disorders among war-abducted and non-abducted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective:We aimed to assess the nature and patterns of psychiatric disorders among adolescents who had been war-abducted in the war in northern Uganda, compared to non-abducted adolescents living in Gulu district, Uganda.Method: A cros sectional study that used an unmatched case-control design compared 82 ...

  18. [Treatment of sleep disorders in children with a psychiatric diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Health sciences suffer from insomnia: experts too often concentrate their efforts on the wake state. Fortunately enough, some of them have taken the road towards the "Dark Third of Life": sleep. This article gives an historical account of the development of the first Canadian sleep disorders laboratory and clinic specifically and selectively designed for children and adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis. It then stresses the importance of sleep in children bearing a psychiatric diagnosis and summarizes therapeutic strategies. Data-on-file and selective review of literature. An innovative scheme matching sleep psychologists and psychiatrists with expertise in neurodevelopmental disorders led to the creation of a sleep research laboratory on mental health disorders. The initial research projects on the sleep and dreams of patients with schizophrenia and persons with autism are summarized. The Sleep Disorders Clinic for Children and Adolescents was then created at the Hôpital Rivière-des-Prairies, leading to much needed activities focused on youth. Indeed, sleep disorders show a high prevalence in children with a psychiatric diagnosis and the literature shows that these children have an increased sensitivity for diurnal effects of poor sleep. The main sleep-relevant issues at stake are reviewed, including the high frequency of sleep disorders in pedopsychiatric patients. Clinical challenges are described and the operating mode of the Sleep Disorders Clinic is illustrated. Sleep disorders and their effects on daytime functioning need to be assessed in children with a psychiatric diagnosis in order to generate a full clinical picture. Appropriate tools and know-how are readily available in order to achieve this goal.

  19. Psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Dandu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Alcohol dependence is on rise world over, especially in developing countries such as India. According to the World Health Organization, about 30% of Indians consume alcohol, out of which 4%–13% are daily consumers and up to 50% of them, fall under the category of hazardous drinking. Another worrying trend from India is that the average age of initiation of alcohol use has reduced from 28 years during the 1980s to 17 years in 2007. In India, alcohol abuse also amounts to huge annual losses due to alcohol-related problems in workplaces. This was a cross-sectional, noninterventional study which was carried out at the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Venkateswara Ramnaraian Ruia Government General Hospital (SVRRGGH, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and nature of psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol-related disorders (ARDs. Methods: Study design - Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Study setting - Psychiatry Department of SVRRGGH, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati. Study period - October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015. Study units - the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry, with a diagnosis of ARDs. After the ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry with a diagnosis of ARDs according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders constitute the population for the investigation. After obtaining written informed consent from each of the concerned subjects, demographic details and history of psychiatric illness were noted as per the structured pro forma. Results: The age of the alcohol-dependent men and spouses of men with ADS ranged from 23 to 67 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 41.24 ± 10.101 and 21–60 years (mean ± SD 35.04 ± 8.98, respectively. Among the study population, 36.6% of

  20. Psychiatric disorders: The psychiatrist's contribution to sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Alan; Johnston, Allan

    2016-12-01

    Athletes experience a range of mental health problems with at least an equivalent prevalence to the general population. This chapter explores the psychiatrist's role in sport, along a pathway of mental healthcare from 'upstream' prevention, screening, and early detection of mental stress to 'downstream' assessment, treatment, rehabilitation, and recovery from mental illness. At each stage on this pathway the psychiatrist has a broad spectrum of bio-psycho-social strategies to employ in clinical practice. Upstream, the importance of psychological resilience is described along with the concept of mental 'pre-habilitation' (a term usually associated with the prevention of physical injury). Alongside these preventative measures, early detection is improved by education, increased awareness, and by the use of effective mental health screening measures. Further downstream ready access to psychiatric expertise and good collaboration between the psychiatrist and the world of sport improve access to treatment, delivery of that treatment, rehabilitation, and return to sport during recovery.

  1. Psychiatric disorders in the parents of individuals with infantile autism: a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2007-01-01

    The rates and types of psychiatric disorders were studied in the parents of individuals with infantile autism (IA).......The rates and types of psychiatric disorders were studied in the parents of individuals with infantile autism (IA)....

  2. The risk of psychiatric disorders in individuals born prematurely in Denmark from 1974 to 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, René; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Forman, Julie Lyng

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the risk of developing psychiatric disorders in individuals born prematurely (born before 37 weeks of gestation).......To investigate the risk of developing psychiatric disorders in individuals born prematurely (born before 37 weeks of gestation)....

  3. Sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of psychiatric disorders in Turkish pilgrims attended to psychiatry outpatient clinics during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şakir Özen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The psychiatric problems of pilgrims fromnon-Arabic speaking countries have not been investigatedsufficiently. The aim of this study was to investigate thefrequency of psychiatric disorders and socio-demographiccharacteristics of Turkish pilgrims in psychiatry departmentof Turkish Mecca Hospital.Methods: A detailed psychiatric interview was performedon 294 Turkish Pilgrims who attended the outpatient clinicof the psychiatric unit at the Turkish hospital in Mecca,Saudi Arabia, during 2008 Hajj period. Information wascollected by using a semi-structured form and the patients’diagnoses were done according to the DSM-IV-TRcriteria.Results: The study group consisted of 175 women (59.5% and 119 men (40.5 % with the mean age of 53.0±13years. A total of 71 % patients had not traveled abroadpreviously, and 60% had received a former psychiatrictreatment. The commonest disorders were found asdepression (26.5%, adjustment disorder with anxiety(16.3% and panic disorder (14% in the patients. Anxietydisorders alone or co-morbid with any other psychiatricdisorder were found in 49% of the patients. Nine percentof the patients had symptoms of acute psychosis, schizophrenia,dementia or mania which could prevent pilgrimsfrom performing Hajj rituals. Suicide attempt, alcohol andillicit drug use were not detected.Conclusions: Previous psychiatric admission and absenceof any foreign travel experience were commonamong Turkish pilgrims who had sought psychiatric helpduring the Hajj. Psychiatric disorders seems to be relatedwith older age, low educational level, and having previousmedical and psychiatric problems.

  4. Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph E.; Strauss, John; Strohmaier, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Findings from family and twin studies suggest that genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders do not in all cases map to present diagnostic categories. We aimed to identify specific variants underlying genetic effects shared between the five disorders in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium......: autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia....

  5. Marriage and other psychological stressors in the causation of psychiatric disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. I. Mullick

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the specific psychiatric diagnosis, frequency, and types of stressors, and the level of awareness about marriage law between married (cases; n=80 and unmarried girls (control; n=80 with one or more psychiatric disorders below the age of 18 years. The psychiatric diseases were diagnosed according to Axis One of ICD-10 clinical diagnoses of multi-axial classification of childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorder. Psychosocial stressors were considered on the basis of Axis Five of this classification. Of the cases, major depressive disorder was the highest (n=47 and next was a dissociative (conversion disorder (n=24. Among the controls, generalized anxiety disorder (n=31 was the most prevalent followed by obsessive-compulsive disorder (n=17. The difference was highly significant (p>0.001. The cases reported a significant excess of psychosocial stressors than that of the controls to the onset of the psychiatric disorder. All the cases had associated stressors. In contrast, 77 out of 80 control patients had stressors. Marriage itself played as a stressor in the 78 cases. Beside this, other highly frequent stressors were marital discord followed by drop out from study and trouble with in-laws. Among the controls, the highest reported stressor was increased academic workload and next two commonest stressors were poor academic performance and discord with peers. Interestingly, 52.5% of the cases were having knowledge about the law on the age of marriage and that was 32.5% among the controls. It was significant that most of the girls breached their continuity of education after marriage (p>0.001. In conclusion, psychosocial stressors including marriage have a causal relationship with depressive and conversion disorder

  6. Adolescents with personality disorders suffer from severe psychiatric stigma: evidence from a sample of 131 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catthoor K

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten Catthoor,1,3 Dine J Feenstra,2 Joost Hutsebaut,2 Didier Schrijvers,3 Bernard Sabbe3 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatrisch Ziekenhuis Stuivenberg, ZNA Antwerpen, Antwerp, Belgium; 2Viersprong Institute for Studies on Personality Disorders, Halsteren, the Netherlands; 3Collaborative Antwerp Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium Background: The aim of the study is to assess the severity of psychiatric stigma in a sample of personality disordered adolescents in order to evaluate whether differences in stigma can be found in adolescents with different types and severity of personality disorders (PDs. Not only adults but children and adolescents with mental health problems suffer from psychiatric stigma. In contrast to the abundance of research in adult psychiatric samples, stigma in children and adolescents has hardly been investigated. Personality disordered adolescents with fragile identities and self-esteem might be especially prone to feeling stigmatized, an experience which might further shape their identity throughout this critical developmental phase. Materials and methods: One hundred thirty-one adolescent patients underwent a standard assessment with Axis I and Axis II diagnostic interviews and two stigma instruments, Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ and Perceived Devaluation–Discrimination Questionnaire (PDDQ. Independent sample t-tests were used to investigate differences in the mean SCQ and PDDQ total scores for patients with and without a PD. Multiple regression main effect analyses were conducted to explore the impact of the different PDs on level of stigma, as well as comorbid Axis I disorders. Age and sex were also entered in the regression models. Results and conclusions: Adolescents with severe mental health problems experience a burden of stigma. Personality disordered patients experience more stigma than adolescents with other severe psychiatric Axis I disorders. Borderline PD

  7. The Energy Metabolism Dysfunction in Psychiatric Disorders Postmortem Brains: Focus on Proteomic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana S. Zuccoli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders represent a great medical and social challenge and people suffering from these conditions face many impairments regarding personal and professional life. In addition, a mental disorder will manifest itself in approximately one quarter of the world's population at some period of their life. Dysfunction in energy metabolism is one of the most consistent scientific findings associated with these disorders. With this is mind, this review compiled data on disturbances in energy metabolism found by proteomic analyses of postmortem brains collected from patients affected by the most prevalent psychiatric disorders: schizophrenia (SCZ, bipolar disorder (BPD, and major depressive disorder (MDD. We searched in the PubMed database to gather the studies and compiled all the differentially expressed proteins reported in each work. SCZ studies revealed 92 differentially expressed proteins related to energy metabolism, while 95 proteins were discovered in BPD, and 41 proteins in MDD. With the compiled data, it was possible to determine which proteins related to energy metabolism were found to be altered in all the disorders as well as which ones were altered exclusively in one of them. In conclusion, the information gathered in this work could contribute to a better understanding of the impaired metabolic mechanisms and hopefully bring insights into the underlying neuropathology of psychiatric disorders.

  8. Genomewide association studies: history, rationale, and prospects for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichon, Sven; Craddock, Nick; Daly, Mark; Faraone, Stephen V; Gejman, Pablo V; Kelsoe, John; Lehner, Thomas; Levinson, Douglas F; Moran, Audra; Sklar, Pamela; Sullivan, Patrick F

    2009-05-01

    The authors conducted a review of the history and empirical basis of genomewide association studies (GWAS), the rationale for GWAS of psychiatric disorders, results to date, limitations, and plans for GWAS meta-analyses. A literature review was carried out, power and other issues discussed, and planned studies assessed. Most of the genomic DNA sequence differences between any two people are common (frequency >5%) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Because of localized patterns of correlation (linkage disequilibrium), 500,000 to 1,000,000 of these SNPs can test the hypothesis that one or more common variants explain part of the genetic risk for a disease. GWAS technologies can also detect some of the copy number variants (deletions and duplications) in the genome. Systematic study of rare variants will require large-scale resequencing analyses. GWAS methods have detected a remarkable number of robust genetic associations for dozens of common diseases and traits, leading to new pathophysiological hypotheses, although only small proportions of genetic variance have been explained thus far and therapeutic applications will require substantial further effort. Study design issues, power, and limitations are discussed. For psychiatric disorders, there are initial significant findings for common SNPs and for rare copy number variants, and many other studies are in progress. GWAS of large samples have detected associations of common SNPs and of rare copy number variants with psychiatric disorders. More findings are likely, since larger GWAS samples detect larger numbers of common susceptibility variants, with smaller effects. The Psychiatric GWAS Consortium is conducting GWAS meta-analyses for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Based on results for other diseases, larger samples will be required. The contribution of GWAS will depend on the true genetic architecture of each disorder.

  9. Mental Disorders among Children and Adolescents Admitted to a French Psychiatric Emergency Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Boyer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of children and adolescents admitted to the psychiatric emergency department (ED of a French public teaching hospital over a six-year study period (2001–2006. Data for all episodes of care in the psychiatric ED from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2006, delivered to adolescents aged less than 18 years were retrospectively analyzed. During the six-year study period, 335 episodes of care in the psychiatric ED were experienced by 264 different adolescents. They accounted for 2.0% of the 16,754 care episodes of the ED; 164 patients (62.1 were female and the average age was 16.5 (SD = 1.6. The neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders were the most frequent (25.4% and concerned mainly anxiety disorders (15.2%. The frequency of the absence of psychiatric diagnosis (22.7% was high. A total of 48 children and adolescents (18.2% benefited from more than one episode of care. Several factors were associated to a higher number of visits to the ED: substance use, schizophrenia, disorders of adult personality and behaviour, disorders occurring in childhood and adolescence, and dual diagnosis. In conclusion, mental health disorders in children and adolescents are a serious problem associated with several potentially modifiable factors.

  10. Study of psychiatric disorders among fertile and infertile women and some predisposing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Noorbala

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine prevalence and predisposing factors of psychiatric disorders among infertile in comparison to fertile women. Materials and Methods:  By a descriptive- analytic study in Vali-e-asr Reproductive Health Research Center, 300 women entered the research.   Symptom Checklist -90 -Revised (SCL-90-R test and structured researcher questionnaires were applied for all patients. Demographic characteristics and predisposing psychological and personality factors were recorded and psychological symptoms were scaled. For data analysis, SPSS-11-5 software system, chi-square and T-test were used.  P-value <0.05 was considered significant.Results: Results showed that 44% of infertile and 28.7% of fertile women had psychiatric disorders. Using SCL-90-R test, the highest mean scores among infertile women were found for paranoid ideation, depression and interpersonal sensitivity scales and the lowest scores were related to psychoticism and phobic anxiety scales. Interpersonal sensitivity, depression, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideas and psychoticism scales were significantly different between infertile and fertile women (p<0.05. Housewives were at a statistically significant higher risk for psychiatric disorders as compared to working women (p<0.001. Conclusion: The significantly higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders among infertile women mandates a more serious attention from gynecologists, psychiatrists and psychologists regarding to diagnosis and treatment of these disorders.

  11. The role of adult neurogenesis in psychiatric and cognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, Deana M; Fonseca, Rene Solano; Kokovay, Erzsebet

    2017-01-15

    Neurogenesis in mammals occurs throughout life in two brain regions: the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Development and regulation of the V-SVZ and SGZ is unique to each brain region, but with several similar characteristics. Alterations to the production of new neurons in neurogenic regions have been linked to psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Decline in neurogenesis in the SGZ correlates with affective and psychiatric disorders, and can be reversed by antidepressant and antipsychotic drugs. Likewise, neurogenesis in the V-SVZ can also be enhanced by antidepressant drugs. The regulation of neurogenesis by neurotransmitters, particularly monoamines, in both regions suggests that aberrant neurotransmitter signaling observed in psychiatric disease may play a role in the pathology of these mental health disorders. Similarly, the cognitive deficits that accompany neurodegenerative disease may also be exacerbated by decreased neurogenesis. This review explores the regulation and function of neural stem cells in rodents and humans, and the involvement of factors that contribute to psychiatric and cognitive deficits. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:StemsCellsinPsychiatry. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Psychiatric disorders and their effects on mortality and morbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckel, G

    2014-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders themselves--and not only the known psychotropic agents--lead to enhanced psychic and somatic morbidity, and not only as a so-called psychic reaction. Psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia are diseases with a high prevalence and incidence in most countries, and they are life-threatening because they induce--besides suicidality--also many somatic diseases such as coronary arte- riosclerotic syndrome and diabetes. As a result, they have an--often indirect--effect on mortality. In the future, studies should give greater attention to the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. True "psychosomatic medicine" consists of determining the combined biological effect of psychic and somatic factors and their interactions in greater detail.

  13. Exposure to violence: associations with psychiatric disorders in Brazilian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Thiago M; Sanchez, Zila M; Caetano, Sheila C; Andreoni, Solange; Sanudo, Adriana; Chen, Qixuan; Martins, Sílvia S

    2018-02-15

    The effects of exposure to violent events in adolescence have not been sufficiently studied in middle-income countries such as Brazil. The aims of this study are to investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among 12-year-olds in two neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status (SES) levels in São Paulo and to examine the influence of previous violent events and SES on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Students from nine public schools in two neighborhoods of São Paulo were recruited. Students and parents answered questions about demographic characteristics, SES, urbanicity and violent experiences. All participants completed the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) to obtain DSM-IV diagnoses. The data were analyzed using weighted logistic regression with neighborhood stratification after adjusting for neighborhood characteristics, gender, SES and previous traumatic events. The sample included 180 individuals, of whom 61.3% were from low SES and 39.3% had experienced a traumatic event. The weighted prevalence of psychiatric disorders was 21.7%. Having experienced a traumatic event and having low SES were associated with having an internalizing (adjusted OR = 5.46; 2.17-13.74) or externalizing disorder (adjusted OR = 4.33; 1.85-10.15). Investment in reducing SES inequalities and preventing violent events during childhood may improve the mental health of youths from low SES backgrounds.

  14. Resilience: A psychobiological construct for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Desousa, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of psychopathology of mental disorder is evolving, particularly with availability of newer insight from the field of genetics, epigenetics, social, and environmental pathology. It is now becoming clear how biological factors are contributing to development of an illness in the face of a number of psychosocial factors. Resilience is a psychobiological factor which determines individual's response to adverse life events. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stressful/traumatic events and manage to revert to a positive state. It is fundamental for growth of positive psychology which deals with satisfaction, adaptability, contentment, and optimism in people's life. Of late, there has been a paradigm shift in the understanding of resilience in context of stress risk vulnerability dimension. It is a neurobiological construct with significant neurobehavioral and emotional features which plays important role in deconstructing mechanism of biopsychosocial model of mental disorders. Resilience is a protective factor against development of mental disorder and a risk factor for a number of clinical conditions, e.g. suicide. Available information from scientific studies points out that resilience is modifiable factor which opens up avenues for a number of newer psychosocial as well as biological therapies. Early identification of vulnerable candidates and effectiveness of resilience-based intervention may offer more clarity in possibility of prevention. Future research may be crucial for preventive psychiatry. In this study, we aim to examine whether resilience is a psychopathological construct for mental disorder.

  15. Mitochondrial mutations and polymorphisms in psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Sequeira (Vasco); M.V. Martin (Maureen); S.M. Rollins; E.A. Moon (Emily); W.E. Bunney (William E); F. MacCiardi (Fabio); S. Lupoli (Sara); G.D. Smith; J. Kelsoe (John); C.N. Magnan (Christophe); M. van Oven (Mannis); P. Baldi (Pierre); D.C. Wallace; M.P. Vawter (Marquis)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractMitochondrial deficiencies with unknown causes have been observed in schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) in imaging and postmortem studies. Polymorphisms and somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were investigated as potential causes with next generation sequencing of

  16. Resilience: A psychobiological construct for psychiatric disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Desousa, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of psychopathology of mental disorder is evolving, particularly with availability of newer insight from the field of genetics, epigenetics, social, and environmental pathology. It is now becoming clear how biological factors are contributing to development of an illness in the face of a number of psychosocial factors. Resilience is a psychobiological factor which determines individual's response to adverse life events. Resilience is a human capacity to adapt swiftly and successfully to stressful/traumatic events and manage to revert to a positive state. It is fundamental for growth of positive psychology which deals with satisfaction, adaptability, contentment, and optimism in people's life. Of late, there has been a paradigm shift in the understanding of resilience in context of stress risk vulnerability dimension. It is a neurobiological construct with significant neurobehavioral and emotional features which plays important role in deconstructing mechanism of biopsychosocial model of mental disorders. Resilience is a protective factor against development of mental disorder and a risk factor for a number of clinical conditions, e.g. suicide. Available information from scientific studies points out that resilience is modifiable factor which opens up avenues for a number of newer psychosocial as well as biological therapies. Early identification of vulnerable candidates and effectiveness of resilience-based intervention may offer more clarity in possibility of prevention. Future research may be crucial for preventive psychiatry. In this study, we aim to examine whether resilience is a psychopathological construct for mental disorder. PMID:26985103

  17. Onset of Maternal Psychiatric Disorders after the Birth of a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairthorne, Jenny; Jacoby, Peter; Bourke, Jenny; de Klerk, Nick; Leonard, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mothers of a child with autism spectrum disorder have more psychiatric disorders after the birth of their child. This might be because they have more psychiatric disorders before the birth, or the increase could be related to the burden of caring for their child. Aims: We aimed to calculate the incidence of a psychiatric diagnosis in…

  18. Child and adolescent psychiatric disorders predicting adult personality disorder: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramklint, Mia; von Knorring, Anne-Liis; von Knorring, Lars; Ekselius, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between childhood and adolescent psychiatric disorders and adult personality disorders in a group of former child psychiatric inpatients. One hundred and fifty-eight former inpatients with a mean age of 30.5 +/- 7.1 years at investigation had their childhood and adolescent Axis I disorders, obtained from their medical records, coded into DSM-IV diagnoses. Personality disorders in adulthood were assessed by means of the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire (DIP-Q). The predictive effects of child and adolescent Axis I disorders on adult personality disorders were examined with logistic regression analyses. The odds of adult schizoid, avoidant, dependent,borderline and schizotypal personality disorders increased by almost 10, five, four, three and three times, respectively, given a prior major depressive disorder. Those effects were independent of age, sex and other Axis I disorders. In addition, the odds of adult narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders increased by more than six and five times, respectively, given a prior disruptive disorder, and the odds of adult borderline, schizotypal, avoidant and paranoid personality disorders increased between two and three times given a prior sub-stance-related disorder. The results illustrate an association between mental disorders in childhood and adolescence and adult personality disorders. Identification and successful treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders may help to reduce the risk for subsequent development of an adult personality disorder.

  19. Psychiatric Disorders Among Patients Seeking Treatment for Co-Occurring Chronic Pain and Opioid Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Cutter, Christopher J; Beitel, Mark; Kerns, Robert D; Liong, Christopher; Schottenfeld, Richard S

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities complicate treatment of patients with chronic pain and opioid use disorder, but the prevalence of specific comorbid psychiatric disorders in this population has not been systematically investigated. 170 consecutive participants entering a treatment research program for co-occurring chronic pain and opioid use disorder between March 2009 and July 2013 were evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I/P) and the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (DIPD-IV). The prevalence of any lifetime (and current) comorbid Axis I disorder was 91% (75%); 52% met criteria for lifetime anxiety disorder (48% current), 57% for lifetime mood disorder (48% current), and 78% for lifetime nonopioid substance use disorder (34% current). Common current anxiety diagnoses were posttraumatic stress disorder (21%), generalized anxiety disorder (16%), and panic disorder without agoraphobia (16%). Common current mood diagnoses were major depressive disorder (40%) and dysthymia (11%). A majority of patients had a personality disorder (52%). High rates and persistence of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, including anxiety or mood disorders, may explain in part the difficulty providers have treating patients with co-occurring opioid use disorder and chronic pain and suggest possible targets for improving treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: buprenorphine/naloxone treatment (NCT00634803), opioid treatment program-based methadone maintenance treatment (NCT00727675).

  20. [Cannabis-induced cognitive and psychiatric disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervaux, Alain; Krebs, Marie-Odile; Laqueille, Xavier

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have shown that Δ-9-THC the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, can impair cognitive functions, especially attention, episodic memory, working memory and executive functions. These impairments have been related to the duration, frequency, dose and age at onset of cannabis use. Cognitive deficits may disappear with abstinence, but abnormalities may be long-lasting in subjects who began smoking cannabis before age 15. The lifetime prevalence of cannabis use disorders is about 1% in the general population. The main characteristics of cannabis use disorders are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use, and persistent avoidance of familial, social occupational or recreational activities because of cannabis use. Nine prospective longitudinal studies in the generalpopulation have shown that cannabis use is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk of psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia, compared to controls. The risk of psychosis increases in a dose-related fashion. A higher risk of schizophrenia is predicted by earlier onset of cannabis use. The effects of cannabis are exerted primarily through THC interaction with cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptors in the brain. Cannabis exposure may disrupt the last steps of brain maturation, through the endocannabinoid system, thereby increasing the risk of psychosis during adolescence.

  1. Ethnic and gender differences in additive effects of socio-economics, psychiatric disorders, and subjective religiosity on suicidal ideation among blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Residual protective effect of subjective religiosity in the presence of psychiatric disorders on suicidal ideation among Blacks depends on ethnicity and gender. African-American men with multiple psychiatric disorders and low religiosity are at very high risk for suicidal ideation.

  2. The impact of comorbid psychiatric disorders on methadone maintenance treatment in opioid use disorder: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosic T

    2017-05-01

    , however, suggest that comorbid tranquilizer (β=20.781, P<0.001 and cocaine (β=6.344, P=0.031 use disorders are associated with increased rates of continuing opioid use. Conclusion: Results from our study may serve to guide future MMT guidelines. Specifically, we find that cocaine or tranquilizer use disorder, comorbid with OUD, places patients at high risk for poor MMT outcomes. Treatment centers may choose to gear more intensive therapy toward such populations. Keywords: opioid use disorder, methadone, substance abuse, comorbidity, psychiatric disorder

  3. Dopamine in socioecological and evolutionary perspectives: implications for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Lee, Young-A; Goto, Yukiori

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) transmission in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays important roles in cognitive and affective function. As such, DA deficits have been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accumulating evidence suggests that DA is also involved in social behavior of animals and humans. Although most animals organize and live in social groups, how the DA system functions in such social groups of animals, and its dysfunction causes compromises in the groups has remained less understood. Here we propose that alterations of DA signaling and associated genetic variants and behavioral phenotypes, which have been normally considered as "deficits" in investigation at an individual level, may not necessarily yield disadvantages, but even work advantageously, depending on social contexts in groups. This hypothesis could provide a novel insight into our understanding of the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders, and a potential explanation that disadvantageous phenotypes associated with DA deficits in psychiatric disorders have remained in humans through evolution.

  4. Dopamine in Socioecological and Evolutionary Perspectives: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders

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    Yoshie eYamaguchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA transmission in brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC and nucleus accumbens (NAcc plays important roles in cognitive and affective function. As such, DA deficits have been implicated in a number of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Accumulating evidence suggests that DA is also involved in social behavior of animals and humans. Although most animals organize and live in social groups, how the DA system functions in such social groups of animals, and its dysfunction causes compromises in the groups has remained less understood. Here we propose that alterations of DA signaling and associated genetic variants and behavioral phenotypes, which have been normally considered as deficits in investigation at an individual level, may not necessarily yield disadvantages, and even work advantageously, depending on social contexts in subjects with such DA alterations living in social groups. This hypothesis could provide a novel insight into our understanding of the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders, and a potential explanation that disadvantageous phenotypes associated with DA deficits in psychiatric disorders have remained in humans through evolution.

  5. Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Children with Autism: Interview Development and Rates of Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyfer, Ovsanna T.; Folstein, Susan E.; Bacalman, Susan; Davis, Naomi O.; Dinh, Elena; Morgan, Jubel; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2006-01-01

    The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia was modified for use in children and adolescents with autism by developing additional screening questions and coding options that reflect the presentation of psychiatric disorders in autism spectrum disorders. The modified instrument, the Autism Comorbidity Interview-Present and…

  6. Screening of alcohol use disorders in psychiatric outpatients: influence of gender, age, and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Autet, Mónica; Garriga, Marina; Zamora, Francisco Javier; González, Idilio; Usall, Judith; Tolosa, Leticia; Benítez, Concepción; Puertas, Raquel; Arranz, Belén

    2017-07-14

    Alcohol use disorders (AUD) are 2 times higher among psychiatric patients than in the general population. The under-recognition of this dual diagnosis can entail several negative outcomes. Early assessment with a screening tool like the CAGE questionnaire could be an opportunity to improve patients' prognoses. The objective of this study is to assess AUD risk in an outpatient psychiatric sample with a modified CAGE, considering the influence of age, gender and clinical psychiatric diagnosis. An observational, multicentric, descriptive study was carried out. The 4-item CAGE scale, camouflaged in a healthy lifestyle questionnaire, was implemented, using a cut-off point of one. 559 outpatients were assessed. 54% were female and the average age was 50.07 years. 182 patients presented a CAGE score ≥1 (45.1% of men and 21.9% of women). Gender was the strongest predictor of a positive result in CAGE, as men were 3.03 times more likely to score ≥1 on the CAGE questionnaire (p < .001, 95% CI: 0.22-0.49). Patients with bipolar and personality disorders had the highest rates of CAGE scores ≥1 (45.2 and 44.9%, respectively), with a significant association between diagnosis and a positive score (p = .002). Patients above 60 years were 2.5 times less likely to score ≥1 on the CAGE (p = .017, 95% CI: 0.19-0.85). Specific screening questionnaires, like the CAGE scale, can be an easy and useful tool in the assessment of AUD risk in psychiatric outpatients. Male patients with a bipolar or personality disorder present a higher risk of AUD.

  7. The influence of reduction mammaplasty on dermato-psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firat, Cemal; Erbatur, Serkan; Aytekin, Ahmet Hamdi

    2012-08-01

    Macromastia can cause psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, and decreases in self-esteem and self-confidence. These problems often externalize themselves on the skin, causing lesions characterized by various degrees of excoriations and lichenified plaques. Mammaplasty operations are very effective in the treatment of neurotic excoriations and similar skin lesions as well as any underlying psychiatric disorders. This study included 17 patients with macromastia and neurotic excoriation lesions who underwent psychiatric treatment for various reasons. Follow ups were performed using routine photographs used in breast surgeries. During the postoperative follow ups, the excoriations for nearly every patient healed within 2 weeks. Some lesions healed with atrophic scars and some with permanent hyperpigmentation. Patients' physical complaints, such as backache, shoulder ache and submammary pruritic dermatitis, were also observed to heal. In addition, the patients stated that they felt better psychologically, and most also reported stopping psychiatric treatment. The psychological problems caused by macromastia include neurotic excoriation and similar skin problems, and aesthetic reduction mammaplasty surgeries are very effective in the treatment of these lesions. Body image perception comprises an important part of self-respect and self-esteem, and psychological-status cosmetic surgery can be evaluated as an alternative to psychological treatment.

  8. Evolutionary Conservation in Genes Underlying Human Psychiatric Disorders

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    Lisa Michelle Ogawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many psychiatric diseases observed in humans have tenuous or absent analogs in other species. Most notable among these are schizophrenia and autism. One hypothesis has posited that these diseases have arisen as a consequence of human brain evolution, for example, that the same processes that led to advances in cognition, language, and executive function also resulted in novel diseases in humans when dysfunctional. Here, the molecular evolution of genes associated with these and other psychiatric disorders are compared among species. Genes associated with psychiatric disorders are drawn from the literature and orthologous sequences are collected from eleven primate species (human, chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, macaque, baboon, marmoset, squirrel monkey, and galago and thirty one non-primate mammalian species. Evolutionary parameters, including dN/dS, are calculated for each gene and compared between disease classes and among species, focusing on humans and primates compared to other mammals and on large-brained taxa (cetaceans, rhinoceros, walrus, bear, and elephant compared to their small-brained sister species. Evidence of differential selection in primates supports the hypothesis that schizophrenia and autism are a cost of higher brain function. Through this work a better understanding of the molecular evolution of the human brain, the pathophysiology of disease, and the genetic basis of human psychiatric disease is gained.

  9. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders among visitors to faith healers in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Alshehri, Youssef; Alfraih, Ibrahim; Alghamdi, Ayedh; Aldahash, Saleh; Alkhuzayem, Haifa; Albeeeshi, Haneen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among visitors to Faith Healers (FHs) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We also studied the sociodemographic profiles for these visitors, in addition to their past psychiatric history, reason(s) for seeking FH help, and past and current treatment experience with FHs. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among the visitors (n=321) to a number of faith healing settings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia using a specially designed questionnaire and validated Arabic version of The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: Most of the participants were young adults (35.1±10.8 years) and males with intermediate and secondary levels of education who had not sought medical help prior to their visits. A high proportion of the FH visitors have diagnosable mental illnesses. Depressive and anxiety disorders were the most prevalent among the study participants; few visitors were affected by psychotic or bipolar disorders. Conclusions: The present study provides insight for understanding the type of patients with psychiatric disorders who visit Faith Healers.(FHs). The study highlights the tendency of psychiatric patients in Saudi Arabia to visit FHs, which could reflect the importance of further studies to clarify the impact of FHs on the management of those patients. PMID:25225530

  10. [Obsessive-compulsive disorders in forensic-psychiatric opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocur, Józef; Trendak, Wiesława

    2009-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorders and disorders within their spectrum pose a serious diagnostic and therapeutic problem, as the symptoms that appear along with the disorders result from dysfunction of the emotional, motivational and cognitive sphere. The dysfunction is determined by complex genetic, neurochemical and neurophysiological factors. Exacerbation of the symptoms may weaken the control over the disturbed impulses and compulsions, which in turn may lead to violation of law. Therefore, a forensic-psychiatric evaluation in cases related to patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorders has to include very complex relations between the type and the circumstances of the committed act or the undertaken actions and the type and intensity of these disorders.

  11. Lab-on-a-Chip Proteomic Assays for Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Harald; Wienke, Julia; Guest, Paul C; Bistolas, Nikitas; Bier, Frank F

    2017-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip assays allow rapid identification of multiple parameters on an automated user-friendly platform. Here we describe a fully automated multiplex immunoassay and readout in less than 15 min using the Fraunhofer in vitro diagnostics (ivD) platform to enable inexpensive point-of-care profiling of sera or a single drop of blood from patients with various diseases such as psychiatric disorders.

  12. Violence, Burnout and Minor Psychiatric Disorders in Hospital Work

    OpenAIRE

    Daiane Dal Pai; Liana Lautert; Sônia Beatriz Cocaro de Souza; Maria Helena Palucci Marziale; Juliana Petri Tavares

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identifying the violence suffered by the health team workers and their association with Burnout and minor psychiatric disorders. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 269 health team professionals of a public hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected through the use of the Survey Questionnaire: Workplace Violence in the Health Sector, Maslach Inventory Burnout and Self-Report Questionnaire. RESULTS Workplace violence struck 63.2% of workers, prevailing mostly in women (p = 0.001...

  13. Huntington's disease: psychiatric issues of a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Raquel

    2006-01-01

    Huntington's Disease (HD) can be considered a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric disorder that has three components: motor, cognitive and behavioral symptoms. The author synthetizes research developed on epidemiology and etipathogeny of HD and makes reference to more usual symptoms, emphasizing psychiatric symptoms, often the first manifestation of HD. About a clinical case, the author points out rhe great phenotypic variability of this disease, reflects about ways to develop the knowledge of the ...

  14. The differential diagnosis of anxiety. Psychiatric and medical disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, O G

    1985-03-01

    This article has reviewed clinical and demographic features of the primary anxiety disorders and other psychiatric and medical disorders that often are associated with anxiety symptoms, highlighting differential diagnosis. In summary, phobic disorders (exogenous anxiety) are characterized by anxiety reliably elicited by specific environmental stimuli; the stimuli involved determine which type of phobia is diagnosed. In contrast, panic attacks and generalized anxiety (endogenous anxiety) involve symptoms of anxiety not associated only with specific eliciting stimuli. Panic disorder is differentiated from generalized anxiety disorder by the presence of discrete attacks; both disorders usually have some level of persistent anxiety. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by recurrent unwanted but irresistible thoughts and the ritualized repetitive acts resulting from these obsessions, in the absence of preexisting psychosis or depression. Finally, posttraumatic stress disorder involves various anxiety (and other) symptoms as a direct result of an obvious stressor. Depressive symptoms are frequently associated with anxiety. It is sometimes impossible to determine which is the primary disorder. Overlap of syndromes probably also occurs with other primary psychiatric disorders, especially somatoform disorders, adjustment disorder with anxious mood, and several personality disorders. Finally, primary anxiety can be confused with several medical syndromes, especially when the medical disorder has not been recognized. Nevertheless, research with patients with pheochromocytoma suggests that medical causes of anxiety may be qualitatively different from primary anxiety disorders, especially the psychic anxiety component. Attention to the clinical and demographic features listed in Table 4, as well as the use of newly-developed structured diagnostic interviews should usually lead to a correct diagnosis, as illustrated by the following examples. The onset of a fear of

  15. [Alcohol consumption in patients with psychiatric disorders: assessment and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J-P; Bonnewitz, M-L; Kusterer, M; Lalanne-Tongio, L

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol consumption in France exceeds the European average (12.7L of pure alcohol/habitant/year in 2009 for an average of 12.5 L). This consumption has a major professional, social and health impact on the individuals and their families. The cost of such, estimated in Europe to be of 155.8 billion Euros in 2010, is the highest among the central nervous system diseases in Europe, far higher than that of depression or dementia. Patients suffering from psychiatric disorders are more frequently affected by problems related to alcohol use than the general population. They are also more vulnerable to the immediate and subsequent consequences of their consumption. The alcohol related disorders that are often accompanied by risk taking and other addictive behaviour require a global assessment of the addiction, with and without substance, and of the complications. These have a strong impact on risk taking, compliance with care, and the morbidity of somatic and psychiatric disorders, as well as access to optimal care and the life span of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. The development of addictology care, with integrative treatment programs, is recommended in response to these public health issues. Nevertheless, specific addictology practices and partners with addictology care structures are still scarcely developed in psychiatry. Firstly, it would be necessary to set up such integrated treatments through the systematisation of an "addictology" checkup on admission, a global assessment of addictive behaviour and cognitive disorders, using pragmatic tools that are user-friendly for the care teams, maintain the reduction in risk taking, and apply prescriptions for addiction to psychotropic treatments, in liaison with the referring general practitioner. As early as possible, accompanied by specific training in addictology for the psychiatrists and the mental health nursing teams, such care could be enhanced by the development of liaison and advanced psychiatric

  16. Co-occurrence of binge eating disorder with psychiatric and medical disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, Kristin N; Pope, Harrison G; Lalonde, Justine K; Roberts, Jacqueline L; Nillni, Yael I; Laird, Nan M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Crow, Scott J; McElroy, Susan L; Walsh, B Timothy; Tsuang, Ming T; Rosenthal, Norman R; Hudson, James I

    2008-02-01

    Prior studies suggest that certain psychiatric and medical disorders co-occur with binge eating disorder (BED). However, there has been no large, community-based study with diagnoses made by clinician interviewers. We used data from that type of study to assess the co-occurrence of various psychiatric and medical disorders with DSM-IV BED and with subthreshold BED. From October 2002 to July 2004, we interviewed 150 probands with BED, 150 probands without BED, and 888 of their first-degree relatives (135 of whom had BED, and 54 of whom met specific partial criteria for BED that we defined as subthreshold BED). Study participants were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to assess BED and other psychiatric disorders and a supplemental structured interview to assess certain medical disorders; participants also completed a self-report questionnaire, the Bad Things Scale. For each psychiatric and medical disorder, we calculated the age- and sex-adjusted co-occurrence odds ratio: the odds of having that disorder in one's lifetime among individuals with (full or subthreshold) lifetime BED compared to individuals without lifetime BED. We also used subjects' responses to the Bad Things Scale to adjust for adversity over-reporting, a type of response bias that could result in spurious findings of co-occurrence. Full BED co-occurred significantly with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, bulimia nervosa but not anorexia nervosa, most anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, kleptomania, irritable bowel syndrome, and fibromyalgia. These results changed little after correcting for adversity over-reporting. Subthreshold BED co-occurred significantly with many, but not all, of the significantly co-occurring disorders for full BED. BED and, to a lesser degree, subthreshold BED exhibit substantial lifetime co-occurrence with psychiatric and medical disorders.

  17. Forced residential mobility and social support: impacts on psychiatric disorders among Somali migrants

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    Bhui Kamaldeep

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somali migrants fleeing the civil war in their country face punishing journeys, the loss of homes, possessions, and bereavement. On arrival in the host country they encounter poverty, hostility, and residential instability which may also undermine their mental health. Methods An in-depth and semi-structured interview was used to gather detailed accommodation histories for a five year period from 142 Somali migrants recruited in community venues and primary care. Post-codes were verified and geo-mapped to calculate characteristics of residential location including deprivation indices, the number of moves and the distances between residential moves. We asked about the reasons for changing accommodation, perceived discrimination, asylum status, traumatic experiences, social support, employment and demographic factors. These factors were assessed alongside characteristics of residential mobility as correlates of ICD-10 psychiatric disorders. Results Those who were forced to move homes were more likely to have an ICD-10 psychiatric disorder (OR = 2.64, 1.16-5.98, p = 0.02 compared with those moving through their own choice. A lower risk of psychiatric disorders was found for people with larger friendship networks (0.35, 0.14-0.84, p = 0.02, for those with more confiding emotional support (0.42, 0.18-1.0, p = 0.05, and for those who had not moved during the study period (OR = 0.21, 0.07-0.62, p = 0.01. Conclusions Forced residential mobility is a risk factor for psychiatric disorder; social support may contribute to resilience against psychiatric disorders associated with residential mobility.

  18. Correlation of adverse childhood experiences with psychiatric disorders and aggressiveness in adulthood

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    Samardžić Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Consequences of individual adverse childhood experiences for adult mental health have been precisely studied during past decades. The focus of past research was mainly on childhood maltreatment and neglect. The aim of this paper was to determine association between multiple adverse childhood experiences and psychiatric disorders, as well as their correlation to the degree and type of aggressiveness in adult psychiatric patients. Methods. One hundred and thirteen psychiatric outpatients were divided into three diagnostic groups: psychotics, non-psychotics and alcoholics and compared with fourty healthy individuals. Adverse childhood experiences data were gathered retrospectively, using the Adverse childhood experiences questionnaire and explanatory interview. Aggressiveness was assessed using Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The Student's t test, ANOVA and correlational analysis were used for evaluation of statistical significance of differences among the groups. A value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Our results showed that the mean number of adverse childhood experiences in each group of psychiatric patients, as well as in the whole group of patients, was statistically significantly higher than in the group of healthy individuals (p < 0.001; there was a statistically significant difference in score of physical aggressiveness between the patients exposed to adverse childhood experiences and those who were not exposed to them (p < 0.05; scores of physical aggressiveness were in positive correlation with the number of adverse childhood experiences (p < 0.05. The highest mean score of adverse childhood experiences was evidenced in the group of patients with psychotic disorders. Conclusion. Multiple adverse childhood experiences are significantly associated with psychotic disorders, nonpsychotic disorders and alcohol dependence in adulthood and their presence is important morbidity risk factor for

  19. Psychiatric disorders in a Dutch Health Area: a repeated cross-sectional survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Mulder, J.; Furer, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Decades of psychiatric epidemiology have shown a wide variation in prevalence rates. but a consistent relationship U between psychiatric disorder and sociodemographic variables. In this repeated cross-sectional survey. the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and their distribution in the

  20. Childhood-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Increased Familial Loading of Psychiatric Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Richard; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Strober, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Valeri, Sylvia; Chiappetta, Laurel; Ryan, Neal; Leonard, Henrietta; Hunt, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Satish; Keller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether childhood-onset bipolar disorder (BP) is associated with an increased psychiatric family history compared with adolescent-onset BP. Method: Semistructured psychiatric interviews were conducted for 438 youth with BP spectrum disorders. To evaluate the effects of age at onset and psychiatric family history, the sample…

  1. Cost prediction of antipsychotic medication of psychiatric disorder using artificial neural network model

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    Arash Mirabzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antipsychotic monotherapy or polypharmacy (concurrent use of two or more antipsychotics are used for treating patients with psychiatric disorders (PDs. Usually, antipsychotic monotherapy has a lower cost than polypharmacy. This study aimed to predict the cost of antipsychotic medications (AM of psychiatric patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 790 patients with PDs who were discharged between June and September 2010 were selected from Razi Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran, Iran. For cost prediction of AM of PD, neural network (NN and multiple linear regression (MLR models were used. Analysis of data was performed with R 2.15.1 software. Results: Mean ± standard deviation (SD of the duration of hospitalization (days in patients who were on monotherapy and polypharmacy was 31.19 ± 15.55 and 36.69 ± 15.93, respectively (P < 0.001. Mean and median costs of medication for monotherapy (n = 507 were $8.25 and $6.23 and for polypharmacy (n =192 were $13.30 and $9.48, respectively (P = 0.001. The important variables for cost prediction of AM were duration of hospitalization, type of treatment, and type of psychiatric ward in the MLR model, and duration of hospitalization, type of diagnosed disorder, type of treatment, age, Chlorpromazine dosage, and duration of disorder in the NN model. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the artificial NN (ANN model can be used as a flexible model for cost prediction of AM.

  2. Schizoaffective disorder--an ongoing challenge for psychiatric nosology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, M; Haack, S; Becker, T; Frasch, K

    2011-04-01

    Schizoaffective disorder is a common diagnosis in mental health services. The present article aims to provide an overview of diagnostic reliability, symptomatology, outcome, neurobiology and treatment of schizoaffective disorder. Literature was identified by searches in "Medline" and "Cochrane Library". The diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder has a low reliability. There are marked differences between the current diagnostic systems. With respect to psychopathological symptoms, no clear boundaries were found between schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and affective disorders. Common neurobiological factors were found across the traditional diagnostic categories. Schizoaffective disorder according to ICD-10 criteria, but not to DSM-IV criteria, shows a more favorable outcome than schizophrenia. With regard to treatment, only a small and heterogeneous database exists. Due to the low reliability and questionable validity there is a substantial need for revision and unification of the current diagnostic concepts of schizoaffective disorder. If future diagnostic systems return to Kraepelin's dichotomous classification of non-organic psychosis or adopt a dimensional diagnostic approach, schizoaffective disorder will disappear from the psychiatric nomenclature. A nosological model with multiple diagnostic entities, however, would be compatible with retaining the diagnostic category of schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychiatric Approaches for Disorders of Sex Development: Experience of a Multidisciplinary Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbaran, Burcu; Özen, Samim; Gökşen, Damla; Korkmaz, Özlem; Onay, Hüseyin; Özkınay, Ferda; Çoğulu, Özgür; Erermiş, Serpil; Köse, Sezen; Avanoğlu, Ali; Ulman, İbrahim; Darcan, Şükran

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Disorders of sex development (DSD) are a group of congenital medical conditions that affect life as a whole. In this study, we aimed to reflect the experience of a multidisciplinary team in the clinical/psychiatric follow-up of a group of children and adolescents with DSD. Methods: The study group consisted of 51 patients diagnosed with DSD. The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Draw a Person Test and Children’s Apperception Test, and the Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGIS) were used for psychiatric evaluations. Results: The mean age of the patients was 7.8 years (median: 7.8; min: 1.0; max: 18.0). Genetic evaluation showed 46,XX configuration in 15 patients (29.4%) and 46,XY in 35 (68.6%). One patient (2.0%) was diagnosed to have a sex chromosome disorder. Forty patients (78.4%) had no problems with their given gender identity and gender role. Thirty-four (66.7%) patients had normal intellectual capacity. Twenty-eight (54.9%) patients did not have any psychiatric problem. Depression, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and adjustment disorders were the common diagnoses. The mean score of symptom severity on CGIS-severity-baseline was 6.15±0.68 and after one year, it was 1.46±0.51 (Z=-3.236 p=0.001). The mean score of CGI–Improvement was 1.23±0.44. Conclusion: It is important to identify and treat the psychiatric disorders encountered in patients with DSD. A psychiatrist needs to be included in the professional team following these patients. Examination and observation results need to be shared by holding periodic team meetings to establish a wholesome point of view for every unique child. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24379031

  4. Phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity and family history in referred preschool children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

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    Coskun Murat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aimed to investigate phenomenology, psychiatric comorbidity, and family history of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD in a clinical sample of normally developing preschool children with OCD. Method Subjects in this study were recruited from a clinical sample of preschool children (under 72 months of age who were referred to a university clinic. Subjects with a normal developmental history and significant impairment related to OCD symptoms were included in the study. Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to assess OCD symptoms. Each subject was assessed for comorbid DSM-IV psychiatric disorders using a semi-structured interview. Parents were evaluated for lifetime history of OCD in individual sessions. Results Fifteen boys and ten girls (age range: 28 to 69 months; 54.12±9.08 months were included. Mean age of onset of OCD was 35.64±13.42 months. All subjects received at least one comorbid diagnosis. The most frequent comorbid disorders were non-OCD anxiety disorders (n=17; 68.0%, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD (n=15; 60.0%, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD (n=12; 48.0%, and tic disorders (n=6; 24.0%. Mean number of comorbid disorders was 3.65 and 2.35 for boys and girls, respectively. At least one parent received lifetime OCD diagnosis in 68 percent of the subjects. Conclusions The results indicated that OCD in referred preschool children is more common in males, highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders, and associated with high rates of family history of OCD. Given the high rates of comorbidity and family history, OCD should be considered in referred preschool children with disruptive behavior disorders and/or with family history of OCD.

  5. Psychiatric disorders and treatment among newly homeless young adults with histories of foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Hasin, Deborah

    2012-09-01

    Although foster care placement is often preceded by stressful events such as child abuse, foster care itself often exposes children to additional severe stressors. A history of foster care, as well as the childhood abuse that often precedes it, is common among homeless young adults. This study examined whether a history of foster care was associated with psychiatric disorders, prior psychiatric counseling, prescription of psychiatric medications, and prior psychiatric hospitalization among newly homeless young adults. A consecutive sample of 423 adults aged 18 to 21 years who sought emergency shelter for the first time between October 1, 2007, and February 29, 2008, were assessed at intake. Logistic regression analyses determined the associations between foster care and any psychiatric disorder (affective, anxiety, personality, and psychotic) and psychiatric treatment. The analyses adjusted for demographic characteristics, childhood abuse, substance use, prior arrest, unemployment, lack of high school diploma, and histories of psychiatric disorders and drug abuse among biological relatives. Homeless young adults with histories of foster care were 70% more likely than those without such histories to report any psychiatric disorder. They were more than twice as likely to have received mental health counseling for a psychiatric disorder, to have been prescribed psychiatric medication, and to have been hospitalized for psychiatric problems. Histories of foster care among homeless young adults should trigger screening for psychiatric disorders to aid in the provision of treatment (counseling, medication, and hospitalization) tailored to the psychiatric needs of this highly vulnerable population.

  6. Late Preterm Birth, Maternal Depression, and Risk of Preschool Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E.; Lenze, Shannon N.; Luby, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preterm children are at greater risk for psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), than their term-born peers. Prior research has focused primarily on children born at early gestational ages. Less is known about the rate of psychiatric disorders among late preterm or early…

  7. Microglia Gone Rogue: Impacts on Psychiatric Disorders across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Tuan Leng; Béchade, Catherine; D’Andrea, Ivana; St-Pierre, Marie-Kim; Henry, Mathilde S.; Roumier, Anne; Tremblay, Marie-Eve

    2018-01-01

    Microglia are the predominant immune response cells and professional phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS) that have been shown to be important for brain development and homeostasis. These cells present a broad spectrum of phenotypes across stages of the lifespan and especially in CNS diseases. Their prevalence in all neurological pathologies makes it pertinent to reexamine their distinct roles during steady-state and disease conditions. A major question in the field is determining whether the clustering and phenotypical transformation of microglial cells are leading causes of pathogenesis, or potentially neuroprotective responses to the onset of disease. The recent explosive growth in our understanding of the origin and homeostasis of microglia, uncovering their roles in shaping of the neural circuitry and synaptic plasticity, allows us to discuss their emerging functions in the contexts of cognitive control and psychiatric disorders. The distinct mesodermal origin and genetic signature of microglia in contrast to other neuroglial cells also make them an interesting target for the development of therapeutics. Here, we review the physiological roles of microglia, their contribution to the effects of environmental risk factors (e.g., maternal infection, early-life stress, dietary imbalance), and their impact on psychiatric disorders initiated during development (e.g., Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD), hereditary diffuse leukoencephaly with spheroids, Rett syndrome, autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)) or adulthood (e.g., alcohol and drug abuse, major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia, eating disorders and sleep disorders). Furthermore, we discuss the changes in microglial functions in the context of cognitive aging, and review their implication in neurodegenerative diseases of the aged adult (e.g., Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s). Taking into account the recent identification of microglia

  8. CAPs-IDD: Characteristics of Assessment Instruments for Psychiatric Disorders in Persons with Intellectual Developmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, E. L.; Nader, I. W.; Brehmer-Rinderer, B.; Koller, I.; Weber, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Assessment of psychiatric disorders in persons with an intellectual developmental disorder (IDD) can be performed with a variety of greatly differing instruments. This makes the choice of an instrument best suited for the intended purpose challenging. In this study, we developed a comprehensive set of characteristics for the evaluation…

  9. Role of Islam in the management of Psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Walaa M; Vohra, Adarsh

    2013-01-01

    With the significant growth of the Muslim population all over the world, there exists a corresponding increase in the need for mental health services that suit this group of patients. Research demonstrates the effectiveness of the integration of spirituality and religiosity into psychotherapy and how religious beliefs could affect the management plans. This article discusses the impact of various beliefs in the Islamic faith on the bio-psychosocial model for the management of different psychiatric disorders including focusing on the modification of psychotherapeutic techniques as cognitive restructuring. It also shows other types of therapies such as music therapy, meditation therapy, and aromatherapy. The main emphasis remains to ensure that Muslim psychiatric patients get ethical, acceptable, and effective treatment.

  10. Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide of Patients with Psychiatric Disorders in the Netherlands 2011–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Scott Y H; De Vries, Raymond; Peteet, John R

    2017-01-01

    Importance Euthanasia and/or physician assisted suicide of psychiatric patients is increasing in some jurisdictions such as Belgium and the Netherlands. However, little is known about the practice and it remains very controversial. Objective To describe the characteristics of patients receiving euthanasia/assisted suicide for psychiatric conditions and how the practice is regulated in the Netherlands. Design and Setting A review of psychiatric euthanasia/assisted suicide case summaries made available online by the Dutch Regional Euthanasia Review Committees, as of 1 June 2015. Two senior psychiatrists used directed content analysis to review and code the reports. 66 cases from 2011–14 were reviewed. Main Outcomes Clinical and social characteristics of patients, physician review process of the patients’ requests, and the Review Committees’ assessments of the physicians’ actions. Results 70% (46 of 66) of patients were women, 32% were over 70 years-old, 44% were between 50–70, and 24% were 30–50. Most had chronic, severe conditions, with histories of attempted suicides and psychiatric hospitalizations. A majority had personality disorders and were described as socially isolated or lonely. Depressive disorders were the primary issue in 55% of cases. Other conditions represented were psychotic, PTSD/anxiety, somatoform, neurocognitive, and eating disorders, as well as prolonged grief and autism. Co-morbidities with functional impairments were common. A minority (41%) of physicians performing euthanasia/assisted suicide were psychiatrists. 18 (27%) patients received the procedure from physicians new to them, 15 (23%) of whom were physicians from the End-of-Life Clinic, a mobile euthanasia clinic. Consultation with other physicians was extensive, but 11% of cases had no independent psychiatric input and 24% of cases involved disagreement among consultants. The Review Committee found one case to have failed to meet legal due care criteria. Conclusions and

  11. Psychiatric disorders in primary focal dystonia and in Parkinson’s disease

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    Fernando MV Dias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fernando MV Dias1, Arthur Kummer1, Flávia CP Doyle2, Estefânia Harsányi1, Francisco Cardoso2, Leonardo F Fontenelle3, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira11Neuropsychiatric Branch, 2Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology Unit, University Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte; 3Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilBackground: Primary focal dystonia and Parkinson’s disease are movement disorders that have contrasting motor phenotypes. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency and the severity of psychiatric disorders in primary focal dystonia and Parkinson's disease.Methods: Two groups of 30 patients matched by gender and age underwent a neurological and psychiatric assessment.Results: Parkinson’s disease patients were diagnosed with higher rates of major depression (P = 0.02 and generalized anxiety disorder (P = 0.02, and greater severity of depressive symptoms (P = 0.04, while patients with primary focal dystonia exhibited increased severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (P = 0.02.Discussion: The difference in pathophysiology of primary focal dystonia and Parkinson’s disease may explain the different psychiatric profiles of these two diseases. The increased frequency of affective symptoms in Parkinson’s disease may be related to the fact that Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease marked by the loss of monoaminergic neurons which does not happen in primary focal dystonia.Conclusion: The psychiatric profile differs in movement disorders with distinct neurobiological bases.Keywords: focal dystonia, Parkinson’s disease, neuropsychiatry, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder

  12. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization

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    Thiago da Silva Domingos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5% of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. RESULTS There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001 of the heart and respiratory mean rates after each intervention session, as well as in the inventory score. CONCLUSION Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization.

  13. Family relationships in childhood and common psychiatric disorders in later life: systematic review of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weich, Scott; Patterson, Jacoby; Shaw, Richard; Stewart-Brown, Sarah

    2009-05-01

    Most evidence for associations between childhood adversity and adult mental illness is retrospective. To evaluate prospective evidence of associations between poor parent-child relationships and common psychiatric disorders in later life. Systematic review of studies published between 1970 and 2008 including: (a) more than 100 participants; (b) measures of relationships in the home during childhood; (c) at least 10 years between assessment of exposures; and (d) measures of anxiety, depression, suicide, suicidal ideation or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Analysis was by narrative synthesis. Twenty-three papers were identified reporting data from 16 cohorts. Abusive relationships predicted depression, anxiety and PTSD. Maternal emotional unavailability in early life predicted suicide attempts in adolescence. Results of studies investigating less severe relationship problems were suggestive but not conclusive of causal association, due partly to methodological heterogeneity. Given the prevalence and disabling nature of common psychiatric problems, these studies highlight the need to minimise harm associated with dysfunctional parent-child relationships.

  14. Massage with aromatherapy: effectiveness on anxiety of users with personality disorders in psychiatric hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago da Silva Domingos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using the essential oils (0.5% of Lavandula angustifolia and Pelargonium graveolens for anxiety reduction in patients with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization. METHOD Uncontrolled clinical trial with 50 subjects submitted to six massages with aromatherapy, performed on alternate days, on the cervical and the posterior thoracic regions. Vital data (heart and respiratory rate were collected before and after each session and an anxiety scale (Trait Anxiety Inventory-State was applied at the beginning and end of the intervention. The results were statistically analyzed with the chi square test and paired t test. RESULTS There was a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001 of the heart and respiratory mean rates after each intervention session, as well as in the inventory score. CONCLUSION Aromatherapy has demonstrated effectiveness in anxiety relief, considering the decrease of heart and respiratory rates in patients diagnosed with personality disorders during psychiatric hospitalization.

  15. Web-based support for daily functioning of people with mild intellectual disabilities or chronic psychiatric disorders: A feasibility study in routine practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica de Wit

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: The initial results of the use of web-based support for this client population seem promising and justify further research on online support for clients with mild intellectual disabilities or chronic psychiatric disorders.

  16. Review of the use of Topiramate for treatment of psychiatric disorders

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    Arnone Danilo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topiramate is a new antiepileptic drug, originally designed as an oral hypoglycaemic subsequently approved as anticonvulsant. It has increasingly been used in the treatment of numerous psychiatric conditions and it has also been associated with weight loss potentially relevant in reversing weight gain induced by psychotropic medications. This article reviews pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of topiramate, its biological putative role in treating psychiatric disorders and its relevance in clinical practice. Methods A comprehensive search from a range of databases was conducted and papers addressing the topic were selected. Results Thirty-two published reports met criteria for inclusion, 4 controlled and 28 uncontrolled studies. Five unpublished controlled studies were also identified in the treatment of acute mania. Conclusions Topiramate lacks efficacy in the treatment of acute mania. Increasing evidence, based on controlled studies, supports the use of topiramate in binge eating disorders, bulimia nervosa, alcohol dependence and possibly in bipolar disorders in depressive phase. In the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorders, as adjunctive treatment in refractory bipolar disorder in adults and children, schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder, unipolar depression, emotionally unstable personality disorder and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome the evidence is entirely based on open label studies, case reports and case series. Regarding weight loss, findings are encouraging and have potential implications in reversing increased body weight, normalisation of glycemic control and blood pressure. Topiramate was generally well tolerated and serious adverse events were rare.

  17. Significance of personality disorders in the face of drop-outs from psychiatric hospitalizations. The case of selected psychiatric units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biała, Maja; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2017-06-18

    The World Health Organization's estimations indicate that about 50% of patients in well-developed countries may not adhere to long-term therapies. In the field of psychiatry, drop-outs from psychiatric treatment are particularly important. Personality disorders are a significant part of this sphere. The aim of this research was to empirically verify the hypothesis regarding the relation between comorbid personality disorders and drop-outs from treatment among patients of psychiatric wards. This study was a prospective cohort study. 110 patients, hospitalized in 3 different psychiatric wards, were included. Personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview For DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II). The research was financed by the Polish National Science Center (DEC-2011/01/N/NZ5/05364). The response rate was 89.1%. 72.56% of patients suffered from personality disorders (SCID-II) (among them the most prevalent were: personality disorder - not otherwise specified - 40.7% and borderline personality disorder - 12.38%; 22.95% of patients dropped out from treatment). However, occurrence of personality disorders was not relevant for those drop-outs. On the other hand, relationships at the level of certain criteria of borderline personality disorders and passive-aggressive personality have been revealed. These relationships became stronger when considered from the perspective of differences in the organization of treatment at individual wards. Some personality disorders may play an important role in drop-outs from psychiatric treatment. Presented results require further research.

  18. Minor psychiatric disorders in mothers and asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto do Carmo, Maria Beatriz; Neves Santos, Darci; Alves Ferreira Amorim, Leila Denise; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Souza da Cunha, Sergio; Cunha Rodrigues, Laura; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2009-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that asthma represents a major health issue not only in children of developed countries but also in urban centers in some middle-income countries. Brazil has one of the highest prevalences of asthma worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the relationship between psychosocial factors and asthma. This article examines the relationship between maternal mental disorders and the prevalence of asthma in low-income children from an inner city area of Salvador in the state of Bahia, Brazil, and is part of the SCAALA program (Social Change, Allergy and Asthma in Latin America). A total of 1,087 children between the ages of 5 and 12 were investigated, together with their mothers. The mothers' mental health was evaluated using the SRQ-20, an instrument for the psychiatric screening of minor psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety and somatic complaints). The prevalence of asthma was investigated using the ISAAC survey, a standardized, validated questionnaire for asthma and other allergic diseases. Cases were defined as asthma if the patient reported having had wheezing in the previous 12 months in addition to at least one of the following: having asthma, wheezing while exercising, waking during the night because of wheezing, or having had at least four episodes of wheezing in the previous 12 months. Atopy was defined as a positive skin prick test to allergens. The presence of minor psychiatric disorders in the mothers was significantly associated with the presence of asthma in the children, and this association was consistent with all forms of asthma, irrespective of whether it was atopic or nonatopic. Future studies should be carried out to further investigate this association and the potential biological mechanisms involved. Programs for asthma control should include strategies for stress reduction and psychological support for the families of asthmatic children.

  19. Supplementation with Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Psychiatric Disorders: A Review of Literature Data

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    Paola Bozzatello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new application for omega-3 fatty acids has recently emerged, concerning the treatment of several mental disorders. This indication is supported by data of neurobiological research, as highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs are highly concentrated in neural phospholipids and are important components of the neuronal cell membrane. They modulate the mechanisms of brain cell signaling, including the dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide a complete and updated account of the empirical evidence of the efficacy and safety that are currently available for omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The main evidence for the effectiveness of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA has been obtained in mood disorders, in particular in the treatment of depressive symptoms in unipolar and bipolar depression. There is some evidence to support the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of conditions characterized by a high level of impulsivity and aggression and borderline personality disorders. In patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, small-to-modest effects of omega-3 HUFAs have been found. The most promising results have been reported by studies using high doses of EPA or the association of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. In schizophrenia, current data are not conclusive and do not allow us either to refuse or support the indication of omega-3 fatty acids. For the remaining psychiatric disturbances, including autism spectrum disorders, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders and substance use disorder, the data are too scarce to draw any conclusion. Concerning tolerability, several studies concluded that omega-3 can be considered safe and well tolerated at doses up to 5 g/day.

  20. [Cerebral hydatic cyst and psychiatric disorders. Two cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, F; Tazi, I; Maaroufi, K; El Moudden, A; Ghannane, H; Ait Benali, S

    2007-01-01

    The hydatidosis is an endemic illness in regions of the Middle Orient, Mediterranean, south of America, north Africa and the Australia. The preferential localization of cyst hydatic is the liver (48%), the lung (36%) and in 6% of cases it localizes in unaccustomed place as the brain. Intracerebral localization is relatively rare, its impact is 1 to 5% of all cases of hydatidose. This localization is the child's appendage with a masculine predominance. The cyst hydatic intracranien is often lone, of localization usually supratentorielle, sometimes infratentorielle. Symptoms are especially the diffuse headache associated to various neurological signs in relation with sits of the tumor. The psychiatrics symptoms depends on its localization, sides, intracranial hypertension, and the previous personality. In 15 to 20% of cases these tumors can appear in the beginning of their evolution by the isolated psychiatric symptoms. We report the case of two patients that have been hospitalized first in the Academic Psychiatric Unit of Marrakech for isolates psychiatric disorders and whose scanning revealed the presence of cerebral hydatic cyst and that required a surgical intervention in neurosurgery. Case 1 - Patient 29 years old, bachelor, uneducated, leaving in country outside, fermar, in permanent contact with dogs. No particular medical history. The patient has been brought by his family to the psychiatric emergencies after behavior disorders. The beginning of his symptomatology was one year ago by behavior disorders: instability, violence, isolation, and a corporo-sartorial carelessness. His symptomatology worsened and the patient became very aggressive. In psychiatric unit, he was disregarded, sad, anguished, indifferent to his state, very dissonant, completely detached, depersonalized. He brought back some visual and auditory hallucinations with attitude of monitoring. He was raving with delirium of persecution, of ideas of reference and delirium of bewithment. He was

  1. [The onset of psychiatric disorders and Wilson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamla, T; Tirouche, Y D; Abaoub-Germain, A; Theodore, F

    2007-12-01

    Wilson's disease is an infrequent, autosomic recessive pathology, resulting from a loss of function of an adenosine triphosphatase (ATP7B or WDNP), secondarily to a change (more than 60 are described currently), insertion or deletion of the ATP7B gene located on the chromosome 13q14.3-q21.1, which involves a reduction or an absence of the transport of copper in the bile and its accumulation in the body, notably the brain. Wilson's disease is transmitted by an autosomic recessive gene located on the long arm of chromosome 13. The prevalence of the heterozygote is evaluated at 1/90 and the homozygote at 1/30,000. Consanguinity, frequent in the socially geographically isolated populations, increases the prevalence of the disease. The toxic quantities of copper, which accumulate in the liver since early childhood and perhaps before, remain concentrated in the body for years. Hence, cytological and histological modifications can be detected in the biopsies, before the appearance of clinical or biological symptoms of hepatic damage. The accumulation of copper in the liver is due to a defect in the biliary excretion of metal and is accompanied invariably by a deficit in ceruloplasmin; protein synthesized from a transferred ATP7B gene, which causes retention of the copper ions in the liver. The detectable cellular anomalies are of two types: hepatic lesions resulting in acute hepatic insufficiency, acute hepatitis and finally advanced cirrhosis and lesions of the central nervous system responsible for the neurological and psychiatric disorders. In approximately 40-50% of the patients, the first manifestation of Wilson's disease affects the central nervous system. Although copper diffuses in the liver towards the blood and then towards other tissues, it has disastrous consequences only in the brain. It can therefore cause either a progressive neurological disease, or psychiatric disorders. Wilson's disease begins in the form of a hepatic, neurological, or psychiatric

  2. A statistical perspective on association studies of psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Gene-gene (GxG) and gene-environment (GxE) interactions likely play an important role in the aetiology of complex diseases like psychiatric disorders. Thus, we aim at investigating methodological aspects of and apply methods from statistical genetics taking interactions into account. In addition we...... genes and maternal infection by virus. Paper 3 presents the initial steps (mainly data construction) of an ongoing simulation study aiming at guiding decisions by comparing methods for GxE interaction analysis including both traditional two-step logistic regression, exhaustive searches using efficient...

  3. Huntington's disease: psychiatric issues of a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's Disease (HD can be considered a paradigmatic neuropsychiatric disorder that has three components: motor, cognitive and behavioral symptoms. The author synthetizes research developed on epidemiology and etipathogeny of HD and makes reference to more usual symptoms, emphasizing psychiatric symptoms, often the first manifestation of HD. About a clinical case, the author points out rhe great phenotypic variability of this disease, reflects about ways to develop the knowledge of the neuropsychiatric manifestations in order to achieve new treatment strategies in this area, finallt, ameliorate the comprehension of cerebral function.

  4. Descriptive epidemiology and underlying psychiatric disorders among hospitalizations with self-directed violence.

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    Natalya S Weber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Suicide claims over one million lives worldwide each year. In the United States, 1 per 10,000 persons dies from suicide every year, and these rates have remained relatively constant over the last 20 years. There are nearly 25 suicide attempts for each suicide, and previous self-directed violence is a strong predictor of death from suicide. While many studies have focused on suicides, the epidemiology of non-fatal self-directed violence is not well-defined. OBJECTIVE: We used a nationally representative survey to examine demographics and underlying psychiatric disorders in United States (US hospitalizations with non-fatal self-directed violence (SDV. METHOD: International Classification of Disease, 9(th Revision (ICD-9 discharge diagnosis data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS were examined from 1997 to 2006 using frequency measures and adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS: The rate of discharges with SDV remained relatively stable over the study time period with 4.5 to 5.7 hospitalizations per 10,000 persons per year. Excess SDV was documented for females, adolescents, whites, and those from the Midwest or West. While females had a higher likelihood of self-poisoning, both genders had comparable proportions of hospitalizations with SDV resulting in injury. Over 86% of the records listing SDV also included psychiatric disorders, with the most frequent being affective (57.8% and substance abuse (37.1% disorders. The association between psychiatric disorders and self-injury was strongest for personality disorders for both males (OR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3-3.4 and females (OR = 3.8; 95% CI = 2.7-5.3. CONCLUSION: The NHDS provides new insights into the demographics and psychiatric morbidity of those hospitalized with SDV. Classification of SDV as self-injury or self-poisoning provides an additional parameter useful to epidemiologic studies.

  5. Psychiatric disorders are overlooked in patients with drug abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruckow, Line; Linnet, Kristian; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    .1% in 2012, and this group was significantly younger at the time of death than those without ­psychotropics in the blood. 
 Conclusion: Suspected dual diagnosis patients have increased in number. They die earlier than their drug addict counterparts. Methadone remains the leading cause of death in all......Introduction: Psychiatric disease is overlooked in drug users. Patients with both drug abuse and a psychiatric disease – dual diagnosis – suffer decreased compliance to treatment and decreased life expectancy compared with single-diagnosis patients. Identifying the patients among ­either drug...... addicts or mentally ill patients is difficult. Methods: All drug addicts autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in the years 1992, 2002 and 2012 were included. The group was divided into two subpopulations of possible dual diagnosis patients either according...

  6. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study…

  7. Ethnic Disparities in School-Based Behavioral Health Service Use for Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Pellecchia, Melanie; Marcus, Steven; Hadley, Trevor; Mandell, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We examined racial/ethnic disparities in school-based behavioral health service use for children with psychiatric disorders. Methods: Medicaid claims data were used to compare the behavioral healthcare service use of 23,601 children aged 5-17 years by psychiatric disorder (autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD],…

  8. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, S Hong; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cas...

  9. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S. Hong; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Perlis, Roy H.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Thapar, Anita; Goddard, Michael E.; Witte, John S.; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A.; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Anttila, Verneri; Arking, Dan E.; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H.; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayes, Monica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E.; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Black, Donald W.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Boehnke, Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Breen, Gerome; Breuer, Rene; Bruggeman, Richard; Cormican, Paul; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bunney, William E.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Byerley, William F.; Byrne, Enda M.; Caesar, Sian; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M.; Casas, Miguel; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambert, Kimberly; Choudhury, Khalid; Cichon, Sven; Cloninger, C. Robert; Collier, David A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cormand, Bru; Corvin, Aiden; Coryell, William H.; Craig, David W.; Craig, Ian W.; Crosbie, Jennifer; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Curtis, David; Czamara, Darina; Datta, Susmita; Dawson, Geraldine; Day, Richard; De Geus, Eco J.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary J.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Duketis, Eftichia; Ebstein, Richard P.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Elia, Josephine; Ennis, Sean; Etain, Bruno; Fanous, Ayman; Farmer, Anne E.; Ferrier, I. Nicol; Flickinger, Matthew; Fombonne, Eric; Foroud, Tatiana; Frank, Josef; Franke, Barbara; Fraser, Christine; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Freitag, Christine M.; Friedl, Marion; Frisen, Louise; Gallagher, Louise; Gejman, Pablo V.; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D.; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Elaine K.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Grice, Dorothy E.; Gross, Magdalena; Grozeva, Detelina; Guan, Weihua; Gurling, Hugh; De Haan, Lieuwe; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Hamilton, Steven P.; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Thomas F.; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B.; Hipolito, Maria; Hoefels, Susanne; Holmans, Peter A.; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogendijk, Witte J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hultman, Christina M.; Hus, Vanessa; Ingason, Andres; Ising, Marcus; Jamain, Stephane; Jones, Edward G.; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Kaehler, Anna K.; Kahn, Rene S.; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Keller, Matthew C.; Kennedy, James L.; Kenny, Elaine; Kent, Lindsey; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Klei, Lambertus; Knowles, James A.; Kohli, Martin A.; Koller, Daniel L.; Konte, Bettina; Korszun, Ania; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Kwan, Phoenix; Landen, Mikael; Langstrom, Niklas; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Jacob; Lawson, William B.; Leboyer, Marion; Ledbetter, David H.; Lee, Phil H.; Lencz, Todd; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Li, Jun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H.; Liu, Chunyu; Lohoff, Falk W.; Loo, Sandra K.; Lord, Catherine; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lucae, Susanne; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Maestrini, Elena; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Matthews, Keith; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A.; McGhee, Kevin A.; McGough, James J.; McGrath, Patrick J.; McGuffin, Peter; McInnis, Melvin G.; McIntosh, Andrew; McKinney, Rebecca; McLean, Alan W.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, William M.; McQuillin, Andrew; Medeiros, Helena; Medland, Sarah E.; Meier, Sandra; Melle, Ingrid; Meng, Fan; Meyer, Jobst; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Middleton, Lefkos; Milanova, Vihra; Miranda, Ana; Monaco, Anthony P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W.; Morrow, Eric M.; Moskvina, Valentina; Muglia, Pierandrea; Muehleisen, Thomas W.; Muir, Walter J.; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murtha, Michael; Myers, Richard M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Michael C.; Nelson, Stan F.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Nikolov, Ivan; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Nolen, Willem A.; Noethen, Markus M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Nwulia, Evaristus A.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Oades, Robert D.; Olincy, Ann; Oliveira, Guiomar; Olsen, Line; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osby, Urban; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Pickard, Benjamin S.; Pimm, Jonathan; Piven, Joseph; Posthuma, Danielle; Potash, James B.; Poustka, Fritz; Propping, Peter; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J.; Quinn, Emma M.; Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Josep; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rehnstroem, Karola; Reif, Andreas; Ribases, Marta; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Roeder, Kathryn; Roeyers, Herbert; Rossin, Lizzy; Rothenberger, Aribert; Rouleau, Guy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rujescu, Dan; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Santangelo, Susan L.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Schachar, Russell; Schalling, Martin; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Scheftner, William A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schumacher, Johannes; Schwarz, Markus; Scolnick, Edward; Scott, Laura J.; Shi, Jianxin; Shilling, Paul D.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Slager, Susan L.; Smalley, Susan L.; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Erin N.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; St Clair, David; State, Matthew; Steffens, Michael; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Strauss, John S.; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Sutcliffe, James S.; Szatmari, Peter; Szelinger, Szabocls; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thompson, Robert C.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Tozzi, Federica; Treutlein, Jens; Uhr, Manfred; van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.; Van Grootheest, Gerard; Van Os, Jim; Vicente, Astrid M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Vincent, John B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Watson, Stanley J.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Werge, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F.; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, Nigel; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Witt, Stephanie H.; Xu, Wei; Young, Allan H.; Yu, Timothy W.; Zammit, Stanley; Zandi, Peter P.; Zhang, Peng; Zitman, Frans G.; Zoellner, Sebastian; Devlin, Bernie; Kelsoe, John R.; Sklar, Pamela; Daly, Mark J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nicholas; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Wray, Naomi R.

    Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases

  10. Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S. Hong; Ripke, Stephan; Neale, Benjamin M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Purcell, Shaun M.; Perlis, Roy H.; Mowry, Bryan J.; Thapar, Anita; Goddard, Michael E.; Witte, John S.; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A.; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Anttila, Verneri; Arking, Dan E.; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H.; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayés, Mònica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E.; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Black, Donald W.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Boehnke, Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Breen, Gerome; Breuer, René; Bruggeman, Richard; Cormican, Paul; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bunney, William E.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Byerley, William F.; Byrne, Enda M.; Caesar, Sian; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M.; Casas, Miguel; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambert, Kimberly; Choudhury, Khalid; Cichon, Sven; Cloninger, C. Robert; Collier, David A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cormand, Bru; Corvin, Aiden; Coryell, William H.; Craig, David W.; Craig, Ian W.; Crosbie, Jennifer; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Curtis, David; Czamara, Darina; Datta, Susmita; Dawson, Geraldine; Day, Richard; de Geus, Eco J.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary J.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Duketis, Eftichia; Ebstein, Richard P.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Elia, Josephine; Ennis, Sean; Etain, Bruno; Fanous, Ayman; Farmer, Anne E.; Ferrier, I. Nicol; Flickinger, Matthew; Fombonne, Eric; Foroud, Tatiana; Frank, Josef; Franke, Barbara; Fraser, Christine; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Freitag, Christine M.; Friedl, Marion; Frisén, Louise; Gallagher, Louise; Gejman, Pablo V.; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D.; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Elaine K.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Grice, Dorothy E.; Gross, Magdalena; Grozeva, Detelina; Guan, Weihua; Gurling, Hugh; de Haan, Lieuwe; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Hamilton, Steven P.; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Thomas F.; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B.; Hipolito, Maria; Hoefels, Susanne; Holmans, Peter A.; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogendijk, Witte J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hultman, Christina M.; Hus, Vanessa; Ingason, Andrés; Ising, Marcus; Jamain, Stéphane; Jones, Edward G.; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Kähler, Anna K.; Kahn, René S.; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Keller, Matthew C.; Kennedy, James L.; Kenny, Elaine; Kent, Lindsey; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Klei, Lambertus; Knowles, James A.; Kohli, Martin A.; Koller, Daniel L.; Konte, Bettina; Korszun, Ania; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Kwan, Phoenix; Landén, Mikael; Långström, Niklas; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Jacob; Lawson, William B.; Leboyer, Marion; Ledbetter, David H.; Lee, Phil H.; Lencz, Todd; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Li, Jun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H.; Liu, Chunyu; Lohoff, Falk W.; Loo, Sandra K.; Lord, Catherine; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lucae, Susanne; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Maestrini, Elena; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Matthews, Keith; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A.; McGhee, Kevin A.; McGough, James J.; McGrath, Patrick J.; McGuffin, Peter; McInnis, Melvin G.; McIntosh, Andrew; McKinney, Rebecca; McLean, Alan W.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, William M.; McQuillin, Andrew; Medeiros, Helena; Medland, Sarah E.; Meier, Sandra; Melle, Ingrid; Meng, Fan; Meyer, Jobst; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Middleton, Lefkos; Milanova, Vihra; Miranda, Ana; Monaco, Anthony P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Moreno-de-Luca, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W.; Morrow, Eric M.; Moskvina, Valentina; Muglia, Pierandrea; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Muir, Walter J.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murtha, Michael; Myers, Richard M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Michael C.; Nelson, Stan F.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Nikolov, Ivan; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Nolen, Willem A.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Nwulia, Evaristus A.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Oades, Robert D.; Olincy, Ann; Oliveira, Guiomar; Olsen, Line; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osby, Urban; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Pickard, Benjamin S.; Pimm, Jonathan; Piven, Joseph; Posthuma, Danielle; Potash, James B.; Poustka, Fritz; Propping, Peter; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J.; Quinn, Emma M.; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rehnström, Karola; Reif, Andreas; Ribasés, Marta; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Roeder, Kathryn; Roeyers, Herbert; Rossin, Lizzy; Rothenberger, Aribert; Rouleau, Guy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rujescu, Dan; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Santangelo, Susan L.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Schachar, Russell; Schalling, Martin; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Scheftner, William A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schumacher, Johannes; Schwarz, Markus; Scolnick, Edward; Scott, Laura J.; Shi, Jianxin; Shilling, Paul D.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Slager, Susan L.; Smalley, Susan L.; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Erin N.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; St Clair, David; State, Matthew; Steffens, Michael; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Strauss, John S.; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Sutcliffe, James S.; Szatmari, Peter; Szelinger, Szabocls; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thompson, Robert C.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Tozzi, Federica; Treutlein, Jens; Uhr, Manfred; van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.; van Grootheest, Gerard; van Os, Jim; Vicente, Astrid M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Vincent, John B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Watson, Stanley J.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Werge, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F.; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, Nigel; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Witt, Stephanie H.; Xu, Wei; Young, Allan H.; Yu, Timothy W.; Zammit, Stanley; Zandi, Peter P.; Zhang, Peng; Zitman, Frans G.; Zöllner, Sebastian; Devlin, Bernie; Kelsoe, John R.; Sklar, Pamela; Daly, Mark J.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nicholas; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Wray, Naomi R.

    2013-01-01

    Most psychiatric disorders are moderately to highly heritable. The degree to which genetic variation is unique to individual disorders or shared across disorders is unclear. To examine shared genetic etiology, we use genome-wide genotype data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) for cases

  11. Mental health of asylum seekers: a cross-sectional study of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeren Martina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asylum procedures are known to be protracted, stretching to over ten years in many host countries. International research shows high levels of distress for asylum seekers. Little is known about actual psychiatric morbidity in this population, especially during the first few years postmigration. Methods The mental health status of two groups of asylum seekers was assessed: Group 1 (n = 43 had arrived in Switzerland 2.9 (SD 1.1 months prior to assessment, while Group 2 (n = 43 had arrived 15.5 (SD 3.2 months prior to assessment. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Symptom severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and pain (Verbal Rating Scale were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Postmigratory factors such as German language proficiency and social contacts were also assessed. Interviews were conducted with the assistance of trained interpreters. Results Four out of ten participants met diagnostic criteria for at least one DSM-IV disorder. Groups did not differ with respect to psychiatric morbidity or symptom levels. Major depression (31.4% and PTSD (23.3% were diagnosed most frequently. The number of experienced traumatic event types was highly correlated with psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions Psychiatric morbidity in asylum seekers in the first two years after arrival is high, with no indication of a decrease in mental distress over time. Traumatic experiences seem to play a major role in morbidity during this time. Considering the magnitude of clinically relevant distress, a short psychological screening upon arrival with a focus on traumatic experiences may be warranted.

  12. Schizoaffective Disorder in an acute psychiatric unit: Profile of users and agreement with Operational Criteria (OPCRIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryola Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizoaffective Disorder is a controversial and poorly understood diagnosis. Experts disagree on whether it is a discrete disorder; whether it is on a spectrum between Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia or whether it even exists. Lack of individual research attention given to this disorder, changing diagnostic criteria and hence poor diagnostic stability have all contributed to the dearth of knowledge surrounding Schizoaffective Disorder. Objectives: To describe the profile of mental health care users (MHCUs diagnosed with Schizoaffective Disorder and determine the degree of agreement between the clinicians’ diagnosis and Operational Criteria (OPCRIT. Method: All MHCUs at Helen Joseph Hospital psychiatric unit with Schizoaffective Disorder between 01 January 2004 and 31 December 2010 were included. The demographic, clinical and treatment profiles as well as data required for OPCRIT were extracted from hospital records and discharge summaries. Results: Most MHCUs with Schizoaffective Disorder were female (68.89%, with a mean age of illness onset of 25 years (SD ± 7.11, had a family history of mood disorders (76.92% and displayed impaired functioning. Majority (80% were treated with at least one antipsychotic and one mood stabiliser. No agreement was found between the clinicians’ diagnosis and OPCRIT. Conclusion: While the profile of MHCUs with Schizoaffective Disorder in this study is similar to other studies, the lack of agreement between the clinicians’ and OPCRIT diagnoses calls for further research using larger population samples and a dimensional approach to diagnoses in order to improve understanding and management of Schizoaffective Disorder.

  13. The Association between Intelligence Scores and Family History of Psychiatric Disorder in Schizophrenia Patients, Their Siblings and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Kim H. W.; Derks, Eske M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The degree of intellectual impairment in schizophrenia patients and their relatives has been suggested to be associated with the degree of familial loading for schizophrenia. Since other psychiatric disorders are also more present in relatives of schizophrenia patients, the definition of family history should be broadened. The association between family history for psychiatric disorder and intelligence scores was investigated in patients with non-affective psychosis, their unaffected siblings and controls. Methods A sample of 712 schizophrenia proband families (696 patients and 766 siblings) and 427 healthy control families (517 subjects) participated in this study. Family history of psychiatric disorder was determined while excluding the data of the participating schizophrenia patient. A dichotomous division was made between families with no first- or second degree relative with psychiatric disorder and families with one or more affected relatives. Total intelligence scores were estimated by admission of the short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III. Results A significant interaction was found between family history of psychiatric disorder and clinical status (F(2,1086.87)= 4.17; p=.016). Patients with a positive family history of psychiatric disorder obtained higher intelligence scores compared to patients with no family history (mean IQ scores are 95.52 and 92.72) with an opposite effect in controls (mean IQ scores are 108.71 and 111.19). No significant difference was found between siblings of schizophrenia patients with or without a positive family history (mean IQ scores are 102.98 and 103.24). Conclusion In patients with schizophrenia, a negative family history of psychiatric disorder was associated with relatively low IQ suggesting that the etiology in these patients may involve environmental or genetic factors which are unique to the patient and are not observed in other relatives. Possible factors include severe environmental

  14. Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with substance use disorder: A hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Majid Gania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pattern of substance use, profile of substance users, and treatment-seeking differ across cultures and continents. These differences could potentially affect the pattern and perhaps prevalence of dual diagnosis. However, the study of dual diagnosis from de-addiction clinics in India is limited in number and methodology. In this study, we report the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric disorders in subjects attending a de-addiction clinic in a teaching hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir. Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, 300 subjects (>18 years of age seeking treatment for substance use disorders were screened with Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus for the presence of psychiatric comorbidity. Subjects were assessed after 4 weeks of complete abstinence from psychoactive substances. Results: Cannabis (26% was the most common single-use substance. It was followed by polysubstance use (22.3% and opioids (21.3%. Among the 300 subjects assessed for the purpose of the study, 174 (58% were found to have dual diagnosis. Psychotic disorders (34% were the most common psychiatric comorbidity, and it was followed by major depressive disorder (16% and bipolar affective disorder (16%. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD was present in 20 (11.5% subjects. When the groups with or without dual diagnosis were compared, cannabis and benzodiazepine dependence was found to be significantly common in the dual diagnosis group. Conclusions: A high prevalence of dual diagnoses, especially psychotic disorders and also PTSD, in our predominantly cannabis-using subjects attending hospital located in a distinct sociocultural setting in India, highlights the importance of taking into consideration the sociocultural context in which substance use as well as dual diagnoses should be understood.

  15. The Risk of Repetition of Attempted Suicide Among Iranian Women with Psychiatric Disorders as Quantified by the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Shakeri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The factors associated with repetition of attempted suicide are poorly categorized in the Iranian population. In this study, the prevalence of different psychiatric disorders among women who attempted suicide and the risk of repetition were assessed. Methods: Participants were women admitted to the Poisoning Emergency Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences following failed suicide attempts. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV symptom checklist. Risk of repetition was evaluated using the Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R. Results: About 72% of individuals had a SBQ-R score >8 and were considered to be at high risk for repeated attempted suicide. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (40.8%. However, the type of psychiatric disorder was not associated with the risk of repetition (p=0.320. Marital status, educational level, employment, substance use, history of suicide among family members, and motivation were not determinant factors for repetition of suicide attempt (p=0.220, 0.880, 0.220, 0.290, 0.350 and 0.270, respectively. Younger women were associated with violent methods of attempted suicide, such as self-cutting, whereas older individuals preferred consumption of poison (p<0.001. Drug overdose was more common among single and married women whereas widows or divorcees preferred self-burning (p=0.004. Conclusion: About 72% of patients with failed suicide attempts were at high risk for repeated attempts. Age, marital status, and type of psychiatric disorder were the only determinants of suicide method. Adjustment disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders among Iranian women. However, this did not predict the risk of further attempts.

  16. Psychiatric implications of language disorders and learning disabilities: risks and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundheim, Suzanne T P V; Voeller, Kytja K S

    2004-10-01

    This article reviews the relationship between different learning disabilities, language disorders, and the psychiatric disorders that are commonly associated with learning disabilities and language disorder: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders, depression, and conduct or antisocial personality disorder. The complex associations between language disorders and specific learning disabilities--dyslexia, nonverbal learning disorder, dyscalculia--and the various psychiatric disorders are discussed. Clinical vignettes are presented to highlight the impact of these disorders on a child's social and psychological development and the importance of early recognition and treatment.

  17. Translational Assessment of Reward and Motivational Deficits in Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der-Avakian, Andre; Barnes, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in reward and motivation are common symptoms characterizing several psychiatric and neurological disorders. Such deficits may include anhedonia, defined as loss of pleasure, as well as impairments in anticipatory pleasure, reward valuation, motivation/effort, and reward learning. This chapter describes recent advances in the development of behavioral tasks used to assess different aspects of reward processing in both humans and non-human animals. While earlier tasks were generally developed independently with limited cross-species correspondence, a newer generation of translational tasks has emerged that are theoretically and procedurally analogous across species and allow parallel testing, data analyses, and interpretation between human and rodent behaviors. Such enhanced conformity between cross-species tasks will facilitate investigation of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying discrete reward and motivated behaviors and is expected to improve our understanding and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by reward and motivation deficits. PMID:26873017

  18. Psychiatric hospitalization among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, David S

    2008-07-01

    This study examined predictors of psychiatric hospitalization among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Data were collected from 760 caregivers of children with ASD. Cox regression was used to determine factors associated with hospitalization. Almost 11% were hospitalized. Youth in single parent homes were more likely to be hospitalized (OR = 2.54), as were youth diagnosed at a later age (OR = 1.10). Engaging in self-injurious behavior (OR = 2.14), aggressive behavior (OR = 4.83), and being diagnosed with depression (OR = 2.48) or obsessive compulsive disorder (OR = 2.35) increased the odds of hospitalization. Risk for hospitalization increased with age and over time. The results suggest early diagnosis and community-based interventions for aggressive and self-injurious behaviors may reduce hospitalizations.

  19. Patients with a psychiatric disorder in general practice: determinants of general practitioners' psychological diagnosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaak, P.F.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Nuijen, J.; Volkers, A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although psychiatric disorders are highly prevalent in the community, many patients with a psychiatric morbidity remain unidentified as such in primary care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze which clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of patients with psychiatric

  20. Psychiatric disorders in adults diagnosed as children with atypical autism. A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders were studied in a clinical sample of 89 individuals with atypical autism (AA) first seen as children, and 258 matched controls from the general population using data from the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Register. The average observation...... time was 36.9 years, and mean age at follow-up 45.3 years. A total of 61 persons with AA (68.5%) had been in contact with psychiatric hospitals during the follow-up period, compared with 10.9% in the comparison group. A whole range of significantly elevated psychiatric disorders was found, so AA...... is not seen to be associated with any specific mental disorder. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders were the most commonly associated psychiatric disorders, diagnosed at least one time in 34.8% of the AA cases. Our findings underscore that it is important for clinicians working in adult psychiatric services...

  1. PERSONALITY AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN WOMEN AFFECTED BY POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta eScaruffi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(pathological personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8 ± 4.7 yrs were evaluated by antropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exner's Comprehensive System (CS and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to C.S. Results: MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders (4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passive-aggressive and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessive-compulsive and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0%, somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach test’s results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress.Conclusion: PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects.

  2. Personality and Psychiatric Disorders in Women Affected by Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaruffi, Elisabetta; Gambineri, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Stefania; Turra, Jenni; Vettor, Roberto; Mioni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrine disorder among fertile women. Studies show reduced quality of life, anxiety, depression, body dissatisfaction, eating disorder, and sexual dysfunction, but the etiology of these disturbs remains still debated. The aim of our study is to verify whether this hyperandrogenic syndrome characterizes a strong psycho(patho)logical personality. Method: Sixty PCOS subjects (mean age 25.8 ± 4.7 years) were evaluated by anthropometric, metabolic, hormonal, clinical, and psychological parameters. After the certainty of the diagnosis of PCOS, the Rorschach test, according to Exner’s comprehensive system (CS) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) were administered to each patient. The control group, on which the comparison was carried out, was composed by 40 healthy and aged compared women who were exclusively administered the Rorschach test according to CS. Results: MCMI-III evidenced axis II DSM-IV personality disorders [4.1% schizoid, depressive, sadistic, negativistic (passive–aggressive), and masochistic, 6.1% avoiding, 12.2% dependent, 20.4% histrionic, 16.3% narcissistic, 2.0% obsessive–compulsive], and axis I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: 10.2% anxiety, 2.0% somatoform disorder and bipolar disorder, 16.3% major depressive disorder. Finally, we found 44.9% delusional disorder and 4.1% thought disorder. Rorschach test’s results show 53.1% reduced coping abilities and social skills, 55.1% depression, 30.6% perceptual distortion and cognitive slippage, 24.5% constantly alert and worry, 8.1% at risk for suicide, and finally about 50% of our patients had chronic stress. Conclusion: PCOS women have relevant personality and psychiatric disorders, when compared with normal subjects. PMID:25429283

  3. ADHD, bruxism and psychiatric disorders: does bruxism increase the chance of a comorbid psychiatric disorder in children with ADHD and their parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2008-11-01

    There is an association between bruxism and ADHD. No published data on psychiatric comorbidities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children with bruxism were found. There is no satisfying treatment method for children with bruxism. If we understand its comorbidities well, a better treatment method could come out. This study was conducted to compare the frequency of comorbid psychiatric disorders in the parents and their ADHD children with and without teeth grinding. It was hypothesized that there is no association between bruxism and prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with ADHD and their parental psychopathology. Eighty-nine ADHD children without teeth grinding were compared with 32 ADHD children with teeth grinding. Their parental psychiatric disorders were also compared. Structured interviews were used to diagnose comorbid psychiatric disorders. The demographic characteristics of the children and their parents were not different between the groups. The only psychiatric disorder in children, which was associated with the groups was oppositional defiant disorder. The rate of conduct disorder, tic disorder, major depressive disorder, separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, enuresis, and obsessive compulsive disorder were not different between the two groups of children. The rate of major depression was more in the mothers of children with teeth grinding than those without such children. These finding were not reported before. ADHD children with teeth grinding have a high prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder. Lack of association between anxiety disorder and presence of teeth grinding might not support the idea that anxiety is associated with teeth grinding. The association of ODD and teeth girding might be a clue about etiology of bruxism. Perhaps, this clue can probably lead to the development of a more satisfying treatment. With consideration of this clue, further studies should survey if there is any

  4. Euthanasia requests, procedures and outcomes for 100 Belgian patients suffering from psychiatric disorders: a retrospective, descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienpont, Lieve; Verhofstadt, Monica; Van Loon, Tony; Distelmans, Wim; Audenaert, Kurt; De Deyn, Peter P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify patterns in euthanasia requests and practices relating to psychiatric patients; to generate recommendations for future research. Design Retrospective analysis of data obtained through medical file review. Setting Outpatient psychiatric clinical setting in the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium, between October 2007 and December 2011; follow-up at the end of December 2012. Participants 100 consecutive psychiatric patients requesting euthanasia based on psychological suffering associated with psychiatric disorders (77 women, 23 men; mean age 47 years; age range 21–80 years). Main outcome measures Patient sociodemographic characteristics; diagnoses; decisions on euthanasia requests; circumstances of euthanasia procedures; patient outcomes at follow-up. Results Most patients had been referred for psychiatric counselling by their physician (n=55) or by LEIF (Life End Information Forum) (n=36). 90 patients had >1 disorder; the most frequent diagnoses were depression (n=58) and personality disorder (n=50). 38 patients required further testing and/or treatment, including 13 specifically tested for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); 12 received an ASD diagnosis (all Asperger syndrome). In total, 48 of the euthanasia requests were accepted and 35 were carried out. Of the 13 remaining patients whose requests were accepted, 8 postponed or cancelled the procedure, because simply having this option gave them enough peace of mind to continue living. In December 2012, 43 patients had died, including 35 by euthanasia; others died by suicide (6), palliative sedation (1) and anorexia nervosa (1). Conclusions Depression and personality disorders are the most common diagnoses in psychiatric patients requesting euthanasia, with Asperger syndrome representing a neglected disease burden. Further research is needed, especially prospective quantitative and qualitative studies, to obtain a better understanding of patients with psychiatric disorders who request

  5. Mental Health Services Use Across the Life Course in Adults with Psychiatric Disorders and Prior Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Amy L.; Lai, Amy X.; Arean, Patricia; Nelson, Craig; Yaffe, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about mental health services use by adults with prior suicidal behavior and current (12-month) psychiatric disorders. This study determined nationally representative prevalence estimates of current mental health services use by these adults, examining racial/ethnic, age, and gender differences. Methods Services use was examined across the life course using 1139 adults with history of suicidal behavior and current mood or anxiety disorders in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES, 2001–2003). Results Overall services use was 47.3%. Across the life course, African Americans showed greater use that increasingly paralleled that by white non-Hispanics and Hispanics/Others, whose use decreased in the latter half of the life course (p interaction=.01). Conclusions Adults with prior suicidal behavior and current psychiatric disorders have low mental health services use. Findings of racial/ethnic disparities in use can help identify those in need of care. PMID:26766753

  6. Psychiatric Disorders, High-Risk Behaviors, and Chronicity of Episodes Among Predominantly African American Homeless Chicago Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Anne L.; Gustafson, Erika L.; Ford, Ashley E.; Edidin, Jennifer P.; Smith, Dale L.; Hunter, Scott J.; Karnik, Niranjan S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This cross-sectional study investigated the relationships between psychiatric and substance-related disorders, high-risk behaviors, and the onset, duration, and frequency of homelessness among homeless youth in Chicago. Methods Sixty-six homeless youth were recruited from two shelters in Chicago. Demographic characteristics, psychopathology, substance use, and risk behaviors were assessed for each participant. Results Increased frequency and duration of homeless episodes were positively correlated with higher rates of psychiatric diagnoses. Increased number of psychiatric diagnoses was positively correlated with increased high-risk behaviors. Participants with diagnoses of Current Suicidality, Manic Episodes, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Substance Abuse, and Psychotic Disorder had a higher chronicity of homelessness than those without diagnoses. Conclusions Significant differences were evident between the three time parameters, suggesting that stratification of data by different time variables may benefit homelessness research by identifying meaningful subgroups who may benefit from individualized interventions. PMID:25130234

  7. Crime and Psychiatric Disorders Among Youth in the US Population: An Analysis of National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Kendell L.; Smith, Philip H.; Westphal, Alexander; Zonana, Howard V.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Current knowledge regarding psychiatric disorders and crime in youth is limited to juvenile justice and community samples. This study examined relationships between psychiatric disorders and self-reported crime involvement in a sample of youth representative of the US population. Method The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (N=10,123; ages 13–17; 2001–2004) was used to examine the relationship between lifetime DSM-IV-based diagnoses, reported crime (property, violent, other), and arrest history. Logistic regression compared the odds of reported crime involvement with specific psychiatric disorders to those without any diagnoses, and examined the odds of crime by psychiatric comorbidity. Results Prevalence of crime was 18.4%. Youth with lifetime psychiatric disorders, compared to no disorders, had significantly greater odds of crime, including violent crime. For violent crime resulting in arrest, conduct disorder (CD; OR=57.5; 95% CI=30.4,108.8), alcohol use disorders (OR=19.5; 95% CI=8.8,43.2), and drug use disorders (OR=16.1; 95% CI=9.3,27.7) had the greatest odds with similar findings for violent crime with no arrest. Psychiatric comorbidity increased the odds of crime. Youth with 3 or more diagnoses (16.0% of population) accounted for 54.1% of those reporting arrest for violent crime. Youth with at least 1 diagnosis committed 85.8% of crime, which was reduced to 67.9% by removing those with CD. Importantly, 88.2% of youth with mental illness report never committing any crime. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of improving access to mental health services for youthful offenders in community settings given the substantial associations found between mental illness and crime in this nationally representative epidemiological sample. PMID:25062596

  8. Relationship of bipolar disorder with psychiatric comorbidity in the postpartum period-a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Verinder

    2017-10-24

    Childbirth can trigger a variety of psychiatric disorders; however, no disorder is as profoundly affected by childbirth as bipolar disorder. Rates of psychiatric comorbidity especially anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, and substance use disorders are quite high in individuals with bipolar disorder. The purpose of this scoping review is to ascertain the effect of childbirth on the relationship between the onset of bipolar disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders. On June 27, 2017, a search of the Medline, PsycINFO, CINHAL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, COCHRANE, and ISI-Web of Science (WOS) databases was performed using the terms mental disorders, mental disease, major depressive disorder, major depression, depression, panic disorder, bipolar disorder, comorbidity, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, eating disorders, reactive attachment disorder, childbirth, parturition, puerperium, postpartum, postpartum period and postnatal period. Reference lists of identified papers were manually searched, and all relevant papers published in English were included. A total of eight relevant articles were identified and included in the review. There is some evidence to suggest that occurrence of certain psychiatric disorders in the postpartum period may predict later onset of bipolar disorder. It is unknown whether childbirth raises the risk of postpartum recurrence of comorbid disorders. Whether patients who have past histories of psychiatric disorders are at increased risk for onset of bipolar disorder in the postpartum period also remains unclear. Additional research is needed to increase our understanding of the impact of childbirth on bipolar disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders. A better understanding of this issue could lead to more accurate and timely detection, improved treatment planning, and optimal delivery of care for these disorders.

  9. Alcohol use disorders increase the risk of completed suicide - Irrespective of other psychiatric disorders. A longitudinal cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2009-01-01

    suicide, AUD, Psychotic disorders, Anxiety disorders, Mood disorders, Personality disorders, Drug abuse, and Other psychiatric disorders. Individuals registered with AUD were at significantly increased risk of committing suicide, with a crude hazard ratio (HR) of 7.98 [Confidence interval (CI): 5......Knowledge of the epidemiology of suicide is a necessary prerequisite for developing prevention programs. The aim of this study was to analyze the risk of completed suicide among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD), and to assess the role of other psychiatric disorders in this association.......27-12.07] compared to individuals without AUD. Adjusting for all psychiatric disorders the risk fell to 3.23 (CI: 1.96-5.33). In the stratified sub-sample of individuals without psychiatric disorders, the risk of completed suicide was 9.69 (CI: 4.88-19.25) among individuals with AUD. The results indicate...

  10. Can psychiatric childhood disorders be due to inborn errors of metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, A; Eyskens, F; Glazemakers, I; van West, D

    2017-02-01

    Many patients who visit a centre for hereditary metabolic diseases remarkably also suffer from a child psychiatric disorder. Those child psychiatric disorders may be the first sign or manifestation of an underlying metabolic disorder. Lack of knowledge of metabolic disorders in child psychiatry may lead to diagnoses being missed. Patients therefore are also at risk for not accessing efficacious treatment and proper counselling. To search the literature for the co-occurrence of child psychiatric disorders, such as ADHD, autism, psychosis, learning disorders and eating disorders and metabolic disorders. A search of the literature was conducted by performing a broad search on PubMed, using the terms "ADHD and metabolic disorders", "autism and metabolic disorders", "psychosis and metabolic disorders", "learning disorders and metabolic disorders", and "eating disorders and metabolic disorders". Based on inclusion criteria (concerning a clear psychiatric disorder and concerning a metabolic disorder) 4441 titles and 249 abstracts were screened and resulted in 71 relevant articles. This thorough literature search provides child and adolescent psychiatrists with an overview of metabolic disorders associated with child psychiatric symptoms, their main characteristics and recommendations for further investigations.

  11. Concurrent Medical and Psychiatric Disorders among Schizophrenic and Neurotic Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Bruno R.; Pai, Shaila

    Although the occurrence of medical illnesses in psychiatric patients is quite high, medical illnesses manifested by psychiatric symptoms are often overlooked. The higher mortality rates among psychiatric patients when compared to the general population may be a reflection of neglect or inadequate treatment of the psychiatric patients' medical…

  12. BRAIN STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CHANGES IN ADOLESCENTS WITH PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence hormonal and neurodevelopmental changes geared to ensure reproduction and achieve independence are very likely mediated by growth of neural processes, remodeling of synaptic connections, increased myelination in prefrontal areas, and maturation of connecting subcortical regions. These processes, greatly accelerated in adolescence, follow an asynchronous pattern in different brain areas. Neuroimaging research using functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging has produced most of the insights regarding brain structural and functional neuropathology in adolescent psychiatric disorders. In schizophrenia, first episodes during adolescence are linked to greater-than-normal losses in gray matter density and white matter integrity, and show a divergence of maturational trajectories from normative neural development, in a progression similar to that of adult-onset schizophrenia. Anxiety and mood disorders in adolescence have been linked to abnormally increased activity in the amygdala and ventral prefrontal cortical areas, although some data suggest that neural abnormalities in the amygdala and anxiety maybe particularly more frequent in adolescents than in adults. Alcohol misuse in adolescence results in reduced integrity in the white matter and reduced gray matter density that, given the high intensity of adolescent synaptic and myelin remodeling, may result in persistent and profound changes in circuits supporting memory, emotional and appetitive control. Interaction of persistent changes due to prenatal exposure with contemporaneous expression of genetic factors and disturbing environmental exposure may be an important factor in the appearance of psychiatric disorders in adolescence. Further progress in understanding adolescent psychopathology will require postmortem research of molecular and cellular determinants in the adolescent brain. PMID:23828425

  13. Neural correlates of apathy in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, acquired brain injury, and psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kos, Claire; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C.; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Apathy can be described as a loss of goal-directed purposeful behavior and is common in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although previous studies investigated associations between abnormal brain functioning and apathy, it is unclear whether the neural basis of apathy is similar

  14. Major depressive disorder in a Kenyan youth sample: relationship with parenting behavior and parental psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasakhala, Lincoln I; Ndetei, David Musyimi; Mathai, Muthoni; Harder, Valerie

    2013-05-10

    Studies on mental health problems during childhood and youth development phases have reported that families of children diagnosed with a depressive disorder tend to be dysfunctional. These dysfunctions have been shown to be mediating factors for children to develop psychiatric disorders in the future. This study was designed to investigate whether perceived parenting behavior and parental psychiatric disorders have any relationship with youth presenting with major depressive disorder. The study sample had a total number of 250 purposely selected youth attending the Youth Clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi. This study found associations between major depressive disorders (MDD) in the youth and co-morbid psychiatric disorders among the youth: conduct disorder (OR = 2.93, 95% CI 1.04 to 8.26, p = 0.035), any anxiety disorder (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.20 to 4.87, p = 0.012), drug abuse (OR = 3.40, 95% CI 2.01 to 5.76, p alcohol use (OR = 3.29, 95% CI 1.94 to 5.57, p depressive disorder than the youth below 16 years or above 18 years of age (OR = 2.66, 95% CI 1.40 to 5.05, p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis shows that both rejecting maternal behavior (AOR = 2.165, 95% CI 1.060 to 4.422, p = 0.003) and maternal MDD (AOR = 5.27, 95% CI 1.10 to 14.76, p depressive disorder are associated with major depressive disorder in children.

  15. ASD, a Psychiatric Disorder, or Both? Psychiatric Diagnoses in Adolescents with High-Functioning ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Oswald, Donald P.; Day, Taylor N.; Eack, Shaun M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Varied presentations of emotion dysregulation in autism complicate diagnostic decision making and may lead to inaccurate psychiatric diagnoses or delayed autism diagnosis for high-functioning children. This pilot study aimed to determine the concordance between prior psychiatric diagnoses and the results of an autism-specific psychiatric interview…

  16. Association between income trajectories in childhood and psychiatric disorder: a Swedish population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Cheng, Siwei; Burström, Bo; Pebley, Anne R; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2017-07-01

    Childhood family income variation is an understudied aspect of households' economic context that may have distinct consequences for children. We identified trajectories of childhood family income over a 12-year period, and examined associations between these trajectories and later psychiatric disorders, among individuals born in Sweden between 1987 and 1991 (n=534 294). We used annual income data between the ages of 3-14 years and identified 5 trajectories (2 high-income upward, 1 downward and 2 low-income upward trajectories). Psychiatric disorders in the follow-up period after age 15 were defined from International Classification of Disease (ICD)-codes in a nationwide patient register. Multiadjusted risks for all psychiatric disorders, as well as for specific psychiatric diagnoses, were calculated as HRs with 95% CIs. Of the 5 identified income trajectories, the constant low and the downward trajectories were particularly associated with later psychiatric disorder. Children with these trajectories had increased risks for psychiatric disorder, including mood, anxiety, psychotic disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The association remained, even after adjusting for important variables including parental psychiatric disorder. In contrast, the relationship was reversed for eating disorders, for which children in higher income trajectories had elevated risks. Findings show that children growing up in a household characterised by low or decreasing family income have an increased risk for psychiatric disorder. Continued work is needed to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in psychiatric disorders. Policies and interventions for psychiatric disorders should consider the socioeconomic background of the family as an important risk or protective factor. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Eating disorders and anabolic androgenic steroids in males - similarities and differences in self-image and psychiatric symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Body dissatisfaction is common among both females and males. Dissatisfaction with the body is a risk factor both for onset of eating disorders and for abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Few studies have however investigated if there are other similarities in respect to self-image or psychiatric symptoms between clinical samples of eating disordered males and males in treatment for negative effects of AAS use. Aim The aim of this study was to compare two clinical samples, one of males with ED and one of males who used AAS, regarding self-image and psychiatric symptoms. Methods This study compared males with eating disorders (n = 13) and males who recently stopped AAS use (n = 29) on self-image and psychiatric symptoms, using The Structural Analysis of Social Behavior self-questionnaire and a shortened version of The Symptom Check List. Results The eating disorder group reported significantly lower scores for Self-emancipation and Active self-love and higher scores for Self-blame and Self-hate. Both groups reported serious psychiatric symptoms. The common denominator between groups was serious psychiatric symptomatology rather than negative self-image. Conclusions The negative self-image profile, especially self-hate, found among males with Eating Disorders may indicate that the studied groups differ in aetiology of the underlying problems. The serious psychiatric symptoms in both groups call staff to pay attention to any thoughts of suicide due to severe depressive symptoms where by specialized psychiatric treatment may be needed. PMID:23958408

  18. The application of tDCS in psychiatric disorders: a brain imaging view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Baeken

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a non-invasive, non-convulsive technique for modulating brain function. In contrast to other non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, where costs, clinical applicability, and availability limit their large-scale use in clinical practices, the low-cost, portable, and easy-to-use tDCS devices may overcome these restrictions. Objective: Despite numerous clinical applications in large numbers of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, it is not quite clear how tDCS influences the mentally affected human brain. In order to decipher potential neural mechanisms of action of tDCS in patients with psychiatric conditions, we focused on the combination of tDCS with neuroimaging techniques. Design: We propose a contemporary overview on the currently available neurophysiological and neuroimaging data where tDCS has been used as a research or treatment tool in patients with psychiatric disorders. Results: Over a reasonably short period of time, tDCS has been broadly used as a research tool to examine neuronal processes in the healthy brain. tDCS has also commonly been applied as a treatment application in a variety of mental disorders, with to date no straightforward clinical outcome and not always accompanied by brain imaging techniques. Conclusion: tDCS, as do other neuromodulation devices, clearly affects the underlying neuronal processes. However, research on these mechanisms in psychiatric patients is rather limited. A better comprehension of how tDCS modulates brain function will help us to define optimal parameters of stimulation in each indication and may result in the detection of biomarkers in favor of clinical response.

  19. Psychiatric disorders in individuals diagnosed with infantile autism as children: A case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, S.E.; Rich, B.; Isager, T.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with psychiatric disorders in 336 matched controls from the general population using data from the nationwide Danish...

  20. Psychiatric disorders in individuals diagnosed with infantile autism as children: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence and types of psychiatric disorders in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with psychiatric disorders in 336 matched controls from the general population using data from the nationwide Danish...

  1. Minor Self-Harm and Psychiatric Disorder: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Moffit, Terrie E.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which minor self-harm in the general population is associated with psychiatric disorder. A population-based sample of 980 young adults was interviewed independently about past-year suicidal and self-harm behavior and thoughts, and psychiatric disorders. Self-harm included self-harmful behaviors such as…

  2. Annual Research Review: Transgenic Mouse Models of Childhood-Onset Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Holly R.; Feng, Guoping

    2011-01-01

    Childhood-onset psychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), mood disorders, obsessive compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSD), and schizophrenia (SZ), affect many school-age children, leading to a lower quality of life, including difficulties in school and personal relationships that…

  3. Cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders among Latinos in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among Latinos and disproportionately impacts people with psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between CVD and psychiatric disorders among different Latino subgroups using a nationally representative sample. Latinos participants (N = 6359) were drawn from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. A structured diagnostic interview was used to determine psychiatric diagnoses for any past-year mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. A self-reported measure of physician-confirmed CVD was used. The relationships between CVD and psychiatric disorders among Latino subgroups were examined with logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographics, CVD-risk factors, and acculturation. CVD were highest among Puerto Ricans (12%) and Cubans (11%), followed by Other Latinos (7%) and Mexicans (5%). The relationship between psychiatric disorders and CVD differed by Latino subgroups. Significantly increased odds of CVD were found among Mexicans with any past-year mood and anxiety disorders, Puerto Ricans with any past-year psychiatric disorders, Cubans with any past-year mood and substance abuse disorders, and Other Latinos with any past-year mood, anxiety, and lifetime schizophrenia/psychotic disorders. The associations between CVD and psychiatric disorders are not uniform among Latinos. Efforts to address the need for health and mental health services must carefully consider this heterogeneity.

  4. Lifetime Prevalence, Age of Risk, and Etiology of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschtritt, Matthew E.; Lee, Paul C.; Pauls, David L.; Dion, Yves; Grados, Marco A.; Illmann, Cornelia; King, Robert A.; Sandor, Paul; McMahon, William M.; Lyon, Gholson J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Kurlan, Roger; Robertson, Mary M.; Osiecki, Lisa; Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by high rates of psychiatric comorbidity; however, few studies have fully characterized these comorbidities. Furthermore, most studies have included relatively few participants (Tourette syndrome was associated with increased risk of anxiety (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0–1.9; P = .04) and decreased risk of substance use disorders (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3–0.9; P = .02) independent from comorbid OCD and ADHD; however, high rates of mood disorders among participants with TS (29.8%) may be accounted for by comorbid OCD (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.9–4.8; P < .001). Parental history of ADHD was associated with a higher burden of non-OCD, non-ADHD comorbid psychiatric disorders (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32–2.61; P < .001). Genetic correlations between TS and mood (RhoG, 0.47), anxiety (RhoG, 0.35), and disruptive behavior disorders (RhoG, 0.48), may be accounted for by ADHD and, for mood disorders, by OCD. Conclusions and Relevance This study is, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive of its kind. It confirms the belief that psychiatric comorbidities are common among individuals with TS, demonstrates that most comorbidities begin early in life, and indicates that certain comorbidities may be mediated by the presence of comorbid OCD or ADHD. In addition, genetic analyses suggest that some comorbidities may be more biologically related to OCD and/or ADHD rather than to TS. PMID:25671412

  5. Sociotropy, autonomy, and personality disorder criteria in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jennifer Q; Robins, Clive J; Gittes-Fox, Marci

    2002-12-01

    Sociotropy and autonomy (Beck, 1983) are sets of beliefs, concerns, and behavioral tendencies that are proposed to create vulnerability to depression and other psychopathology and to influence its manifestation and treatment response. Other theoretical frameworks (Blatt, 1974) have made similar suggestions. We investigated the differential relations of sociotropy and autonomy to dimensional scores for each DSM-III-R personality disorder (PD) in a sample of 188 psychiatric patients, controlling for the other set of characteristics and for the other PDs. Histrionic and dependent PD traits were related specifically to sociotropy. Paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, and passive-aggressive PD traits were related specifically to autonomy. Borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, and self-defeating PD traits were related significantly and about equally to both sociotropy and autonomy. Obsessive-compulsive PD traits were not related consistently to either. Results were mostly as predicted and suggest that sociotropy and autonomy may be useful constructs for understanding and treating PDs.

  6. The role of the cerebellum in neurobiology of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Alia

    2014-11-01

    For a long time, cerebellum was only known for its role in movement coordination and until recently, its role in non-motor brain function was largely ignored. Recent evidences has expanded the concept of coordination, from voluntary movements and orientation of the body to nearly every cerebral function including emotion regulation, social cognition, and time perception. This article aims to review the current evidences supporting the role of the cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, including studies using volumetric and/or functional imaging techniques, genetic and molecular studies, and clinical reports. The implication of these findings, their potential use, and future directions are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Daily weather variables and affective disorder admissions to psychiatric hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Stephen; Kinsella, Anthony; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have reported that admission rates in patients with affective disorders are subject to seasonal variation. Notwithstanding, there has been limited evaluation of the degree to which changeable daily meteorological patterns influence affective disorder admission rates. A handful of small studies have alluded to a potential link between psychiatric admission rates and meteorological variables such as environmental temperature (heat waves in particular), wind direction and sunshine. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test, ARIMA and time-series regression analyses to examine whether daily meteorological variables—namely wind speed and direction, barometric pressure, rainfall, hours of sunshine, sunlight radiation and temperature—influence admission rates for mania and depression across 12 regions in Ireland over a 31-year period. Although we found some very weak but interesting trends for barometric pressure in relation to mania admissions, daily meteorological patterns did not appear to affect hospital admissions overall for mania or depression. Our results do not support the small number of papers to date that suggest a link between daily meteorological variables and affective disorder admissions. Further study is needed.

  8. Psychiatric Disorders in HTLV-1-Infected Individuals with Bladder Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória O Orge

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported high rates of depression and anxiety in HTLV-1 infected individuals with the neurological disease and in the asymptomatic phase. No study has investigated the rates in individuals that already show bladder symptoms without severe neurological changes; that is, during the oligosymptomatic phase. The present study investigated patients in this intermediate form on the spectrum of the infection.Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Brazilian Version 5.0.0 (MINI PLUS and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS. Data analysis was performed in STATA statistical software (version 12.0. Depressive disorder was the most frequent comorbidity. Current depressive disorder was higher in the group of overactive bladder subjects (11.9%, and lifelong depression was more frequent in the HAM/TSP group (35%. The three groups had similar frequencies of anxiety disorders. Increased frequency and severity of anxiety and depression symptoms were observed in the overactive bladder group.The results suggest that individuals with overactive bladders need a more thorough assessment from the mental health perspective. These patients remain an understudied group regarding psychiatric comorbidities.

  9. The effect of psychiatric symptoms on the internet addiction disorder in Isfahan′s University students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet addiction disorder is an interdisciplinary phenomenon and it has been studied from different viewpoints in terms of various sciences such as medicine, computer, sociology, law, ethics, and psychology. The aim of this study was to determine the association of psychiatric symptoms with Internet addiction while controlling for the effects of age, gender, marital status, and educational levels. It is hypothesized, that high levels of Internet addiction are associated with psychiatric symptoms and are specially correlated with obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total number of 250 students from Isfahan′s universities were randomly selected. Subjects completed the demographic questionnaire, the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision (SCL-90-R. Data was analyzed using the multiple logistic regression method. Results: There was an association between psychiatric symptoms such as somatization, sensitivity, depression, anxiety, aggression, phobias, and psychosis with exception of paranoia; and diagnosis of Internet addiction controlling for age, sex, education level, marital status, and type of universities. Conclusions: A great percentage of youths in the population suffer from the adverse effects of Internet addiction. It is necessary for psychiatrists and psychologists to be aware of the mental problems caused by Internet addiction.

  10. The prevalence and burden of psychiatric disorders in primary health care visits in Qatar: Too little time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, somatization, obsessive compulsive, and bipolar disorders are recognized as causing the biggest burden of disease worldwide. Aim: In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence and burden of common mental disorders at Primary Health Care Centers (PHCC using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI in the Qatari population, aged 18-65 who attended Primary Health Care (PHC settings. Design: A prospective cross-sectional study conducted during November 2011 to October 2012. Setting: Primary Health Care Centers of the Supreme Council of Health, Qatar. Subjects: A total of 2,000 Qatari subjects aged 18-65 years were approached; 1475 (73.3% agreed to participate. Methods: Prevalence and severity of International Classification of Disease-10 disorders were assessed with the WHO-CIDI (Version 3.0. Results: Of the 1475 participants, 830 (56.3% were females and 645 (43.7% was males. One-third were aged 35-49 years 558 (37.8%. The three most common disorders were major depression disorders (18.31%, any anxiety disorders (17.3%, any mood disorders (16.95%, followed by separation anxiety disorders (15.25%, personality disorder (14.1%. In the present study, prevalence in women was significantly higher than men for the most common psychiatric disorders, specifically generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobias, obsessive compulsive disorders, posttraumatic disorder, somatization, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, dysthymia, and oppositional defiant disorder. Of the total 20% had only one psychiatric diagnosis and 12% had two disorders, 9.7% respondents with three diagnoses, and finally 4.3% of respondents had four or more diagnoses. Conclusion: One-fifth of all adults who attended the PHCC (20% had at least one psychiatric diagnosis. The CIDI is a useful instrument for psychiatric diagnosis in community

  11. [Psychiatric disorders in intensive care--part three: psychic reactions, affective and anxiety disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauseneck, Till; Krähenmann, Olivia; Heimendahl, Jenny von; Schelling, Gustav; Padberg, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Perpetual noise, pain, disturbed day-night-cycle, the inability to talk and the difficulty, especially during weaning, to differentiate alertness from sleep and dream from reality are some of the burdens ICU patients are suffering from. Additional sedation and potential sedation gaps plus the medical treatment itself put strain on critically ill humans. Those external stimuli partly cannot be handled well by the patients. Some of these factors or a combination of them, combined with a predisposition and/or insufficient coping mechanisms can result in a wide range of psychiatric disorders. Often psychiatric symptoms appear unspecific and difficult to categorize. Firstly some psychopathological cardinal symptoms are described and potential differential diagnoses are mentioned. After that the following article focuses on sleep, adjustment, depressive and the spectrum of anxiety disorders (especially generalized anxiety disorders, panic disorders, acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)). The article provides prevalences, etiology and risk factors as well as symptomatology, diagnostics and therapeutic options. Those disorders can be diagnosed in ICU but also after transferring to general ward. In our own experience the transfer period is a vulnerable phase for psychopathologic symptoms. As apart from the individual suffering the course of the somatic disease as well as the rehabilitation process are impaired and the disorders have a tendency to have a chronic course, close and early collaboration of ICU physicians and psychiatrists is mandatory.

  12. Psychiatric disorders in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome are frequent, diverse and strongly associated with pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershenfeld, Samantha Aliza; Wasim, Syed; McNiven, Vanda; Parikh, Manasi; Majewski, Paula; Faghfoury, Hanna; So, Joyce

    2016-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a heterogeneous group of hereditary connective tissue disorders characterized by joint hypermobility, widespread musculoskeletal pain and tissue fragility. Psychiatric disorders and psychosocial impairment are common, yet poorly characterized, findings in EDS patients. We investigated the frequency and types of psychiatric disorders and their relationship to systemic manifestations in a cohort of 106 classic and hypermobility type EDS patients. In this retrospective study, extensive medical chart review was performed for patients referred at two genetics clinics who were diagnosed with EDS. Statistical analysis was undertaken to determine the frequency of psychiatric disorders and association with systemic findings. Psychiatric disorders were found in 42.5% of the EDS cohort, with 22.7% of patients affected with 2 or more psychiatric diagnoses. Anxiety and depression were most commonly reported, with frequencies of 23.6 and 25.5%, respectively. A variety of other psychiatric diagnoses were also identified. Abdominal pain [odds ratio (OR) 7.38], neuropathic pain (OR 4.07), migraines (OR 5.21), joint pain (OR 2.85) and fatigue (OR 5.55) were significantly associated with the presence of a psychiatric disorder. The presence of any pain symptom was significantly associated with having a psychiatric disorder (OR 9.68). Muscle pain (OR 2.79), abdominal pain (OR 5.78), neuropathic pain (OR 3.91), migraines (OR 2.63) and fatigue (OR 3.78) were significantly associated with having an anxiety or mood disorder. Joint hypermobility and the classic dermatological features of EDS showed no significant association with having a psychiatric disorder. Our findings demonstrate a high frequency of psychiatric disorders and an association with pain symptoms in EDS.

  13. Current psychiatric disorders in patients with epilepsy are predicted by maltreatment experiences during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudda, Kirsten; Illies, Dominik; Herzig, Cornelia; Schröder, Katharina; Bien, Christian G; Neuner, Frank

    2017-09-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders. Although the prevalence of psychiatric disorders is high in epilepsy patients, it is unknown if childhood maltreatment experiences are elevated compared to the normal population and if early maltreatment is a risk factor for current psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy patients. This is the main purpose of this study. Structured interviews were used to assess current Axis I diagnoses in 120 epilepsy patients from a tertiary Epilepsy Center (34 TLE patients, 86 non-TLE patients). Childhood maltreatment in the family and peer victimization were assessed with validated questionnaires. Patients' maltreatment scores were compared with those of a representative matched control group. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the potential impact of childhood maltreatment on current psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy patients. Compared to a matched control group, epilepsy patients had higher emotional and sexual maltreatment scores. Patients with a current psychiatric diagnosis reported more family and peer maltreatment than patients without a psychiatric disorder. Family maltreatment scores predicted the likelihood of a current psychiatric disorder. TLE patients did not differ from non-TLE patients according to maltreatment experiences and rates of current psychiatric disorders. Our findings suggest that in epilepsy patients emotional and sexual childhood maltreatment is experienced more often than in the normal population and that early maltreatment is a general risk factor for psychiatric comorbidities in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Parents of adolescents with psychiatric disorders: insight into the disorder, self-stigma and parental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Morag-Yaffe, Mayad; Gaziel, Meyrav; Schapir, Lior; Zalsman, Gil; Shoval, Gal

    2014-07-01

    Parents of adolescents with mental disorders experience stress partially due to the way they perceive and experience their offspring's disorder. The current study assessed the mediator role of self-stigma in the relationship between insight into the disorder and parental stress of parents of adolescents with mental disorders. A total of 37 parents of adolescents with psychiatric disorders were assessed for their level of insight, self-stigma and parental stress. The hypothesized mediation model was confirmed and is consistent with previous study on parents of adults with severe mental illness. The positive association between insight and parental stress is mediated by these parents' self-stigma, suggesting that insight increases the self-stigma, which in turn increases the parental stress. These results may have clinical implications with regard to the treatment of the family of adolescents with mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Polygenic risk for five psychiatric disorders and cross-disorder and disorder-specific neural connectivity in two independent populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianqi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Major psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, autism (AUT, bipolar disorder (BD, major depressive disorder (MDD, and schizophrenia (SZ, are highly heritable and polygenic. Evidence suggests that these five disorders have both shared and distinct genetic risks and neural connectivity abnormalities. To measure aggregate genetic risks, the polygenic risk score (PGRS was computed. Two independent general populations (N = 360 and N = 323 were separately examined to investigate whether the cross-disorder PGRS and PGRS for a specific disorder were associated with individual variability in functional connectivity. Consistent altered functional connectivity was found with the bilateral insula: for the left supplementary motor area and the left superior temporal gyrus with the cross-disorder PGRS, for the left insula and right middle and superior temporal lobe associated with the PGRS for autism, for the bilateral midbrain, posterior cingulate, cuneus, and precuneus associated with the PGRS for BD, and for the left angular gyrus and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex associated with the PGRS for schizophrenia. No significant functional connectivity was found associated with the PGRS for ADHD and MDD. Our findings indicated that genetic effects on the cross-disorder and disorder-specific neural connectivity of common genetic risk loci are detectable in the general population. Our findings also indicated that polygenic risk contributes to the main neurobiological phenotypes of psychiatric disorders and that identifying cross-disorder and specific functional connectivity related to polygenic risks may elucidate the neural pathways for these disorders.

  16. Psychiatric symptoms and disorders in HIV infected mine workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The findings confirm that patients with a new diagnosis of HIV may present with disorders of thought and/or cognition as well as gross behavioural disturbance, and that psychotic symptoms and secondary mania could be manifestations of the clinical onset of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) ...

  17. Mismatch negativity/P3a complex in young people with psychiatric disorders: a cluster analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manreena Kaur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have recently shown that the event-related potential biomarkers, mismatch negativity (MMN and P3a, are similarly impaired in young patients with schizophrenia- and affective-spectrum psychoses as well as those with bipolar disorder. A data driven approach may help to further elucidate novel patterns of MMN/P3a amplitudes that characterise distinct subgroups in patients with emerging psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Eighty seven outpatients (16 to 30 years were assessed: 19 diagnosed with a depressive disorder; 26 with a bipolar disorder; and 42 with a psychotic disorder. The MMN/P3a complex was elicited using a two-tone passive auditory oddball paradigm with duration deviant tones. Hierarchical cluster analysis utilising frontal, central and temporal neurophysiological variables was conducted. RESULTS: Three clusters were determined: the 'globally impaired' cluster (n = 53 displayed reduced frontal and temporal MMN as well as reduced central P3a amplitudes; the 'largest frontal MMN' cluster (n = 17 were distinguished by increased frontal MMN amplitudes and the 'largest temporal MMN' cluster (n = 17 was characterised by increases in temporal MMN only. Notably, 55% of those in the globally impaired cluster were diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorder, whereas the three patient subgroups were equally represented in the remaining two clusters. The three cluster-groups did not differ in their current symptomatology; however, the globally impaired cluster was the most neuropsychologically impaired, compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that in emerging psychiatric disorders there are distinct MMN/P3a profiles of patient subgroups independent of current symptomatology. Schizophrenia-spectrum patients tended to show the most global impairments in this neurophysiological complex. Two other subgroups of patients were found to have neurophysiological profiles suggestive of quite different neurobiological (and

  18. Characteristics of unrecognised bipolar disorder in patients treated for major depressive disorder in China: general versus psychiatric hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, F Z; Xiang, Y T; Lu, Z; Wang, G; Hu, C; Kilbourne, A M; Ungvari, G S; Fang, Y R; Si, T M; Yang, H C; Lai, K Yc; Hu, J; Chen, Z Y; Huang, Y; Sun, J; Wang, X P; Li, H C; Zhang, J B; Zhang, X Y; Chiu, H F K

    2013-12-01

    Bipolar disorder is often misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder. Such misdiagnosis partly depends on the type of treatment setting. This study compared general hospital psychiatric units with psychiatric hospitals in China with respect to basic demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with unrecognised bipolar disorder who are treated for major depressive disorder. Patients treated for major depressive disorder were consecutively examined in 13 health centres (6 general hospital psychiatric units and 7 psychiatric hospitals) in China. Their socio-demographic and clinical features were recorded using a standardised protocol and data collection procedure. The DSM-IV diagnoses were established using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Of the 1487 patients included in the study, 309 (20.8%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. There was no significant difference between general hospital psychiatric units and psychiatric hospitals in the ratio of all types of unrecognised bipolar disorders (χ2 = 0.008, degrees of freedom = 1, p = 0.9) and bipolar II disorders (χ2 = 3.1, degrees of freedom = 1, p = 0.08). The proportions of unrecognised bipolar I disorders (χ2 = 4.1, degrees of freedom = 1, p = 0.04) differed significantly between the 2 types of study site. Multivariate analyses showed that patients with bipolar I disorders with more seasonal depressive episodes were more likely to receive treatment in general hospital psychiatric units (odds ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-9.8). Patients with bipolar I disorders receiving treatment in general hospital psychiatric units had different clinical characteristics compared to their counterparts treated in psychiatric hospitals in China.

  19. A prospective case control study of psychiatric disorders in adults with epilepsy and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turky, Amna; Felce, David; Jones, Glyn; Kerr, Mike

    2011-07-01

    No study to date has prospectively investigated the impact of epilepsy on psychiatric disorders among adults with an intellectual disability (ID). This study aimed to determine prospectively the influence of epilepsy on the development of psychiatric disorders in adults with ID. Psychiatric symptoms were measured prospectively over a 1-year period among 45 adults with ID and active epilepsy and 45 adults with ID without epilepsy, matched on level of ID. The 1-year incidence rate (IR) of commonly occurring Axis 1 psychiatric disorders was compared with and without controlling for possible confounding factors. Total psychiatric symptom scores over the period were compared between the two groups using repeated-measures analysis of covariance. Adults with epilepsy and ID had a more than seven times increased risk for developing psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and unspecified disorders of presumed organic origin, including dementia, over a 1-year period compared to those with ID only. Comparison of the psychiatric scores showed the epilepsy group to have significantly higher unspecified disorder and depression symptom scores. The findings point to an increased risk of depression and unspecified disorders, including dementia, among adults with ID and epilepsy. Further exploration of the nature and treatment of these unspecified disorders may help the care of people with epilepsy and ID. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandu, Aruna; Bharathi, S; Dudala, Shankar Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is on rise world over, especially in developing countries such as India. According to the World Health Organization, about 30% of Indians consume alcohol, out of which 4%-13% are daily consumers and up to 50% of them, fall under the category of hazardous drinking. Another worrying trend from India is that the average age of initiation of alcohol use has reduced from 28 years during the 1980s to 17 years in 2007. In India, alcohol abuse also amounts to huge annual losses due to alcohol-related problems in workplaces. This was a cross-sectional, noninterventional study which was carried out at the Department of Psychiatry, Sri Venkateswara Ramnaraian Ruia Government General Hospital (SVRRGGH), Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and nature of psychiatric morbidity in spouses of patients with alcohol-related disorders (ARDs). Study design - Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Study setting - Psychiatry Department of SVRRGGH, Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati. Study period - October 1, 2014 to September 30, 2015. Study units - the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry, with a diagnosis of ARDs. After the ethical clearance from the Institutional Ethical Committee, the spouses of adult patients attending the Department of Psychiatry with a diagnosis of ARDs according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders constitute the population for the investigation. After obtaining written informed consent from each of the concerned subjects, demographic details and history of psychiatric illness were noted as per the structured pro forma. The age of the alcohol-dependent men and spouses of men with ADS ranged from 23 to 67 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 41.24 ± 10.101) and 21-60 years (mean ± SD 35.04 ± 8.98), respectively. Among the study population, 36.6% of alcohol-dependent men were in the age group of 31

  1. Does Vitamin C Influence Neurodegenerative Diseases and Psychiatric Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocot, Joanna; Luchowska-Kocot, Dorota; Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Musik, Irena; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2017-06-27

    Vitamin C (Vit C) is considered to be a vital antioxidant molecule in the brain. Intracellular Vit C helps maintain integrity and function of several processes in the central nervous system (CNS), including neuronal maturation and differentiation, myelin formation, synthesis of catecholamine, modulation of neurotransmission and antioxidant protection. The importance of Vit C for CNS function has been proven by the fact that targeted deletion of the sodium-vitamin C co-transporter in mice results in widespread cerebral hemorrhage and death on post-natal day one. Since neurological diseases are characterized by increased free radical generation and the highest concentrations of Vit C in the body are found in the brain and neuroendocrine tissues, it is suggested that Vit C may change the course of neurological diseases and display potential therapeutic roles. The aim of this review is to update the current state of knowledge of the role of vitamin C on neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic sclerosis, as well as psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety and schizophrenia. The particular attention is attributed to understanding of the mechanisms underlying possible therapeutic properties of ascorbic acid in the presented disorders.

  2. Disorders of memory and plasticity in psychiatric disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittenger, Christopher

    2013-12-01

    Plasticity is found throughout the nervous system and is thought to underlie key aspects of development, learning and memory, and repair. Neuropiastic processes include synaptic plasticity, cellular growth and remodeling, and neurogenesis. Dysregulation of these processes can contribute to a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. In this review we explore three different ways in which dysregulation of neuropiastic and mnemonic processes can contribute to psychiatric illness. First, impairment of the mechanisms of plasticity can lead to cognitive deficits; this is most obvious in dementia and amnesia, but is also seen in more subtle forms in other conditions. We explore the relationship between stress, major depression, and impaired neuroplasticity in some detail. Second, enhanced memories can be pathogenic; we explore the example of post-traumatic stress disorder, in which intrusive trauma associated memories, accompanied by hyperactivity of the normal fear learning circuitry, are core aspects of the pathology. Third, impaired modulation of the relationship between parallel memory systems can contribute to maladaptive patterns of behavior; we explore the bias towards inflexible, habit-like behavior patterns in drug addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Together, these examples illustrate how different abnormalities in the mechanisms of neuroplasticity and memory formation can contribute to various forms of psychopathology. It is hoped that a growing understanding of these relationships, and of the fundamental mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity in the normal brain, will pave the way for new understandings of the mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disease and the development of novel treatment strategies.

  3. Psychiatric Disorders and Polyphenols: Can They Be Helpful in Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Trebatická

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of psychiatric disorders permanently increases. Polyphenolic compounds can be involved in modulation of mental health including brain plasticity, behaviour, mood, depression, and cognition. In addition to their antioxidant ability other biomodulating properties have been observed. In the pathogenesis of depression disturbance in neurotransmitters, increased inflammatory processes, defects in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and redox imbalance are observed. Ginkgo biloba, green tea, and Quercus robur extracts and curcumin can affect neuronal system in depressive patients. ADHD patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, especially stimulants, report significant adverse effects; therefore, an alternative treatment is searched for. An extract from Ginkgo biloba and from Pinus pinaster bark, Pycnogenol, could become promising complementary supplements in ADHD treatment. Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder, with oxidative stress involved in its pathophysiology. The direct interference of polyphenols with schizophrenia pathophysiology has not been reported yet. However, increased oxidative stress caused by haloperidol was inhibited ex vivo by different polyphenols. Curcumin, extract from green tea and from Ginkgo biloba, may have benefits on serious side effects associated with administration of neuroleptics to patients suffering from schizophrenia. Polyphenols in the diet have the potential to become medicaments in the field of mental health after a thorough study of their mechanism of action.

  4. Psychiatric Disorders and Polyphenols: Can They Be Helpful in Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebatická, Jana; Ďuračková, Zdeňka

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders permanently increases. Polyphenolic compounds can be involved in modulation of mental health including brain plasticity, behaviour, mood, depression, and cognition. In addition to their antioxidant ability other biomodulating properties have been observed. In the pathogenesis of depression disturbance in neurotransmitters, increased inflammatory processes, defects in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and redox imbalance are observed. Ginkgo biloba, green tea, and Quercus robur extracts and curcumin can affect neuronal system in depressive patients. ADHD patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, especially stimulants, report significant adverse effects; therefore, an alternative treatment is searched for. An extract from Ginkgo biloba and from Pinus pinaster bark, Pycnogenol, could become promising complementary supplements in ADHD treatment. Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder, with oxidative stress involved in its pathophysiology. The direct interference of polyphenols with schizophrenia pathophysiology has not been reported yet. However, increased oxidative stress caused by haloperidol was inhibited ex vivo by different polyphenols. Curcumin, extract from green tea and from Ginkgo biloba, may have benefits on serious side effects associated with administration of neuroleptics to patients suffering from schizophrenia. Polyphenols in the diet have the potential to become medicaments in the field of mental health after a thorough study of their mechanism of action. PMID:26180581

  5. Mechanisms of the placebo effect in pain and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R D; Tiwari, A K; Kennedy, J L

    2016-11-01

    Placebo effect research over the past 15 years has improved our understanding of how placebo treatments reduce patient symptoms. The expectation of symptom improvement is the primary factor underlying the placebo effect. Such expectations are shaped by past experiences, contextual cues and biological traits, which ultimately modulate one's degree of response to a placebo. The body of evidence that describes the physiology of the placebo effect has been derived from mechanistic studies primarily restricted to the setting of pain. Imaging findings support the role of endogenous opioid and dopaminergic networks in placebo analgesia in both healthy patients as well as patients with painful medical conditions. In patients with psychiatric illnesses such as anxiety disorders or depression, a vast overlap in neurological changes is observed in drug responders and placebo responders supporting the role of serotonergic networks in placebo response. Molecular techniques have been relatively underutilized in understanding the placebo effect until recently. We present an overview of the placebo responder phenotypes and genetic markers that have been associated with the placebo effect in pain, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and depression.

  6. Psychiatric Disorders and Polyphenols: Can They Be Helpful in Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebatická, Jana; Ďuračková, Zdeňka

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders permanently increases. Polyphenolic compounds can be involved in modulation of mental health including brain plasticity, behaviour, mood, depression, and cognition. In addition to their antioxidant ability other biomodulating properties have been observed. In the pathogenesis of depression disturbance in neurotransmitters, increased inflammatory processes, defects in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and redox imbalance are observed. Ginkgo biloba, green tea, and Quercus robur extracts and curcumin can affect neuronal system in depressive patients. ADHD patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, especially stimulants, report significant adverse effects; therefore, an alternative treatment is searched for. An extract from Ginkgo biloba and from Pinus pinaster bark, Pycnogenol, could become promising complementary supplements in ADHD treatment. Schizophrenia is a devastating mental disorder, with oxidative stress involved in its pathophysiology. The direct interference of polyphenols with schizophrenia pathophysiology has not been reported yet. However, increased oxidative stress caused by haloperidol was inhibited ex vivo by different polyphenols. Curcumin, extract from green tea and from Ginkgo biloba, may have benefits on serious side effects associated with administration of neuroleptics to patients suffering from schizophrenia. Polyphenols in the diet have the potential to become medicaments in the field of mental health after a thorough study of their mechanism of action.

  7. [The role of psychological factors and psychiatric disorders in skin diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Dudek, Bohdan; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Dudek, Wojciech; Garnczarek, Adrianna; Turczyn, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the relation between psychological factors and psychiatric disorders in patients with skin diseases is discussed. On the one hand psychological factors (stress, negative emotions) can influence the generation and aggravation of skin disorders (urticaria, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo), on the other hand psychological disorders can result in some skin diseases (psoriasis, atopic dermatitis). In the majority of cases the quality of life is poorly estimated by patients with skin problems. Psychodermatology is divided into three categories according to the relationship between skin diseases and mental disorders: 1) psychophysiologic disorders caused by skin diseases triggering different emotional states (stress), but not directly combined with mental disorders (psoriasis, eczema); 2) primary psychiatric disorders responsible for self-induced skin disorders (trichotillomania); and 3) secondary psychiatric disorders caused by disfiguring skin (ichthyosis, acne conglobata, vitiligo), which can lead to states of fear, depression or suicidal thoughts.

  8. Impulse control disorders are associated with multiple psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Elina; Kaasinen, Valtteri; Siri, Chiara; Martikainen, Kirsti; Cilia, Roberto; Niemelä, Solja; Joutsa, Juho

    2014-01-01

    Impulse control disorders can have serious adverse consequences to the life of a patient with Parkinson's disease. Although impulse control disorders are common, a possible psychiatric comorbidity has not been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychiatric symptoms exhibited by Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders. The study was conducted as a postal survey to patients in the registry of the Finnish Parkinson Association. A total of 290 Parkinson's disease patients were evaluated for impulse control disorders using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease. Psychiatric symptoms were systematically screened using the Symptom Checklist 90. We found that 108 of the evaluated patients had one or more impulse control disorders. Patients with impulse control disorders had markedly higher scores for symptoms of psychoticism (Bonferroni corrected p disorder (p disorders. Impulse control disorders were shown to be independently associated with these symptoms. Patients with multiple impulse control disorders had higher scores for depression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms when compared with patients that exhibited only one impulse control disorder. COUNCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the previous observations that impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are linked with multiple psychiatric symptoms, including psychoticism, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and depression. Clinicians treating these patients should acknowledge the concomitant psychiatric symptoms.

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Medication Non-Adherence Questionnaire in Patients With Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahreini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Non-adherence to medication in psychiatric patients and identification of related risk factors has provided serious challenges for care service providers. Objectives The current study aims to determine the psychometrics of a questionnaire used to indicate risk factors related to non-adherence to medication in psychiatric patients. Patients and Methods Four-hundred patients with psychiatric disorders in Bushehr and Shiraz were enrolled in this cross-sectional study using convenient sampling methods. An initial questionnaire was designed with 23 items. Following the confirmation of content and face validity of the questionnaire, the questionnaire was completed by the participants and 11 experts contributing to the administration. The item impact score, content validity index (CVI, and content validity ratio (CVR were examined using exploratory factor analysis. In order to calculate the internal and external reliability, the Kuder-Richardson and re-test methods were used. Results Factor analysis revealed five factors in the questionnaire. Five of 23 items had low content validity and were eliminated. The CVI and CVR of the questionnaire were 0.89 and 0.85, respectively. One statement was eliminated owing to a reduced factor load. Internal reliability was r = 0.86, estimated using the Kuder-Richardson method, and external reliability was r = 0.93, estimated via a Pearson correlation coefficient. Five factors resulting from the questionnaire had optimal reliability according to the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.79. Five factors were extracted, including factors related to disease, patient and environment, attitudes toward treatment and therapist, drug side effects, and previous experience to treatment. Conclusions The questionnaire on risk factors related to medication non-adherence in patients with psychiatric disorders had acceptable psychometric characteristics, and is a useful tool to be implemented in medical centers and

  10. Psychiatric Disorders in Adolescents and Adults with Autism and Intellectual Disability: A Representative Study in One County in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Trine L.; Helverschou, Sissel B; Eilertsen, Dag E.; Heggelund, Trond; Myrbakk, Even; Martinsen, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Few studies assess psychiatric disorders in representative samples of individuals with autism and ID. Symptoms of autism and psychiatric disorders have been confounded. PAC, a conceptually analysed and validated screening instrument, was used. Aims: Assess prevalence of psychiatric disorders in individuals with intellectual disability only…

  11. Examining Psychiatric Disorder as a Risk Factor for Cancer in a Prospective Cohort Study of 1,165,039 Swedish Men: Different Analytical Strategies Reveal Different Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Elise; Batty, G. David; Mulheran, Paul A.; Gale, Catharine R.; Osborn, David P.; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Background Associations between psychiatric disorders and cancer incidence are inconsistent, with studies reporting cancer rates in psychiatric patients that are higher, similar, or lower than the general population. Exploration of these associations is complicated by difficulties in establishing the timing of onset of psychiatric disorders and cancer, and the associated possibility of reverse causality. Some studies have dealt with this problem by excluding patients with cancers pre-dating their psychiatric illness; others have not considered the issue. Methods We examined associations between psychiatric hospitalization and cancer incidence in a cohort of 1,165,039 Swedish men, and explored the impact of different analytical strategies on these associations using real and simulated data. Results Relative to men without psychiatric hospitalization, we observed consistent increases in smoking-related cancers in those with psychiatric hospitalizations, regardless of analytical approach (for example, hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.73 (1.52, 1.96)). However, associations with nonsmoking-related cancers were highly dependent on analytical strategy. In analyses based on the full cohort, we observed no association or a modest increase in cancer incidence in those with psychiatric hospitalizations (1.14 (1.07, 1.22)). In contrast, analyses excluding men whose cancer predated their psychiatric hospitalizations, resulted in a reduction in future cancer incidence in psychiatric patients (0.72; 0.67, 0.78). Results from simulated data suggest that even modest exclusions of this type can lead to strong artefactual associations. Conclusions Psychiatric disorder-cancer incidence associations are complex and influenced by analytical strategy. A greater understanding of the temporal relationship between psychiatric disorder and cancer incidence is required. PMID:22488410

  12. Indicators of Psychiatric Disorders in Different Oncology Specialties: A Prevalence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Polidoro Lima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated the prevalence of various indicators of psychiatric disorders in Brazilian outpatients with cancer and assessed possible associations with sociodemographic indicators. Materials and Methods. A total of 1,385 patients were evaluated using the following instruments: Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4, Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND, and Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST. Results. The sample was composed of both genders with a slight predominance of women (55.8%, subjects with incomplete/completed elementary school (59%, married (67.4%, with children (94%, not active from a labor viewpoint (61.6%, and following some type of religion (79.5%. The prevalence of anxiety for the total sample varied between 21.5 and 27.4%. The prevalence of depression was 21.1%, tobacco abuse/dependence was 40.2%, and alcohol was 20.3%. Women had significantly higher levels of anxiety and depression than men. Men had higher levels of substance abuse/dependence indicators than women. Conclusion. These results are consistent with the literature, which attests to the high prevalence of psychiatric disorder indicators in cancer patients, especially compared to the general population.

  13. Psychiatric Service Use and Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, S.; Tyrer, F. C.; McGrother, C.; Ganghadaran, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: UK policies aim to facilitate access to general psychiatric services for adults with intellectual disability (ID). If this is to be achieved, it is important to have a clear idea of the characteristics and proportion of people with ID who currently access specialist psychiatric services and the nature and extent of psychiatric…

  14. Risk of Psychiatric Disorders following Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Tung Lee

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is the most common functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder observed in patients who visit general practitioners for GI-related complaints. A high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, particularly anxiety and depressive disorders, has been reported in patients with IBS. However, a clear temporal relationship between IBS and psychiatric disorders has not been well established.We explored the relationship between IBS and the subsequent development of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and sleep disorder.We selected patients who were diagnosed with IBS caused by gastroenteritis, according to the data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort was formed of patients without IBS who were matched according to age and sex. The incidence rate and the hazard ratios (HRs of subsequent new-onset psychiatric disorders were calculated for both cohorts, based on psychiatrist diagnoses.The IBS cohort consisted of 4689 patients, and the comparison cohort comprised 18756 matched control patients without IBS. The risks of depressive disorder (HR = 2.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.30-3.19, anxiety disorder (HR = 2.89, 95% CI = 2.42-3.46, sleep disorder (HR = 2.47, 95% CI = 2.02-3.02, and bipolar disorder (HR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.34-4.46 were higher in the IBS cohort than in the comparison cohort. In addition, the incidence of newly diagnosed depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and sleep disorder remained significantly increased in all of the stratified follow-up durations (0-1, 1-5, ≥5 y.IBS may increase the risk of subsequent depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, sleep disorder, and bipolar disorder. The risk ratios are highest for these disorders within 1 year of IBS diagnosis, but the risk remains statistically significant for more than 5 years. Clinicians should pay particular attention to psychiatric

  15. [Psychiatric disorders and associated factors in patients with epilepsy in Fez, Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghazouani, F; Aarab, C; Faiz, F; Midaoui, A; Barrimi, M; Elrhazi, K; Berraho, A; Belahssen, M F; Rammouz, I; Aalouane, R

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in epileptic patients remains unclear. This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence and nature of the psychiatric disorders and the associated factors in patients with idiopathic epilepsy. A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of eighteen months in the psychiatric unit of the University Hospital Hassan II of Fez (Morocco). A questionnaire was completed by the included patients, which specified: the socio-demographic data, personal and family history, and the clinical features of epilepsy and its management. Psychiatric disorders were identified by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview test (MINI). The severity of the depression and anxiety symptoms was investigated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Rating Scale. Eighty-nine patients met the inclusion criteria. The average age of patients was 29.7±10.8years. Mood disorders were the leading psychiatric comorbidity: 32.6% among which 25.8% of major depressive episodes, 15.7% of dysthymia and 2.2% of hypomanic episodes. Anxiety disorders came second: 28.1% (among which 19.1% panic disorder, 13.5% agoraphobia, 12.4% generalized anxiety disorder, 10.1% social phobia and 4.5% post-traumatic stress disorder). Female gender, unemployment and poor compliance to antiepileptic drugs are all risk factors for the occurrence of psychiatric disorders in this population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Psychiatric disorders and aggression in the printed media: is there a link? a central European perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawka Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A content analysis was used to describe the association between psychiatric disorders and aggression in the printed media in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Methods Articles were chosen from the most widely read daily newspapers and magazines in both countries during five one-week periods in 2007. A coding manual was developed and a content analysis was performed. Aggressive behavior was assessed by two separate categories - the role of the mentally ill person in the violent act (perpetrator/victim and the type of aggressive act (homicide, suicide. Results A total of 375 articles were analyzed. Main findings: 1 The proportion of articles depicting psychiatric disorders together with either self- or other-directed aggressive behavior is 31.2%; 2 Homicide was most frequently mentioned in the context of psychotic disorders and schizophrenia, while affective disorders were most frequently associated with both completed suicides and homicides; 3 Eating disorders and anxiety disorders were seldom associated with any kind of aggressive behavior, including self-harm; 4 The vast majority of articles presented mentally ill people as perpetrators, and these articles were more often coded as stigmatizing. 5 Articles with aggressive behavior mentioned on the cover are roughly as frequent as those with aggressive behavior in the later sections of the media (36.7% vs. 30.7%. Conclusions The results are similar to the findings in countries with longer histories of consistent advocacy for improved depiction of mental illness in the media. However, we have shown that persons with mental illness are still over-portrayed as perpetrators of violent crimes, especially homicides.

  17. Boys with Asperger Syndrome Grow Up: Psychiatric and Neurodevelopmental Disorders 20 Years After Initial Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillberg, I Carina; Helles, Adam; Billstedt, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examined comorbid psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders in fifty adult males (mean age 30 years) with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosed in childhood and followed up prospectively for almost two decades (13-26 years). Only three of the 50 men had never met criteria for an additional psychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnosis and more than half had ongoing comorbidity (most commonly either ADHD or depression or both). Any psychiatric comorbidity increased the risk of poorer outcome. The minority of the AS group who no longer met criteria for a full diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder were usually free of current psychiatric comorbidity. The high rate of psychiatric/neurodevelopmental comorbidities underscores the need for a full psychiatric/neurodevelopmental assessment at follow-up of males with AS.

  18. A Lifetime Prevalence of Comorbidity Between Bipolar Affective Disorder and Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-analysis of 52 Interview-based Studies of Psychiatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Behrouz; Mitchell, Alex J.; Nutt, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar affective disorder has a high rate of comorbidity with a multitude of psychiatric disorders and medical conditions. Among all the potential comorbidities, co-existing anxiety disorders stand out due to their high prevalence. Aims To determine the lifetime prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders in bipolar affective disorder under the care of psychiatric services through systematic review and meta-analysis. Method Random effects meta-analyses were used to calculate the lifetime prevalence of comorbid generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in bipolar affective disorder. Results 52 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The rate of lifetime comorbidity was as follows: panic disorder 16.8% (95% CI 13.7–20.1), generalised anxiety disorder 14.4% (95% CI 10.8–18.3), social anxiety disorder13.3% (95% CI 10.1–16.9), post-traumatic stress disorder 10.8% (95% CI 7.3–14.9), specific phobia 10.8% (95% CI 8.2–13.7), obsessive compulsive disorder 10.7% (95% CI 8.7–13.0) and agoraphobia 7.8% (95% CI 5.2–11.0). The lifetime prevalence of any anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder was 42.7%. Conclusions Our results suggest a high rate of lifetime concurrent anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder. The diagnostic issues at the interface are particularly difficult because of the substantial symptom overlap. The treatment of co-existing conditions has clinically remained challenging. PMID:26629535

  19. The association between parental history of diagnosed mood/anxiety disorders and psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young adult offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nancy CP

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parental history of mood or anxiety disorders is one of the strongest and most consistent risk factors for the development of these disorders in offspring. Gaps remain however in our knowledge of whether maternal or paternal disorders are more strongly associated with offspring disorders, and whether the association exists in non-clinical samples. This study uses a large population-based sample to test if maternal or paternal history of mood and/or anxiety disorders increases the risk of mood and/or anxiety disorders, or symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Methods Data were drawn from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study, a prospective cohort investigation of 1293 grade 7 students. Data on mental health outcomes were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires when participants were aged 20.4 (0.7 years on average. Parental data were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires. This current analysis pertains to 564 participants with maternal and/or paternal data. The association between maternal and paternal history and each of diagnosed anxiety disorder, diagnosed mood disorder, and symptoms of specific anxiety disorders in offspring was studied in multivariate logistic regression. Results A higher proportion of mothers than fathers had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder (23% versus 12%. Similarly, 14% of female offspring had a diagnosed mood/anxiety disorder, compared to 6% of male offspring. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval for maternal history was 2.2 (1.1, 4.5 for diagnosed mood disorders, 4.0 (2.1, 7.8 for diagnosed anxiety disorders, and 2.2 (1.2, 4.0 for social phobia symptoms. Paternal history was not associated with any of the mental health outcomes in offspring. Conclusion Maternal, but not paternal mood/anxiety disorders were associated with diagnosed psychiatric disorders, as well as symptoms of specific anxiety disorders, in offspring. Efforts to detect mood and anxiety

  20. Interventions for posttraumatic stress disorder in psychiatric practice across Europe: a trainees’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Koelkebeck

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: With an annual prevalence of 0.9–2.6%, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is very common in clinical practice across Europe. Despite the fact that evidence-based interventions have been developed, there is no evidence on their implementation in clinical practice and in national psychiatric training programmes. Objective and method: The Early Career Psychiatrists Committee of the European Psychiatric Association conducted a survey in 23 European countries to explore implementation of evidence-based interventions for PTSD and training options. Results: The findings indicate that pharmacotherapy was available in the majority of the participating countries (n=19, 82.8%. However, psychological interventions were much less widespread. For example, psychoeducation was widely available in 52% of the countries (n=12, cognitive-behavioural therapy in 26.2% (n=6, and specific trauma-focused techniques were rarely available. Training on PTSD was part of the official training in 13 countries (56.5%, predominantly in the form of theoretical seminars. Conclusions: Overall, this survey indicates that the treatment for PTSD is largely focused on pharmacotherapy, with psychological evidence-based interventions poorly available, especially outside specialized centres. Poor implementation is linked to the lack of official training in evidence-based interventions for psychiatric trainees across Europe.

  1. Comorbid psychiatric disorders and stages of change in cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hercilio P; Malbergier, Andre

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether and to what extent cannabis dependence is associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and specific stages of change in treatment-seeking patients. We evaluated 80 cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients residing in an urban area. Data on cannabis dependence, psychiatric disorders, and motivation were obtained using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA). A diagnosis of schizophrenia was found to correlate with lower motivation scores (p = 0.038), which could have a negative effect on adherence to treatment. The high prevalence of concurrent psychiatric disorders in cannabis-dependent patients should serve as a stimulus for early screening and treatment of such disorders. Health care professionals should be aware of the magnitude of this association to increase the level of motivation in cannabis-dependent patients with severe concurrent psychiatric disorders.

  2. [Sickness absence and disability due to psychiatric disorders from a gender perspective - a systematic literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, S; Stengler, K

    2013-06-01

    This work is aimed at providing a review of the literature on gender differences in the prevalence of mental disorders at the workplace. A systematic literature search of all original works on sickness absence and disability due to psychiatric disorders published in PubMed from 2000 through to 2011 was undertaken. Female employees have more frequent and longer sickness absences due to psychiatric disorders. Male employees are at a high risk of disability due to psychiatric disorders. Gender-specific prevention strategies at the workplace should target the prevention of short and long-term consequences for female employees and the long-term impact of psychiatric disorders in male employees. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about implications for gender specific prevention strategies at the workplace. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Alcohol consumption and later risk of hospitalization with psychiatric disorders: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2011-01-01

    .31-3.04) compared to women drinking below the sensible drinking limits. For men, the risk functions were slightly U-shaped; thus, a weekly low or moderate alcohol intake seemed to have a protective effect towards developing psychiatric disorders. The findings suggest sex differences in the association between...... alcohol consumption and risk of psychiatric disorders.......The potential effects of alcohol intake upon the risk of psychiatric disorders have not often been investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a population sample, the association between self-reported amount of alcohol intake and the later risk of being registered in a Danish...

  4. Attitudes toward psychotropic medications among patients with chronic psychiatric disorders and their family caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Sharma, Aarti; Tyagi, Shikha

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To examine attitudes towards psychotropic medications among patients with chronic psychiatric disorders as well as their family caregivers by using factor analysis. Materials and Methods: The study included 200 patients and their family caregivers with chronic psychiatric disorders who are attending the psychiatry outpatient services. A self-designed 18-item self-rated questionnaire was used to evaluate the attitude toward psychotropics and factor analysis was done to study the different models of attitudes. Results: In general both patients and caregivers had positive attitude toward the psychotropic medications and there was no significant difference between the patients and caregivers on the various items of the questionnaire assessing the attitude. Factor analysis of the questionnaire indicated that either two-factor or four-factor models explained the attitude of the patients and caregivers. In the two-factor model there was one positive and one negative attitude factor, whereas the four-factor model comprised of two positive and two negative attitude factors. The four-factor model of attitudes provided a more comprehensive solution to how attitudes might be formed among patients and their family caregivers. Factors one and four in the four-factor solution still reflected positive attitudes, but appeared to portray a risk-benefit approach, in which benefits such as the efficacy of psychotropic medications in treating mental illnesses and preventing relapse, and medications being better than other options were being contrasted with the risks of side effects and permanent damage or harm. Conclusion: Attitudes of patients with chronic psychiatric disorders and their caregivers toward psychotropic medications appear to be shaped by factors such as perceived efficacy or benefit from medicines, the necessity for taking treatment and concerns such as side effects, harm or expense. PMID:25288840

  5. Mirtazapine: a review of its use in major depression and other psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, Katherine F; Perry, Caroline M; Plosker, Greg L

    2009-01-01

    Mirtazapine (Remeron, Zispin) is a noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant (NaSSA) that is approved in many counties for use in the treatment of major depression. Monotherapy with mirtazapine 15-45 mg/day leads to rapid and sustained improvements in depressive symptoms in patients with major depression, including the elderly. It is as effective as other antidepressants and may have a more rapid onset of action than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Furthermore, it may also have a higher sustained remission rate than amitriptyline. Preliminary data suggest that mirtazapine may also be effective in the treatment of anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder and social anxiety disorder), obsessive-compulsive disorder, undifferentiated somatoform disorder and, as add-on therapy, in schizophrenia, although large, well designed trials are needed to confirm these findings. Mirtazapine is generally well tolerated in patients with depression. In conclusion, mirtazapine is an effective antidepressant for the treatment of major depression and also has the potential to be of use in other psychiatric indications.

  6. Joint analysis of psychiatric disorders increases accuracy of risk prediction for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, R.; Moser, G.; Chen, G.B.; Ripke, S.; Coryell, W.; Potash, J.B.; Scheftner, W.A.; Shi, J.; Weissman, M.M.; Hultman, C.M.; Landen, M.; Levinson, D.F.; Kendler, K.S.; Smoller, J.W.; Wray, N.R.; Lee, S.H.; Buitelaar, J.; Franke, B.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic risk prediction has several potential applications in medical research and clinical practice and could be used, for example, to stratify a heterogeneous population of patients by their predicted genetic risk. However, for polygenic traits, such as psychiatric disorders, the accuracy of risk

  7. Joint analysis of psychiatric disorders increases accuracy of risk prediction for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Robert; Moser, Gerhard; Chen, Guo-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Genetic risk prediction has several potential applications in medical research and clinical practice and could be used, for example, to stratify a heterogeneous population of patients by their predicted genetic risk. However, for polygenic traits, such as psychiatric disorders, the accuracy of ri...

  8. Joint Analysis of Psychiatric Disorders Increases Accuracy of Risk Prediction for Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Major Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, Robert; Moser, Gerhard; Chen, Guo-Bo; Ripke, Stephan; Coryell, William; Potash, James B.; Scheftner, William A.; Shi, Jianxin; Weissman, Myrna M.; Hultman, Christina M.; Landén, Mikael; Levinson, Douglas F.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Wray, Naomi R.; Lee, S. Hong; Absher, Devin; Agartz, Ingrid; Akil, Huda; Amin, Farooq; Andreassen, Ole A.; Anjorin, Adebayo; Anney, Richard; Arking, Dan E.; Asherson, Philip; Azevedo, Maria H.; Backlund, Lena; Badner, Judith A.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barchas, Jack D.; Barnes, Michael R.; Barrett, Thomas B.; Bass, Nicholas; Battaglia, Agatino; Bauer, Michael; Bayés, Mònica; Bellivier, Frank; Bergen, Sarah E.; Berrettini, Wade; Betancur, Catalina; Bettecken, Thomas; Biederman, Joseph; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Black, Donald W.; Blackwood, Douglas H. R.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Boehnke, Michael; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Breen, Gerome; Breuer, René; Bruggeman, Richard; Buccola, Nancy G.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bunney, William E.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Byerley, William F.; Caesar, Sian; Cahn, Wiepke; Cantor, Rita M.; Casas, Miguel; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambert, Kimberly; Choudhury, Khalid; Cichon, Sven; Cloninger, C. Robert; Collier, David A.; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cormand, Bru; Cormican, Paul; Corvin, Aiden; Coryell, William H.; Craddock, Nicholas; Craig, David W.; Craig, Ian W.; Crosbie, Jennifer; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Curtis, David; Czamara, Darina; Daly, Mark J.; Datta, Susmita; Dawson, Geraldine; Day, Richard; de Geus, Eco J.; Degenhardt, Franziska; Devlin, Bernie; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary J.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Duan, Jubao; Dudbridge, Frank; Duketis, Eftichia; Ebstein, Richard P.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Elia, Josephine; Ennis, Sean; Etain, Bruno; Fanous, Ayman; Faraone, Stephen V.; Farmer, Anne E.; Ferrier, I. Nicol; Flickinger, Matthew; Fombonne, Eric; Foroud, Tatiana; Frank, Josef; Franke, Barbara; Fraser, Christine; Freedman, Robert; Freimer, Nelson B.; Freitag, Christine M.; Friedl, Marion; Frisén, Louise; Gallagher, Louise; Gejman, Pablo V.; Georgieva, Lyudmila; Gershon, Elliot S.; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Giegling, Ina; Gill, Michael; Gordon, Scott D.; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Green, Elaine K.; Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Grice, Dorothy E.; Gross, Magdalena; Grozeva, Detelina; Guan, Weihua; Gurling, Hugh; de Haan, Lieuwe; Haines, Jonathan L.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hallmayer, Joachim; Hamilton, Steven P.; Hamshere, Marian L.; Hansen, Thomas F.; Hartmann, Annette M.; Hautzinger, Martin; Heath, Andrew C.; Henders, Anjali K.; Herms, Stefan; Hickie, Ian B.; Hipolito, Maria; Hoefels, Susanne; Holmans, Peter A.; Holsboer, Florian; Hoogendijk, Witte J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Hus, Vanessa; Ingason, Andrés; Ising, Marcus; Jamain, Stéphane; Jones, Ian; Jones, Lisa; Kähler, Anna K.; Kahn, René S.; Kandaswamy, Radhika; Keller, Matthew C.; Kelsoe, John R.; Kennedy, James L.; Kenny, Elaine; Kent, Lindsey; Kim, Yunjung; Kirov, George K.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Klei, Lambertus; Knowles, James A.; Kohli, Martin A.; Koller, Daniel L.; Konte, Bettina; Korszun, Ania; Krabbendam, Lydia; Krasucki, Robert; Kuntsi, Jonna; Kwan, Phoenix; Långström, Niklas; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Jacob; Lawson, William B.; Leboyer, Marion; Ledbetter, David H.; Lee, Phil H.; Lencz, Todd; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Li, Jun; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Lin, Dan-Yu; Linszen, Don H.; Liu, Chunyu; Lohoff, Falk W.; Loo, Sandra K.; Lord, Catherine; Lowe, Jennifer K.; Lucae, Susanne; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Maestrini, Elena; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahon, Pamela B.; Maier, Wolfgang; Malhotra, Anil K.; Mane, Shrikant M.; Martin, Christa L.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Matthews, Keith; Mattingsdal, Morten; McCarroll, Steven A.; McGhee, Kevin A.; McGough, James J.; McGrath, Patrick J.; McGuffin, Peter; McInnis, Melvin G.; McIntosh, Andrew; McKinney, Rebecca; McLean, Alan W.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, William M.; McQuillin, Andrew; Medeiros, Helena; Medland, Sarah E.; Meier, Sandra; Melle, Ingrid; Meng, Fan; Meyer, Jobst; Middeldorp, Christel M.; Middleton, Lefkos; Milanova, Vihra; Miranda, Ana; Monaco, Anthony P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Moreno-de-Luca, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar; Morris, Derek W.; Morrow, Eric M.; Moskvina, Valentina; Mowry, Bryan J.; Muglia, Pierandrea; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murtha, Michael; Myers, Richard M.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Neale, Benjamin M.; Nelson, Stan F.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Nikolov, Ivan; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit; Nolen, Willem A.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Nwulia, Evaristus A.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; O'Dushlaine, Colm; Oades, Robert D.; Olincy, Ann; Oliveira, Guiomar; Olsen, Line; Ophoff, Roel A.; Osby, Urban; Owen, Michael J.; Palotie, Aarno; Parr, Jeremy R.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pato, Carlos N.; Pato, Michele T.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Perlis, Roy H.; Pickard, Benjamin S.; Pimm, Jonathan; Piven, Joseph; Posthuma, Danielle; Poustka, Fritz; Propping, Peter; Purcell, Shaun M.; Puri, Vinay; Quested, Digby J.; Quinn, Emma M.; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Rasmussen, Henrik B.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rehnström, Karola; Reif, Andreas; Ribasés, Marta; Rice, John P.; Rietschel, Marcella; Roeder, Kathryn; Roeyers, Herbert; Rossin, Lizzy; Rothenberger, Aribert; Rouleau, Guy; Ruderfer, Douglas; Rujescu, Dan; Sanders, Alan R.; Sanders, Stephan J.; Santangelo, Susan L.; Schachar, Russell; Schalling, Martin; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Schulze, Thomas G.; Schumacher, Johannes; Schwarz, Markus; Scolnick, Edward; Scott, Laura J.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Shilling, Paul D.; Shyn, Stanley I.; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sklar, Pamela; Slager, Susan L.; Smalley, Susan L.; Smit, Johannes H.; Smith, Erin N.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; St Clair, David; State, Matthew; Steffens, Michael; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Strauss, John S.; Strohmaier, Jana; Stroup, T. Scott; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Sutcliffe, James; Szatmari, Peter; Szelinger, Szabocls; Thapar, Anita; Thirumalai, Srinivasa; Thompson, Robert C.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Tozzi, Federica; Treutlein, Jens; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Uhr, Manfred; van den Oord, Edwin J. C. G.; van Grootheest, Gerard; van Os, Jim; Vicente, Astrid M.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Vincent, John B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Watson, Stanley J.; Weiss, Lauren A.; Werge, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F.; Wiersma, Durk; Wijsman, Ellen M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Williams, Nigel; Willsey, A. Jeremy; Witt, Stephanie H.; Xu, Wei; Young, Allan H.; Yu, Timothy W.; Zammit, Stanley; Zandi, Peter P.; Zhang, Peng; Zitman, Frans G.; Zöllner, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Genetic risk prediction has several potential applications in medical research and clinical practice and could be used, for example, to stratify a heterogeneous population of patients by their predicted genetic risk. However, for polygenic traits, such as psychiatric disorders, the accuracy of risk

  9. Disorder-Specific Mental Health Service Use for Mood and Anxiety Disorders: Associations with Age, Sex, and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Corey S.; Reynolds, Kristin; Cairney, John; Streiner, David L.; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study are to examine the prevalence of disorder-specific mental health service use for mood and anxiety disorders, and relationships between helpseeking and age, sex, and psychiatric comorbidity. Methods The authors used Wave 2 data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), which included 34,653 adults. Cross tabulations provided helpseeking prevalence rates for five anxiety disorders and three mood disorders by age and sex, as well as for individuals with and without comorbid anxiety and mood disorders. Logistic regression analyses explored the likelihood of helpseeking among younger and middle-aged adults in comparison to older adults. Results The prevalence of helpseeking was highest for panic disorder (45.3%) and dysthymia (44.5%) and lowest for specific phobias (7.8%). For each condition except panic disorder service use was most likely among middle-aged adults and especially unlikely among older individuals. Sex differences in treatment seeking favoring women showed only modest variability with age. Finally, the prevalence of helpseeking was generally lower among individuals without comorbid anxiety or mood disorders, and the hill-shaped influence of age on service use was attenuated in this pure group. Conclusions The results of this study highlight the highest prevalence of disorder-specific service use among middle-aged adults and women, and among individuals with panic disorder and dysthymia. For purposes of identifying groups who are in need of targeted efforts to increase service use, helpseeking was especially unlikely among people suffering from specific phobia, as well as among men and older adults. PMID:22065571

  10. Quality of Life and Psychiatric Symptoms in Wilson's Disease: the Relevance of Bipolar Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Mg; Mura, G; Sorbello, O; Farina, G; Demelia, L

    2012-01-01

    Wilson's disease is an inherited disorder caused by a gene located on chromosome 13, which involved copper transportation across cell membranes. The disease can cause a reduced incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin resulting in accumulation of this metal in the liver, central nervous system, kidneys and other organs. The objective is to define the frequencies of psychiatric disorders in WD, the amount of impairment of Quality of Life [QoL] in patients with WD and the relevance of the psychiatric disorders in the QoL of people suffering by WD. This is a systematic review. The search of the significant articles was carried out in PubMed using specific key words. Such other neurological diseases, WD is characterized by chronic course and need of treatments, impairment of functional outcomes and high frequency of psychiatric symptoms, although a specific association between Bipolar Disorders and WD was recently found. Despite this, since today few studies are carried on WD patients' quality of life related to psychiatric symptoms. Some new reports showed a link between presence of Bipolar Disorders diagnosis, cerebral damage and low Qol. Prospective studies on large cohorts are required to establish the effective impact of psychiatric disorders comorbidity, particularly Bipolar Disorders, on quality of life in WD and to clarify the causal link between brain damage, psychiatric disorders and worsening of QoL.

  11. The Epidemiology of Psychiatric Disorders among Repeat DUI Offenders Accepting a Treatment-Sentencing Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Howard J.; Nelson, Sarah E.; LaPlante, Debi A.; LaBrie, Richard A.; Albanese, Mark; Caro, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity likely contributes to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol among repeat offenders. This study presents one of the first descriptions of the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders among repeat DUI offenders in treatment. Participants included all consenting eligible admissions (N = 729) to a 2-week…

  12. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Correspondence between Mental Health Clinician Report and Structured Parent Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnick, Nicole; Chlebowski, Colby; Baker-Ericzén, Mary; Dyson, Margaret; Garland, Ann; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Publicly funded mental health services are critical in caring for children with autism spectrum disorder. Accurate identification of psychiatric comorbidity is necessary for effective mental health treatment. Little is known about psychiatric diagnosis for this population in routine mental health care. This study (1) examined correspondence…

  13. prevalence of hiv/aids and psychiatric disorders and their related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-10-01

    Oct 1, 2003 ... PREVALENCE OF HIV/AIDS AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND THEIR RELATED RISK FACTORS AMONG ADULTS IN EPWORTH, ZIMBAMBWE ... psychiatric symptoms/signs, alcohol use/misuse, CD4 cell counts and risk factors in adult patients. ...... and NGOs to prevent the spread of HIV disease,.

  14. Family history of psychiatric illness as a risk factor for schizoaffective disorder: a Danish register-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Licht, Rasmus W

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizoaffective disorder may be related to both schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, but no population-based studies, to our knowledge, have investigated this association in families. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a psychiatric history of schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder,...

  15. Clock Genes and Altered Sleep–Wake Rhythms: Their Role in the Development of Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annaëlle Charrier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, the circadian clocks network (central and peripheral oscillators controls circadian rhythms and orchestrates the expression of a range of downstream genes, allowing the organism to anticipate and adapt to environmental changes. Beyond their role in circadian rhythms, several studies have highlighted that circadian clock genes may have a more widespread physiological effect on cognition, mood, and reward-related behaviors. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms in core circadian clock genes have been associated with psychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, the underlying mechanisms of these associations remain to be ascertained and the cause–effect relationships are not clearly established. The objective of this article is to clarify the role of clock genes and altered sleep–wake rhythms in the development of psychiatric disorders (sleep problems are often observed at early onset of psychiatric disorders. First, the molecular mechanisms of circadian rhythms are described. Then, the relationships between disrupted circadian rhythms, including sleep–wake rhythms, and psychiatric disorders are discussed. Further research may open interesting perspectives with promising avenues for early detection and therapeutic intervention in psychiatric disorders.

  16. Social class, social mobility and risk of psychiatric disorder--a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiikkaja, Sanna; Sandin, Sven; Malki, Ninoa; Modin, Bitte; Sparén, Pär; Hultman, Christina M

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how adult social class and social mobility between parental and own adult social class is related to psychiatric disorder. In this prospective cohort study, over 1 million employed Swedes born in 1949-1959 were included. Information on parental class (1960) and own mid-life social class (1980 and 1990) was retrieved from the censuses and categorised as High Non-manual, Low Non-manual, High Manual, Low Manual and Self-employed. After identifying adult class, individuals were followed for psychiatric disorder by first admission of schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug dependency, affective psychosis and neurosis or personality disorder (N=24,659) from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate first admission rates of psychiatric disorder per 100,000 person-years and relative risks (RR) by adult social class (treated as a time-varying covariate). The RRs of psychiatric disorder among the Non-manual and Manual classes were also estimated by magnitude of social mobility. The rate of psychiatric disorder was significantly higher among individuals belonging to the Low manual class as compared with the High Non-manual class. Compared to High Non-manual class, the risk for psychiatric disorder ranged from 2.07 (Low Manual class) to 1.38 (Low Non-manual class). Parental class had a minor impact on these estimates. Among the Non-manual and Manual classes, downward mobility was associated with increased risk and upward mobility with decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. In addition, downward mobility was inversely associated with the magnitude of social mobility, independent of parental class. Independently of parental social class, the risk of psychiatric disorder increases with increased downward social mobility and decreases with increased upward mobility.

  17. Dissecting psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, Kay H.; Deserno, Lorenz; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Lin, Zhihao; Penny, Will D.; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Stephan, Klaas E.

    2013-01-01

    This proof-of-concept study examines the feasibility of defining subgroups in psychiatric spectrum disorders by generative embedding, using dynamical system models which infer neuronal circuit mechanisms from neuroimaging data. To this end, we re-analysed an fMRI dataset of 41 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 42 healthy controls performing a numerical n-back working-memory task. In our generative-embedding approach, we used parameter estimates from a dynamic causal model (DCM) of a visual–parietal–prefrontal network to define a model-based feature space for the subsequent application of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. First, using a linear support vector machine for classification, we were able to predict individual diagnostic labels significantly more accurately (78%) from DCM-based effective connectivity estimates than from functional connectivity between (62%) or local activity within the same regions (55%). Second, an unsupervised approach based on variational Bayesian Gaussian mixture modelling provided evidence for two clusters which mapped onto patients and controls with nearly the same accuracy (71%) as the supervised approach. Finally, when restricting the analysis only to the patients, Gaussian mixture modelling suggested the existence of three patient subgroups, each of which was characterised by a different architecture of the visual–parietal–prefrontal working-memory network. Critically, even though this analysis did not have access to information about the patients' clinical symptoms, the three neurophysiologically defined subgroups mapped onto three clinically distinct subgroups, distinguished by significant differences in negative symptom severity, as assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). In summary, this study provides a concrete example of how psychiatric spectrum diseases may be split into subgroups that are defined in terms of neurophysiological mechanisms specified by a generative model

  18. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  19. Neurodevelopmental Plasticity in Pre- and Postnatal Environmental Interactions: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders from an Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-A Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are disadvantageous behavioral phenotypes in humans. Accordingly, a recent epidemiological study has reported decreased fecundity in patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders. Moreover, the fecundity of the relatives of these patients is not exceedingly higher compared to the fecundity of the relatives of normal subjects. Collectively, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among humans is expected to decrease over generations. Nevertheless, in reality, the prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in humans either have been constant over a long period of time or have even increased more recently. Several attempts to explain this fact have been made using biological mechanisms, such as de novo gene mutations or variants, although none of these explanations is fully comprehensive. Here, we propose a hypothesis towards understanding the biological mechanisms of psychiatric disorders from evolutionary perspectives. This hypothesis considers that behavioral phenotypes associated with psychiatric disorders might have emerged in the evolution of organisms as a neurodevelopmental adaptation against adverse environmental conditions associated with stress.

  20. Parental warmth and psychiatric disorders among Puerto Rican children in two different socio-cultural contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesteban-Echarri, Olga; Ramos-Olazagasti, María A; Eisenberg, Ruth E; Wei, Chiaying; Bird, Héctor R; Canino, Glorisa; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2017-04-01

    Parental warmth (PW) has a strong influence on child development and may precede the onset of psychiatric disorders in children. PW is interconnected with other family processes (e.g., coercive discipline) that may also influence the development of psychiatric disorders in children. We prospectively examined the association between PW and child psychiatric disorders (anxiety, major depression disorder, ADHD, disruptive behavior disorders) over the course of three years among Puerto Rican youth, above and beyond the influence of other family factors. Boricua Youth Study participants, Puerto Rican children 5 to 13 years of age at Wave 1 living in the South Bronx (New York) (SB) and San Juan and Canguas (PR) (n = 2,491), were followed for three consecutive years. Youth psychiatric disorders were measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (DISC-IV). Generalized Linear Mixed models tested the association between PW (Wave 1) and psychiatric disorders in the next two years adjusting for demographic characteristics and family processes. Higher levels of PW were related to lower odds of child anxiety and major depressive disorder over time (OR = 0.69[0.60; 0.79]; 0.49[0.41; 0.58], respectively). The strength of the association between PW and ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder declined over time, although it was still significant in the last assessment (OR = 0.44[0.37; 0.52]; 0.46[0.39; 0.54], respectively). PW had a unique influence on psychiatric disorders beyond the influence of other parenting and family processes. Stronger associations were observed among girls for depression and ADHD. Incorporating PW behaviors such as acceptance, support, and comforting into interventions focused on parenting skills may help prevent child psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. [Relationship of psychiatric comorbidity and treatment of panic disorder and agoraphobia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latas, Milan; Starcević, Vladan; Trajković, Goran

    2006-01-01

    Besides numerous studies that examined various aspects of comorbidity in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and numerous studies that examined efficacy of different treatment modalities in these patients, there was no study that examined relationship of overall psychiatric comorbidity and treatment of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. The objective of the study was to establish the effect of psychiatric comorbidity on treatment efficiency of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia. The sample of the study consisted of 119 patients with primary diagnosis of panic disorder and agoraphobia. The therapy of patients was based on the use of individual integrative model of treatment, which incorporated psycho-pharmaceuticals (benzodiazepines and antidepressants) and cognitive-behavior therapy. Symptom severity was estimated by Panic and Agoraphobia Scale before and after the completion of treatment. Patients with comorbidity and patients without any comorbidity were compared by MANOVA and ANOVA with repeated measures. The results of the study showed that 91% of patients met diagnostic criteria of comorbid psychiatric disorder and these patients had more severe clinical picture than patients without any comorbid disorder before the treatment. The results also showed that, after the completion of treatment, there was a significant reduction of all analyzed symptoms, that the effects of treatment were significantly better in patients with psychiatric comorbidity and that comorbid psychiatric disorders had no negative effect on the main goals of the treatment. Based on these results, it may be concluded that: in patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia and comorbid psychiatric disorders, the pharmacotherapy must be based on simultaneous use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines, while standard cognitive-behavior therapy of patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia must be modified in case of the existing comorbid psychiatric disorders.

  2. Predictors of infant foster care in cases of maternal psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glangeaud-Freudenthal, Nine M-C; Sutter-Dallay, Anne-Laure; Thieulin, Anne-Claire; Dagens, Véronique; Zimmermann, Marie-Agathe; Debourg, Alain; Amzallag, Corinne; Cazas, Odile; Cammas, Rafaële; Klopfert, Marie-Emmanuelle; Rainelli, Christine; Tielemans, Pascale; Mertens, Claudine; Maron, Michel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Poinso, François

    2013-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the factors associated with mother-child separation at discharge, after joint hospitalization in psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs) in France and Belgium. Because parents with postpartum psychiatric disorders are at risk of disturbed parent-infant interactions, their infants have an increased risk of an unstable early foundation. They may be particularly vulnerable to environmental stress and have a higher risk of developing some psychiatric disorders in adulthood. This prospective longitudinal study of 1,018 women with postpartum psychiatric disorders, jointly admitted with their infant to 16 French and Belgian psychiatric mother-baby units (MBUs), used multifactorial logistic regression models to assess the risk factors for mother-child separation at discharge from MBUs. Those factors include some infant characteristics associated with personal vulnerability, parents' pathology and psychosocial context. Most children were discharged with their mothers, but 151 (15 %) were separated from their mothers at discharge. Risk factors independently associated with separation were: (1) neonatal or infant medical problems or complications; (2) maternal psychiatric disorder; (3) paternal psychiatric disorder; (4) maternal lack of good relationship with others; (5) mother receipt of disability benefits; (6) low social class. This study highlights the existence of factors other than maternal pathology that lead to decisions to separate mother and child for the child's protection in a population of mentally ill mothers jointly hospitalized with the baby in the postpartum period.

  3. co-morbid psychiatric disorders in nigerian patients suffering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    28-item General Health Questionnaires and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales were used for first stage screening while the second stage interview utilised the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule. Results: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was 37.5% and 12.5% in the study and control groups respectively.

  4. Managing medical and psychiatric comorbidity in individuals with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Roger S; Rosenbluth, Michael; Ramasubbu, Rajamannar; Bond, David J; Taylor, Valerie H; Beaulieu, Serge; Schaffer, Ayal

    2012-05-01

    Most individuals with mood disorders experience psychiatric and/or medical comorbidity. Available treatment guidelines for major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) have focused on treating mood disorders in the absence of comorbidity. Treating comorbid conditions in patients with mood disorders requires sufficient decision support to inform appropriate treatment. The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) task force sought to prepare evidence- and consensus-based recommendations on treating comorbid conditions in patients with MDD and BD by conducting a systematic and qualitative review of extant data. The relative paucity of studies in this area often required a consensus-based approach to selecting and sequencing treatments. Several principles emerge when managing comorbidity. They include, but are not limited to: establishing the diagnosis, risk assessment, establishing the appropriate setting for treatment, chronic disease management, concurrent or sequential treatment, and measurement-based care. Efficacy, effectiveness, and comparative effectiveness research should emphasize treatment and management of conditions comorbid with mood disorders. Clinicians are encouraged to screen and systematically monitor for comorbid conditions in all individuals with mood disorders. The common comorbidity in mood disorders raises fundamental questions about overlapping and discrete pathoetiology.

  5. Forty-Year Psychiatric Outcomes Following Assessment for Internalizing Disorder in Adolescence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadsworth, Michael E.J; Colman, Ian; Jones, Peter B; Croudace, Tim J

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to define the long-term psychiatric outcomes of adolescent internalizing disorder in the general population, using data collected over 40 years from a national birth cohort. Method...

  6. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders: Is there an impact on social functioning?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christian Saleh; Gregor Hasler

    2017-01-01

    Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory psychiatric disorders shows promising effects on symptom-reduction, however, little is known regarding the effects of DBS on social outcome. Methods...

  7. Predicting dropout in outpatient dialectical behavior therapy with patients with borderline personality disorder receiving psychiatric disability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landes, Sara J; Chalker, Samantha A; Comtois, Katherine Anne

    2016-01-01

    .... Participants were 56 consumers with borderline personality disorder (BPD) who were psychiatrically disabled participating in a larger feasibility trial of Dialectical Behavior Therapy- Accepting the Challenges of Exiting the System...

  8. Twelve-month psychiatric disorder among single and married mothers: the role of marital history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Pevalin, David J; Wade, Terrance J; Veldhuizen, Scott; Arboleda-Florez, Julio

    2006-09-01

    To examine differences between single and married mothers in the 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders. The analysis uses data from the National Comorbidity Survey, collected in 1992-1993, and focuses on women aged 15 to 55 years with children (n=1346). Psychiatric disorders are assessed with the University of Michigan Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a survey instrument based on DSM-III-R criteria. Compared with married mothers, previously married mothers have elevated rates of disorders. Prevalences among single mothers who were never married are similar to those among married mothers, but they are generally lower than prevalences among mothers who experience a marital disruption. These results indicate that marital separation and divorce may be markers for elevated risk for psychiatric disorder among women with children. It is important to consider the impact of marital history on the relation between family structure and psychiatric outcomes.

  9. Women with and without intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders: an examination of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, L; McMillan, R; Lawson, A

    2008-09-01

    This article examines the literature on women with and without intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders, using a gender social model of health. Relevant empirical studies, international literature reviews and policies between 1980 and 2007 were identified from electronic databases, journals and secondary sources. Three areas were examined: psychiatric disorders, their contextual background, and their clinical presentation. There are minimal levels of research into women with intellectual disability and psychiatric disorders. However, this article hypothesizes that women with intellectual disability have higher rates of psychiatric disorders than women without. This may result from greater vulnerability related both to internal factors (;intra': cognitive deficits, poorer communication skills, limited social skills) and to the external world (;inter': lack of opportunities, stigma, poor social support networks). The article argues that such women require gender-sensitive mental health services. However, more empirical evidence is required to support this claim and to inform development and delivery of services.

  10. Psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders: findings from a Danish Historic Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Grove, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Several psychiatric comorbidities are common among patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), which may worsen the clinical outcome and add to the substantial costs of care. The aim of this report is to estimate the psychiatric comorbidity rates within ASD utilizing a Danish Historic Birth...... Cohort (HBC). Overall, 72.5% of ASD cases had at least one other psychiatric comorbidity along with ASD which suggests a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in individuals with ASD. Careful consideration and treatment of comorbidities may serve as a tool to understand and treat ASD better....

  11. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder: rate of referral for neurorehabilitation and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Herlihy, D

    2012-04-01

    Despite advances in antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected patients continue to present with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) which may be associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity. We audited our patients with HAND referred for psychiatric assessment against the National Service Framework guidelines that they should receive neurorehabilitation. We found that despite these patients posing a risk to themselves and others due to poor insight and medication adherence, high rates of psychiatric co-morbidity and severely challenging behaviour, few were referred for neurorehabilitation. We recommend that clear referral pathways for psychiatric intervention and neurorehabilitation are established in HIV treatment centres.

  12. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Childhood Post Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famularo, Richard; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of 117 severely abused children found that 35% exhibited evidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results indicated that PTSD was correlated with attention deficit disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, suicidal ideation, and mood disorders. (CR)

  13. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent mental disorders. Current disorder most important but psychiatric history matters as well

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Oerlemans, Anoek; Raven, Dennis; Laceulle, O.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364227885; Hartman, Catharina; veenstra, Rene; Verhulst, F; Vollebergh, W.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/090632893; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Oldehinkel, Tineke

    2017-01-01

    Background. Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting

  14. Functional outcomes of child and adolescent mental disorders. Current disorder most important but psychiatric history matters as well

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, J; Oerlemans, A M; Raven, D; Laceulle, O M; Hartman, C A; Veenstra, R.; Verhulst, F C; Vollebergh, W; Rosmalen, J G M; Reijneveld, S A; Oldehinkel, A J

    Background. Various sources indicate that mental disorders are the leading contributor to the burden of disease among youth. An important determinant of functioning is current mental health status. This study investigated whether psychiatric history has additional predictive power when predicting

  15. Influence of Psychiatric and Personality Disorders on Smoking Cessation among Individuals in Opiate Dependence Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Lu, Shou-En; Richter, Kimber P.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Williams, Jill M.

    2016-01-01

    .85]) and ever making a quit attempt or not (C-statistic of .79, 95% CI[0.70, 0.88]). Conclusions Compared to existing treatments, smoking cessation treatments that can be tailored to address the individual needs of people with specific psychiatric disorders or personality disorder traits may better help those in opiate dependence treatment to set a cessation goal, attempt to quit, and eventually quit smoking. PMID:27064523

  16. Disordered gambling and co-morbidity of psychiatric disorders among college students: an examination of problem drinking, anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ryan J; Usdan, Stuart; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2014-06-01

    We assessed the occurrence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (i.e., problem drinking, anxiety, and depression) among college students who met the threshold for disordered gambling. The participants included a large sample of undergraduate students (n = 1,430) who were enrolled in an introductory health course at a large, southeastern university in Spring 2011 and completed an online assessment that included scales to assess disordered gambling, problem drinking, anxiety, and depression. We calculated screening scores, computed prevalence rates for each disorder, and calculated Pearson correlations and Chi square tests to examine correlations and co-morbid relationships between the four disorders. Analyses indicated that all disorders were significantly associated (p college students who experience disordered gambling (and other psychiatric disorders) are at increased risk of experiencing co-occurring disorders, it might be useful for college health professionals to concurrently screen and intervene for co-occurring disorders.

  17. Testing the role of circadian genes in conferring risk for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Enda M; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Pergadia, Michele L; Hickie, Ian B; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Wray, Naomi R

    2014-04-01

    Disturbed sleep and disrupted circadian rhythms are a common feature of psychiatric disorders, and many groups have postulated an association between genetic variants in circadian clock genes and psychiatric disorders. Using summary data from the association analyses of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortia (PGC) for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, we evaluated the evidence that common SNPs in genes encoding components of the molecular clock influence risk to psychiatric disorders. Initially, gene-based and SNP P-values were analyzed for 21 core circadian genes. Subsequently, an expanded list of genes linked to control of circadian rhythms was analyzed. After correcting for multiple comparisons, none of the circadian genes were significantly associated with any of the three disorders. Several genes previously implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders harbored no SNPs significant at the nominal level of P clock genes that were included in the PGC datasets were significant after correction for multiple testing. There was no evidence of an enrichment of associations in genes linked to control of circadian rhythms in human cells. Our results suggest that genes encoding components of the molecular clock are not good candidates for harboring common variants that increase risk to bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or major depressive disorder. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. [Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Alessandra; Cordeiro, Daniel Cruz; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2010-05-01

    To perform an update on cannabis abuse by patients with psychiatric disorders. A search was performed in the electronic databases Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed, and SciELO, using the keywords 'marijuana abuse', 'cannabis abuse', 'psychiatric disorders', and 'mental disorders'. Articles published until December 2009, dealing with cannabis abuse and dependence in association with other psychiatric disorders were included. Cannabis abuse was found to be associated with increased risk for the onset of schizophrenia and chronic psychotic symptoms, although these findings require confirmation from additional research. Cannabis seems to be one of the drugs of choice of individuals with bipolar disorder, despite evidence that manic states can be induced by its use. Cannabis abuse also occurs frequently in individuals with anxiety disorders, but the relationship between the chronic nature of these conditions and the use of marijuana remains uncertain. In respect to depression, there is no clear evidence to date that depressive patients use cannabis as a form of self-medication. In individuals with psychiatric disorders, the use of cannabis has been associated with increased positive symptoms, additional negative symptoms in the course of illness, impaired treatment compliance, and more hospitalizations. The abuse of cannabis by patients with psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and mood and anxious disorders has a negative impact both in the acute and advanced stages of these conditions, although further investigation on this association is still necessary.

  19. The relative importance of child, family, school and neighbourhood correlates of childhood psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Tamsin; Goodman, Robert; Meltzer, Howard

    2004-06-01

    Many studies have described associations between childhood psychiatric disorder and characteristics of the child, and their family, school and neighbourhood, but few studies have studied them simultaneously. Also, most investigators have failed to allow for the extent to which different exposures are correlated, or for clustering at different levels of observation. Our objective was to establish which correlates were independently associated with psychiatric disorder. Data on DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses, as well as child and family characteristics, were obtained on 8772 English 5- to 15-year-olds included in a large British prevalence survey of mental health. These data were supplemented by independent measures of school and neighbourhood disadvantage. We entered child and family variables with the measures of school and neighbourhood disadvantage into a logistic regression analysis to establish which variables were independently associated with child psychiatric disorder. No variables were associated with all types of disorder. Poor general health and life events were related to emotional disorders, while conduct disorders were most closely associated with family variables, and ADHD was only related to child characteristics. Disadvantaged schools, deprived neighbourhoods, low socioeconomic status, parental unemployment, cohabiting, large family size, and poverty were not independently associated with disorder. Individually assessed child and family factors may be more influential than aggregate measures of school and neighbourhood factors. Different disorders have distinctive correlates. Many of the best known "risk factors" are not independently related to childhood psychiatric disorder, and are, therefore, acting distally in the causal pathway or irrelevant.

  20. Affective Spectrum Disorders in an Urban Swedish Adult Psychiatric Unit: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scharin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Several studies have found that patients with affective-/anxiety-/stress-related syndromes present overlapping features such as cooccurrence within families and individuals and response to the same type of pharmacological treatment, suggesting that these syndromes share pathogenetic mechanisms. The term affective spectrum disorder (AfSD has been suggested, emphasizing these commonalities. The expectancy rate, sociodemographic characteristics, and global level of functioning in AfSD has hitherto not been studied neglected. Material and Method. Out of 180 consecutive patients 94 were included after clinical investigations and ICD-10 diagnostics. Further investigations included well-known self-evaluation instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms, personality disorders, psychosocial stress, adaptation, quality of life, and global level of functioning. A neuropsychological screening was also included. Results. The patients were young, had many young children, were well educated, and had about expected (normal distribution of intelligence. Sixty-one percent were identified as belonging to the group of AfSD. Conclusion. The study identifies a large group of patients that presents much suffering and failure of functioning. This group is shared between the levels of medical care, between primary care and psychiatry. The term AfSD facilitates identification of patient groups that share common traits and identifies individuals clinically, besides the referred patients, in need of psychiatric interventions.

  1. Psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorders: A comparison with children with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steensel, F.J.A.; Bögels, S.M.; de Bruin, E.I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim to identify comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (n = 40) and to compare those comorbidity rates to those in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 40). Participants were clinically

  2. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comparison with Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; de Bruin, Esther I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted with the aim to identify comorbid psychiatric disorders in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) (n = 40) and to compare those comorbidity rates to those in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 40). Participants were clinically referred children aged 7-18 years. DSM-IV…

  3. Prevalence of Co-morbid Psychiatric Disorders in a Clinic Sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Co-morbid psychiatric disorders may mask or be masked by Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), thereby confounding the clinical assessment ... awareness of these co-morbid disorders, which could become targets for interventions that may reduce the overall morbidity profile of children with ADHD.

  4. Cognitive and Psychiatric Phenotypes of Movement Disorders in Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Jaworowski, Solomon; Shalev, Ruth S

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The cognitive and psychiatric aspects of adult movement disorders are well established, but specific behavioural profiles for paediatric movement disorders have not been delineated. Knowledge of non-motor phenotypes may guide treatment and determine which symptoms are suggestive of a specific movement disorder and which indicate medication…

  5. Psychiatric disorders in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE: a serious SLE-related crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Nicolosi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is associated with CNS disorders in 50-90% of all cases. Thus far 19 neuropsychiatric syndromes have been reported in association with SLE, and many others will be added to this list in the future. Long-term observation and use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (Text Revision is the solution for a correct diagnosis. Case report: The patient was an 18-year-old woman who had been charged with the attempted murder of an elderly woman in the latter’s home. According to the victim’s testimony, the young woman had entered the victim’s home under pretence and suddently attacked her with a hammer. The young woman denied all knowledge of the event. A few days after her arrest the patient was hospitalized for attempted suicide. The work-up that began with this hospitalization led to the diagnosis of an intermittent explosive disorder secondary to SLE. The authors analyze this case from the psychiatric, medical, and legal points of view. Conclusions: This is the first report of this type of disorder is a patient with SLE. The authors suggest that intermittent explosive disorder should be added to the list of neuropsychiatric syndromes associated with this disease.

  6. Comorbidity of autoimmune thyroid disorders and psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period : A Danish nationwide register based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergink, V.; Pop, V.J.M.; Nielsen, P.R.; Agerbo, E.; Munk-Olsen, T.; Liu, X.

    2018-01-01

    The postpartum period is well-known risk period for the first onset of autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITDs) as well as first onset of psychiatric disorders. These two disorders are some of the most prevalent medical conditions postpartum, often misdiagnosed and disabling if left untreated. Our study

  7. Psychiatric Disorders in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Associated Factors in a Population-Derived Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Charman, Tony; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Baird, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    A study on autism spectrum disorders is conducted because its early onset, lifelong persistence, and high levels of associated impairment is turning it into a major public health concern. Results show that psychiatric disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders but there were few associations between putative risk factors and…

  8. Risk of psychiatric treatment for mood disorders and psychotic disorders among migrants and Dutch nationals in Utrecht, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, J.; Laan, W.; Kupka, R.W.; Smeets, H.; van Os, J.

    2012-01-01

    While there are consistent reports of a high psychosis rate among certain groups of migrants in Europe, there is little information on their risk for mood disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk of receiving psychiatric treatment for mood disorders or psychotic disorders,

  9. Euthanasia for people with psychiatric disorders or dementia in Belgium: analysis of officially reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierickx, Sigrid; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim; Chambaere, Kenneth

    2017-06-23

    Euthanasia for people who are not terminally ill, such as those suffering from psychiatric disorders or dementia, is legal in Belgium under strict conditions but remains a controversial practice. As yet, the prevalence of euthanasia for people with psychiatric disorders or dementia has not been studied and little is known about the characteristics of the practice. This study aims to report on the trends in prevalence and number of euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia diagnosis in Belgium and demographic, clinical and decision-making characteristics of these cases. We analysed the anonymous databases of euthanasia cases reported to the Federal Control and Evaluation Committee Euthanasia from the implementation of the euthanasia law in Belgium in 2002 until the end of 2013. The databases we received provided the information on all euthanasia cases as registered by the Committee from the official registration forms. Only those with one or more psychiatric disorders or dementia and no physical disease were included in the analysis. We identified 179 reported euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia as the sole diagnosis. These consisted of mood disorders (N = 83), dementia (N = 62), other psychiatric disorders (N = 22) and mood disorders accompanied by another psychiatric disorder (N = 12). The proportion of euthanasia cases with a psychiatric disorder or dementia diagnosis was 0.5% of all cases reported in the period 2002-2007, increasing from 2008 onwards to 3.0% of all cases reported in 2013. The increase in the absolute number of cases is particularly evident in cases with a mood disorder diagnosis. The majority of cases concerned women (58.1% in dementia to 77.1% in mood disorders). All cases were judged to have met the legal requirements by the Committee. While euthanasia on the grounds of unbearable suffering caused by a psychiatric disorder or dementia remains a comparatively limited practice in Belgium, its

  10. Associations of specific psychiatric disorders with isolated focal dystonia, and monogenic and idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Susanne; Hagenah, Johann; Rumpf, Hans-Jürgen; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich; Bäumer, Tobias; Brüggemann, Norbert; Kasten, Meike; Münchau, Alexander; Klein, Christine; Lencer, Rebekka

    2017-06-01

    Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in patients with movement disorders is common. Often, psychiatric symptoms manifest before the onset of the movement disorder, thus not representing a mere reaction to its burden. How the disease mechanisms of psychiatric and movement disorders are related is still poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare prevalence rates of specific psychiatric disorders between different movement disorders including isolated focal dystonia (IFD, N = 91), monogenic Parkinson's disease (PD, N = 41), idiopathic PD (N = 45), and a sample from a Northern Germany general population (TACOS Study; N = 4075). Our results indicate an odds ratio (OR) of 2.6 [confidence interval (CI) 1.7-4.0] for general axis I disorders in IFD, an OR of 2.5 (CI 1.4-4.7) in monogenic PD, and an OR of 1.4 (CI 0.8-2.6) in idiopathic PD. More specifically, the monogenic PD group showed the highest ORs for affective disorders including depression (OR = 4.9), bipolar disorder (OR = 17.4), and hypomanic episodes (OR = 17.0), whereas IFD expressed the highest rates of anxiety disorders (OR = 3.3). Psychotic symptoms were only observed in the PD groups but not in IFD. Our findings underline the notion that psychiatric disorders are part of the phenotypic spectrum of movement disorders. Moreover, they suggest that IFD, monogenic PD, and idiopathic PD are associated with specific psychiatric disorders indicating disturbances in a different neural circuitry for sensorimotor control.

  11. Psychiatric disorders among infertile men and women attending three infertility clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosaimi, Fahad Dakheel; Altuwirqi, Maram Hani; Bukhari, Mujahid; Abotalib, Zeinab; BinSaleh, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    No study has assessed psychiatric disorders among infertile men and women seeking fertility treatment in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, we sought to measure the rate of psychiatric disorders in this population. This was a cross-sectional observational study among patients attending infertility clinics at three referral hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 2013 and September 2014. 406 patients (206 women and 200 men) participated in the study. The approved Arabic version of the MINI tool was used to assess 18 common psychiatric illnesses. The response rate was 81%. Of the men surveyed, only 4.5% self-reported having a psychiatric disorder. Of the women surveyed, only 10.2% reported having a psychiatric disorder. However, using the MINI scale, psychiatric illness was documented in 30% of males and 36.9% of females. The most common diagnoses for both genders were depression (21.7%) and anxiety (21.2%). Significantly more females than males exhibited suicidality and depression. In contrast, significantly more males than females had bipolar disorders and substance-related disorders. A low monthly income among male and female participants and polygamy among female participants were significantly associated with psychiatric disorders. This study shows that a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, among infertile men and women in Saudi Arabia is associated with lower income and polygamy. This study highlights the importance of integrated care for alleviating the psychological burden of this unfortunate population and improving outcomes and quality of life. This study also encourages follow-up studies that aim to further understand the complex relationship between fertility and psychological well-being.

  12. Influence of sleep-wake and circadian rhythm disturbances in psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Boivin, DB

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that the temporal alignment between the sleep-wake cycle and the circadian pacemaker affects self-assessment of mood in healthy subjects. Despite the differences in affective state between healthy subjects and patients with psychiatric disorders, these results have implications for analyzing diurnal variation of mood in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders and sleep disturbances in other major psychiatric conditions such as chronic schizophrenia. In a good proportion...

  13. Adolescents with personality disorders suffer from severe psychiatric stigma: evidence from a sample of 131 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Catthoor, Kirsten; Feenstra, Dine J; Hutsebaut, Joost; Schrijvers, Didier; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Kirsten Catthoor,1,3 Dine J Feenstra,2 Joost Hutsebaut,2 Didier Schrijvers,3 Bernard Sabbe3 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatrisch Ziekenhuis Stuivenberg, ZNA Antwerpen, Antwerp, Belgium; 2Viersprong Institute for Studies on Personality Disorders, Halsteren, the Netherlands; 3Collaborative Antwerp Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium Background: The aim of the study is to assess the severity of psychiatric stigma in a sample of personality disordered adol...

  14. Do psychiatric disorders continue during pregnancy in women with hyperemesis gravidarum: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annagür, Bilge Burçak; Tazegül, Aybike; Gündüz, Sule

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine Axis I psychiatric disorders in women with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to follow up the course of psychiatric disorder and its association with nausea and vomiting (NV) during pregnancy. The study sample was composed of 47 patients with HG. Psychiatric interviews were conducted using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID-I). Other psychiatric interviews were performed in the second and third trimesters. On each visit, the subjects completed the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. The prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 25.5%, and the prevalence of any mood disorder was 14.9% in women with HG in the first trimester. Psychiatric disorders continued throughout the pregnancy in two thirds of the women who had HG and a psychiatric diagnosis. Any SCID diagnosis in the first trimester was higher in women whose NV had partially resolved than in women whose NV had fully resolved (Ppregnancy. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Children of low-income depressed mothers: psychiatric disorders and social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Adriana; Alonso, Angelique; Tang, Min; Liriano, Wanda; Warner, Virginia; Pilowsky, Daniel; Barranco, Eva; Wang, Yanping; Verdeli, Helena; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M

    2009-01-01

    Although several studies have documented a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children of depressed than nondepressed parents, previous research was conducted in predominantly White, middle, or upper-middle class populations. Only limited information is available on psychiatric disorders and psychosocial functioning in children of low-income depressed mothers. We report the findings in children of mothers with and without a lifetime history of major depressive disorder, who were recruited from a large urban primary-care practice. Bilingual clinical interviewers assessed 58 children with structured diagnostic interviews administered to most children (90%) and to their mothers as informants. Diagnostic assessments and best estimate diagnoses of the children were blind to the mothers' diagnostic status. The families were poor and predominantly Hispanic, more than half of them headed by single mothers. After adjusting for child age and gender, and for any possible sibling correlation, children of depressed mothers had significantly higher rates of lifetime depressive, separation anxiety, oppositional defiant, and any psychiatric disorders than children of control mothers, with a lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder of 84.6 versus 50.0%, respectively. Children of depressed mothers also reported significantly lower psychosocial functioning and had higher rates of psychiatric treatment. We conclude that the risk for psychiatric disorders may be particularly high in children of low-income depressed mothers. The primary-care setting offers a unique opportunity for early intervention with this underserved group. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Gender Differences in Compulsive Buying Disorder: Assessment of Demographic and Psychiatric Co-Morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoli de Mattos, Cristiana; Kim, Hyoun S; Requião, Marinalva G; Marasaldi, Renata F; Filomensky, Tatiana Z; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying is a common disorder found worldwide. Although recent research has shed light into the prevalence, etiology and clinical correlates of compulsive buying disorder, less is known about gender differences. To address this empirical gap, we assessed potential gender differences in demographic and psychiatric co-morbidities in a sample of 171 compulsive buyers (20 men and 151 women) voluntarily seeking treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. A structured clinical interview confirmed the diagnosis of compulsive buying. Of the 171 participants, 95.9% (n = 164) met criteria for at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder. The results found that male and female compulsive buyers did not differ in problem severity as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale. However, several significant demographic and psychiatric differences were found in a multivariate binary logistic regression. Specifically, male compulsive buyers were more likely to report being non-heterosexual, and reported fewer years of formal education. In regards to psychiatric co-morbidities, male compulsive buyers were more likely to be diagnosed with sexual addiction, and intermittent explosive disorder. Conversely, men had lower scores on the shopping subscale of the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire. The results suggest that male compulsive buyers are more likely to present with co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Treatment planning for compulsive buying disorder would do well to take gender into account to address for potential psychiatric co-morbidities.

  17. Self-Mutilation Among Patients With Psychiatric Disorders Referred to Lavasani Hospital, 2013 - 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahdat Shariatpanahi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Self-injury is defined as the intentional injuring of one’s own body without apparent suicidal intent. Self-harm is encountered frequently in psychiatric hospitals. Deliberate self-harm may be found in patients with a variety of diagnoses, including substance abuse, major depression, schizophrenia and especially borderline personality disorder. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of self-injury and possible relating factors in patients with psychiatric diseases. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 42 patients with self-injury referred to Lavasani hospital in Tehran, Iran, were selected by random sampling during 2013 - 2014. The prevalence of self-injury, site and tools of self-injury and also possible contributing factors were evaluated. T-test and Fisher’s exact test were used to analyze data. Results Mean distribution of self-injury in patients was 12.5%. Sharp object was the tool of injury in 90.5% of the patients, 4.8% by fire, 2.4% by stone and 2.4% by other attempted to self-injury. In 76.2% of the patients extremities were the site of injury. In 19%, 2.4% and 2.4% head and neck, trunk and abdomen were the sites of injury, respectively. There was a significant association between type of disorder and tool and body site of self-injury (P < 0.001. Conclusions It can be concluded that schizophrenia and drug-induced psychotic disorder were the most common types of disorders that are at risk of self-injury.

  18. [Filicide; psychiatric disorders in parents who murder their children--a literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dil, L M; Doreleijers, Th A H; Schoevers, R A

    2008-01-01

    In the Netherlands between 1992 and 2001 there were 70 reported cases of child murder by parents, the total number of victims being 86. The crime of filicide is rare but has enormous impact on society. It is not known whether there is a relation between filicide and psychiatric disorders. To gain insight into the proportion and type of psychiatric disorders in perpetrators of filicide. method Literature search by means of PubMed, Embase Psychiatry and PsychInfo on the basis of the search terms filicide, neonaticide, infanticide, gender, psychiatric disorder. results Perpetrators of filicide were found to have many types of psychiatric disorders. The most frequent types of diagnostic categories were affective disorders with or without psychotic features. The second most frequent type was schizophrenia. There was a considerable overlap between these disorders, personality disorders and symptoms of drug-dependence. Often perpetrators were also found to have lower-than-average intelligence. A psychiatric disorder in one or both parents constitutes a major risk factor for child murder by parents. The identification of other risk factors and their possible interrelatedness is important for our understanding of these criminal acts, for the detection of warning signs and for the development of preventive strategies.

  19. Preschool psychiatric disorders: homotypic and heterotypic continuity through middle childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsaas, Megan C; Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

    2018-01-16

    Many preschool-age children meet criteria for psychiatric disorders, and rates approach those observed in later childhood and adolescence. However, there is a paucity of longitudinal research examining the outcomes of preschool diagnoses. Families with a 3-year-old child (N = 559) were recruited from the community. Primary caregivers were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment when children were 3 years old (n = 541), and, along with children, using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version when children were 9 and 12 years old. Rates of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) decreased from preschool to middle childhood and early adolescence, whereas rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased. Rates of any psychiatric disorder and depression increased from preschool to early adolescence only. Preschoolers with a diagnosis were over twice as likely to have a diagnosis during later periods. Homotypic continuity was present for anxiety disorders from preschool to middle childhood, for ADHD from preschool to early adolescence, and for DBD through both later time points. There was heterotypic continuity between preschool anxiety and early adolescent depression, and between preschool ADHD and early adolescent DBD. Dimensional symptom scores showed homotypic continuity for all diagnostic categories and showed a number of heterotypic associations as well. Results provide moderate support for the predictive validity of psychiatric disorders in preschoolers. Psychopathology in preschool is a significant risk factor for future psychiatric disorders during middle childhood and early adolescence.

  20. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and psychiatric disorders: Is there a link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margoob, Mushtaq A.; Mushtaq, Dhuha

    2011-01-01

    Though still in infancy, the field of psychiatric genetics holds great potential to contribute to the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic options to treat these disorders. Among a large number of existing neurotransmitter systems, the serotonin system dysfunction has been implicated in many psychiatric disorders and therapeutic efficacy of many drugs is also thought to be based on modulation of serotonin. Serotonin transporter gene polymorphism is one of the most extensively studied polymorphisms in psychiatric behavioral genetics. In this article, we review the status of evidence for association between the serotonin gene polymorphism and some common mental disorders like affective disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, suicide, autism, and other anxiety and personality disorders. Going beyond traditional association studies, gene-environment interaction, currently gaining momentum, is also discussed in the review. While the existing information of psychiatric genetics is inadequate for putting into practice genetic testing in the diagnostic work-up of the psychiatric patient, if consistent in future research attempts, such results can be of great help to improve the clinical care of a vast majority of patients suffering from such disorders. PMID:22303036

  1. Psychiatric disorders in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mireille C; Claudino, Denise A; Grigolon, Ruth B; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Claudino, Angélica M

    2018-02-01

    To study the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes, the factors associated with its presence, and to test the reliability of a screening tool for use in clinical settings. Eighty-one adolescents were enrolled in this case-control study, including 36 diabetic participants and 45 controls. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected and psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses were obtained from adolescents and their parents using a screening tool (Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire) and a semi-structured interview (Development and Well-Being Assessment). Psychiatric disorders were identified in 22.2% of the sample (30.56% among diabetic adolescents vs. 15.56% of controls: OR = 2.39, 95%CI 0.82-6.99; p = 0.11). Overweight (body mass index percentile ≥ 85) was the only factor associated with psychiatric disorder (OR = 3.07; 95%CI 1.03-9.14; p = 0.04). Compared to the semi-structured interview, the screening instrument showed 80% sensitivity, 96% specificity, 88.9% positive predictive value and 92.3% negative predictive value for the presence of psychiatric diagnoses in adolescents. Psychiatric morbidity was high in this sample of adolescents, especially among those with diabetes. Routine use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire can help with early detection of psychiatric disorders in this at-risk group.

  2. Psychiatric disorders among the children of 5 to 18 years old of 'SIDR' affected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. I. Mullick

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Natural disasters give raise a significant amount of physical and mental impairment in human beings. Any sort of disaster acts as a causative and maintaining factor for any psychiatric morbidity. In November 15, 2007, the cyclone "SIDR" intensified to reach peak winds of 215 km/h (135 mph according to the IMD, a peak of 250 km/h (155 mph according to the JTWC. "SIDR" officially made landfall around 1700 UTC later that day, with sustained winds of 215 km/h (135 mph. As it intensified to a Category 4-equivalent cyclone and thus coastal districts of Bangladesh faced heavy rainfall as an early impact of the cyclone. The damage in Bangladesh was extensive, including tin shacks flattened, houses and schools blown away and enormous tree damage. The entire cities of Patuakhali, Barguna and Jhalokati District were hit hard by the storm surge of over 5 meters ( 16 ft. The head of the Red Crescent in Bangladesh expects the death toll to reach as high as 10,000. Over 3,000 other fishermen were reported missing on over 500 fishing boats. The "SIDR" left its strong impact on those who survived. Objectives: The Study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorder among children and adolescents in the "SIDR" affected areas. Method: This was cross sectional, qualitative study done among the children and adolescent groups of 5 to 18 years old to see the effect of natural disaster on the people of southern part of Bangladesh. The whole of the children population who attended in the health camp were included in the study during the study period. Three teams have worked among the four "SIDR" affected districts. Each team consists of Psychiatrists, General Physicians, and Clinical Psychologist.Results: A total of 158 children in four defined areas revealed that the prevalence rate of psychiatric disorder was 48%.Conclusion: This type of study should be done in multi-centers in SIDR affected disti.icts of Bangladesh to find out the actual

  3. Ghrelin-derived peptides: a link between appetite/reward, GH axis and psychiatric disorders ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eLabarthe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are often associated with metabolic and hormonal alterations, including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome as well as modifications in several biological rhythms including appetite, stress, sleep-wake cycles and secretion of their corresponding endocrine regulators.Among the gastrointestinal hormones that regulate appetite and adapt the metabolism in response to nutritional, hedonic and emotional dysfunctions, at the interface between endocrine, metabolic and psychiatric disorders, ghrelin plays a unique role as the only one increasing appetite. The secretion of ghrelin is altered in several psychiatric disorders (anorexia, schizophrenia as well as in metabolic disorders (obesity and in animal models in response to emotional triggers (psychological stress, …. but the relationship between these modifications and the physiopathology of psychiatric disorders remains unclear. Recently, a large literature showed that this key metabolic/endocrine regulator is involved in stress and reward-oriented behaviors and regulates anxiety and mood. In addition, preproghrelin is a complex prohormone but the roles of the other ghrelin-derived peptides, thought to act as functional ghrelin antagonists, are largely unknown. Altered ghrelin secretion and/or signaling in psychiatric diseases are thought to participate in altered appetite, hedonic response and reward. Whether this can contribute to the mechanism responsible for the development of the disease or can help to minimize some symptoms associated with these psychiatric disorders is discussed in the present review. We will thus describe 1 the biological actions of ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides on food and drugs reward, anxiety and depression, and the physiological consequences of ghrelin invalidation on these parameters, 2 how ghrelin and ghrelin-derived peptides are regulated in animal models of psychiatric diseases and in human psychiatric disorders in relation with the GH

  4. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders among the Rural Geriatric Population: A Pilot Study in Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreejith S. Nair

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing life expectancy around the world, an outstanding achievement of our century, has brought with it new public health challenges. India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 72 million inhabitants above 60 years of age as of 2001. The life expectancy in India increased from 32 years in 1947 to over 66 years in 2010, with 8.0% of the population now reaching over 60 years of age. Few studies in India target the health, especially mental health, of this geriatric population. This study aims to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the geriatric population of the rural area of Singanodi,Karnataka, India.Methods: This cross sectional, epidemiological, community-based study was conducted in a rural health training area of Singanodi, Raichur District, Karnataka, India.The General Health Questionnaire-12, Mini Mental State Examination, and Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to 366 participants. Chi square tests with Yates correction were utilized for statistical analysis using SPSS 19.0 software.Results:We found that 33.9% of the geriatric population in the selected province were above the threshold for mental illness based on the GHQ-12 questionnaire. Females had a higher prevalence of mental disorder at 77.6% (152 out of 196 as compared to males who had a prevalence of 42.4% (72 out of 170. The most common psychiatric disorder was depression (21.9%, and generalized anxiety was present in 10.7% of the study population. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was 16.3%, with a significantly higher percentage of  affected individuals in 80+ age group.Conclusion: Mental disorders are common among elderly people, but they are not well documented in rural India. The assessment of psychiatric disorder prevalence will help strengthen psycho-geriatric services and thus improve the quality of life of the elderly.  A system that ensures comprehensive health care will have to be developed for

  5. Psychiatry and the Necker Cube. Neurological and Psychological Conceptions of Psychiatric Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rogers

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological and psychological conceptions of psychiatric disorder are in conflict at the present time. This conflict is considered in the context of the history of psychiatry and the philosophy of science. Its practical consequences are considered for the motor disorder of schizophrenia, the cognitive impairment in psychiatric illnesses, the use of the terms organic and functional and the association of neurological disorder with psychotic and neurotic disorders. The conflict is also examined in individual cases and the implications for treatment assessed.

  6. Psychiatric disorders in children at one year after the tsunami disaster in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyasil, Vinadda; Ketumarn, Panom; Prubrukarn, Ratanotai; Pacharakaew, Siripapa; Dumrongphol, Hattaya; Rungsri, Sarinee; Sitdhiraksa, Nantawat; Pitthayaratsathien, Nattorn; Prasertvit, Jiraporn; Sudto, Korapin; Theerawongseree, Siriporn; Aowjinda, Sumitra; Thaeramanophab, Somchit; Jotipanu, Vajiraporn; Chatchavalitsakul, Wilairatana

    2008-10-01

    The tsunami that struck Thailand on 26th December 2004 was the greatest natural disaster in the country's history. It left in its wake unprecedented damage and destruction. Children suffered the loss of parents or guardians, and survivors were left to cope with psychological trauma of the disaster To assess the psychiatric disorders in tsunami victim children at one year after the event. A cross sectional study was done. One thousand three hundred and sixty-four students from 2 schools were enrolled. Three tests were used according to the students' grades, pediatric symptoms checklist, Childhood Depressive Inventory and the Revised Child Impact of Events scale (CRIES). Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed by child and adolescent psychiatrists, using criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM IV). Analysis data by using SPSS version 10.0 and Chi-square test. The results were presented as percentage and p-value. Psychiatric disorders were found in 142 students or 10.4 percents of all students at one year after the tsunami disaster. Not all the students who had psychiatric disorders developed them as the result of the tsunami disaster However, ninety students or 6.3 percent of all the students did have psychiatric disorders resulting from the tsunami disaster The most common psychiatric problem was post traumatic stress disorder Ten percent of grade 4-6 students and 11 percent of grade 7-9 students had psychiatric disorders. The prevalence was lower in kindergarten and grade 1-3 students of which the percentage was 2.3 and 3.8 respectively. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders at 1 year after the tsunami disaster was 10.4 percent of all the students or 33.1 percent of victims. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in grade 4-6 and 7-9 students was higher than in kindergarten and grade 1-3 students. The most common psychiatric problem is post traumatic stress disorder.

  7. Terminal delirium misdiagnosed as major psychiatric disorder: Palliative care in a psychiatric inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aligeti, Sabitha; Baig, Muhammad R; Barrera, Fernando F

    2016-06-01

    Delirium is a neuropsychiatric condition characterized by acute change in cognition and disturbance of consciousness. A similar state during the final days of life is termed "terminal delirium." We present three cases with end-stage chronic medical problems without any significant psychiatric history who were admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit or a locked dementia unit for management of "depression," "dementia," or "psychosis." Early diagnosis of terminal delirium helps prevent patients, family members, and staff from undergoing severe emotional distress and facilitates appropriate end-of-life care.

  8. Levels of explanation in psychiatric and substance use disorders: implications for the development of an etiologically based nosology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kendler, K S

    2012-01-01

    The soft medical model for psychiatric illness, which was operationalized in DSM-III, defines psychiatric disorders as syndromes with shared symptoms, signs, course of illness and response to treatment...

  9. The association of psychiatric comorbidity and use of the emergency department among persons with substance use disorders: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allee Elise

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric and substance use problems are commonly found to be contributing factors to frequent Emergency Department (ED use, yet little research has focused on the association between substance use and psychiatric comorbidity. This study assesses the association of a psychiatric comorbidity on (ED use among patients with substance use disorders (SUDs. Methods The study focuses on 6,865 patients who were diagnosed with SUDs in the ED of a large urban hospital in the southern United States from January 1994 – June 1998. Patients were grouped by type of substance use disorder. After examining frequency of visits by diagnosis, the sample was assigned to the following groups–alcohol dependence (ICD9 = 303, alcohol abuse (ICD9 = 305.0, cocaine dependence/abuse (ICD9 = 304.2, 305.6, and polysubstance/mixed use (ICD9 = 305.9. A patient was classified with psychiatric comorbidity if a psychiatric diagnosis appeared during any of the patient's visits. The following psychiatric diagnoses were included–schizophrenia/psychoses, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety, and dementia (ICD-9 codes available upon request. Results Patients with SUDs and psychiatric comorbidity had significantly higher mean number of ER visits (mean = 5.2 SD = 8.7 than SUD patients without psychiatric comorbidity (mean = 2.5, SD = 3.7. In logistic regressions predicting several categorizations of heavier use of the ED (either 4+, 8+, 12+, 16+, or 20+ visits over the span of the study SUD patients with psychiatric comorbidity had adjusted odds ratios of 3.0 to 5.6 (reference group = patients with SUDs but no psychiatric comorbidity. This association was found across all substance use diagnostic categories studied, with the strongest relationship observed among patients with cocaine disorders or alcohol dependence. Conclusion The results provide further support for the notion that the ED could and should serve as an important identification site for cost

  10. Psychiatric and psychosocial problems in adults with normal-intelligence autism spectrum disorders

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    Herbrecht Evelyn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs often display symptoms from other diagnostic categories. Studies of clinical and psychosocial outcome in adult patients with ASDs without concomitant intellectual disability are few. The objective of this paper is to describe the clinical psychiatric presentation and important outcome measures of a large group of normal-intelligence adult patients with ASDs. Methods Autistic symptomatology according to the DSM-IV-criteria and the Gillberg & Gillberg research criteria, patterns of comorbid psychopathology and psychosocial outcome were assessed in 122 consecutively referred adults with normal intelligence ASDs. The subjects consisted of 5 patients with autistic disorder (AD, 67 with Asperger's disorder (AS and 50 with pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS. This study group consists of subjects pooled from two studies with highly similar protocols, all seen on an outpatient basis by one of three clinicians. Results Core autistic symptoms were highly prevalent in all ASD subgroups. Though AD subjects had the most pervasive problems, restrictions in non-verbal communication were common across all three subgroups and, contrary to current DSM criteria, so were verbal communication deficits. Lifetime psychiatric axis I comorbidity was very common, most notably mood and anxiety disorders, but also ADHD and psychotic disorders. The frequency of these diagnoses did not differ between the ASD subgroups or between males and females. Antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse were more common in the PDD NOS group. Of all subjects, few led an independent life and very few had ever had a long-term relationship. Female subjects more often reported having been bullied at school than male subjects. Conclusion ASDs are clinical syndromes characterized by impaired social interaction and non-verbal communication in adulthood as well as in childhood. They also

  11. Language Disorders in a Child Psychiatric Center: Demographic Characteristics and Comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrborg, Jørgen; Goldschmidt, Vibeke V.

    1996-01-01

    In this study demographic variables and comorbidity were registered in a group of children and adolescents with language disorders. Ss were drawn from 1,151 consecutively admitted psychiatric patients (0-17 yrs) in a 5-yr period. 116 patients had language disorders (10%), and 73% were boys. 27% h....... Findings have clear implications for the psychiatric service to children, adolescents, and their families, since both assessment and treatment are predominantly language-based activities.......In this study demographic variables and comorbidity were registered in a group of children and adolescents with language disorders. Ss were drawn from 1,151 consecutively admitted psychiatric patients (0-17 yrs) in a 5-yr period. 116 patients had language disorders (10%), and 73% were boys. 27% had...... expressive language disorders, 47% receptive language disorders, and 26% mixed specific developmental disorders (inclusive language disorder). The prevalence of previously unsuspected language disorders was 27%. 75% of patients with language disorders could furthermore be psychiatrically diagnosed...

  12. Characteristics of psychiatric emergency department use among privately insured adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Luther G; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Vasa, Roma A

    2018-01-01

    This study examined differences in the rates of psychiatric-related emergency department visits among adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and adolescents without autism spectrum disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Additional outcomes included emergency department recidivism, probability of psychiatric hospitalization after the emergency department visit, and receipt of outpatient mental health services before and after the emergency department visit. Data came from privately insured adolescents, aged 12-17 years, with autism spectrum disorder (N = 46,323), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (N = 408,066), and neither diagnosis (N = 2,330,332), enrolled in the 2010-2013 MarketScan Commercial Claims Database. Adolescents with autism spectrum disorder had an increased rate of psychiatric emergency department visits compared to adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (IRR = 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.9, 2.1) and adolescents with neither diagnosis (IRR = 9.9, 95% confidence interval: 9.4, 10.4). Compared to the other groups, adolescents with autism spectrum disorder also had an increased probability of emergency department recidivism, psychiatric hospitalization after the emergency department visit, and receipt of outpatient care before and after the visit (all p < 0.001). Further research is required to understand whether these findings extend to youth with other neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly those who are publicly insured.

  13. Psychiatric disorders and left-handedness in children living in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Dora Due; Logue, Richard T; Kaufmann, Walter E; Belcher, Harolyn M E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct an analysis of left-handed children treated in an urban mental health clinic to investigate the frequency and severity of psychiatric disorders compared to right-handed peers. Data on handedness, diagnoses, hospitalizations and severity of mental disorders were collected on 692 consecutive children, 4-18 years old (M=10.1, SD=3.2), referred for psychiatric evaluation. Left-handed children were 18.2% of patients in the study, a rate significantly higher than left-hand dominance in the USA (phandedness, logistic regression analysis yielded 31% [odds ratio (OR)=1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.50] higher odds of having more psychiatric diagnosis, 70% (OR=1.70, 95% CI: 1.10-2.62) increased odds of anxiety, 53% (OR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.03-2.27) increased odds of depression and 78% (OR=1.78, 95% CI: 1.21-2.62) increased odds of oppositional defiant disorder for children who were left-handed. Left-handed children had increased odds of being prescribed antipsychotic and anxiolytic medication uses, 53% and 86% increased odds, respectively, and 66% (OR=1.66, 95% CI: 1.08-2.55) increased odds of psychiatric hospitalizations. Left-handedness was a phenotypic risk factor for psychiatric disorders and increased severity of psychiatric disorders.

  14. A population-based study of premorbid scholastic achievement among patients with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Vardit Zerem; Hornik-Lurie, Tzipi; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2017-07-01

    Population-based studies of premorbid cognitive functioning in schizophrenia have found verbal deficits and low IQ scores. It remains unclear, however, whether premorbid deficits are specific to schizophrenia, compared with other psychiatric disorders. Moreover, studies using school-based measures are few and their results inconsistent. This study assesses the eighth-grade (ages 13-14; n=11, 418) scholastic performance of adults with psychiatric disorders (n=194, 1.7, particularly with schizophrenia (n=86, 0.8%), comparing the results with those of their normative peers. The researchers examined report cards of eighth-graders at state secular schools in Jerusalem over a ten-year period (1978-1988), applying ANOVA and logistic regression models to evaluate associations between school performance and subsequent psychiatric hospitalization. The findings indicated that participants hospitalized with varied psychiatric disorders had lower grades in mathematics, gym, handcraft and academic core subjects, with significantly lower overall scores. Amended logistic regression models indicate that reduced performance (in mathematics, gym, handcraft and overall scores) was correlated with an increasing likelihood of hospitalization for the psychiatric disorders group and the subgroup with schizophrenia-related ailments. These results imply that eighth-grade school performance in core subjects is poorer among persons later hospitalized with psychiatric disorders than that of their classmates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Psychopathology of anxiety-phobic disorders that led to hospitalization in a psychiatric hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugunov, D A; Schmilovitch, A A

    2017-01-01

    To study the psychopathology of anxiety-phobic disorders and motives of hospitalization of patients in a psychiatric hospital. One hundred and thirty-two patients were examined, 72 patients of the main group were admitted to general psychiatric departments, 60 patients of the control group in the sanatorium psychiatric departments. Clinical-psychopathological, follow-up, psychometric and statistical methods were used. Patients with hospital anxiety-phobic disorders had agoraphobia with panic disorder, social phobias, hypochondriacal phobias, specific phobias and multiple phobias. The main reasons for hospitalization were: the intensity of anxiety-phobic disorders, contrast content of phobias, multiplicity of anxiety-phobic disorders, ambulance calls, personality accentuations and rental aims.

  16. The application of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graat, Ilse; Figee, Martijn; Denys, Damiaan

    2017-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a last-resort treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders that are refractory to standard treatment. Over the last decades, the progress of DBS in psychiatry has been slower than in neurology, in part owing to the heterogenic symptomatology and complex neuroanatomy of psychiatric disorders. However, for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) DBS is now an accepted treatment. This study first reviews clinical outcomes and mechanisms of DBS for OCD, and then discusses these results in an overview of current and future psychiatric applications, including DBS for mood disorders, Tourette's syndrome, addiction, anorexia nervosa, autism, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders. In addition, it will focus on novel techniques that may enhance the application of DBS in psychiatry.

  17. Self-Esteem of 8-14-Year-Old Children with Psychiatric Disorders: Disorder- and Gender-Specific Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Stephanie; Grunewald, Madlen; Gibbels, Charlotte; Jaeger, Sonia; Matuschek, Tina; Weis, Steffi; Klein, Annette Maria; Hiemisch, Andreas; von Klitzing, Kai; Döhnert, Mirko

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the relation between global and domain-specific self-esteem and psychiatric disorders. A sample of 577 children aged 8-14 years was recruited via psychiatric hospitals and from the general population. Parents were given a diagnostic interview to assess children's psychiatric diagnoses (current/past). Parents and children completed questionnaires on child symptoms. Children completed a questionnaire on global and domain-specific self-esteem (scales: scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic performance and physical appearance, global self-esteem). Self-esteem of children with current psychiatric disorders was lower than that of healthy controls (η p 2 between 0.01 and 0.08). Concerning scholastic competence, social acceptance and global self-esteem, children with past psychiatric disorders scored also lower than healthy controls. Different current psychiatric disorders showed specific but small effects on dimensions of self-esteem (β between -0.08 and 0.19). Moreover, we found a gender × group interaction, indicating that girls with depressive and adjustment disorders were specifically impaired in their global self-esteem and perception of their physical appearance. Findings might help clinicians to focus on particular domains of self-esteem during the diagnostic process and to define adequate treatment goals.

  18. Associations between Familial Rates of Psychiatric Disorders and De Novo Genetic Mutations in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyleen Luhrs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the confluence of genetic and familial risk factors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD with distinct de novo genetic events. We hypothesized that gene-disrupting mutations would be associated with reduced rates of familial psychiatric disorders relative to structural mutations. Participants included families of children with ASD in four groups: de novo duplication copy number variations (DUP, n=62, de novo deletion copy number variations (DEL, n=74, de novo likely gene-disrupting mutations (LGDM, n=267, and children without a known genetic etiology (NON, n=2111. Familial rates of psychiatric disorders were calculated from semistructured interviews. Results indicated overall increased rates of psychiatric disorders in DUP families compared to DEL and LGDM families, specific to paternal psychiatric histories, and particularly evident for depressive disorders. Higher rates of depressive disorders in maternal psychiatric histories were observed overall compared to paternal histories and higher rates of anxiety disorders were observed in paternal histories for LGDM families compared to DUP families. These findings support the notion of an additive contribution of genetic etiology and familial factors are associated with ASD risk and highlight critical need for continued work targeting these relationships.

  19. Psychiatric comorbidity and medication use in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tara R; Viskochil, Joseph; Farley, Megan; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M; Morgan, Jubel; Bilder, Deborah A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate comorbid psychiatric disorders and psychotropic medication use among adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ascertained as children during a 1980's statewide Utah autism prevalence study (n = 129). Seventy-three individuals (56.6 %) met criteria for a current psychiatric disorder; 89 participants (69.0 %) met lifetime criteria for a psychiatric disorder. Caregivers reported a psychiatric diagnosis in 44 participants (34.1 %). Anxiety disorder had the highest current and lifetime prevalence (39.5 and 52.7 %, respectively). Participants with intellectual disability (n = 94, 72.8 %) were significantly less likely to have community-based diagnoses of anxiety (χ(2) = 5.37, p = 0.02) or depression (χ(2) = 13.18, p caregivers. Seventy-six participants (58.9 %) were taking ≥1 psychotropic medication. Comorbid psychiatric disorders occur frequently in adults with ASD, though identifying these disorders poses a challenge in community settings. A greater understanding of the presentation of these conditions within this population will increase assessment validity and the potential for efficacious intervention.

  20. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders O cerebelo e os transtornos psiquiátricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Baldaçara

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electronic search was done up to April 2008. DISCUSSION: Structural and functional cerebellar abnormalities have been reported in many psychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, dementia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported smaller total cerebellar and vermal volumes in schizophrenia, mood disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies using cognitive paradigms have shown alterations in cerebellar activity in schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In dementia, the cerebellum is affected in later stages of the disease. CONCLUSION: Contrasting with early theories, cerebellum appears to play a major role in different brain functions other than balance and motor control, including emotional regulation and cognition. Future studies are clearly needed to further elucidate the role of cerebellum in both normal and pathological behavior, mood regulation, and cognitive functioning.OBJETIVO: Este artigo de atualização tem como objetivo avaliar estudos em neuroimagem estrutural e funcional a fim de explorar o papel do cerebelo na patofisiologia dos transtornos psiquiátricos. MÉTODO: Uma revisão não sistemática foi realizada através do Medline utilizando-se como parâmetro os seguintes termos: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia

  1. Eating Disorder Inventory-3, validation in Swedish patients with eating disorders, psychiatric outpatients and a normal control sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman-Carlsson, Erika; Engström, Ingemar; Norring, Claes; Nevonen, Lauri

    2015-02-01

    The Eating Disorder Inventory-3 (EDI-3) is designed to assess eating disorder psychopathology and the associated psychological symptoms. The instrument has been revised and has not yet been validated for Swedish conditions in its current form. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity and reliability of this inventory and present national norms for Swedish females. Data from patients with eating disorders (n = 292), psychiatric outpatients (n = 140) and normal controls (n = 648), all females, were used to study the internal consistency, the discriminative ability, and the sensitivity and specificity of the inventory using preliminary cut-offs for each subscale and diagnosis separately. Swedish norms were compared with those from Denmark, USA, Canada, Europe and Australian samples. The reliability was acceptable for all subscales except Asceticism among normal controls. Analysis of variance showed that the EDI-3 discriminates significantly between eating disorders and normal controls. Anorexia nervosa was significantly discriminated from bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified on the Eating Disorder Risk Scales. Swedish patients scored significantly lower than patients from other countries on the majority of the subscales. Drive for Thinness is the second best predictor for an eating disorder. The best predictor for anorexia nervosa was Interoceptive Deficits and Bulimia for the other diagnoses. Conclusions/clinical implications: The EDI-3 is valid for use with Swedish patients as a clinical assessment tool for the treatment planning and evaluation of patients with eating-related problems. However, it still exist some uncertainty regarding its use as a screening tool.

  2. Mood disorders in general hospital inpatients: one year data from a psychiatric consultation-liaison service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisei, Sandro; Pauselli, Luca; Balducci, Pierfrancesco Maria; Moretti, Patrizia; Quartesan, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    Mood disorders (MD) show higher prevalence among psychiatric disorders. As a matter of fact 10% of inpatients in non psychiatric health care structures are affected by MD. A consultation-liaison service bridges the gap between psychiatric and other medical disciplines and increases the cooperation in the context of care, improving the diagnostic process for all inpatients in medical wards. Our sample is composed of 1702 patients assessed from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 referred from the wards for psychiatric specialist evaluation in Santa Maria della Misericordia, Perugia, Italy. Each patient was assessed by a consultant psychiatrist performing a psychiatric interview leading to a diagnosis according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected and registrered in the clinical records. SPSS software (ver. 18) was used for data analysis. Chi-square test and T-student tests were performed as appropriate. A p-valueconsultation referral urgent status we found that 84% of requests needed to be seen within 24 h, most of them come from Emergency room. Statistically significant correlations can be found between the source of referrals, the reasons for the referrals, psychiatric care prior to the evaluation and the psychiatric disorder which was diagnosed during the assessment. Consultation-liaison service for MD in an italian general hospital is generally based on emergency/urgency referrals from the Emergency room for patients already assessed to mental care facilities by private or national health service psychiatrists.

  3. Minor psychiatric disorders among Brazilian ragpickers: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fassa Anaclaudia

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ragpickers are informal workers who collect recyclable materials to earn a small wage. Their life and working conditions are extremely difficult. We examined minor psychiatric disorders (MPD among a cohort of ragpickers in Pelotas, a city in southern Brazil. Methods Ragpickers were matched by sex, age, and years of schooling with a sample of non-ragpickers from the same poor neighborhoods. The cross-sectional study gathered data by interview on 990 individuals in 2004. MPD were assessed using a standard self-reporting questionnaire, the SRQ-20. Results The prevalence of MPD among ragpickers was 44.7%, higher than reported by neighborhood controls (33.6%; p Conclusion Ragpickers more frequently report MPD than other poor workers living in the same neighborhoods, with many of the same life conditions. Improving the work lives of these precarious workers should address not only the physical hazards of their jobs but their mental and emotional health as well.

  4. The involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex in psychiatric disorders: an update of neuroimaging findings

    OpenAIRE

    Jackowski,Andrea Parolin; Filho,Gerardo Maria de Araújo; Almeida,Amanda Galvão de; Araújo,Célia Maria de; Reis,Marília; Nery,Fabiana; Batista,Ilza Rosa; Silva,Ivaldo; Lacerda,Acioly L. T.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the pathophysiology of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders (PD). METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of MEDLINE using the following terms as parameters: "orbitofrontal cortex", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "major depression", "anxiety disorders", "personality disorders" and "drug addiction". The electronic search was d...

  5. EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS AT THE PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL ''SVETI IVAN

    OpenAIRE

    Restek-Petrović, Branka; Mihanović, Mate; Grah, Majda; Molnar, Sven; Bogović, Anamarija; Agius, Mark; Kezić, Slobodanka; Grošić, Vladimir; Mayer, Nina; Svrdlin, Pero; Dominis, Vesna; Goršić, Lada; Kamerman, Nenad; Pavlović, Irena; Švagelj, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The Early intervention program for the first episodes of psychotic disorders (RIPEPP) at the Psychiatric Hospital “Sveti Ivan“ in Zagreb encompasses patients hospitalized due to various psychoses (acute psychotic disorder, schizophrenia, schizoaffective and delusional disorder, bipolar affective disorder with psychotic symptoms) in the “critical period“ of illness, i.e. within five years after the occurrence of the first symptoms. The RIPEPP Program consists of an in- and out-patient...

  6. Neurofeedback Training for Psychiatric Disorders Associated with Criminal Offending: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Fielenbach

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEffective treatment interventions for criminal offenders are necessary to reduce risk of criminal recidivism. Evidence about deviant electroencephalographic (EEG-frequencies underlying disorders found in criminal offenders is accumulating. Yet, treatment modalities, such as neurofeedback, are rarely applied in the forensic psychiatric domain. Since offenders usually have multiple disorders, difficulties adhering to long-term treatment modalities, and are highly vulnerable for psychiatric decompensation, more information about neurofeedback training protocols, number of sessions, and expected symptom reduction is necessary before it can be successfully used in offender populations.MethodStudies were analyzed that used neurofeedback in adult criminal offenders, and in disorders these patients present with. Specifically aggression, violence, recidivism, offending, psychopathy, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, substance-use disorder (SUD, and cluster B personality disorders were included. Only studies that reported changes in EEG-frequencies posttreatment (increase/decrease/no change in EEG amplitude/power were included.ResultsDatabases Psychinfo and Pubmed were searched in the period 1990–2017 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses, resulting in a total of 10 studies. Studies in which neurofeedback was applied in ADHD (N = 3, SUD (N = 3, schizophrenia (N = 3, and psychopathy (N = 1 could be identified. No studies could be identified for neurofeedback applied in cluster B personality disorders, aggression, violence, or recidivism in criminal offenders. For all treatment populations and neurofeedback protocols, number of sessions varied greatly. Changes in behavioral levels ranged from no improvements to significant symptom reduction after neurofeedback training. The results are also mixed concerning posttreatment changes in targeted EEG

  7. It Is Not Just in Faces! Processing of Emotion and Intention from Biological Motion in Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Okruszek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Social neuroscience offers a wide range of techniques that may be applied to study the social cognitive deficits that may underlie reduced social functioning—a common feature across many psychiatric disorders. At the same time, a significant proportion of research in this area has been conducted using paradigms that utilize static displays of faces or eyes. The use of point-light displays (PLDs offers a viable alternative for studying recognition of emotion or intention inference while minimizing the amount of information presented to participants. This mini-review aims to summarize studies that have used PLD to study emotion and intention processing in schizophrenia (SCZ, affective disorders, anxiety and personality disorders, eating disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. Two main conclusions can be drawn from the reviewed studies: first, the social cognitive problems found in most of the psychiatric samples using PLD were of smaller magnitude than those found in studies presenting social information using faces or voices. Second, even though the information presented in PLDs is extremely limited, presentation of these types of stimuli is sufficient to elicit the disorder-specific, social cognitive biases (e.g., mood-congruent bias in depression, increased threat perception in anxious individuals, aberrant body size perception in eating disorders documented using other methodologies. Taken together, these findings suggest that point-light stimuli may be a useful method of studying social information processing in psychiatry. At the same time, some limitations of using this methodology are also outlined.

  8. Association of Fluid Intelligence and Psychiatric Disorders in a Population-Representative Sample of US Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Platt, Jonathan; Kaufman, Alan S; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2017-02-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the association of psychiatric disorders with intelligence, few population-based studies of psychiatric disorders have assessed intelligence. To investigate the association of fluid intelligence with past-year and lifetime psychiatric disorders, disorder age at onset, and disorder severity in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. National sample of adolescents ascertained from schools and households from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement, collected 2001 through 2004. Face-to-face household interviews with adolescents and questionnaires from parents were obtained. The data were analyzed from February to December 2016. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and included a broad range of fear, distress, behavior, substance use, and other disorders. Disorder severity was measured with the Sheehan Disability Scale. Fluid IQ measured with the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, normed within the sample by 6-month age groups. The sample included 10 073 adolescents (mean [SD] age, 15.2 [1.50] years; 49.0% female) with valid data on fluid intelligence. Lower mean (SE) IQ was observed among adolescents with past-year bipolar disorder (94.2 [1.69]; P = .004), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (96.3 [0.91]; P = .002), oppositional defiant disorder (97.3 [0.66]; P = .007), conduct disorder (97.1 [0.82]; P = .02), substance use disorders (alcohol abuse, 96.5 [0.67]; P Intelligence was not associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders other than specific phobia, and was positively associated with past-year major depression (mean [SE], 100 [0.5]; P = .01). Associations of fluid intelligence with lifetime disorders that had remitted were attenuated compared with past-year disorders, with the exception of separation anxiety disorder. Multiple past

  9. [Body dysmorphic disorder in cosmetic surgery - prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity and outcome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundscheid, T; van der Hulst, R R W J; Rutten, B P F; Leue, C

    2014-01-01

    Patients suffering from body dysmorphic disorder (bdd) are preoccupied with a slight or imagined defect in appearance. First of all, to review the literature on the prevalence of bdd in cosmetic surgery and thereafter to review the literature on psychiatric comorbidity and the outcome of surgical interventions. We based our search strategy on Embase, Medline and PubMed, using the search terms 'body dysmorphic disorder', 'cosmetic surgery', 'prevalence', 'comorbidity' and 'outcome'. Our search covered English and Dutch literature published after the introduction of bdd in dsm-iii-r and before 1 November, 2013. A study of the relevant articles enabled us to access additional articles mentioned in these texts. Our initial search strategy turned out to be too narrow. It was therefore broadened to include 'body dysmorphic disorder', 'cosmetic surgery', and 'prevalence'. Eventually we included 23 original articles. In 11 of these the prevalence of bdd varied from 3.2 to 53.6%. Twelve articles on psychiatric comorbidity revealed predominantly mood and anxiety disorders on axis I and cluster C personality disorders on axis II. Only two studies reported on the outcome of cosmetic surgery performed on bdd patients; surgical interventions, however, seemed to result in new preoccupations with the prolongation of psychiatric comorbidity. bdd is a common psychiatric disorder that can sometimes lead to cosmetic surgery. However, pre-operative screening of bdd patients is vital so that efficient psychiatric treatment can be initiated and patients are not subjected to surgical interventions which may be ineffective or even harmful.

  10. Psychiatric comorbidity among children and adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Ni, Hsing-Chang; Shang, Chi-Yung; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Lin, Liang-Ying; Chiu, Yen-Nan

    2010-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to examine the current psychiatric comorbidity among children and adolescents with and without persistent attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as compared to school controls, and to determine the factors predicting psychiatric comorbidity. The sample included 296 patients (male, 85.5%), aged 11-17, who were diagnosed with DSM-IV ADHD at the mean age of 6.7 +/- 2.7 years and 185 school controls. The ADHD and other psychiatric diagnoses were made based on clinical assessments and confirmed by psychiatric interviews. The ADHD group was categorized into 186 patients (62.8%) with persistent ADHD and 110 (37.2%) without persistent ADHD. Compared to the controls, the two ADHD groups were more likely to have oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), tics, mood disorders, past and regular use of substances, substance use disorders and sleep disorders (odds ratios (ORs) = 1.8-25.3). Patients with persistent ADHD had higher risks for anxiety disorders, particularly specific phobia than the controls. Moreover, patients with persistent ADHD were more likely to have ODD than their partially remitted counterparts. Advanced analyses indicated that more severe baseline ADHD symptoms predicted ODD/CD at adolescence; longer methylphenidate treatment duration was associated with an increased risk for tics and ODD/CD at adolescence; and older age predicted higher risks for mood disorders and substance use disorders. Reduced ADHD symptoms at adolescence may not lead to decreased risks for psychiatric comorbidity, and identification of severe ADHD symptoms at childhood and age-specific comorbid patterns throughout the developmental stage is important to offset the long-term adverse psychiatric outcomes of ADHD.

  11. Conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder in persons with severe psychiatric and substance use disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mueser, Kim T; Crocker, Anne G; Frisman, Linda B; Drake, Robert E; Covell, Nancy H; Essock, Susan M

    2006-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are established risk factors for substance use disorders in both the general population and among persons with schizophrenia and other severe mental illnesses...

  12. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among nurses of a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SCID), 57% of the 100 study sample of female nurses of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria met definitive diagnoses for Anxiety Disorder, Dysthymia, Major Depressive Disorder, and Major Depression with probable Panic Disorder.

  13. Treatment of Substance Abusing Patients with Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Thomas M.; Daley, Dennis C.; Douaihy, Antoine B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To update clinicians on the latest in evidence-based treatments for substance use disorders (SUD) and non-substance use disorders among adults and suggest how these treatments can be combined into an evidence based process that enhances treatment effectiveness in comorbid patients. Method Articles were extracted from Pubmed using the search terms “dual diagnosis,” “comorbidity” and “co-occurring” and were reviewed for evidence of effectiveness for pharmacologic and psychotherapeutic treatments of comorbidity. Results Twenty-four research reviews and 43 research trials were reviewed. The preponderance of the evidence suggests that antidepressants prescribed to improve substance-related symptoms among patients with mood and anxiety disorders are either not highly effective or involve risk due to high side-effect profiles or toxicity. Second-generation antipsychotics are more effective for treatment of schizophrenia and comorbid substance abuse and current evidence suggests clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone are among the best. Clozapine appears to be the most effective of the antipsychotics for reducing alcohol, cocaine and cannabis abuse among patients with schizophrenia. Motivational interviewing has robust support as a highly effective psychotherapy for establishing a therapeutic alliance. This finding is critical since retention in treatment is essential for maintaining effectiveness. Highly structured therapy programs that integrate intensive outpatient treatments, case management services and behavioral therapies such as Contingency Management (CM) are most effective for treatment of severe comorbid conditions. Conclusions Creative combinations of psychotherapies, behavioral and pharmacological interventions offer the most effective treatment for comorbidity. Intensity of treatment must be increased for severe comorbid conditions such as the schizophrenia/cannabis dependence comorbidity due to the limitations of pharmacological

  14. The prevalence of personality disorder in a psychiatric and substance abuse population in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walcott, G; Martin, J; Hickling, F W

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of personality disorders in patients admitted to the psychiatric wards of the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI). Patients (n = 100) sequentially admitted to the psychiatric wards of the UHWI were assessed for personality disorder using the gold standard of a consultant assessment using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for personality disorder, the International Personality Disorder Examination Screening questionnaire (IPDE-S), and the Jamaica Personality Disorder Inventory (JPDI). The three assessment instruments identified a prevalence of personality disorder in the cohort of patients of 51% consultant DSM-IV-TR assessment, 57% JPDI and 86% IPDE-S. The prevalence rate identified by the IPDE-S was significantly higher that the local instruments used (p Jamaica is comparable to the prevalence rate of studies in other countries in a similar population.

  15. From peculiar psychiatric disorders through culture-bound syndromes to culture-related specific syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wen-Shing

    2006-12-01

    This article reviews the historical evolution and progress of nosological concepts from exotic psychiatric disorders and culture-bound syndromes to culture-related specific syndromes. Approaches to classification and subgrouping these disorders are disccused and an argument offered for finding a place for culturally unique syndromes in the existing classification system. The characteristics of various syndromes are elaborated and suggestions are made for future research. Finally, emphasis is given to the need to be concerned with the impact of culture on every psychiatric disorder, not only culture-specific syndromes, to promote culturally competent care for every patient.

  16. Incidence of eating disorders in Danish psychiatric secondary healthcare 1970-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Carina; Jensen, Signe Ow; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Is an increased focus on eating disorders during the past few decades reflected by increasing occurrence in the psychiatric health service system. METHOD: All first-time diagnoses of eating disorders identified in the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register 1970-2008 constitute...... the present research database. Age-standardized rates per 100,000 inhabitants were calculated and autoregressive models were fitted for males and females separately as well as for in- and outpatients. RESULTS: The incidence of eating disorders diagnosed in Danish psychiatric secondary healthcare has increased...... considerably during a nearly 40-year period of observation both within the general category of eating disorders and also specifically for anorexia nervosa. The steepest increase is seen within females aged 15-19 years, where the highest incidences are also found. Anorexia nervosa constitutes the vast majority...

  17. Deep brain stimulation for psychiatric disorders: Is there an impact on social functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Christian; Hasler, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for refractory psychiatric disorders shows promising effects on symptom-reduction, however, little is known regarding the effects of DBS on social outcome. A PubMed search based on original studies of DBS for psychiatric disorders [treatment resistant depression (TRD), Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)] was conducted. Data on social outcome following surgery were extracted and analyzed. Social functioning was not a primary outcome measure in the reviewed article. The literature is incomplete and inconclusive on this variable, however from the reported data, there is some evidence that DBS has the potential to improve social functioning. More systematic and detailed data gathering and reporting on social outcome with longer follow-ups are needed to evaluate more exhaustively the role of DBS in refractory psychiatric disorders.

  18. Risk of Schizophrenia Increases After All Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibing, Cecilie Frejstrup; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Earlier smaller studies have shown associations between child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and schizophrenia. Particularly, attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder and autism have been linked with schizophrenia. However, large-scale prospective studies have been lacking. We......, therefore, conducted the first large-scale study on the association between a broad spectrum of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods: Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort consisting of all persons born during 1990......-2000 and the cohort was followed until December 31, 2012. Data were analyzed using survival analyses and adjusted for calendar year, age, and sex. Results: A total of 25138 individuals with child and adolescent psychiatric disorders were identified, out of which 1232 individuals were subsequently diagnosed...

  19. Gross Motor Performance and Physical Fitness in Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emck, Claudia; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Wieringen, Piet C. W.; Doreleijers, Theo; Beek, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Gross motor performance appears to be impaired in children with psychiatric disorders but little is known about which skill domains are affected in each disorder, nor about possible accompanying deficits in physical fitness. The present study has sought to provide information about these issues in children with emotional, behavioural, and…

  20. Sex differences in neural responses to disgusting visual stimuli: implications for disgust-related psychiatric disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caseras, X.; Mataix-Cols, D.; An, S.K.; Lawrence, N.S.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Giampietro, V.; Brammer, M.J.; Phillips, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A majority of patients with disgust-related psychiatric disorders such as animal phobias and contamination-related obsessive-compulsive disorder are women. The aim of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to examine possible sex differences in neural responses to

  1. Intellectual Ability and Achievement in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Children with Conduct, Anxiety, and Affective Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Kay; Plow, Jean

    1990-01-01

    Examined intelligence quotient and academic achievement of 76 psychiatrically hospitalized children (mean age 10 years). Found relative deficit in verbal abilities for conduct-disordered children. Depressed children were characterized by underachievement. Children with anxiety disorder had lower intelligence quotient than children without anxiety…

  2. Parole revocation among prison inmates with psychiatric and substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillargeon, Jacques; Williams, Brie A; Mellow, Jeff; Harzke, Amy Jo; Hoge, Steven K; Baillargeon, Gwen; Greifinger, Robert B

    2009-11-01

    This retrospective cohort study examined the association between co-occurring serious mental illness and substance use disorders and parole revocation among inmates from the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, the nation's largest state prison system. The study population included all 8,149 inmates who were released under parole supervision between September 1, 2006, and November 31, 2006. An electronic database was used to identify inmates whose parole was revoked within 12 months of their release. The independent risk of parole revocation attributable to psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and other covariates was assessed with logistic regression analysis. Parolees with a dual diagnosis of a major psychiatric disorder (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorder) and a substance use disorder had a substantially increased risk of having their parole revoked because of either a technical violation (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.4-2.4) or commission of a new criminal offense (OR=2.8, 95% CI=1.7-4.5) in the 12 months after their release. However, parolees with a diagnosis of either a major psychiatric disorder alone or a substance use disorder alone demonstrated no such increased risk. These findings highlight the need for future investigations of specific social, behavioral, and other factors that underlie higher rates of parole revocation among individuals with co-occurring serious mental illness and substance use disorders.

  3. Psychiatric disorders in a cohort of individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriki-Tal, L; Avrahamy, H; Pollak, Y; Gross-Tsur, V; Genstil, L; Hirsch, H J; Benarroch, F

    2017-07-01

    Psychiatric manifestations in Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) are common and often are the most debilitating problem in these individuals. We present an epidemiological nation-wide survey of psychiatric diagnoses in the PWS population, based on full-range psychiatric interviews. We studied the distribution of psychiatric diagnoses (as opposed to a symptom-based approach) in the Israel national cohort of adolescents and adults with PWS. There was a total of 53 (32 males) ages 12 years and older. All individuals and their caretakers were interviewed using standardized psychiatric questionnaires. Demographic and clinical variables, Clinical Global Impression (CGI) score, IQ, severity of hyperphagia and quality of life (QOL) were also assessed and correlations with NPD (number of psychiatric diagnoses) calculated. An overwhelming majority (89%) of the study participants had at least one psychiatric diagnosis. The most common were disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) (68%), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) (45%) and skin picking (35%). Individuals with DBD were at increased risk for OCD and skin picking. Psychotic disorders were found in 11%. NPD had a significant negative influence on QOL. There was no correlation between NPD and BMI, IQ, hyperphagia severity, hormonal profile or genetic subtypes. Psychiatric diagnoses are very frequent in PWS and strongly influence QOL. Furthermore, characterizing the profile of psychiatric comorbidity in PWS is crucial for planning effective interventions. Precise behavioral phenotyping in PWS in combination with a well-defined genetic etiology may aid biological research linking biological correlates to behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders: Advancing a developing field of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Merkouris, S S; Lorains, F K

    2016-07-01

    Despite significant psychiatric comorbidity in problem gambling, there is little evidence on which to base treatment recommendations for subpopulations of problem gamblers with comorbid psychiatric disorders. This mini-review draws on two separate systematic searches to identify possible interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders, highlight the gaps in the currently available evidence base, and stimulate further research in this area. In this mini-review, only 21 studies that have conducted post-hoc analyses to explore the influence of psychiatric disorders or problem gambling subtypes on gambling outcomes from different types of treatment were identified. The findings of these studies suggest that most gambling treatments are not contraindicated by psychiatric disorders. Moreover, only 6 randomized studies comparing the efficacy of interventions targeted towards specific comorbidity subgroups with a control/comparison group were identified. The results of these studies provide preliminary evidence for modified dialectical behavior therapy for comorbid substance use, the addition of naltrexone to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for comorbid alcohol use problems, and the addition of N-acetylcysteine to tobacco support programs and imaginal desensitisation/motivational interviewing for comorbid nicotine dependence. They also suggest that lithium for comorbid bipolar disorder, escitalopram for comorbid anxiety disorders, and the addition of CBT to standard drug treatment for comorbid schizophrenia may be effective. Future research evaluating interventions sequenced according to disorder severity or the functional relationship between the gambling behavior and comorbid symptomatology, identifying psychiatric disorders as moderators of the efficacy of problem gambling interventions, and evaluating interventions matched to client comorbidity could advance this immature field of study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring associations between psychiatric disorder, psychological distress, and health care utilization in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compen, F R; Adang, E M M; Bisseling, E M; Van der Lee, M L; Speckens, A E M

    2017-12-04

    The mental burden of cancer might elicit additional health care utilization. However, it is unclear how psychiatric disorder and psychological distress relate to health care utilization. Therefore, this study explores associations between psychiatric disorder, psychological distress, and health care utilization. It was hypothesized that presence of psychiatric disorder and psychological distress was associated with increased health care utilization and costs. The current study consisted of secondary analyses of baseline data of a larger randomized controlled trial. Two hundred forty-five mixed-cancer patients with at least mild symptoms of psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-T ≥ 11) were mainly recruited via online media, participating centers and patient associations. Patients were assessed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) for depressive, anxiety, and/or adjustment disorder. Psychological distress was measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Retrospective self-reported health care utilization in the past 3 months was collected. Associations between predictors and health care utilization in terms of incidence rate ratios (IRR) and costs per category (mental, primary, somatic, and complementary) were assessed by negative binomial, logistic, and gamma regression. Eighty-nine (36.3%) patients suffered from psychiatric disorder, which was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.63) and costs (OR = 3.11). We observed a nonsignificant trend of somatic health care utilization in patients with psychiatric disorder. Psychological distress was associated with mental health care utilization (IRR = 1.09) and costs (OR = 1.09). Psychological distress was also associated with complementary health care utilization (IRR = 1.03). Psychiatric disorder and psychological distress were associated with mental health care use and costs. Psychological distress was associated

  6. Gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem among detained adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Lore; Colins, Olivier F; Vanderplasschen, Wouter

    2014-12-30

    Detained minors display substantial mental health needs. This study focused on two features (psychopathology and self-esteem) that have received considerable attention in the literature and clinical work, but have rarely been studied simultaneously in detained youths. The aims of this study were to examine gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem, and to test the hypothesis that the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem have higher rates of psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed in 440 Belgian, detained adolescents using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV. Self-esteem was assessed using the Self-perception Profile for Adolescents. Model-based cluster analyses were performed to identify youths with lower and/or higher levels of self-esteem across several domains. Girls have higher rates for most psychiatric disorders and lower levels of self-esteem than boys. A higher number of clusters was identified in boys (four) than girls (three). Generally, the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem had a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders. These results suggest that the detection of low levels of self-esteem in adolescents, especially girls, might help clinicians to identify a subgroup of detained adolescents with the highest prevalence of psychopathology.

  7. Effects of neurofeedback on adult patients with psychiatric disorders in a naturalistic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Eun-Jin; Koo, Bon-Hoon; Seo, Wan-Seok; Lee, Jun-Yeob; Choi, Joong-Hyeon; Song, Shin-Ho

    2015-03-01

    Few well-controlled studies have considered neurofeedback treatment in adult psychiatric patients. In this regard, the present study investigates the characteristics and effects of neurofeedback on adult psychiatric patients in a naturalistic setting. A total of 77 adult patients with psychiatric disorders participated in this study. Demographic data and neurofeedback states were retrospectively analyzed, and the effects of neurofeedback were evaluated using clinical global impression (CGI) and subjective self-rating scales. Depressive disorders were the most common psychiatric disorders (19; 24.7 %), followed by anxiety disorders (18; 23.4 %). A total of 69 patients (89.6 %) took medicine, and the average frequency of neurofeedback was 17.39 ± 16.64. Neurofeedback was applied to a total of 39 patients (50.6 %) more than 10 times, and 48 patients (62.3 %) received both β/SMR and α/θ training. The discontinuation rate was 33.8 % (26 patients). There was significant difference between pretreatment and posttreatment CGI scores (neurofeedback as an effective complimentary treatment for adult patients with psychiatric disorders.

  8. Circadian Clock and Stress Interactions in the Molecular Biology of Psychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Landgraf, D.; McCarthy, MJ; Welsh, DK

    2014-01-01

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA). Many psychiatric disorders are characterized by circadian rhythm abnormalities, including disturbed sleep/wake cycles, changes in locomotor activity, and abnormal endocrine function. Animal models with mutations in circadian “clock genes” commonly show disturbances in reward processing, locomotor activity and novelty seeking behaviors, further supporting the idea of a connection between the circadian clock and psychiatric dis...

  9. Schizoaffective Disorder in an acute psychiatric unit: Profile of users ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Schizoaffective Disorder is a controversial and poorly understood diagnosis. Experts disagree on whether it is a discrete disorder; whether it is on a spectrum between Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia or whether it even exists. Lack of individual research attention given to this disorder, changing diagnostic ...

  10. Psychiatric assessment of severe presentations in autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bryan H; de Lacy, Nina; Siegel, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum and related disorders and intellectual disability are not protected from the experience of psychiatric illnesses. Many factors can contribute to exacerbation of existing behavioral symptoms or to the emergence of new psychiatric problems. The psychiatric assessment must thus take into account a range of possible etiologic or contributory factors. The approach outlined in this article highlights the value of assessing 4 broad domains, including diagnostic (genetic) factors, medical considerations, developmental influences, and environmental factors. Examples of how the consideration of each of these domains may inform the diagnostic formulation are highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Determinants of quality of life in children with psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaansen, D.; Koot, H.M.; Ferdinand, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess factors that, in addition to childhood psychopathology, are associated with Quality of Life (QoL) in children with psychiatric problems. Methods: In a referred sample of 252 8 to 18-year-olds, information concerning QoL, psychopathology and a broad range of child, parent, and

  12. Co–Morbid Psychiatric Disorders Nigerian Patients Suffering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, 28–item General Health Questionnaires and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales were used for first stage screening while the second stage interview utilised the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule. Results: The prevalence of psychotic morbidity was 37.5 % and 12.5% in the study ...

  13. Common psychiatric disorders in glaucoma patients as seen at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    month period and screened for general psychiatric morbidity, anxiety and depression using the SRQ-20 and HAD scales respectively. The male:female ratio of the group was 2.1:1 with a mean age of 57.3 years. The elderly population constituted ...

  14. The risk of schizophrenia and child psychiatric disorders in offspring of mothers with lung cancer and other types of cancer: a Danish nationwide register study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Eriksen Benros

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Maternal immune responses and brain-reactive antibodies have been proposed as possible causal mechanisms for schizophrenia and some child psychiatric disorders. According to this hypothesis maternal antibodies may cross the placenta and interact with the developing CNS of the fetus causing future neurodevelopmental disorders. Therefore, we investigated if children of mothers with cancer might be at higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders, with particular focus on small-cell lung cancer, which is known to induce production of antibodies binding to CNS elements. METHODS: Nationwide population-based registers were linked, including the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and The Danish Cancer Registry. Data were analyzed as a cohort study using survival analysis techniques. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs and accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CIs were used as measures of relative risk. RESULTS: In general, parental cancer was not associated with schizophrenia in the offspring (IRR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.01. Furthermore, we found no temporal associations with maternal cancer in general; neither around the pregnancy period. However, maternal small-cell lung cancer increased the risk of early-onset schizophrenia and maternal small-cell lung cancer diagnosed within 20 years after childbirth increased the risk of schizophrenia. Parental cancer was not associated with child psychiatric disorders (IRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.98-1.05 except for the smoking related cancers. There was a significantly increased risk of child psychiatric disorders in offspring of both mothers (IRR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16-1.58 and fathers (IRR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.30-1.66 with lung cancer of all types. CONCLUSIONS: In general, parental cancer did not increase the risk of schizophrenia nor of child psychiatric disorders. However, maternal small-cell lung cancer increased the risk of schizophrenia in subgroups; and lung cancer in general increased the risk of child

  15. The Risk of Schizophrenia and Child Psychiatric Disorders in Offspring of Mothers with Lung Cancer and Other Types of Cancer: A Danish Nationwide Register Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benros, Michael Eriksen; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal immune responses and brain-reactive antibodies have been proposed as possible causal mechanisms for schizophrenia and some child psychiatric disorders. According to this hypothesis maternal antibodies may cross the placenta and interact with the developing CNS of the fetus causing future neurodevelopmental disorders. Therefore, we investigated if children of mothers with cancer might be at higher risk of developing psychiatric disorders, with particular focus on small-cell lung cancer, which is known to induce production of antibodies binding to CNS elements. Methods Nationwide population-based registers were linked, including the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and The Danish Cancer Registry. Data were analyzed as a cohort study using survival analysis techniques. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used as measures of relative risk. Results In general, parental cancer was not associated with schizophrenia in the offspring (IRR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95-1.01). Furthermore, we found no temporal associations with maternal cancer in general; neither around the pregnancy period. However, maternal small-cell lung cancer increased the risk of early-onset schizophrenia and maternal small-cell lung cancer diagnosed within 20 years after childbirth increased the risk of schizophrenia. Parental cancer was not associated with child psychiatric disorders (IRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.98-1.05) except for the smoking related cancers. There was a significantly increased risk of child psychiatric disorders in offspring of both mothers (IRR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16-1.58) and fathers (IRR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.30-1.66) with lung cancer of all types. Conclusions In general, parental cancer did not increase the risk of schizophrenia nor of child psychiatric disorders. However, maternal small-cell lung cancer increased the risk of schizophrenia in subgroups; and lung cancer in general increased the risk of child psychiatric disorders

  16. [Child psychiatric viewpoint towards early childhood feading disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntymaa, Mirjami; Luoma, Ilona; Puura, Kaija

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood feading disorders are estimated to occur in 20% to 40% of normally developing young children. In most severe cases, troubles associated with feading interfere with the child's growth and development and may continue until adulthood. Early childhood feading disorders are discernible into different types of disorder, such as early childhood anorexia, sensory food aversion and posttraumatic feading disorder. Early childhood feading disorders are often associated with problems in parent-child interaction either primarily or secondarily as factors maintaining the disorder. Interactive therapy is often beneficial regardless of the etiology of the disorder.

  17. Ecological Momentary Assessment and Smartphone Application Intervention in Adolescents with Substance Use and Comorbid Severe Psychiatric Disorders: Study Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benarous, Xavier; Edel, Yves; Consoli, Angèle; Brunelle, Julie; Etter, Jean-François; Cohen, David; Khazaal, Yasser

    2016-01-01

    .... App-based technologies have shown promising results to help reduce substance use in adolescents, but their applicability in youths with associated severe psychiatric disorders is poorly documented...

  18. Psychiatric severity and HIV-risk sexual behaviors among persons with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majer, John M; Komer, Anne C; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between mental illness and human-immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-risk sexual behavior among persons with substance use disorders is not well-established because of differences in assessing psychiatric factors (types, symptoms, severity), substance use (diagnosis, survey responses, past substance use), and HIV-risk sexual behaviors (individual measures, combination of sex/drug use risk behaviors) across studies. This study utilized a more global and dimensional aspect of psychiatric issues (problem severity) to examine the relationship with HIV-risk sexual behaviors and substance use among persons with substance use disorders. Participants included 224 men and 46 women, with a mean age of 40.4 years (SD = 9.5). The most common substances were heroin/opiates, with 41.4% reporting use of these substances (n = 110), while 27.8% reported using cocaine (n = 74) and 12.8% reported using alcohol (n = 34). Of all participants, 39 (14.4%) were identified as having high psychiatric severity (defined using the psychiatric severity score from the Addiction Severity Index), which was used as an indication of probable comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders. Among these participants likely to have comorbid disorders, hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine HIV-risk sexual behaviors (number of partners and unprotected sexual behaviors in the past 30 days) in relation to psychiatric severity, substance use, and gender. Gender (women) and psychiatric severity (higher) were significantly related to greater HIV-risk sexual behaviors. After entering gender and substance use into the regression model, psychiatric severity accounted for another 21.9% of the variance in number of partners and 14.1% of the variance in unprotected sexual behaviors. Overall, the models accounted for 55.5% and 15.6% of the variance, respectively. A significant interaction was found for number of partners (but not frequency of unprotected behavior), such that those higher

  19. [Contributions of cortisol suppression tests to understanding of psychiatric disorders: a narrative review of literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Montes-Montero, Ana; Güemes, Itziar; González-Vives, Sara; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis had been studied for the past half century, when some researchers noted that some patients with Cushing's syndrome and severe mood disorders had high baseline cortisol levels, which resulted in an inhibited response in the 1mg dexamethasone suppression test. Altered dexamethasone suppression test results were subsequently found in many psychiatric diseases, including anorexia nervosa, obsessive-compulsive disorder, degenerative dementia, bipolar disorders, and schizophrenia. The relationship between high baseline cortisol levels and stress has also been studied. Some researches on the genesis of borderline personality disorder focused on traumatic childhood backgrounds. Other investigations aimed at elucidating the relationship between traumatic backgrounds and some psychiatric disorders noted that patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder showed an enhanced cortisol suppression with low cortisol doses (0.5 mg). Recent studies showed that use of an ultra-low dose of cortisol during the dexamethasone suppression test may be helpful for detecting disorders with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Recent advances in neuroimaging support the existence of hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with borderline personality disorder, relating a decreased pituitary gland volume to major traumatic backgrounds and suicidal attempts. The purpose of this paper is to make a narrative review of research using dexamethasone suppression test in psychiatric disorders, in order to ascertain its value as a supplemental diagnostic test or as a prognostic marker. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Psychiatric comorbidity in a Brazilian sample of patients with binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Vĺtor Mendlowicz, Mauro; de Menezes, Gabriela Bezerra; Papelbaum, Marcelo; Freitas, Silvia R; Godoy-Matos, Amélio; Coutinho, Walmir; Appolinário, José Carlos

    2003-07-15

    We compared sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric status in obese Brazilian patients who did (n=32) and did not (n=33) meet DSM-IV criteria for binge-eating disorder (BED). The sample's mean age was 35.0 years (+/-10.5), with 92.3% of individuals being female and 41.5% having some higher education. Obese binge eaters (OBE) were significantly more likely than obese non-binge eaters to meet criteria for a current diagnosis of any axis I disorder, any mood disorder and any anxiety disorder. Specifically, OBE patients were characterized by significantly higher rates of current and lifetime histories of major depressive disorder. Similar to patients from developed countries, Brazilian patients with BED display increased rates of psychiatric comorbidity, particularly mood and anxiety disorders.

  1. Reward circuitry dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders and genetic syndromes: animal models and clinical findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dichter Gabriel S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review summarizes evidence of dysregulated reward circuitry function in a range of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders and genetic syndromes. First, the contribution of identifying a core mechanistic process across disparate disorders to disease classification is discussed, followed by a review of the neurobiology of reward circuitry. We next consider preclinical animal models and clinical evidence of reward-pathway dysfunction in a range of disorders, including psychiatric disorders (i.e., substance-use disorders, affective disorders, eating disorders, and obsessive compulsive disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders (i.e., schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette’s syndrome, conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder, and genetic syndromes (i.e., Fragile X syndrome, Prader–Willi syndrome, Williams syndrome, Angelman syndrome, and Rett syndrome. We also provide brief overviews of effective psychopharmacologic agents that have an effect on the dopamine system in these disorders. This review concludes with methodological considerations for future research designed to more clearly probe reward-circuitry dysfunction, with the ultimate goal of improved intervention strategies.

  2. Psychiatric Disorders in Young Adults Diagnosed with Juvenile Fibromyalgia in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Natoshia Raishevich; Tran, Susan T; Lynch-Jordan, Anne M; Ting, Tracy V; Sil, Soumitri; Strotman, Daniel; Noll, Jennie G; Powers, Scott W; Arnold, Lesley M; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2015-12-01

    Adolescents with juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) have increased rates of psychiatric disorders, but to our knowledge no studies have examined psychiatric disorders in adolescents with JFM when they enter young adulthood. This study examined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young adults diagnosed with JFM during adolescence and the relationship between mental health diagnoses and physical functioning. Ninety-one young adults (mean age 21.60, SD 1.96) with a history of JFM being followed as part of a prospective longitudinal study and 30 matched healthy controls (mean age 21.57, SD 1.55) completed a structured interview of psychiatric diagnoses and a self-report measure of physical impairment. Young adults with a history of JFM were more likely to have current and lifetime histories of anxiety disorders (70.3% and 76.9%, respectively) compared with controls (33.3% for both, both p < 0.001). Individuals with JFM were also more likely to have current and lifetime histories of major mood disorders (29.7% and 76.9%, respectively) compared with controls (10% and 40%, p < 0.05). The presence of a current major mood disorder was significantly related to impairment in physical functioning [F (1, 89) = 8.30, p < 0.01] and role limitations attributable to a physical condition [F (1, 89) = 7.09, p < 0.01]. Psychiatric disorders are prevalent in young adulthood for individuals with a history of JFM, and a current major mood disorder is associated with greater physical impairment. Greater attention to early identification and treatment of mood disorders in patients with JFM is warranted.

  3. Psychiatric disorders in children with demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakpoor, Julia; Goldacre, Raph; Schmierer, Klaus; Giovannoni, Gavin; Waubant, Emmanuelle; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    The profile of psychiatric disorders associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) may differ in children. We aimed to assess the risk of psychiatric disorders in children with MS and other demyelinating diseases, and vice versa. We analyzed linked English Hospital Episode Statistics, and mortality data, 1999-2011. Cohorts were constructed of children admitted with MS and other central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating diseases. We searched for any subsequent episode of care with psychiatric disorders in these cohorts and compared to a reference cohort. Children with CNS demyelinating diseases had an increased rate of psychotic disorders (rate ratio (RR) = 5.77 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.48-11.41)); anxiety, stress-related, and somatoform disorders (RR = 2.38 (1.39-3.81)); intellectual disability (RR = 6.56 (3.66-10.84)); and other behavioral disorders (RR = 8.99 (5.13-14.62)). In analysis of the pediatric MS cohort as the exposure, there were elevated rates of psychotic disorders (RR = 10.76 (2.93-27.63)), mood disorders (RR = 2.57 (1.03-5.31)), and intellectual disability (RR = 6.08 (1.25-17.80)). In reverse analyses, there were elevated rates of a recorded hospital episode with CNS demyelinating disease after a previous recorded episode with anxiety, stress-related, and somatoform disorders; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); autism; intellectual disability; and other behavioral disorders. This analysis of a national diagnostic database provides strong evidence for an association between pediatric CNS demyelinating diseases and psychiatric disorders, and highlights a need for early involvement of mental health professionals.

  4. Psychiatric disorder in detained male adolescents as risk factor for serious recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Colins, Olivier; Vermeiren, Robert; Vahl, Pauline; Markus, Monica; Broekaert, Eric; Doreleijers, Theo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A growing body of research consistently shows that detained minors bear substantial mental health needs. However, the relation between mental disorder and criminal recidivism has largely remained unexplored. Our study examines whether psychiatric disorders increase the likelihood of recidivism after controlling for time at risk, criminal history, and the presence of other disorders. Method: Participants (n = 232) were detained male adolescents from all 3 youth detention centres in ...

  5. Eating disorders and psychiatric comorbidity among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguen, Shira; Cohen, Beth; Cohen, Greg; Madden, Erin; Bertenthal, Daniel; Seal, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with mental health problems are at elevated risk for eating disorders. Veterans serving in support of the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq (OEF/OIF) have a high prevalence of deployment-related mental health problems, but little is known about their risk for eating disorders. Our aim was to determine rates of eating disorder diagnoses among OEF/OIF veterans with mental health problems, particularly among those with comorbid mental health problems. This retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of nationwide VA healthcare facilities used descriptive statistics and regression analyses to determine eating disorder rates in OEF/OIF veterans who were new users of VA healthcare from October 7, 2001 to December 31, 2010 (N = 593,739). Although the prevalence of eating disorder diagnoses was 0.007% (n = 465) in women and eating disorder than those without mental health diagnoses. Eating disorders were significantly more common in women with depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and alcohol and/or drug use disorders than in women veterans without these mental health disorders. Among men, the associations between eating disorder diagnoses and comorbid mental health diagnoses closely paralleled those observed in women. Rates of eating disorders are significantly higher among returning veterans with comorbid mental health problems compared with those without mental health diagnoses. Further research should examine methods to improve detection and treatment of eating disorders in this population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Psychiatric disorders and mortality among people in homeless shelters in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandra Feodor; Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Erlangsen, Annette

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The increased mortality of homeless people compared with non-homeless people might be linked to psychiatric disorders. However, homeless people are, because of their insufficient accommodation, difficult to sample and monitor, which has limited previous studies. We aimed to assess...... registered psychiatric disorders, mortality, and predictors of mortality in the homeless shelter population in Denmark. METHODS: We did a nationwide, prospective, register-based cohort study of homeless people aged 16 years and older who were registered in the Danish Homeless Register between Jan 1, 1999......, and Dec 31, 2009. We calculated the proportion of registered psychiatric disorders, overall and cause-specific standardised mortality ratio (SMR), and life expectancy. Hazard ratios (HRs) were used to assess predictors of death. FINDINGS: 32,711 homeless people (23,040 men and 9671 women) were included...

  7. Comorbidity and temporal ordering of alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders: results from a Danish register-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Knop, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the comorbidity of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and other psychiatric disorders may have important implications for treatment and preventive interventions. However, information on the epidemiology of this comorbidity is lacking. The objective of this study was to present...... results on lifetime psychiatric comorbidity of AUD in a large Danish community population. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was used, comprising 3 updated measures of sets of lifestyle covariates and 26 years of follow-up data on 18,146 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark....... The study population was linked to national Danish hospital registers and a greater Copenhagen alcohol unit treatment register to detect registrations with AUD and other psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Of the individuals invited to the study, 7.6% were registered with AUD, and among these, 50.3% had...

  8. Psilocybin-Assisted Therapy: A Review of a Novel Treatment for Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kelan; Malcolm, Benjamin; Lastra, Dan

    2017-05-08

    Recent research suggests that functional connectivity changes may be involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. Hyperconnectivity in the default mode network has been associated with psychopathology, but psychedelic serotonin agonists like psilocybin may profoundly disrupt these dysfunctional neural network circuits and provide a novel treatment for psychiatric disorders. We have reviewed the current literature to investigate the efficacy and safety of psilocybin-assisted therapy for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. There were seven clinical trials that investigated psilocybin-assisted therapy as a treatment for psychiatric disorders related to anxiety, depression, and substance use. All trials demonstrated reductions in psychiatric rating scale scores or increased response and remission rates. There were large effect sizes related to improved depression and anxiety symptoms. Psilocybin may also potentially reduce alcohol or tobacco use and increase abstinence rates in addiction, but the benefits of these two trials were less clear due to open-label study designs without statistical analysis. Psilocybin-assisted therapy efficacy and safety appear promising, but more robust clinical trials will be required to support FDA approval and identify the potential role in clinical psychiatry.

  9. Male genital self-mutilation: a systematic review of psychiatric disorders and psychosocial factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeder, Thomas A; Leo, Raphael J

    To identify psychiatric diagnoses and psychosocial factors associated with intentional male genital self-mutilation (GSM) of specific injury subtypes. A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science and CINAHL for cases of GSM was conducted until December 2015, based on GSM and related terms. Cases were examined for injury subtype, psychiatric diagnosis and psychosocial factors. Chi-square analyses were employed to determine differences in frequency of such factors across injury subtypes. Data were obtained from 173 cases: genital mutilation (n=21), penile amputation (n=62), castration (n=56) and combined amputation/castration (n=34). Common psychiatric disorders included schizophrenia spectrum (49%), substance use (18.5%), personality (15.9%) and gender dysphoric disorders (15.3%). Chi-square analyses revealed that schizophrenia spectrum disorders occurred significantly more often among auto-amputates as compared with self-castrators or mutilators. Gender dysphoria occurred significantly more often among self-castrators than auto-amputates. No significant differences emerged regarding psychosocial factors across GSM subtypes. However, associations were observed between psychosocial factors and psychiatric diagnoses. Although altogether not commonly reported, experiential factors were reported in 82% of psychotic individuals. Treatment inaccessibility was noted among 71% of gender dysphorics engaging in auto-castration. Clinicians must consider the diverse range of psychiatric disorders and psychosocial factors underlying GSM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cluster A personality disorders: considering the 'odd-eccentric' in psychiatric nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Brent A

    2007-02-01

    Psychiatric nurses are familiar with the concept of personality disorder because of their contact with persons with the most common personality disorder in clinical settings - borderline type, who frequently engage mental health services. Perhaps it is this familiarity that has focused research and clinical attention on borderline personality disorder compared with the other personality disorders. The significance of cluster A personality disorders for nursing is multifaceted because of their severity, prevalence, inaccurate diagnosis, poor response to treatment, and similarities to axis I diagnoses. Despite this, literature reviews have established that relatively few studies have focused on the treatment of the cluster A personality disorders - paranoid, schizotypal, and schizoid - resulting in a dearth of evidence-based interventions for this group of clients. A discussion of these disorders in the context of personality disorder and their individual characteristics demonstrates the distinctive and challenging engagement techniques required by psychiatric nurses to provide effective treatment and care. It is also strongly indicated that the discipline of psychiatric nursing has not yet begun to address the care of persons with cluster A personality disorders.

  11. The role of oxytocin in psychiatric disorders: a review of biological and therapeutic research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, David M; Fallon, Daniel; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A

    2013-01-01

    After participating in this educational activity, the physician should be better able to 1. Identify the biological role of oxytocin in forming attachments. 2. Evaluate the relationship between various neuropsychiatric disorders and oxytocin. 3. Identify clinical implications of using oxytocin to treat various neuropsychiatric disorders. Oxytocin is a peptide hormone integral in parturition, milk letdown, and maternal behaviors that has been demonstrated in animal studies to be important in the formation of pair bonds and in social behaviors. This hormone is increasingly recognized as an important regulator of human social behaviors, including social decision making, evaluating and responding to social stimuli, mediating social interactions, and forming social memories. In addition, oxytocin is intricately involved in a broad array of neuropsychiatric functions and may be a common factor important in multiple psychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and mood and anxiety disorders. This review article examines the extant literature on the evidence for oxytocin dysfunction in a variety of psychiatric disorders and highlights the need for further research to understand the complex role of the oxytocin system in psychiatric disease and thus pave the way for developing new therapeutic modalities. Articles were selected that involved human participants with various psychiatric disorders and that either compared oxytocin biology to healthy controls or examined the effects of exogenous oxytocin administration.

  12. Misrepresentation of neuroscience data might give rise to misleading conclusions in the media: the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Gonon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is often a huge gap between neurobiological facts and firm conclusions stated by the media. Data misrepresentation in the conclusions and summaries of neuroscience articles might contribute to this gap. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the case of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, we identified three types of misrepresentation. The first relies on prominent inconsistencies between results and claimed conclusions and was observed in two scientific reports dealing with ADHD. Only one out of the 61 media articles echoing both scientific reports adequately described the results and, thus questioned the claimed conclusion. The second type of misrepresentation consists in putting a firm conclusion in the summary while raw data that strongly limit the claim are only given in the results section. To quantify this misrepresentation we analyzed the summaries of all articles asserting that polymorphisms of the gene coding for the D4 dopaminergic receptor are associated with ADHD. Only 25 summaries out of 159 also mentioned that this association confers a small risk. This misrepresentation is also observed in most media articles reporting on ADHD and the D4 gene. The third misrepresentation consists in extrapolating basic and pre-clinical findings to new therapeutic prospects in inappropriate ways. Indeed, analysis of all ADHD-related studies in mice showed that 23% of the conclusions were overstated. The frequency of this overstatement was positively related with the impact factor of the journal. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Data misrepresentations are frequent in the scientific literature dealing with ADHD and may contribute to the appearance of misleading conclusions in the media. In synergy with citation distortions and publication biases they influence social representations and bias the scientific evidence in favor of the view that ADHD is primarily caused by biological factors. We discuss the social consequences and

  13. 7. Bipolar disorder in child psychiatric practice.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ESEM

    children, despite its potentially debilitating effects on growth and development. It may be comorbid with ... and mental disorders associated with the abuse of alcohol and cannabinol. The mother is HIV-positive (since ... old Memory's sister diagnosed with bipolar I disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. The parents are ...

  14. Childhood and adolescent onset psychiatric disorders, substance use, and failure to graduate high school on time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Joanie Chung, W-J; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2011-03-01

    We examined the joint predictive effects of childhood and adolescent onset psychiatric and substance use disorders on failure to graduate high school (HS) on time. Structured diagnostic interviews were conducted with a US national sample of adults (18 and over). The analysis sample included respondents with at least 8 years of education who were born in the US or arrived in the US prior to age 13 (N = 29,662). Psychiatric disorders, substance use and substance use disorders were examined as predictors of termination or interruption of educational progress prior to HS graduation, with statistical adjustment for demographic characteristics and childhood adversities. Failure to graduate HS on time was more common among respondents with any of the psychiatric and substance use disorders examined, ranging from 18.1% (specific phobia) to 33.2% (ADHD-combined type), compared with respondents with no disorder (15.2%). After adjustment for co-occurring disorders, significant associations with failure to graduate on time remained only for conduct disorder (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.57-2.26) and the three ADHD subtypes (Inattentive OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.44-2.20, Hyperactive-Impulsive OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.14-1.67, and Combined OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.66-2.56). Adjusting for prior disorders, tobacco use was associated with failure to graduate on time (OR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.80-2.16). Among substance users, substance use disorders were not associated with on-time graduation. The findings suggest that the adverse impact of childhood and adolescent onset psychiatric disorders on HS graduation is largely accounted for by problems of conduct and inattention. Adjusting for these disorders, smoking remains strongly associated with failure to graduate HS on time. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cultural concepts of distress and psychiatric disorders: literature review and research recommendations for global mental health epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Rasmussen, Andrew; Kaiser, Bonnie N; Haroz, Emily E; Maharjan, Sujen M; Mutamba, Byamah B; de Jong, Joop TVM; Hinton, Devon E

    2014-01-01

    Background Burgeoning global mental health endeavors have renewed debates about cultural applicability of psychiatric categories. This study’s goal is to review strengths and limitations of literature comparing psychiatric categories with cultural concepts of distress (CCD) such as cultural syndromes, culture-bound syndromes, and idioms of distress. Methods The Systematic Assessment of Quality in Observational Research (SAQOR) was adapted based on cultural psychiatry principles to develop a Cultural Psychiatry Epidemiology version (SAQOR-CPE), which was used to rate quality of quantitative studies comparing CCD and psychiatric categories. A meta-analysis was performed for each psychiatric category. Results Forty-five studies met inclusion criteria, with 18 782 unique participants. Primary objectives of the studies included comparing CCD and psychiatric disorders (51%), assessing risk factors for CCD (18%) and instrument validation (16%). Only 27% of studies met SAQOR-CPE criteria for medium quality, with the remainder low or very low quality. Only 29% of studies employed representative samples, 53% used validated outcome measures, 44% included function assessments and 44% controlled for confounding. Meta-analyses for anxiety, depression, PTSD and somatization revealed high heterogeneity (I2 > 75%). Only general psychological distress had low heterogeneity (I2 = 8%) with a summary effect odds ratio of 5.39 (95% CI 4.71-6.17). Associations between CCD and psychiatric disorders were influenced by methodological issues, such as validation designs (β = 16.27, 95%CI 12.75-19.79) and use of CCD multi-item checklists (β = 6.10, 95%CI 1.89-10.31). Higher quality studies demonstrated weaker associations of CCD and psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Cultural concepts of distress are not inherently unamenable to epidemiological study. However, poor study quality impedes conceptual advancement and service application. With improved study design and reporting using

  16. Al-Ain community psychiatric survey IV: socio-cultural changes (traditionality-liberalism) and prevalence of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghubash, R; Daradkeh, T K; Ghubash, R; Daradkeh, T K; Al-Muzafari, S M; Al-Manssori, M E; Abou-Saleh, M T

    2001-11-01

    BACKGROUND This study was set to explore the relationship between socio-cultural change and psychopathology. A representative sample (n = 1,394) of Al-Ain adult population had their psychopathology assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and other self-reported questionnaires, while the socio-cultural change was assessed with the modified version of the Socio-cultural Change Questionnaire (ScCQ). The reliability and construct validity of the modified ScCQ were assessed. The overall Tradition Index, attitudinal and behavioural indices of the sample were estimated. Association between socio-cultural change and psychopathology was also evaluated. The reliability of the modified ScCQ was found to be moderate (alpha Cronbach 0.66) and the hypothesis regarding its construct validity was confirmed. Mean traditional index was found to be 0.61 +/- 0.14.Young, highly educated, skilled, and female subjects were found to be significantly less conservative and their scores on traditional index deviated significantly from overall mean. Less traditional people were also found to have a significantly increased rate of ICD-10 psychiatric disorder and higher scores on psychopathology measures especially among females. Although females showed significantly more modern attitude, there were no significant sex differences in the express