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Sample records for psychiatric diagnostic interview

  1. Translation Challenges and Strategies: The ASL Translation of a Computer-Based, Psychiatric Diagnostic Interview

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    Montoya, Louise A.; Egnatovitch, Reginald; Eckhardt, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Marjorie; Goldstein, Richard A.; Steinberg, Annie G.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the translation goals, challenges, strategies, and solutions employed in the development of a computer-based, self administered, psychiatric diagnostic instrument, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for the Deaf (D-DIS-IV) in American Sign Language (ASL) with English captions. The article analyzes the impact of the…

  2. Assessing the diagnostic validity of a structured psychiatric interview in a first-admission hospital sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordgaard, Julie; Revsbech, Rasmus; Sæbye, Ditte

    2012-01-01

    The use of structured psychiatric interviews performed by non-clinicians is frequent for research purposes and is becoming increasingly common in clini-cal practice. The validity of such interviews has rarely been evaluated empirically. In this study of a sample of 100 diagnostically heterogeneous......, first-admitted inpatients, the results of an assessment with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), yielding a DSM-IV diagnosis and performed by a trained non-clinician, were compared with a consensus lifetime best diagnostic estimate (DSM-IV) by two experienced research clinicians, based...... performed by non-clinicians are not recommendable for clinical work and should only be used in research with certain precautions. It is suggested that a revival of systematic theoretical and practical training in psychopathology is an obvious way forward in order to improve the validity and therapeutic...

  3. Validity of Chinese Version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-3.0 in Psychiatric Settings

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    Jin Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Composite International Diagnostic Interview-3.0 (CIDI-3.0 is a fully structured lay-administered diagnostic interview for the assessment of mental disorders according to ICD-10 and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV criteria. The aim of the study was to investigate the concurrent validity of the Chinese CIDI in diagnosing mental disorders in psychiatric settings. Methods: We recruited 208 participants, of whom 148 were patients from two psychiatric hospitals and 60 healthy people from communities. These participants were administered with CIDI by six trained lay interviewers and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I, gold standard by two psychiatrists. Agreement between CIDI and SCID-I was assessed with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. Individual-level CIDI-SCID diagnostic concordance was evaluated using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve and Cohen′s K. Results: Substantial to excellent CIDI to SCID concordance was found for any substance use disorder (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.926, any anxiety disorder (AUC = 0.807 and any mood disorder (AUC = 0.806. The concordance between the CIDI and the SCID for psychotic and eating disorders is moderate. However, for individual mental disorders, the CIDI-SCID concordance for bipolar disorders (AUC = 0.55 and anorexia nervosa (AUC = 0.50 was insufficient. Conclusions: Overall, the Chinese version of CIDI-3.0 has acceptable validity in diagnosing the substance use disorder, anxiety disorder and mood disorder among Chinese adult population. However, we should be cautious when using it for bipolar disorders and anorexia nervosa.

  4. Assessing the diagnostic validity of a structured psychiatric interview in a first-admission hospital sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Revsbech, Rasmus; Sæbye, Ditte

    2012-01-01

    , first-admitted inpatients, the results of an assessment with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), yielding a DSM-IV diagnosis and performed by a trained non-clinician, were compared with a consensus lifetime best diagnostic estimate (DSM-IV) by two experienced research clinicians, based...

  5. The psychiatric interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef

    2012-01-01

    that are historically rooted in logical positivism and behaviorism. These theoretical approaches marked decisively the so-called "operational revolution in psychiatry" leading to the creation of DSM-III. This paper attempts to examine the theoretical assumptions that underlie the use of a fully structured psychiatric...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...... faithful distinctions in this particular domain, we need a more adequate approach, that is, an approach that is guided by phenomenologically informed considerations. Our theoretical discussion draws upon clinical examples derived from structured and semi-structured interviews. We conclude that fully...

  6. Research Review: Test-retest reliability of standardized diagnostic interviews to assess child and adolescent psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Duncan, Laura; Comeau, Jinette; Wang, Li; Vitoroulis, Irene; Boyle, Michael H; Bennett, Kathryn

    2018-02-19

    A better understanding of factors contributing to the observed variability in estimates of test-retest reliability in published studies on standardized diagnostic interviews (SDI) is needed. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to estimate the pooled test-retest reliability for parent and youth assessments of seven common disorders, and to examine sources of between-study heterogeneity in reliability. Following a systematic review of the literature, multilevel random effects meta-analyses were used to analyse 202 reliability estimates (Cohen's kappa = ҡ) from 31 eligible studies and 5,369 assessments of 3,344 children and youth. Pooled reliability was moderate at ҡ = .58 (CI 95% 0.53-0.63) and between-study heterogeneity was substantial (Q = 2,063 (df = 201), p reliability varied across informants for specific types of psychiatric disorder (ҡ = .53-.69 for parent vs. ҡ = .39-.68 for youth) with estimates significantly higher for parents on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and the broad groupings of externalizing and any disorder. Reliability was also significantly higher in studies with indicators of poor or fair study methodology quality (sample size reliability of SDIs and the usefulness of these tools in both clinical and research contexts. Potential remedies include the introduction of standardized study and reporting requirements for reliability studies, and exploration of other approaches to assessing and classifying child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. The Diagnostic/Therapeutic Preabortion Interview.

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    Boekelheide, Priscilla Day

    1978-01-01

    The therapeutic and diagnostic aspect of the preabortion interview are discussed with attention to specifics that will identify students with the greatest likelihood for psychological problems and/or repeat abortions. (JD)

  8. Psychiatric Patients Experiences with Mechanical Restraints: An Interview Study

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    Klas Lanthén

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine psychiatric patients’ experience of mechanical restraints and to describe the care the patients received. Background. All around the world, threats and violence perpetrated by patients in psychiatric emergency inpatient units are quite common and are a prevalent factor concerning the application of mechanical restraints, although psychiatric patients’ experiences of mechanical restraints are still moderately unknown. Method. A qualitative design with an inductive approach were used, based on interviews with patients who once been in restraints. Results. This study resulted in an overbridging theme: Physical Presence, Instruction and Composed Behaviour Can Reduce Discontent and Trauma, including five categories. These findings implicated the following: information must be given in a calm and sensitive way, staff must be physically present during the whole procedure, and debriefing after the incident must be conducted. Conclusions. When mechanical restraints were unavoidable, the presence of committed staff during mechanical restraint was important, demonstrating the significance of training acute psychiatric nurses correctly so that their presence is meaningful. Nurses in acute psychiatric settings should be required to be genuinely committed, aware of their actions, and fully present in coercive situations where patients are vulnerable.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy and confusability analyses: an application to the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies.

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    Faraone, S V; Blehar, M; Pepple, J; Moldin, S O; Norton, J; Nurnberger, J I; Malaspina, D; Kaufmann, C A; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R; DePaulo, J R; Berg, K; Gershon, E S; Kirch, D G; Tsuang, M T

    1996-03-01

    The dominant, contemporary paradigm for developing and refining diagnoses relies heavily on assessing reliability with kappa coefficients and virtually ignores a core component of psychometric practice: the theory of latent structures. This article describes a psychometric approach to psychiatric nosology that emphasizes the diagnostic accuracy and confusability of diagnostic categories. We apply these methods to the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS), a structured psychiatric interview designed by the NIMH Genetics Initiative for genetic studies of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Our results show that sensitivity and specificity were excellent for both DSM-III-R and RDC diagnoses of major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. In contrast, diagnostic accuracy was substantially lower for subtypes of schizoaffective disorder-especially for the DSM-III-R definitions. Both the bipolar and depressed subtypes of DSM-III-R schizoaffective disorder had excellent specificity but poor sensitivity. The RDC definitions also had excellent specificity but were more sensitive than the DSM-III-R schizoaffective diagnoses. The source of low sensitivity for schizoaffective subtypes differed for the two diagnostic systems. For RDC criteria, the schizoaffective subtypes were frequently confused with one another; they were less frequently confused with other diagnoses. In contrast, the DSM-III-R subtypes were often confused with schizophrenia, but not with each other.

  10. Validation of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) with Psychiatrically Hospitalized Adolescents

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    Swenson, Lance P.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Hollander, Beth L. G.; Dyl, Jennifer; Rizzo, Christie J.; Steinley, Douglas L.; Spirito, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the concurrent validity of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (ChIPS) for adolescent inpatients aged 12 to 18. The results reveal moderate agreement between ChIPS diagnoses and Schedule for Affective Disorder sand Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version diagnoses.

  11. Virtual reality job interview training for individuals with psychiatric disabilities.

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    Smith, Matthew J; Ginger, Emily J; Wright, Michael; Wright, Katherine; Boteler Humm, Laura; Olsen, Dale; Bell, Morris D; Fleming, Michael F

    2014-09-01

    Services are available to help support existing employment for individuals with psychiatric disabilities; however, there is a gap in services targeting job interview skills that can help obtain employment. We assessed the feasibility and efficacy of Virtual Reality Job Interview Training (VR-JIT) in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized to VR-JIT (n = 25) or treatment-as-usual (TAU) (n = 12) groups. VR-JIT consisted of 10 hours of simulated job interviews with a virtual character and didactic online training. The participants attended 95% of laboratory-based training sessions and found VR-JIT easy to use and felt prepared for future interviews. The VR-JIT group improved their job interview role-play performance (p ≤ 0.05) and self-confidence (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and follow-up as compared with the TAU group. VR-JIT performance scores increased over time (R = 0.65). VR-JIT demonstrated initial feasibility and efficacy at improving job interview skills and self-confidence. Future research may help clarify whether this intervention is efficacious in community-based settings.

  12. Diagnostic ambivalence: psychiatric workarounds and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

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    Whooley, Owen

    2010-03-01

    In 1980 the American Psychiatric Association (APA), faced with increased professional competition, revised the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Psychiatric expertise was redefined along a biomedical model via a standardised nosology. While they were an integral part of capturing professional authority, the revisions demystified psychiatric expertise, leaving psychiatrists vulnerable to infringements upon their autonomy by institutions adopting the DSM literally. This research explores the tensions surrounding standardisation in psychiatry. Drawing on in-depth interviews with psychiatrists, I explore the 'sociological ambivalence' psychiatrists feel towards the DSM, which arises from the tension between the desire for autonomy in practice and the professional goal of legitimacy within the system of mental health professions. To carve a space for autonomy for their practice, psychiatrists develop 'workarounds' that undermine the DSM in practice. These workarounds include employing alternative diagnostic typologies, fudging the numbers (or codes) on official paperwork and negotiating diagnoses with patients. In creating opportunities for patient input and resistance to fixed diagnoses, the varied use of the DSM raises fundamental questions for psychiatrists about the role of the biomedical model of mental illness, especially its particular manifestation in the DSM.

  13. Development and validation of the Diagnostic Interview Adjustment Disorder (DIAD)

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    Cornelius, L.R.; Brouwer, S.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Adjustment disorders (ADs) are under-researched due to the absence of a reliable and valid diagnostic tool. This paper describes the development and content/construct validation of a fully structured interview for the diagnosis of AD, the Diagnostic Interview Adjustment Disorder (DIAD). We developed

  14. Development and validation of the Diagnostic Interview Adjustment Disorder (DIAD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelius, L. R.; Brouwer, S.; de Boer, M. R.; Groothoff, J. W.; van der Klink, J. J. L.

    Adjustment disorders (ADs) are under-researched due to the absence of a reliable and valid diagnostic tool. This paper describes the development and content/construct validation of a fully structured interview for the diagnosis of AD, the Diagnostic Interview Adjustment Disorder (DIAD). We developed

  15. Burnout and psychiatric morbidity among medical students entering clinical training: a three year prospective questionnaire and interview-based study

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    Runeson Bo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental distress among medical students is often reported. Burnout has not been studied frequently and studies using interviewer-rated diagnoses as outcomes are rarely employed. The objective of this prospective study of medical students was to examine clinically significant psychiatric morbidity and burnout at 3rd year of medical school, considering personality and study conditions measured at 1st year. Methods Questionnaires were sent to 127 first year medical students who were then followed-up at 3rd year of medical school. Eighty-one of 3rd year respondents participated in a diagnostic interview. Personality (HP5-i and Performance-based self-esteem (PBSE-scale were assessed at first year, Study conditions (HESI, Burnout (OLBI, Depression (MDI at 1st and 3rd years. Diagnostic interviews (MINI were used at 3rd year to assess psychiatric morbidity. High and low burnout at 3rd year was defined by cluster analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of high burnout and psychiatric morbidity, controlling for gender. Results 98 (77% responded on both occasions, 80 (63% of these were interviewed. High burnout was predicted by Impulsivity trait, Depressive symptoms at 1st year and Financial concerns at 1st year. When controlling for 3rd year study conditions, Impulsivity and concurrent Workload remained. Of the interviewed sample 21 (27% had a psychiatric diagnosis, 6 of whom had sought help. Unadjusted analyses showed that psychiatric morbidity was predicted by high Performance-based self-esteem, Disengagement and Depression at 1st year, only the later remained significant in the adjusted analysis. Conclusion Psychiatric morbidity is common in medical students but few seek help. Burnout has individual as well as environmental explanations and to avoid it, organisational as well as individual interventions may be needed. Early signs of depressive symptoms in medical students may be important to address. Students

  16. Burnout and psychiatric morbidity among medical students entering clinical training: a three year prospective questionnaire and interview-based study.

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    Dahlin, Marie E; Runeson, Bo

    2007-04-12

    Mental distress among medical students is often reported. Burnout has not been studied frequently and studies using interviewer-rated diagnoses as outcomes are rarely employed. The objective of this prospective study of medical students was to examine clinically significant psychiatric morbidity and burnout at 3rd year of medical school, considering personality and study conditions measured at 1st year. Questionnaires were sent to 127 first year medical students who were then followed-up at 3rd year of medical school. Eighty-one of 3rd year respondents participated in a diagnostic interview. Personality (HP5-i) and Performance-based self-esteem (PBSE-scale) were assessed at first year, Study conditions (HESI), Burnout (OLBI), Depression (MDI) at 1st and 3rd years. Diagnostic interviews (MINI) were used at 3rd year to assess psychiatric morbidity. High and low burnout at 3rd year was defined by cluster analysis. Logistic regressions were used to identify predictors of high burnout and psychiatric morbidity, controlling for gender. 98 (77%) responded on both occasions, 80 (63%) of these were interviewed. High burnout was predicted by Impulsivity trait, Depressive symptoms at 1st year and Financial concerns at 1st year. When controlling for 3rd year study conditions, Impulsivity and concurrent Workload remained. Of the interviewed sample 21 (27%) had a psychiatric diagnosis, 6 of whom had sought help. Unadjusted analyses showed that psychiatric morbidity was predicted by high Performance-based self-esteem, Disengagement and Depression at 1st year, only the later remained significant in the adjusted analysis. Psychiatric morbidity is common in medical students but few seek help. Burnout has individual as well as environmental explanations and to avoid it, organisational as well as individual interventions may be needed. Early signs of depressive symptoms in medical students may be important to address. Students should be encouraged to seek help and adequate facilities

  17. Diagnostic Efficiency among Psychiatric Outpatients of a Self-Report Version of a Subset of Screen Items of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders (SCID-II)

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    Germans, Sara; Van Heck, Guus L.; Masthoff, Erik D.; Trompenaars, Fons J. W. M.; Hodiamont, Paul P. G.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the identification of a 10-item set of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) items, which proved to be effective as a self-report assessment instrument in screening personality disorders. The item selection was based on the retrospective analyses of 495 SCID-II interviews. The…

  18. Psychometric Properties of an Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview

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    Epstein, Jeffery N.; Kollins, Scott H.

    2006-01-01

    Although research has been conducted to support the psychometric properties of rating scales used to assess ADHD in adults, little work has been published examining semi-structured interviews to assess ADHD in adults. The present study examined the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for…

  19. Diagnostic efficiency among psychiatric outpatients of a self-report version of a subset of screen items of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Personality Disorders (SCID-II).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Germans, S.; Heck, G.L. van; Masthoff, E.D.M.; Trompenaars, F.J.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the identification of a 10-item set of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II) items, which proved to be effective as a self-report assessment instrument in screening personality disorders. The item selection was based on the retrospective

  20. The cultural formulation: A model to combine nosology and patients' life context in psychiatric diagnostic practice.

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    Bäärnhielm, Sofie; Scarpinati Rosso, Marco

    2009-09-01

    This article discusses the experience of adapting and applying the Outline for a Cultural Formulation in DSM-IV to the Swedish context. Findings from a research project on the Cultural Formulation highlight the value of combining psychiatric nosological categorization with an understanding of patients' cultural life context in order to increase the validity of categorization and to formulate individualized treatment plans. In clinical care practitioners need models and tools that help them take into account patients' cultural backgrounds, needs, and resources in psychiatric diagnostic practice. We present a summary of a Swedish manual for conducting a Cultural Formulation interview. The need for further development of the Cultural Formulation is also discussed.

  1. Discriminating among diagnostic categories using the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule.

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    Ross, Colin A; Ellason, Joan Weathersbee

    2005-04-01

    The Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule was administered to 1,308 subjects in eight diagnostic categories, including 296 with dissociative identity disorder. The study tested three hypotheses: (1) the Mahalanobis distance between dissociative identity disorder and each of seven other diagnostic categories would be large, (2) the closest diagnostic category to dissociative identity disorder would be dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, and (3) nondissociative diagnostic categories would be closer to each other than any one to dissociative identity disorder. All three hypotheses were confirmed by these data. The findings support the conclusion that dissociative identity disorder is a discrete category or taxon.

  2. The reliability of the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1

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    Quintana M.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the reliability of the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (CIDI 2.1 in clinical psychiatry. The CIDI 2.1 was translated into Portuguese using WHO guidelines and reliability was studied using the inter-rater reliability method. The study sample consisted of 186 subjects from psychiatric hospitals and clinics, primary care centers and community services. The interviewers consisted of a group of 13 lay and three non-lay interviewers submitted to the CIDI training. The average interview time was 2 h and 30 min. General reliability ranged from kappa 0.50 to 1. For lifetime diagnoses the reliability ranged from kappa 0.77 (Bipolar Affective Disorder to 1 (Substance-Related Disorder, Alcohol-Related Disorder, Eating Disorders. Previous year reliability ranged from kappa 0.66 (Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder to 1 (Dissociative Disorders, Maniac Disorders, Eating Disorders. The poorest reliability rate was found for Mild Depressive Episode (kappa = 0.50 during the previous year. Training proved to be a fundamental factor for maintaining good reliability. Technical knowledge of the questionnaire compensated for the lack of psychiatric knowledge of the lay personnel. Inter-rater reliability was good to excellent for persons in psychiatric practice.

  3. Use of the SADS Diagnostic Interview in Evaluating Legal Insanity.

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    Rogers, Richard; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined clinical usefulness of the Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) diagnostic interview in evaluations of criminal responsibility. Findings, based on 78 evaluations from a forensic clinic, indicated that SADS successfully differentiated between sane and insane evaluatees. Differences were primarily in severity of symptoms…

  4. Designing clinical interviewing training courses for psychiatric residents: a practical primer for interviewing mentors.

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    Shea, Shawn Christopher; Green, Ron; Barney, Christine; Cole, Stephen; Lapetina, Graciana; Baker, Bruce

    2007-06-01

    This article provides a no-nonsense primer for the design of effective clinical interviewing programs and the use of interviewing mentors. Principles for smoothly integrating educational tools such as direct observation, role-playing, the use of videotaping and facilic supervision are described. A sample core curriculum syllabus is provided including a comprehensive listing of core educational goals with regard to clinical interviewing skills.

  5. Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Children with Autism: Interview Development and Rates of Disorders

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    Leyfer, Ovsanna T.; Folstein, Susan E.; Bacalman, Susan; Davis, Naomi O.; Dinh, Elena; Morgan, Jubel; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2006-01-01

    The Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia was modified for use in children and adolescents with autism by developing additional screening questions and coding options that reflect the presentation of psychiatric disorders in autism spectrum disorders. The modified instrument, the Autism Comorbidity Interview-Present and…

  6. A Brazilian version of the "Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes" (ChIPS A versão brasileira do "Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes" (ChIPS

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    Isabella G. S. de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: The advance of research in child and adolescent psychiatry in Brazil heavily depends on the existence of instruments for the investigation of psychiatric syndromes adapted to Brazilian Portuguese. METHODS: This article describes a careful process of translation of the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes for the purpose of use in research in Brazil. The Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes has a version for parents (P-ChIPs and a version for children (ChIPS. In this article, the sections of P-ChIPS referring to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mania/hypomania, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and psychotic disorders were translated to Brazilian Portuguese. The sections of the ChIPS referring to substance use disorders, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disoder, separation anxiety disorder, post-traumatic disorders and depression/dysthimia were also adapted. Each section was translated by two independent translators and later discussed in a committee composed of experts in the field of Psychiatry and a professional of the field of linguistics. RESULT: A final version containing an interview for the main psychiatric syndromes was defined. CONCLUSION: The translated P-ChIPS is a helpful instrument in children and adolescent clinical evaluation.OBJETIVO: O avanço em pesquisa em psiquiatria da infância e adolescência no Brasil depende da existência de instrumentos para a investigação de síndromes psiquiátricas adaptadas à Língua Portuguesa. Este artigo descreve um cuidadoso processo de tradução do Children´s Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes para o uso em pesquisa no Brasil. MÉTODOS: O Children´s Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes tem uma versão para pais (P-ChIPs e uma versão para as crianças (ChIPs. Nesse artigo, as seções do P-ChIPs referentes ao transtorno do déficit de aten

  7. [Parental alienation and the controversy surrounding psychiatric diagnostics].

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    Migchels, C; De Wachter, D

    The phenomenon of parental alienation can arise when a child allies with one parent and refuses to have contact with the other parent. The concept has attracted a great deal of attention over the last few years. There has been controversy about whether parental alienation should be recognised as a psychiatric syndrome of the alienated child caught up in a conflict between supporters and opponents. AIM: To try to determine whether parental alienation belongs to psychiatric diagnostics. METHOD: We made a careful study of various databases in order to find literature relating to parental alienation. RESULTS: Parental alienation is situated on the border between psychiatry, sociology and justice. One of the main tasks of psychiatry in this border area is to safeguard the domain of diagnostics. CONCLUSION: Because so much attention is being given to the question of whether parental alienation syndrome should be recognised as a diagnosis, there is often a tendency to ignore the possible impact of parental alienation and to pay very little attention to ways of coping with the problem.

  8. Women and children exposed to domestic violence: themes in maternal interviews about their children's psychiatric diagnoses.

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    Kearney, Joan A

    2010-02-01

    Twelve mothers who had experienced domestic violence and whose children had received psychiatric diagnoses before school age were interviewed. An attachment based tool, the Reaction to Diagnosis Interview, was employed as it accesses maternal representational content. Using psychodynamic and attachment based models as a theoretical framework, content analysis was performed and four thematic categories emerged from the data: intense negative emotionality and suffering; diminished cognitive coping and dysregulation; preoccupation with trauma related material; and constricted causal attributions. Thematic categories as well as inter-relationships among themes are described and discussed in terms of current literature.

  9. The Structure of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: Diagnostic and Phenotypic Implications

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    Snow, Anne V.; Lecavalier, Luc; Houts, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Background: Multivariate statistics can assist in refining the nosology and diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and also contribute important information for genetic studies. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is one of the most widely used assessment instruments in the field of PDD. The current study investigated its…

  10. Effects of depression and anxiety on mortality in a mixed cancer group: a longitudinal approach using standardised diagnostic interviews.

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    Chan, Caryn Mei Hsien; Wan Ahmad, Wan Azman; Yusof, Mastura M D; Ho, Gwo-Fuang; Krupat, Edward

    2015-06-01

    Distress and psychiatric morbidity in cancer patients are associated with poorer outcomes including mortality. In this study, we examined the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and its association with cancer survival over time. Participants were 467 consecutive adult cancer patients attending oncology follow-ups at a single academic medical centre. Assessment consisted of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision. Comparison between co-morbid psychiatric cases and non-cases was made in follow-ups of up to 24 months. Of the 467 patients, 217 of 220 patients with elevated total Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores (≥16) met the criteria for an Axis I disorder at 6 months follow-up, with 102 of the follow-up sample having a persistent diagnosable psychiatric disorder after 1 year. The most frequent initial diagnoses were minor depression (17.6%), major depressive disorder (15.8%) and adjustment disorder (15.8%). Cancer patients without psychiatric morbidity had a survival benefit of 2.24 months or 67 days. Mean survival at 24 months was 20.87 months (95% CI 20.06-21.69) for cancer patients with psychiatric morbidity versus 23.11 months (95% CI 22.78-23.43) for those without (p < 0.001 for log rank). After adjusting for demographics and cancer stage on a Cox proportional hazards model, psychiatric morbidity remained associated with worse survival (hazard ratio 4.13, 95% CI 1.32-12.92, p = 0.015). This study contributes to the growing body of evidence linking psychiatric morbidity to cancer mortality. Treating underlying psychiatric conditions in cancer may therefore improve not just quality of life but also survival. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Categorizing "frequent visitors" in the psychiatric emergency room: a semistructured interview study

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    Buus, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Nurses can become demoralized and hostile toward frequent visitors in psychiatric emergency rooms because of the number of visits. The aim of this study was to develop more knowledge about the ways in which nurses categorize frequent visitors. Eleven nurses were interviewed, and their categorizing...... through the emergency room and/or there was poor rapport with the nurses....... practices were examined from a social constructionist perspective. The results showed that the nurses did not categorize frequent visitors as particularly unlikeable or difficult to treat. Like other visitors, they could be categorized as difficult if they obstructed a smooth flow of successful referrals...

  12. Diagnosing depression in the medically ill: validity of a lay-administered structured diagnostic interview.

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    Booth, B M; Kirchner, J E; Hamilton, G; Harrell, R; Smith, G R

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the validity of structured psychiatric diagnostic interviews in medically ill patients will advance the ability to conduct research into the treatment and management of these disorders in general medical settings. We compared the University of Michigan version of the CIDI (Composite International Diagnostic Interview) for major depression to a clinical gold standard, derived through Spitzer's Longitudinal, Expert, All Data (LEAD) criteria based on the SCID-III-R. A convenience sample of medical inpatients was administered the SCID-III-R and the CIDI for major depression in random order. A physician panel reviewed the SCID interview and other pertinent data and determined whether patients had a lifetime or current (past month) diagnosis of major depression. The CIDI was scored with and without hierarchical exclusions for mania, hypomania, substance use, or medical illness. When the UM-CIDI was scored for a lifetime diagnosis of major depression without hierarchical exclusions, agreement above chance (kappa) was very good (kappa = 0.67) between the CIDI and the physician panel and good (kappa = 0.46) when the UM-CIDI was scored with exclusions. Agreement above chance for diagnosis of a recent disorder was better for UM-CIDI scoring with exclusions (kappa = 0.51) compared to scoring without exclusions (kappa = 0.43). Predictive value-positive was excellent in both scoring versions for a lifetime diagnosis (82%) and good to very good for current depression (46% and 62%). In all cases predictive value-negative was very good to excellent (77-93%). Discordant cases were almost uniformly due to difficulties in attribution of symptoms to medical illnesses. We conclude that the CIDI can perform acceptably as a research instrument to diagnose major depression in medically ill patients, potentially supplemented by clinician review of cases identified by the CIDI with current disorder.

  13. Study of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with headache using a short structured clinical interview in a rural neurology clinic in Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soaham Dilip Desai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders are common in patients attending neurology clinics with headache. Evaluation of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with headache is often missed in the busy neurology clinics. Aims: To assess the prevalence of Axis-I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders in patients with primary headache disorders in a rural-based tertiary neurology clinic in Western India. Settings and Design : A cross-sectional observation survey was conducting assessing all patients with migraine, tension-type headache and chronic daily headache attending the Neurology Clinic of Shree Krishna Hospital, a rural medical teaching hospital in Karamsad, in Gujarat in Western India. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 consecutive consenting adults with headache were interviewed using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I., a structured diagnostic clinical interview to assess prevalence of Axis-I DSM-IV psychiatric disorders. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics were calculated using SPSS software version 16 and a binomial regression model was used to study the relationship of psychiatric co-morbidity with patient-related factors. Results: 49 out of 101 (48.5% patients with headache suffered from depressive disorders (dysthymia or depression or suicidality, 18 out of 101 patients with headache (17.90% suffered from anxiety related disorders (generalized anxiety disorder or agoraphobia or social phobia or panic disorder. Conclusions: Axis-I psychiatric disorders are a significant comorbidity among patients with headache disorders. M.I.N.I. can be used as a short, less time consuming instrument to assess all patients with headache disorders.

  14. Diagnostic interview study of the prevalence of depression among public employees engaged in long-term relief work in Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Masaharu; Ueda, Yukiko; Nagai, Masato; Fujii, Senta; Oe, Misari

    2016-09-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake and in particular, the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, have had a serious psychological impact on not only residents, but also relief workers in Fukushima. Although public employees work in highly stressful situations and play a very important role in long-term relief, their psychiatric features have yet to be clarified. The two aims of this study were to identify the current prevalence rate of depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among public employees working in the disaster area using diagnostic interviews, and to speculate on the psychosocial factors affecting their mental condition. We conducted diagnostic interviews and self-administered questionnaires with 168 public employees working in two coastal towns in Fukushima. Results showed that the current prevalence of depression among public employees is as high as 17.9%, in contrast to the relatively low prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (4.8%). Based on the results of self-administered questionnaires and interview contents, frequent exposure to strong complaints or anger from residents and role conflicts were considered the cause of the high prevalence of depression. The present study reveals the serious mental status of public employees working in Fukushima and sheds light on the urgent need to establish an efficient care network to provide adequate psychiatric intervention. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  15. Validity of a Farsi translation of the composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI to diagnose schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Amini

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI is a comprehensive, standardized diagnostic interview for the assessment of psychiatric disorders. There have been few studies on the validity of the CIDI. The objective of present study was to assess the validity of a Farsi translation of the complete CIDI and its psychosis/mania module in five referral clinical psychiatric settings. Methods: Two hundred and three as well as 104 consecutive admissions were interviewed using the complete and the psychosis/mania module, respectively. Within two days of the CIDI interview, two last year residents of psychiatry or psychiatrist who were blind to the CIDI diagnosis completed the Clinical diagnostic checklists (based on DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria simultaneously and reached the consensus diagnosis. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 11 to determine the validity of CIDI. Results: The sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of schizophrenia was 0.12 and 0.96 using DSM-IV criteria. According to ICD-10 criteria, the results were the same with 0.19% sensitivity and 0.96% specificity. The sensitivity for the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder was low (0.21 using DSM-IV criteria and 0.17% using ICD-10 and specificity, high (0.90 compared to DSM-IV and 0.89 compared to ICD-10 criteria. The results were rather similar for the psychosis/mania module of CIDI. Conclusion: This study suggests that the Farsi translation of both the complete CIDI and the psychosis/mania module of CIDI have good specificity, but poor sensitivity for the diagnosis of schizophrenia and of bipolar I disorder.

  16. Reliability and Validity of Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Japanese Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Matsumoto, Kaori; Yagi, Atsuko; Inada, Naoko; Kuroda, Miho; Inokuchi, Eiko; Koyama, Tomonori; Kamio, Yoko; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Sakai, Saeko; Mohri, Ikuko; Taniike, Masako; Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Ogasahara, Kei; Miyachi, Taishi; Nakajima, Shunji; Tani, Iori; Ohnishi, Masafumi; Inoue, Masahiko; Nomura, Kazuyo; Hagiwara, Taku; Uchiyama, Tokio; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Kobayashi, Shuji; Miyamoto, Ken; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Mori, Norio; Takei, Nori

    2013-01-01

    To examine the inter-rater reliability of Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Japanese Version (ADI-R-JV), the authors recruited 51 individuals aged 3-19 years, interviewed by two independent raters. Subsequently, to assess the discriminant and diagnostic validity of ADI-R-JV, the authors investigated 317 individuals aged 2-19 years, who were…

  17. Third-person Diagnostic Interview on the Cognitive Insight Level of Psychotic Patients with an Insight at the Denial Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Mahsa; Rezaei, Omid

    2016-01-01

    According to the previous findings, the third-person technique improved the clinical insight of psychotic patients, therefore the present study aims to examine the effect of a third-person interview compared to a first-person interview on the level of cognitive insight of psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level. In this study, using interviews and questionnaires, a total number of 44 patients of Razi Psychiatric Educational and Treatment Center with an insight at the denial level being assessed using diagnostic interviews were divided randomly into two groups. Then, the two groups of patients' cognitive insights were evaluated using Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. The findings indicated that in psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level, the third-person technique of interview compared to the first-person had little effect on the improvement of overall cognitive insight and its components, including self-reflection and self-assurance; however, this effect was not strong enough to make a significant difference between the two groups of patients. According to the study findings, we can conclude that the third-person interview compared to the first-person interview has no effect on the improvement of the cognitive insight of psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level. This finding is consistent with the previous studies indicating that although the theory of mind has some correlations with the clinical insight of patients, it has no effect on their cognitive insight.

  18. Validity and limitations of the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 Validade e limitações da versão brasileira do Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Quintana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the concurrent validity of the Brazilian Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 using as gold standard the clinical diagnoses based on the ICD-10 criteria and the Longitudinal, Expert, All Data (LEAD procedure. METHOD: The sample was composed of 185 subjects selected at psychiatric hospitals, psychiatric outpatient units, the community, and primary care services. These individuals were intentionally selected according to 9 diagnostic groups. Instruments: Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI-core version 2.1 (paper-and-pencil administered by 16 trained interviewers. Analysis: concurrent validity of diagnoses of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 12-month. RESULTS: Values found for sensitivity and specificity in each diagnosis were: alcohol-related disorders (79.5%/97.2%; psychoactive substance-related disorders (77.3%/100%; schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (28.6%/93.9%; manic episode and bipolar affective disorder (38.9%/96.4%; depressive disorder (82.5%/ 93.8%; phobic-anxiety disorder (80.6%/93.5%; obsessive-compulsive disorder (18.2%/98.9%; somatoform disorder (41.7%/90.8%; eating disorder (45.5%/100.0%. CONCLUSION: The Composite International Diagnostic Interview proved to be valid for diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders, psychoactive substance-related disorders, depressive disorder and phobic-anxiety disorder. The probable explanations for the poor performance for the other diagnoses were: necessity of some clinical judgement by the lay interviewer; difficulty to use the Probe Flow Chart; interviewees' difficulty of understanding; and lack of mechanisms to certify the veracity of the information.OBJETIVO: Validação concorrente da versão brasileira do Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1, utilizando como padrão ouro o diagnóstico médico baseado nos critérios diagnósticos da CID-10 e critérios Longitudinal, Experts Clinicians, All Data (LEAD. M

  19. Evaluation of the Amharic version of the diagnostic Interview of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most frequent lifetime and six months diagnoses by all interviewers were phobia, separation anxiety, overanxiousness, major depressive episode, conduct disorders and enuresis. For any specific diagnoses made with the frequency of five or more times, percentage agreements were above 89% and the kappa values ...

  20. Hostility during admission interview as a short-term predictor of aggression in acute psychiatric male inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Alfonso; Kustermann, Stefano; Di Genio, Massimo; Siracusano, Alberto

    2003-12-01

    A critical step for improving the prediction of on-ward violence is the identification of variables that are not only consistently associated with an increased risk of aggression but also easily evaluated during the admission interview. The goal of this prospective study was to assess the predictive utility of hostility during admission interview. The sample consisted of 80 newly admitted male patients with heterogeneous DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses recruited from the psychiatric ward of an urban public hospital. Psychiatric symptoms at admission were assessed with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Aggressive behavior during the first week of hospitalization was measured with the Modified Overt Aggression Scale. Data were collected between January and June 1998. In a multiple regression model, BPRS items hostility and tension-excitement emerged as significant predictors of verbal aggression, whereas thinking disturbance (high) and suspiciousness-uncooperativeness (low) emerged as significant predictors of aggression against objects. In contrast, when aggression was treated as a binary dependent variable in a logistic model, hostility during the admission interview had no utility in predicting on-ward aggressive behavior. This study confirms the importance of distinguishing between different types of aggression to improve the accuracy of predictions of violence. The findings suggest that the question whether hostility is a useful short-term predictor of aggression in psychiatric inpatients cannot be answered conclusively. The predictive utility of hostility was relatively high for predicting verbal aggression but was negligible for predicting other types of aggressive behavior.

  1. Psychiatric comorbidities in asperger syndrome and high functioning autism: diagnostic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Several psychiatric conditions, both internalizing and externalizing, have been documented in comorbidity with Asperger Syndrome (AS) and High Functioning Autism (HFA). In this review we examine the interplay between psychiatric comorbidities and AS/HFA. In particular, we will focus our attention on three main issues. First, we examine which psychiatric disorders are more frequently associated with AS/HFA. Second, we review which diagnostic tools are currently available for clinicians to investigate and diagnose the associated psychiatric disorders in individuals with AS/HFA. Third, we discuss the challenges that clinicians and researchers face in trying to determine whether the psychiatric symptoms are phenotypic manifestations of AS/HFA or rather they are the expression of a distinct, though comorbid, disorder. We will also consider the role played by the environment in the manifestation and interpretation of these symptoms. Finally, we will propose some strategies to try to address these issues, and we will discuss therapeutic implications. PMID:22731684

  2. Psychiatric comorbidities in asperger syndrome and high functioning autism: diagnostic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzone Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several psychiatric conditions, both internalizing and externalizing, have been documented in comorbidity with Asperger Syndrome (AS and High Functioning Autism (HFA. In this review we examine the interplay between psychiatric comorbidities and AS/HFA. In particular, we will focus our attention on three main issues. First, we examine which psychiatric disorders are more frequently associated with AS/HFA. Second, we review which diagnostic tools are currently available for clinicians to investigate and diagnose the associated psychiatric disorders in individuals with AS/HFA. Third, we discuss the challenges that clinicians and researchers face in trying to determine whether the psychiatric symptoms are phenotypic manifestations of AS/HFA or rather they are the expression of a distinct, though comorbid, disorder. We will also consider the role played by the environment in the manifestation and interpretation of these symptoms. Finally, we will propose some strategies to try to address these issues, and we will discuss therapeutic implications.

  3. Simulated job interview skill training for people with psychiatric disability: feasibility and tolerability of virtual reality training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris D; Weinstein, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The job interview is an important step toward successful employment and often a significant challenge for people with psychiatric disability. Vocational rehabilitation specialists can benefit from a systematic approach to training job interview skills. The investigators teamed up with a company that specializes in creating simulated job interview training to create software that provides a virtual reality experience with which learners can systematically improve their job interview skills, reduce their fears, and increase their confidence about going on job interviews. The development of this software is described and results are presented from a feasibility and tolerability trial with 10 participants with psychiatric disability referred from their vocational service programs. Results indicate that this representative sample had a strongly positive response to the prototype job interview simulation. They found it easy to use, enjoyed the experience, and thought it realistic and helpful. Almost all described the interview as anxiety provoking but that the anxiety lessened as they became more skilled. They saw the benefit of its special features such as ongoing feedback from a "coach in the corner" and from being able to review a transcript of the interview. They believed that they could learn the skills being taught through these methods. Participants were enthusiastic about wanting to use the final product when it becomes available. The advantages of virtual reality technology for training important skills for rehabilitation are discussed.

  4. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Correspondence between Mental Health Clinician Report and Structured Parent Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadnick, Nicole; Chlebowski, Colby; Baker-Ericzén, Mary; Dyson, Margaret; Garland, Ann; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Publicly funded mental health services are critical in caring for children with autism spectrum disorder. Accurate identification of psychiatric comorbidity is necessary for effective mental health treatment. Little is known about psychiatric diagnosis for this population in routine mental health care. This study (1) examined correspondence…

  5. The Swedish Version of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-10). Psychometric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Gudrun; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Skoglund, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Johansson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders schedule (DISCO) have only been studied in the UK. The authorised Swedish translation of the tenth version of the DISCO (DISCO-10) was used in interviews with close relatives of 91 Swedish patients referred for neuropsychiatrical assessment. Validity…

  6. The diagnostic stability of ICD-10 psychiatric diagnoses in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, T; El-Rufaie, O; Younis, Y; Ghubash, R

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the stability of ICD-10 diagnoses of patients admitted to Al Ain (United Arab Emirates) inpatients psychiatric unit during the period from November 1993 to August 1995. Diagnostic stability is a measure of the degree to which diagnoses remained unchanged at a later hospital admission. One hundred and seven patients were admitted more than once during this period, accounting for 168 readmissions. High levels of diagnostic stability were found for ICD-10 Fl-psychiatric disorders (100%), F2-schizophrenia (87%), F3-bipolar disorders (87%) and F3-depressive disorders (73%). A poor level of stability was found for patients with neurotic, stress related and adjustment disorders (F4), ranging from zero for somatoform disorders to 50% for generalized anxiety and panic disorders. Poor levels of stability were also found for other psychoses (excluding schizophrenia and affective psychoses) and personality disorders. We conclude that the introduction of ICD-10 as a formal diagnostic system has greatly improved the temporal stability of the most commonly encountered psychiatric disorders (ICD-10 Fl to F3 disorders), confirming the construct validity of those psychiatric disorders. Further investigations are required to evaluate the diagnostic stability of neurotic and other psychotic disorders.

  7. Parent-Child Diagnostic Agreement on Anxiety Symptoms with a Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Lukka; Neuschwander, Murielle; Mannstadt, Sandra; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In clinical structured diagnostic interviews, diagnoses based on parent and child reports have low to moderate agreement. The aims of the present study are (1) to examine diagnostic agreement on anxiety disorders between parents and children on the levels of current and lifetime diagnostic category and diagnoses focusing in particular on diagnostic criteria and (2) to identify parent- and child-related predictors for diagnostic agreement. Method: The sample consisted of 166 parent-child dyads interviewed with the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children (Kinder-DIPS, Schneider et al., 2009). The children (51.8% girls) were between the ages of 7 and 18 years (M = 10.94; SD = 2.22). Results: Overall, parent-child agreement on the diagnostic category of anxiety disorder (k = 0.21; k = 0.22) and the specific anxiety diagnoses (base rate > 10%) of social phobia, specific phobia and separation anxiety disorder (k = 0.24-0.52; k = 0.19-0.43) and corresponding diagnostic criteria (k = 0.22-0.67; k = 0.24-0.41) were low to moderate with the highest agreement on separation anxiety disorder (k > 0.43). Lower maternal depression, and higher social support reported by mother and father were associated with higher parent-child agreement. Maternal depression was indicated as the strongest predictor. Parental sense of competence, parental anxiety, the amount of parent-child interaction and the child's age and gender had no predictive value. Conclusions: Parent-child agreement can be expected to be higher on the level of anxiety criteria compared to specific anxiety diagnoses and diagnostic anxiety category. Psychological strains in the family-especially maternal depression and low social support-lower the parent-child agreement on anxiety symptoms. Child- and relation-related variables (age, gender, amount of time parent(s) and children interact) play no role in the prediction of low parent-child agreement.

  8. Diagnosing psychotic disorders: validity, reliability and applications of the Diagnostic Interview for Psychosis (DIP). Italian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alberto; Morgan, Vera; Amaddeo, Francesco; Sandri, Marco; Grigoletti, Laura; Maggioni, Francesca; Ferro, Adele; Rigon, Elena; Donisi, Valeria; Venturi, Valeria Vailati; Goria, Fabrizio; Skre, Ingunn; Tansella, Michele; Jablensky, Assen

    2010-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview for Psychoses (DIP) is a comprehensive interview schedule for psychotic disorders, linked to the OPCRIT diagnostic algorithm, bridging the gap between fully structured, lay-administered schedules and semistructured, psychiatrist-administered interviews. Here we describe the validity, reliability and applications of the Italian version of the DIP. The interview was translated into Italian and its content validity tested by back translation. Sixty patients, drawn from among those who contacted the South-Verona Community Mental Health Service, were included in the study. Each patient was first assessed independently by two raters, one of whom conducted the interview, while the other assumed the role of observer. Subsequently (median: 89 days), 44 of these patients were re-interviewed by a third rater, who made an independent assessment. Diagnostic validity was assessed in 18 cases, interviewed with the DIP and using the SCAN as 'gold standard'. The mean duration of the interview was 37 minutes for the inter-rater interviews and 39 minutes for the retest interviews. Good to excellent inter-rater reliability was demonstrated for both ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnoses, while in the test-retest reliability pairwise agreement was high for half of the items. Diagnostic validity was good, with twelve out of the 18 DIP-OPCRIT diagnoses (67%) matching the SCAN diagnosis. Overall, the results support the reliability and validity of the Italian translation of the DIP. The Italian version will be useful both in routine practice to establish standard reference diagnoses of psychosis and in the research field, where it can be used by academic researchers in clinical trials and epidemiological studies.

  9. The diagnostic interview schedule for deaf patients on interactive video: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, A G; Lipton, D S; Eckhardt, E A; Goldstein, M; Sullivan, V J

    1998-11-01

    The authors investigated the feasibility of translating the National Institute of Mental Health Quick Diagnostic Interview Schedule-III, Revised, computer version, for deaf individuals. The study involved translation of selected scales into American Sign Language, Signed English, and speech reading; review by an advisory panel and back translator; and collection and analysis of deaf individuals' reactions to translations. Focus groups responded favorably, translation problems were revealed, and solutions were suggested. The findings support the feasibility of translation of the Quick Diagnostic Interview Schedule-III, Revised, into American Sign Language, Signed English, and speech reading for deaf patients.

  10. New Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers from 12 to 47 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Lord, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (Rutter et al. in "Autism diagnostic interview-revised." Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, 2003) diagnostic algorithms specific to toddlers and young preschoolers were created using 829 assessments of children aged from 12 to 47 months with ASD, nonspectrum disorders, and typical development. The…

  11. Parent-Child Diagnostic Agreement on Anxiety Symptoms with a Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Lukka; Neuschwander, Murielle; Mannstadt, Sandra; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In clinical structured diagnostic interviews, diagnoses based on parent and child reports have low to moderate agreement. The aims of the present study are (1) to examine diagnostic agreement on anxiety disorders between parents and children on the levels of current and lifetime diagnostic category and diagnoses focusing in particular on diagnostic criteria and (2) to identify parent- and child-related predictors for diagnostic agreement. Method: The sample consisted of 166 parent-child dyads interviewed with the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children (Kinder-DIPS, Schneider et al., 2009). The children (51.8% girls) were between the ages of 7 and 18 years (M = 10.94; SD = 2.22). Results: Overall, parent-child agreement on the diagnostic category of anxiety disorder (k = 0.21; k = 0.22) and the specific anxiety diagnoses (base rate > 10%) of social phobia, specific phobia and separation anxiety disorder (k = 0.24–0.52; k = 0.19–0.43) and corresponding diagnostic criteria (k = 0.22–0.67; k = 0.24–0.41) were low to moderate with the highest agreement on separation anxiety disorder (k > 0.43). Lower maternal depression, and higher social support reported by mother and father were associated with higher parent-child agreement. Maternal depression was indicated as the strongest predictor. Parental sense of competence, parental anxiety, the amount of parent-child interaction and the child's age and gender had no predictive value. Conclusions: Parent-child agreement can be expected to be higher on the level of anxiety criteria compared to specific anxiety diagnoses and diagnostic anxiety category. Psychological strains in the family—especially maternal depression and low social support—lower the parent-child agreement on anxiety symptoms. Child- and relation-related variables (age, gender, amount of time parent(s) and children interact) play no role in the prediction of low parent-child agreement. PMID:28396644

  12. The reliability of child psychiatric diagnosis. A comparison among Danish child psychiatrists of traditional diagnoses and a multiaxial diagnostic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, A M; Isager, T; Jørgensen, O S

    1988-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare an experimental multiaxial diagnostic system (MAS) with traditional multicategorical diagnoses in child psychiatric work. Sixteen written case histories were circulated to 21 child psychiatrists, who made diagnoses independently of one another, using two different...

  13. Parent-youth agreement on symptoms and diagnosis: assessment with a diagnostic interview in an adolescent inpatient clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauth, Bertrand; Arnkelsson, Guðmundur B; Magnússon, Páll; Skarphéðinsson, Guðmundur Á; Ferrari, Pierre; Pétursson, Hannes

    2010-12-01

    Diagnostic information on adolescents may be elicited from both youths and their parents, especially for depressive and suicidal symptomatology. The objective of this study was to examine the degree of agreement between parent and adolescent reports of major psychiatric disorders, at the diagnostic and at the symptom level, in a severely affected inpatient clinical population. 64 parent-adolescent pairs were interviewed separately with the semi-structured diagnostic interview Kiddie-SADS-PL. Symptomatology was also assessed with 11 self-report and parent-report scales, all translated, adapted and in most cases validated in Iceland. A total of 25 subscales were included to assess emotional dimensions such as depression or anxiety and cognitive dimensions such as attention deficit or self-concept. Good agreement was found for social phobia and fair agreement for generalized anxiety disorder. Although parent-youth agreement was poor in most cases at the symptoms level, significant correlations indicated consistency for most severity scores, except those related to depressive symptomatology, attention deficit, separation anxiety or conduct disorder. The low agreement between reports of suicidal ideation is in line with results from previous studies and suggests that parents might under- or over-estimate this symptomatology. The combination of data obtained with diagnostic interviews and rating-scales confirmed results from prior empirical work, giving greater weight to parents' reports of observable behavior and to adolescents' reports of subjective experiences, especially depressive symptomatology. Our findings suggest that both parent and child informants are necessary to obtain adequate assessments in adolescents. Further research should explore the correspondence between discrepant diagnoses and external criteria such as parental psychopathology or parent-child relationships and attachment. Psychoanalysis could benefit from cognitive neuroscience and use cognitive

  14. Interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvale, Steinar; Brinkmann, Svend

    Interviewet spiller en afgørende rolle i en stor del kvalitativ forskning. Men det er samtidig en kompleks disciplin, der rummer mange faldgruber og kræver fintfølende analytiske kompetencer. I denne bog giver Steinar Kvale og Svend Brinkmann en introduktion til de teoretiske og praktiske aspekte...... disciplin gennem en præsentation af dets syv stadier, hvor forfatterne klæder læseren fagligt på til at planlægge og foretage interviews....

  15. Enterprises and challenges in diagnostics for precision medicine: an interview with Eddie Blair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Eddie; Raison, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Interview with Dr Eddie Blair, PhD, by Claire Raison (Commissioning Editor) Dr Eddie Blair is Managing Director of Integrated Medicines Ltd (Cambridge, UK), a company he formed in 2003 to enable precision medicine by combining diagnostic testing with new and existing medicines. Dr Blair has raised angel and private equity investments in excess of £12 million, has published over 40 primary peer-reviewed papers, including a series on companion diagnostic valuation, and is named inventor on at least 12 patents. Dr Blair is a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics and speaks to the Commissioning Editor here about entrepreneurship, obstacles and potential of introducing diagnostics innovations into routine clinical practice.

  16. The duality of suffering and trust: abused women's experiences of general psychiatric care--an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örmon, Karin; Torstensson-Levander, Marie; Sunnqvist, Charlotta; Bahtsevani, Christel

    2014-08-01

    To elucidate how women subjected to physical, emotional and/or sexual abuse experience the care provided at a general psychiatric clinic after the disclosure of abuse. Violence against women is a major global public health issue, which has an impact on women's lives and mental health as well as generating frequent hospital admission. Qualitative design with an inductive approach. Interviews with nine women who were recipients of general psychiatric care and had disclosed experiences of abuse to a member of staff were conducted. Qualitative inductive content analysis was used. The overall theme emerging from the narratives, 'dependency as a reality containing a duality of suffering and trust,' links the categories together. Each subcategory is presented in relation to the categories 'being belittled,' 'being misinterpreted' and 'being cared for.' Experiences of care as caring and noncaring were found in the narratives. Caring could include situations experienced as the women being acknowledged and listened to, situations where staff approached and supported the women in a sensitive way. Experiences of noncaring were when the abuse was disregarded, and when the women were not believed in, were left with burdens of guilt and were offended. A noncaring environment focused primarily on the diagnosis, and the experienced abuse was seen as secondary. Abused women are subjected to psychiatric environments where staff are divided into groups of those who believed in and supported the abused women and those who regarded experiences of abuse as a secondary issue and focused on the mental disorder. This study provides knowledge of how abused women experience the care provided at a general psychiatric clinic after the disclosure of abuse. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Confirming mental health care in acute psychiatric wards, as narrated by persons experiencing psychotic illness: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebergsen, Karina; Norberg, Astrid; Talseth, Anne-Grethe

    2016-01-01

    It is important that mental health nurses meet the safety, security and care needs of persons suffering from psychotic illness to enhance these persons' likelihood of feeling better during their time in acute psychiatric wards. Certain persons in care describe nurses' mental health care as positive, whereas others report negative experiences and express a desire for improvements. There is limited research on how persons with psychotic illness experience nurses' mental health care acts and how such acts help these persons feel better. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore, describe and understand how the mental health nurses in acute psychiatric wards provide care that helps persons who experienced psychotic illness to feel better, as narrated by these persons. This study had a qualitative design; 12 persons participated in qualitative interviews. The interviews were transcribed, content analysed and interpreted using Martin Buber's concept of confirmation. The results of this study show three categories of confirming mental health care that describe what helped the participants to feel better step-by-step: first, being confirmed as a person experiencing psychotic illness in need of endurance; second, being confirmed as a person experiencing psychotic illness in need of decreased psychotic symptoms; and third, being confirmed as a person experiencing psychotic illness in need of support in daily life. The underlying meaning of the categories and of subcategories were interpreted and formulated as the theme; confirming mental health care to persons experiencing psychotic illness. Confirming mental health care acts seem to help persons to feel better in a step-wise manner during psychotic illness. Nurses' openness and sensitivity to the changing care needs of persons who suffer from psychotic illness create moments of confirmation within caring acts that concretely help the persons to feel better and that may enhance their health. The results show the

  18. Women in post-trafficking services in moldova: diagnostic interviews over two time periods to assess returning women's mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorceag Lilia T

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trafficking in women is a widespread human rights violation commonly associated with poor mental health. Yet, to date, no studies have used psychiatric diagnostic assessment to identify common forms of mental distress among survivors returning to their home country. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted of women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 registered by the International Organisation for Migration as a survivor of human trafficking. Psychiatric diagnoses in women at a mean of 6 months after return (range 2-12 months were made by a trained Moldavian psychiatrist using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and compared with diagnoses recorded in the same women within 5 days of return. We described the socio-demographic characteristics of the women in the sample including both pre and post-trafficking information. We then described the distribution of mental health diagnoses recorded during the crisis intervention phase (1-5 days after return and the re-integration phase (2-12 months after return. We compared diagnoses at the patient level between the two time points by tabulating the diagnoses and carrying out a kappa test of agreement and the Stuart-Maxwell test for marginal homogeneity (an extension of the McNemar test to kxk table. Results 120/176 (68% eligible women participated. At 2-12 months after their return, 54% met criteria for at least one psychiatric diagnoses comprising post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD alone (16%; co-morbid PTSD (20%; other anxiety or mood disorder (18%. 85% of women who had been diagnosed in the crisis phase with co-morbid PTSD or with another anxiety or mood disorder sustained a diagnosis of any psychiatric disorder when followed up during rehabilitation. Conclusions Trafficked women returning to their country of origin are likely to suffer serious psychological distress that may endure well beyond the time they return. Women

  19. Third-person Diagnostic Interview on the Cognitive Insight Level of Psychotic Patients with an Insight at the Denial Level

    OpenAIRE

    Mahsa Mehdizadeh; Omid Rezaei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: According to the previous findings, the third-person technique improved the clinical insight of psychotic patients, therefore the present study aims to examine the effect of a third-person interview compared to a first-person interview on the level of cognitive insight of psychotic patients with an insight at the denial level. Materials and Methods: In this study, using interviews and questionnaires, a total number of 44 patients of Razi Psychiatric Educational and Treatment Cente...

  20. Interviews with psychiatric inpatients about professional intervention with regard to their children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A R; Goldschmidt, V V

    1996-01-01

    A description of mentally ill parents' experience and points of view concerning professional intervention in relation to their young children is presented in this paper. The results are from an interview survey designed with the purpose of improving the basis for cooperation between mentally ill......% of the children. In most cases their views were in accordance with those of the mentally ill parents. Clinical implications concerning planning of intervention in regard to children of mentally ill parents are discussed....

  1. Brief Report: Telephone Administration of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised--Reliability and Suitability for Use in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-King, Jessica; Cohen, Ira L.; Penning, Henderika; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised is one of the "gold standard" diagnostic tools for autism spectrum disorders. It is traditionally administered face-to-face. Cost and geographical concerns constrain the employment of the ADI-R for large-scale research projects. The telephone interview is a reasonable alternative, but has not yet been…

  2. [Multi-centre clinical assessment of the Russian language version of the Diagnostic Interview for Psychoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, D A; Petrova, N N; Pavlichenko, A V; Martynikhin, I A; Dorofeikova, M V; Eremkin, V I; Izmailova, O V; Osadshiy, Yu Yu; Romanov, D V; Ubeikon, D A; Fedotov, I A; Sheifer, M S; Shustov, A D; Yashikhina, A A; Clark, M; Badcock, J; Watterreus, A; Morgan, V; Jablensky, A

    2018-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview for Psychoses (DIP) was developed to enhance the quality of diagnostic assessment of psychotic disorders. The aim of the study was the adaptation of the Russian language version and evaluation of its validity and reliability. Ninety-eight patients with psychotic disorders (89 video recordings) were assessed by 12 interviewers using the Russian version of DIP at 7 clinical sites (in 6 cities of the Russian Federation). DIP ratings on 32 cases of a randomized case sample were made by 9 interviewers and the inter-rater reliability was compared with the researchers' DIP ratings. Overall pairwise agreement and Cohen's kappa were calculated. Diagnostic validity was evaluated on the basis of comparing the researchers' ratings using the Russian version of DIP with the 'gold standard' ratings of the same 62 clinical cases from the Western Australia Family Study Schizophrenia (WAFSS). The mean duration of the interview was 47±21 minutes. The Kappa statistic demonstrated a significant or almost perfect level of agreement on the majority of DIP items (84.54%) and a significant agreement for the ICD-10 diagnoses generated by the DIP computer diagnostic algorithm (κ=0.68; 95% CI 0.53,0.93). The level of agreement on the researchers' diagnoses was considerably lower (κ=0.31; 95% CI 0.06,0.56). The agreement on affective and positive psychotic symptoms was significantly higher than agreement on negative symptoms (F(2,44)=20.72, planguage version of DIP was confirmed by 73% (45/62) of the Russian DIP diagnoses matching the original WAFSS diagnoses. Among the mismatched diagnoses were 80 cases with a diagnosis of F20 Schizophrenia in the medical documentation compared to the researchers' F20 diagnoses in only 68 patients and in 62 of the DIP computerized diagnostic outputs. The reported level of subjective difficulties experienced when using the DIP was low to moderate. The results of the study confirm the validity and reliability of the Russian version

  3. Continuity Between Interview-Rated Personality Disorders and Self-Reported DSM-5 Traits in a Danish Psychiatric Sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bo; Anderson, Jaime; Simonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    diagnoses found in DSM-5 Section II, specified sets of facets are configured into familiar PD types. The current study aimed to evaluate the continuity across the Section II and III models of PDs. A sample of 142 psychiatric outpatients were administered the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and rated...... showed that, overall, the interview-rated DSM-5 Section II disorders were most strongly associated with expected self-reported Section III traits. Results also supported the addition of facets not included in the proposed Section III PD criteria. These findings partly underscore the continuity between...... the Section II and III models of PDs and suggest how it may be enhanced; however, additional research is needed to further evaluate where continuity exists, where it does not exist, and how the traits system could be improved. (PsycINFO Database Record...

  4. Qualitative Facets of Prospective Elementary Teachers' Diagnostic Proceeding: Collecting and Interpreting in One-on-One Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this paper focuses on the cognitive diagnostic strategies that prospective elementary mathematics teachers (PTs) use in their reflections of one-on-one diagnostic interviews with children in grade one. Thereby, it responds to the detected lack of knowledge regarding qualitative facets of diagnostic proceeding in interview…

  5. The reliability and validity of two structured diagnostic interviews for personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, P A; Heape, C L; Proietti, J M; Clark, S W; McDavid, J D; Pitts, T E

    1995-12-01

    The reliability and validity of Axis II diagnoses were investigated in a sample of 108 patients with nonpsychotic Axis I disorders. Patients were assessed for personality disorders (PDs) with either the Personality Disorder Examination (PDE) or the Structured Interview for DSM-III-R Personality (SIDP-R). Validity was examined by comparing interview diagnoses with "best-estimate" consensus diagnoses assigned by a panel of judges. Interrater reliabilities were excellent when using continuous data (eg, total or cluster scores; intra-class correlation coefficients, .82 to .92); they were lower with categorical diagnoses (eg, any PD vs no PD; kappa = 0.55 and 0.58 with the two interviews). Validity coefficients (ie, kappa values reflecting agreement between the interviews and the consensus diagnosis) for the decision of any PD vs no PD were 0.18 (56% agreement) with the PDE and 0.37 (75% agreement) with the SIDP-R; validity coefficients for identifying cases of "marked" PD were 0.21 (62% agreement) with the PDE and 0.24 (60% agreement) with the SIDP-R. There have been important advances in the development of structured interviews for Axis II diagnoses, but the findings suggest a continued need to be thoughtful about their strengths and weaknesses before accepting their results as definitive diagnostic tests. The findings also demonstrated some of the advantages of continuous vs categorical data.

  6. Assessment of alcoholic standard drinks using the Munich composite international diagnostic interview (M-CIDI): An evaluation and subsequent revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kadrić, Firdeus; Kuitunen, Paula T; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Manthey, Jakob

    2017-09-01

    The quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption are crucial both in risk assessment as well as epidemiological and clinical research. Using the Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI), drinking amounts have been assessed in numerous large-scale studies. However, the accuracy of this assessment has rarely been evaluated. This study evaluates the relevance of drink categories and pouring sizes, and the factors used to convert actual drinks into standard drinks. We compare the M-CIDI to alternative drink assessment instruments and empirically validate drink categories using a general population sample (n = 3165 from Germany), primary care samples (n = 322 from Italy, n = 1189 from Germany), and a non-representative set of k = 22503 alcoholic beverages sold in Germany in 2010-2016. The M-CIDI supplement sheet displays more categories than other instruments (AUDIT, TLFB, WHO-CIDI). Beer, wine, and spirits represent the most prevalent categories in the samples. The suggested standard drink conversion factors were inconsistent for different pouring sizes of the same drink and, to a smaller extent, across drink categories. For the use in Germany and Italy, we propose the limiting of drink categories and pouring sizes, and a revision of the proposed standard drinks. We further suggest corresponding examinations and revisions in other cultures. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The reliability of child psychiatric diagnosis. A comparison among Danish child psychiatrists of traditional diagnoses and a multiaxial diagnostic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, A M; Isager, T; Jørgensen, O S

    1988-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare an experimental multiaxial diagnostic system (MAS) with traditional multicategorical diagnoses in child psychiatric work. Sixteen written case histories were circulated to 21 child psychiatrists, who made diagnoses independently of one another, using two differe...... and developmental disorders. Adjustment reaction (reactio maladaptiva) was the diagnosis most commonly used, but with varying reliability in both systems. The reliability of the socio-economic and psychosocial axes were generally high....... diagnostic systems. Diagnostic reliability was measured as percentage of interrater agreement. The highest diagnostic reliability was obtained in psychotic disorders, the lowest in personality disorders. The MAS implied improved diagnostic reliability of mental retardation, somatic disorders...

  8. Overlap between autism and specific language impairment: comparison of Autism Diagnostic Interview and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyfer, Ovsanna T; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Dowd, Michael; Tomblin, J Bruce; Folstein, Susan E

    2008-10-01

    Autism and specific language impairment (SLI) are developmental disorders that, although distinct by definition, have in common some features of both language and social behavior. The goal of this study was to further explore the extent to which specific clinical features of autism are seen in SLI. The children with the two disorders, matched for non-verbal IQ, were compared on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). In the SLI group, 41% met autism or autism spectrum cut-offs for social or communication domains either on the ADI or ADOS or both. No relationship was found between the language deficits exhibited by the children with SLI and their scores on the ADI and ADOS. These findings contribute to evidence that there is some overlap in social and communicative deficits between autism and SLI, supporting the view that autism and SLI share etiologic factors. This continuum of pathology between SLI and autism appears to range from structural language abnormalities as seen in individuals with SLI to individuals with SLI with both structural and social abnormalities to individuals with autism with pragmatic impairment and language abnormalities.

  9. Longitudinal Changes in Scores on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in Pre-School Children with Autism: Implications for Diagnostic Classification and Symptom Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soke, Gnakub Norbert; Philofsky, Amy; Diguiseppi, Carolyn; Lezotte, Dennis; Rogers, Sally; Hepburn, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We prospectively examined mean changes in Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Total and Domains scores and stability of the ADI-R diagnostic classification in 28 children with autism initially assessed at age 2-4 years and reassessed 2 years later. Mean Total, Social Interaction, and Communication scores decreased significantly from Time 1…

  10. [A Teaching Experience: Psychiatric Interview on a Simulated Scenario With the Participation of Actors of the Altergesto Theater Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt Galeano, Wendy; Castrillón Muñoz, Eduardo; Godoy Jaimes, Kristy Alejandra; Matheus Lamus, Johanna; Ramírez Rivera, Sandra Milena; Ríos Castañeda, Sandra Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Simulation has been used as a learning tool in different disciplines and professions, including medicine and its specialties. Its usefulness is directly related to the integration of objectives, contents, methodologies and specific resources in each area of knowledge. To describe the development of an educational experience implemented in the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali (Cali, Colombia) with medical students of Human Behavior II program, between 2012 and 2013. This experience was performed with simulated patients played by actors of the Altergesto theater group, that were interviewed by students under the supervision of psychiatrists and teachers of the subject, using the Simulated Hospital of the University. A historical development recall of the teaching sequence was made from the first half of 2012 to the second half of 2013, a statement of pedagogical objectives, and a description of the teaching-learning strategies. 158 interviews were conducted over a period of two years during which it was necessary to raise methodological solutions to adapt this teaching sequence to the content and objectives of the subject. The high-fidelity simulation, integrating actors who represent psychiatric patients mixed with the technology of a Simulated Hospital was useful to achieve compliance with the objectives proposed in the course of Human Behavior II, as a part of the program of Medicine at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali. In parallel, the construction of experience as an interdisciplinary project and the practical approach of this strategy may impact on cognitive, emotional, behavioral dimensions of the participants, encouraging meaningful learning. An easy access database for the collected material and the study of the effects of this strategy in the formation of long-term students is needed. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. The Use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised with a Latino Population of Adolescents and Adults with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana, Sandy; Smith, Leann E.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that Latinos are less likely to be diagnosed with autism than their non-Latino counterparts. One factor that may contribute to these differences is that autism diagnostic instruments have not been adapted for the Latino population. The present study compared scores from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised for two groups: 48…

  12. Multisite Study of New Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Hyun; Thurm, Audrey; Shumway, Stacy; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Using two independent datasets provided by National Institute of Health funded consortia, the Collaborative Programs for Excellence in Autism and Studies to Advance Autism Research and Treatment (n = 641) and the National Institute of Mental Health (n = 167), diagnostic validity and factor structure of the new Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R)…

  13. Assessing Autism in Adults: An Evaluation of the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview-Adult Version (3Di-Adult)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Clarke, Kiri; McKenner, Michele; Strydom, Andre; Crabtree, Jason; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Allison, Carrie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Skuse, David

    2018-01-01

    We developed a brief, informant-report interview for assessing autism spectrum conditions (ASC) in adults, called the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview-Adult Version (3Di-Adult); and completed a preliminary evaluation. Informant reports were collected for participants with ASC (n = 39), a non-clinical comparison group (n = 29)…

  14. Lack of cortisol response in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD undergoing a diagnostic interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Quervain Dominique JF

    2007-10-01

    groups performed poorly in the DMS task, which is consistent with memory and concentration problems demonstrated in patients with PTSD. Conclusion A comprehensive diagnostic interview including questions about traumatic events does not trigger an HPA-axis based alarm response or changes in psychological measures, even for persons with severe PTSD, such as survivors of torture. Thus, addressing traumatic experiences within a safe and empathic environment appears to impose no unacceptable additional load to the patient.

  15. [Validity and reliability of the Tunisian version of section G of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, relative to schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafrafi, Rym; Namouri, Najla; Ghaouar, Mabrouk; Hsairi, Mohamed; Melki, Wahid; El Hechmi, Zouhaier

    2013-11-01

    Early diagnosis of schizophrenia can improve its outcome. Hence, screening policies should be held and suitable tools must be available for general practitioners. To translate the section G (about schizophrenia) of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to the Tunisian dialect and to check its validity and reliability. The Arabic version of section G of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview has been translated to the Tunisian dialect by psychiatrists speaking fluently both languages. Metric features of the instrument (sensitivity, specificity and predictive values) were assessed by checking its results against those of the gold standard i.e. the expert's opinion owing to the criteria of the Diagnostical and Statistical Manual of mental disorders 3rd revised edition. Reliability has been measured by the index of observer agreement. The instrument showed a low sensitivity of 45% [32% - 58%] and a high specificity of 96% [93% - 99%]. It looked as a diagnostical test that can avoid wrong diagnoses of such a serious and stigmatizing illness. These values are similar or even better than those of literature. The observer agreement index was 0.83 showing a very good reliability. The interviews mean duration was 20 minutes. The instrument showed no variability towards the sex, the age or the educational level of interviewees. Even though section G of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview failed to detect most cases with schizophrenia and showed a poor sensitivity, this instrument can be useful for screening strategies carried out by lay interviewers in the general population.

  16. The Added Value of the Combined Use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Diagnostic Validity in a Clinical Swedish Sample of Toddlers and Young Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Eric; Sturm, Harald; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic validity of the new research algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was examined in a clinical sample of children aged 18-47 months. Validity was determined for each instrument separately and their combination against a clinical consensus…

  17. Radiographers' perceptions of their professional rights in diagnostic radiography: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilainen, Kati; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Kankkunen, Päivi; Kangasniemi, Mari

    2017-03-01

    Considering the ethics of each profession is important as inter-professional collaboration increases. Professional ethics creates a basis for radiographers' work, as it includes values and principles, together with rights and duties that guide and support professionals. However, little is known about radiographers' rights when it comes to professional ethics. The aim of this study was to describe radiographers' perceptions and experiences of their professional rights. The ultimate aim was to increase the understanding of professional ethics in this context and support radiographers' ethical pondering in diagnostic radiography. A qualitative method was used. Semistructured group interviews with 15 radiographers were conducted in spring 2013 at two publicly provided diagnostic imaging departments in Finland. Data were analysed by inductive content analysis. All the participants were women, and they had worked as radiographers for an average of 18 years. Based on our analysis, radiographers' professional rights consisted of rights related to their expertise in radiography and the rights related to working conditions that ensured their wellbeing. Expertise-based rights included rights to plan, conduct and assess radiological care with patient advocacy. Radiographers have the right to contribute to a culture of safe radiation in their organisation and to use their professional knowledge to achieve their main target, which is the safe imaging of patients. Radiographers also have right to work in conditions that support their well-being, including the legal rights stated in their employment contract, as well as their rights concerning resources at work. Radiographers' professional rights are an elementary and multidimensional part of their clinical practice. In future, more theoretical and empirical research is needed to deepen the understanding of their rights in the clinical practice and support radiographers on issues related to this aspect of their work. © 2016

  18. Translation and validation of Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) for autism diagnosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michele M; Wagner, Mário B; Bosa, Cleonice A; Schmidt, Carlo; Longo, Danae; Papaleo, Clarissa; Riesgo, Rudimar S

    2012-03-01

    To translate into Brazilian Portuguese the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), an extremely useful diagnostic tool in autism. A case-control study was done to validate the ADI-R. After being translated, the interview was applied in a sample of 20 patients with autism and 20 patients with intellectual disability without autism, in order to obtain the initial psychometric properties. The internal consistency was high, with a of Crombach of 0.967. The validity of criterion had sensitivity and specificity of 100%, having as a gold standard the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The interview had high discriminant validity, with higher scores in the group of patients with autism, as well as high interobserver consistency, with median kappa of 0.824. The final version of ADI-R had satisfactory psychometric characteristics, indicating good preliminary validation properties. The instrument needs to be applied in bigger samples in other areas of the country.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the diagnostic interview for depressive personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irastorza, L J; Rojano, P; Gonzalez-Salvador, T; Cotobal, J; Leira, M; Rojas, C; Rubio, G; Rodríguez-Rieiro, C; Bellon, J M; Alvarez, M; Rodríguez, C; Arango, C

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Spanish-language version of the diagnostic interview for depressive personality (DIDP). The DIDP was administered to 328 consecutive outpatients and the test-retest and inter-rater reliability were assessed. Factor analysis was used in search of factors capable of explaining the scale and a cutoff point was established. The DIDP scales showed adequate Cronbach's α values and acceptable test-retest and inter-rater reliability coefficients. Convergent and discriminant validity were explored, the latter with respect to avoidant and borderline personality disorders. The results of the factor analysis were consistent with the four-factor structure of the DIDP scales. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed the area under the curve to be 0.848. We found 30 to be a good cutoff point, with a sensitivity of 74.5% and a specificity of 78.5%. The DIDP proved to be a reliable and valid instrument for assessing depressive personality disorder, at least among our outpatients. The psychometric properties of the DIDP support its clinical usefulness in assessing depressive personality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Migrainous vertigo: development of a pathogenetic model and structured diagnostic interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Joseph M; Marcus, Dawn A; Balaban, Carey D

    2003-02-01

    Vestibular symptoms occur frequently in patients with migraine. This review refines recently proposed diagnostic criteria for migraine-related vestibular symptoms, and develops a pathophysiological model for the interface between migraine and the vestibular system. The epidemiological link between migraine and vestibular symptoms and signs suggests shared pathogenetic mechanisms. Links between the vestibular nuclei, the trigeminal system, and thalamocortical processing centers provide the basis for the development of a pathophysiological model of migraine-related vertigo. During the last year, several studies have increased understanding of the relationship between migraine and vestibular symptoms. A study of motion sickness and allodynia in migraine patients supports the importance of central mechanisms of sensitization for migraine-related vestibular symptoms. A study has demonstrated effective treatment of vertigo with migraine therapy. The identification of migrainous vertigo, however, is hampered by a lack of standardized assessment criteria for both clinical and research practices. The application of published criteria for the diagnosis of migrainous vertigo allows the development of a standardized, structured assessment interview. An understanding of the relationship between migraine and the vestibular system increases knowledge of the pathogenesis of both migraine and vertigo. In addition, studies have identified successful treatment, with standard migraine therapies, of vestibular symptoms in patients with both migraine and vertigo. The use of a standardized assessment tool to identify this unique population of patients will help future studies to test both the pathological model and effective treatment options.

  1. Short-term diagnostic stability among re-admitted psychiatric in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prospective and retrospective consistency of diagnoses among readmitted psychiatric in-patients at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya. Method: Admission and discharge diagnoses among a consecutive sample of 114 psychiatric in-patients readmitted at the Moi Teaching ...

  2. Use of psychiatric inpatient capacities and diagnostic practice in Tashkent/Uzbekistan as compared to Berlin/Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Adrian P; Fakhriddinov, Sardor; Fayzirahmanova, Maria; Aichberger, Marion C; Ivens, Sebastian; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam; Grohmann, Renate; Magzumova, Shakhnoza; Heinz, Andreas; Sartorius, Norman; Ströhle, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    The present study shows a comparison of diagnoses used for the treatment of urban psychiatric inpatients in Tashkent/Uzbekistan and Berlin/Germany. Differential diagnostic practices related to different traditions in psychopathology between the two settings are analysed to explain part of the difference in relative frequencies of the diagnoses. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of diagnoses used for the treatment of 845 inpatients including 17 out of 18 wards of the Tashkent psychiatric hospital and of all 2,260 psychiatric and psychotherapeutic inpatients in Berlin in October 2008. Relative frequencies of diagnostic categories were calculated for each setting and compared between the two settings using the Chi-square test. A descriptive analysis of differential diagnostic practice is used to explain differences in relative frequencies. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (59.3 vs. 21.0%), with organic mental disorders (20.5 vs. 8.3%), with mental retardation (6.9 vs. 0.2%) and with neurasthenia (1.4 vs. 0.0%) had larger relative frequencies of the psychiatric inpatient population in Tashkent than in Berlin. Patients diagnosed with unipolar depression (24.1 vs. 0.9%), substance use disorder (17.4 vs. 6.4%), adjustment disorder (6.0 vs. 0.4%), schizoaffective disorder (4.9 vs. 0.0%), mania and bipolar disorder (5.3 vs. 0.4%), personality disorder (3.2 vs. 2.0%) and anxiety disorder (3.1 vs. 0.1%) had larger relative frequencies in Berlin than in Tashkent. The diagnostic concept of schizophrenia in Tashkent includes patients with affective psychoses, schizoaffective psychoses and delusional disorders. In Tashkent, mental disorders are more readily associated with organic brain disease such as head trauma or vascular disease than in Berlin. In Tashkent, most of the psychiatric inpatient capacities are used for the treatment of schizophrenia and organic mental disorders, whereas in Berlin patients with affective disorders, schizophrenia and substance use

  3. Variability among Research Diagnostic Interview Instruments in the Application of "DSM-IV-TR" Criteria for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Cathryn A.; Hundt, Stephanie R.; Goyal, Parag; Le, Jenna; Fisher, Prudence W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The "DSM-IV-TR "criteria for a manic episode and bipolar disorder (BD) were developed for adults but are used for children. The manner in which clinicians and researchers interpret these criteria may have contributed to the increase in BD diagnoses given to youth. Research interviews are designed to improve diagnostic reliability and…

  4. Criteria and Concurrent Validity of DIVA 2.0: A Semi-Structured Diagnostic Interview for Adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni; Nasillo, Viviana; Richarte, Vanesa; Corrales, Montserrat; Palma, Felipe; Ibáñez, Pol; Michelsen, Marieke; Van de Glind, Geurt; Casas, Miquel; Kooij, J J Sandra

    2016-04-28

    The aim of this study was to assess for the first time the criterion validity of the semi-structured Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in adults (DIVA 2.0), and its concurrent validity in comparison with the Conners' Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID) and other ADHD severity scales, following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria. A transversal study was performed on 40 out-patients with ADHD to check the criteria and concurrent validity of the DIVA 2.0 compared with the CAADID. The DIVA 2.0 interview showed a diagnostic accuracy of 100% when compared with the diagnoses obtained with the CAADID interview. The concurrent validity demonstrated good correlations with three self-reported rating scales: the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS; r = .544, p Rating Scale (r = .720, p < .0001), and Sheehan's Dysfunction Inventory (r = .674, p < .0001). The DIVA 2.0 is a reliable tool for assessing and diagnosing Adult ADHD and is the only one that offers free online access for clinical and research purposes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Brief Report: Understanding Crisis Behaviors in Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder--Iceberg Assessment Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Kate H.; Barnes, Julia C.; Young, Nicholas D.; Gabriels, Robin L.

    2015-01-01

    Children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at risk for emotional dysregulation and behavior problems that can escalate to levels requiring psychiatric hospitalization. Evaluating the etiology of such behaviors can be challenging for health care providers, as individuals with ASD can have difficulty self-reporting concerns.…

  6. Interrelationship between autism diagnostic observation schedule-generic (ADOS-G), autism diagnostic interview-revised (ADI-R), and the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV-TR) classification in children and adolescents with mental retardation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bildt, A; Sytema, S; Ketelaars, C; Kraijer, D; Mulder, E; Volkmar, F; Minderaa, R

    The interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) and clinical classification was studied in 184 children and adolescents with Mental Retardation (MR). The agreement between the ADI-R and ADOS-G was fair, with a

  7. A semi-structured, phenomenologically oriented psychiatric interview: Descriptive congruens in assessing anomalous subjective experience and mental status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Parnas, Josef Stefan Stanislaw

    2012-01-01

    , phenomenological-oriented semi-structured interview. Limitations: The major limitation of the study is a relatively small sample size, conditioned by the time-consuming nature of the individual interviews. Second, we should have included a measurement of reliability in a less experiencedrecently EASE...

  8. A semi-structured, phenomenologically oriented psychiatric interview: Descriptive congruens in assessing anomalous subjective experience and mental status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Parnas, Josef Stefan Stanislaw

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The contemporary methodology in obtaining psychopathological information relies almost exclusively on the use of structured questionnaires and interview schedules. These interviews yield high interrater reliability and reduce cost. The assessments of anomalous self-experience and of me......-introduced rater, since it is that kind of researchers that are typically enrolled for the empirical data collections....

  9. Psychiatric disorder in male veterans and nonveterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norquist, G S; Hough, R L; Golding, J M; Escobar, J I

    1990-05-01

    Prevalences of Diagnostic Interview Schedule/DSM-III psychiatric disorders for male veterans and nonveterans from four war eras were estimated using data from over 7500 male community respondents interviewed by the Epidemiologic Catchment Area program at five geographic areas across the country. Veterans serving after Vietnam (Post-Vietnam era) had greater lifetime and 6-month prevalences of psychiatric disorder than their nonveteran counterparts, whereas the reverse tended to be the case for the Vietnam, Korean, and World War II war eras. Comparisons across war eras revealed a trend for more psychiatric disorder, especially substance abuse, in younger veterans and nonveterans than in older respondents.

  10. Patient emergency assessment following deliberate self-poisoning with benzodiazepines: Can cognitive markers predict recall of the psychiatric interview? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, J; Pariente, J; Dimeglio, C; Gandia, P; Lemesle, B; Giron, A; Franchitto, N; Schmitt, L; Very, E

    2017-10-01

    In cases of deliberate self-poisoning (DSP), patients often ingest benzodiazepines (BZDs), known to alter memory. Experts recommend recovery of the patient's cognitive capacity before psychiatric assessment. Unfortunately, there is no validated tool in common practice to assess whether sufficient cognitive recovery has occurred after DSP with BZDs to ensure patient memory of the assessment. The aim of the study was to identify cognitive functions and markers which predict preserved memory of the mental health care plan proposed at the emergency department after DSP. We recruited patients admitted for DSP with BZDs and control patients. At the time of the psychiatric assessment, we performed cognitive tests and we studied the relationship between these tests and the scores of a memory test performed 24 h after. In comparison with the control group, we found memory impairment in the BZD group. We found significant impairment on the Trail Making Test A (TMT A) in the BZD group in comparison with the control group, while TMT A and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Coding test scores were significantly correlated with memory scores. Attentional functions tested by WAIS Coding test and TMT A were correlated with memory score. It could be profitable to assess it in clinical practice prior to a psychiatric interview.

  11. Agreement for depression diagnosis between DSM-IV-TR criteria, three validated scales, oncologist assessment, and psychiatric clinical interview in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhondali W

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wadih Rhondali,1 Gilles Freyer,2 Virginie Adam,3 Marilène Filbet,4 Martine Derzelle,5 Gaelle Abgrall-Barbry,6 Sophie Bourcelot,7 Jean-Louis Machavoine,8 Muriel Chomat-Neyraud,9 Olivier Gisserot,10 Rémi Largillier,11 Annick Le Rol,12 Frank Priou,13 Pierre Saltel,14 Claire Falandry15 1Clinique Mon Repos, Clinea, Marseille, France; 2Medical Oncology Unit, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université Lyon 1, Pierre-Benite, France; 3Institut de Cancérologie de Lorraine Alexis Vautrin, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; 4Palliative Unit, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université Lyon 1, Pierre-Benite, France; 5Institut Jean Godinot, Reims, France; 6Tenon Hospital, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France; 7Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France; 8Centre François Baclesse, Caen, France; 9Centre Hospitalier de la région d’Annecy, Pringy, France; 10Hôpital d’Instruction des Armées Sainte-Anne, Toulon, France; 11Centre Azuréen de Cancérologie, Mougins, France; 12Medical Oncology, Hôpital Perpétuel Secours, Levallois-Perret, France; 13Medical Oncology, Centre Hospitalier Départemental Les Oudairies, La Roche-sur-Yon, France; 14Supportive Care Department, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France; 15Geriatrics and Oncology Unit, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Université Lyon 1, Pierre-Bénite, France Background: Depression, a major outcome in cancer patients, is often evaluated by physicians relying on their clinical impressions rather than patient self-report. Our aim was to assess agreement between patient self-reported depression, oncologist assessment (OA, and psychiatric clinical interview (PCI in elderly patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC.Methods: This analysis was a secondary endpoint of the Elderly Women AOC Trial 3 (EWOT3, designed to assess the impact of geriatric covariates, notably depression, on survival in patients older than 70 years of age. Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 (GDS, the Hospital

  12. Translation and validation of Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R for autism diagnosis in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele M. Becker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To translate into Brazilian Portuguese the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R, an extremely useful diagnostic tool in autism. METHODS: A case-control study was done to validate the ADI-R. After being translated, the interview was applied in a sample of 20 patients with autism and 20 patients with intellectual disability without autism, in order to obtain the initial psychometric properties. RESULTS: The internal consistency was high, with a of Crombach of 0.967. The validity of criterion had sensitivity and specificity of 100%, having as a gold standard the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The interview had high discriminant validity, with higher scores in the group of patients with autism, as well as high interobserver consistency, with median kappa of 0.824. CONCLUSION: The final version of ADI-R had satisfactory psychometric characteristics, indicating good preliminary validation properties. The instrument needs to be applied in bigger samples in other areas of the country.

  13. Effects of Child Characteristics on the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised: Implications for Use of Scores as a Measure of ASD Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hus, Vanessa; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) is commonly used to inform diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Considering the time dedicated to using the ADI-R, it is of interest to expand the ways in which information obtained from this interview is used. The current study examines how algorithm totals reflecting past (ADI-Diagnostic)…

  14. [Sleep disorder, a potential early diagnostic marker for psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Mei; Qin, Dong-Dong; Jiang, Hui-Hui; Hu, Xin-Tian; Ma, Yuan-Ye

    2011-02-01

    Sleep/circadian timing depends on several neurotransmitter systems, including 5-HT, NE, DA, Ach, GABA, etc. These neurotransmitter systems play critical roles in mental, emotional and cognitive functions in the brain. Dysfunctions of these systems not only result in sleep disorder, but are also related to many psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Sleep disruption is tightly associated with an increased susceptibility to a broad range of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, such as depression and Parkinson diseases. Non-human primates, especially the rhesus monkey is an excellent biomedical model for human sleep and CNS diseases. Establishing nonhuman primates' model of mental disorders and monitoring the sleep changes during the development of the model will help us to know more about the relationships between sleep disorder and psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Sleep disorder as an early marker for psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases would permit early intervention of these diseases and draw attention to the potential therapeutic benefits of normalizing sleep rhythms in individuals with brain pathologies.

  15. 'Islamic fatalism': life and suffering among Bangladeshi psychiatric patients and their families in London--an interview study 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Roland; Dein, Simon

    2013-01-01

    An interview study of 44 Bangladeshi patients and relatives in eastern London demonstrated frequent appeals to God and deprecation of personal agency. This paper offers an interpretation of this apparent 'fatalism', which argues for the logical downplaying of human agency and ambition in archaic Arabia, contemporary rural Sylhet and among first generation Sylheti migrants in London.

  16. Qualitative analysis of interviews of future non-affective psychotic disorder patients and non-psychiatric controls: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Rubinstein

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: The findings of this unique historical-prospective qualitative analysis of interviews performed before the onset of psychosis, confirmed previous findings of premorbid abnormality of future non-affective psychosis patients. Using qualitative analysis enabled obtaining a more in-depth understanding of the real-life experience of the premorbid period among patients with non-affective psychotic disorders.

  17. Variability among research diagnostic interview instruments in the application of DSM-IV-TR criteria for pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Cathryn A; Hundt, Stephanie R; Goyal, Parag; Le, Jenna; Fisher, Prudence W

    2012-06-01

    The DSM-IV-TR criteria for a manic episode and bipolar disorder (BD) were developed for adults but are used for children. The manner in which clinicians and researchers interpret these criteria may have contributed to the increase in BD diagnoses given to youth. Research interviews are designed to improve diagnostic reliability and validity, but vary in how they incorporate DSM-IV-TR criteria for pediatric BD. We examined DSM-IV-TR criteria and the descriptive text for a manic episode and the mania sections of six commonly used pediatric diagnostic research interviews focusing on the following: interpretation of DSM-IV-TR, recommendations for administration, and scoring methods. There are differences between the DSM-IV-TR manic episode criteria and descriptive text. Instruments vary in several ways including in their conceptualization of the mood criterion, whether symptoms must represent a change from the child's usual state, and whether B-criteria are required to co-occur with the A-criterion. Instruments also differ on recommendations for administration and scoring methods. Given the differences between DSM-IV-TR manic episode criteria and explanatory text, it is not surprising that there is considerable variation between diagnostic instruments based on DSM-IV-TR. These differences likely lead to dissimilarities in subjects included in BD research studies and inconsistent findings across studies. The field of child psychiatry would benefit from more uniform methods of assessing symptoms and determining pediatric BD diagnoses. We discuss recommendations for changes to future instruments, interviews, assessment, and the DSM-5. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of gender, patient volume and time on clinical diagnostic decision making in psychiatric emergency services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroff, Jordana R; Jackson, James S; Mowbray, Carol T; Himle, Joseph A

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of limited time and high patient pressures on the role of gender and other nonpsychiatric factors in diagnostic decision making in psychiatric emergency services (PES). We reviewed the records of 1236 adult psychiatric patients treated by 75 clinicians (e.g., psychiatrists, social workers, nurses and psychologists) in an urban university and community PES in early 2000. Patient records were sampled according to each clinician's level of busyness and load, controlling for the average number of patients typically seen and the actual volume of patients seen by the particular clinician during that shift. Multinomial logistic regression analyses reveal that clinicians are more likely to make a bipolar diagnosis when under low patient load [odds ratio (OR)=1.738, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.186-2.546, P=.005] or when they have more time (OR=1.111, 95% CI=1.017-1.212, Psocial stereotypes may be more influential. The results have important implications for the use of antidepressant medications with female patients.

  19. Asperger syndrome in males over two decades: Quality of life in relation to diagnostic stability and psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helles, Adam; Gillberg, I Carina; Gillberg, Christopher; Billstedt, Eva

    2017-05-01

    This study examined objective quality of life (work, academic success, living situation, relationships, support system) and subjective quality of life (Sense of Coherence and Short-Form Health Survey-36) in an adult sample of males ( n = 50, mean age: 30 years) with Asperger syndrome diagnosed in childhood and followed prospectively over two decades. The association between long-term diagnostic stability of an autism spectrum disorder and/or comorbid psychiatric disorders with quality of life was also examined. The results showed great variability as regards quality of life. The subsample that no longer fulfilled an autism spectrum disorder had full-time jobs or studies (10/11), independent living (100%), and reported having two or more friends (100%). In the stable autism spectrum disorder group, 41% had full-time job or studies, 51% lived independently, and 33% reported two or more friends, and a significant minority had specialized employments, lived with support from the government, or had no friends. Academic success was positively correlated with IQ. A majority of the total group scored average Sense of Coherence scores, and the mean for Short-Form Health Survey-36 was above average regarding psychical health and below average regarding mental health. Stability of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis was associated with objective but not subjective quality of life, while psychiatric comorbidity was associated with subjective but not objective quality of life.

  20. From estimating activation locality to predicting disorder: A review of pattern recognition for neuroimaging-based psychiatric diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfers, Thomas; Buitelaar, Jan K; Beckmann, Christian F; Franke, Barbara; Marquand, Andre F

    2015-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are increasingly being recognised as having a biological basis, but their diagnosis is made exclusively behaviourally. A promising approach for 'biomarker' discovery has been based on pattern recognition methods applied to neuroimaging data, which could yield clinical utility in future. In this review we survey the literature on pattern recognition for making diagnostic predictions in psychiatric disorders, and evaluate progress made in translating such findings towards clinical application. We evaluate studies on many criteria, including data modalities used, the types of features extracted and algorithm applied. We identify problems common to many studies, such as a relatively small sample size and a primary focus on estimating generalisability within a single study. Furthermore, we highlight challenges that are not widely acknowledged in the field including the importance of accommodating disease prevalence, the necessity of more extensive validation using large carefully acquired samples, the need for methodological innovations to improve accuracy and to discriminate between multiple disorders simultaneously. Finally, we identify specific clinical contexts in which pattern recognition can add value in the short to medium term. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of dissociative identity disorder with other diagnostic groups using a structured interview in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yargiç, L I; Sar, V; Tutkun, H; Alyanak, B

    1998-01-01

    Twenty patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID), 20 with schizophrenic disorder, 20 with panic disorder, and 20 with complex partial epilepsy were evaluated with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS) and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Subjects with dissociative identity disorder were more frequently diagnosed as having somatization disorder, past or concurrent major depressive episode, borderline personality disorder, depersonalization disorder, and dissociative amnesia than other groups. They reported Schneiderian symptoms and extrasensory perceptions more frequently. In their anamnesis suicide attempts, trance states, sleepwalking, and childhood traumas were more frequent than those in comparison groups. The secondary features of dissociative identity disorder and the DES score differentiated these patients from comparison groups significantly. DID has a set of clinical features different from that of schizophrenic disorder, panic disorder and complex partial epilepsy. The differences are similar to those yielded previously in studies from North America.

  2. An ontology for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to infer ASD phenotypes from Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugzach, Omri; Peleg, Mor; Bagley, Steven C; Guter, Stephen J; Cook, Edwin H; Altman, Russ B

    2015-08-01

    Our goal is to create an ontology that will allow data integration and reasoning with subject data to classify subjects, and based on this classification, to infer new knowledge on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and related neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). We take a first step toward this goal by extending an existing autism ontology to allow automatic inference of ASD phenotypes and Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria based on subjects' Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) assessment data. Knowledge regarding diagnostic instruments, ASD phenotypes and risk factors was added to augment an existing autism ontology via Ontology Web Language class definitions and semantic web rules. We developed a custom Protégé plugin for enumerating combinatorial OWL axioms to support the many-to-many relations of ADI-R items to diagnostic categories in the DSM. We utilized a reasoner to infer whether 2642 subjects, whose data was obtained from the Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative, meet DSM-IV-TR (DSM-IV) and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria based on their ADI-R data. We extended the ontology by adding 443 classes and 632 rules that represent phenotypes, along with their synonyms, environmental risk factors, and frequency of comorbidities. Applying the rules on the data set showed that the method produced accurate results: the true positive and true negative rates for inferring autistic disorder diagnosis according to DSM-IV criteria were 1 and 0.065, respectively; the true positive rate for inferring ASD based on DSM-5 criteria was 0.94. The ontology allows automatic inference of subjects' disease phenotypes and diagnosis with high accuracy. The ontology may benefit future studies by serving as a knowledge base for ASD. In addition, by adding knowledge of related NDDs, commonalities and differences in manifestations and risk factors could be automatically inferred, contributing to the understanding of ASD pathophysiology. Copyright

  3. Proposed changes to the American Psychiatric Association diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder: implications for young children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Roy; Nozyce, Molly

    2013-05-01

    The American Psychiatric Association has revised the diagnostic criteria for their DSM-5 manual. Important changes have been made to the diagnosis of the current (DSM-IV) category of Pervasive Developmental Disorders. This category includes Autistic Disorder (autism), Asperger's Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The DSM-5 deletes Asperger's Disorder and PDD-NOS as diagnostic entities. This change may have unintended consequences, including the possibility that the new diagnostic framework will adversely affect access to developmental interventions under Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) programs, Early Intervention (for birth to 2 years olds) and preschool special education (for 3 and 4 years olds). Changing the current diagnosis of PDD-NOS to a "Social Communication Disorder" focused on language pragmatics in the DSM-5 may restrict eligibility for IDEA programs and limit the scope of services for affected children. Young children who meet current criteria for PDD-NOS require more intensive and multi-disciplinary services than would be available with a communication domain diagnosis and possible service authorization limited to speech-language therapy. Intensive behavioral interventions, inclusive group setting placements, and family support services are typically more available for children with an autism spectrum disorder than with diagnoses reflecting speech-language delay. The diagnostic distinction reflective of the higher language and social functioning between Asperger's Disorder and autism is also undermined by eliminating the former as a categorical diagnosis and subsuming it under autism. This change may adversely affect treatment planning and misinform parents about prognosis for children who meet current criteria for Asperger's Disorder.

  4. Assessing Autism in Adults: An Evaluation of the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview-Adult Version (3Di-Adult).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandy, William; Clarke, Kiri; McKenner, Michele; Strydom, Andre; Crabtree, Jason; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Allison, Carrie; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Skuse, David

    2017-11-07

    We developed a brief, informant-report interview for assessing autism spectrum conditions (ASC) in adults, called the Developmental, Dimensional and Diagnostic Interview-Adult Version (3Di-Adult); and completed a preliminary evaluation. Informant reports were collected for participants with ASC (n = 39), a non-clinical comparison group (n = 29) and a clinical comparison group (n = 20) who had non-autistic mental health conditions. Mean administration time was 38 min (50 min for ASC). Internal consistency (αs ≥ 0.93) and inter-rater agreement (ICCs ≥ 0.99) were high. When discriminating ASC from non-ASC, the 3Di-Adult showed excellent sensitivity (95%) and specificity (92%). The 3Di-Adult shows promise as a psychometrically sound and time-efficient interview for collecting standardised informant reports for DSM-5 assessments of ASC in adults, in research and clinical practice.

  5. Migration background and juvenile mental health: a descriptive retrospective analysis of diagnostic rates of psychiatric disorders in young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Jakob Gaber

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article presents diagnostic rates for specific mental disorders in a German pediatric inpatient population over a period of 20 years with respect to migration background and socioeconomic status (SES. Methods: Diagnostic data were obtained over a period of 20 years from 8,904 patients who visited a child and adolescent psychiatry mental health service in Germany. Data from 5,985 diagnosed patients (ICD-9 and ICD-10 criteria were included with respect to gender, migration background, and SES. Results:Migration- and gender-specific effects were found for both periods of assessment. The group of boys with a migration background showed significantly higher rates of reactions to severe stress, adjustment disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder compared to their male, non-migrant counterparts. Conversely, boys without a migration background showed a significantly higher percentage rate of hyperkinetic disorders than male migrants. Similar results were found for female migrants in the latter assessment period (ICD-10. In addition, female migrants showed lower rates of emotional disorders whose onset occurs in childhood compared to their non-migrant counterparts. Conclusions: Data from this investigation provide preliminary evidence that the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents is influenced by migration background and SES.

  6. Linguistic adaptation and validation into Spanish of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Personality Disorders-Revised (DIB-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szerman, Néstor; Peris, M Dolores; Ruiz, Ana; Ruiz, Manuel; Gunderson, John G; Rejas, Javier

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes the linguistic adaptation and psychometric validation into Spanish of the Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines-Revised (DIB-R) scale for diagnosing borderline personality disorder (BPD). A conceptual equivalence approach was undertaken, including forward and backward translations of the scale and patient debriefing in a pilot phase. BPD and control patients were included in the validation study, and all of them were administered the scale by well trained interviewers, blinded to the clinical diagnosis. Reference diagnosis for BPD was done according to DSM-IV criteria. The interview was independently administered in a subset of patients by different interviewer to test inter-rater reliability . Reliability and validity of the instrument were tested by calculating the Cronbach alpha and Guttman split-half coefficients and by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, kappa agreement coefficient determination and assessment of sensitivity and specificity of the scale. A cohort of 111 subjects, 84 BPD patients (33.6 +/- 9.3 years) and 27 control subjects (34.9 +/- 9.3 years), were included in the study. A cut-off point > or = 7 showed a kappa agreement coefficient of 0.853 (95% confidence intervals: 0.739-0.967, p < 0.00001). The figures for sensitivity and specificity values were 0.964 (0.899-0.993) and 0.889 (0.708-0.977) respectively. Inter-rater reliability showed a kappa coefficient of 0.783 (p < 0.0001). The Spanish version of the DIB-R showed adequate psychometric properties for diagnosing BPD in Spain.

  7. A Lifetime Prevalence of Comorbidity Between Bipolar Affective Disorder and Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-analysis of 52 Interview-based Studies of Psychiatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Behrouz; Mitchell, Alex J.; Nutt, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Bipolar affective disorder has a high rate of comorbidity with a multitude of psychiatric disorders and medical conditions. Among all the potential comorbidities, co-existing anxiety disorders stand out due to their high prevalence. Aims To determine the lifetime prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders in bipolar affective disorder under the care of psychiatric services through systematic review and meta-analysis. Method Random effects meta-analyses were used to calculate the lifetime prevalence of comorbid generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in bipolar affective disorder. Results 52 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The rate of lifetime comorbidity was as follows: panic disorder 16.8% (95% CI 13.7–20.1), generalised anxiety disorder 14.4% (95% CI 10.8–18.3), social anxiety disorder13.3% (95% CI 10.1–16.9), post-traumatic stress disorder 10.8% (95% CI 7.3–14.9), specific phobia 10.8% (95% CI 8.2–13.7), obsessive compulsive disorder 10.7% (95% CI 8.7–13.0) and agoraphobia 7.8% (95% CI 5.2–11.0). The lifetime prevalence of any anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder was 42.7%. Conclusions Our results suggest a high rate of lifetime concurrent anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder. The diagnostic issues at the interface are particularly difficult because of the substantial symptom overlap. The treatment of co-existing conditions has clinically remained challenging. PMID:26629535

  8. A Lifetime Prevalence of Comorbidity Between Bipolar Affective Disorder and Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-analysis of 52 Interview-based Studies of Psychiatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Behrouz; Mitchell, Alex J; Nutt, David

    2015-10-01

    Bipolar affective disorder has a high rate of comorbidity with a multitude of psychiatric disorders and medical conditions. Among all the potential comorbidities, co-existing anxiety disorders stand out due to their high prevalence. To determine the lifetime prevalence of comorbid anxiety disorders in bipolar affective disorder under the care of psychiatric services through systematic review and meta-analysis. Random effects meta-analyses were used to calculate the lifetime prevalence of comorbid generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in bipolar affective disorder. 52 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The rate of lifetime comorbidity was as follows: panic disorder 16.8% (95% CI 13.7-20.1), generalised anxiety disorder 14.4% (95% CI 10.8-18.3), social anxiety disorder13.3% (95% CI 10.1-16.9), post-traumatic stress disorder 10.8% (95% CI 7.3-14.9), specific phobia 10.8% (95% CI 8.2-13.7), obsessive compulsive disorder 10.7% (95% CI 8.7-13.0) and agoraphobia 7.8% (95% CI 5.2-11.0). The lifetime prevalence of any anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder was 42.7%. Our results suggest a high rate of lifetime concurrent anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder. The diagnostic issues at the interface are particularly difficult because of the substantial symptom overlap. The treatment of co-existing conditions has clinically remained challenging.

  9. Evaluation of the Criterion and Convergent Validity of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders in Young and Low-Functioning Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO; Wing, 2006) is a standardized, semi-structured and interviewer-based schedule for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the criterion and convergent validity of the DISCO-11 ICD-10 algorithm in young and low-functioning…

  10. An Internet Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) : Correspondence of the ADHD Section with the Paper-and-Pencil Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Serra, Marike; Minderaa, Rudolf Boudewijn; Hartman, Catharina Annette

    2009-01-01

    The authors recently developed an Internet version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Version 4 (DISC-IV), parent version (D. Shaffer, P. Fisher, C. P. Lucas, M. K. Dulcan, & M. E. Schwab-Stone, 2000), with the main purpose of using it at home without an interviewer. This offers many advantages (e.g., extended applicability,…

  11. An Internet Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) : Correspondence of the ADHD Section With the Paper-and-Pencil Version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Serra, Marike; Minderaa, Rudolf Boudewijn; Hartman, Catharina Annette

    The authors recently developed an Internet version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Version 4 (DISC-IV), parent version (D. Shaffer, P. Fisher, C. P. Lucas, M. K. Dulcan, & M. E. Schwab-Stone, 2000), with the main purpose of using it at home without an interviewer. This offers many

  12. Likelihood of obtaining Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) and SIRS-2 elevations among forensic psychiatric inpatients with screening elevations on the Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmire, David M; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Gottfried, Emily D

    2016-12-01

    The Miller Forensic Assessment of Symptoms Test (M-FAST) was designed as a screening measure for feigned psychiatric symptoms. When M-FAST Total Scores are elevated (raw score ≥6), the test manual recommends follow-up with a more comprehensive measure of feigning, such as the widely used and researched Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) or the revised version of the test (SIRS-2). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate how often M-FAST screening elevations are associated with subsequent elevations on the SIRS or SIRS-2. The sample included archival data from 100 forensic psychiatric inpatients who obtained M-FAST Total Score elevations ≥6 during screening and were subsequently administered the SIRS (that was also rescored using SIRS-2 criteria). Among examinees who elevated the M-FAST over the recommended cutoff, 66.0% met standard SIRS feigning criteria, 42% met SIRS-2 criteria for feigning, and 81.0% obtained at least 1 SIRS/SIRS-2 elevation in the Probable Feigning range or higher. These results are consistent with the M-FAST manual guidelines, which support the use of the ≥6 M-FAST cutoff score to screen for potential feigning (but not as an independent marker of feigning). A higher M-FAST cutoff score of ≥16 was associated with subsequently meeting full SIRS criteria for feigning in 100.0% of protocols. Because the SIRS criteria were designed to have very low false positive rates, these findings indicate that more confident assertions about feigning can be made when elevations reach this level on the MFAST. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Transcultural validity of a structured diagnostic interview to screen for major depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eytan, Ariel; Durieux-Paillard, Sophie; Whitaker-Clinch, Barbara; Loutan, Louis; Bovier, Patrick A

    2007-09-01

    Refugees and asylum seekers have a high risk of developing mental health problems and appropriate screening in people from diverse origins remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to validate a structured diagnostic interview, adapted from the Major Depressive Episode (MDE) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) sections of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, to detect these disorders among newly arrived asylum seekers. The adapted questionnaire was administered by nurses in a primary care context and its performance was judged against the expert opinion of a mental health specialist. One hundred one subjects were included in the study (mean age: 30; origin: Africa 58%, Europe: 37%, Asia: 5%). MDE and PTSD were diagnosed among 33% and 30% of them respectively. The questionnaire demonstrated moderate sensitivity (MDE: 79%; PTSD: 69%), but high specificity (MDE: 95%; PTSD: 94%). These characteristics remained stable despite cultural differences and use of interpreters. This instrument could be used for systematic screening of MDE and PTSD in refugees from various origins.

  14. Test-Retest Reliability of the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Helen Link; Erkanli, Alaattin; Keeler, Gordon; Potts, Edward; Walter, Barbara Keith; Angold, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the test-retest reliability of a new interviewer-based psychiatric diagnostic measure (the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment) for use with parents of preschoolers 2 to 5 years old. Method: A total of 1,073 parents of children attending a large pediatric clinic completed the Child Behavior Checklist 1 1/2-5. For 18 months,…

  15. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*

  16. Assessing Attention and Disruptive Behavior Symptoms in Preschool-Age Children: The Utility of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolon-Arroyo, Benjamin; Arnold, David H; Harvey, Elizabeth A; Marshall, Nastassja

    2016-01-01

    Data are presented from two samples of preschool children to evaluate the reliability, concurrent validity, and predictive validity of the ADHD, ODD, and CD sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Fourth Edition (DISC-IV). Information was obtained from a community sample of 128 children (Mage = 53.16 months; 63 girls) and from a sample of 72 externalizing children (Mage = 45.23 months; 31 girls) plus 25 control children (Mage = 44.51 months; 8 girls). In both studies, the DISC-IV was administered to parents along with parent and teacher behavior rating scales, and teacher rating scales were obtained again later to evaluate the predictive validity of the DISC-IV (after approximately 6 months in Study 1, and 3 years in Study 2). The ADHD and ODD sections exhibited acceptable internal consistency in both studies, and showed concurrent validity with parent behavior rating scales. In both studies, the ADHD section was also concurrent with teacher reports. In Study 2, the ADHD, ODD, and CD sections distinguished externalizing children from controls. In both studies, the ADHD section predicted future teacher ratings beyond initial teacher ratings, and beyond initial parent rating scales; the ODD section similarly predicted later teacher ratings in Study 1. Findings provide strong support for the utility of the ADHD section for preschool children and moderate support for the ODD and CD sections.

  17. Psychiatric (Axis I) and personality (Axis II) disorders and subjective psychiatric symptoms in chronic tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlsten, Hanna; Taiminen, Tero; Karukivi, Max; Sjösten, Noora; Nikkilä, Johanna; Virtanen, Juuso; Paavola, Janika; Joutsa, Juho; Niinivirta-Joutsa, Katri; Takala, Mari; Holm, Anu; Rauhala, Esa; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Johansson, Reijo; Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2017-11-30

    Chronic tinnitus has been associated with several psychiatric disorders. Only few studies have investigated these disorders using validated diagnostic interviews. The aims were to diagnose psychiatric and personality disorders with structured interviews, to assess self-rated psychiatric symptoms and elucidate temporal relations between psychiatric disorders and tinnitus. Current and lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses of axis-I (psychiatric disorders) and axis-II (personality disorders) were assessed using structured clinical interviews (SCID-I and -II). Current subjective psychiatric symptoms were evaluated via self-rating instruments: the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). 83 patients (mean age 51.7, 59% men) with chronic, disturbing tinnitus and a median Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score of 32. The rates of lifetime and current major depression were 26.5% and 2.4%. The lifetime rate of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (type C) was 8.4%. None of the patients had cluster B personality disorder or psychotic symptoms. The SCL-90 subscales did not differ from the general population, and median DES score was low, 2.4. Tinnitus patients are prone to episodes of major depression and often also have obsessive-compulsive personality features. Psychiatric disorders seem to be comorbid or predisposing conditions rather than consequences of tinnitus. Clinical trial reference: ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT 01929837).

  18. Comorbidity of dementia and psychiatric disorders in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummans, T A; Smith, G E; Lin, S C; Waring, S C; Kokmen, E

    1997-01-01

    To further investigate the relationship between psychiatric disorders and dementia in elderly patients, the authors drew a population-based, age-stratified random sample from residents of Rochester, Minnesota, age 65 and older. A trained paramedic completed a 90-minute screening interview, including the Symptom Checklist-90, Mini-Mental State Exam, and Auditory-Verbal Learning Test. Persons failing the screens were interviewed by a psychiatrist and a neurologist. DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned for dementia and other psychiatric disorders. Of 201 participants, 37 were evaluated further by both neurologist and psychiatrist. One received a psychiatric diagnosis alone. Dementia alone was present in four people. Concurrent psychiatric diagnoses and dementia were found in 17 subjects. Much of the psychopathology found in older persons occurs in people with cognitive impairment. Current diagnostic nosology may not be able to capture the interrelatedness of psychiatric syndromes and cognitive impairment in elderly patients.

  19. Are DSM-IV-TR borderline personality disorder, ICD-10 emotionally unstable personality disorder, and CCMD-III impulsive personality disorder analogous diagnostic categories across psychiatric nomenclatures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ching Man; Leung, Freedom; You, Jianing; Cheung, Fanny

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the validity of the borderline construct which encompasses diagnostic criteria from the DSM-IV-TR Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), ICD-10 Emotionally Unstable Personality Disorder (EUPD), and CCMD-III Impulsive Personality Disorder (IPD) in a sample of 1,419 Chinese psychiatric patients. Participants completed the Chinese Personality Disorder Inventory and the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory-2 assessing various disordered personality features. Adequate internal consistency was found for the borderline construct (α = .83). Exploratory factor analysis revealed two components: (1) affective and cognitive disturbances, and (2) impulse dysregulation, which were replicated by confirmatory factor analysis. Item analysis indicated that the various borderline criteria displayed similar levels of diagnostic efficiency, which does not support the elimination of fear of abandonment and transient psychotic features from the EUPD and IPD criteria set. Findings of this study suggest that BPD, EUPD, and IPD may represent analogous diagnostic categories across classification systems.

  20. The Effectiveness of Diagnostic Assessment on the Development of Turkish Language Learners’ Narrative Skills as an Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjel Tozcu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effectiveness of diagnostic assessment on improving students’ proficiency in narrating past events, an Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI Level 2 task. It found that students who were given a personalized learning plan subsequent to the diagnostic assessment interview significantly improved their proficiency in basic sentence structures than those in a control group. They used a significantly larger number of cohesive devices as compared to the control group and exhibited significantly increased accuracy in using cohesive devices than a control group. The students in the treatment group worked on the recommended activities based on the data gathered during the diagnostic assessment interview and the pre-interview questionnaires, i.e., the E & L, MBTI, and Barsch. The students in the control group spent the same amount of time reading narrations, doing comprehension exercise,s and following standard teacher feedback for improvement. Although both groups showed increases in accurate use of cohesive devices and proficiency in basic sentence structures, the treatment students showed significantly greater gains than the control students.

  1. Obstetric and Parental Psychiatric Variables as Potential Predictors of Autism Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Anna E.; Anderson, George M.; Dubrow, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Associations between obstetric and parental psychiatric variables and subjects' Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) domain scores were examined using linear mixed effects models. Data for the 228 families studied were provided by the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange. Hypertension (P =…

  2. Prevalence And Detection Of Psychiatric Disorders Among Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To investigate (1) the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents attending a PHC clinic (2) the ability of PHC doctors to identify disorders (3) the performance of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version 2.3 (DISC-2.3) Design: A cross-sectional study of a clinical population

  3. Post electrical or lightning injury syndrome: a proposal for an American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual formulation with implications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Andrews

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, victims of electrical and lightning injuries have been assessed in a manner lacking a systematic formulation, and against ad hoc criteria, particularly in the area of neuropsychological disability. In this manner patients have, for example, only been partially treated, been poorly or incorrectly diagnosed, and have been denied the full benefit of compensation for their injuries. This paper contains a proposal for diagnostic criteria particularly for the neuropsychological aspects of the post injury syndrome. It pays attention to widely published consistent descriptions of the syndrome, and a new cluster analysis of post electrical injury patients. It formulates a proposal which could be incorporated into future editions of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM. The major neuropsychological consequences include neurocognitive dysfunction, and memory subgroup dysfunction, with ongoing consequences, and sometimes including progressive or delayed psychiatric, cognitive, and/or neurological symptoms. The proposed diagnostic criteria insist on a demonstrated context for the injury, both specifying the shock circumstance, and also physical consequences. It allows for a certain delay in onset of symptoms. It recognizes exclusory conditions. The outcome is a proposal for a DSM classification for the post electrical or lightning injury syndrome. This proposal is considered important for grounding patient treatment, and for further treatment trials. Options for treatment in electrical or lightning injury are summarised, and future trials are foreshadowed.

  4. Post electrical or lightning injury syndrome: a proposal for an American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual formulation with implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Christopher J; Reisner, Andrew D; Cooper, Mary Ann

    2017-09-01

    In the past, victims of electrical and lightning injuries have been assessed in a manner lacking a systematic formulation, and against ad hoc criteria, particularly in the area of neuropsychological disability. In this manner patients have, for example, only been partially treated, been poorly or incorrectly diagnosed, and have been denied the full benefit of compensation for their injuries. This paper contains a proposal for diagnostic criteria particularly for the neuropsychological aspects of the post injury syndrome. It pays attention to widely published consistent descriptions of the syndrome, and a new cluster analysis of post electrical injury patients. It formulates a proposal which could be incorporated into future editions of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). The major neuropsychological consequences include neurocognitive dysfunction, and memory subgroup dysfunction, with ongoing consequences, and sometimes including progressive or delayed psychiatric, cognitive, and/or neurological symptoms. The proposed diagnostic criteria insist on a demonstrated context for the injury, both specifying the shock circumstance, and also physical consequences. It allows for a certain delay in onset of symptoms. It recognizes exclusory conditions. The outcome is a proposal for a DSM classification for the post electrical or lightning injury syndrome. This proposal is considered important for grounding patient treatment, and for further treatment trials. Options for treatment in electrical or lightning injury are summarised, and future trials are foreshadowed.

  5. Syphilis sero-positivity in recently admitted and long-term psychiatric inpatients: Screening, prevalence and diagnostic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria P Henning

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Syphilis research has neglected the prevalence of the disease among psychiatric patients, and traditional syphilis screening has been reported as inadequate. Objectives. (i To assess the syphilis prevalence among psychiatric patients; (ii to compare psychiatric diagnoses of syphilis-infected and -uninfected patients; (iii to assess self-reported high-risk sexual behaviour; (iv to establish syphilis/HIV co-morbidity; and (v to investigate the performance of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR test in syphilis screening, compared with the Treponema pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA test. Methods. Psychiatric inpatients at Weskoppies Hospital, Pretoria, who consented to participate in the study (N=195 were categorised according to gender and length of admission (long-term or recent. Non-treponemal RPR, confirmatory TPHA, HIV-rapid and HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA tests were performed. A reactive TPHA test was used to diagnose syphilis. Results. The estimated prevalence of syphilis was 11.7%. There was no significant association between TPHA sero-positivity and primary psychiatric diagnosis or self-reported high-risk sexual behaviour. Significant co-morbidity existed between syphilis and HIV (p=0.012. Compared with the TPHA test, the RPR test performed poorly, identifying only 2/23 patients who had a sero-positive TPHA test (8.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Conclusions. The prevalence of syphilis was higher than anticipated, supporting the need for routine testing. The significant co-morbidity and alarming prevalence of HIV and syphilis warrant testing for both conditions in all psychiatric admissions. Current syphilis screening with a single RPR test is inadequate; both RPR and TPHA tests should be performed.

  6. Psychiatric disorders among the elderly on non-psychiatric wards in an African setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasujja, Noeline; Musisi, Seggane; Walugembe, James; Wallace, Daphne

    2007-08-01

    The elderly are vulnerable to illness and particularly to psychiatric illness. Many mentally ill elderly patients end up on non-psychiatric wards owing to somatization of their illnesses. Even for these patients, a psychiatric diagnosis may not be made. The literature on the elderly in Uganda is very scanty. This study aims to establish the prevalence and factors associated with psychiatric disorders among elderly patients admitted to non-psychiatric wards. We carried out a descriptive cross-sectional study of 127 consenting elderly patients. They were administered a standardized questionnaire comprising the Self Reporting Questionnaire 25, the Mini-mental State Examination and the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV. Study variables included socio-demographic characteristics, physical illnesses, psychiatric disorders and the treatment given. The rate of psychiatric morbidity was 48%. The sex ratio was 1:1; however, women had a higher rate of psychiatric illness than men, 54.6% and 41.3% respectively. Being widowed or separated and having cancer were associated with SRQ>5, p=0.02 and p=0.04 respectively. Depressive disorders were the most common at 25.2% and were more common in women. Increasing age was associated with dementia (pUganda. Particular attention should be given to the psychological health of elderly people admitted to general hospitals.

  7. Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Algorithms for Toddlers and Young Preschoolers: Application in a Non-US Sample of 1,104 Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Zander, Eric; Bölte, Sven; Sturm, Harald; Yirmiya, Nurit; Yaari, Maya; Charman, Tony; Salomone, Erica; LeCouteur, Ann; Green, Jonathan; Bedia, Ricardo Canal; Primo, Patricia García; van Daalen, Emma; de Jonge, Maretha V.; Guðmundsdóttir, Emilía; Jóhannsdóttir, Sigurrós; Raleva, Marija; Boskovska, Meri; Rogé, Bernadette; Baduel, Sophie; Moilanen, Irma; Yliherva, Anneli; Buitelaar, Jan; Oosterling, Iris J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) algorithms for toddlers and young preschoolers (Kim and Lord, "J Autism Dev Disord" 42(1):82-93, 2012) in a non-US sample from ten sites in nine countries (n = 1,104). The construct validity indicated a good fit of the algorithms. The diagnostic…

  8. Diagnostic validity of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register: findings from a cohort sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Judith; Powell, Shelagh; Koch, Susanne V

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Employing national registers for research purposes depends on a high diagnostic validity. The aim of the present study was to examine the diagnostic validity of recorded diagnoses of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR......). DESIGN: Review of patient journals selected randomly through the DPCR. METHOD: One hundred cases of OCD were randomly selected from DPCR. Using a predefined coding scheme based on the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS), experienced research nurse or child and adolescent...... increased the PPV for the OCD diagnosis altogether and for the subcode DF42.2. CONCLUSION: The validity and reliability of International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes for OCD in the DPCR is generally high. The subcodes for predominant obsessions/predominant compulsions are less certain...

  9. A critical view of transgender health care in Germany: Psychopathologizing gender identity - Symptom of 'disordered' psychiatric/psychological diagnostics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güldenring, Annette

    2015-01-01

    After explaining the essential trans* terminology, I offer a short historical overview of the way health care has dealt with the subject of gender, trans* and health in different times. In the third section, I compare the world's most important diagnostic manuals, namely the International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD) and the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM), i.e. their criteria for 'gender identity disorders' (ICD-10) and 'gender dysphoria' (DSM-5). The fourth section branch out the factors which influence every diagnostic conception - of no matter whom - in the health care system. The last section discusses the implications resulting from this diagnostic dilemma for the health situation of gender nonconforming people.

  10. A Lifetime Prevalence of Comorbidity Between Bipolar Affective Disorder and Anxiety Disorders: A Meta-analysis of 52 Interview-based Studies of Psychiatric Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Nabavi

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Our results suggest a high rate of lifetime concurrent anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder. The diagnostic issues at the interface are particularly difficult because of the substantial symptom overlap. The treatment of co-existing conditions has clinically remained challenging.

  11. ‘Islamic fatalism’: life and suffering among Bangladeshi psychiatric patients and their families in London – an interview study 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Roland; Dein, Simon

    2013-01-01

    An interview study of 44 Bangladeshi patients and relatives in eastern London demonstrated frequent appeals to God and deprecation of personal agency. This paper offers an interpretation of this apparent ‘fatalism’, which argues for the logical downplaying of human agency and ambition in archaic Arabia, contemporary rural Sylhet and among first generation Sylheti migrants in London. PMID:24670160

  12. Using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic for the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders in a Greek sample with a wide range of intellectual abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Katerina; Paliokosta, Elena; Houliaras, Giorgos; Vgenopoulou, Sofia; Giouroukou, Eleni; Pehlivanidis, Artemios; Tomaras, Vlassis; Tsiantis, Ioannis

    2009-03-01

    We studied the interrelationship between the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G), the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and DSM-IV clinical diagnosis, in a Greek sample of 77 children and adolescents, referred for the assessment of a possible pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) and presenting a wide range of cognitive abilities. The agreement of the ADOS-G and the ADI-R with the clinical diagnosis was estimated as satisfactory and moderate, respectively, while both instruments presented with excellent sensitivity for the diagnosis of autistic disorder along with satisfactory specificity. ADOS-G/ADI-R agreement was estimated as fair. Our results confirm the discriminant validity of ADI-R and ADOS-G in diagnosing pervasive developmental disorders in children and adolescents with a wide range of intellectual abilities.

  13. [Parenting stress and the reliability of parental information in the diagnostics of children and adolescents with symptoms of psychiatric and behavioral disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlbauer-Müller, Viktoria; Eichler, Anna; Stemmler, Mark; Moll, Gunther H; Kratz, Oliver

    2017-07-01

    Information from parents is regularly used in the diagnostic process of children and adolescents with psychiatric symptoms. But the reliability of this information is debatable, because the parents’ own stress can distort their perceptions of the child’s symptoms. For each of N = 68 children and adolescents (11–18 years) who were using mental health services for the first time, we evaluated the ratings of a parent and a professional clinician (internalizing, externalizing symptoms, total-problem score). In addition, parenting stress was scored on the Eltern-Belastungs-Inventars (EBI, Tröster, 2011), which measures both child-related stress and parent-related stress as well as total stress. Highly stressed parent ratings differed more from the clinicians’ ratings than the ratings of less stressed parents. Additionally, correlations showed that higher parenting stress resulted in larger differences between the parent’s and the clinician’s assessments. Multiple regressions proved the predictive value of child-caused parenting stress for these differences. These results apply for internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and total-problem score. Parenting stress should be evaluated systematically in order to carefully assess the value of the information from parents and to determine how it should be included in diagnostic and therapeutical decisions.

  14. ASD Symptom Severity in Adolescence of Individuals Diagnosed with PDD-NOS in Childhood: Stability and the Relation with Psychiatric Comorbidity and Societal Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, A.; Eussen, M. L. J. M.; Van der Ende, J.; de Nijs, P. F. A.; Van Gool, A. R.; Dekker, L. P.; Verheij, C.; Verheij, F.; Verhulst, F. C.; Greaves-Lord, K.

    2015-01-01

    The current 7-year follow-up study investigated: (1) the stability of ASD severity, and (2) associations of ASD severity in adolescence with (a) childhood and concurrent psychiatric comorbidity, and (b) concurrent societal functioning. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children were…

  15. Morbidity of "DSM-IV" Axis I Disorders in Patients with Noncardiac Chest Pain: Psychiatric Morbidity Linked with Increased Pain and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kamila S.; Raffa, Susan D.; Jakle, Katherine R.; Stoddard, Jill A.; Barlow, David H.; Brown, Timothy A.; Covino, Nicholas A.; Ullman, Edward; Gervino, Ernest V.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined current and lifetime psychiatric morbidity, chest pain, and health care utilization in 229 patients with noncardiac chest pain (NCCP), angina-like pain in the absence of cardiac etiology. Diagnostic interview findings based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed.; "DSM-IV"; American…

  16. Complex Psychiatric Comorbidity of Treatment-Seeking Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Anxiety Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Susan L.; Stern, Jessica A.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Kimel, Lila K.; Reaven, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examines the complexity of psychiatric comorbidity in treatment-seeking youth with ASD and anxiety symptoms. Forty-two parents of youth with ASD and anxiety (ages 8-14) completed a structured diagnostic interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version). Youth…

  17. Cultural adaptation of the Latin American version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI) (v 3.0) for use in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Morán-Sánchez, Inés; Alonso, Jordi; Tormo, Ma José; Pujalte, Ma Luisa; Garriga, Ascensión; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Navarro, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    To develop a Spanish version of the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI) applicable to Spain, through cultural adaptation of its most recent Latin American (LA v 20.0) version. A 1-week training course on the WHO-CIDI was provided by certified trainers. An expert panel reviewed the LA version, identified words or expressions that needed to be adapted to the cultural or linguistic norms for Spain, and proposed alternative expressions that were agreed on through consensus. The entire process was supervised and approved by a member of the WHO-CIDI Editorial Committee. The changes were incorporated into a Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI) format and the feasibility and administration time were pilot tested in a convenience sample of 32 volunteers. A total of 372 questions were slightly modified (almost 7% of approximately 5000 questions in the survey) and incorporated into the CAPI version of the WHO-CIDI. Most of the changes were minor - but important - linguistic adaptations, and others were related to specific Spanish institutions and currency. In the pilot study, the instrument's mean completion administration time was 2h and 10min, with an interquartile range from 1.5 to nearly 3h. All the changes made were tested and officially approved. The Latin American version of the WHO-CIDI was successfully adapted and pilot-tested in its computerized format and is now ready for use in Spain. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic validity of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register: findings from a cohort sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Shelagh; Koch, Susanne V; Crowley, James J; Matthiesen, Manuel; Grice, Dorothy E; Thomsen, Per H; Parner, E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Employing national registers for research purposes depends on a high diagnostic validity. The aim of the present study was to examine the diagnostic validity of recorded diagnoses of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). Design Review of patient journals selected randomly through the DPCR. Method One hundred cases of OCD were randomly selected from DPCR. Using a predefined coding scheme based on the Children’s Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS), experienced research nurse or child and adolescent psychiatrists assessed each journal to determine the presence/absence of OCD diagnostic criteria. The detailed assessments were reviewed by two senior child and adolescent psychiatrists to determine if diagnostic criteria were met. Primary outcome measurements Positive predictive value (PPV) was used as the primary outcome measurement. Results A total of 3462 children/adolescents received an OCD diagnosis as the main diagnosis between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2015. The average age at diagnosis was 13.21±2.89 years. The most frequent registered OCD subcode was the combined diagnosis DF42.2. Of the 100 cases we examined, 35 had at least one registered comorbidity. For OCD, the PPV was good (PPV 0.85). Excluding journals with insufficient information, the PPV was 0.96. For the subcode F42.2 the PPV was 0.77. The inter-rater reliability was 0.94. The presence of the CYBOCS in the journal significantly increased the PPV for the OCD diagnosis altogether and for the subcode DF42.2. Conclusion The validity and reliability of International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes for OCD in the DPCR is generally high. The subcodes for predominant obsessions/predominant compulsions are less certain and should be used with caution. The results apply for both children and adolescents and for both older and more recent cases. Altogether, the study suggests that there is a high validity of

  19. Diagnostic validity of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register: findings from a cohort sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Judith; Powell, Shelagh; Koch, Susanne V; Crowley, James J; Matthiesen, Manuel; Grice, Dorothy E; Thomsen, Per H; Parner, E

    2017-09-18

    Employing national registers for research purposes depends on a high diagnostic validity. The aim of the present study was to examine the diagnostic validity of recorded diagnoses of early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR). Review of patient journals selected randomly through the DPCR. One hundred cases of OCD were randomly selected from DPCR. Using a predefined coding scheme based on the Children's Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS), experienced research nurse or child and adolescent psychiatrists assessed each journal to determine the presence/absence of OCD diagnostic criteria. The detailed assessments were reviewed by two senior child and adolescent psychiatrists to determine if diagnostic criteria were met. Positive predictive value (PPV) was used as the primary outcome measurement. A total of 3462 children/adolescents received an OCD diagnosis as the main diagnosis between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2015. The average age at diagnosis was 13.21±2.89 years. The most frequent registered OCD subcode was the combined diagnosis DF42.2. Of the 100 cases we examined, 35 had at least one registered comorbidity. For OCD, the PPV was good (PPV 0.85). Excluding journals with insufficient information, the PPV was 0.96. For the subcode F42.2 the PPV was 0.77. The inter-rater reliability was 0.94. The presence of the CYBOCS in the journal significantly increased the PPV for the OCD diagnosis altogether and for the subcode DF42.2. The validity and reliability of International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes for OCD in the DPCR is generally high. The subcodes for predominant obsessions/predominant compulsions are less certain and should be used with caution. The results apply for both children and adolescents and for both older and more recent cases. Altogether, the study suggests that there is a high validity of the OCD diagnosis in the Danish National Registers. © Article author(s) (or

  20. Perinatal psychiatric episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Maegbaek, M L; Johannsen, B M

    2016-01-01

    and childbirth, which suggests differences in the underlying etiology. We further speculate varying treatment incidence and prevalence in pregnancy vs postpartum may indicate that the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 peripartum specifier not adequately describes at-risk periods......Perinatal psychiatric episodes comprise various disorders and symptom severity, which are diagnosed and treated in multiple treatment settings. To date, no studies have quantified the incidence and prevalence of perinatal psychiatric episodes treated in primary and secondary care, which we aimed...... psychiatric facilities, 2.5 births were followed by an episode treated at outpatient psychiatric facility and 12 births by GP-provided pharmacological treatment. We interpret our results the following way: treated severe and moderate psychiatric disorders have different risk patterns in relation to pregnancy...

  1. Estudo de validade da escala de sobrecarga de familiares cuidadores de pacientes psiquiátricos Burden of care in relatives of psychiatric patients: validity study of the Family Burden Interview Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bandeira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A sobrecarga de familiares cuidadores de pacientes psiquiátricos tem sido amplamente estudada por pesquisas internacionais, usando escalas validadas, mas raramente no Brasil, talvez devido à carência de escalas validadas deste construto. OBJETIVO: Esta pesquisa avaliou a validade da versão brasileira da escala Family Burden Interview Schedule (FBIS-BR. MÉTODO: Participaram cem familiares de pacientes psiquiátricos de três instituições psiquiátricas de Minas Gerais, entrevistados com aplicação de um questionário sociodemográfico e três escalas de medida: FBIS-BR, BI e SRQ-20. RESULTADOS: A validade de critério da escala FBIS-BR foi analisada pela sua correlação com a escala BI, já validada para o Brasil e que avalia o mesmo construto, obtendo-se correlações significativas, entre 0,23 e 0,69 (p Family caregivers burden has been frequently reported in international researches using validated scales, but rarely in Brazil, perhaps due to the restrict availability of burden scales. OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the validity of the Brazilian version of the Family Burden Interview Schedule (FBIS-BR. METHOD: A sample of 100 family caregivers of psychiatric patients attending three public outpatient services were interviewed with the application of three scales: FBIS-BR, BI and SRQ-20. Socio-demographic data were collected with a standardized form. RESULTS: Criterion validity of the FBIS-BR scale was investigated analyzing its correlation with the BI scale, which evaluates the same construct of family burden and the significant scores obtained varied between 0.23 e 0.69 (p<0.01. The construct validity of the FBIS-BR scale was evaluated analyzing its correlation with the SRQ-20 scale, which evaluates a different but related construct of psychological disturbance, and the significant scores obtained varied between 0.31 e 0.49. CONCLUSION: The FBIS-BR scale has good criterion and construct validity indicators to evaluate family

  2. Culture and Psychiatric Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, a number of components related to psychiatric diagnosis have come under criticism for their inaccuracies and inadequacies. Neurobiologists and anthropologists have particularly criticized the rigidity of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopat...

  3. Differential diagnosis between dementia and psychiatric disorders: Diagnostic criteria and supplementary exams. Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Cássio M C; de Pádua, Analuiza Camozzato; Smid, Jerusa; Areza-Fegyveres, Renata; Novaretti, Tânia; Bahia, Valeria S

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology published recommendations for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease These recommendations were updated following a review of evidence retrieved from national and international studies held on PUBMED, SCIELO and LILACS medical databases. The main aims of this review article are as follows: 1) to present the evidence found on Brazilian (LILACS, SCIELO) and International (MEDLINE) databases from articles published up to May 2011, on the differential diagnosis of these psychiatric disorders and dementia, with special focus on Dementia due to Alzheimer's and vascular dementia, including a review of supplementary exams which may facilitate the diagnostic process; and2) to propose recommendations for use by clinicians and researchers involved in diagnosing patients with dementia. Differential diagnosis between dementia and other neuropsychiatric disorders should always include assessments for depression, delirium, and use of psychoactive substances, as well as investigate the use of benzodiazepines, anti-epileptics and pattern of alcohol consumption.

  4. Differential diagnosis between dementia and psychiatric disorders: Diagnostic criteria and supplementary exams Recommendations of the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio M.C. Bottino

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2005, the Scientific Department of Cognitive Neurology and Aging of the Brazilian Academy of Neurology published recommendations for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease These recommendations were updated following a review of evidence retrieved from national and international studies held on PUBMED, SCIELO and LILACS medical databases. The main aims of this review article are as follows: 1 to present the evidence found on Brazilian (LILACS, SCIELO and International (MEDLINE databases from articles published up to May 2011, on the differential diagnosis of these psychiatric disorders and dementia, with special focus on Dementia due to Alzheimer's and vascular dementia, including a review of supplementary exams which may facilitate the diagnostic process; and 2 to propose recommendations for use by clinicians and researchers involved in diagnosing patients with dementia. Differential diagnosis between dementia and other neuropsychiatric disorders should always include assessments for depression, delirium, and use of psychoactive substances, as well as investigate the use of benzodiazepines, anti-epileptics and pattern of alcohol consumption.

  5. Children of low-income depressed mothers: psychiatric disorders and social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, Adriana; Alonso, Angelique; Tang, Min; Liriano, Wanda; Warner, Virginia; Pilowsky, Daniel; Barranco, Eva; Wang, Yanping; Verdeli, Helena; Wickramaratne, Priya; Weissman, Myrna M

    2009-01-01

    Although several studies have documented a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children of depressed than nondepressed parents, previous research was conducted in predominantly White, middle, or upper-middle class populations. Only limited information is available on psychiatric disorders and psychosocial functioning in children of low-income depressed mothers. We report the findings in children of mothers with and without a lifetime history of major depressive disorder, who were recruited from a large urban primary-care practice. Bilingual clinical interviewers assessed 58 children with structured diagnostic interviews administered to most children (90%) and to their mothers as informants. Diagnostic assessments and best estimate diagnoses of the children were blind to the mothers' diagnostic status. The families were poor and predominantly Hispanic, more than half of them headed by single mothers. After adjusting for child age and gender, and for any possible sibling correlation, children of depressed mothers had significantly higher rates of lifetime depressive, separation anxiety, oppositional defiant, and any psychiatric disorders than children of control mothers, with a lifetime prevalence of any psychiatric disorder of 84.6 versus 50.0%, respectively. Children of depressed mothers also reported significantly lower psychosocial functioning and had higher rates of psychiatric treatment. We conclude that the risk for psychiatric disorders may be particularly high in children of low-income depressed mothers. The primary-care setting offers a unique opportunity for early intervention with this underserved group. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. The mood disorder questionnaire improves recognition of bipolar disorder in psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isometsä, Erkki; Suominen, Kirsi; Mantere, Outi; Valtonen, Hanna; Leppämäki, Sami; Pippingsköld, Marita; Arvilommi, Petri

    2003-07-10

    We investigated our translation of The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder in a psychiatric setting in Finland. In a pilot study for the Jorvi Bipolar Study (JoBS), 109 consecutive non-schizophrenic psychiatric out- and inpatients in Espoo, Finland, were screened for bipolar disorder using the Finnish translation of the MDQ, and 38 of them diagnostically interviewed with the SCID. Forty subjects (37%) were positive in the MDQ screen. In the SCID interview, twenty patients were found to suffer from bipolar disorder, of whom seven (70%) of ten patients with bipolar I but only two (20%) of ten with bipolar II disorder had been previously clinically correctly diagnosed. The translated MDQ was found internally consistent (alpha 0.79) and a feasible screening tool. Bipolar disorder, particularly type II, remains commonly unrecognized in psychiatric settings. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire is a feasible screen for bipolar disorder, which could well be integrated into psychiatric routine practice.

  7. A brief historicity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Issues and implications for the future of psychiatric canon and practice

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    Kawa Shadia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM of the American Psychiatric Association, currently in its fourth edition and considered the reference for the characterization and diagnosis of mental disorders, has undergone various developments since its inception in the mid-twentieth century. With the fifth edition of the DSM presently in field trials for release in 2013, there is renewed discussion and debate over the extent of its relative successes - and shortcomings - at iteratively incorporating scientific evidence on the often ambiguous nature and etiology of mental illness. Given the power that the DSM has exerted both within psychiatry and society at large, this essay seeks to analyze variations in content and context of various editions of the DSM, address contributory influences and repercussion of such variations on the evolving landscape of psychiatry as discipline and practice over the past sixty years. Specifically, we document major modifications in the definition, characterization, and classification of mental disorders throughout successive editions of the DSM, in light of shifting trends in the conceptualization of psychopathology within evolving schools of thought in psychiatry, and in the context of progress in behavioral and psychopharmacological therapeutics over time. We touch upon the social, political, and financial environments in which these changes took places, address the significance of these changes with respect to the legitimacy (and legitimization of what constitutes mental illness and health, and examine the impact and implications of these changes on psychiatric practice, research, and teaching. We argue that problematic issues in psychiatry, arguably reflecting the large-scale adoption of the DSM, may be linked to difficulties in formulating a standardized nosology of psychopathology. In this light, we highlight 1 issues relating to attempts to align the DSM with the medical model, with regard to

  8. Virtual Reality Objectifies the Diagnosis of Psychiatric Disorders: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bennekom, Martine J; de Koning, Pelle P; Denys, Damiaan

    2017-01-01

    To date, a diagnosis in psychiatry is largely based on a clinical interview and questionnaires. The retrospective and subjective nature of these methods leads to recall and interviewer biases. Therefore, there is a clear need for more objective and standardized assessment methods to support the diagnostic process. The introduction of virtual reality (VR) creates the possibility to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, VR could contribute to the objectivity and reliability in the assessment of psychiatric disorders. In this literature review, we will evaluate the assessment of psychiatric disorders by means of VR environments. First, we investigate if these VR environments are capable of simultaneously provoking and measuring psychiatric symptoms. Next, we compare these measures with traditional diagnostic measures. We performed a systematic search using PubMed, Embase, and Psycinfo; references of selected articles were checked for eligibility. We identified studies from 1990 to 2016 on VR used in the assessment of psychiatric disorders. Studies were excluded if VR was used for therapeutic purposes, if a different technique was used, or in case of limitation to a non-clinical sample. A total of 39 studies were included for further analysis. The disorders most frequently studied included schizophrenia ( n  = 15), developmental disorders ( n  = 12), eating disorders ( n  = 3), and anxiety disorders ( n  = 6). In attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the most comprehensive measurement was used including several key symptoms of the disorder. Most of the studies, however, concerned the use of VR to assess a single aspect of a psychiatric disorder. In general, nearly all VR environments studied were able to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, in 14 studies, significant correlations were found between VR measures and traditional diagnostic measures. Relatively small clinical sample sizes

  9. Patients' Appraisal of Psychiatric Trainee Interview Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellsop, Graham W.; MacDonald, Joanna; El Badri, Selim; Menkes, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this pilot project was to explore the extent to which judgments made by psychiatrist examiners accord with those of patients in postgraduate clinical examinations, so as to inform further consideration of the role of patients in such assessments. Method: Senior psychiatrist examiners (N=8) and patients (N=30) rated 16 aspects…

  10. Psychiatric comorbidity as predictor of costs in back pain patients undergoing disc surgery: a longitudinal observational study

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    Konnopka Alexander

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric comorbidity is common in back pain patients undergoing disc surgery and increases economic costs in many areas of health. The objective of this study was to analyse psychiatric comorbidity as predictor of direct and indirect costs in back pain patients undergoing disc surgery in a longitudinal study design. Methods A sample of 531 back pain patients was interviewed after an initial disc surgery (T0, 3 months (T1 and 15 months (T2 using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess psychiatric comorbidity and a modified version of the Client Sociodemographic and Service Receipt Inventory to assess resource utilization and lost productivity for a 3-month period prior interview. Health care utilization was monetarily valued by unit costs and productivity by labour costs. Costs were analysed using random coefficient models and bootstrap techniques. Results Psychiatric comorbidity was associated with significantly (p  Conclusion Psychiatric comorbidity presents an important predictor of direct and indirect costs in back pain patients undergoing disc surgery, even if patients do not utilize mental health care. This effect seems to be stable over time. More attention should be given to psychiatric comorbidity and cost-effective treatments should be applied to treat psychiatric comorbidity in back pain patients undergoing disc surgery to reduce health care utilization and costs associated with psychiatric comorbidity.

  11. Psychiatric comorbidity as predictor of costs in back pain patients undergoing disc surgery: a longitudinal observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnopka, Alexander; Löbner, Margrit; Luppa, Melanie; Heider, Dirk; Heinrich, Sven; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Meisel, Hans Jörg; Günther, Lutz; Meixensberger, Jürgen; König, Hans-Helmut

    2012-09-03

    Psychiatric comorbidity is common in back pain patients undergoing disc surgery and increases economic costs in many areas of health. The objective of this study was to analyse psychiatric comorbidity as predictor of direct and indirect costs in back pain patients undergoing disc surgery in a longitudinal study design. A sample of 531 back pain patients was interviewed after an initial disc surgery (T0), 3 months (T1) and 15 months (T2) using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview to assess psychiatric comorbidity and a modified version of the Client Sociodemographic and Service Receipt Inventory to assess resource utilization and lost productivity for a 3-month period prior interview. Health care utilization was monetarily valued by unit costs and productivity by labour costs. Costs were analysed using random coefficient models and bootstrap techniques. Psychiatric comorbidity was associated with significantly (p chronic medical disease, the number of previous disc surgeries, and time and gender. Psychiatric comorbidity presents an important predictor of direct and indirect costs in back pain patients undergoing disc surgery, even if patients do not utilize mental health care. This effect seems to be stable over time. More attention should be given to psychiatric comorbidity and cost-effective treatments should be applied to treat psychiatric comorbidity in back pain patients undergoing disc surgery to reduce health care utilization and costs associated with psychiatric comorbidity.

  12. [The attitude of the general public towards (discharged) psychiatric patients: results from NEMESIS-2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Have, M; van Weeghel, J; van Dorsselaer, S; Tuithof, M; de Graaf, R

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands there is no up-to-date information about the attitude of the public to (discharged) psychiatric patients. Also, very little is known about which population groups hold stigmatising views. To measure the public's attitudes to (discharged) psychiatric patients and to find out whether these attitudes differ according to the background characteristics (e.g. demographics, respondent's psychiatric history). In our study we used attitudes collected via the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2, a psychiatric epidemiological study of the adult general population (n = 6646; aged 18-64 years). The psychiatric history of the respondents was assessed by means of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. More than 70% of the respondents stated that they had no objection to having a (discharged) psychiatric patient as a neighbour, friend or colleague. However, their ´willingness´ declined markedly, namely to less than 30%, when they were asked if they would be willing to have a (discharged) psychiatric patient as their son-in-law or baby-sitter. A comparison with other earlier Dutch studies indicates that since 1987 the willingness of members of the public to let (ex-)psychiatric patients participate in their private and/or family life has increased only very slightly. Nowadays, just as in past decades, most Dutch citizens are not opposed to living alongside (discharged) psychiatric patients, but they have reservations about letting such persons participate in their private and family life.

  13. Gender Differences in Psychiatric Symptoms among Methamphetamine Dependent Residents in Sober Living Houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcin, Douglas L; Buscemi, Raymond; Nayak, Madhabika; Korcha, Rachael; Galloway, Gantt

    2012-06-01

    Although psychiatric symptoms among methamphetamine (MA) dependent individuals have been studied in treatment programs, they have not been examined in services designed to support sustained recovery in the community (e.g. sober living houses). In addition, some disorders more common among women, such as somatoform and bulimia, have been understudied among MA dependent individuals. This study aimed to examine psychiatric symptom differences between MA dependent men and women who we entering sober living houses (SLHs). Two hundred forty five individuals were interviewed within one week of entering SLHs. Instruments included a DSM IV based measure for MA dependence, a psychiatric screen (the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire), demographics, recent substance use and recent use of services. Of the 245 participants, 103 men and 25 women met criteria for MA dependence. Womenwith MA dependence reported more psychiatric symptoms than men. They also trended toward reporting more psychiatric symptoms than non-MA dependent women. For men, psychiatric symptoms did not vary between those with and without MA dependence. Some understudied disorders (e.g., somatoform) had large proportions of women meeting the screening criteria. Additional research is needed on understudied psychiatric disorders that are common among MA dependent women. SLH's should consider ways to address psychiatric symptoms among MA dependent individuals, especially women. Strategies could include increasing linkages with professional mental health services as well as developing peer oriented strategies for managing symptoms.

  14. Diagnostic grammar and assessment: translating criteria into questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, L N

    1989-02-01

    There has been concern about whether standardized psychiatric interviews make valid diagnoses. Agreements between the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), as an example of a standardized interview, with independent assessments by a clinician are reasonably high in most studies, but the clinical assessment is itself of uncertain validity. Using predictive ability is an alternative way of judging validity. Data are presented to show that the DIS is almost as good at prediction as a clinician's assessment, but here too there are problems. Because prediction is probabilistic (i.e. the same disorder can have multiple outcomes, and different disorders can share outcomes), it is not possible to say how good prediction has to be to demonstrate perfect validity. Across varied methods of validity assessment, some disorders are regularly found more validly diagnosed than others, suggesting that part of the source of invalidity lies in the diagnostic grammar of the systems whose criteria standardized interviews evaluate. Sources of invalidity inherent in the content and structure of a variety of diagnoses in DSM-III and its heir, DSM-III-R, are reviewed and illustrated, in part with results from the Epidemiological Catchment Area study. The relationship between diagnostic criteria and standardized interviews is symbiotic. While attempts to adhere closely to existing diagnostic criteria contribute to the diagnostic accuracy of standardized interviews, the exercise of translating official diagnostic criteria into standardized questions highlights problems in the system's diagnostic grammar, enabling standardized interviews to contribute to improvements in diagnostic nosology.

  15. Are Trauma and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Connected to Psychiatric Comorbidity in Danish Pre-schoolers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schandorph Løkkegaard, Sille; Bonnemann Egebæk, Sarah Agnethe; Elklit, Ask

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the onset of seven psychiatric disorders and the amount of functional impairment in 80 preschool children (ages 1–6 years) following different kinds of traumatic events. Assessed via caregiver reports from an age-modified diagnostic interview, 46.3% of the children were identi...

  16. Psychiatric Symptoms in Childhood Wilson’s Disease: Case Reports

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    Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various psychiatric symptoms/signs have been identified since the identification of Wilson’s disease (WD. Every patient with WD suffers from one or more psychiatric problems (organic dementia, psychosis, and impulsivity across the disease course. Sometimes, insidious symptoms, such as behavioral changes, failure in school performance, and disturbances in hand-eye coordination may be seen before the onset of neurologic presentation. In this report, five patients, who were diagnosed with WD and followed up in the Child Neurology Unit, were assessed by a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4-based semistructured psychiatric interview (Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children. All patients had psychiatric symptoms. One patient had a history of a manic episode and the other had a history of a psychotic disorder at the initial stage of WD. Psychiatric symptoms coexist mostly with neurologic signs in patients with WD. In this sense, pediatric neurological consultation and copper screening are lifesaving in excluding organic etiology. However, WD is a lifelong treatment-requiring disease and psychiatric evaluation of the patients is essential.

  17. Psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nuaimi, Saleem; Aldandashi, Samer; Easa, Abdul Kadir Saed; Saqqur, Maher

    2018-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, the mental health status of physically injured Syrian refugees has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among physically injured Syrian refugees in Turkey receiving treatment at the main rehabilitation centre near the Syrian border. This is a cross sectional study. Information was collected from consenting injured Syrian refugees at Dar-el-Shefa'a Hospital in Reyhanlı (Turkey) during a one week period in December 2012 and another one week period in August 2013. A clinical psychiatric interview was conducted to determine a diagnosis according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV-TR. A total of 40 refugees consented and completed a clinical psychiatric interview. All refugees in this study did not have a significant past psychiatric history. The most prevalent current diagnosis was major depressive disorder (22.5%), adjustment disorder (20%), and post-traumatic stress disorder (15%). Five (12.5%) patients had no evidence of a psychiatric disorder. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among injured Syrian refugees in our study was extremely high. This may help guide the treatment and management of this select population. This study had a low number of participants. The method of assessment was not standardized with a validated tool. This study may help guide the treatment and management of this select population, both in neighbouring countries and as resettled refugees in Western host countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. STRESSORS, SYMPTOM PROFILE, AND PREDICTORS OF ADJUSTMENT DISORDER IN CANCER PATIENTS. RESULTS FROM AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY WITH THE COMPOSITE INTERNATIONAL DIAGNOSTIC INTERVIEW, ADAPTATION FOR ONCOLOGY (CIDI-O).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Bianca; Reuter, Katrin; Härter, Martin; Brähler, Elmar; Faller, Hermann; Keller, Monika; Schulz, Holger; Wegscheider, Karl; Weis, Joachim; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Koch, Uwe; Friedrich, Michael; Mehnert, Anja

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to investigate type and frequency of stressors, predominant symptom profiles, and predictors of adjustment disorders (AD) in cancer patients across major tumor entities. In this epidemiological study, we examined 2,141 cancer patients out of 4,020 screened with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, adaptation for oncology (CIDI-O). AD were operationalized as subthreshold disorders according to DSM-IV criteria. In our sample, 265 out of 2,141 patients (12.4%) met all criteria for AD (unweighted 4-week prevalence). The disclosure of the cancer diagnosis, relapse or metastases, and cancer treatments were most frequently described as stressors associated with depressive or anxious symptoms. With regard to AD symptom profiles, patients showed high prevalence rates of affective symptoms according to the DSM-IV criteria of Major Depression: The highest prevalence rates were found for cognitive disturbances (concentration and memory problems) (88%), sleeping disturbances (86%), and depressive mood (83%). We found sex, education, and metastasis as significant predictors for AD. Higher education was the most influential predictor. Men were half as likely to report symptoms fulfilling the AD criteria as women. Patients with metastasized tumors had a more than 80% higher risk of AD than those without metastasis. However, the explained variance of our model is very small (Nagelkerke's R² = 0.08). Patients with AD can be identified using a standardized instrument and deserve clinical attention, as they often show severe clinical symptoms and impairments. Improving the clinical conceptualization of AD by the adding-on of potential stress-response-symptoms is necessary to identify severe psychological strain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Avaliação de desempenho do Self-Reporting Questionnaire como instrumento de rastreamento psiquiátrico: um estudo comparativo com o Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Performance of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire as a psychiatric screening questionnaire: a comparativestudy with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maffasioli Gonçalves

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O SRQ (Self-Reporting Questionnaire é um instrumento de rastreamento psiquiátrico originalmente composto por 30 itens. A versão brasileira do SRQ-20 (versão com as 20 questões para rastreamento de transtornos mentais não-psicóticos foi validada no início da década de 1980. O objetivo deste estudo foi validar a versão brasileira do SRQ-20 e dos cinco itens de rastreamento de transtorno por uso de álcool oriundos do SRQ-30, comparando com entrevista psiquiátrica usando SCID-IV-TR (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR como padrão-ouro. O estudo foi conduzido em Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, com 485 indivíduos (54,8% mulheres, idade média 40,04. Os 5 itens de rastreamento de transtornos por uso de álcool mostraram sensibilidade baixa (66%. O SRQ-20 apresentou como ponto de corte ideal 7/8, com sensibilidade de 86,33% e especificidade de 89,31%. O poder discriminante para diagnóstico psiquiátrico do SRQ-20 foi 0,91. O coeficiente Cronbach alfa foi 0,86.The SRQ (Self-Reporting Questionnaire is a psychiatric screening tool that originally included 30 questions. The Brazilian version of SRQ-20 (a version that includes the 20 items for non-psychotic mental disorders was validated in the early 1980s. The objective of the present study was to validate the Brazilian version of SRQ-20 and the 5 items for alcohol-related disorders as compared to the SCID-IV-TR (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR as the gold standard. The study was conducted in Santa Cruz do Sul, a small town in southern Brazil, with 485 subjects (54.8% females, mean age 40.04 years. The 5 items for alcohol-related disorders showed low sensitivity (66%. The optimum cutoff value for SRQ-20 was 7/8, with 86.33% sensitivity and 89.31% specificity. The discriminant power of SRQ-20 for psychiatric screening was 0.9, and Cronbach's alpha was 0.86.

  20. [Qualitative methods in psychiatric research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorski, Claudia; Glaesmer, Heide

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the usage of qualitative methods in psychiatric research and presents the qualitative approach in more detail. Recent original empirical work of a German psychiatric journal was systematically reviewed. Methods used to collect and analyse the information are detailed. One third of the articles used a solely qualitative research design. One further article applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Three kinds of the qualitative interviews were used (in depth, narrative and problem-focussed interview). Additionally, focus groups (group discussions) and qualitative content analysis were applied by studies. Qualitative approaches are an integral part of psychiatric research. Further work should assure to use adequate sampling strategies.

  1. Co-occurrence of psychiatric and medical morbidity in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, L G; Tessler, R C; Nycz, G R

    1983-02-01

    This study examines the co-occurrence of psychiatric and medical morbidity in primary care patients utilizing a health care clinic in Marshfield, Wisconsin. Previous research has shown that individuals with psychiatric disorders have higher rates of medical illness than people without psychiatric illness, but most prior studies have tended to confound the measures of psychiatric and medical morbidity. In addition, appropriate controls for bias resulting from different medical utilization patterns have sometimes been absent. The present study reports the medical diagnoses of persons who had been assessed for psychiatric disorder with a standardized psychiatric interview using research diagnostic criteria independent of their medical assessment. Psychiatric diagnoses are analyzed in relation to medical diagnoses at the time of the interview and for a one-year period--six months before and six months after that date. The results indicate that persons with mental disorder diagnoses have significantly more morbidity for the one-year study period. Although considerable congruence exists in the physical diagnoses recorded for both groups, those with mental disorders are more likely to have diagnoses of the digestive and genitourinary systems. Some sex differences are also explored.

  2. Do psychiatric disorders continue during pregnancy in women with hyperemesis gravidarum: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annagür, Bilge Burçak; Tazegül, Aybike; Gündüz, Sule

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to determine Axis I psychiatric disorders in women with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to follow up the course of psychiatric disorder and its association with nausea and vomiting (NV) during pregnancy. The study sample was composed of 47 patients with HG. Psychiatric interviews were conducted using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (SCID-I). Other psychiatric interviews were performed in the second and third trimesters. On each visit, the subjects completed the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. The prevalence of any anxiety disorder was 25.5%, and the prevalence of any mood disorder was 14.9% in women with HG in the first trimester. Psychiatric disorders continued throughout the pregnancy in two thirds of the women who had HG and a psychiatric diagnosis. Any SCID diagnosis in the first trimester was higher in women whose NV had partially resolved than in women whose NV had fully resolved (Ppregnancy. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dissociative disorders in the psychiatric emergency ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Koyuncu, Ahmet; Ozturk, Erdinc; Yargic, L Ilhan; Kundakci, Turgut; Yazici, Ahmet; Kuskonmaz, Ekrem; Aksüt, Didem

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among emergency psychiatric admissions. Forty-three of the 97 consecutive outpatients admitted to the psychiatric emergency unit of a university hospital were screened using the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Seventeen (39.5% of the 43 evaluated) patients with a DES score above 25.0 were then interviewed with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the Structured Clinical Interview for Dissociative Disorders. Fifteen emergency unit patients (34.9% of the 43 evaluated participants) were diagnosed as having a dissociative disorder. Six (14.0%) patients had dissociative identity disorder, 6 (14.0%) had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, and 3 (7.0%) had dissociative amnesia. The average DES score of dissociative patients was 43.7. A majority of them had comorbid major depression, somatization disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Most of the patients with dissociative disorder reported auditory hallucinations, symptoms associated with psychogenic amnesia, flashback experiences, and childhood abuse and/or neglect. Dissociative disorders constitute one of the diagnostic groups with high relevance in emergency psychiatry.

  4. Screening for psychiatric morbidity in an accident and emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, G; Hindley, N; Rajiyah, G; Rosser, R

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and twenty A&E Department daytime attenders were screened for psychiatric disorder in a two stage procedure. Thirty-three patients were identified as General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 'cases' of whom 28 agreed to a psychiatric interview using the Clinical Interview Schedule. Twenty-eight GHQ 'non-cases' were also interviewed. A psychiatric diagnosis was made in 24 patients, 21 of whom were GHQ cases. Patients were more likely to suffer from psychiatric morbidity if the presenting...

  5. [Forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Tina Gram; Valbak, Lone; Perto, Gurli; Reinert, Kjeld

    2006-06-05

    In Denmark the number of forensic psychiatric patients is increasing. The objective of this study was to explore whether the increased number of forensic psychiatric patients has been reflected in the use of psychiatric inpatient facilities. Furthermore, we wanted to investigate differences in the treatment of various diagnostic groups of forensic patients and of forensic and non-forensic patients with schizophrenia. Information about admissions and outpatient contact was extracted from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register for all Danish patients sentenced to psychiatric treatment in the period 1994-2003. Furthermore, a group of first-admission forensic patients suffering from schizophrenia was compared to a control group of first-admission non-forensic patients with schizophrenia, matched for sex, age and time of admission. The number of forensic psychiatric patients increased markedly in the period 1994-2003; at the same time, the use of inpatient facilities for this group of patients did not increase to a similar degree but actually decreased. Forensic patients in the group F20-F29 spent more time in hospital than did forensic patients with affective disorders and personality disorders. Forensic psychiatric patients with schizophrenia had significantly longer periods of hospitalization than did non-forensic patients with schizophrenia. Forensic psychiatric patients' use of psychiatric inpatient facilities during the last 10 years did not increase to the extent expected relative to the increasing number of forensic psychiatric patients. This raises the question of whether these patients are receiving necessary and sufficient treatment.

  6. Psychiatric comorbidity in gender dysphoric adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2011-11-01

    This study examined psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with a gender identity disorder (GID). We focused on its relation to gender, type of GID diagnosis and eligibility for medical interventions (puberty suppression and cross-sex hormones). To ascertain DSM-IV diagnoses, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) was administered to parents of 105 gender dysphoric adolescents. 67.6% had no concurrent psychiatric disorder. Anxiety disorders occurred in 21%, mood disorders in 12.4% and disruptive disorders in 11.4% of the adolescents. Compared with natal females (n = 52), natal males (n = 53) suffered more often from two or more comorbid diagnoses (22.6% vs. 7.7%, p = .03), mood disorders (20.8% vs. 3.8%, p = .008) and social anxiety disorder (15.1% vs. 3.8%, p = .049). Adolescents with GID considered to be 'delayed eligible' for medical treatment were older [15.6 years (SD = 1.6) vs. 14.1 years (SD = 2.2), p = .001], their intelligence was lower [91.6 (SD = 12.4) vs. 99.1 (SD = 12.8), p = .011] and a lower percentage was living with both parents (23% vs. 64%, p 1.0 for all psychiatric diagnoses except specific phobia. Despite the suffering resulting from the incongruence between experienced and assigned gender at the start of puberty, the majority of gender dysphoric adolescents do not have co-occurring psychiatric problems. Delayed eligibility for medical interventions is associated with psychiatric comorbidity although other factors are of importance as well. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  7. Self-Esteem Deficits Among Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. After a detailed literature review, it was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. The sample of the present study consisted of 260 participants, who were further divided into two groups: clinical group (n = 140 and normal controls (n = 120. The age range of the participants in both the samples were 18 to 25 years (with the mean age of 22.14 years for psychiatric patients and 21.18 years for normal controls, and they belonged to middle socioeconomic status. The clinical group consisted of diagnosed psychiatric patients according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR criteria and further divided into four subgroups, including patients of (a schizophrenia (n = 40, (b major depressive disorder (n = 40, (c obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 40, and (d opioid dependence disorder (n = 20. The semi-structured interview form of Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. Descriptive Statistics and one-way ANOVA were applied to analyze and interpret the data in statistical terminology. Results indicate significant differences among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls on the variable of self-esteem (F = 30.513, df = 4, 255, p< .05. The finding has implications for clinical interventions and also suggests avenues for future research.

  8. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Jack; Peen, Jaap; Koelen, Jurrijn; Smit, Filip; Schoevers, Robert

    2008-01-17

    Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV) in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18-65). The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location. The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF) and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement). Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation. Higher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders). The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders) in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders. Psychiatric disorders are more prevalent among the inhabitants of more urbanized areas

  9. Psychiatric disorders and urbanization in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koelen Jurrijn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies over the last decade have supplied growing evidence of an association between urbanization and the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Our aim was to examine the link between levels of urbanization and 12-month prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders in a nationwide German population study, controlling for other known risk factors such as gender, social class, marital status and the interaction variables of these factors with urbanization. Methods The Munich Composite International Diagnostic Interview (M-CIDI was used to assess the prevalence of mental disorders (DSM-IV in a representative sample of the German population (N = 4181, age: 18–65. The sample contains five levels of urbanization based on residence location. The epidemiological study was commissioned by the German Ministry of Research, Education and Science (BMBF and approved by the relevant Institutional Review Board and ethics committee. Written informed consent was obtained for both surveys (core survey and Mental Health Supplement. Subjects did not get any financial compensation for their study participation. Results Higher levels of urbanization were linked to higher 12-month prevalence rates for almost all major psychiatric disorders (with the exception of substance abuse and psychotic disorders. The weighted prevalence percentages were highest in the most urbanized category. Alongside urbanization, female gender, lower social class and being unmarried were generally found to be associated with higher levels of psychopathology. The impact of urbanization on mental health was about equal (for almost all major psychiatric disorders in young people and elderly people, men and women, and in married and single people. Only people from a low social class in the most urbanized settings had more somatoform disorders, and unmarried people in the most urbanized settings had more anxiety disorders. Conclusion Psychiatric disorders are more

  10. Psychiatric correlates of HAART utilization and viral load among HIV-positive impoverished persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Adam W; Bangsberg, David R; Weiser, Sheri D; Chartier, Maggie; Dilworth, Samantha E; Riley, Elise D

    2011-05-15

    Research on the role psychiatric factors in HIV disease management has yielded discrepant findings, possibly because prior studies did not include comprehensive psychiatric screeners. This study administered a validated screener to examine psychiatric correlates of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) utilization and viral load. Community-recruited, HIV-positive impoverished persons provided sociodemographic information, completed a Diagnostic Interview Schedule that screened for psychiatric disorders, and provided a blood sample to measure HIV disease markers. In this cross-sectional investigation with 227 participants, a multiple logistic regression model examined correlates of HAART utilization compared to a reference group that was eligible for (i.e. CD4(+) cell count impoverished persons and boost the effectiveness of 'test and treat' approaches to HIV prevention.

  11. Cognitive impairment, psychiatric disorders, and problematic behaviors in a tribal nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jervis, Lori L; Manson, Spero M

    2007-04-01

    Residents' cognitive, psychiatric, and behavioral statuses were examined as part of a larger study of care in a nursing home (NH) owned and operated by a Northern Plains American Indian tribe. Reviews of 45 medical records and semistructured interviews with 36 staff were completed. Creekside residents had considerable psychiatric and behavioral morbidity. High prevalences of non-Alzheimer's disease dementia, cognitive impairment, anxious symptomatology, and resistance to care were met with psychopharmacotherapy, reorientation, and informal techniques for behavior management. Significant depressive, anxious, psychotic, and behavioral symptoms remained. Staff interpretations of resident problems consisted of an ethnopsychological schema emphasizing resident loneliness, grumpiness, and propensity to "fight" rather than formal psychiatric nosology. Tribal NH residents were likely underdiagnosed for dementia and anxiety. Residual behavioral and psychiatric symptomatology suggest room for improvement in the NH's behavioral management regimen. Need for greater attention to conceptual, diagnostic, clinical, and documentation processes in the NH setting is noted.

  12. Twelve-month psychiatric disorder among single and married mothers: the role of marital history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Pevalin, David J; Wade, Terrance J; Veldhuizen, Scott; Arboleda-Florez, Julio

    2006-09-01

    To examine differences between single and married mothers in the 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders. The analysis uses data from the National Comorbidity Survey, collected in 1992-1993, and focuses on women aged 15 to 55 years with children (n=1346). Psychiatric disorders are assessed with the University of Michigan Composite International Diagnostic Interview, a survey instrument based on DSM-III-R criteria. Compared with married mothers, previously married mothers have elevated rates of disorders. Prevalences among single mothers who were never married are similar to those among married mothers, but they are generally lower than prevalences among mothers who experience a marital disruption. These results indicate that marital separation and divorce may be markers for elevated risk for psychiatric disorder among women with children. It is important to consider the impact of marital history on the relation between family structure and psychiatric outcomes.

  13. Psychiatric disorders in preschoolers: continuity from ages 3 to 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Rose, Suzanne; Klein, Daniel N

    2012-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that many preschoolers meet diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders. However, data on the continuity of these diagnoses are limited, particularly from studies examining a broad range of disorders in community samples. Such studies are necessary to elucidate the validity and clinical significance of psychiatric diagnoses in young children. The authors examined the continuity of specific psychiatric disorders in a large community sample of preschoolers from the preschool period (age 3) to the beginning of the school-age period (age 6). Eligible families with a 3-year child were recruited from the community through commercial mailing lists. For 462 children, the child's primary caretaker was interviewed at baseline and again when the child was age 6, using the parent-report Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment, a comprehensive diagnostic interview. The authors examined the continuity of DSM-IV diagnoses from ages 3 to 6. Three-month rates of disorders were relatively stable from age 3 to age 6. Children who met criteria for any diagnosis at age 3 were nearly five times as likely as the others to meet criteria for a diagnosis at age 6. There was significant homotypic continuity from age 3 to age 6 for anxiety, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder, and heterotypic continuity between depression and anxiety, between anxiety and oppositional defiant disorder, and between ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder. These results indicate that preschool psychiatric disorders are moderately stable, with rates of disorders and patterns of homotypic and heterotypic continuity similar to those observed in samples of older children.

  14. Timeline interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain and discuss timeline interviews as a method for doing life history research. It is a ‘how to’ article explaining the strengths and weaknesses of using a timeline when conducting qualitative interviews. The method allows the interviewee to participate...... in the reporting of the interview which may give raise to ownership and sharing of the analytical power in the interview situation. Exactly for this reason, it may not be the most appropriate method for interviewing elites or for conducting insider interviews where positionality can be at play. The use...... of the timeline should not lead the nterviewer or the interviewee to assume linearity and coherence; it is an rganising principle for the events. It provides an opportunity for linking the story with the wider social, political and environmental context during the interview. hile the method is very suitable...

  15. ASD, a Psychiatric Disorder, or Both? Psychiatric Diagnoses in Adolescents with High-Functioning ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazefsky, Carla A.; Oswald, Donald P.; Day, Taylor N.; Eack, Shaun M.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Varied presentations of emotion dysregulation in autism complicate diagnostic decision making and may lead to inaccurate psychiatric diagnoses or delayed autism diagnosis for high-functioning children. This pilot study aimed to determine the concordance between prior psychiatric diagnoses and the results of an autism-specific psychiatric interview…

  16. Zero Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Barbara A.; Frank, Austin C.

    1976-01-01

    Students who made an initial appointment for counseling but did not keep it are compared with students who kept appointments at a counseling center or psychiatric service. Impulsiveness appears to be the main characteristic distinguishing the "no shows" from the "shows". A few other differences were observed, especially for women. (Author)

  17. Perinatal problems and psychiatric comorbidity among children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Elizabeth B; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Among two large, independent samples of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), we examined associations between specific (maternal gestational smoking and drug use, early labor, low birth weight, and infant breathing problems at birth) and cumulative prenatal and perinatal risk factors and psychiatric comorbidity during childhood. Data from the (a) Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD, a randomized clinical trial with 579 children aged 7 to 9.9 years with combined-type ADHD, and the (b) Berkeley Girls ADHD Longitudinal Sample, a naturalistic study of 140 girls with ADHD (93 combined-type and 47 inattentive-type) who were first seen when they were 6 to 12 years old, were analyzed separately. In each sample, perinatal risk factors were assessed retrospectively by maternal report, and current childhood psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using maternal report on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Consistent findings across these two studies show that infant breathing problems, early labor, and total perinatal problems predicted childhood comorbid depression but not comorbid anxiety or externalizing disorders. These associations remained significant, in both samples, with control of family socioeconomic status (SES) and maternal symptoms of ADHD and depression. Results attenuated slightly with control of the number of child comorbidities plus SES and maternal symptoms. Accumulating evidence suggests that perinatal risk factors are important precursors of childhood psychiatric comorbidity and that the association between these risk factors and detrimental psychiatric outcomes cannot be explained by maternal psychiatric symptoms or SES during childhood.

  18. Narrative interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Claire; Kirkpatrick, Susan

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Narrative interviews place the people being interviewed at the heart of a research study. They are a means of collecting people's own stories about their experiences of health and illness. Narrative interviews can help researchers to better understand people's experiences and behaviours. Narratives may come closer to representing the context and integrity of people's lives than more quantitative means of research. Methodology Researchers using narrative interview techniques do not set out with a fixed agenda, rather they tend to let the interviewee control the direction, content and pace of the interview. The paper describes the interview process and the suggested approach to analysis of narrative interviews, We draw on the example from a study that used series of narrative interviews about people's experiences of taking antidepressants. Limitations Some people may find it particularly challenging to tell their story to a researcher in this way rather than be asked a series of questions like in a television or radio interview. Narrative research like all qualitative research does not set out to be generalisable and may only involve a small set of interviews.

  19. The quality and diagnostic value of open narratives in verbal autopsy: a mixed-methods analysis of partnered interviews from Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. King

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA, the process of interviewing a deceased’s family or caregiver about signs and symptoms leading up to death, employs tools that ask a series of closed questions and can include an open narrative where respondents give an unprompted account of events preceding death. The extent to which an individual interviewer, who generally does not interpret the data, affects the quality of this data, and therefore the assigned cause of death, is poorly documented. We aimed to examine inter-interviewer reliability of open narrative and closed question data gathered during VA interviews. Methods During the introduction of VA data collection, as part of a larger study in Mchinji district, Malawi, we conducted partner interviews whereby two interviewers independently recorded open narrative and closed questions during the same interview. Closed questions were collected using a smartphone application (mobile-InterVA and open narratives using pen and paper. We used mixed methods of analysis to evaluate the differences between recorded responses to open narratives and closed questions, causes of death assigned, and additional information gathered by open narrative. Results Eighteen partner interviews were conducted, with complete data for 11 pairs. Comparing closed questions between interviewers, the median number of differences was 1 (IQR: 0.5–3.5 of an average 65 answered; mean inter-interviewer concordance was 92 % (IQR: 92–99 %. Discrepancies in open narratives were summarized in five categories: demographics, history and care-seeking, diagnoses and symptoms, treatment and cultural. Most discrepancies were seen in the reporting of diagnoses and symptoms (e.g., malaria diagnosis; only one pair demonstrated no clear differences. The average number of clinical symptoms reported was 9 in open narratives and 20 in the closed questions. Open narratives contained additional information on health seeking and social issues

  20. Sociodemographic and psychiatric diagnostic predictors of 3-year incidence of DSM-IV substance use disorders among men and women in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Risë B; Smith, Sharon M; Dawson, Deborah A; Grant, Bridget F

    2015-12-01

    Incidence rates of alcohol and drug use disorders (AUDs and DUDs) are consistently higher in men than women, but information on whether sociodemographic and psychiatric diagnostic predictors of AUD and DUD incidence differ by sex is limited. Using data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, sex-specific 3-year incidence rates of AUDs and DUDs among United States adults were compared by sociodemographic variables and baseline psychiatric disorders. Sex-specific logistic regression models estimated odds ratios for prediction of incident AUDs and DUDs, adjusting for potentially confounding baseline sociodemographic and diagnostic variables. Few statistically significant sex differences in predictive relationships were identified and those observed were generally modest. Prospective research is needed to identify predictors of incident DSM-5 AUDs and DUDs and their underlying mechanisms, including whether there is sex specificity by developmental phase, in the role of additional comorbidity in etiology and course, and in outcomes of prevention and treatment. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Implementing the K-SADS-PL as a standard diagnostic tool: Effects on clinical diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuschek, Tina; Jaeger, Sonia; Stadelmann, Stephanie; Dölling, Katrin; Grunewald, Madlen; Weis, Steffi; von Klitzing, Kai; Döhnert, Mirko

    2016-02-28

    Diagnostic interviews are valuable tools for generating reliable and valid psychiatric diagnoses. However, little is known about the diagnostic effects of implementing such an interview into the standard diagnostic procedure of a child psychiatric clinic. Therefore, we reviewed discharge diagnoses of psychiatric patients (age: 8-12 years; combined sample of inpatients and day hospital patients) over two intervals before and after implementing the semi-structured diagnostic interview K-SADS-PL as a diagnostic tool during intake. Each interval was a two year period spanning from 2009-2010 (pre sample; n=177) and from 2012-2013 (post sample; n=132). The number of diagnoses per patient and the co-morbidity rate increased significantly in the post sample. Furthermore, the percentage of children with a nonspecific diagnosis "other mixed disorders of conduct and emotions" (ICD-10: F92.8) decreased significantly after using the K-SADS-PL. Regarding the main diagnostic categories, a significant increase in the number of anxiety disorders and stress-related and somatoform disorders was found in the post sample. The results suggest that implementing a semi-structured interview into the daily routine of child psychiatry may have a substantial impact on discharge diagnoses. Practical implications are discussed and ideas for future research are given. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Zinc deficiency is common in several psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Grønli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests a link between low zinc levels and depression. There is, however, little knowledge about zinc levels in older persons with other psychiatric diagnoses. Therefore, we explore the zinc status of elderly patients suffering from a wide range of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Clinical data and blood samples for zinc analyzes were collected from 100 psychogeriatric patients over 64 of age. Psychiatric and cognitive symptoms were assessed using the Montgomery and Aasberg Depression Rating Scale, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Clockdrawing Test, clinical interviews and a review of medical records. In addition, a diagnostic interview was conducted using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview instrument. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in patients with depression was compared with the prevalence in patients without depression, and the prevalence in a control group of 882 older persons sampled from a population study. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in zinc deficiency prevalence between the control group (14.4% and the patient group (41.0% (χ(2 = 44.81, df = 1, p<0.001. In a logistic model with relevant predictors, zinc deficiency was positively associated with gender and with serum albumin level. The prevalence of zinc deficiency in the patient group was significantly higher in patients without depression (i.e. with other diagnoses than in patients with depression as a main diagnosis or comorbid depression (χ(2 = 4.36, df = 1, p = 0.037. CONCLUSIONS: Zinc deficiency is quite common among psychogeriatric patients and appears to be even more prominent in patients suffering from other psychiatric disorders than depression. LIMITATIONS: This study does not provide a clear answer as to whether the observed differences represent a causal relationship between zinc deficiency and psychiatric symptoms. The blood sample collection time points

  3. Psychiatric disorders in myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Inés Ybarra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG. METHOD: Forty-one patients with MG answered to a structured psychiatric interview (MINI-Plus. RESULTS: Eleven (26.1% patients were diagnosed with a depressive disorder and 19 (46.3% were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Patients with dysthymia were older (p=0.029 and had longer disease duration (p=0.006. Patients with social phobia also had longer disease duration (p=0.039. CONCLUSION: Psychiatric disorders in MG are common, especially depressive and anxiety disorders.

  4. Clinical Interviewing with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.

    2012-01-01

    Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…

  5. Cardiovascular disease and psychiatric disorders among Latinos in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among Latinos and disproportionately impacts people with psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between CVD and psychiatric disorders among different Latino subgroups using a nationally representative sample. Latinos participants (N = 6359) were drawn from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. A structured diagnostic interview was used to determine psychiatric diagnoses for any past-year mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. A self-reported measure of physician-confirmed CVD was used. The relationships between CVD and psychiatric disorders among Latino subgroups were examined with logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographics, CVD-risk factors, and acculturation. CVD were highest among Puerto Ricans (12%) and Cubans (11%), followed by Other Latinos (7%) and Mexicans (5%). The relationship between psychiatric disorders and CVD differed by Latino subgroups. Significantly increased odds of CVD were found among Mexicans with any past-year mood and anxiety disorders, Puerto Ricans with any past-year psychiatric disorders, Cubans with any past-year mood and substance abuse disorders, and Other Latinos with any past-year mood, anxiety, and lifetime schizophrenia/psychotic disorders. The associations between CVD and psychiatric disorders are not uniform among Latinos. Efforts to address the need for health and mental health services must carefully consider this heterogeneity.

  6. Mood disorders in general hospital inpatients: one year data from a psychiatric consultation-liaison service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisei, Sandro; Pauselli, Luca; Balducci, Pierfrancesco Maria; Moretti, Patrizia; Quartesan, Roberto

    2013-09-01

    Mood disorders (MD) show higher prevalence among psychiatric disorders. As a matter of fact 10% of inpatients in non psychiatric health care structures are affected by MD. A consultation-liaison service bridges the gap between psychiatric and other medical disciplines and increases the cooperation in the context of care, improving the diagnostic process for all inpatients in medical wards. Our sample is composed of 1702 patients assessed from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2012 referred from the wards for psychiatric specialist evaluation in Santa Maria della Misericordia, Perugia, Italy. Each patient was assessed by a consultant psychiatrist performing a psychiatric interview leading to a diagnosis according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected and registrered in the clinical records. SPSS software (ver. 18) was used for data analysis. Chi-square test and T-student tests were performed as appropriate. A p-valueconsultation referral urgent status we found that 84% of requests needed to be seen within 24 h, most of them come from Emergency room. Statistically significant correlations can be found between the source of referrals, the reasons for the referrals, psychiatric care prior to the evaluation and the psychiatric disorder which was diagnosed during the assessment. Consultation-liaison service for MD in an italian general hospital is generally based on emergency/urgency referrals from the Emergency room for patients already assessed to mental care facilities by private or national health service psychiatrists.

  7. Childhood trauma, trauma in adulthood, and psychiatric diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick, Caron; Johnson, Jennifer; Kohn, Robert; Vicente, Benjamin; Rioseco, Pedro; Saldivia, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence rates of various psychiatric disorders in persons with first onset of a potentially traumatic event (PTE) in childhood, persons with first onset of a PTE in adulthood, and those with no history of a PTE in a representative sample of Chileans. The Diagnostic of Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (DSM-III-R), posttraumatic stress disorder, and antisocial personality disorder modules from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and modules for a range of DSM-III-R diagnoses from the Composite International Diagnostic Interview were administered to 2390 Chileans. The study found that exposure to a lifetime PTE was associated with a higher probability of psychiatric morbidity than no PTE exposure. A PTE with childhood onset relative to adult onset was related to lifetime panic disorder, independent of the number of lifetime and demographic differences between the 2 groups. Childhood interpersonal trauma compared with interpersonal trauma in adulthood was significantly associated with lifetime panic disorder, agoraphobia, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Our findings suggest that specific disorders are linked to interpersonal trauma and PTEs that occur in childhood rather than later in life. PMID:18243889

  8. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual’s mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State’s commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context—a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. PMID:25031047

  9. Social disorder and diagnostic order: the US Mental Hygiene Movement, the Midtown Manhattan study and the development of psychiatric epidemiology in the 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Dana; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2014-08-01

    Recent scholarship regarding psychiatric epidemiology has focused on shifting notions of mental disorders. In psychiatric epidemiology in the last decades of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, mental disorders have been perceived and treated largely as discrete categories denoting an individual's mental functioning as either pathological or normal. In the USA, this grew partly out of evolving modern epidemiological work responding to the State's commitment to measure the national social and economic burdens of psychiatric disorders and subsequently to determine the need for mental health services and to survey these needs over time. Notably absent in these decades have been environmentally oriented approaches to cultivating normal, healthy mental states, approaches initially present after World War II. We focus here on a set of community studies conducted in the 1950s, particularly the Midtown Manhattan study, which grew out of a holistic conception of mental health that depended on social context and had a strong historical affiliation with: the Mental Hygiene Movement and the philosophy of its founder, Adolf Meyer; the epidemiological formation of field studies and population surveys beginning early in the 20th century, often with a health policy agenda; the recognition of increasing chronic disease in the USA; and the radical change in orientation within psychiatry around World War II. We place the Midtown Manhattan study in historical context--a complex narrative of social institutions, professional formation and scientific norms in psychiatry and epidemiology, and social welfare theory that begins during the Progressive era (1890-1920) in the USA. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  10. Psychiatric Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sullivan, Patrick F; Agrawal, Arpana; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2018-01-01

    into biologically, clinically, and therapeutically meaningful insights. The emerging findings suggest that we are entering a phase of accelerated genetic discovery for multiple psychiatric disorders. These findings are likely to elucidate the genetic portions of these truly complex traits, and this knowledge can...... then be mined for its relevance for improved therapeutics and its impact on psychiatric practice within a precision medicine framework. [AJP at 175: Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future November 1946: The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia Franz Kallmann's influential twin study of schizophrenia in 691...

  11. Exploring risks and benefits of point-of-care tests for healthcare and self-tests for laypersons: an interview study assessing complementary expert perspectives on diagnostic lab-on-a-chip systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuecuekbalaban, Pinar; Schmidt, Silke; Kraft, Kathleen; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Muehlan, Holger

    2014-01-01

    A commercial breakthrough of point-of-care testing (POCT) and self-tests for laypersons (direct-to-consumer applications, DTC) is anticipated based on the advancements in the development of lab-on-a-chip system (LOC) technology. The aim of this study was to investigate risks and benefits of LOC based diagnostic devices for healthcare and private self-testers. Interviews with 22 developers/researchers of LOC technology and 10 technology assessment experts were conducted about the (a) need for, (b) benefits, and (c) risks of LOCs for healthcare and as DTC applications. A qualitative content analysis was conducted. Need for LOCs were seen mainly for healthcare, but not as DTC applications for fatal diseases. While benefits were seen mainly for healthcare and partially for DTC applications (e.g. faster diagnostics, more favourable diagnostics, POCT), risks were emphasised especially for DTC applications and less frequently for healthcare (e.g. various technical challenges, misinterpretation of test results, quality/reliability requirements). Medical expertise is the key imperative for the application of LOC based portable diagnostic devices in healthcare and particularly for self-testing. LOCs have to be designed to be easily operated and interpreted by self-testers. For healthcare, LOCs are envisaged to be a promising emerging technology with various benefits.

  12. Subjective anger and overt aggression in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Timothy; Dalrymple, Kristy; Chelminski, Iwona; Zimmerman, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The attention given to anger and aggression in psychiatric patients pales in comparison to the attention given to depression and anxiety. Most studies have focused on a limited number of psychiatric disorders, and results have been inconsistent. The present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project sought to replicate and extend prior findings examining which psychiatric disorders and demographic characteristics were independently associated with elevated levels of anger and aggression. 3800 individuals presenting to the Rhode Island Hospital Department of Psychiatry outpatient practice underwent a semi-structured interview to determine current Axis I (N=3800) and Axis II (N=2151) pathology. Severity of subjective anger and overt aggression within the past week were also assessed for each patient, and odds ratios were determined for each disorder. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine which diagnoses independently contributed to increased levels of anger and aggression. Almost half of the sample reported moderate-to-severe levels of current subjective anger, and more than 20% endorsed moderate-to-severe levels of current overt aggression. The frequency of anger was similar to the frequencies of depressed mood and psychic anxiety. Anger and aggression were elevated across all diagnoses except adjustment disorder. Anger and aggression were most elevated in patients with major depressive disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, post-traumatic stress disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, and cluster B personality disorders. Anger is as common as depressed mood and psychic anxiety amongst psychiatric outpatients, and problems with anger cut across diagnostic categories. Given the high prevalence of problems with anger in psychiatric patients, more research should be directed towards its effective treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors in psychiatrically referred young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sarah E; Liu, Richard T; Mernick, Lauren R; DeMarco, Mia; Cheek, Shayna M; Spirito, Anthony; Boekamp, John R

    2016-12-30

    Despite increased awareness of the prevalence and seriousness of mental health problems in early childhood, there have been few empirical studies of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in this age group. This study examined suicidal thoughts and behaviors in 360 preschool-aged children (ages 3 to 7 years) presenting to a psychiatric day treatment program. A semi-structured diagnostic interview (conducted with primary caregivers) was used to assess for child suicidal thoughts and behaviors and psychiatric disorders. Participating mothers also reported on their own psychological distress and family psychiatric history. Forty-eight children (13%) were reported to have suicidal thoughts and behaviors, with suicidal plans or attempts endorsed for 2-3% of the sample. Suicidal thinking and behavior was associated with older child age and with higher rates of concurrent depression, oppositional defiant disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder in univariate analyses, with age and depression remaining as significant predictors in a multivariate logistic regression model. Findings suggest that suicidal thoughts and behaviors are a significant clinical concern for young children presenting with early psychopathology, particularly depression, with implications for early childhood psychiatric assessment and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. ADHD severity as it relates to comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Rosleen; Dovi, Allison T; Lane, David M; Loveland, Katherine A; Pearson, Deborah A

    2017-01-01

    Comorbid diagnoses identified in pediatric samples have been correlated with a range of outcomes, including greater levels of emotional, behavioral, and educational impairment and the need for more intensive treatment. Given that previous research has documented high levels of comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), this study closely examines the relationship between parent-reported ADHD symptoms (i.e., Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Revised [CPRS-R]) and the prevalence of additional comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in a pediatric ASD sample (n=99). Regression analyses revealed that greater severity of ADHD symptomatology was significantly related to a greater number of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, as identified using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and adolescents, 4th Edition (DICA-IV). Additionally, more severe ADHD symptoms were also associated with higher levels of symptom severity on Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) syndrome subscales. Interestingly, increasing severity of ASD symptomatology, as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview, Revised (ADI-R), was not associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses or CBCL syndrome severity. Our study concluded that higher levels of ADHD severity-not ASD severity-were associated with a higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptomatology in school-age children with ASD. These findings may encourage clinicians to thoroughly assess ADHD symptomatology in ASD children to better inform treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Motivational interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H

    2013-01-01

    of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...

  16. Natural Disaster and Risk of Psychiatric Disorders in Puerto Rican Children

    OpenAIRE

    Felix, Erika; Hernández, Lino A.; Bravo, Milagros; Ramirez, Rafael; Cabiya, Jose; Canino, Glorisa

    2011-01-01

    We examined the persistence of psychiatric disorders at approximately 18 and 30 months after a hurricane among a random sample of the child and adolescent population (4–17 years) of Puerto Rico. Data were obtained from caretaker-child dyads (N = 1,886) through in person interviews with primary caretakers (all children) and youth (11–17 years) using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV in Spanish. Logistic regressions, controlling for sociodemographic variables, were used to study...

  17. Non-suicidal self-injury in Mexican young adults: Prevalence, associations with suicidal behavior and psychiatric disorders, and DSM-5 proposed diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjet, Corina; González-Herrera, Irene; Castro-Silva, Everardo; Méndez, Enrique; Borges, Guilherme; Casanova, Leticia; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2017-06-01

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) may lead to scarring, infection, accidental death and psychological distress. Little is known about NSSI in the general population of young adults in developing countries like Mexico. The current study examined the prevalence of any NSSI and each type of NSSI, the prevalence of meeting DSM-5 proposed criteria, and finally the association of NSSI with socio-demographic variables, suicidal behavior and psychiatric disorders. This study was conducted in a community sample of 1071 young adults between 19 and 26 years of age residents of Mexico City. The lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 18.56% with females having 87% greater odds. The 12-month prevalence was 3.19%. Only 0.22% of the total sample and 6.96% of those that self-injured in the past 12 months met full criteria proposed by DSM-5, in part due to the lack of reported impairment; 39.99% of those that self-injured reported impairment. Suicidal behavior commonly co-occurred with NSSI. All lifetime anxiety, mood, disruptive behavior and substance use disorders were associated with greater risk for lifetime NSSI whereas only 12-month depression and substance use disorder was associated with greater risk of 12-month NSSI. The cross-sectional nature of the study precludes conclusions of causality and directionality and the study excluded institutionalized and homeless young adults. NSSI is a concerning problem in young adults from Mexico City due to the important associations with all types of psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior. Because many who self-injure do not perceive impairment, they are unlikely to seek treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A1 Ain Community Psychiatric Survey. I. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Saleh, M T; Ghubash, R; Daradkeh, T K

    2001-01-01

    Psychiatric community studies are essential for the planning and development of psychiatric services, as well as being helpful in examining the socio-demographic correlates of mental disorders in a given community. Few such studies have been carried out to date in the Arabian peninsula. This paper forms part of a multipurpose community psychiatric survey conducted in A1 Ain in the United Arab Emirates. The findings regarding lifetime prevalence and psychiatric morbidity are reported. A total of 1394 (n = 1394) adults systematically sampled from Al Ain community were assessed with a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) as well with other instruments: the new screening psychiatric instrument, Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis 1 disorders (SCID) screening module. Lifetime prevalence and 1-week prevalence rates of mental distress as measured by screening instruments were estimated as well as the lifetime prevalence rate of CIDI ICD-10 psychiatric disorders. The sensitivity of the CIDI interview to correctly pick up distressed subjects, as well as those who had undergone previous treatment for a psychiatric disorder, was also calculated. Associations between socio-demographic risk factors and ICD-10 psychiatric disorder as well as with mental distress were also examined by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Overall lifetime prevalence of ICD-10 psychiatric disorder was found to be 8.2% (95% CI: 6.7-9.7), while the 1-week prevalence rate of mental distress as measured by the SRQ-20 was 15.6% (95% CI: 11.8-19.5) and the lifetime prevalence rate of mental distress as measured by the new screening instrument was 18.9% (95% CI: 11.5-25.9). The CIDI interview correctly picked up 42% of subjects who had received previous psychiatric treatment and 51% of the distressed. Mood disorders and anxiety (neurotic) disorders were more common in women and alcohol and substance use

  19. Virtual Reality Objectifies the Diagnosis of Psychiatric Disorders: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine J. van Bennekom

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo date, a diagnosis in psychiatry is largely based on a clinical interview and questionnaires. The retrospective and subjective nature of these methods leads to recall and interviewer biases. Therefore, there is a clear need for more objective and standardized assessment methods to support the diagnostic process. The introduction of virtual reality (VR creates the possibility to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, VR could contribute to the objectivity and reliability in the assessment of psychiatric disorders.ObjectiveIn this literature review, we will evaluate the assessment of psychiatric disorders by means of VR environments. First, we investigate if these VR environments are capable of simultaneously provoking and measuring psychiatric symptoms. Next, we compare these measures with traditional diagnostic measures.MethodsWe performed a systematic search using PubMed, Embase, and Psycinfo; references of selected articles were checked for eligibility. We identified studies from 1990 to 2016 on VR used in the assessment of psychiatric disorders. Studies were excluded if VR was used for therapeutic purposes, if a different technique was used, or in case of limitation to a non-clinical sample.ResultsA total of 39 studies were included for further analysis. The disorders most frequently studied included schizophrenia (n = 15, developmental disorders (n = 12, eating disorders (n = 3, and anxiety disorders (n = 6. In attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, the most comprehensive measurement was used including several key symptoms of the disorder. Most of the studies, however, concerned the use of VR to assess a single aspect of a psychiatric disorder.DiscussionIn general, nearly all VR environments studied were able to simultaneously provoke and measure psychiatric symptoms. Furthermore, in 14 studies, significant correlations were found between VR measures and traditional diagnostic

  20. The Association between Psychiatric Disorders and Quality of Life of Patient with Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Baiyewu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Quality of life (QOL assessment has been employed increasingly to evaluate outcome among patients with chronic medical conditions. Such assessment could be adversely affected by psychiatric disorders, co existing with such a medical condition. Method: A cross sectional study of 251 out-patients with diabetes mellitus was done at a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital using the Composite Diagnostic Interview (CIDI for psychiatric assessment and the World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief version (WHOQOL-BREF to evaluate the QOL. Results: Fifty (20% of the 251 respondents met the ICD-10 criteria for definite psychiatric diagnosis. Depression accounted for 9.6% while twenty-six (10.4% had anxiety disorder. Of the 35 respondents who performed poorly on the overall quality of life, 17(48.57% had psychiatric diagnosis; 9 were depressed and 8 had anxiety disorder. 39 (15.5% scored poor on the physical health domain. 21(53.8% of the 39 respondents with poor score had psychiatric diagnosis: 13 had depression while 8 had anxiety disorder. On domain 1 (physical health, 51 (20.3% scored poor. Twenty-eight (54.9% of the poor scorers had psychiatric diagnosis, 20 were depressed while 8 had anxiety. 51 (20.3% scored poor on psychological domain (domain 2 twenty-eight (54.9% of the poor scorers had psychiatric diagnosis, 20 of which were depressed while 8 had anxiety. 34 (13.5% scored poor on social relations (domain 3. 19 (55.9% of those who scored poor had psychiatric disorder and the diagnosis was depression. Conclusions: Physicians need to increase their surveillance of psychiatric co-morbidity in diabetes mellitus and collaborate with psychiatrists for a more effective liaison to improve the quality of life of patients with diabetes.

  1. Self-Esteem of 8-14-Year-Old Children with Psychiatric Disorders: Disorder- and Gender-Specific Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Stephanie; Grunewald, Madlen; Gibbels, Charlotte; Jaeger, Sonia; Matuschek, Tina; Weis, Steffi; Klein, Annette Maria; Hiemisch, Andreas; von Klitzing, Kai; Döhnert, Mirko

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the relation between global and domain-specific self-esteem and psychiatric disorders. A sample of 577 children aged 8-14 years was recruited via psychiatric hospitals and from the general population. Parents were given a diagnostic interview to assess children's psychiatric diagnoses (current/past). Parents and children completed questionnaires on child symptoms. Children completed a questionnaire on global and domain-specific self-esteem (scales: scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic performance and physical appearance, global self-esteem). Self-esteem of children with current psychiatric disorders was lower than that of healthy controls (η p 2 between 0.01 and 0.08). Concerning scholastic competence, social acceptance and global self-esteem, children with past psychiatric disorders scored also lower than healthy controls. Different current psychiatric disorders showed specific but small effects on dimensions of self-esteem (β between -0.08 and 0.19). Moreover, we found a gender × group interaction, indicating that girls with depressive and adjustment disorders were specifically impaired in their global self-esteem and perception of their physical appearance. Findings might help clinicians to focus on particular domains of self-esteem during the diagnostic process and to define adequate treatment goals.

  2. Dyspepsia in chronic psychiatric patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mookhoek, E.J.; Meijs, V.M.M.; Loonen, A.J.M.; Leufkens, H.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: We report on dyspeptic complaints among patients hospitalized in the long-stay ward of a general psychiatric hospital. Methods: A representative sample of the patients was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results: Eighty percent of the patients reported one or more

  3. Risk factors for bulimia nervosa: a controlled study of parental psychiatric illness and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumann, C E; Yates, W R

    1994-01-01

    Twenty five women with normal-weight bulimia nervosa were compared with 25 age- and weight-matched women without bulimia nervosa on measures of parental psychiatric illness. Case and control probands, as well as their parents, completed the Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria (FH-RDC) interview and a battery of self-report instruments. Case probands and controls were divided into two groups based on evidence for parental psychiatric illness. The assignment of parental psychiatric illness was made by (a) a positive parental history of alcoholism or depression from the FH-RDC; or (b) evidence of parental major depression, alcoholism, or personality disorder from the self-report measures. Parental psychiatric illness occurred significantly more frequently for case probands compared to the control probands (64% vs. 24%, odds ratio = 5.6, 95% Cl = 1.7-19.2). Parental psychiatric illness was also associated with parental divorce (Fisher's exact p = .023) and a trend toward lower ratings of paternal but not maternal relationship by case probands. This study suggests parental psychiatric illness may be a risk factor for bulimia nervosa and may contribute to environmental effects through increased rates of divorce and impaired paternal relationships.

  4. Annual Interviews

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Annex II, page 1, Section 3 of the Administrative Circular no. 26 (Rev. 5) states that "The annual interview shall usually take place between 15 November of the reference year and 15 February of the following year." Following the meeting of the Executive Board on 7 December 2004 and the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 19 January 2005, it has been decided, for the advancement exercise of 2005, to extend this period until 15 March 2005. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  5. Psychiatric aspects of dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, J S; Ford, C V; Rimoin, D L

    1976-02-01

    Sixteen adult dwarfs - 11 with achondroplasia and 5 with hypopituitarism - were studied by means of psychiatric interviews and psychological tests. There were no significant differences between the two groups; in general, the subjects had achieved a satisfactory life adjustment despite the stress of having bodies uniquely different from those of the general population. They had secure identities as "little people" and successfully used coping mechanisms such as a sense of humor and a pleasant interpersonal style. Male dwarfs tended to experience more emotional distress than female dwarfs.

  6. Structured Clinical Interviews and the Inferential Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigh, Philip A.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews history of psychiatric nosology and the use of interview data as a vehicle for formulating clinical inferences. Focuses on qualities of structured interviews as well as procedures for constructing these indices and methods for establishing their psychometric properties. Reviews practical and theoretical limitations relating to formal…

  7. Language, subjectivity and participation in psychiatric institutions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringer, Agnes

    psychiatric facilities in Denmark: an outpatient psychiatric long-term treatment clinic and a closed psychiatric ward. The applied methods are participant observation, interviews with patients and professionals and analysis of documents. Employing discursive and narrative approaches, the aim of the project...

  8. Child psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial impairment: relationship and prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, A; Rowe, R; Simonoff, E; Foley, D; Rutter, M; Silberg, J

    2001-09-01

    Relatively little is known about the relationships between psychiatric symptoms, diagnosis and psychosocial impairment. To examine these contemporaneous relationships and prognostic significance in a large general population sample. Symptoms of major depression, conduct and oppositional defiant disorders were assessed by interview in two waves of the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent behavioural Development (2800 children aged 8-16 years). Many children below the DSM-III-R diagnostic threshold, especially for depression, had symptom-related impairment, whereas many children reaching the symptom threshold for conduct and oppositional defiant disorders were little impaired. Impairment score was linearly related to symptom count, with no evidence of any additional impairment at the diagnostic threshold. For depression, only symptoms predicted later symptoms and diagnosis. For conduct and oppositional defiant disorders, impairment was additionally predictive of later symptoms and diagnosis. Impairment, in addition to symptoms, is important for both nosology and prognosis.

  9. Prolonged cannabis withdrawal in young adults with lifetime psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Fontaine, Madeleine; Nip, Emily; Zhang, Haiyue; Hanly, Ailish; Eden Evins, A

    2017-02-27

    Young adults with psychiatric illnesses are more likely to use cannabis and experience problems from use. It is not known whether those with a lifetime psychiatric illness experience a prolonged cannabis withdrawal syndrome with abstinence. Participants were fifty young adults, aged 18-25, recruited from the Boston-area in 2015-2016, who used cannabis at least weekly, completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to identify Axis I psychiatric diagnoses (PD+ vs PD-), and attained cannabis abstinence with a four-week contingency management protocol. Withdrawal symptom severity was assessed at baseline and at four weekly abstinent visits using the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale. Cannabis dependence, age of initiation, and rate of abstinence were similar in PD+ and PD- groups. There was a diagnostic group by abstinent week interaction, suggesting a difference in time course for resolution of withdrawal symptoms by group, F(4,46)=3.8, p=0.009, controlling for sex, baseline depressive and anxiety symptoms, and frequency of cannabis use in the prior 90days. In post hoc analyses, there was a difference in time-course of cannabis withdrawal. PD- had significantly reduced withdrawal symptom severity in abstinent week one [t(46)=-2.2, p=0.03], while PD+ did not report improved withdrawal symptoms until the second abstinent week [t(46)=-4.1, p=0.0002]. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms improved over four weeks in young people with and without a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. However, those with a psychiatric illness reported one week delayed improvement in withdrawal symptom severity. Longer duration of cannabis withdrawal may be a risk factor for cannabis dependence and difficulty quitting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Sensitivity and specificity between the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Version 3.0 (World Mental Health, CIDI) and the Standardised Clinical Evaluation version I (SCID-I) in a mental health survey of the city of Medellin, 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Gonzalez, Laura Elisa; Restrepo Bernal, Diana Patricia; Mejía-Montoya, Roberto; Bareño-Silva, José; Sierra-Hincapié, Gloria; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Marulanda-Restrepo, Daniel; Gómez-Sierra, Natalia; Gaviria-Arbeláez, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    In order to address the mental health problems of the Colombian population it is necessary to have diagnostic tools (local and international) that are valid, easy to apply, and comparable. To compare the sensitivity and specificity between the CIDI 3.0 and the SCID-I for major depressive disorder, bipolar I and II disorder, and substance dependence disorder. Cross-sectional study comparing the life prevalence of three mental disorders in 100 subjects using the CIDI 3.0 and the SCID-I. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. The two diagnostic interviews were performed that measured by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value with confidence intervals of 95%. The SPSS version 21.0 software was used for data analysis. The median age was 43.5 years, with an interquartile interval of 30 years. The highest sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) was observed for drug dependence diagnosis - with 80%, (95%CI, 34.94-100), and 98.46 (95%CI, 94.7-100), respectively. SCID-I and CIDI 3.0 showed different levels of sensitivity and specificity for the three disorders studied with: high for substance dependence disorder, moderate for bipolar disorder I and II, and low for major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. All rights reserved.

  11. A cross-sectional study about associations between personality characteristics and mental health service utilization in a Korean national community sample of adults with psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun; Seong, Su Jeong; Chang, Sung Man; Lee, Jun Young; Hahm, Bong Jin; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2017-05-05

    Personality traits are not only associated with psychiatric symptoms, but also with treatment seeking behavior. Our purpose was to examine the relationship between mental health service utilization and personality characteristics in a nationwide community sample of Korean adults. Of the 6022 subjects aged 18-74 years who participated in the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area study, 1544 (25.6%) with a lifetime diagnosis of any DSM-IV psychiatric disorder were analyzed. Diagnostic assessments were based on the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and personality constructs were measured by Big Five Personality Inventory-10. Of the 1544 participants, 275 (17.8%) had used mental health services. Multivariate analyses revealed positive associations between mental health service utilization and both neuroticism and openness, and an inverse association between mental health service utilization and agreeableness. These findings suggest that specific personality traits may have a role in treatment-seeking behaviors for mental health problems independent of the psychiatric disorder.

  12. Dissociative identity disorder in psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, A; Ghisalbert, D; Dimatou, S; Jin, C; Sethi, M

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to replicate reports of a high rate of dissociative identity disorder in psychiatric inpatients. Subjects were 100 randomly selected women, 16-50 years old, who had recently been admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital. Diagnoses were made by two interviewers through use of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. One percent (N = 1) of the interviewed subjects had dissociative identity disorder. Contrary to previous studies, the authors found a low rate of dissociative identity disorder, perhaps because of the different methodology used.

  13. Moral learning in psychiatric rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitvast, J E; Widdershoven, G A M; Abma, T A

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate moral learning in persons with a psychiatric disability who participated in a nursing intervention, called the photo-instrument. This intervention is a form of hermeneutic photography. The findings are based on a multiple case study of 42 patients and additional interviews with eight of them. Photo groups were organized within three settings of psychiatric services: ambulatory as well as clinical, all situated in the Netherlands. Data were analysed according to hermeneutic and semiotic principles. Two cases are presented. Findings show that voice and face are concepts that help to identify elements of moral learning in the rehabilitation process of persons with a psychiatric disability. During the process patients become more aware of their responsibilities towards themselves and others.

  14. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire improves recognition of bipolar disorder in psychiatric care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leppämäki Sami

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated our translation of The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder in a psychiatric setting in Finland. Methods In a pilot study for the Jorvi Bipolar Study (JoBS, 109 consecutive non-schizophrenic psychiatric out- and inpatients in Espoo, Finland, were screened for bipolar disorder using the Finnish translation of the MDQ, and 38 of them diagnostically interviewed with the SCID. Results Forty subjects (37% were positive in the MDQ screen. In the SCID interview, twenty patients were found to suffer from bipolar disorder, of whom seven (70% of ten patients with bipolar I but only two (20% of ten with bipolar II disorder had been previously clinically correctly diagnosed. The translated MDQ was found internally consistent (alpha 0.79 and a feasible screening tool. Conclusions Bipolar disorder, particularly type II, remains commonly unrecognized in psychiatric settings. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire is a feasible screen for bipolar disorder, which could well be integrated into psychiatric routine practice.

  15. Mental health of asylum seekers: a cross-sectional study of psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeren Martina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asylum procedures are known to be protracted, stretching to over ten years in many host countries. International research shows high levels of distress for asylum seekers. Little is known about actual psychiatric morbidity in this population, especially during the first few years postmigration. Methods The mental health status of two groups of asylum seekers was assessed: Group 1 (n = 43 had arrived in Switzerland 2.9 (SD 1.1 months prior to assessment, while Group 2 (n = 43 had arrived 15.5 (SD 3.2 months prior to assessment. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. Symptom severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, anxiety (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, depression (Hopkins Symptom Checklist, and pain (Verbal Rating Scale were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Postmigratory factors such as German language proficiency and social contacts were also assessed. Interviews were conducted with the assistance of trained interpreters. Results Four out of ten participants met diagnostic criteria for at least one DSM-IV disorder. Groups did not differ with respect to psychiatric morbidity or symptom levels. Major depression (31.4% and PTSD (23.3% were diagnosed most frequently. The number of experienced traumatic event types was highly correlated with psychiatric morbidity. Conclusions Psychiatric morbidity in asylum seekers in the first two years after arrival is high, with no indication of a decrease in mental distress over time. Traumatic experiences seem to play a major role in morbidity during this time. Considering the magnitude of clinically relevant distress, a short psychological screening upon arrival with a focus on traumatic experiences may be warranted.

  16. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  17. Preschool psychiatric disorders: homotypic and heterotypic continuity through middle childhood and early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsaas, Megan C; Bufferd, Sara J; Dougherty, Lea R; Carlson, Gabrielle A; Klein, Daniel N

    2018-01-16

    Many preschool-age children meet criteria for psychiatric disorders, and rates approach those observed in later childhood and adolescence. However, there is a paucity of longitudinal research examining the outcomes of preschool diagnoses. Families with a 3-year-old child (N = 559) were recruited from the community. Primary caregivers were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment when children were 3 years old (n = 541), and, along with children, using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime Version when children were 9 and 12 years old. Rates of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) decreased from preschool to middle childhood and early adolescence, whereas rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased. Rates of any psychiatric disorder and depression increased from preschool to early adolescence only. Preschoolers with a diagnosis were over twice as likely to have a diagnosis during later periods. Homotypic continuity was present for anxiety disorders from preschool to middle childhood, for ADHD from preschool to early adolescence, and for DBD through both later time points. There was heterotypic continuity between preschool anxiety and early adolescent depression, and between preschool ADHD and early adolescent DBD. Dimensional symptom scores showed homotypic continuity for all diagnostic categories and showed a number of heterotypic associations as well. Results provide moderate support for the predictive validity of psychiatric disorders in preschoolers. Psychopathology in preschool is a significant risk factor for future psychiatric disorders during middle childhood and early adolescence.

  18. Gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem among detained adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Lore; Colins, Olivier F; Vanderplasschen, Wouter

    2014-12-30

    Detained minors display substantial mental health needs. This study focused on two features (psychopathology and self-esteem) that have received considerable attention in the literature and clinical work, but have rarely been studied simultaneously in detained youths. The aims of this study were to examine gender differences in psychiatric disorders and clusters of self-esteem, and to test the hypothesis that the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem have higher rates of psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders was assessed in 440 Belgian, detained adolescents using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV. Self-esteem was assessed using the Self-perception Profile for Adolescents. Model-based cluster analyses were performed to identify youths with lower and/or higher levels of self-esteem across several domains. Girls have higher rates for most psychiatric disorders and lower levels of self-esteem than boys. A higher number of clusters was identified in boys (four) than girls (three). Generally, the cluster of adolescents with lower (versus higher) levels of self-esteem had a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders. These results suggest that the detection of low levels of self-esteem in adolescents, especially girls, might help clinicians to identify a subgroup of detained adolescents with the highest prevalence of psychopathology.

  19. Psychosocial and Psychiatric Factors Associated with Adolescent Suicide: A Case-Control Psychological Autopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portzky, Gwendolyn; Audenaert, Kurt; van Heeringen, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of psychosocial and psychiatric risk factors of adolescent suicide by means of a case-control psychological autopsy study. Relatives and other informants of 19 suicide victims and 19 matched psychiatric controls were interviewed by means of a semi-structured interview schedule. Psychiatric controls included…

  20. Psychometric properties of a sign language version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).

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    Øhre, Beate; Saltnes, Hege; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Falkum, Erik

    2014-05-22

    There is a need for psychiatric assessment instruments that enable reliable diagnoses in persons with hearing loss who have sign language as their primary language. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Norwegian Sign Language (NSL) version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The MINI was translated into NSL. Forty-one signing patients consecutively referred to two specialised psychiatric units were assessed with a diagnostic interview by clinical experts and with the MINI. Inter-rater reliability was assessed with Cohen's kappa and "observed agreement". There was 65% agreement between MINI diagnoses and clinical expert diagnoses. Kappa values indicated fair to moderate agreement, and observed agreement was above 76% for all diagnoses. The MINI diagnosed more co-morbid conditions than did the clinical expert interview (mean diagnoses: 1.9 versus 1.2). Kappa values indicated moderate to substantial agreement, and "observed agreement" was above 88%. The NSL version performs similarly to other MINI versions and demonstrates adequate reliability and validity as a diagnostic instrument for assessing mental disorders in persons who have sign language as their primary and preferred language.

  1. Prevalence and change in psychiatric disorders among perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed youth.

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    Mellins, Claude A; Elkington, Katherine S; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Santamaria, E Karina; Dolezal, Curtis; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mckay, Mary M; Abrams, Elaine J

    2012-01-01

    As the pediatric HIV epidemic in resource-rich countries evolves into an adolescent epidemic, there is a substantive need for studies elucidating mental health needs of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV +) youth as they transition through adolescence. This article examines the role of perinatal HIV infection in influencing mental health by comparing the changes in psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders (SUD) in PHIV + and perinatally HIV-exposed, but uninfected (PHIV -) youth over time. Participants were recruited from four medical centers in New York City. Individual interviews were administered at baseline and 18-month follow-up to 166 PHIV + and 114 PHIV- youth (49% male, age 9-16 years at baseline). Youth psychiatric disorder was assessed using the caregiver and youth versions of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Over two-thirds of participants met criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder at either baseline or follow-up, with few group differences. Among PHIV + youth, there was a significant decrease in the prevalence of any psychiatric disorder, as well as anxiety disorders specifically over time, whereas the prevalence of any psychiatric disorder among PHIV- youth remained the same and mood disorders increased. Rates of SUD were low in both groups, increasing slightly by follow-up. PHIV + youth reported more use of mental health services at follow-up. CD4 count and HIV RNA viral load were not associated with the presence or absence of disorder at either time point. In conclusion, among PHIV + and PHIV- youth, the rates of psychiatric disorder were high, even compared to other vulnerable populations, suggesting that factors other than perinatal HIV infection may be important determinants of mental health. PHIV + youth were more likely to improve over the observation period. The data underscore the critical need for mental health interventions for both PHIV + and PHIV- youth.

  2. Valuing psychiatric patients' stories: belief in and use of the supernatural in the Jamaican psychiatric setting.

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    James, Caryl C A B; Carpenter, Karen A; Peltzer, Karl; Weaver, Steve

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine illness presentation and understand how psychiatric patients make meaning of the causes of their mental illnesses. Six Jamaican psychiatric patients were interviewed using the McGill Illness Narrative Interview Schedule. Of the 6, 3 representative case studies were chosen. The hermeneutic phenomenological approach and the common sense model were used in the formulation of patients' explanatory models. Results indicate that psychiatric patients actively conceptualized the causes and resultant treatment of their mental illnesses. Patients' satisfaction and compliance with treatment were dependent on the extent to which practitioners' conceptualization matched their own, as well as practitioners' acknowledgement of patients' concerns about causation, prognosis, and treatment.

  3. Definitions and diagnoses: cultural implications of psychiatric help-seeking and psychiatrists' definitions of the situation in psychiatric emergencies.

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    Gaines, A D

    1979-12-01

    This paper explores lay and psychiatric actors' definitions of mental illness by focusing on several aspects of emergency psychiatric diagnosis. First, it considers psychiatric diagnosis as a social and cultural process in which mental illnesses are defined with increasing specificity as individuals move from lay to psychiatric contexts. Second, the paper considers variation in psychiatric residents' conceptions of mental illness, their role in emergency contexts, and lastly, their diagnostic styles. Diagnostic styles are shown to exist and to be grounded in residents' definitions of the situation. It is suggested that the variation in psychiatrists' definitions of the psychiatric situation, especially as regards etiology, plays a prominent, but as yet unnoted, role in producing variability in psychiatric diagnosis. It is also argued that actors' definitions are cultural, grounded in non-professional lay ideology, and are not products of secondary professional socialization.

  4. Accuracy of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 for diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder according to DSM-IV criteria Validade do diagnóstico de transtorno de estresse pós-traumático do Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 de acordo com os critérios diagnósticos da DSM-IV

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    Maria Inês Quintana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the accuracy of the post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD section of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1 DSM-IV diagnosis, using the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID as gold standard, and compare the ICD-10 and DSM IV classifications for PTSD. The CIDI was applied by trained lay interviewers and the SCID by a psychologist. The subjects were selected from a community and an outpatient program. A total of 67 subjects completed both assessments. Kappa coefficients for the ICD-10 and the DSM IV compared to the SCID diagnosis were 0.67 and 0.46 respectively. Validity for the DSM IV diagnosis was: sensitivity (51.5%, specificity (94.1%, positive predictive value (9.5%, negative predictive value (66.7%, misclassification rate (26.9%. The CIDI 2.1 demonstrated low validity coefficients for the diagnosis of PTSD using DSM IV criteria when compared to the SCID. The main source of discordance in this study was found to be the high probability of false-negative cases with regards to distress and impairment as well as to avoidance symptoms.O objetivo deste artigo foi estudar a validade concorrente da seção de transtorno de estresse pós-traumático do CIDI 2.1 critérios DSM IV, utilizando o Structured Clinical Interview (SCID como padrão-ouro, e comparar o diagnóstico de TEPT entre CID-10 e DSM IV. O CIDI foi aplicado por entrevistadores leigos treinados e o SCID por uma psicóloga. A amostra foi composta por sujeitos da comunidade e de um ambulatório de especialidade psiquiátrica. Sessenta e sete sujeitos completaram ambos os questionários. O coeficiente kappa foi de 0.46 ao comparar DSM IV com a SCID. A validade diagnóstica usando critérios do DSM IV foi de: sensibilidade = 51.5%, especificidade = 94.1%, valor preditivo positivo = 89.5%, valor preditivo negativo = 66.7%, taxa de classificação incorreta = 26.9%. O CIDI 2.1 apresentou valores baixos para os coeficientes de validação de TEPT

  5. The Stability of Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders: A 7 Year Follow Up of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder--Not Otherwise Specified

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    Verheij, C.; Louwerse, A.; van der Ende, J.; Eussen, M. L. J. M.; Van Gool, A. R.; Verheij, F.; Verhulst, F. C.; Greaves-Lord, K.

    2015-01-01

    The current study was a 7-year follow-up of 74 6-12 year old children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified. We examined the rates and 7 year stability of comorbid psychiatric diagnoses as ascertained with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children: Parent version at ages 6-12 and again at ages 12-20. Also, we examined…

  6. The relationship of functional pruritus with anger and associated psychiatric disorders

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    İlknur Kıvanç Altunay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Functional itch disorder is assessed among somatization disorders. Suppressed anger may play a role in the development of somatization and, thus, functional itch disorder. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship of severity of itching with anger, expression of anger and psychiatric disorders in patients with functional itch disorder. Materials and Methods: Forty patients who were diagnosed with functional itch disorder were enrolled into the study. Functional itch disorder was diagnosed according to the suggested diagnostic criteria from the French psychodermatology group. Pruritus severity was evaluated using the five-point Likert scale. The State-Trait Anger Expression Index was used to assess state anger, trait anger and anger expression and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I Plus 5.0.0 was used for determining psychiatric status. Results: A total of 40 patients (30 (75% females, 10 (25% males with a mean age 46.55±13.20 years were enrolled in the study. According to the results of the M.I.N.I., psychiatric comorbidities at the time of itching were existent in 29 (72.5% patients, whereas 13 (27.5% patients did not have any other psychiatric symptom. Pruritus duration was correlated with anger trait and anger-in subscale scores in all patients. (r=0.349, p=0.027, r=0.417, p=0.007, respectively. Trait anger and anger-out subscale scores were statistically higher in patients with psychiatric disorders (p<0.05. Anger control scores were also lower in this group. Pruritus duration was correlated with trait-anger and anger-in subscale scores in patients with psychiatric disorder. Conclusions: Functional pruritus (FP as a somatoform psychodermatologic disorder seems to be related with anger levels and anger management styles; and psychiatric disorders are frequently accompanied by functional pruritus

  7. Estimating the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders through a national health survey

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    Padoin Cintia V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children whose parents have psychiatric disorders experience an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders, and have higher rates of developmental problems and mortality. Assessing the size of this population is important for planning of preventive strategies which target these children. Methods National survey data (CCHS 1.2 was used to estimate the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders. Disorders were diagnosed using the World Psychiatric Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI (12 month prevalence. Data on the number of children below 12 years of age in the home, and the relationship of the respondents with the children, was used to estimate exposure. Parent-child relations were identified, as was single parenthood. Using a design-based analysis, the number of children exposed to parental psychiatric disorders was calculated. Results Almost 570,000 children under 12 live in households where the survey respondent met criteria for one or more mood, anxiety or substance use disorders in the previous 12 months, corresponding to 12.1% of Canadian children under the age of 12. Almost 3/4 of these children have parents that report receiving no mental health care in the 12 months preceding the survey. For 17% of all Canadian children under age 12, the individual experiencing a psychiatric disorder is the only parent in the household. Conclusion The high number of children exposed causes major concern and has important implications. Although these children will not necessarily experience adversities, they possess an elevated risk of accidents, mortality, and of developing psychiatric disorders. We expect these estimates will promote further research and stimulate discussion at both health policy and planning tables.

  8. Parental warmth and psychiatric disorders among Puerto Rican children in two different socio-cultural contexts.

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    Santesteban-Echarri, Olga; Ramos-Olazagasti, María A; Eisenberg, Ruth E; Wei, Chiaying; Bird, Héctor R; Canino, Glorisa; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2017-04-01

    Parental warmth (PW) has a strong influence on child development and may precede the onset of psychiatric disorders in children. PW is interconnected with other family processes (e.g., coercive discipline) that may also influence the development of psychiatric disorders in children. We prospectively examined the association between PW and child psychiatric disorders (anxiety, major depression disorder, ADHD, disruptive behavior disorders) over the course of three years among Puerto Rican youth, above and beyond the influence of other family factors. Boricua Youth Study participants, Puerto Rican children 5 to 13 years of age at Wave 1 living in the South Bronx (New York) (SB) and San Juan and Canguas (PR) (n = 2,491), were followed for three consecutive years. Youth psychiatric disorders were measured by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV (DISC-IV). Generalized Linear Mixed models tested the association between PW (Wave 1) and psychiatric disorders in the next two years adjusting for demographic characteristics and family processes. Higher levels of PW were related to lower odds of child anxiety and major depressive disorder over time (OR = 0.69[0.60; 0.79]; 0.49[0.41; 0.58], respectively). The strength of the association between PW and ADHD and disruptive behavior disorder declined over time, although it was still significant in the last assessment (OR = 0.44[0.37; 0.52]; 0.46[0.39; 0.54], respectively). PW had a unique influence on psychiatric disorders beyond the influence of other parenting and family processes. Stronger associations were observed among girls for depression and ADHD. Incorporating PW behaviors such as acceptance, support, and comforting into interventions focused on parenting skills may help prevent child psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Adult Psychiatric and Suicide Outcomes of Bullying and Being Bullied by Peers in Childhood and Adolescence

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    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Angold, Adrian; Costello, E. Jane

    2013-01-01

    Context Both bullies and victims of bullying are at risk for psychiatric problems in childhood, but it is unclear if this elevated risk extends into early adulthood. Objective To test whether bullying and being bullied in childhood predicts psychiatric and suicidality in young adulthood after accounting for childhood psychiatric problems and family hardships. Design Prospective, population-based study of 1420 subjects with being bullied and bullying assessed four to six times between ages 9 and 16. Subjects were categorized as bullies only, victims only, bullies and victims (bully-victims), or neither. Setting and population Community sample Main Outcome Measure Psychiatric outcomes included depression, anxiety, antisocial personality disorder, substance disorders, and suicidality (including recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, or a suicide attempt) were assessed in young adulthood (ages 19, 21, and 24/25/26) by structured diagnostic interviews. Results Victims and bully-victims had elevated rates of young adult psychiatric disorder, but also elevated rates of childhood psychiatric disorders and family hardships. After controlling for childhood psychiatric problems or family hardship, victims continued to have higher prevalence of agoraphobia (odds ratio (OR), 4.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7–12.5, p suicidality (males only: OR, 18.5; 95% CI, 6.2–55.1, p Bullies were at risk for antisocial personality disorder only (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.1–15.8, p bullied are direct, pleiotropic and long- lasting with the worst effects for those who are both victims and bullies. PMID:23426798

  10. Sleep in Children With Psychiatric Disorders.

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    Ramtekkar, Ujjwal; Ivanenko, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in pediatric psychiatric disorders and constitute key elements in diagnostic symptomatology of various primary psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, depression, and anxiety disorder. Although sleep is not included in key defining criteria of some impairing illnesses such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia, these disorders present with a very high prevalence of sleep disturbances. The interaction between sleep and psychopathology is very complex with significant interrelationship in development, severity, and prognosis of psychiatric disorders and comorbid sleep disturbances. The research ranging from small intervention case series to large epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the role of specific sleep complaints in specific psychiatric diagnoses. However, the research using objective instruments such as polysomnography and actigraphy remains limited in youth with psychiatric disorders. The intervention studies using pharmaceutical treatment specifically focusing on sleep disturbances in psychiatric disorders are also sparse in the pediatric literature. Early identification of sleep disturbances and behavioral management using cognitive behavior therapy-based tools appear to be the most effective approach for treatment. The use of psychotropic medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of primary psychiatric disorder often alleviate the psychological barriers for sleep but may lead to emergence of other sleep issues such as restless leg syndrome. The safety and efficacy data of hypnotics for primary sleep disorders are limited in pediatrics and should be avoided or used with extreme caution in children with comorbid sleep and psychiatric problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

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    Lin Hung-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.

  12. Psychiatric screening in the emergency department: validation of the General Health Questionnaire.

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    Gold, I; Haughey, L; Baraff, L J

    1985-09-01

    Both a 28-item psychiatric scale, the Goldberg General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) were administered to 25 emergency department patients to determine the validity of the GHQ as a screening instrument for psychopathology in the emergency department setting. There was a significant association (P = 0.0343) between GHQ scores and DIS assessment. The sensitivity of the GHQ in this series was 55.6% and the specificity was 87.5% when compared with the DIS. This suggests that the GHQ may prove to be a valuable screening tool for patients with somatic complaints to detect unsuspected psychiatric illness in the emergency department.

  13. Psychiatric and family functioning in children with leukemia and their parents

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    Goodarzi A

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports data from a cross-sectional investigation of the psychiatric and psychosocial functioning of 55 children diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia and their families at three points in time: diagnosis (newly diagnosed, 1 year postdiagnosis, and 1 year after the completion of chemotherapy (offtherapy. Results reveal minimal psychopathology in these children and their parents based on self-and informantreports and structured diagnostic interviews. These families appear to be functioning adequately and report more family cohesiveness and marital satisfaction after chemotherapy was completed. Coping strategies commonly used by children and their parents include problem solving, a positive outlook, and good communication. Implications for psychiatric consultation are presented.

  14. Tempo médio de hospitalização e categorias diagnósticas em hospital psiquiátrico Mean hospitalization time and diagnostic categories in a psychiatric hospital

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    José Carlos Souza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o tempo médio de hospitalização (TMH e os diagnósticos dos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Fez-se um levantamento documental dos registros de 2.247 prontuários de pacientes internados de janeiro a dezembro de 2004 em um hospital psiquiátrico. Foram investigados TMH, idade, sexo, procedência e grupos diagnósticos. Usaram-se medidas de tendência central e de dispersão, testes t de Student, de Kruskal-Wallis ou análise da variância, qui-quadrado e de Pearson. Adotou-se o nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Eram procedentes de Campo Grande (MS 59,8% dos pacientes, 65,5% eram do sexo masculino (p = 0,000 e 43,3% apresentavam diagnóstico de esquizofrenia; não houve diferença significativa na idade entre os dois sexos (p = 0,080. O TMH foi de 27,66 dias por paciente. Houve diferença significativa do TMH em função das características diagnósticas (p = 0,001 entre os três grupos de procedência (p = 0,045, ficando as cidades a mais de 200 km de Campo Grande com média maior de dias de hospitalização (29,1 dias. Também foram encontradas diferenças estatísticas na distribuição das categorias diagnósticas em função do número de hospitalizações (p = 0,000, na distribuição das principais categorias diagnósticas (p = 0,000 e também nas distribuições em relação à procedência (p = 0,000. CONCLUSÃO: O TMH está dentro da média recomendada pelo Ministério da Saúde brasileiro.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate mean hospitalization time (MHT and patient diagnosis. METHODS: Records of 2,247 patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital from January to December 2004 were reviewed to retrieve MHT, age, sex, origin and diagnostic categories. Measures of central tendency and dispersion, Student's t, Kruskal-Wallis or analysis of variance, chi-square and Pearson tests were used for statistical analyses at a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: Of all patients, 59.8% were from Campo Grande (MS

  15. Paraphilias in adult psychiatric inpatients.

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    Marsh, Patrick J; Odlaug, Brian L; Thomarios, Nick; Davis, Andrew A; Buchanan, Stephanie N; Meyer, Craig S; Grant, Jon E

    2010-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the prevalence of paraphilias in an adult inpatient psychiatric population. One hundred twelve consecutive, voluntarily admitted, adult male psychiatric inpatients were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, Sexual Disorders Module, Male Version, to assess the rates of DSM-IV paraphilias. Fifteen patients (13.4%) reported symptoms consistent with at least one lifetime DSM-IV paraphilia. The most common paraphilias were voyeurism (n = 9 [8.0%]), exhibitionism (n = 6 [5.4%]), and sexual masochism (n = 3 [2.7%]). Patients who screened positive for a paraphilia had significantly more psychiatric hospitalizations (P = .006) and, on a trend level, were more likely to have attempted suicide. In addition, patients with paraphilias were significantly more likely to report having been sexually abused than patients without a paraphilia (P = paraphilia. Paraphilias appear to be more common in adult male psychiatric inpatients than previously estimated. The study also demonstrated that these disorders were not screened for by the treating physician and thus may go untreated. Further, larger-scale studies are necessary in order to further examine the rates of these disorders in the general population.

  16. Conceptions of mobile emergency service health professionals concerning psychiatric emergency

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    Diego Bonfada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the Brazilian Psychiatric Reformation, assistance to psychological seizures represents a challenge for the emergency services. Therefore, the objective of this paper is the analysis of the conceptions of health professionals who work at the Mobile Emergency Service in Natal on psychiatric emergency care. This paper is, then, a qualitative study that used interviews as tools for collecting information. By using thematic analysis, the speeches were grouped into three categories: the stigma on patients and the professionals' fear of services interventions in psychiatric emergencies; having psychiatric emergencies regarded as harmful to patients and others' security; psychiatric emergencies being taken as patients' aggressiveness or severe depression. The data collected indicate that the interviewed professionals' ideas are supported by elements associated with the ideology that insanity implies social segregation and dangerousness. Thus, the survey prompted reflection on relevant issues to the process of psychiatric reformation implementation.

  17. Correlation of adverse childhood experiences with psychiatric disorders and aggressiveness in adulthood

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    Samardžić Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Consequences of individual adverse childhood experiences for adult mental health have been precisely studied during past decades. The focus of past research was mainly on childhood maltreatment and neglect. The aim of this paper was to determine association between multiple adverse childhood experiences and psychiatric disorders, as well as their correlation to the degree and type of aggressiveness in adult psychiatric patients. Methods. One hundred and thirteen psychiatric outpatients were divided into three diagnostic groups: psychotics, non-psychotics and alcoholics and compared with fourty healthy individuals. Adverse childhood experiences data were gathered retrospectively, using the Adverse childhood experiences questionnaire and explanatory interview. Aggressiveness was assessed using Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The Student's t test, ANOVA and correlational analysis were used for evaluation of statistical significance of differences among the groups. A value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Our results showed that the mean number of adverse childhood experiences in each group of psychiatric patients, as well as in the whole group of patients, was statistically significantly higher than in the group of healthy individuals (p < 0.001; there was a statistically significant difference in score of physical aggressiveness between the patients exposed to adverse childhood experiences and those who were not exposed to them (p < 0.05; scores of physical aggressiveness were in positive correlation with the number of adverse childhood experiences (p < 0.05. The highest mean score of adverse childhood experiences was evidenced in the group of patients with psychotic disorders. Conclusion. Multiple adverse childhood experiences are significantly associated with psychotic disorders, nonpsychotic disorders and alcohol dependence in adulthood and their presence is important morbidity risk factor for

  18. Major depressive disorder in adolescents: family psychiatric history predicts severe behavioral disinhibition.

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    King, Cheryl A; Knox, Michele S; Henninger, Nathan; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Ghaziuddin, Neera; Maker, Azmaira; Hanna, Gregory L

    2006-02-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) becomes increasingly prevalent during adolescence and is associated with substantial psychiatric comorbidity and psychosocial impairment. The marked behavioral heterogeneity evident among adolescents with MDD suggests the possibility of distinct subtypes. This study was designed to determine whether family psychiatric histories differ between groups of MDD adolescents defined by the presence or absence of severe behavioral disinhibition. Adolescents with MDD (n = 71) completed the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory--Adapted, Adolescent Aggressive Incidents Interview (AAII), Measure of Aggression, Violence, and Rage in Children, Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire-JR., Suicidal Behavior Inventory, and Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale. Parents completed the Family Informant Schedule and Criteria, Children's Affective Liability Scale, AAII, and a partial DISC. Behavioral disinhibition (BD) measures were used to assign adolescents to MDD+BD (n = 41) and MDD-BD (n = 30) groups. The MDD+BD group had a higher prevalence of drug use disorders in biological fathers than the MDD-BD group. The MDD+BD group also had higher proportions of paternal second degree relatives with alcohol use disorders, drug use disorders, and psychiatric hospitalizations, and a higher proportion of maternal second degree relatives with antisocial personality disorder. Limitations include reliance on single informants for family psychiatric histories and the failure to distinguish between child- and adolescent-onset depression. Family psychiatric histories differentiated MDD adolescents grouped by the presence or absence of behavioral disinhibition, suggesting possible etiologic mechanisms. Further research on subtypes or comorbid presentations may assist in the development of targeted treatment strategies.

  19. Psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior in neurotypical young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy.

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    Baldin, Elisa; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Caplan, Rochelle; Berg, Anne T

    2015-10-01

    We examined the associations of lifetime and current histories of psychiatric disorders and of suicidal thoughts and behaviors with childhood-onset epilepsies in a community-based cohort of young adults. Cases were neurotypical (normal neurologic, cognitive, and imaging examinations and no evidence of a brain insult responsible for the epilepsy) young adults with childhood-onset epilepsy followed since the onset of their epilepsy approximately 15 years earlier and recruited as part of a community-based study. They were compared to two different control groups: siblings and external controls from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R). The Diagnostic Interview Survey assessed lifetime and current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnoses of mood disorders and anxiety disorders. Suicidal thoughts and suicide attempt were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview Survey for Children-IV and the Diagnostic Interview Survey (DIS-IV). Two hundred fifty-seven cases and 134 sibling controls participated in the DIS-IV portion of the young adult assessment. Comparing cases both to their sibling controls and to the controls drawn from the NCS-R, we did not find any evidence to suggest a higher prevalence of lifetime and current mood or anxiety disorders, suicidal thoughts, and suicide attempt in young adults with childhood-onset epilepsies. Our findings from a community-based sample of neurotypical young adults do not suggest a substantial or lasting association between childhood epilepsy and psychiatric disorders and suicidal behavior. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Psychiatric comorbidities in patients with Atypical Odontalgia.

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    Miura, Anna; Tu, Trang T H; Shinohara, Yukiko; Mikuzuki, Lou; Kawasaki, Kaoru; Sugawara, Shiori; Suga, Takayuki; Watanabe, Takeshi; Watanabe, Motoko; Umezaki, Yojiro; Yoshikawa, Tatsuya; Motomura, Haruhiko; Takenoshita, Miho; Maeda, Hidefumi; Toyofuku, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Atypical Odontalgia (AO) is a condition characterized by tooth pain with no apparent cause. Although psychiatric comorbidity seems to be very common, it has rarely been studied. To clarify the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on the clinical features in patients with AO, we retrospectively evaluated their examination records. Clinical features and psychiatric diagnoses of 383 patients with AO were investigated by reviewing patients' medical records and referral letters. Psychiatric diagnoses were categorized according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). We also analyzed visual analogue scale (VAS), self-rating depression scale (SDS), and the short-form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ) scores. Of the 383 patients with AO, 177 (46.2%) had comorbid psychiatric disorders. The most common were depressive disorders (15.4%) and anxiety disorders (10.1%). Serious psychotic disorders such as bipolar disorder (3.0%) and schizophrenia (1.8%) were rare. Dental trigger of AO was reported in 217 (56.7%) patients. There were no significant correlations between psychiatric comorbidities and most of the demographic features. Higher VAS and SDS scores, higher frequency of sleep disturbance, and higher ratings of "Fearful" and "Punishing-cruel" descriptors of the SF-MPQ were found in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. About half of AO patients had comorbid psychiatric disorders. Dental procedures are not necessarily causative factors of AO. In AO patients with comorbid psychiatric disorders, pain might have a larger emotional component than a sensory one. VAS, SDS, and SF-MPQ scores might aid in the noticing of underlying comorbid psychiatric disorders in AO patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal attachment style and psychiatric history as independent predictors of mood symptoms in the immediate postpartum period.

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    Croce Nanni, Roberta; Troisi, Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    There is evidence that both a past history of psychiatric illness and insecure attachment put women at risk for mood disturbances in the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether maternal insecure attachment is a risk factor for mood symptoms in the immediate postpartum period independently of the confounding effect of maternal psychiatric history. A convenience sample of 120 mothers was assessed prenatally with the Maternal History of Mood Disturbances (MHMD), the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ), and in the first week after delivery with the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Mothers with higher scores on the preoccupied and fearful attachment scales had more severe postpartum anxiety and depression symptoms but only fearful attachment remained a significant predictor of postpartum anxiety when the significant effect of maternal history of mood disturbances was included in the model. Our diagnostic assessment focused on mood symptoms, not disorders, and we limited psychometric assessment to the immediate postpartum period and did not collect longitudinal data to ascertain whether the relationship between maternal insecure attachment and postpartum mood disturbances changed over time. Our results show the necessity to assess prior psychiatric symptoms in studies of maternal attachment style and postpartum mood disturbances. The finding that a mother's recall of her own psychiatric history emerged as significant predictor of postpartum mood symptoms suggests that antenatal assessment based on maternal self-report can be used in those settings where structured diagnostic interviews are not feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 42 CFR 412.27 - Excluded psychiatric units: Additional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... personnel, psychological services, social work services, psychiatric nursing, and therapeutic activities. (c... of assessment/diagnostic data. Medical records must stress the psychiatric components of the record... health nursing, or its equivalent, from a school of nursing accredited by the National League for Nursing...

  3. Frequency of Different Psychiatric Disorders in Patients With Functional Bowel Disorders: A Short Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraei

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Functional gastrointestinal (GI disorders are very common and many patients with such disorders are not satisfied with treatment outcomes. Psychological aspects of functional disorders need special attention that may play an important role in patient management. Objectives In this study, psychology evaluation was performed for a population of patients with functional bowel disorders. Patients and Methods One hundred patients with functional bowel disorders including 50 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS referred to GI clinics were candidates for psychiatry evaluation; of those 60 patients completed the study. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed using a structured clinical interview based on diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV (DSM IV. Results Of 60 patients with functional bowel disorders (including 39 IBS, 51 (85% were diagnosed with at least one psychiatry disorder. The most common disorders were dysthymia (25% and obsessive-compulsive disorder (20%. There was no significant difference between IBS patients and other functional bowel disorders regarding the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions Psychiatric disorders are very prevalent among patients with functional bowel disorders. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate management of associated psychiatric disorders along with GI targeted treatments may lead to a better outcome in these patients.

  4. Sexual attitudes and associated psychiatric features among youths in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, M J; Bird, H R; Hoven, C; Moore, R E; Bin, F

    2000-08-01

    Using an epidemiological sample of adolescents, this study examined associations between the acceptability of potential sex partners and psychiatric status. Subjects aged 14 to 17 years (N = 161) from the Columbia site of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders (MECA) Study were grouped according to their responses about the acceptability of youths their age having sex with partners of (1) the opposite sex, (2) neither sex, and (3) either sex. Youths endorsing either sex were compared with youths endorsing the other two types of partners according to psychiatric indicators obtained from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3. Higher-than-expected proportions of male and female youths endorsed sex partners of either sex as potentially acceptable for peers. Youths who did so abused substances and used mental health services more than peers but did not differ in rates of suicidal ideation or attempts. Males endorsing either sex also had higher rates of mood disorders and, compared with males endorsing only the opposite sex, a higher intelligence level. Attitudes about the potential acceptability of sex partners for peers are associated with psychiatric morbidity and mental health service use in the respondent as well as with intelligence level in males. Youths who endorsed potential sex partners of either sex, especially males, appear to be at higher risk for multiple psychiatric problems.

  5. Impulse control disorders in adult psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Levine, Laura; Kim, Daniel; Potenza, Marc N

    2005-11-01

    The authors' goal was to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in psychiatric inpatients. They used the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview, a semistructured clinical interview assessing pathological gambling, trichotillomania, kleptomania, pyromania, intermittent explosive disorder, compulsive buying, and compulsive sexual behavior, to screen 204 consecutively admitted psychiatric inpatients. One hundred twelve of the inpatients were women (54.9%), and the mean age of the 204 inpatients was 40.5 years (SD=13.2, range=18-83). Patients whose screen was positive for an impulse control disorder were evaluated with structured clinical interviews. Sixty-three patients (30.9%) were diagnosed with at least one current impulse control disorder. The most common impulse control disorders were compulsive buying (N=19 [9.3%]), kleptomania (N=16 [7.8%]), and pathological gambling (N=14 [6.9%]). Patients with and without co-occurring impulse control disorders did not differ significantly from each other on demographic measures or number or type of psychiatric diagnoses other than impulse control disorders. Impulse control disorders appear common among psychiatric inpatients. Additional, larger studies are needed to examine the prevalence of impulse control disorders in the general population and specific psychiatric groups.

  6. Psychiatric Disorders Among Patients Seeking Treatment for Co-Occurring Chronic Pain and Opioid Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Cutter, Christopher J; Beitel, Mark; Kerns, Robert D; Liong, Christopher; Schottenfeld, Richard S

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric comorbidities complicate treatment of patients with chronic pain and opioid use disorder, but the prevalence of specific comorbid psychiatric disorders in this population has not been systematically investigated. 170 consecutive participants entering a treatment research program for co-occurring chronic pain and opioid use disorder between March 2009 and July 2013 were evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders (SCID-I/P) and the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (DIPD-IV). The prevalence of any lifetime (and current) comorbid Axis I disorder was 91% (75%); 52% met criteria for lifetime anxiety disorder (48% current), 57% for lifetime mood disorder (48% current), and 78% for lifetime nonopioid substance use disorder (34% current). Common current anxiety diagnoses were posttraumatic stress disorder (21%), generalized anxiety disorder (16%), and panic disorder without agoraphobia (16%). Common current mood diagnoses were major depressive disorder (40%) and dysthymia (11%). A majority of patients had a personality disorder (52%). High rates and persistence of co-occurring psychiatric disorders, including anxiety or mood disorders, may explain in part the difficulty providers have treating patients with co-occurring opioid use disorder and chronic pain and suggest possible targets for improving treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: buprenorphine/naloxone treatment (NCT00634803), opioid treatment program-based methadone maintenance treatment (NCT00727675).

  7. Psychiatric comorbidity in young adults with a clinical diagnosis of Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugnegård, Tove; Hallerbäck, Maria Unenge; Gillberg, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    In children with autism spectrum disorders, previous studies have shown high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. To date, studies on adults have been scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate psychiatric comorbidity in young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were 26 men and 28 women (mean age 27 years) with a clinical diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition. Autism spectrum diagnoses were confirmed using the DIagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders. In our study group, 70% had experienced at least one episode of major depression, and 50% had suffered from recurrent depressive episodes. Anxiety disorders were seen in about 50%. Psychotic disorders and substance-induced disorders were uncommon. In conclusion, young adults with autism spectrum disorders are at high risk for mood and anxiety disorders. To identify these conditions and offer treatment, elevated vigilance is needed in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. co-morbid psychiatric disorders in nigerian patients suffering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    28-item General Health Questionnaires and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales were used for first stage screening while the second stage interview utilised the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule. Results: The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity was 37.5% and 12.5% in the study and control groups respectively.

  9. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichstrom, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne; Angold, Adrian; Egger, Helen Link; Solheim, Elisabet; Sveen, Trude Hamre

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many disorders in childhood and adolescence were already present in the preschool years. However, there is little empirical research on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in young children. A true community study using structured diagnostic tools has yet to be published. Methods: All children born in 2003 or 2004 in the city of…

  10. The suitability of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Distress Thermometer and other instruments to screen for psychiatric disorders in both lung cancer patients and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Melanie P J; van den Hurk, Desiree G M; Prins, Judith B; Molema, Johan; van der Drift, Miep A; Speckens, Anne E M

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer patients and their partners report high rates of distress. Although distress is of importance, psychiatric disorders might be more important in terms of prognostic value and additional psychological treatment. This study examined the suitability of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Distress Thermometer (DT), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and State subscale of State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) to screen for psychiatric disorders in lung cancer patients and partners. A consecutive sample of lung cancer patients and partners completed the screening instruments. The Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-I) was used to diagnose psychiatric axis I disorders. In 144 patients, overall ability of HADS total score (HADS-T) screening for patients with psychiatric disorders was good, whereas DT appeared less suitable. In 98 partners, the performance of HADS-T was good. Although no instrument was successful in identifying psychiatric disorders, HADS-T came closest with a fair performance in patients and partners. Several patients and partners declined participation because they perceived participation as too distressing. As decliners possibly have the highest rates of disorders, our findings might underestimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders. A low prevalence negatively affects the positive predictive value and complicates efficient screening for psychiatric disorders. The HADS-T appears to be a suitable screening instrument for ruling out those lung cancer patients and partners without a psychiatric disorder. Regarding identifying those with a psychiatric disorder, HADS-T should be used to refer both patients and partners for further diagnostics and treatment to a psychiatrist/psychologist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic psychiatric status and satisfaction with life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch; Luteijn, F.

    The present study represents the first to administer the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) as part of a. semi-structured interview to a large sample of psychiatric patients with severe mental illness. psychometric appraisal of the SWLS demonstrated that figures on its internal structure were quite

  12. Sexual Attitude Reassessment for Psychiatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincin, Jerry; Wise, Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Sexuality programs are one part of the program at Thresholds, a rehabilitation center for psychiatric patients (17 to 50 years old). A 16 week sexuality group includes seven phases: initial interview; beginning group development (health care, contraception, reproduction, sexuality); masturbation; intercourse; homosexuality; coed group discussion;…

  13. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescent Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, K. Marie; Sellman, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Three main aims of this study were to ascertain the prevalence rate of smoking among adolescent psychiatric outpatients; estimate smokers' degree of nicotine dependence; and investigate the relationship between smoking and common mental health disorders. Face-to-face interviews were conducted on 93 patients ages 13-18 presenting to an adolescent…

  14. Psychiatric diagnosis in legal settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Allan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available When asked to give a diagnosis in legal settings practitioners should be mindful of the tentative nature of psychiatric diag- noses and that courts require that such a diagnosis must have scientific credibility. South African courts are not explicit about the test they will apply to determine whether a diagno- sis is scientifically credible, but some guidance can be found in United States case law. This paper examines these criteria with reference to the disorders included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR.

  15. Use of empathy in psychiatric practice: constructivist grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James; Watling, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatry has faced significant criticism for overreliance on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and medications with purported disregard for empathetic, humanistic interventions. To develop an empirically based qualitative theory explaining how psychiatrists use empathy in day-to-day practice, to inform practice and teaching approaches. This study used constructivist grounded theory methodology to ask (a) 'How do psychiatrists understand and use empathetic engagement in the day-to-day practice of psychiatry?' and (b) 'How do psychiatrists learn and teach the skills of empathetic engagement?' The authors interviewed 17 academic psychiatrists and 4 residents and developed a theory by iterative coding of the collected data. This constructivist grounded theory of empathetic engagement in psychiatric practice considered three major elements: relational empathy, transactional empathy and instrumental empathy. As one moves from relational empathy through transactional empathy to instrumental empathy, the actions of the psychiatrist become more deliberate and interventional. Participants were described by empathy-based interventions which are presented in a theory of 'empathetic engagement'. This is in contrast to a paradigm that sees psychiatry as purely based on neurobiological interventions, with psychotherapy and interpersonal interventions as completely separate activities from day-to-day psychiatric practice. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  16. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND SLEEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Psychiatric disorders and sleep are related in important ways. In contrast to the longstanding view of this relationship which viewed sleep problems as symptoms of psychiatric disorders, there is growing experimental evidence that the relationship between psychiatric disorders and sleep is complex and includes bi-directional causation. In this article we provide the evidence that supports this point of view, reviewing the data on the sleep disturbances seen in patients with psychiatric disorders but also reviewing the data on the impact of sleep disturbances on psychiatric conditions. Although much has been learned about the psychiatric disorders-sleep relationship, additional research is needed to better understand these relationships. This work promises to improve our ability to understand both of these phenomena and to allow us to better treat the many patients with sleep disorders and with psychiatric disorders. PMID:23099143

  17. The Reference Interview: Impact of Environmental Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas

    This paper develops two models of the reference interview: (1) the Need-Oriented Model, which emphasizes identifying the client's information needs and allows for a broad-ranging diagnostic interview; and (2) the Question-Oriented Model, which is constrained by the client's initial question and focuses on refining that specific question,…

  18. Al-Ain community psychiatric survey IV: socio-cultural changes (traditionality-liberalism) and prevalence of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghubash, R; Daradkeh, T K; Ghubash, R; Daradkeh, T K; Al-Muzafari, S M; Al-Manssori, M E; Abou-Saleh, M T

    2001-11-01

    BACKGROUND This study was set to explore the relationship between socio-cultural change and psychopathology. A representative sample (n = 1,394) of Al-Ain adult population had their psychopathology assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and other self-reported questionnaires, while the socio-cultural change was assessed with the modified version of the Socio-cultural Change Questionnaire (ScCQ). The reliability and construct validity of the modified ScCQ were assessed. The overall Tradition Index, attitudinal and behavioural indices of the sample were estimated. Association between socio-cultural change and psychopathology was also evaluated. The reliability of the modified ScCQ was found to be moderate (alpha Cronbach 0.66) and the hypothesis regarding its construct validity was confirmed. Mean traditional index was found to be 0.61 +/- 0.14.Young, highly educated, skilled, and female subjects were found to be significantly less conservative and their scores on traditional index deviated significantly from overall mean. Less traditional people were also found to have a significantly increased rate of ICD-10 psychiatric disorder and higher scores on psychopathology measures especially among females. Although females showed significantly more modern attitude, there were no significant sex differences in the expressed behaviour as measured by the behavioural Tradition Index. The findings of this study suggest that the prevalence of psychiatric disorder varies significantly according to the extent to which subjects adhere to traditional values.

  19. Child and Interviewer Race in Forensic Interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Amy K; Mackey, Tomiko D; Langendoen, Carol; Barnard, Marie

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effect of child race and interviewer race on forensic interviewing outcomes. The results of the regression analysis indicated that child race and interviewer race had a significant effect on interview outcome category (no findings, inconclusive, or findings consistent with sexual abuse). Furthermore, the results indicate that the interaction of child and interviewer race had predictive value for rates of findings consistent with sexual abuse but not in the direction predicted. Cross-race dyads had significantly higher rates of interview outcomes consistent with sexual abuse. These findings suggest that more research into the effect of race on disclosure of child sexual abuse is needed.

  20. Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with a History of Autism and Optimal Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orinstein, Alyssa; Tyson, Katherine E.; Suh, Joyce; Troyb, Eva; Helt, Molly; Rosenthal, Michael; Barton, Marianne L.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Kelley, Elizabeth; Naigles, Letitia; Schultz, Robert T.; Stevens, Michael C.; Fein, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Since autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often comorbid with psychiatric disorders, children who no longer meet criteria for ASD (optimal outcome; OO) may still be at risk for psychiatric disorders. A parent interview for DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (K-SADS-PL) for 33 OO, 42 high-functioning autism (HFA) and 34 typically developing (TD) youth,…

  1. Childhood-Onset Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Increased Familial Loading of Psychiatric Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Richard; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Strober, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Valeri, Sylvia; Chiappetta, Laurel; Ryan, Neal; Leonard, Henrietta; Hunt, Jeffrey; Iyengar, Satish; Keller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether childhood-onset bipolar disorder (BP) is associated with an increased psychiatric family history compared with adolescent-onset BP. Method: Semistructured psychiatric interviews were conducted for 438 youth with BP spectrum disorders. To evaluate the effects of age at onset and psychiatric family history, the sample…

  2. Animal cruelty and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyzer, Roman; Felthous, Alan R; Holzer, Charles E

    2002-01-01

    Animal cruelty in childhood, although generally viewed as abnormal or deviant, for years was not considered symptomatic of any particular psychiatric disorder. Although animal cruelty is currently used as a diagnostic criterion for conduct disorder, research establishing the diagnostic significance of this behavior is essentially nonexistent. In the current study, investigators tested the hypothesis that a history of substantial animal cruelty is associated with a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder (APD) and looked for associations with other disorders commonly diagnosed in a population of criminal defendants. Forty-eight subjects, criminal defendants who had histories of substantial animal cruelty, were matched with defendants without this history. Data were systematically obtained from the files by using four specifically designed data retrieval outlines. A history of animal cruelty during childhood was significantly associated with APD, antisocial personality traits, and polysubstance abuse. Mental retardation, psychotic disorders, and alcohol abuse showed no such association.

  3. Interviewer-perceived honesty as a mediator of racial disparities in the diagnosis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M; Bahorik, Amber L; Newhill, Christina E; Neighbors, Harold W; Davis, Larry E

    2012-09-01

    African Americans are disproportionately diagnosed as having schizophrenia, and the factors that contribute to this disparity are poorly understood. This study utilized data from the 1995 MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study to examine the impact of racial differences in sociodemographic characteristics, clinical presentation, and perceived honesty on disparities in the diagnosis of schizophrenia among African Americans. Researchers using structured assessments of diagnostic, sociodemographic, and clinical measures interviewed African Americans (N=215) and whites (N=537) receiving inpatient care for a severe mental illness. The impact of interviewers' perceptions of the participants' honesty on racial disparities in the diagnosis of schizophrenia was assessed. African Americans (45%) were more than three times as likely as whites (19%) to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia. Disparities in sociodemographic and clinical characteristics modestly contributed to disparities in diagnostic rates. In contrast, interviewer-perceived honesty proved to be a significant predictor of racial disparities in schizophrenia diagnoses. After adjustment for perceived honesty, diagnostic disparities between African Americans and whites were substantially reduced. Mediator analyses confirmed that interviewer-perceived honesty was the only consistent mediator of the relationship between race and schizophrenia diagnosis. Interviewers' perceptions of honesty among African-American participants are important contributors to disparities in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Clinicians' perceptions of dishonesty among African-American patients may reflect poor patient-clinician relationships. Methods of facilitating a trusting relationship between patients and clinicians are needed to improve the assessment and treatment of persons from minority groups who are seeking mental health care. (Psychiatric Services 63:875-880, 2012; doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.201100388).

  4. Adult ADHD Is Associated With Gambling Severity and Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura; Fischer, Gabriele

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is as follows: (a) exploring retrospective childhood and adult ADHD symptomatology in treatment-seeking gamblers, (b) providing detailed characteristics of the association between pathological gambling (PG) and ADHD, and (c) identifying risk factors for a history of ADHD. Eighty problem gamblers (20% female) were examined using a standardized interview (PG: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed.; DSM-IV] criteria, Gambling Attitudes and Beliefs Survey; ADHD: Wender Utah Rating Scale- deutsche Kurzform, Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale; comorbidities: Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview). Forty-three percentage of patients screened positive for childhood ADHD, and in 11%, ADHD persisted in adulthood. Patients with adult ADHD had more severe gambling problems ( p = .009, d = 1.03) and a higher number of psychiatric comorbidities ( p gamblers.

  5. Psychiatric disorders and other health dimensions among Holocaust survivors 6 decades later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Asaf; Levav, Itzhak; Brodsky, Jenny; Shemesh, Annarosa Anat; Kohn, Robert

    2009-10-01

    No previous community-based epidemiological study has explored psychiatric disorders among those who survived the Holocaust. To examine anxiety and depressive disorders, sleep disturbances, other health problems and use of services among individuals exposed and unexposed to the Holocaust. The relevant population samples were part of the Israel World Mental Health Survey. The interview schedule included the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and other health-related items. The Holocaust survivor group had higher lifetime (16.1%; OR = 6.8, 95% CI 1.9-24.2) and 12-month (6.9%; OR = 22.5, 95% CI 2.5-204.8) prevalence rates of anxiety disorders, and more current sleep disturbances (62.4%; OR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.4) and emotional distress (PHolocaust did not modify the results.

  6. Method matters: Understanding diagnostic reliability in DSM-IV and DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Michael; Clark, Lee Anna; Bagby, R Michael; Watson, David

    2015-08-01

    Diagnostic reliability is essential for the science and practice of psychology, in part because reliability is necessary for validity. Recently, the DSM-5 field trials documented lower diagnostic reliability than past field trials and the general research literature, resulting in substantial criticism of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Rather than indicating specific problems with DSM-5, however, the field trials may have revealed long-standing diagnostic issues that have been hidden due to a reliance on audio/video recordings for estimating reliability. We estimated the reliability of DSM-IV diagnoses using both the standard audio-recording method and the test-retest method used in the DSM-5 field trials, in which different clinicians conduct separate interviews. Psychiatric patients (N = 339) were diagnosed using the SCID-I/P; 218 were diagnosed a second time by an independent interviewer. Diagnostic reliability using the audio-recording method (N = 49) was "good" to "excellent" (M κ = .80) and comparable to the DSM-IV field trials estimates. Reliability using the test-retest method (N = 218) was "poor" to "fair" (M κ = .47) and similar to DSM-5 field-trials' estimates. Despite low test-retest diagnostic reliability, self-reported symptoms were highly stable. Moreover, there was no association between change in self-report and change in diagnostic status. These results demonstrate the influence of method on estimates of diagnostic reliability. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Posttraumatic stress disorder: diagnostic data analysis by data mining methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinić, Igor; Supek, Fran; Kovacić, Zrnka; Rukavina, Lea; Jendricko, Tihana; Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica

    2007-04-01

    To use data mining methods in assessing diagnostic symptoms in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). METHODS. The study included 102 inpatients: 51 with a diagnosis of PTSD and 51 with psychiatric diagnoses other than PTSD. Several models for predicting diagnosis were built using the random forest classifier, one of the intelligent data analysis methods. The first prediction model was based on a structured psychiatric interview, the second on psychiatric scales (Clinician-administered PTSD Scale--CAPS, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale--PANSS, Hamilton Anxiety Scale--HAMA, and Hamilton Depression Scale--HAMD), and the third on combined data from both sources. Additional models placing more weight on one of the classes (PTSD or non-PTSD) were trained, and prototypes representing subgroups in the classes constructed. The first model was the most relevant for distinguishing PTSD diagnosis from comorbid diagnoses such as neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders. The second model pointed out the scores obtained on the CAPS scale and additional PANSS scales, together with comorbid diagnoses of neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders as most relevant. In the third model, psychiatric scales and the same group of comorbid diagnoses were found to be most relevant. Specialized models placing more weight on either the PTSD or non-PTSD class were able to better predict their targeted diagnoses at some expense of overall accuracy. Class subgroup prototypes mainly differed in values achieved on psychiatric scales and frequency of comorbid diagnoses. Our work demonstrated the applicability of data mining methods for the analysis of structured psychiatric data for PTSD. In all models, the group of comorbid diagnoses, including neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders, surfaced as important. The important attributes of the data, based on the structured psychiatric interview, were the current symptoms and conditions such as presence and degree of

  8. Resemblance of symptoms for major depression assessed at interview versus from hospital record review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Diagnostic information for psychiatric research often depends on both clinical interviews and medical records. Although discrepancies between these two sources are well known, there have been few studies into the degree and origins of inconsistencies.We compared data from structured interviews and medical records on 1,970 Han Chinese women with recurrent DSM-IV major depression (MD. Correlations were high for age at onset of MD (0.93 and number of episodes (0.70, intermediate for family history (+0.62 and duration of longest episode (+0.43 and variable but generally more modest for individual depressive symptoms (mean kappa = 0.32. Four factors were identified for twelve symptoms from medical records and the same four factors emerged from analysis of structured interviews. Factor congruencies were high but the correlation of factors between interviews and records were modest (i.e. +0.2 to +0.4.Structured interviews and medical records are highly concordant for age of onset, and the number and length of episodes, but agree more modestly for individual symptoms and symptom factors. The modesty of these correlations probably arises from multiple factors including i inconsistency in the definition of the worst episode, ii inaccuracies in self-report and iii difficulties in coding medical records where symptoms were recorded solely for clinical purposes.

  9. Agreement between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the proposed DSM-V attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnostic criteria: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    There is no empirical literature about the American Psychiatry Association proposed new diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study examined the agreement between ADHD diagnosis derived from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), and DSM-V diagnostic criteria. It also reports sensitivity, specificity, and agreement for ADHD diagnosis. A clinical sample of 246 children and adolescents were interviewed face to face using both ADHD diagnostic criteria for DSM-V and DSM-IV by interviewing clinician. Comorbid psychiatric disorders were screened using DSM-IV criteria. The rate of ADHD diagnosis using DSM-V was significantly higher than the rate detected by using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The sensitivity of DSM-V diagnostic criteria was 100%, while its specificity was 71.1%. The kappa agreement between DSM-IV and DSM-V was 0.75. In addition, positive predictive value was 85.1%. All the four newly added symptoms to ADHD diagnostic criteria are statistically more common in the children with ADHD than those in the comparison group. However, these symptoms are also very common in the children without ADHD. It is expected that the rate of ADHD would increase using the proposed ADHD DSM-V criteria. Moreover, the newly added symptoms have a low specificity for ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Psychiatric nursing menbers' reflections on participating in group-based clinical supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Angel, Sanne; Traynor, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a report of an interview study exploring psychiatric hospital nursing staff members' reflections on participating in supervision. Clinical supervision is a pedagogical process designed to direct, develop, and support clinical nurses. Participation rates in clinical supervision...... they influence participation rates. Twenty-two psychiatric hospital nursing staff members were interviewed with a semistructured interview guide. Interview transcripts were interpreted by means of Ricoeur's hermeneutic method. The respondents understood clinical supervision to be beneficial, but with very...

  11. Psychiatric emergency services in Copenhagen 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moltke, Katinka; Høegh, Erica B; Sæbye, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the first publication of the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen 1985, outpatient facilities have undergone considerable changes. Our aim is to examine how these changes have influenced the activities in the PEUs in the same catchment area. METHODS: We conducted...... reduced the number of visits in the PEUs considerably. The results have shown a change of diagnostic distribution and more severe conditions requiring acute admissions for emergency treatment. Close collaboration with the patients' families, GPs, social authorities and specialized psychiatric outpatient...

  12. The PsyCoLaus study: methodology and characteristics of the sample of a population-based survey on psychiatric disorders and their association with genetic and cardiovascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Middleton Lefkos

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Psychiatric arm of the population-based CoLaus study (PsyCoLaus is designed to: 1 establish the prevalence of threshold and subthreshold psychiatric syndromes in the 35 to 66 year-old population of the city of Lausanne (Switzerland; 2 test the validity of postulated definitions for subthreshold mood and anxiety syndromes; 3 determine the associations between psychiatric disorders, personality traits and cardiovascular diseases (CVD, 4 identify genetic variants that can modify the risk for psychiatric disorders and determine whether genetic risk factors are shared between psychiatric disorders and CVD. This paper presents the method as well as sociodemographic and somatic characteristics of the sample. Methods All 35 to 66 year-old persons previously selected for the population-based CoLaus survey on risk factors for CVD were asked to participate in a substudy assessing psychiatric conditions. This investigation included the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies to elicit diagnostic criteria for threshold disorders according to DSM-IV and algorithmically defined subthreshold syndromes. Complementary information was collected on potential risk and protective factors for psychiatric disorders, migraine and on the morbidity of first-degree relatives, whereas the collection of DNA and plasma samples was already part of the original CoLaus survey. Results A total of 3,691 individuals completed the psychiatric evaluation (67% participation. The gender distribution of the sample did not differ significantly from that of the general population in the same age range. Although the youngest 5-year band of the cohort was underrepresented and the oldest 5-year band overrepresented, participants of PsyCoLaus and individuals who refused to participate revealed comparable scores on the General Health Questionnaire, a self-rating instrument completed at the somatic exam. Conclusion Despite limitations resulting from the relatively low

  13. Family history and psychiatric comorbidity in persons with compulsive buying: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D W; Repertinger, S; Gaffney, G R; Gabel, J

    1998-07-01

    The authors explored the family history and psychiatric comorbidity of a group of compulsive buyers who volunteered for medication studies. Compulsive buying is characterized by inappropriate shopping and spending behavior that leads to impairment. Thirty-three subjects who met the criteria of McElroy and colleagues for compulsive buying, and who scored more than two standard deviations above the mean on the Compulsive Buying Scale, were recruited. Twenty-two comparison subjects were recruited in the course of another study, and the presence of obsessive-compulsive disorder was the only reason for exclusion. Both groups were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R disorders. The Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria were used to collect information about psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives. Compulsive buyers had a mean age of 40 years; two (6%) were men. Comparison subjects had a mean age of 39 years; six (27%) were men. The two groups differed in gender distribution but not in age, marital status, or educational achievement. Compulsive buyers were more likely than comparison subjects to have lifetime mood disorders (especially major depression) and to have more than one psychiatric disorder. First-degree relatives of compulsive buyers were more likely than comparison relatives to suffer from depression, alcoholism, and a drug use disorder and to suffer more psychiatric disorders in general. These results indicate that persons who report compulsive buying behavior, and their first-degree relatives, are more likely to have a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorder than are comparison subjects.

  14. Adolescents with personality disorders suffer from severe psychiatric stigma: evidence from a sample of 131 patients

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    Catthoor K

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten Catthoor,1,3 Dine J Feenstra,2 Joost Hutsebaut,2 Didier Schrijvers,3 Bernard Sabbe3 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatrisch Ziekenhuis Stuivenberg, ZNA Antwerpen, Antwerp, Belgium; 2Viersprong Institute for Studies on Personality Disorders, Halsteren, the Netherlands; 3Collaborative Antwerp Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium Background: The aim of the study is to assess the severity of psychiatric stigma in a sample of personality disordered adolescents in order to evaluate whether differences in stigma can be found in adolescents with different types and severity of personality disorders (PDs. Not only adults but children and adolescents with mental health problems suffer from psychiatric stigma. In contrast to the abundance of research in adult psychiatric samples, stigma in children and adolescents has hardly been investigated. Personality disordered adolescents with fragile identities and self-esteem might be especially prone to feeling stigmatized, an experience which might further shape their identity throughout this critical developmental phase. Materials and methods: One hundred thirty-one adolescent patients underwent a standard assessment with Axis I and Axis II diagnostic interviews and two stigma instruments, Stigma Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ and Perceived Devaluation–Discrimination Questionnaire (PDDQ. Independent sample t-tests were used to investigate differences in the mean SCQ and PDDQ total scores for patients with and without a PD. Multiple regression main effect analyses were conducted to explore the impact of the different PDs on level of stigma, as well as comorbid Axis I disorders. Age and sex were also entered in the regression models. Results and conclusions: Adolescents with severe mental health problems experience a burden of stigma. Personality disordered patients experience more stigma than adolescents with other severe psychiatric Axis I disorders. Borderline PD

  15. Multiple sclerosis and cannabis: a cognitive and psychiatric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Omar; Feinstein, Anthony

    2008-07-15

    A significant minority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) use cannabis, yet no study has examined the possible effects on mentation. Here, we report the emotional and cognitive correlates of street cannabis use in patients with MS. A sample of 140 consecutive patients with MS were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) Axis I disorders (SCID-IV) from which details of cannabis use were recorded. Cognition was assessed using the Neuropsychological Battery for MS supplemented with the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), an index of information processing speed, working memory, and sustained attention. Ten subjects (7.7%) were defined as current cannabis users based on use within the last month. Compared to non-cannabis users (n = 130), they were younger (p = 0.001). Each of the 10 current cannabis users was matched on demographic and disease variables to four subjects with MS who did not use cannabis (total control sample n = 40). Group comparisons revealed that the proportion of patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis was higher in cannabis users (p = 0.04). In addition, on the SDMT, cannabis users had a slower mean performance time (p = 0.006) and a different pattern of response compared to matched controls (group x time interaction; p = 0.001). Inhaled cannabis is associated with impaired mentation in patients with multiple sclerosis, particularly with respect to cognition. Future studies are required to clarify the direction of this relationship.

  16. Psychiatric services in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmebarek, Zoubir

    2017-02-01

    The paper describes the current provision of psychiatric services in Algeria - in particular, in-patient and out-patient facilities, child psychiatry and human resources. Education, training, associations and research in the field of mental health are also briefly presented. The challenges that must dealt with to improve psychiatric care and to comply with international standards are listed, by way of conclusion.

  17. Psychiatric disorders and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "SH. Akhondzadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders are common in women during their childbearing years. Special considerations are needed when psychotic disorders present during pregnancy. Early identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders in pregnancy can prevent morbidity in pregnancy and in postpartum with the concomitant risks to mother and baby. Nevertheless, diagnosis of psychiatric illnesses during pregnancy is made more difficult by the overlap between symptoms of the disorders and symptoms of pregnancy. In majority of cases both psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy should be considered. However, psychiatric disorders in pregnancy are often under treated because of concerns about potential harmful effects of medication. This paper reviews findings about the presentation and course of major psychiatric disorders during pregnancy.

  18. Primary Psychiatric Diseases

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    Sibel Mercan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of these dermatological diseases is entirely psychiatric origin. These patients show overconcern to their skin or self inflicted dermatoses unconsciously instead of facing with their real problems. In this group, delusions, dermatitis artefacta, trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder can be seen. They use denial as defence mechanism to their real psychiatric problems and prefer to apply dermatology instead of psychiatry. Dermatologist should be very careful before asking psychiatric consultation. Denial mechanism help patients to overcome agressive impulses like suicide or prevent further psychiatric damage like psychosis. Dermatologist should see these patients with short and frequent intervals with a good empathic approach. This will help to progress a powerful patient doctor relationship which will lead to a psychiatric evaluation.

  19. Headache complaints associated with psychiatric comorbidity in a population-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benseñor I.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency at which people complain of any type of headache, and its relationship with sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in São Paulo, Brazil. A three-step cluster sampling method was used to select 1,464 subjects aged 18 years or older. They were mainly from families of middle and upper socioeconomic levels living in the catchment area of Instituto de Psiquiatria. However, this area also contains some slums and shantytowns. The subjects were interviewed using the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 1.1. (CIDI 1.1 by a lay trained interviewer. Answers to CIDI 1.1 questions allowed us to classify people according to their psychiatric condition and their headaches based on their own ideas about the nature of their illness. The lifetime prevalence of "a lot of problems with" headache was 37.4% (76.2% of which were attributed to use of medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, and 23.8% attributed to nervousness, tension or mental illness. The odds ratio (OR for headache among participants with "nervousness, tension or mental illness" was elevated for depressive episodes (OR, 2.1; 95%CI, 1.4-3.4, dysthymia (OR, 3.4; 95%CI, 1.6-7.4 and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 4.3; 95%CI, 2.1-8.6, when compared with patients without headache. For "a lot of problems with" headaches attributed to medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, the risk was also increased for dysthymia but not for generalized anxiety disorder. These data show a high association between headache and chronic psychiatric disorders in this Brazilian population sample.

  20. Headache complaints associated with psychiatric comorbidity in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benseñor, I M; Tófoli, L F; Andrade, L

    2003-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency at which people complain of any type of headache, and its relationship with sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity in S o Paulo, Brazil. A three-step cluster sampling method was used to select 1,464 subjects aged 18 years or older. They were mainly from families of middle and upper socioeconomic levels living in the catchment area of Instituto de Psiquiatria. However, this area also contains some slums and shantytowns. The subjects were interviewed using the Brazilian version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 1.1. (CIDI 1.1) by a lay trained interviewer. Answers to CIDI 1.1 questions allowed us to classify people according to their psychiatric condition and their headaches based on their own ideas about the nature of their illness. The lifetime prevalence of "a lot of problems with" headache was 37.4% (76.2% of which were attributed to use of medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, and 23.8% attributed to nervousness, tension or mental illness). The odds ratio (OR) for headache among participants with "nervousness, tension or mental illness" was elevated for depressive episodes (OR, 2.1; 95%CI, 1.4-3.4), dysthymia (OR, 3.4; 95%CI, 1.6-7.4) and generalized anxiety disorder (OR, 4.3; 95%CI, 2.1-8.6), when compared with patients without headache. For "a lot of problems with" headaches attributed to medicines, drugs/alcohol, physical illness or trauma, the risk was also increased for dysthymia but not for generalized anxiety disorder. These data show a high association between headache and chronic psychiatric disorders in this Brazilian population sample.

  1. High prevalence of psychiatric and substance use disorders among persons seeking treatment for HIV and other STIs in Jamaica: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford Jarrett, Sharlene; De La Haye, Winston; Miller, Zahra; Figueroa, J Peter; Duncan, Jacqueline; Harvey, Kevin

    2017-10-03

    This cross-sectional study explored the range of psychiatric and substance use disorders and unmet need for mental health care among 84 HIV-positive and 44 HIV-negative public clinic attendees in Jamaica. We used a brief interviewer-administered diagnostic tool, the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire. Two-thirds (65.6%) screened positive for at least one psychiatric disorder; 30.5% screened positive for multiple disorders. The most common disorders were post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (41.4%), alcohol abuse (22.7%), and depressive disorders (21.9%). One in fourteen (7.1%) participants with at least one diagnosis received care in the last 6 months. Adjusting for age and sex, PTSD was associated with non-adherence to antiretroviral treatment (AOR = 5.32), anxiety disorders (AOR = 5.82), depression (AOR = 4.29), and suicidal ideation (AOR = 8.17). Psychiatric and substance use disorders, particularly PTSD, were common among STI/HIV clinic attendees in Jamaica. Such clinics may be efficient places to screen, identify, and treat patients with psychiatric disorders in low- and middle- income countries.

  2. Screening for psychiatric morbidity in an accident and emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G; Hindley, N; Rajiyah, G; Rosser, R

    1990-09-01

    One hundred and twenty A&E Department daytime attenders were screened for psychiatric disorder in a two stage procedure. Thirty-three patients were identified as General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 'cases' of whom 28 agreed to a psychiatric interview using the Clinical Interview Schedule. Twenty-eight GHQ 'non-cases' were also interviewed. A psychiatric diagnosis was made in 24 patients, 21 of whom were GHQ cases. Patients were more likely to suffer from psychiatric morbidity if the presenting complaint was other than minor trauma. There were trends for psychiatric morbidity to be associated with not being married and living in Bloomsbury Health District (No Fixed Abode or resident) or Northeast London. Sixty-nine percent of cases had a positive past psychiatric history. Ten of 12 cases (83%) requiring primary care intervention were not registered with a GP. It is suggested that appropriate intervention would be for A&E Departments to routinely facilitate such registration. In addition, resources need to be released to make 9am to 5pm walk-in psychiatric services commonplace.

  3. Psychiatric and demographic predictors of memory deficits in African Americans with schizophrenia: the moderating role of cultural mistrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L

    2012-06-01

    Although African Americans are overrepresented among schizophrenia diagnoses, assessments of memory deficits in schizophrenia often do not consider issues of race, ethnicity, and culture. Digit span testing (DST) is often used to assess memory problems associated with schizophrenia. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of psychiatric symptoms and demographic background on the DST performances of 128 African American schizophrenic patients. It was hypothesized that level of cultural mistrust would moderate the relationship of psychiatric and demographic variables to memory deficits. The study involved the secondary analysis of data from the Culturally-Sensitive Diagnostic Interview Research Project. Different models of the relationship among predictor variables in their impact on DST performance were tested via structural equation modeling (SEM); and the moderating effects of level of cultural mistrust were evaluated with the best SEM model. The results supported the hypothesis that level of cultural mistrust moderates the relationship among variables in the SEM model. Specifically, psychiatric symptoms negatively impacted DST performance in the low cultural mistrust group, but they had no significant association to the memory deficits of the high cultural mistrust group. The pattern of findings for the effects of psychiatric symptoms on DST performance is consistent with the view of cultural mistrust as an adaptive mechanism in African Americans. One implication is that cultural factors should be taken into account when assessing memory deficits in African Americans with schizophrenia.

  4. Psychiatric disorders during adolescence and relationships with peers from age 17 to age 27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Johnson, Jeffrey G; Kasen, Stephanie

    2009-03-01

    To investigate normative patterns of peer relationships from ages 17 to 27, and to examine the impact of adolescent psychiatric disorders on peer relationships. Psychiatric disorders were measured at a mean age 16 years. At mean age 29, 200 participants completed detailed narrative interviews about their transition to adulthood. Monthly contact and conflict with peers were described in narratives covering ages 17-27. Adolescent psychiatric disorders did not predict the frequency of peer contact in the young adult period. However, adolescent disruptive disorders predicted greater peer conflict regardless of contact frequency. Adolescents with major depressive or substance abuse disorders and subsequent high frequency of peer contact reported elevated peer conflict during the transition to adulthood. In contrast, among study participants with frequent peer contact during this period, those with adolescent anxiety disorders reported less peer conflict than did those without such a diagnostic history. Adolescents with major depressive, disruptive, and substance abuse disorders may be at risk for long-term negative peer relationships, whereas those with anxiety disorders may subsequently avoid peer conflict.

  5. Prevalence of use, abuse and dependence on legal and illegal psychotropic substances in an adolescent inpatient psychiatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethammer, Oliver; Frank, Reiner

    2007-06-01

    To examine the prevalence of use, abuse, and dependence on legal and illegal psychotropic substances in an adolescent in-patient psychiatric population in relation to age and gender. Participants were all consecutive admissions (patients aged from 14 to 17) to the adolescent psychiatric in-patient unit. Of the 86 patients who met all the criteria for taking part in the study 70 were interviewed, giving a response rate of 81%. Prevalence of use and of substance use disorders were assessed through structured diagnostic interviews (M-CIDI), conducted from March 2000 through July 2000. We found high prevalence of use and of the diagnosis of legal and illegal psychotropic substances. Around 76% reported a regular use of tobacco, 44% regular alcohol use, and 40% regular use of illegal substances. Diagnosis (abuse or dependence) was found in 50% of cases for nicotine, 29% for alcohol, and 26% for illegal substances. The adolescent in-patient psychiatric population is at high risk of use, abuse, and dependence on legal and illegal psychotropic substances. It is important to diagnose these disorders (anamnesis, screening tools) and to install preventive and therapeutic programs in clinical therapeutic settings.

  6. Clinical features and psychiatric comorbidity of subjects with pathological gambling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D W; Moyer, T

    1998-11-01

    Sociodemographic features, phenomenology, and psychiatric comorbidity of 30 subjects reporting pathological gambling behavior were examined. Twenty-three men and seven women were recruited by advertisement and word-of-mouth. They all scored higher than 5 points on the South Oaks Gambling Screen, indicating problematic gambling behaviors. They completed structured and semistructured assessments, including the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-III-R disorders (DIS), the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire, Fourth Revision (PDQ-IV), and the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview. The typical subject was a 44-year-old white married man with a mean income of $34,250 who visited a casino once or more weekly. All 30 subjects reported gambling more money than they intended to. Twenty subjects (67 percent) reported gambling as a current problem, and nine (30 percent) reported it as a past problem. Twenty-one subjects (70 percent) wanted to stop gambling but did not feel they could. According to DIS results, 18 subjects (60 percent) had a lifetime mood disorder, 19 (64 percent) a lifetime substance use disorder, and 12 (40 percent) a lifetime anxiety disorder. Based on the PDQ-IV, 26 subjects (87 percent) had a personality disorder, the most common being obsessive-compulsive, avoidant, schizotypal, and paranoid personality disorders. The sample also had a relatively high rate of antisocial personality disorder. Impulse control disorders were common, especially compulsive buying and compulsive sexual behavior. The results confirm that individuals with pathological gambling suffer substantial psychiatric comorbidity. They support continued inclusion of pathological gambling in the diagnostic category of impulse control disorders.

  7. Youth Gang Members: Psychiatric Disorders and Substance Use

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    Albert John Sargent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Approximately 260,000 of youth in the United States are gang-affiliated. There is a paucity of data available to identify the prevalence of mental health disorders in this population. Gang members share many of the features of “at risk” or juvenile justice involved youth who deny gang membership. The authors identified rates of psychiatric disorders within a juvenile justice population delineated in three categories: gang members, friends of gang members, and non-gang members. Methods: A retrospective review of records obtained by a juvenile probation department. A large detention center conducted mental health screenings on 7,615 youth aged 13–17. The mental health screenings were performed by either a master level or doctoral level mental health professional. Odds ratios were computed as an effect size for gender, race/ethnic differences, and gang-membership associations with self-reported psychiatric and substance use disorders. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the risk for psychiatric and substance use disorders among gang-members and friends of gang members. Diagnostic information was generated through a clinical interview and flexible battery. Results: Of the 7,615 youth in this study, ~50% had contact with gangs; 11% were self-identified gang-members, and 38% acknowledged having at least one friendship with a gang member. Similar to other studies, being male was a risk-factor for gang-membership (2.31 odds. In this multi-racial and ethnic study, Latinos had a greater affiliation with gang membership and association with gang members as friends (1.44 odds. Gang members were found to have increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (1.77 odds, current substance abuse (2.58 odds, oppositional defiant disorder, (1.24 odds and conduct disorder (4.05 odds; however, they were less likely to have an adjustment disorder than non-gang members (0.70 odds. Conclusions: Juveniles who received a mental health assessment

  8. Does the Cultural Formulation Interview for the fifth revision of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) affect medical communication? A qualitative exploratory study from the New York site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil K; Desilva, Ravi; Nicasio, Andel V; Boiler, Marit; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural mental health researchers often analyze patient explanatory models of illness to optimize service provision. The Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) is a cross-cultural assessment tool released in May 2013 with DSM-5 to revise shortcomings from the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation (OCF). The CFI field trial took place in 6 countries, 14 sites, and with 321 patients to explore its feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility with patients and clinicians. We sought to analyze if and how CFI feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility were related to patient-clinician communication. We report data from the New York site which enrolled 7 clinicians and 32 patients in 32 patient-clinician dyads. We undertook a data analysis independent of the parent field trial by conducting content analyses of debriefing interviews with all participants (n = 64) based on codebooks derived from frameworks for medical communication and implementation outcomes. Three coders created codebooks, coded independently, established inter-rater coding reliability, and analyzed if the CFI affects medical communication with respect to feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility. Despite racial, ethnical, cultural, and professional differences within our group of patients and clinicians, we found that promoting satisfaction through the interview, eliciting data, eliciting the patient's perspective, and perceiving data at multiple levels were common codes that explained how the CFI affected medical communication. We also found that all but two codes fell under the implementation outcome of clinical utility, two fell under acceptability, and none fell under feasibility. Our study offers new directions for research on how a cultural interview affects patient-clinician communication. Future research can analyze how the CFI and other cultural interviews impact medical communication in clinical settings with subsequent effects on outcomes such as medication adherence

  9. Does the Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) for the Fifth Revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) affect medical communication? A qualitative exploratory study from the New York site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Neil K.; DeSilva, Ravi; Nicasio, Andel V.; Boiler, Marit; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cross-cultural mental health researchers often analyze patient explanatory models of illness to optimize service provision. The Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) is a cross-cultural assessment tool released in May 2013 with DSM-5 to revise shortcomings from the DSM-IV Outline for Cultural Formulation (OCF). The CFI field trial took place in 6 countries, 14 sites, and with 321 patients to explore its feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility with patients and clinicians. We sought to analyze if and how CFI feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility were related to patient-clinician communication. Design We report data from the New York site which enrolled 7 clinicians and 32 patients in 32 patient-clinician dyads. We undertook a data analysis independent of the parent field trial by conducting content analyses of debriefing interviews with all participants (n=64) based on codebooks derived from frameworks for medical communication and implementation outcomes. Three coders created codebooks, coded independently, established inter-rater coding reliability, and analyzed if the CFI affects medical communication with respect to feasibility, acceptability, and clinical utility. Results Despite racial, ethnic, cultural, and professional differences within our group of patients and clinicians, we found that promoting satisfaction through the interview, eliciting data, eliciting the patient’s perspective, and perceiving data at multiple levels were common codes that explained how the CFI affected medical communication. We also found that all but 2 codes fell under the implementation outcome of clinical utility, 2 fell under acceptability, and none fell under feasibility. Conclusion Our study offers new directions for research on how a cultural interview affects patient-clinician communication. Future research can analyze how the CFI and other cultural interviews impact medical communication in clinical settings with subsequent effects on outcomes

  10. Comparing Diagnostic Tools in Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel AKGÜN AKTAÞ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Personality Disorder is defined as; continually self experience and behavioral pattern which has great variations of individual cultural normal expectations. Several diagnostic tools were developed for diagnosing personality disorders. In our study consistency of different diagnostic tools used for thhe diagnosis of personality disorders were evaluated. 39 inpatients diagnosed as personality disorder from Dýþkapý Yýldýrým Beyazýt Traning and Reseach Hospital were recruited into the study. Psychotic patients are excluded from the study. Sociodemographic Information Form, MMPI and PBQ scales were given all the patients. Both PBQ personality subscales and MMPI PD scales were compared with semi-structured SCID-II interview diagnoses. Findings suggest less correlation than expected. Relatively higher correlation was found between PBQ personality subscales and MMPI-PD. Most common psychiatric comorbid disorder was depression. These findings suggest that further studies are needed for the development of diagnostic tools which take the differences of self report scales and clinical evalution into consideration. Beside, the differences of the categorical and dimensional classification of personality disorders should be bear in mind in evaluation of this patient group. [JCBPR 2016; 5(1.000: 22-27

  11. Oxytocin and Psychiatric Disorders

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    Gokce Nur Say

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin is a neuropeptide that plays critical role in mother-infant bonding, pair bonding and prosocial behaviors. Several neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alcohol/substance addiction, aggression, suicide, eating disorders and personality disorders show abnormalities of oxytocin system. These findings have given rise to the studies searching therapeutic use of oxytocin for psychi-atric disorders. The studies of oxytocin interventions in psychiatric disorders yielded potentially promising findings. This paper reviews the role of oxytocin in emotions, behavior and its effects in psychiatric disorders. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 102-113

  12. Interview as intraviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kit Stender

    2014-01-01

    do not merely refer to passive entities but must be understood as matter that matters. To illustrate my points I will analyse how bringing a puppet with me to interviews with 4-6 year old children seemed to interfere with the interview situation creating unforeseen diversions in ways that influenced......In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it becomes...... possible to focus more extensively on how matter matters in the interview situation. Re-thinking the interview as an intraview1, I argue that Barad’s concepts will enhance our awareness not only of how the researcher affects the interview but also of how certain kinds of materiality in interview situations...

  13. Managing the classification of psychiatric diagnoses: a systematics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermeyer, Joseph John

    2012-09-01

    For almost a century, the American Psychiatric Association has improved psychiatric practice via its diagnostic manual series. However, the increasing number of diagnoses has created predicaments for clinicians and society. This report suggests explanations for this "inflation" and, using systematics, proposes the following five linked strategies for improving our diagnostic schema. First, criteria based on purposes underlying diagnosis should form the basis for including and excluding psychiatric diagnoses. Second, the major categories (or classes) should be reduced from 17 to one half to one third that number. Third, many psychiatric diagnoses should be removed from their current status as independent diagnoses (or subclasses) and relegated to a more specific taxonomic stratum (e.g., infraclass). Fourth, promising information for new or modified taxons would compose a fourth stratum (or parvclass). Fifth, comorbidity would become a more useful concept if defined as major, intermediate, and minor comorbidity, occurring at class, subclass, and infraclass levels.

  14. The relationship between self-reported substance use and psychiatric symptoms in low-threshold methadone maintenance treatment clients

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    Barrett Sean P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ongoing psychiatric symptoms and substance use are common difficulties experienced by clients enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT. However, little research to date has evaluated if specific types of current substance use are related to specific types of current psychiatric symptoms. The present study investigated these relationships with a sample of clients enrolled in a low-threshold MMT program (i.e., clients are not expelled if they continue to use substances. Some clients enrolled in low-threshold programs may never achieve complete abstinence from all substances. Thus, understanding the possibly perpetuating relationships between concurrent substance use and psychiatric symptoms is important. Understanding such relationships may aid in developing possible target areas of treatment to reduce substance use and/or related harms in this population. Methods Seventy-seven individuals were interviewed regarding methadone usage and current and past substance use. Current psychiatric symptoms were assessed using a modified version of the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire (PDSQ. Relationships between types of substances used in the past 30 days and the types and number of psychiatric symptoms experienced in the same timeframe were examined. Results The majority of participants (87.0% reported using alcohol, illicit substances, non-prescribed prescription opioids, or non-prescribed benzodiazepines in the past 30 days and 77.9% of participants reported currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms at levels that would likely warrant diagnosis. Current non-prescribed benzodiazepine use was a predictor for increased severity (i.e., symptom count of almost all anxiety and mood disorders assessed. Conversely, number and presence of generalized anxiety symptoms and presence of social phobia symptoms predicted current non-prescribed benzodiazepine and alcohol use, respectively. Conclusions Individuals enrolled in

  15. Coding interview questions concepts, problems, interview questions

    CERN Document Server

    Karumanchi, Narasimha

    2016-01-01

    Peeling Data Structures and Algorithms: * Programming puzzles for interviews * Campus Preparation * Degree/Masters Course Preparation * Instructor’s * GATE Preparation * Big job hunters: Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Yahoo, Flip Kart, Adobe, IBM Labs, Citrix, Mentor Graphics, NetApp, Oracle, Webaroo, De-Shaw, Success Factors, Face book, McAfee and many more * Reference Manual for working people

  16. Do Psychiatric Disorders or Measures of Distress Moderate Response to Postpartum Relapse Prevention Interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, Rachel P; Emery, Rebecca L; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D

    2017-05-01

    Most women who quit smoking during pregnancy will relapse postpartum. Interventions for sustained postpartum abstinence can benefit from understanding prenatal characteristics associated with treatment response. Given that individuals with psychiatric disorders or elevated depressive symptoms have difficulty quitting smoking and that increases in depressive symptoms prenatally are common, we examined the relevance of psychiatric diagnoses, prenatal depressive symptoms, and stress to postpartum relapse prevention intervention response. Pregnant women (N = 300) who quit smoking during pregnancy received intervention (with specialized focus on mood, weight, and stress [STARTS] or a comparison [SUPPORT]) to prevent postpartum relapse. As previously published, nearly one-third and one-quarter of women achieved biochemically-confirmed sustained abstinence at 24- and 52-weeks postpartum, with no difference in abstinence rates between the interventions. Women completed psychiatric interviews and questionnaires during pregnancy. Smoking was assessed in pregnancy, and 24- and 52-weeks postpartum. Psychiatric disorders did not predict sustained abstinence or treatment response. However, treatment response was moderated by end-of-pregnancy depressive symptoms (χ2 = 9.98, p = .002) and stress (χ2 = 6.90, p = .01) at 24- and 52-weeks postpartum and remained significant after including covariates. Women with low distress achieved higher abstinence rates in SUPPORT than in STARTS (37% vs. 19% for depressive symptoms; 36% vs. 19% for stress), with no difference for women with high symptoms. Prenatal depressive symptoms and stress predicted differential treatment efficacy in women with low symptoms, not in women with high symptoms. Diagnostic history did not predict treatment differences. Future research to address prenatal distress may help tailor postpartum relapse prevention interventions. We examined prenatal history of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric distress as

  17. Prevalence rates of borderline symptoms reported by adolescent inpatients with BPD, psychiatrically healthy adolescents and adult inpatients with BPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanarini, Mary C; Temes, Christina M; Magni, Laura R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Aguirre, Blaise A; Goodman, Marianne

    2017-08-01

    The validity of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in children and adolescents has not been studied in a rigorous manner reflecting the criteria of Robins and Guze first detailed in 1970. This paper and the others in this series address some aspects of this multifaceted validation paradigm, which requires that a disorder has a known clinical presentation, can be delimited from other disorders, 'runs' in families, and something of its aetiology, treatment response and course is known. Three groups of subjects were studied: 104 adolescent inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-IV criteria for BPD, 60 psychiatrically healthy adolescents and 290 adult inpatients meeting the Revised Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines and DSM-III-R criteria for BPD. Adolescents with BPD had significantly higher prevalence rates of 22 of the 24 symptoms studied than psychiatrically healthy adolescents. Only rates of serious treatment regressions and countertransference problems failed to reach the Bonferroni-corrected level of 0.002. Adolescents and adults with BPD had only four symptomatic differences that reached this level of significance, with adolescents with BPD reporting significantly lower levels of quasi-psychotic thought, dependency/masochism, devaluation/manipulation/sadism and countertransference problems than adults with BPD. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that adolescents report BPD as severe as that reported by adults. They also suggest that BPD in adolescents is not a tumultuous phase of normal adolescence. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoli, Yang; Chao, Jiang; Wen, Pan; Wenming, Xu; Fang, Liang; Ning, Li; Huijuan, Mu; Jun, Na; Ming, Lv; Xiaoxia, An; Chuanyou, Yu; Zenguo, Fu; Lili, Li; Lianzheng, Yu; Lijuan, Tong; Guowei, Pan

    2014-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of DSM-IV disorders and comorbidity in a large school-based sample of 6-17 year old children and adolescents in northeast China. A two-phase cross-sectional study was conducted on 9,806 children. During the screening phase, 8848 children (90.23%) and their mothers and teachers were interviewed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). During the diagnostic phase, 1129 children with a positive SDQ and 804 randomly selected children with a negative SDQ (11%), and their mothers and teachers, were interviewed using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). The overall prevalence of DSM-IV disorders was 9.49% (95% CI = 8.10-11.10%). Anxiety disorders were the most common (6.06%, 95% CI = 4.92-7.40), followed by depression (1.32%, 95% CI = 0.91-1.92%), oppositional defiant disorder (1.21%, 95%CI = 0.77-1.87) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (0.84%, 95% CI = 0.52-1.36%). Of the 805 children with a psychiatric disorder, 15.2% had two or more comorbid disorders. Approximately one in ten Chinese school children has psychiatric disorders involving a level of distress or social impairment likely to warrant treatment. Prevention, early identification and treatment of these disorders are urgently needed and pose a serious challenge in China.

  19. Morbid risk for psychiatric disorder among the relatives of methamphetamine users with and without psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ken; Lin, Shih-Ku; Sham, Pak C; Ball, David; Loh, El-Wui; Murray, Robin M

    2005-07-05

    It is not clear why some methamphetamine (MAMP) abusers develop psychotic symptoms, while others use MAMP regularly over long periods and remain unscathed. We tested the hypotheses that those users who develop MAMP-induced psychosis (MIP) have greater familial loading for psychotic disorders than users with no psychosis. Four hundred forty-five MAMP users were recruited from a psychiatric hospital and a detention center in Taipei, and were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for genetic studies (DIGS-C) and the Family Interview for genetic study (FIGS-C). Morbid risk (MR) for psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives was compared between those MAMP users with a lifetime diagnosis of MAMP psychosis and those without. The relatives of MAMP users with a lifetime diagnosis of MAMP psychosis had a significantly higher MR for schizophrenia (OR = 5.4, 95% CI: 2.0-14.7, P < 0.001) than the relatives of those probands who never became psychotic. Furthermore, the MR for schizophrenia in the relatives of the subjects with a prolonged MAMP psychosis (MIP-P) was higher than in the relatives of those users with a brief MAMP psychosis (MIP-B) (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.0-8.0, P = 0.042). The greater his or her familial loading for schizophrenia, the more likely a MAMP user is to develop psychosis, and the longer that psychosis is likely to last. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Patients with Diabetes Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Alireza Sajjadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders are important complications of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus.Materials and method: In this descriptive study, 80 patients with diabetes type 2 referred to diabetes clinic of Zahedan in 2009. They were selected by simple randomized method, screened by General Health Questionnaire and assessed by psychiatric interview, if it was necessary.Results: Totally, 67.5% required an interview and 43.75% were diagnosed with a psychiatric disorder. Major depression were more prevalent (13.5% than adjustment disorders (15%.Conclusion: High prevalence of depression and adjustment disorder in diabetic patients needs psychiatric assessment and treatment as the main part, in the diabetes clinics

  1. [Compulsive buying and psychiatric comorbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Astrid; Mühlhans, Barbara; Silbermann, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Mertens, Christian; Horbach, Thomas; Mitchell, James E; de Zwaan, Martina

    2009-08-01

    Compulsive buying is an excessive behavior that has begun to receive attention from researchers in recent years. The current study provides an overview of research on compulsive buying and examines the psychiatric co-morbidity in a German female treatment seeking compulsive buying sample in comparison with age and gender-matched normal buying control groups. Thirty women suffering from compulsive buying disorder, 30 community controls, and 30 bariatric surgery candidates were assessed with the German versions of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV diagnoses (SCID). Women with compulsive buying disorder showed significantly higher prevalence rates of affective, anxiety, and eating disorders compared to community controls, and suffered significantly more often from affective and anxiety disorders compared to bariatric surgery candidates. The compulsive buying group presented with the highest rates of personality disorders, most commonly avoidant, depressive, obsessive-compulsive, and borderline personality disorder, and reported the highest prevalence rates of other impulse control disorders, especially for intermittent explosive disorder. The findings suggest an elevated psychiatric co-morbidity in patients with compulsive buying disorder.

  2. Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide - Table of Contents Facts For Families Guide - View by Topic Chinese Facts for Families Guide ... Psychiatric Evaluation No. 52; Updated October 2017 Evaluation by a child and adolescent psychiatrist is appropriate for any child or adolescent ...

  3. Psychiatric Diagnoses among an HIV-Infected Outpatient Clinic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Enbal; Önen, Nur F; Donovan, Michael F; Rosenburg, Neal; Overton, E Turner

    2016-01-01

    As individuals with HIV infection are living longer, the management of psychiatric disorders has increasingly been incorporated into comprehensive care. Individuals were recruited from an outpatient HIV clinic to assess the prevalence and related associations of current psychiatric disorders and biomarkers. Of the 201 participants who completed the interviews, the median age was 43.5 years, and the majority was male and African American. Most were receiving HIV therapy and 78% of those had achieved virologic suppression. Prevalent psychiatric diagnoses included major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety, and agoraphobia. Alcohol and cocaine/crack abuse and dependence were common substance use disorders. Current receipt of HIV therapy was less common among those diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. Agoraphobia was the only disorder associated with unsuppressed viral load. Psychiatric and substance use disorders are highly prevalent among an urban HIV clinic population, although we identified few associations between psychiatric diagnoses and HIV diseases status. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Pedersen, Dorthe Almind

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity.......Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. We aimed to investigate the association and temporal relation between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity....

  5. Life-history interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...... of the nomadic households and during these I came to understand the use of mobility in a complex context of continuity and change, identity and belonging in the Fulani community. Time line interviews became one of my favourite tool in the years to follow, a tool used both for my research in various settings...... of a time line for making life story interviews. I decided that the lack of authoritative literature should not omit me from teaching my students how to make a time line interview. After an introduction, they had to use the tool for making an interview each other concerning their learning journey to DPU...

  6. Interview of Terry Doyle

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video productions

    2012-01-01

    An Interview with Terry Doyle, Director of Corporate Development, Nokia. This is part of a series of interviews organized by the SMS Interest Group of Strategy Practice, as part of the preparation for the 2013 SMS Special conference at Lake Geneva which is co-sponsored by ATLAS/CERN. For more information: http://geneva.strategicmanagement.net The purpose of the interviews is to provide input for academics, business practitioners and consultants about fundamental questions of strategy in enterprises.

  7. Psychiatric disorders and sleep issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Eliza L

    2014-09-01

    Sleep issues are common in people with psychiatric disorders, and the interaction is complex. Sleep disorders, particularly insomnia, can precede and predispose to psychiatric disorders, can be comorbid with and exacerbate psychiatric disorders, and can occur as part of psychiatric disorders. Sleep disorders can mimic psychiatric disorders or result from medication given for psychiatric disorders. Impairment of sleep and of mental health may be different manifestations of the same underlying neurobiological processes. For the primary care physician, key tools include recognition of potential sleep effects of psychiatric medications and familiarity with treatment approaches for insomnia in depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Det kvalitative interview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    Bogen begynder med en teoretisk funderet introduktion til det kvalitative interview gennem en skildring af de mange forskellige måder, hvorpå samtaler er blevet brugt til produktion af viden. Opmærksomheden henledes specielt på de komplementære positioner, der kendetegner det oplevelsesfokuserede...... interview (fænomenologiske positioner) og det sprogfokuserede interview (diskursorienterede positioner), som henholdsvis fokuserer på interviewsamtalen som rapporter (om interviewpersonens oplevelser) og redegørelser (foranlediget af interviewsituationen). De følgende kapitler omhandler forskellige måder...... forskningsresultater baseret på kvalitative interview....

  9. The dialectic of friendship for people with psychiatric disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Katherine M; Gladstone, Brenda M; Crawford, Elaine Stasiulis

    2002-01-01

    In the psychiatric literature, the meaning and importance of friendship has remained largely unexplored, subsumed under the rubric of social support or viewed as a component of community integration. Twenty-one qualitative interviews were conducted with individuals suffering from psychiatric disabilities focusing on the meaning of friendship as they described it. Analysis revealed the contrasts, contradiction and paradox of friendship for this group of people. The ongoing struggles of people with psychiatric disabilities regarding the need to connect with others and have friends, and conversely, the need to be alone and to withdraw from others, was highlighted.

  10. Use of empathy in psychiatric practice: constructivist grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watling, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychiatry has faced significant criticism for overreliance on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and medications with purported disregard for empathetic, humanistic interventions. Aims To develop an empirically based qualitative theory explaining how psychiatrists use empathy in day-to-day practice, to inform practice and teaching approaches. Method This study used constructivist grounded theory methodology to ask (a) ‘How do psychiatrists understand and use empathetic engagement in the day-to-day practice of psychiatry?’ and (b) ‘How do psychiatrists learn and teach the skills of empathetic engagement?’ The authors interviewed 17 academic psychiatrists and 4 residents and developed a theory by iterative coding of the collected data. Results This constructivist grounded theory of empathetic engagement in psychiatric practice considered three major elements: relational empathy, transactional empathy and instrumental empathy. As one moves from relational empathy through transactional empathy to instrumental empathy, the actions of the psychiatrist become more deliberate and interventional. Conclusions Participants were described by empathy-based interventions which are presented in a theory of ’empathetic engagement’. This is in contrast to a paradigm that sees psychiatry as purely based on neurobiological interventions, with psychotherapy and interpersonal interventions as completely separate activities from day-to-day psychiatric practice. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28243463

  11. Childhood and adolescent onset psychiatric disorders, substance use, and failure to graduate high school on time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Joshua; Miller, Elizabeth; Joanie Chung, W-J; Schweitzer, Julie B

    2011-03-01

    We examined the joint predictive effects of childhood and adolescent onset psychiatric and substance use disorders on failure to graduate high school (HS) on time. Structured diagnostic interviews were conducted with a US national sample of adults (18 and over). The analysis sample included respondents with at least 8 years of education who were born in the US or arrived in the US prior to age 13 (N = 29,662). Psychiatric disorders, substance use and substance use disorders were examined as predictors of termination or interruption of educational progress prior to HS graduation, with statistical adjustment for demographic characteristics and childhood adversities. Failure to graduate HS on time was more common among respondents with any of the psychiatric and substance use disorders examined, ranging from 18.1% (specific phobia) to 33.2% (ADHD-combined type), compared with respondents with no disorder (15.2%). After adjustment for co-occurring disorders, significant associations with failure to graduate on time remained only for conduct disorder (OR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.57-2.26) and the three ADHD subtypes (Inattentive OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.44-2.20, Hyperactive-Impulsive OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.14-1.67, and Combined OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.66-2.56). Adjusting for prior disorders, tobacco use was associated with failure to graduate on time (OR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.80-2.16). Among substance users, substance use disorders were not associated with on-time graduation. The findings suggest that the adverse impact of childhood and adolescent onset psychiatric disorders on HS graduation is largely accounted for by problems of conduct and inattention. Adjusting for these disorders, smoking remains strongly associated with failure to graduate HS on time. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Creativity in ethnographic interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    2014-01-01

    to describe their everyday work life. By employing a methodological framework focusing on reflexive processes, interviews became consensual interactions, and the content of the interviews turned out to be analyses, interpretations and meaning making, that is, knowledge production. Interpretation and meaning...

  13. Questions in Reference Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1998-01-01

    Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…

  14. Interview, observation og dokumentanalyse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos

    2014-01-01

    Kapitlet giver et eksempel på hvordan man indenfor en mixed methods-tradition (metodekombination) kan kombinere interviews, dokumentanalyse og etnografiske observationer.......Kapitlet giver et eksempel på hvordan man indenfor en mixed methods-tradition (metodekombination) kan kombinere interviews, dokumentanalyse og etnografiske observationer....

  15. Interview with Danny Kaplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Kaplan, Danny

    2017-01-01

    Danny Kaplan is DeWitt Wallace Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science at Macalester College. He received Macalester's Excellence in teaching Award in 2006 and the CAUSE/USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2017. This interview took place via email on March 4-June 17, 2017. Topics covered in the interview include: (1) the current state of…

  16. Literacy and Informational Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decarie, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Informational interviews are valuable tools for improving writing, editing, and interviewing skills, and they are also extremely valuable in improving the soft skills that are valued by employers, such as confidence, adaptability, the ability to set and keep deadlines, the ability to manage risk, and so on. These soft skills, this article argues,…

  17. Doing Dirty Interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene

    in the position of a psychologist with past experiences within supervision and consultation/coaching. The framing of the interview was build around the theme “My role in keeping students out from dropping out of the Vocational Educational Training College.” We will discuss how both the interviewer...

  18. Comorbid psychiatric conditions as mediators to predict later social adjustment in youths with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Huey-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-08-06

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience long-term social impairment and their comorbid psychiatric conditions negatively impact adaptive functioning. The aims of the study are to investigate whether comorbid psychopathologies, such as anxiety/depression, inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and oppositional behaviors, mediated the link between autistic symptoms and social maladjustment. One hundred and twenty-four youths diagnosed with a clinical diagnosis of DSM-IV ASD (mean age, 10.6 ± 3.3 years) participated in this longitudinal study. They were assessed using semistructured diagnostic interviews on ASD and other psychiatric conditions at recruitment. Follow-up interviews took place approximately 3 years later (37.59 ± 15 months) while the parents reported to the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents on their children's social adjustment. Mediation models were used to examine the mediating effect of comorbid psychopathologies on social adjustment. Youths with ASD had worse school, peer, and home functions than controls at follow-up assessment. In general, comorbid psychiatric conditions mediated the link between autistic symptoms and different domains of social adjustment, independent of age, sex, and full-scale IQ. Additionally, we found specific mediating effects of anxiety/depression and inattention on school functions; anxiety/depression on peer relationships; and oppositional behaviors on home behaviors. Early comorbid psychopathologies may further impair later social adjustment in youths with ASD and an early identification and intervention of these comorbid conditions are suggested. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  20. Cinemeducation in Psychiatry: A Seminar in Undergraduate Medical Education Combining a Movie, Lecture, and Patient Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnigk, Olaf; Schreiner, Julia; Reimer, Jens; Emami, Roya; Naber, Dieter; Harendza, Sigrid

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric educators are often faced with students' negative attitudes toward psychiatry. A new type of seminar has been established in order to enable students to gain a deeper understanding of psychiatric illness. Method: A "cinemeducation seminar," combining a movie, a lecture, and a patient interview, has been established as part…

  1. Main clinical features in patients at their first psychiatric admission to Italian acute hospital psychiatric wards. The PERSEO study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Federico

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data are available on subjects presenting to acute wards for the first time with psychotic symptoms. The aims of this paper are (i to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients at their first psychiatric admission (FPA, including socio-demographic features, risk factors, life habits, modalities of onset, psychiatric diagnoses and treatments before admission; (ii to assess the aggressive behavior and the clinical management of FPA patients in Italian acute hospital psychiatric wards, called SPDCs (Servizio Psichiatrico Diagnosi e Cura = psychiatric service for diagnosis and management. Method Cross-sectional observational multi-center study involving 62 Italian SPDCs (PERSEO – Psychiatric EmeRgency Study and EpidemiOlogy. Results 253 FPA aged Conclusion Subjects presenting at their first psychiatric ward admission have often not undergone previous adequate psychiatric assessment and diagnostic procedures. The first hospital admission allows diagnosis and psychopharmacological treatment to be established. In our population, aggressive behaviors were rather frequent, although most commonly verbal. Psychiatric symptoms, as evaluated by psychiatrists and patients, improved significantly from admission to discharge both for FPA and non-FPA patients.

  2. Interviewing techniques for the Asian-American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Sue

    2006-05-01

    The cultures of racial and ethnic minorities influence many aspects of mental illness, including communication styles, symptoms, coping strategies, family and community support, and willingness to seek treatment. This article presents the effects of Asian American/Pacific Islanders' beliefs and behaviors related to mental health. Strategies to enhance the process and outcomes of the psychiatric interview with members of this populatior are addressed.

  3. Lessons learned from the study of masturbation and its comorbidity with psychiatric disorders in children: The first analytic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashakori, Ashraf; Safavi, Atefeh; Neamatpour, Sorour

    2017-04-01

    The main source of information about children's masturbation is more on the basis of case reports. Due to the lack of consistent and accurate information. This study aimed to determine prevalence and underlying factors of masturbation and its comorbidity with psychiatric disorders in children. In this descriptive-analytical study, among the children referred to the Pediatrics Clinic of Psychiatric Ward, Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Southwest Iran, 98 children were selected by convenience sampling in 2014. Disorders were diagnosed by clinical interview based on the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Psychiatric Disorders (DSM-IV) and the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4). We also used a questionnaire, containing demographic information about the patient and their family and also other data. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test with SPSS software version 16. Of the children who participated in this study (most of whom were boys), 31.6% suffered from masturbation. The phobias (p=0.002), separation anxiety disorder (p=0.044), generalized anxiety disorder (p=0.037), motor tics (p=0.033), stress disorder (p=0.005), oppositional defiant disorder (p=0.044), thumb sucking (p=0.000) and conduct disorder (p=0.001) were associated with masturbation. Masturbation was common in children referred to psychiatric clinic, and may be more associated with oppositional defiant disorder, or conduct disorder, some anxiety disorders, motor tics and other stereotypical behavior. Authors recommended more probing for psychiatric disorders in children with unusual sexual behavior.

  4. Association of trauma exposure with psychiatric morbidity in military veterans who have served since September 11, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedert, Eric A.; Green, Kimberly T.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth; Taber, Katherine H.; Mumford, Marinell Miller; Tupler, Larry A.; Morey, Rajendra A.; Marx, Christine E.; Weiner, Richard D.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examined the association of lifetime traumatic stress with psychiatric diagnostic status and symptom severity in veterans serving in the US military after 9/11/01. Method Data from 356 US military veterans were analyzed. Measures included a standardized clinical interview measure of psychiatric disorders, and paper-and-pencil assessments of trauma history, demo-graphic variables, intellectual functioning, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depression, alcohol misuse, and global distress. Results Ninety-four percent of respondents reported at least one traumatic stressor meeting DSM-IV criterion A for PTSD (i.e., life threatening event to which the person responded with fear, helplessness or horror), with a mean of four criterion A traumas. Seventy-one percent reported serving in a war-zone, with 50% reporting occurrence of an event meeting criterion A. The rate of current psychiatric disorder in this sample was: 30% PTSD, 20% major depressive disorder, 6% substance abuse or dependence and 10% for the presence of other Axis I psychiatric disorders. After accounting for demographic covariates and combat exposure, childhood physical assault and accident/disasters were most consistently associated with increased likelihood of PTSD. However, PTSD with no comorbid major depressive disorder or substance use disorder was predicted only by combat exposure and adult physical assault. Medical/unexpected-death trauma and adult physical assault were most consistently associated with more severe symptomatology. Conclusions Particular categories of trauma were differentially associated with the risk of psychiatric diagnosis and current symptom severity. These findings underscore the importance of conducting thorough assessment of multiple trauma exposures when evaluating recently post-deployed veterans. PMID:19232639

  5. Psychiatric disorders and traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Schwarzbold

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Marcelo Schwarzbold1, Alexandre Diaz1, Evandro Tostes Martins2, Armanda Rufino1, Lúcia Nazareth Amante1,3, Maria Emília Thais1, João Quevedo4, Alexandre Hohl1, Marcelo Neves Linhares1,5,6, Roger Walz1,61Núcleo de Pesquisas em Neurologia Clínica e Experimental (NUPNEC, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 2Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 3Departamento de Enfermagem, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 4Laboratório de Neurociências, UNESC, Criciúma, SC, Brazil; 5Departamento de Cirurgia, Hospital Universitário, UFSC, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil; 6Centro de Cirurgia de Epilepsia de Santa Catarina (CEPESC, Hospital Governador Celso Ramos, Florianópolis, SC, BrazilAbstract: Psychiatric disorders after traumatic brain injury (TBI are frequent. Researches in this area are important for the patients’ care and they may provide hints for the comprehension of primary psychiatric disorders. Here we approach epidemiology, diagnosis, associated factors and treatment of the main psychiatric disorders after TBI. Finally, the present situation of the knowledge in this field is discussed.Keywords: psychiatric disorders, traumatic brain injury, neuropsychiatry, diagnostic, epidemiology, pathophysiology

  6. The lived experience by psychiatric nurses of aggression and violence from patients in a Gauteng psychiatric institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimenyimana, E; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C; van Niekerk, V

    2009-09-01

    Caring for good people is difficult enough; to care for people who are either aggressive or violent is even more difficult. This is what psychiatric nurses working in the psychiatric institution in which research was done are exposed to on a daily basis. The aim of the research was to explore and describe the lived experience by psychiatric nurses of aggression and violence from patients in a Gauteng psychiatric institution. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual study design was utilised. Data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews and naïve sketches. Tesch 's (Creswell, 2004: 256) method of open coding and an independent coder were utilised for data analysis. This study shed some light on the lived experience by psychiatric nurses of aggression and violence from patients in a Gauteng psychiatric institution. The findings show that the level of violence and aggression to which psychiatric nurses are exposed is overwhelming and the consequences are alarming. The contributing factors to this violence and aggression are: the mental status and the conditions in which patients are admitted; the staff shortage; the lack of support among the members of the multidisciplinary team (MDT); and the lack of structured and comprehensive orientation among newly appointed staff members. As a result, psychiatric nurses are emotionally, psychologically, and physically affected. They then respond with the following emotions and behaviour: fear, anger, frustration, despair, hopelessness and helplessness, substance abuse, absenteeism, retaliation and the development of an "I don't care" attitude.

  7. Philosophical Hermeneutic Interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne K. Vandermause PhD, RN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes, exemplifies and discusses the use of the philosophical hermeneutic interview and its distinguishing characteristics. Excerpts of interviews from a philosophical hermeneutic study are used to show how this particular phenomenological tradition is applied to research inquiry. The purpose of the article is to lay out the foundational background for philosophical hermeneutics in a way that clarifies its unique approach to interviewing and its usefulness for advancing health care knowledge. Implications for health care research and practice are addressed.

  8. Psychiatric patient and anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joginder Pal Attri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with psychiatric illnesses are prescribed long-term drug treatment, and the anaesthesiologist must be aware of potential interactions with anaesthetic agents. Psychotropic drugs often given in combination with each other or with other non-psychiatric drugs generally exert profound effects on the central and peripheral neurotransmitter and ionic mechanisms. Hence, prior intake of these drugs is an important consideration in the management of the patient about to undergo anaesthesia and surgery. This article highlights the effects of anaesthetics on patients taking antipsychotics, tricyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors and lithium carbonate. The risk that should be considered in the perioperative period are the extent of surgery, the patient′s physical state, anaesthesia, the direct and indirect effects of psychotropics, risk of withdrawal symptoms and risk of psychiatric recurrence and relapse.

  9. Dissociative identity disorder among adolescents: prevalence in a university psychiatric outpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar, Vedat; Onder, Canan; Kilincaslan, Ayse; Zoroglu, Süleyman S; Alyanak, Behiye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative identity disorder (DID) and other dissociative disorders among adolescent psychiatric outpatients. A total of 116 consecutive outpatients between 11 and 17 years of age who were admitted to the child and adolescent psychiatry clinic of a university hospital for the 1st time were evaluated using the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale, adolescent version of the Child Symptom Inventory-4, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and McMaster Family Assessment Device. All patients were invited for an interview with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D) administered by 2 senior psychiatrists in a blind fashion. There was excellent interrater reliability between the 2 clinicians on SCID-D diagnoses and scores. Among 73 participants, 33 (45.2%) had a dissociative disorder: 12 (16.4%) had DID, and 21 (28.8%) had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified. There was no difference in gender distribution, childhood trauma, or family dysfunction scores between the dissociative and nondissociative groups. Childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction correlated with self-reported dissociation. Of the dissociative adolescents, 93.9% had an additional psychiatric disorder. Among them, only separation anxiety disorder was significantly more prevalent than in controls. Although originally designed for adults, the SCID-D is promising for diagnosing dissociative disorders in adolescents, its modest congruence with self-rated dissociation and lack of relationship between diagnosis and childhood trauma and family dysfunction suggest that the prevalence rates obtained with this instrument originally designed for adults must be replicated. The introduction of diagnostic criteria for adolescent DID in revised versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, would refine the assessment of dissociative disorders in this age group.

  10. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service......, and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics...

  11. A comprehensive psychiatric service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, A G

    1984-01-01

    , and an outpatient service. The number of chronic patients has not decreased, due to an influx of unruly senile patients. The close proximity of the service to the community has increased the pressure with regard to the care of such patients. Other services, such as outpatient treatment of alcoholics and neurotics......A comprehensive psychiatric service was established in 1969 in the Faroe Islands. This service was created as a department of a general hospital. The spheres covered by this department, operating in the midst of the community were: acute and chronic patients, a liaison-psychiatric service...

  12. Chronic widespread pain in patients with occupational spinal disorders: prevalence, psychiatric comorbidity, and association with outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Tom G; Towns, Benjamin L; Neblett, Randy; Theodore, Brian R; Gatchel, Robert J

    2008-08-01

    A prospective study assessing chronic widespread pain (CWP) and psychiatric comorbidities in patients with chronic disabling occupational spinal disorders (CDOSDs). To assess the prevalence of CWP, demographic characteristics, and associated psychiatric comorbidity among CDOSD patients, as well as determine if CWP is a risk factor for less successful one-year postrehabilitation socioeconomic outcomes. CWP is an essential criterion for diagnosing fibromyalgia. CWP is estimated to affect between 4.1% to 13.5% of the general population and it is associated with higher rates of psychiatric disorders and growing rates of disability. The prevalence of CWP, or its associations as a comorbidity, in patients with CDOSDs are unknown. The socioeconomic outcomes, demographic characteristics, and psychiatric comorbidity of CDOSD patients with CWP were compared to non-CWP patients within a cohort of consecutive CDOSD patients (n = 2730), treated in an interdisciplinary functional restoration program. CWP was determined according to American College of Rheumatology criteria. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth Edition at the beginning of the rehabilitation program. RESULTS.: In the CDOSD cohort, 32% of the patients (N = 878) met American College of Rheumatology criteria for CWP, relative to 4.1% to 13.5% within the general population. CWP patients (82%) were much more likely than non-CWP patients (16%) to have multisite pain complaints, leading to the finding that CDOSD patients with multisite pain showed a CWP prevalence of 70%. CWP patients were 1.5 times more likely to be female, more likely to have multiple compensable injuries, and had slightly elevated rates of pre- and postinjury Axis I psychopathology. Nevertheless, CWP was not associated with less successful 1-year socioeconomic outcomes. A surprisingly high frequency of CDOSD patients participating in

  13. National Health Interview Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...

  14. Low self-esteem and psychiatric patients: Part I – The relationship between low self-esteem and psychiatric diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, Peter H; Salsali, Mahnaz

    2003-01-01

    Background The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and the degree of lowered self-esteem across the spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Method The present study was carried out on a consecutive sample of 1,190 individuals attending an open-access psychiatric outpatient clinic. There were 957 psychiatric patients, 182 cases with conditions not attributable to a mental disorder, and 51 control subjects. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM III-R diagnostic criteria following detailed assessments. At screening, individuals completed two questionnaires to measure self-esteem, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale. Statistical analyses were performed on the scores of the two self-esteem scales. Results The results of the present study demonstrate that all psychiatric patients suffer some degree of lowered self-esteem. Furthermore, the degree to which self-esteem was lowered differed among various diagnostic groups. Self-esteem was lowest in patients with major depressive disorder, eating disorders, and substance abuse. Also, there is evidence of cumulative effects of psychiatric disorders on self-esteem. Patients who had comorbid diagnoses, particularly when one of the diagnoses was depressive disorders, tended to show lower self-esteem. Conclusions Based on both the previous literature, and the results from the current study, we propose that there is a vicious cycle between low self-esteem and onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, low self-esteem increases the susceptibility for development of psychiatric disorders, and the presence of a psychiatric disorder, in turn, lowers self-esteem. Our findings suggest that this effect is more pronounced with certain psychiatric disorders, such as major depression and eating disorders. PMID:12620127

  15. Low self-esteem and psychiatric patients: Part I - The relationship between low self-esteem and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, Peter H; Salsali, Mahnaz

    2003-02-11

    BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and the degree of lowered self-esteem across the spectrum of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: The present study was carried out on a consecutive sample of 1,190 individuals attending an open-access psychiatric outpatient clinic. There were 957 psychiatric patients, 182 cases with conditions not attributable to a mental disorder, and 51 control subjects. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM III-R diagnostic criteria following detailed assessments. At screening, individuals completed two questionnaires to measure self-esteem, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale. Statistical analyses were performed on the scores of the two self-esteem scales. RESULTS: The results of the present study demonstrate that all psychiatric patients suffer some degree of lowered self-esteem. Furthermore, the degree to which self-esteem was lowered differed among various diagnostic groups. Self-esteem was lowest in patients with major depressive disorder, eating disorders, and substance abuse. Also, there is evidence of cumulative effects of psychiatric disorders on self-esteem. Patients who had comorbid diagnoses, particularly when one of the diagnoses was depressive disorders, tended to show lower self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS: Based on both the previous literature, and the results from the current study, we propose that there is a vicious cycle between low self-esteem and onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, low self-esteem increases the susceptibility for development of psychiatric disorders, and the presence of a psychiatric disorder, in turn, lowers self-esteem. Our findings suggest that this effect is more pronounced with certain psychiatric disorders, such as major depression and eating disorders.

  16. Interview mit Hagen Keller

    OpenAIRE

    Guglielmotti, Paola; Isabella, Giovanni; Tiziana LAZZARI; Varanini, Gian Maria

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this interview addresses the cultural, social and political milieu that shaped Hagen Keller’s education in Germany, the relations with both his mentor Gerd Tellenbach and the other scholars; the approach to prosopography to understand the power structures. Then the interview examines the Roman experience in the Sixties (a scientific and also human one); the book Adelsherrschaft und ständische Gesellschaft and the debate that has attracted; the relationship between local hist...

  17. Interview with Yakov Sinai

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Yakov Sinai is the recipient of the 2014 Abel Prize of the Norvegian Academy of Science and Letters. The interview was originally published in the September 2014 issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society.......Yakov Sinai is the recipient of the 2014 Abel Prize of the Norvegian Academy of Science and Letters. The interview was originally published in the September 2014 issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society....

  18. Depression in young adult psychiatric outpatients: delimiting early onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adriana; Ekselius, Lisa; Ramklint, Mia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in childhood, adolescent and adult onset of depression. Young psychiatric outpatients (n = 156) diagnosed with a lifetime depressive episode were divided into three groups according to age of onset of their first depressive episode: childhood (≤12 years, n = 21), adolescent (13-17 years, n = 58) and early adult onset (18-25 years, n = 77). Participants were assessed by diagnostic interviews and by questionnaires measuring previous life events and childhood developmental delays. Clinical characteristics and various risk factors were compared between groups. This clinical sample was dominated by women, with onset of their first depressive episode occurring during adolescence. Childhood onset was related to an increased number of depressive episodes, higher prevalence of personality disorders, more current social problems and more reported development delays during childhood regarding literacy learning, social skills and memory. They also reported more separation anxiety symptoms and neglect during childhood and more experiences of teenage pregnancies and abortions. Childhood onset of depression is associated with more severe symptoms, more psychosocial risk factors and childhood developmental delays. Because all onset groups shared many features, the results are inconclusive if there are distinct subgroups according to age of onset. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. "Psychiatric disorders in smokers seeking treatment for tobacco dependence: Relations with tobacco dependence and cessation": Correction to Piper et al. (2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Reports an error in "Psychiatric disorders in smokers seeking treatment for tobacco dependence: Relations with tobacco dependence and cessation" by Megan E. Piper, Stevens S. Smith, Tanya R. Schlam, Michael F. Fleming, Amy A. Bittrich, Jennifer L. Brown, Cathlyn J. Leitzke, Mark E. Zehner, Michael C. Fiore and Timothy B. Baker (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2010[Feb], Vol 78[1], 13-23). There was an error in the Method section in the World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the CIDI subsection. The authors characterized one of the anxiety conditions analyzed as "panic disorder". However, this should have been labeled as "panic attacks", consequently making the occurrence rates and relations the authors reported actually pertain to panic attacks, social phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2010-00910-005.) Objective: The present research examined the relation of psychiatric disorders to tobacco dependence and cessation outcomes. Data were collected from 1,504 smokers (58.2% women; 83.9% White; mean age = 44.67 years, SD = 11.08) making an aided smoking cessation attempt as part of a clinical trial. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview structured clinical interview. Tobacco dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Diagnostic groups included those who were never diagnosed, those who had ever been diagnosed (at any time, including in the past year), and those with past-year diagnoses (with or without prior diagnosis). Some diagnostic groups had lower follow-up abstinence rates than did the never diagnosed group (ps < .05). At 8 weeks after quitting, strong associations were found between cessation outcome and both past-year mood disorder and ever diagnosed anxiety disorder. At 6 months after quitting, those ever

  20. Experiences by student nurses during clinical placement in psychiatric units in a hospital

    OpenAIRE

    W.J.C. Van Rhyn; M.R. Gontsana

    2004-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted with the aim of discovering and describing experiences of psychiatric nursing students during clinical placement in a psychiatric unit. For the purpose of the study an unstructured interview was conducted with each participant during their first placement in a psychiatric unit to identify the factors experienced as stressful. The results indicated that all eight participants experienced average to high stress. Sources of stress identified included, among oth...

  1. Psychiatric impairment and

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-12-03

    Dec 3, 2002 ... Impairment and disability assessment on psychiatric grounds has always been subjective, controversial ... informed medical advisors doing their disability assessments. Many of these advisors have expressed ..... that will empower the affected employee and that is non- stigma- tising. In order to do so it is ...

  2. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated wh...

  3. Psychiatric genetics:AJP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pippa

    their caregivers in South Africa. The heritability of the majority of the psychiatric disorders is ... linkage analyses in a cohort of Bantu-speaking black South. Africans.17-22 Areas of implied linkage to schizophrenia ... one of the studies of a Bantu-speaking schizophrenia cohort. Table I. Glossary of genetic terminology. Allele.

  4. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Baldaçara,Leonardo; Borgio,João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda,Acioly Luiz Tavares de; Jackowski,Andrea Parolin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electron...

  5. Prevalence of dissociative disorders in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Brad; Smolin, Yvette; Kaplan, Margaret; Legatt, Michael E; Lipschitz, Deborah

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of DSM-IV dissociative disorders in an inner-city outpatient psychiatric population. Subjects were 231 consecutive admissions (84 men and 147 women, mean age=37 years) to an inner-city, hospital-based outpatient psychiatric clinic. The subjects completed self-report measures of dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale) and trauma history (Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire). Eighty-two patients (35%) completed a structured interview for dissociative disorders (Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule). The 82 patients who were interviewed did not differ significantly on any demographic measure or on the self-report measures of trauma and dissociation from the 149 patients who were not interviewed. Twenty-four (29%) of the 82 interviewed patients received a diagnosis of a dissociative disorder. Dissociative identity disorder was diagnosed in five (6%) patients. Compared to the patients without a dissociative disorder diagnosis, patients with a dissociative disorder were significantly more likely to report childhood physical abuse (71% versus 27%) and childhood sexual abuse (74% versus 29%), but the two groups did not differ significantly on any demographic measure, including gender. Chart review revealed that only four (5%) patients in whom a dissociative disorder was identified during the study had previously received a dissociative disorder diagnosis. Dissociative disorders were highly prevalent in this clinical population and typically had not been previously diagnosed clinically. The high prevalence of dissociative disorders found in this study may be related to methodological factors (all patients were offered an interview rather than only those who had scored high on a screening self-report measure) and epidemiological factors (extremely high prevalence rates for childhood physical and sexual abuse were present in the overall study population).

  6. Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph E.; Strauss, John; Strohmaier, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Findings from family and twin studies suggest that genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders do not in all cases map to present diagnostic categories. We aimed to identify specific variants underlying genetic effects shared between the five disorders in the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium......: autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia....

  7. Youth With Psychogenic Non-Syncopal Collapse Have More Somatic and Psychiatric Symptoms and Lower Perceptions of Peer Relationships Than Youth With Syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyer, Geoffrey L

    2017-11-20

    Little is known about somatic and psychiatric symptoms and perceived peer relationships of patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse. This study aimed to compare somatic and psychiatric symptoms and other elements potentially related to functional neurological symptom disorders between youth with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse and those with neurally mediated syncope. Before testing, patients completed a structured interview and questionnaire addressing current symptoms, previous psychiatric diagnoses, referrals, diagnostic testing, prescribed medications, and patient self-ratings of anxiety, depression, and perceived peer relationships. Compared with patients with syncope (n = 60), patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse (n = 60) had higher ratings for lightheadedness and vertigo, more abdominal pain, more chronic headaches, more fatigue, more sleep disturbances, more prescriptions for antidepressant medicines, more encephalograms performed, more referrals to psychiatry, and more psychiatric diagnoses including anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, previous nonfainting conversion disorders, and eating disorders (all p peer relationships (37 ± 12.3 versus 47.6 ± 7.9, p Peer relationships remained significantly lower (p = 0.001) when analyzed with anxiety and depression. Patients with psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse have more symptom complaints and perceptions of poorer peer social interactions than patients with syncope. These results broaden our understanding of the biopsychosocial profile that increases an individual's vulnerability to psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse specifically and to functional neurological symptom disorders in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phobias, other psychiatric comorbidities and chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corchs, Felipe; Mercante, Juliane P P; Guendler, Vera Z; Vieira, Domingos S; Masruha, Marcelo R; Moreira, Frederico R; Bernik, Marcio; Zukerman, Eliova; Peres, Mario F P

    2006-12-01

    Comorbidity of chronic migraine (CM) with psychiatric disorders, mostly anxiety and mood disorders, is a well-recognized phenomenon. Phobias are one of the most common anxiety disorders in the general population. Phobias are more common in migraineurs than non-migraineurs. The clinical profile of phobias in CM has never been studied. We investigated the psychiatric profile in 56 patients with CM using the SCID I/P interview. Lifetime criteria for at least one mental disorder was found in 87.5% of the sample; 75% met criteria for at least one lifetime anxiety disorder and 60.7% of our sample fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for lifetime phobic avoidant disorders. Mood and anxiety scores were higher in phobic patients than in non-phobic CM controls. Number of phobias correlated with higher levels of anxiety and depression. Phobias are common in CM. Its recognition may influence its management. Early treatment may lead to better prognosis.

  9. Preparation, translation and evaluation of face and content validity of the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA in Farsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Norouzi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Childhood is the time of onset for many psychiatric disorders. Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA is developed in response to the need for a standard and reliable tool for assessment of psychiatric disorders in preschool age. The aim of this study was to translate this tool to Farsi and evaluate the face and content validity of this precious and comprehensive tool. Methods: The process was forward translation to Farsi, evaluation for face and content validity, finalization of items within expert panel, backward translation to English, matching the original PAPA with randomly selected items from the backward translation version and revision as needed and finally evaluation for validity of the changes for localization and cultural considerations. Results: The research team translated original PAPA to Farsi. In the next step, evaluation for face and content validity was performed by expert panel, a mean of 30-35 items from 100 pages were revised and 7 items which were not compatible with social and cultural conditions in our country got localized. Two percent of pages from this forward translation (14 pages were randomly selected as a sample from the whole questionnaire in order to be back translated to Farsi and expert panel were asked to evaluate. This version was revised based on their comments. The localized items were evaluated based on certainty, necessity and appropriateness and revised if needed. Conclusion: Farsi version of PAPA diagnostic interview for preschool age is available and has face and content validity.

  10. Same-sex sexuality and psychiatric disorders in the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandfort, Theo G M; de Graaf, Ron; Ten Have, Margreet; Ransome, Yusuf; Schnabel, Paul

    2014-12-01

    Sexual orientation has been shown to be a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. This study compared whether sexual orientation-related disparities in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders are similar based on homosexual behavior versus attraction and tested whether, with increased acceptance of homosexuality, these disparities have diminished over time. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0 was administered with a total of 6,646 Dutch persons, aged 18 to 64 years. Between 2.0% and 2.5% of the participants reported same-sex sexual behavior in the preceding year or same-sex attraction. Homosexually active persons and persons with same-sex attraction reported a higher prevalence of disorders than heterosexual persons. There were more disparities in the prevalence of disorders based on sexual attraction than based on sexual behavior. Comparing these results with a previous study, showed that no significant changes over time have occurred in the pattern of health disparities. Sexual orientation continues to be a risk factor for psychiatric disorders, stressing the need for understanding the origins of these disparities.

  11. Lifetime prevalence of psychiatric morbidities, suicidality, and quality of life in a community population with the bimodal chronotype: A nationwide epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won-Hyoung; Jung, Doo-Young; Lee, Joo-Young; Chang, Sung-Man; Jeon, Hong-Jin; Lee, Jun-Young; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Bae, Jae-Nam; Hong, Jin Pyo; Cho, Maeng-Je; Hahm, Bong-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Chronotypes are classified as morning, evening, or intermediate, but there are reports of a bimodal type. This study was undertaken to describe the characteristics of the bimodal chronotype and to explore relationships between the bimodal type and psychiatric disorders, fatigue, and quality of life. A total of 2389 subjects from a Korean national epidemiological survey of psychiatric disorders responded during face-to-face interviews. The Korean Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to diagnose psychiatric disorders, and the Composite Scale of Morningness was used to assess chronotypes. Among intermediate-type subjects, those with a positive bimodal index were classified as bimodal type. In the present study, the proportions of bimodal, morning, intermediate, and evening types were 4.8%, 10.8%, 73.3%, and 11.1%, respectively. Distributions of sociodemographic variables were similar for the bimodal and intermediate types. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, any mood disorder and major depressive disorder were found to be significantly more associated with the bimodal type than the morning type, and dysthymic disorder was significantly more associated with the bimodal type than the intermediate type. For quality-of-life domains, moderate or extreme pain/discomfort was complained about more by subjects with the bimodal type than other types. In summary, the study shows chronotypes differ with respect to their relationships with mood disorder and quality of life. Before the bimodal type is classified as a clinically valid type, further investigations are needed to examine its psychological, physiological, and genetic characteristics.

  12. Minor Self-Harm and Psychiatric Disorder: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skegg, Keren; Nada-Raja, Shyamala; Moffit, Terrie E.

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which minor self-harm in the general population is associated with psychiatric disorder. A population-based sample of 980 young adults was interviewed independently about past-year suicidal and self-harm behavior and thoughts, and psychiatric disorders. Self-harm included self-harmful behaviors such as…

  13. Psychiatric Axis I Comorbidities among Patients with Gender Dysphoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Mazaheri Meybodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Cooccurring psychiatric disorders influence the outcome and prognosis of gender dysphoria. The aim of this study is to assess psychiatric comorbidities in a group of patients. Methods. Eighty-three patients requesting sex reassignment surgery (SRS were recruited and assessed through the Persian Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I. Results. Fifty-seven (62.7% patients had at least one psychiatric comorbidity. Major depressive disorder (33.7%, specific phobia (20.5%, and adjustment disorder (15.7% were the three most prevalent disorders. Conclusion. Consistent with most earlier researches, the majority of patients with gender dysphoria had psychiatric Axis I comorbidity.

  14. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Asa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the profile of acute and long-term psychiatric side effects associated with mefloquine. METHODS: Subjects (n = 73) reported to a Danish national register during five consecutive years for mefloquine associated side effects were included. Acute...... psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long......), and vitality (VT) in the mefloquine group compared to matched controls. CONCLUSION: The most frequent acute psychiatric problems were anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Data indicated that subjects experiencing acute mefloquine adverse side effects may develop long-term mental health problems...

  15. Prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Shyam Chand; Nanda, Satyan; Tripathi, Adarsh; Sawlani, Kamal Kumar; Gupta, Kamlesh Kumar; Himanshu, D; Verma, Ajay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders, especially anxiety and depression have been reported to have an increased prevalence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, but there is a paucity of data from India. Aim of our study is to study the frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in COPD patients and their correlation with severity of COPD, as per global initiative for obstructive lung disease guidelines. This study was conducted in outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital (King George's Medical University). A total of 74 COPD patients were included in this study and compared with 74 controls. The diagnosis and severity of COPD were assessed by spirometry. Psychiatric comorbidities were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview questionnaire. The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in COPD patients (28.4%) as compared to controls (2.7%). As regards to severity, the frequency was significantly increased in severe and very severe COPD. The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities in COPD patients increased significantly with the increase in duration of symptoms being present in 67% of patients with duration of symptoms more than 10 years and only 23% of patients with duration of symptoms ≤5 years. The frequency of psychiatric comorbidities is increased in COPD patients as compared to controls. We recommend that all patients with COPD should be screened for psychiatric comorbidity, if any.

  16. [ADHD in adult psychiatric outpatients: prevalence and comorbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Şahut; Fıstıkcı, Nurhan; Keyvan, Ali; Bilici, Mustafa; Çalışkan, Mecit

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adult psychiatric outpatients. Moreover, comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in adults with ADHD were determined. Patients with and without ADHD were compared regarding DSM Axis I-II comorbidity and sociodemographic characteristics. The study included patients that presented for the first time to a psychiatric outpatient clinic during a 3-month period and were evaluated for adult ADHD. A sociodemographic form, Wender Utah Rating Scale, Turgay's Adult ADD/ADHD Evaluation Scale, Structured Clinical Interview I and II, Symptom Check List-90-R, and Beck Depression Inventory were administered. The study included 246 patients. Among the 39 patients diagnosed with ADHD, 25 were female (64.1%) and 14 were male (35.9%), and the mean age was 27.38 ± 8.3 years. The prevalence of ADHD in adult psychiatric patients was 15.9%. Adults with ADHD usually presented due to comorbid psychiatric problems; major depression (43%), generalized anxiety disorder (23%), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (17%) were the most common comorbid diagnoses. Substance abuse (58.9%) and attempted suicide (38.5%) were among the most prevalent psychiatric problems. The present findings show that ADHD is an important comorbidity in adult patients that present to psychiatric clinics, and may cause serious mental health problems or complicate mental illness.

  17. Firearm Anticipatory Guidance Training in Psychiatric Residency Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H.; Thompson, Amy J.; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Mrdjenovich, Adam J.; Price, Joy A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Most suicides (60%) are committed with firearms, and most (80%) of individuals attempting suicide meet diagnostic criteria for mental illness. This study assessed the prevalence of firearm injury prevention training in psychiatric residency programs. Methods: A three-wave mail survey was sent to the directors of 179 psychiatric…

  18. Determinants of Seclusion After Aggression in Psychiatric Inpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vruwink, F.J.; Noorthoorn, E.O.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Nagel, J.E.L. van der; Hox, J.J.C.M.; Mulder, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    ome aggressive incidents in psychiatric wards result in seclusion, whereas others do not. We used the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised and the mental health trust's database to identify determinants that predicted seclusion after aggression. These consisted of demographic, diagnostic,

  19. Pattern and Prevalence of Psychiatric Consultations in Other Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Ickovics J, Hamburger M, Vianhov D. part of proactive measures to reduce. Mortality, CD4 cell count decline, and stigmatizations of mental illnesses among depressive symptoms among HIV- non-psychiatricclinicians. Epidemiology women: longitudinal. REFERENCES. 1. American Psychiatric Association,. Diagnostic and ...

  20. Interview with Gavin Butt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Alexandra Sofie, Jönsson

    2008-01-01

    We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory.......We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory....

  1. Compulsive buying: descriptive characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, G A; Faber, R J; de Zwaan, M; Raymond, N C; Specker, S M; Ekern, M D; Mackenzie, T B; Crosby, R D; Crow, S J; Eckert, E D

    1994-01-01

    Compulsive buying is infrequently described in the psychiatric literature despite suggestions that it may be prevalent. The authors investigated the demographics and phenomenology of this syndrome and assessed psychiatric comorbidity via interviews of both compulsive buyers and normal buyers. Twenty-four compulsive buyers were compared with 24 age- and sex-matched normal buyers using (1) a semistructured interview for compulsive buying and impulse control disorders, (2) a modified version of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, and (3) scales measuring compulsiveness, depression, and anxiety. The typical compulsive buyer was a 36-year-old female who had developed compulsive buying at age 17 1/2 and whose buying had resulted in adverse psychosocial consequences. Purchases were usually of clothes, shoes, jewelry, or makeup, which frequently went unused. Compared with normal buyers, compulsive buyers had a higher lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and eating disorders and were more depressed, anxious, and compulsive. Among compulsive buyers, 16 (66.7%) described buying that resembled obsessive compulsive disorder, whereas 23 (95.8%) described buying that resembled an impulse control disorder. Compulsive buying is a definable clinical syndrome that can result in significant psychosocial impairment and which displays features of both obsessive compulsive disorder and the impulse control disorders.

  2. Motivational Factors that Help in Coping with Barriers to Provision of Psychiatric Nursing Care: Perspective of Psychiatric Nurses in a Hospital Setting in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimba, Solomon Musa; Duma, Sinegugu

    2015-07-01

    This qualitative case study explored barriers to provision of psychiatric nursing care in a hospital in Plateau State, Nigeria, and revealed motivational factors that helped the nurses to cope with these barriers. Data collection methods included grand tour and in-depth interviews and participant observation. Motivational factors were related to the psychiatric nurse's individual intrinsic belief system, as well as to their intrinsic belief system as influenced by the environment. These motivational factors highlight how psychiatric nurses continue to cope with the barriers they face in provision of care. The findings indicate the need for hospital management to create and sustain an environment to complement the existing intrinsic motivation of psychiatric nurses to provide psychiatric nursing care, and to provide prompt and appropriate emotional and psychological support to psychiatric nurses worldwide.

  3. [Ability to detect psychiatric disorders by the family physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Elustondo, Sofía; Reneses, Blanca; Navalón, Aida; Martín, Olga; Ramos, Isabel; Fuentes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    To determine the ability of family physicians to detect psychiatric disorders, comparing the presence of psychiatric disorders detected using validated tests and referrals by family physicians. Cross-sectional, two-phase study. Primary healthcare centres in an urban area of Madrid. Patients between 18 and 65years attending primary healthcare centres for non-administrative purposes. To detect psychiatric disorders in the waiting room, an interview was performed using GHQ-28 and MULTICAGE CAD-4 in the screening phase (considered positive: score of 6 or higher on the GHQ-28 or a score 2 or higher on MULTICAGE CAD-4). Patients with a positive score and 20% with negative were recruited for the second phase (case identification) using MINI interview. During family physician consultation, the patient gave his doctor a card with an identification number to record the presence of psychiatric illness in his/her opinion and whether there was treatment with psychotropic drugs. A total of 628 subjects participated. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders corrected by two phase methodology was 31.7% (95%CI: 27.9 to 35.5). Of the 185 patients with a psychiatric disorder detected, 44.2% (95%CI: 36.7 to 51.7) were identified as patients with psychiatric disorders by their family physician. Disorders best detected were: hypomania, dysthymic disorder, depressive episode with melancholic symptoms, and panic disorder. A significant percentage of patients with possible psychiatric disorders detected with validated test have not been identified by their family physician. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceived Mental Illness Stigma among Youth in Psychiatric Outpatient Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Hackler, Dusty; McKinnon, Karen; Borges, Cristiane; Wright, Eric R.; Wainberg, Milton L.

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the experiences of mental illness stigma in 24 youth (58.3% male, 13-24 years, 75% Latino) in psychiatric outpatient treatment. Using Link and Phelan's (2001) model of stigmatization, we conducted thematic analysis of the interview texts, examining experiences of stigma at individual and structural levels, in addition to the…

  5. Concerns and Needs of University Students with Psychiatric Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Enid; Weiner, Judith

    1996-01-01

    A study using individual interviews with 24 university students with psychiatric disabilities identified five areas of concern: problems with focusing attention and organization, low self-esteem, problems with trust, stigma, and high stress levels. Findings point to need for comprehensive services, including peer support group, one-to-one…

  6. The Frequency of Cohesion Weakness in Psychiatric Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Giampiero; Fine, Jonathan

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of psychiatric patients' utterances during an interview indicated that the percentage of unclear cohesive ties was significantly higher among schizophrenics than in a group of patients with mixed diagnoses (mostly affective disorders). Cohesive weakness was a more frequent characteristic of the language of schizophrenic speakers.…

  7. The social support network for black psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ngubane

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out of almost 50% of Black inpatients in a state psychiatric hospital to evaluate the level of accessibility of the family network of the patients. Staff were interviewed on the problems they have with contacting families. The survey shows the extent of inadequate access and identifies reasons for the problem.

  8. Co–Morbid Psychiatric Disorders Nigerian Patients Suffering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, 28–item General Health Questionnaires and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales were used for first stage screening while the second stage interview utilised the Psychiatric Assessment Schedule. Results: The prevalence of psychotic morbidity was 37.5 % and 12.5% in the study ...

  9. Interviewing media workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Graf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.

  10. Interviewing the moderator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn

    2004-01-01

    There has been an upsurge of academic interest in using focus groups (FGs) as a main or stand-alone qualitative method. In this article, the authors introduce a recently developed ancillary method to FGs called interviewing the moderator. The method is employed immediately after an FG and consists...

  11. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...

  12. Interview with Srinivasa Varadhan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 9. Interview with Srinivasa Varadhan. S Varadhan R Sujatha. Face to Face Volume 17 Issue 9 September 2012 pp 903-912. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/09/0903-0912 ...

  13. The Reference Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Geraldine B.

    1972-01-01

    Good reference librarians need to be good interviewers. Unfortunately most librarians have not learned to use the technique of open questions to obtain information about the user and what he is looking for. Examples of open and closed questions with typical responses are given. (4 references) (DH)

  14. Interview with Pierre Deligne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Pierre Deligne is the recipient of the 2013 Abel Prize of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. This interview was conducted in May 2013 in conjunction with the Abel Prize celebration. The article originally appeared in the September 2013 issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical...

  15. Interview With Shelley Harwayne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Peggy; Koshewa, Allen

    2003-01-01

    Interviews Shelley Harwayne, founder of the Manhattan New School, who has been named one of 10 new regional superintendents for New York City's public school system. Explains that Shelley's work is renowned in literacy. Discusses leadership, diversity, teaching, and professional development. (PM)

  16. TECHNOS Interview: Esther Dyson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, Mardell

    1997-01-01

    This interview with Esther Dyson, who is president and owner of EDventure Holdings which focuses on emerging information technology worldwide, discusses personal responsibility for technology; government's role; content ownership and intellectual property; Internet development; education and computers; parents' role in education; teacher…

  17. Interview with Dennis Pearl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Allan; Pearl, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Dennis Pearl is Professor of Statistics at Pennsylvania State University and Director of the Consortium for the Advancement of Undergraduate Statistics Education (CAUSE). He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association. This interview took place via email on November 18-29, 2016, and provides Dennis Pearl's background story, which describes…

  18. Het cultureel interview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martine Lammertink; prof Berno van Meijel

    2014-01-01

    In Nurse Academy verscheen het volgende artikel met Martine Lammertink van PsyQ / Parnassia Groep als eerste auteur:Lammertink, M. & van Meijel, B. (2014). Het cultureel interview. Nurse Academy GGZ, 3, 32 - 35. Ook Robert Meijburg, opleider Parnassia Groep, en Diana Polhuis, Hoofdopleider GGZ-VS,

  19. Indepth interviews with 244 female suicide attempters and their associates in northern China: understanding the process and causes of the attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianyun; Phillips, Michael R; Cohen, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Attempted suicide, a deliberate self-directed behavior situated within the unique social world of an individual, is a major risk factor for suicide. Efforts aimed at addressing female suicide must be based on understanding their perceived causes and the meaning of this behavior. This study describes the perceived causes of suicidal behaviors to determine preventive measures of female suicide in China. An in-depth interview about the process and causes of suicidal behavior as well as a detailed structured and a standardized diagnostic interview were administered to 244 female attempters treated at general hospitals and, separately, to their relatives. The perceived three most frequent causes of the attempts were interpersonal conflict (87%), psychological problems (33%), and conflict between others that affected the subject (27%). On average 2.2 causes were identified for each case. The identification in the in-depth interviews of psychological problems as a cause of the attempt was concordant with the results of the independent psychiatric exam identifying a current DSM-IV mental disorder in 38% of cases (Kappa=0.64). Preventive measures of improving interpersonal and problem-solving skills should be developed and assessed for addressing female suicide in China besides expansion of psychiatric services.

  20. Efficasy of Different Psychiatric Treatment Methods of Liaison Psychiatrist in Treatment of Women with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Sanda; Gugić, Damir; Katinić, Križo; Topić, Jelena

    2015-06-01

    Being diagnosed with breast cancer is a traumatic event that can lead to development of different mental disorders and influences all aspects of affected woman's life. Anxiety and Depressive Disorders in physically ill people still don't have clear diagnostic criteria which make diagnosis and treatment very difficult since different psychiatric therapeutic approaches have different effects. The aim was to evaluate influence of separate and combined psychotherapeutic approach (psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral) and psychopharmacotherapy on decrease of anxiety and depression in breast cancer patients. The sample consisted of 120 subjects divided into four groups. The first group of patients was treated with psychopharmacotherapy, the second group received psychotherapy, the third group was treated with the combination of psychopharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, and the fourth group of patients didn't receive any kind of psychiatric treatment. We used psychotherapeutic interview with detailed clinical assessment using DSM-IV criteria for mental disorders, specially structured non-standardized questionnaire for assessment of etiological factors in development of mental disorders, Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D). The subjects filled the questionnaires on entry, one moth and two months after the beginning of research. Psychotherapeutic treatment was conducted once a week. All of the therapeutic approaches of liaison psychiatrist applied in the treatment of women with breast cancer are successful in reduction of anxiety and depression. Liaison psychiatrist's combined approach of psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer patients with depression obtained better results than separate approach.

  1. Psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts among adolescents victimized by school bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Young Rong; Park, Jae Hong

    2017-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional school-based study to investigate psychiatric disorders and suicide risk among adolescents victimized by bullying. The study was designed in two stages. In the screening stage, 33,038 middle school students were screened for psychopathology. Next, in the face-to-face interview stage, 1196 participants were assessed for psychiatric disorders using a structured diagnostic instrument. We also collected information about the participants' experiences of bullying and history of suicidal ideation/attempts. The results indicate that adolescents with a history of bullying victimization were more likely to be diagnosed with depression and psychosis than those without such a history. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that bullying victimization was significantly associated with suicide attempts even after adjusting for demographic characteristics, depression and psychosis. Bullying victimization is a risk factor for depression, psychosis, and suicide ideation and attempts. The findings warrant an early intervention and suicide prevention program for victimized students and anti-bullying policies in schools.

  2. Detection of malingering of psychiatric disorder with the personality assessment inventory: an investigation of criminal defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, L Thomas; Toomey, Joseph P; Fila, Katarzna; Duncan, Scott

    2007-02-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) Validity scales for the detection of malingered psychiatric disorders, we divided a sample of criminal defendants referred for forensic evaluation by the federal courts into malingering and not malingering groups based on their performance on the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (Rogers, Gillis, & Bagby, 1990). Logistic regression analyses (LGAs) revealed that there were no differences between the malingering and not malingering groups with respect to age, race, years of education, history of drug abuse, or number of previous felony convictions. LGA with malingering versus not malingering as the criterion revealed that the PAI Negative Impression Management (NIM) scale but not the Rogers Discriminant Function (RDF; Rogers, Sewell, Morey & Ustad, 1996) nor the Malingering index (MAL; Morey, 1996) significantly differentiated the malingering from the not malingering group. Receiver operating characteristics analyses demonstrated acceptable sensitivity and specificity for the NIM scale but not the RDF scale or the MAL index. We discuss the results in terms of the suggested cutoff scores for the PAI Validity scales in detecting criminal defendants who are attempting to feign psychiatric disorder.

  3. [Rheumatic fibromyalgia: psychiatric features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarró Alvarez, S

    2002-01-01

    Rheumatic fibromyalgia, also known as fibrositis or myofascial pain, is a common syndrome whose diagnoses, founded mainly on physical examination, usually delays due to symptom unspecificity, amount of complementary tests requested and intercourse with psychiatric disorders. Psychyatrists and psychologists get often involved in fibromyalgia treatment. Its proper knowledge prevents not only physicians and patients' psychological discourage but also development of depression and mental health expenses, as well as allows designing a treatment plan according to the main symptoms which may offer improvement chances to fibromyalgia patients. This article intends to offer an up-to-date and complete information about this entity, focused on psychiatric aspects, to better identify and manage such a puzzling disease.

  4. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder on a psychiatric inpatient ward and the value of a screening question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Akyüz, Elvan U; Hodsoll, John

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) on an inpatient ward in the UK with a larger sample than previously studied and to investigate the value of a simple screening question during an assessment interview. Four hundred and thirty two consecutive admissions were screened for BDD on an adult psychiatric ward over a period of 13 months. Those who screened positive had a structured diagnostic interview for BDD. The prevalence of BDD was estimated to be 5.8% (C.I. 3.6-8.1%). Our screening question had a slightly low specificity (76.6%) for detecting BDD. The strength of this study was a larger sample size and narrower confidence interval than previous studies. The study adds to previous observations that BDD is poorly identified in psychiatric inpatients. BDD was identified predominantly in those presenting with depression, substance misuse or an anxiety disorder. The screening question could be improved by excluding those with weight or shape concerns. Missing the diagnosis is likely to lead to inappropriate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Reliability and validity of the German version of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doering, Stephan; Burgmer, Markus; Heuft, Gereon; Menke, Dina; Bäumer, Brigitta; Lübking, Margit; Feldmann, Marcus; Hörz, Susanne; Schneider, Gudrun

    2013-08-13

    The assessment of personality organization and its observable behavioral manifestations, i.e. personality functioning, has a long tradition in psychodynamic psychiatry. Recently, the DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning Scale has moved it into the focus of psychiatric diagnostics. Based on Kernberg's concept of personality organization the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO) was developed for diagnosing personality functioning. The STIPO covers seven dimensions: (1) identity, (2) object relations, (3) primitive defenses, (4) coping/rigidity, (5) aggression, (6) moral values, and (7) reality testing and perceptual distortions. The English version of the STIPO has previously revealed satisfying psychometric properties. Validity and reliability of the German version of the 100-item instrument have been evaluated in 122 psychiatric patients. All patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and were assessed by means of the STIPO. Moreover, all patients completed eight questionnaires that served as criteria for external validity of the STIPO. Interrater reliability varied between intraclass correlations of .89 and 1.0, Crohnbach's α for the seven dimensions was .69 to .93. All a priori selected questionnaire scales correlated significantly with the corresponding STIPO dimensions. Patients with personality disorder (PD) revealed significantly higher STIPO scores (i.e. worse personality functioning) than patients without PD; patients cluster B PD showed significantly higher STIPO scores than patients with cluster C PD. Interrater reliability, Crohnbach's α, concurrent validity, and differential validity of the STIPO are satisfying. The STIPO represents an appropriate instrument for the assessment of personality functioning in clinical and research settings.

  6. Reliability and validity of the German version of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The assessment of personality organization and its observable behavioral manifestations, i.e. personality functioning, has a long tradition in psychodynamic psychiatry. Recently, the DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning Scale has moved it into the focus of psychiatric diagnostics. Based on Kernberg’s concept of personality organization the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO) was developed for diagnosing personality functioning. The STIPO covers seven dimensions: (1) identity, (2) object relations, (3) primitive defenses, (4) coping/rigidity, (5) aggression, (6) moral values, and (7) reality testing and perceptual distortions. The English version of the STIPO has previously revealed satisfying psychometric properties. Methods Validity and reliability of the German version of the 100-item instrument have been evaluated in 122 psychiatric patients. All patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and were assessed by means of the STIPO. Moreover, all patients completed eight questionnaires that served as criteria for external validity of the STIPO. Results Interrater reliability varied between intraclass correlations of .89 and 1.0, Crohnbach’s α for the seven dimensions was .69 to .93. All a priori selected questionnaire scales correlated significantly with the corresponding STIPO dimensions. Patients with personality disorder (PD) revealed significantly higher STIPO scores (i.e. worse personality functioning) than patients without PD; patients cluster B PD showed significantly higher STIPO scores than patients with cluster C PD. Conclusions Interrater reliability, Crohnbach’s α, concurrent validity, and differential validity of the STIPO are satisfying. The STIPO represents an appropriate instrument for the assessment of personality functioning in clinical and research settings. PMID:23941404

  7. Psychiatric assessment of severe presentations in autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bryan H; de Lacy, Nina; Siegel, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum and related disorders and intellectual disability are not protected from the experience of psychiatric illnesses. Many factors can contribute to exacerbation of existing behavioral symptoms or to the emergence of new psychiatric problems. The psychiatric assessment must thus take into account a range of possible etiologic or contributory factors. The approach outlined in this article highlights the value of assessing 4 broad domains, including diagnostic (genetic) factors, medical considerations, developmental influences, and environmental factors. Examples of how the consideration of each of these domains may inform the diagnostic formulation are highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Association of Fluid Intelligence and Psychiatric Disorders in a Population-Representative Sample of US Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Platt, Jonathan; Kaufman, Alan S; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2017-02-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the association of psychiatric disorders with intelligence, few population-based studies of psychiatric disorders have assessed intelligence. To investigate the association of fluid intelligence with past-year and lifetime psychiatric disorders, disorder age at onset, and disorder severity in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. National sample of adolescents ascertained from schools and households from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement, collected 2001 through 2004. Face-to-face household interviews with adolescents and questionnaires from parents were obtained. The data were analyzed from February to December 2016. DSM-IV mental disorders were assessed with the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and included a broad range of fear, distress, behavior, substance use, and other disorders. Disorder severity was measured with the Sheehan Disability Scale. Fluid IQ measured with the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test, normed within the sample by 6-month age groups. The sample included 10 073 adolescents (mean [SD] age, 15.2 [1.50] years; 49.0% female) with valid data on fluid intelligence. Lower mean (SE) IQ was observed among adolescents with past-year bipolar disorder (94.2 [1.69]; P = .004), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (96.3 [0.91]; P = .002), oppositional defiant disorder (97.3 [0.66]; P = .007), conduct disorder (97.1 [0.82]; P = .02), substance use disorders (alcohol abuse, 96.5 [0.67]; P Intelligence was not associated with posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorders, and anxiety disorders other than specific phobia, and was positively associated with past-year major depression (mean [SE], 100 [0.5]; P = .01). Associations of fluid intelligence with lifetime disorders that had remitted were attenuated compared with past-year disorders, with the exception of separation anxiety disorder. Multiple past

  9. Autism in the Faroe Islands: diagnostic stability from childhood to early adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočovská, Eva; Billstedt, Eva; Ellefsen, Asa; Kampmann, Hanna; Gillberg, I Carina; Biskupstø, Rannvá; Andorsdóttir, Guðrið; Stóra, Tormóður; Minnis, Helen; Gillberg, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Childhood autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been regarded as one of the most stable diagnostic categories applied to young children with psychiatric/developmental disorders. The stability over time of a diagnosis of ASD is theoretically interesting and important for various diagnostic and clinical reasons. We studied the diagnostic stability of ASD from childhood to early adulthood in the Faroe Islands: a total school age population sample (8-17-year-olds) was screened and diagnostically assessed for AD in 2002 and 2009. This paper compares both independent clinical diagnosis and Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO) algorithm diagnosis at two time points, separated by seven years. The stability of clinical ASD diagnosis was perfect for AD, good for "atypical autism"/PDD-NOS, and less than perfect for Asperger syndrome (AS). Stability of the DISCO algorithm subcategory diagnoses was more variable but still good for AD. Both systems showed excellent stability over the seven-year period for "any ASD" diagnosis, although a number of clear cases had been missed at the original screening in 2002. The findings support the notion that subcategories of ASD should be collapsed into one overarching diagnostic entity with subgrouping achieved on other "non-autism" variables, such as IQ and language levels and overall adaptive functioning.

  10. Autism in the Faroe Islands: Diagnostic Stability from Childhood to Early Adult Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Kočovská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been regarded as one of the most stable diagnostic categories applied to young children with psychiatric/developmental disorders. The stability over time of a diagnosis of ASD is theoretically interesting and important for various diagnostic and clinical reasons. We studied the diagnostic stability of ASD from childhood to early adulthood in the Faroe Islands: a total school age population sample (8–17-year-olds was screened and diagnostically assessed for AD in 2002 and 2009. This paper compares both independent clinical diagnosis and Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO algorithm diagnosis at two time points, separated by seven years. The stability of clinical ASD diagnosis was perfect for AD, good for “atypical autism”/PDD-NOS, and less than perfect for Asperger syndrome (AS. Stability of the DISCO algorithm subcategory diagnoses was more variable but still good for AD. Both systems showed excellent stability over the seven-year period for “any ASD” diagnosis, although a number of clear cases had been missed at the original screening in 2002. The findings support the notion that subcategories of ASD should be collapsed into one overarching diagnostic entity with subgrouping achieved on other “non-autism” variables, such as IQ and language levels and overall adaptive functioning.

  11. Psychiatric and psychosocial correlates of sexual risk behavior among adults with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2007-04-01

    Persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This study examined multivariate correlates of sexual risk among 152 adults with SMI receiving outpatient psychiatric treatment. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. The majority was sexually active (65%), and many reported unprotected intercourse (73%), multiple partners (45%), and sex trading (21%) in the past year. Logistic regression models found that sexual behaviors were differentially associated with non-psychotic disorder, psychiatric symptoms, substance abuse, childhood sexual abuse, romantic partnership, and social support (all ps < .05). Findings underscore the need for targeted HIV prevention interventions that address psychiatric and psychosocial risk factors.

  12. Amalia Ballarino s interview

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Interview to Amalia Ballarino (CERN, TE) on the development of new electric power cables based on the superconducting material magnesium diboride (MgB2) for the Hi-Lumi LHC and for the transport of electricity from clean power plants . The development was carried out in collaboration with a team led by prof. Carlo Rubbia at the IASS (Institute for Advanced Sustainable Studies), Potsdam, Germany.

  13. Interview with Steve Mellema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Conducted by Ken; Membrey, Jill

    2000-11-01

    Dr Steven H Mellema is Associate Professor and Chair of Physics at Gustavus Adolphus College in Saint Peter, Minnesota, USA. He has been on the International Advisory Panel for Physics Education since 1997 and earlier this year he joined the journal's Editorial Board for its Spring meeting in London. He subsequently agreed to undergo a `People in physics' interview and the result of this is set out below.

  14. ANNUAL INTERVIEWS (MAPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The calendar for the 2002/2003 annual interview programme is confirmed as normally from 15 November 2002 to 15 February 2002 as foreseen in Administrative Circular N° 26 (rev. 2). However, where it is preferred to be as close as possible to 12 months since the last interview, supervisors and staff concerned may agree to the interview taking place up to 15 March 2003. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of divisional re-restructurings and detachments this year. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage leads directly to the page with the form. In collaboration with AS Division, the MAPS form including the personal data for the first page can be generated via the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) application. For this exercise each staff member can now generate his/her own MAPS form. Information about how to do this is available here. Human Resources Division Tel. ...

  15. The rationale, development and reliability of a new screening psychiatric instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, T K; Ghubash, R; el-Rufaie, O E; Abou-Saleh, M T

    1999-04-01

    This paper describes the rationale, development, reliability and validity of a new screening psychiatric instrument. The instrument comprises 26 items that tap the cardinal features of main psychiatric categories as defined by ICD-10 and DSM-IV. These items were adapted from various structured and semi-structured diagnostic interviews that yield ICD-10 and DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses. After a training course, 12 trainees and the trainer rated blindly the 26 items on 45 subjects (22 with psychopathology and 23 without). Inter-rater reliability coefficient (Kappa) was estimated between trainees and the trainer on each item of the instrument. The total score on the new instrument was then correlated with the total score on the Arabic Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and the Arabic version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) in a random sample from the general population (n = 365). Logistic regression was utilised to estimate the power of the total score on the new instrument in discriminating between cases and non-cases as classified by the SRQ-20. Excellent levels of agreement (Kappa > 0.80) were found for all items except for obsession (Kappa = 0.65) and for depressed mood (Kappa = 0.70). Moderate correlations were found between the total score on the new instrument and total score on SRQ-20 (r = 0.69) and the total score on the Arabic GHQ (r = 0.7). The new instrument correctly classified 89% of subjects into cases and non-cases. The results of this study indicate that the new instrument is a highly reliable and valid screening instrument. The authors are now investigating its test-retest reliability and its procedural validity.

  16. ADHD and Psychiatric Comorbidity: Functional Outcomes in a School-Based Sample of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffe, Steven P; Visser, Susanna N; Holbrook, Joseph R; Danielson, Melissa L; Geryk, Lorie L; Wolraich, Mark L; McKeown, Robert E

    2015-11-25

    Investigate the prevalence and impact of psychiatric comorbidities in community-based samples of schoolchildren with/without ADHD. Teachers and parents screened children in South Carolina (SC; n = 4,604) and Oklahoma (OK; n = 12,626) for ADHD. Parents of high-screen and selected low-screen children received diagnostic interviews (SC: n = 479; OK: n = 577). Psychiatric disorders were increased among children with ADHD and were associated with low academic performance. Conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder (CD/ODD) were associated with grade retention (ODD/CD + ADHD: odds ratio [OR] = 3.0; confidence interval [CI] = [1.5, 5.9]; ODD/CD without ADHD: OR = 4.0; CI = [1.7, 9.7]). School discipline/police involvement was associated with ADHD alone (OR = 3.2; CI = [1.5, 6.8]), ADHD + CD/ODD (OR = 14.1, CI = [7.3, 27.1]), ADHD + anxiety/depression (OR = 4.8, CI = [1.6, 14.8]), and CD/ODD alone (OR = 2.8, CI = [1.2, 6.4]). Children with ADHD + anxiety/depression had tenfold risk for poor academic performance (OR = 10.8; CI = [2.4, 49.1]) compared to children with ADHD alone. This should be interpreted with caution due to the wide confidence interval. Most children with ADHD have psychiatric comorbidities, which worsens functional outcomes. The pattern of outcomes varies by type of comorbidity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Psychiatric Status across Body Mass Index in a Mediterranean Spanish Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Gutiérrez-Bedmar

    Full Text Available Mental and body weight disorders are among the major global health challenges, and their comorbidity may play an important role in treatment and prevention of both pathologies. A growing number of studies have examined the relationship between psychiatric status and body weight, but our knowledge is still limited.The present study aims to investigate the cross-sectional relationships of psychiatric status and body mass index (BMI in Málaga, a Mediterranean city in the South of Spain.A total of 563 participants were recruited from those who came to his primary care physician, using a systematic random sampling, non-proportional stratified by BMI categories. Structured clinical interviews were used to assess current Axes-I and II mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR. BMI was calculated as weight (Kg divided by square of height in meters (m2. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between BMI and the presence of any mental disorder. BMI was introduced in the models using restricted cubic splines.We found that high BMI values were directly associated with mood and adjustment disorders, and low BMI values were directly associated with avoidant and dependent personality disorders (PDs. We observed an inverse relationship between low BMI values and cluster A PDs. There were not significant relationships between anxiety or substance-related disorders and BMI.Psychiatric status and BMI are related in a Mediterranean Spanish population. A multidisciplinary approach to both pathologies becomes increasingly more necessary.

  18. PSYCHIATRIC ASPECTS OF HUNTINGTON DISEASE – CASE REPORTS

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    Mirela Batta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Huntington disease occurrs rarely, it can be encountered not only by neurologists and psychiatrists but also by other medical practitioners. Its characteristic features are involuntary movements, cognitive disorders and gradual development of dementia. Diagnosis is given on the basis of these clinical features, positive familial anamnesis, with the laboratory exclusion of other neuropsychiatric diseases and with the help of neuroimaging methods (in particular NMR. The disease can be only confirmed by means of genetic analysis.Patients and methods. In this article, four cases of patients with Huntington disease and diverse psychiatric disorders that were hospitalised at the psychiatric department of the Maribor General Hospital between October 2002 and March 2003 are described. All the patients fulfilled the valid criteria for the diagnosis of Huntington disease. However, they differed according to their accompanying psychiatric psychopathology, age and social problems.Conclusions. The purpose of this article is to draw attention to different psychiatric symptoms and clinical manifestations of Huntington disease that are often misleading in the diagnostic process. In addition, exigency of early diagnostics, guidelines for referrals to genetic testing and psychiatric monitoring of these patients are emphasised.

  19. Psychiatric and behavioral comorbidities in epilepsy: A critical reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T; Altalib, Hamada H; Devinsky, Orrin

    2017-07-01

    Psychiatric and behavioral disorders are important aspects of epilepsy and have received increasing attention in the last several years. The literature upon which most of the field relies contains some biases that must be carefully examined and resolved in future studies. First, in the pediatric epilepsy literature, many reports find that children with epilepsy have high levels of behavioral and psychiatric disorders when compared to appropriate controls. Most of these studies rely on parent-proxy completed instruments to assess these behavioral endpoints. Parents' reports are not objective but reflect parents' reactions and emotions. Increasing evidence suggests inherent biases in proxy reports and highlights the need to assess children directly. Second, periictal phenomena may be mischaracterized as underlying mood disorders. Third, many studies report elevated levels of psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of epilepsy, suggesting an inherent relation between the two types of disorders. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures, while widely recognized as posing a diagnostic dilemma in the clinic, may account for some of these research findings. Diagnostic errors between epilepsy and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures need careful consideration when evaluating studies demonstrating associations between psychiatric disorders and epilepsy or poorer seizure control in association with psychiatric disorders in people who have epilepsy. Mental health concerns are important for everyone. An accurate, undistorted understanding of the relation between mental health disorders and epilepsy is essential to ensure appropriate therapy and to avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful treatments and common misconceptions. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  20. Suicidal behavior and abuse in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, M L; Asnis, G M; Lipschitz, D S; Chorney, P

    1995-01-01

    The present study examines the relationship between suicidal behaviors and histories of abuse in psychiatric outpatients. Two hundred fifty-one psychiatric outpatients were evaluated for history of abuse, suicidal behavior, demographics, and clinical characteristics using self-report instruments and a face-to-face interview. Logistic regression analysis indicated that physical abuse (battering) in adulthood and histories of a combination of childhood and adulthood abuse were significant predictors of past suicide attempts and current suicidal ideation. Victims of abuse were more likely than nonvictim controls to have been suicidal at a younger age and to have made multiple suicide attempts. Among patients with a history of abuse, suicide attempters could be distinguished from nonattempters on the basis of higher levels of dissociation, depression, and somatization. Abusive experiences in adulthood appear to play an important role in suicidal behavior among psychiatric outpatients. High levels of specific symptoms (i.e., depression, somatization, and dissociation) among patients with a history of abuse can help to identify outpatients at risk for suicidal behavior.

  1. [Initial contact in clinical interview with patients suffering from chronic insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, J M

    1994-01-01

    One of the most controversial issue concerning chronic insomnia is its association with psychopathology. Many patients tend to present their sleep disturbances as isolated, whereas others admit that they have difficulties in other sectors of their life too. If psychopathology exists in chronic insomnia, it should manifest itself in the form of defensive mechanisms which can be clinically observed. In order to have information concerning this problem, the initial interview of patients with chronic insomnia has been analysed in every details, in order to detect behavioural features and characteristics of verbal expression, indicating that defense mechanisms are working. A group of 100 patients from the specialized consultation for sleep disorders has been studied They were referred by their physicians. The patients with a somatic disease or a psychiatric condition corresponding to a diagnostic on axis I of DSM III-R were not included. The patients with a form of insomnia corresponding to psychophysiological insomnia, idiopathic insomnia or sleep state misperception of the international classification were included in this sample. For all patients except 2 of them, the initial interview was audiovisually recorded. This interview aimed at establishing the clinical features of the disturbance, the psychiatric and somatic condition as well as the history of the trouble and the treatment taken at the time or attempted in the past. After an initial open query: "what seems to be the problem?", a semi-structured interview was conducted to obtain information about nocturnal sleep, daytime condition, dream and parasomnia, the history of the disturbance and the treatment. Anxiety and depression, as well as other psychiatric conditions were systematically investigated. Under these conditions, the patients showed from the very beginning of the interview, noticeable characteristics in their behaviour and verbal expression. Therefore, it is essentially the first 10 minutes of the

  2. Psychiatric disorders in children with Prader-Willi syndrome-Results of a 2-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, S T; Collin, P J L; Hokken-Koelega, A C S

    2015-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as psychosis are highly prevalent in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). However, knowledge about the presence and progression of psychiatric disorders in children with PWS is very limited. Sixty-one children with PWS aged 7-17 years were tested using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) and Compulsive Behaviour Checklist (CBC), and 38/61 were retested after 2 years. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the association with age, gender, genetic subtype, and total IQ were assessed. In addition, occurrence and characteristics of compulsions were determined. Prior to the study, two boys were known with psychotic symptoms and treated with antipsychotics. At baseline, none scored positive for psychotic disorder. During the follow-up, only one boy with known psychotic symptoms required a dose adjustment of his antipsychotic medication. After 2 years, none of the children had a psychotic disorder according to the DISC. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) was the most common diagnosis and present in 20% of children with PWS, and this was not associated with age (β = -0.081, P = 0.546), gender (β = 0.013, P = 0.923), genetic subtype (β = -0.073, P = 0.584), or total IQ (β = -0.150, P = 0.267). The most common compulsions were hoarding and fixed hygiene sequences. In our large group of 61 children with PWS, the majority had no psychotic disorder and no progression was found during 2-year follow-up. ODD was present in 20% of children. No changes in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders were found during the 2-year follow-up study and genetic subtype was not related to psychosis, depression, or ODD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Perceptions Among Psychiatric Staff of Creating a Therapeutic Alliance With Patients on Community Treatment Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Susanne; Fridlund, Bengt

    2016-10-01

    A therapeutic alliance with a continuing collaboration between a patient and psychiatric staff is a resource for helping patients cope with the demands of coercive legislation. Knowledge exists describing coercion in inpatient care while the knowledge regarding the perceptions of creating a therapeutic alliance with patients on Community Treatment Orders (CTO) among psychiatric staff is scarce. To describe perceptions among psychiatric staff of creating a therapeutic alliance with patients on CTOs, an exploratory design using a phenomenographic method was employed. Thirteen semi-structured audio-taped interviews were conducted with psychiatric staff responsible for patients on CTOs. The staff worked in five different outpatient clinics and the interviews were conducted at their workplaces. The analysis resulted in in four metaphors: the persevering psychiatric staff, the learning psychiatric staff, the participating psychiatric staff, and the motivating psychiatric staff. Patients on CTOs were more time-consuming for psychiatric staff in care and treatment. Long-term planning is required in which the creation of a therapeutic alliance entails the patient gradually gaining greater self-awareness and wanting to visit the outpatient clinic. The professional-patient relationship is essential and if a therapeutic alliance is not created, the patient's continued care and treatment in the community is vulnerable.

  4. Training in Structured Diagnostic Assessment Using DSM-IV Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponniah, Kathryn; Weissman, Myrna M.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Verdeli, Helen; Gameroff, Marc J.; Mufson, Laura; Fitterling, Heidi; Wickramaratne, Priya

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Determining a patient's psychiatric diagnosis is an important first step for the selection of empirically supported treatments and a critical component of evidence-based practice. Structured diagnostic assessment covers the range of psychiatric diagnoses and is usually more complete and accurate than unstructured assessment. Method: We…

  5. Parents' stigmatizing attitudes toward psychiatric labels for ADHD and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohan, Jeneva L; Visser, Troy A W; Moss, Rachael G; Allen, Nicholas B

    2013-12-01

    OBJECTIVE There is concern that diagnostic labels for psychiatric disorders may invoke damaging stigma, especially for children. This study compared parents' stigma toward children with the symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or depression versus the same symptoms plus a psychiatric label. METHODS Parents (N=225) rated their stereotypes, prejudice, and social distance toward vignettes of children with a developmentally typical range of behaviors, symptoms that met DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD or depression, and the same symptoms plus a label of ADHD or depression. RESULTS Children described as having symptoms only were more stigmatized than children with typical behaviors (d=.97-2.69). Adding a diagnostic label resulted in significant but small increases in stigma (d=.12-.23). CONCLUSIONS Parents highly stigmatized children with psychiatric problems, but adding a diagnostic label made only a small contribution to worsening the stigma. The benefits of seeking psychiatric services-accessing treatment and providing validation-may outweigh fears of labeling.

  6. Understanding interpersonal function in psychiatric illness through multiplayer economic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King-Casas, Brooks; Chiu, Pearl H

    2012-07-15

    Interpersonal factors play significant roles in the onset, maintenance, and remission of psychiatric conditions. In the current major diagnostic classification systems for psychiatric disorders, some conditions are defined by the presence of impairments in social interaction or maintaining interpersonal relationships; these include autism, social phobia, and the personality disorders. Other psychopathologies confer significant difficulties in the social domain, including major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychotic disorders. Still other mental health conditions, including substance abuse and eating disorders, seem to be exacerbated or triggered in part by the influence of social peers. For each of these and other psychiatric conditions, the extent and quality of social support is a strong determinant of outcome such that high social support predicts symptom improvement and remission. Despite the central role of interpersonal factors in psychiatric illness, the neurobiology of social impairments remains largely unexplored, in part due to difficulties eliciting and quantifying interpersonal processes in a parametric manner. Recent advances in functional neuroimaging, combined with multiplayer exchange games drawn from behavioral economics, and computational/quantitative approaches more generally, provide a fitting paradigm within which to study interpersonal function and dysfunction in psychiatric conditions. In this review, we outline the importance of interpersonal factors in psychiatric illness and discuss ways in which neuroeconomics provides a tractable framework within which to examine the neurobiology of social dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Psychiatric complications of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpegui, Manuel; Jurado, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The psychiatric consequences of induced abortion continue to be the object of controversy. The reactions of women when they became aware of conception are very variable. Pregnancy, whether initially intended or unintended, may provoke stress; and miscarriage may bring about feelings of loss and grief reaction. Therefore, induced abortion, with its emotional implications (of relief, shame and guilt) not surprisingly is a stressful adverse life event. METHODOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS: There is agreement among researchers on the need to compare the mental health outcomes (or the psychiatric complications) with appropriate groups, including women with unintended pregnancies ending in live births and women with miscarriages. There is also agreement on the need to control for the potential confounding effects of multiple variables: demographic, contextual, personal development, previous or current traumatic experiences, and mental health prior to the obstetric event. Any psychiatric outcome is multi-factorial in origin and the impact of life events depend on how they are perceived, the psychological defence mechanisms (unconscious to a great extent) and the coping style. The fact of voluntarily aborting has an undeniable ethical dimension in which facts and values are interwoven. No research study has found that induced abortion is associated with a better mental health outcome, although the results of some studies are interpreted as or Some general population studies point out significant associations with alcohol or illegal drug dependence, mood disorders (including depression) and some anxiety disorders. Some of these associations have been confirmed, and nuanced, by longitudinal prospective studies which support causal relationships. With the available data, it is advisable to devote efforts to the mental health care of women who have had an induced abortion. Reasons of the woman's mental health by no means can be invoked, on empirical bases, for inducing an abortion.

  8. Lamotrigine in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jennifer G; Gitlin, Michael J; Altshuler, Lori L

    2013-07-01

    Owing to the prevalence of medication side effects and treatment resistance, prescribers often consider off-label uses of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved agents for the treatment of persistent symptoms. The authors review the available literature on the FDA-approved and non-FDA-approved uses of lamotrigine in adults with psychiatric disorders. We used PubMed, MEDLINE, and a hand search of relevant literature to find studies published between 1990 and 2012 and available in English language. The following keywords were searched: lamotrigine, psychiatric, mood disorders, depression, personality disorders, anxiety, schizophrenia, side effects, and rash. Data were selected from 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). When RCTs were not available, open-label trials (6), retrospective case reviews (10), and case series (4) were summarized. We extracted results of monotherapy and augmentation trials of lamotrigine on primary and secondary outcome measures. Lamotrigine is generally well tolerated, with the best evidence for the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder, particularly in prevention of depressive episodes. In acute bipolar depression, meta-analyses suggested a modest benefit, especially for more severely depressed subjects, with switch rates similar to placebo. In unipolar depression, double-blind RCTs noted benefit on subsets of symptoms and improved response in more severely depressed subjects. Data are limited but promising in borderline personality disorder. Use of lamotrigine in schizophrenia and anxiety disorders has little supportive evidence. Lamotrigine is recommended in bipolar maintenance when depression is prominent. It also has a role in treating acute bipolar depression and unipolar depression, though the latter warrants more research. Data are too limited in other psychiatric disorders to recommend its use at this time. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  9. Parricide: Psychiatric morbidity

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    Dunjić Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Parricide is defined as a murder of parents by their children; the patricide is murder of father, while matricide is murder of mother. This entity is classified as homicide, but it differs in the fact that victims are parents and the killers are their children. Mostly, it is associated with psychiatric morbidity. OBJECTIVE To describe sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics of parricide committers and to analyze circumstances of parricide and psychiatric morbidity in order to achieve better recognition and prevention of risks. METHOD This retrospective study included all homicide autopsy records (1991-2005 performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine, Medical School, University of Belgrade. For further analyses, all parricide records were selected out. The study analyzed all available parameters, which concerned parricide committers, victims and the act itself. Methods of descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS Between 1991 and 2005, there were 948 cases of homicide; of these, 3.5% were parricides. The committers of parricide were on average 31.2±11.9 years old, 87.8% were males, 60.6% with psychiatric symptoms most commonly with schizophrenia, alcohol dependence, personality disorder etc. Victims were on average 63.7±11.9 years old, 54.5% males, and 21.2% had a diagnosed mental illness. CONCLUSION Parricide is a rare kind of homicide accounting for 3% of all homicides. Committers are mostly unemployed males in early adulthood who have mental disorder. The phenomenon of parricide deserves a detailed analysis of the committer (individual bio-psycho-social profile and the environ- mental factors (family, closely related circumstances to enable a precise prediction of the act and prevention of the fatal outcome, which logically imposes the need of further studies.

  10. Predictors of violent behavior among acute psychiatric patients: clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amore, Mario; Menchetti, Marco; Tonti, Cristina; Scarlatti, Fabiano; Lundgren, Eva; Esposito, William; Berardi, Domenico

    2008-06-01

    Violence risk prediction is a priority issue for clinicians working with mentally disordered offenders. The aim of the present study was to determine violence risk factors in acute psychiatric inpatients. The study was conducted in a locked, short-term psychiatric inpatient unit and involved 374 patients consecutively admitted in a 1-year period. Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained through a review of the medical records and patient interviews. Psychiatric symptoms at admission were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Psychiatric diagnosis was formulated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Past aggressive behavior was evaluated by interviewing patients, caregivers or other collateral informants. Aggressive behaviors in the ward were assessed using the Overt Aggression Scale. Patients who perpetrated verbal and against-object aggression or physical aggression in the month before admission were compared to non-aggressive patients, moreover, aggressive behavior during hospitalization and persistence of physical violence after admission were evaluated. Violent behavior in the month before admission was associated with male sex, substance abuse and positive symptoms. The most significant risk factor for physical violence was a past history of physically aggressive behavior. The persistent physical assaultiveness before and during hospitalization was related to higher BPRS total scores and to more severe thought disturbances. Higher levels of hostility-suspiciousness BPRS scores predicted a change for the worse in violent behavior, from verbal to physical. A comprehensive evaluation of the history of past aggressive behavior and psychopathological variables has important implications for the prediction of violence in psychiatric settings.

  11. Interview: Joseph Agassi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Agassi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Agassi is an Israeli scholar born in Jerusalem on May 7, 1927. He has many books and articles published contributing to the fields of logic, scientific method, foundations of sciences, epistemology and, most importantly for this Journal, in the historiography of science. He studied with Karl Popper, who was definitely his biggest influence. He taught around the world in different universities. He currently lives in Herzliya, Israel. For his important contribution to the historiography of science, we chose to open the first issue of this journal with this interview recognizing his importance for the field, as well as paying our homage to him.

  12. Usage of psychiatric emergency services by asylum seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reko, Amra; Bech, Per; Wohlert, Cathrine

    2015-01-01

    predominantly male and married. The group consisted primarily (61%) of failed asylum seekers. Most patients (81%) presented with relevant mental health problems. The main reasons for presenting to the acute psychiatric emergency service were suicidal ideation and/or behaviour (60%). The most frequent diagnosis...... by asylum seekers in Denmark shows some of the acute mental health needs asylum seekers present with. The findings of high levels of suicidal ideation and possible diagnostic difficulties are discussed, as well as possible improvements of the referral and psychiatric evaluation processes....

  13. Prevalence of Psychiatric Morbidities in Acute Coronary Heart Disease

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    Saeed Shoja shafti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Psychiatric problems and stresses may deteriorate the prognosis of patients with IHD. So evaluating their frequency possibly will promote our perspective regarding their vital importance in the field of consultation-liaison psychiatry. Method and Materials. One hundred and one (101 patients with IHD were interviewed in CCU of a general hospital by a psychiatrist to find whether there was any relationship between cardiac events and psychiatric problems or stresses. Results. Cardiac events were significantly more prevalent among patients with both psychiatric problems and biological risk factors (P<0.05. Also, the number of patients suffering from psychiatric problems was significantly more than cases without that (P<0.05. There was a significant difference between male and female patients regarding the type of stress (P<0.01. 79% of total stresses were experienced by patients who had as well psychiatric problems (P<0.0001. In addition, there was significantly more dysthymic disorder in the acute group of patients in comparison with major or minor depressive disorder in the chronic group (P<0.001. Conclusion. The high prevalence of psychiatric problems and psychosocial stresses among patients with IHD deserves sufficient attention by clinicians for detection, monitoring, and management of them.

  14. Psychiatric impairment and childhood victimization experiences in female child molesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A H; Kaplan, M S

    1994-09-01

    To assess psychiatric impairment and childhood victimization experiences in female child molesters. Eleven incarcerated female child molesters were compared to 11 women imprisoned for nonsexual offenses as to their psychiatric diagnoses based on interviews with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R, Outpatient Version (SCID-OP), the SCID II for Personality Disorders, and the Harvard-Upjohn Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Interview. A family and sexual history with a description of childhood victimization experiences was also obtained by using the Wyatt Sexual History Questionnaire. The majority of the subjects in each group exhibited major depression, alcohol/substance abuse, and PTSD, but the sexual offenders demonstrated more psychiatric impairment on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale on the SCID-OP. The sexual offenders demonstrated a higher incidence of childhood physical and sexual abuse within the family than the comparison group, and these victimization experiences were more severe and more frequently associated with PTSD. The sexual offenders and the comparison women described negative relationships with parents and caretakers, and with spouses or boyfriends. However, the sexual offenders perceived their parents as more abusive, while the comparison women regarded their parents as more neglecting. Incarcerated female child molesters exhibited greater psychiatric impairment and more intrafamilial physical and sexual abuse than a comparison group of women imprisoned for nonsexual offenses.

  15. Validation of the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire to Assess Mental Health in South African Caregivers of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellins, Claude A; Kauchali, Shuaib; Nestadt, Danielle F; Bai, Dan; Aidala, Angela; Myeza, Nonhlahla; Craib, Murray H; Kvalsvig, Jane; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Knox, Justin; Arpadi, Stephen; Chhagan, Meera; Davidson, Leslie L

    2017-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of mental health (MH) and substance abuse problems in low-to-middle income countries, the scarcity of MH professionals and the negative impact of psychiatric disorders on caregivers of young children, there is significant need for brief evidence-based screening tools for lay counselors to assist with MH assessment. This study aimed to validate a brief screening tool to assess psychiatric and substance use disorders, the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ), in South Africa (SA). Data are from a longitudinal study of health and psychosocial needs in preschool children in SA. Participants included 322 Zulu-speaking, female caregivers. Following procedures of the US CDQ validation study, lay counselors interviewed participants using the translated Zulu CDQ. Subsequently a psychologist conducted a full psychiatric assessment guided by the CDQ questions. Analyses examined sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy, comparing lay counselor and psychologist assessment. Sensitivity (73%), specificity (81%) and overall accuracy (79%) were good for the variable indicating presence of 'any diagnosis.' Among those cases identified by the psychologist as having any psychiatric diagnosis, over 70% were correctly identified by lay counselors using the CDQ (i.e., positive predictive value was greater than 70%). The false positive rate was relatively low (19%). Specificity for 'any disorder' (including substance use) and 'any psychiatric disorder' were 81% and 79%. The isiZulu CDQ is a sensitive and valid MH diagnostic screener that can be used by lay counselors with limited MH training to identify those in need of treatment and target extremely scarce MH professionals. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. South Africa (SA), a country heavily impacted by poverty, HIV and the legacy of Apartheid, has a high prevalence of mental health (MH) and substance abuse problems. In SA and other low-and-middle-income-countries (LMIC) there is a dearth of MH

  16. A comparison of the validity of two psychiatric screening questionnaires: the Arabic General Health Questionnaire (AGHQ) and Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) in UAE, using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghubash, R; Daradkeh, T; El-Rufaie, O F; Abou-Saleh, M T

    2001-03-01

    This study compared the ability of the Arabic General Health questionnaire (AGHQ) and Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) to screen ICD-10 psychiatric disorders in an Arab community in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. Standardised psychiatric assessments of subjects using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) were carried out. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine validity indices for the AGHQ and SRQ-20. For the AGHQ, sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) were 86, 85 and 93% respectively, while for the SRQ-20, validity indices were 83, 83 and 90% respectively. Overall performance of the AGHQ was significantly better than the SRQ-20, especially in males and those under the age of 30 years. We conclude that both questionnaires are valid screening instruments in an Arab community in the UAE.

  17. ANNUAL INTERVIEWS (MAPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For the performance appraisal of reference year 2003, the interview calendar has been fixed between 1 January and 31 March 2004. This new calendar gives a better time schedule to the supervisors to conduct the interviews. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of the new CERN structure as from 2004. With this later time limit, the new departments are invited to strictly respect the target date of 31 March. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage: http://cern.ch/hr-div will lead directly to the page with the form. The personal data for the first page of the form can be generated by each divisional hierarchy, by the Divisional Administrative Officer (DAO) or by the staff member himself via HRT. Following discussions about the first two years of MAPS, and in order to improve the performance appraisal process, some modifications have been brought to section 2 (Assessme...

  18. Psychiatric emergency services in Copenhagen 2012: A 27-year psychiatric and demographic follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltke, Katinka; Høegh, Erica B; Sæbye, Ditte; Larsen, Peter Lindorff; Reff, Kasper Thybo; Knop, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Since the first publication of the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen 1985, outpatient facilities have undergone considerable changes. Our aim is to examine how these changes have influenced the activities in the PEUs in the same catchment area. We conducted a follow-up study to describe this development in the past 27 years by comparing 1985 variables with same measures in 2012. A random sample of all visits every 10 days in 2012 to three PEUs in Copenhagen were registered and compared with data collected, using the same study design in 1985. The number of visits has decreased significantly from 367 visits/year/10,000 inhabitants in 1985 to 225 in 2012. Apart from a considerable number (15.6%) of visitors with non-Danish background, the demographic variables have not changed significantly since 1985. Compared with 1985, the diagnostic distribution among the 2012 visitors shows an increased frequency of affective disorders and neurotic and stress disorders, while schizophrenia spectrum and personality disorders show almost the same frequencies in 1985 and 2012. Rates of alcoholism and organic mental disorders show a minor reduction during the 27-year follow-up period. In 1985, 20.7% of the visits ended up without any referrals, compared with 4.8% in 2012. The rate of acute admissions into a psychiatric ward was 60.8% in 2012 compared with 35.65% in 1985. The extension of the psychiatric outpatients' facilities since 1985 has reduced the number of visits in the PEUs considerably. The results have shown a change of diagnostic distribution and more severe conditions requiring acute admissions for emergency treatment. Close collaboration with the patients' families, GPs, social authorities and specialized psychiatric outpatient clinics is emphasized.

  19. Sex Differences in Psychiatric Comorbidity and Plasma Biomarkers for Cocaine Addiction in Abstinent Cocaine-Addicted Subjects in Outpatient Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraz, María; Araos, Pedro; García-Marchena, Nuria; Serrano, Antonia; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Suárez, Juan; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermín; Ruiz, Juan Jesús; Pastor, Antoni; Barrios, Vicente; Chowen, Julie A.; Argente, Jesús; Torrens, Marta; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodríguez De Fonseca, Fernando; Pavón, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    There are sex differences in the progression of drug addiction, relapse, and response to therapies. Because biological factors participate in these differences, they should be considered when using biomarkers for addiction. In the current study, we evaluated the sex differences in psychiatric comorbidity and the concentrations of plasma mediators that have been reported to be affected by cocaine. Fifty-five abstinent cocaine-addicted subjects diagnosed with lifetime cocaine use disorders (40 men and 15 women) and 73 healthy controls (48 men and 25 women) were clinically assessed with the diagnostic interviewPsychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders.” Plasma concentrations of chemokines, cytokines, N-acyl-ethanolamines, and 2-acyl-glycerols were analyzed according to history of cocaine addiction and sex, controlling for covariates age and body mass index (BMI). Relationships between these concentrations and variables related to cocaine addiction were also analyzed in addicted subjects. The results showed that the concentrations of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2/MCP-1) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12/SDF-1) were only affected by history of cocaine addiction. The plasma concentrations of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) were affected by history of cocaine addiction and sex. In fact, whereas cytokine concentrations were higher in control women relative to men, these concentrations were reduced in cocaine-addicted women without changes in addicted men. Regarding fatty acid derivatives, history of cocaine addiction had a main effect on the concentration of each acyl derivative, whereas N-acyl-ethanolamines were increased overall in the cocaine group, 2-acyl-glycerols were decreased. Interestingly, N-palmitoleoyl-ethanolamine (POEA) was only increased in cocaine-addicted women. The covariate BMI had a significant

  20. Stability of psychiatric diagnoses in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, T K

    1996-01-01

    This is a retrospective study that aimed at studying the diagnostic stability of psychiatric diagnoses over a 4-year period. Three-hundred and twelve patients (n = 312) admitted more than once to Al Ain in-patient unit from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1993, were the subjects for this study. The sample included patients with the following index diagnoses: acute psychoses (n = 37), alcohol abuse (n = 15), bipolar disorder (n = 27), depressive disorders (n = 63), drug abuse (n = 21), hysteria (n = 23), neurotic disorders (n = 50) and schizophrenia (n = 76). Diagnoses on discharge for first admissions were considered the index diagnoses. The shift from index diagnoses to subsequent diagnoses was counted. Diagnostic stability was calculated as the percentages of index diagnoses that did not change over time. In nearly half of the patients the index diagnoses changed over the 4-year period. Highest diagnostic stability was found in patients with index diagnoses of alcohol abuse, schizophrenia and drug abuse (92%, 74% and 71% respectively), while the lowest stability was found in patients with neurotic, hysterical, depressive disorders, acute psychoses and bipolar disorders (38%, 48% and 45%, 42%, 52% respectively). Two distinct patterns of shifts were noted. First shift occurred between functional psychoses and second shift between depressive and neurotic disorders. This study provides further support to the notion that diagnostic stability in clinical practice is still far from being satisfactory.

  1. Cerebellum and psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldaçara, Leonardo; Borgio, João Guilherme Fiorani; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Tavares de; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this update article is to report structural and functional neuroimaging studies exploring the potential role of cerebellum in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders. A non-systematic literature review was conducted by means of Medline using the following terms as a parameter: "cerebellum", "cerebellar vermis", "schizophrenia", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "anxiety disorders", "dementia" and "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder". The electronic search was done up to April 2008. Structural and functional cerebellar abnormalities have been reported in many psychiatric disorders, namely schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, dementia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported smaller total cerebellar and vermal volumes in schizophrenia, mood disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies using cognitive paradigms have shown alterations in cerebellar activity in schizophrenia, anxiety disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In dementia, the cerebellum is affected in later stages of the disease. Contrasting with early theories, cerebellum appears to play a major role in different brain functions other than balance and motor control, including emotional regulation and cognition. Future studies are clearly needed to further elucidate the role of cerebellum in both normal and pathological behavior, mood regulation, and cognitive functioning.

  2. The six most essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis: a pluralogue part 1: conceptual and definitional issues in psychiatric diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips James

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In face of the multiple controversies surrounding the DSM process in general and the development of DSM-5 in particular, we have organized a discussion around what we consider six essential questions in further work on the DSM. The six questions involve: 1 the nature of a mental disorder; 2 the definition of mental disorder; 3 the issue of whether, in the current state of psychiatric science, DSM-5 should assume a cautious, conservative posture or an assertive, transformative posture; 4 the role of pragmatic considerations in the construction of DSM-5; 5 the issue of utility of the DSM - whether DSM-III and IV have been designed more for clinicians or researchers, and how this conflict should be dealt with in the new manual; and 6 the possibility and advisability, given all the problems with DSM-III and IV, of designing a different diagnostic system. Part I of this article will take up the first two questions. With the first question, invited commentators express a range of opinion regarding the nature of psychiatric disorders, loosely divided into a realist position that the diagnostic categories represent real diseases that we can accurately name and know with our perceptual abilities, a middle, nominalist position that psychiatric disorders do exist in the real world but that our diagnostic categories are constructs that may or may not accurately represent the disorders out there, and finally a purely constructivist position that the diagnostic categories are simply constructs with no evidence of psychiatric disorders in the real world. The second question again offers a range of opinion as to how we should define a mental or psychiatric disorder, including the possibility that we should not try to formulate a definition. The general introduction, as well as the introductions and conclusions for the specific questions, are written by James Phillips, and the responses to commentaries are written by Allen Frances.

  3. Belief in the unstructured interview: The persistence of an illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Dana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Unstructured interviews are a ubiquitous tool for making screening decisions despite a vast literature suggesting that they have little validity. We sought to establish reasons why people might persist in the illusion that unstructured interviews are valid and what features about them actually lead to poor predictive accuracy. In three studies, we investigated the propensity for ``sensemaking'' - the ability for interviewers to make sense of virtually anything the interviewee says---and ``dilution''---the tendency for available but non-diagnostic information to weaken the predictive value of quality information. In Study 1, participants predicted two fellow students' semester GPAs from valid background information like prior GPA and, for one of them, an unstructured interview. In one condition, the interview was essentially nonsense in that the interviewee was actually answering questions using a random response system. Consistent with sensemaking, participants formed interview impressions just as confidently after getting random responses as they did after real responses. Consistent with dilution, interviews actually led participants to make worse predictions. Study 2 showed that watching a random interview, rather than personally conducting it, did little to mitigate sensemaking. Study 3 showed that participants believe unstructured interviews will help accuracy, so much so that they would rather have random interviews than no interview. People form confident impressions even interviews are defined to be invalid, like our random interview, and these impressions can interfere with the use of valid information. Our simple recommendation for those making screening decisions is not to use them.

  4. Clinical features, psychiatric comorbidity, and health-related quality of life in persons reporting compulsive computer use behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D W; Belsare, G; Schlosser, S

    1999-12-01

    We sought to examine the demographic and clinical features and psychiatric comorbidity in persons reporting compulsive computer use. Sixteen men and 5 women were recruited by advertisement and word-of-mouth. All reported excessive computer use that interfered with social or occupational functioning or caused personal distress. The subjects completed structured and semistructured assessments, including a computer version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised (PDQ-R), and a brief version of the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36 (SF-36). The typical subject was a 32-year-old single white man with a mean yearly income of $27,000; problem computer use began at age 29 and consumed 27 hours each week. Eleven subjects (52%) reported school or academic problems resulting from their computer use, and 12 (57%) reported that family members had confronted them about it. Thirteen subjects (62%) had tried to cut back on their computer usage. Nine subjects (43%) reported missing work or school owing to their computer use. According to DIS results, 7 subjects (33%) had a lifetime mood disorder, 8 subjects (38%) had a substance use disorder, and 4 subjects (19%) had a lifetime anxiety disorder. According to the PDQ-R results, 11 subjects (52%) met criteria for at least one personality disorder, the most frequent being the borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic types. Impulse-control disorders were also common, particularly compulsive buying. On the SF-36, subjects showed impaired mental health functioning compared with a normative sample. The results show that persons reporting compulsive computer use suffer substantial psychiatric comorbidity and show evidence of emotional distress. While the disorder appears to be increasing in prevalence, more work is needed to determine its relationship with other disorders and to determine its risk factors, family history, psychosocial

  5. Science and Politics: The Role of Conversion Therapies in the American Psychiatric Association’s Declassification of Homosexuality as a Psychiatric Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kenefick, Emily

    2011-01-01

    On December 15th, 1973, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) declassified homosexuality as a mental illness by removing it from its official catalogue of psychiatric diagnoses, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Its removal is typically reported to reflect the efforts of homophile activist groups who, in opposition to the APA’s illness model of homosexuality, staged radical political and social protest in the early 1970’s (Bayer, 1987; Drescher & Merlino, 2...

  6. Interview: Drew Feustel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Sliker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An interview with Andrew J. (Drew Feustel, Purdue alum, geophysicist and NASA astronaut. Dr. Feustel's first spaceflight in May 2009 (STS-125 repaired the Hubble Space Telescope. His second spaceflight in May 2011 (STS-134 was the penultimate journey of the Space Shuttle program. At Purdue University, Feustel served as a Residence Hall Counselor for two years at Cary Quadrangle and he was a Research Assistant and Teaching Assistant in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences. His MS thesis investigated physical property measurements of rock specimens under elevated hydrostatic pressures simulating Earth’s deep crustal environments. While at Purdue, Feustel served for three years as Grand Prix Chairman and team Kart driver for Sigma Phi Epsilon Fraternity.

  7. The differential diagnosis of anxiety. Psychiatric and medical disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, O G

    1985-03-01

    This article has reviewed clinical and demographic features of the primary anxiety disorders and other psychiatric and medical disorders that often are associated with anxiety symptoms, highlighting differential diagnosis. In summary, phobic disorders (exogenous anxiety) are characterized by anxiety reliably elicited by specific environmental stimuli; the stimuli involved determine which type of phobia is diagnosed. In contrast, panic attacks and generalized anxiety (endogenous anxiety) involve symptoms of anxiety not associated only with specific eliciting stimuli. Panic disorder is differentiated from generalized anxiety disorder by the presence of discrete attacks; both disorders usually have some level of persistent anxiety. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by recurrent unwanted but irresistible thoughts and the ritualized repetitive acts resulting from these obsessions, in the absence of preexisting psychosis or depression. Finally, posttraumatic stress disorder involves various anxiety (and other) symptoms as a direct result of an obvious stressor. Depressive symptoms are frequently associated with anxiety. It is sometimes impossible to determine which is the primary disorder. Overlap of syndromes probably also occurs with other primary psychiatric disorders, especially somatoform disorders, adjustment disorder with anxious mood, and several personality disorders. Finally, primary anxiety can be confused with several medical syndromes, especially when the medical disorder has not been recognized. Nevertheless, research with patients with pheochromocytoma suggests that medical causes of anxiety may be qualitatively different from primary anxiety disorders, especially the psychic anxiety component. Attention to the clinical and demographic features listed in Table 4, as well as the use of newly-developed structured diagnostic interviews should usually lead to a correct diagnosis, as illustrated by the following examples. The onset of a fear of

  8. "Blind" interviewing: Is ignorance bliss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivard, Jillian R; Pena, Michelle M; Schreiber Compo, Nadja

    2016-10-01

    Current investigative interviewing guidelines [e.g., Technical Working Group: Eyewitness evidence. (1999). Eyewitness evidence: A guide for law enforcement. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/178240.pdf ] suggest that interviewers review available case information prior to conducting a witness interview. The present study investigated the effect of interviewers' pre-interview awareness of crime details on eyewitnesses' memory and interviewer behaviour shortly after a mock crime or a week later. Results indicate that blind interviewers with no knowledge about the crime elicited more correct information than those who were correctly informed about the crime. Differences in interviewer behaviour emerged only in the very first question of the interview: Blind interviewers were more likely to begin the interview with a non-suggestive question than the informed interviewers. Blind interviewers also recalled more details than the informed interviewers when asked to generate a report after the witness interview documenting the witness' account.

  9. The lived experience by psychiatric nurses of aggression and violence from patients in a Gauteng psychiatric institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bimenyimana

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Caring for good people is difficult enough; to care for people who are either aggressive or violent is even more difficult. This is what psychiatric nurses working in the psychiatric institution in which research was done are exposed to on a daily basis. The aim of the research was to explore and describe the lived experience by psychiatric nurses of aggression and violence from patients in a Gauteng psychiatric institution. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive, and contextual study design was utilised. Data was collected by means of semi-structured interviews and naïve sketches. Tesch’s (Creswell, 2004:256 method of open coding and an independent coder were utilised for data analysis. This study shed some light on the lived experience by psychiatric nurses of aggression and violence from patients in a Gauteng psychiatric institution. The findings show that the level of violence and aggression to which psychiatric nurses are exposed is overwhelming and the consequences are alarming. The contributing factors to this violence and aggression are: the mental status and the conditions in which patients are admitted; the staff shortage; the lack of support among the members of the multidisciplinary team (MDT; and the lack of structured and comprehensive orientation among newly appointed staff members. As a result, psychiatric nurses are emotionally, psychologically, and physically affected. They then respond with the following emotions and behaviour: fear, anger, frustration, despair, hopelessness and helplessness, substance abuse, absenteeism, retaliation and the development of an “I don’t care” attitude.

  10. Treating the disconfirmed psychiatric client.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineken, J

    1983-01-01

    Frequent disconfirmation behaviors have been documented in psychiatric clients. Individuals who demonstrate maladaptive patterns of disconfirmation can learn to understand and modify this dysfunctional sequence. Through one to one interactions and group discussions, psychiatric nurses can help clients learn more positive communication behaviors. This accomplishment will positively affect the client's interpersonal responsiveness and self-esteem.

  11. Psychiatric comorbidity : fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Hanna; Romeijn, Johannes

    The frequent occurrence of comorbidity has brought about an extensive theoretical debate in psychiatry. Why are the rates of psychiatric comorbidity so high and what are their implications for the ontological and epistemological status of comorbid psychiatric diseases? Current explanations focus

  12. College Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Delar K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on college students with psychiatric disabilities. It defines and discusses various psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and personality disorders. It concludes with accommodations that a college professor can make to help these students succeed in higher education. (Contains 1…

  13. [Psychiatric investigation of Tyrolean patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Iris; Klein-Weigel, Peter; Kinzl, Johann; Biebl, Wilfried; Fraedrich, Gustav; Heidrich, Heinz

    2005-09-01

    Raynaud's phenomenon is provoked by digital vasospasm, mostly induced by cold and emotional strain. While studies dealing with other vasospastic disorders, e. g. migraine, described an increased comorbidity with affective and anxiety disorders, only little evidence has been reported for such an association in Raynaud's phenomenon. 70 Tyrolean patients (55 females and 15 males) with primary Raynaud's phenomenon presented more often with psychiatric morbidity on DSM-IV axis-I during their life-time than prevalence studies in the general population of North America and Europe would have led to expect. No psychotic (0%) and fewer somatoform disorders (2.9%) were found whereas anxiety disorders (77.1%), affective disorders (48.6%), and eating disorders (14.3%) were clearly overrepresented. We would therefore recommend a psychiatric evaluation in primary Raynaud's phenomenon along with the vascular diagnostic assessment to ensure that any psychiatric co-morbidity can be identified and treated.

  14. Gene therapy for psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Yaroslav; Kaplitt, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy has become of increasing interest in clinical neurosurgery with the completion of numerous clinical trials for Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and pediatric genetic disorders. With improved understanding of the dysfunctional circuitry mediating various psychiatric disorders, deep brain stimulation for refractory psychiatric diseases is being increasingly explored in human patients. These factors are likely to facilitate development of gene therapy for psychiatric diseases. Because delivery of gene therapy agents would require the same surgical techniques currently being employed for deep brain stimulation, neurosurgeons are likely to lead the development of this field, as has occurred in other areas of clinical gene therapy for neurologic disorders. We review the current state of gene therapy for psychiatric disorders and focus specifically on particular areas of promising research that may translate into human trials for depression, drug addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Issues that are relatively unique to psychiatric gene therapy are also discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Plasma profile of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in cocaine users under outpatient treatment: influence of cocaine symptom severity and psychiatric co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araos, Pedro; Pedraz, María; Serrano, Antonia; Lucena, Miguel; Barrios, Vicente; García-Marchena, Nuria; Campos-Cloute, Rafael; Ruiz, Juan J; Romero, Pablo; Suárez, Juan; Baixeras, Elena; de la Torre, Rafael; Montesinos, Jorge; Guerri, Consuelo; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Martínez-Riera, Roser; Torrens, Marta; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Mason, Barbara J; Pavón, Francisco J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    The treatment for cocaine use constitutes a clinical challenge because of the lack of appropriate therapies and the high rate of relapse. Recent evidence indicates that the immune system might be involved in the pathogenesis of cocaine addiction and its co-morbid psychiatric disorders. This work examined the plasma pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profile in abstinent cocaine users (n = 82) who sought outpatient cocaine treatment and age/sex/body mass-matched controls (n = 65). Participants were assessed with the diagnostic interview Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Diseases according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12)/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) were decreased in cocaine users, although all cytokines were identified as predictors of a lifetime pathological use of cocaine. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1)/fractalkine and CXCL12/SDF-1 positively correlated with the cocaine symptom severity when using the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine abuse/dependence. These cytokines allowed the categorization of the outpatients into subgroups according to severity, identifying a subgroup of severe cocaine users (9-11 criteria) with increased prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders [mood (54%), anxiety (32%), psychotic (30%) and personality (60%) disorders]. IL-1β was observed to be increased in users with such psychiatric disorders relative to those users with no diagnosis. In addition to these clinical data, studies in mice demonstrated that plasma IL-1β, CX3CL1 and CXCL12 were also affected after acute and chronic cocaine administration, providing a preclinical model for further research. In conclusion, cocaine exposure modifies the circulating levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Plasma

  16. Reliability and Validity of the SPAID-G Checklist for Detecting Psychiatric Disorders in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Marco; Scuticchio, Daniela; Ferrandi, Angela, Lassi, Stefano; Mango, Francesco; Ciavatta, Claudio; Porcelli, Cesare; Bianco, Annamaria; Monchieri, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    SPAID (Psychiatric Instrument for the Intellectually Disabled Adult) is the first Italian tool-package for carrying out psychiatric diagnosis in adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID). It includes the "G" form, for general diagnostic orientation, and specific checklists for all groups of syndromes stated by the available…

  17. Identification of risk loci with shared effects on five major psychiatric disorders: a genome-wide analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smoller, J.W.; Craddock, N.; Kendler, K.; Lee, P.H.; Neale, B.M.; Nurnberger, J.I.; Ripke, S.; Santangelo, S.; Sullivan, P.F.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Franke, B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from family and twin studies suggest that genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders do not in all cases map to present diagnostic categories. We aimed to identify specific variants underlying genetic effects shared between the five disorders in the Psychiatric Genomics

  18. Physical factors that influence patients’ privacy perception toward a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Nasriah; Ramli, Rusyaizila

    2018-01-01

    Background Psychiatric patients have privacy concerns when it comes to technology intervention in the hospital setting. In this paper, we present scenarios for psychiatric behavioral monitoring systems to be placed in psychiatric wards to understand patients’ perception regarding privacy. Psychiatric behavioral monitoring refers to systems that are deemed useful in measuring clinical outcomes, but little research has been done on how these systems will impact patients’ privacy. Methods We conducted a case study in one teaching hospital in Malaysia. We investigated the physical factors that influence patients’ perceived privacy with respect to a psychiatric monitoring system. The eight physical factors identified from the information system development privacy model, a comprehensive model for designing a privacy-sensitive information system, were adapted in this research. Scenario-based interviews were conducted with 25 patients in a psychiatric ward for 3 months. Results Psychiatric patients were able to share how physical factors influence their perception of privacy. Results show how patients responded to each of these dimensions in the context of a psychiatric behavioral monitoring system. Conclusion Some subfactors under physical privacy are modified to reflect the data obtained in the interviews. We were able to capture the different physical factors that influence patient privacy. PMID:29343963

  19. Interview with Lenny Kaye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Garrigós

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lenny Kaye has been Patti Smith’s long term guitarist, friend and collaborator, ever since they first began together in the early 1970s. He grew up between New York and New Jersey, graduating in American History from Rutgers University, where he later taught a course in the Department of American Studies on the History of American Rock, which became famous because of the large number of students who wanted to enroll in it. A very prolific writer and musician, he has produced an important number of records, as well as collaborated with numerous music magazines. He is the author of two books, Waylon Jennings: An Autobiography (1996 and You Call it Madness, The Sensuous Song of the Croon (2004. Nuggets (1972, his anthology of 60s garage music, is famous for defining the genre. This interview took place when he was visiting Spain in November 2012 with the Patti Smith Group. In it, we discussed the New York scene of the 70s, music, literature, drugs, politics, and many other things.

  20. Interview with Peter Jenni

    CERN Document Server

    PH Newsletter

    2013-01-01

    Peter Jenni, former spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration, discusses the challenges and satisfactions from his long-standing career in high-energy physics in this month’s PH Newsletter.   Peter Jenni. Following a long career at CERN that dates back to 1970 (ranging from Summer Student to Fellow and to Staff), Peter Jenni recently retired after about 40 years marked by exciting discoveries (from the first two-photon production of eta-prime at SPEAR to the Higgs boson at the LHC). Peter was involved in the LHC from its very beginnings and was spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration until February 2009. Peter Jenni will continue working with ATLAS as a guest scientist with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, and when he's not travelling he still spends most of his time in his office in Building 40, where he met with interviewer Panos Charitos. Panos Charitos: When did you first arrive to CERN? Peter Jenni: I first came to CERN as a Summer Student in ...

  1. Impact of childhood exposure to psychological trauma on the risk of psychiatric disorders and somatic discomfort: single vs. multiple types of psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Bae, Jae Nam; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Dong-Woo; Lee, Jun-Young; Chang, Sung Man; Jeon, Hong Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Young Moon; Seong, Sujeong; Cho, Maeng Je

    2014-11-30

    We examined whether childhood exposure to multiple types of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) relative to a single type of PTE is associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders and greater somatic discomfort in Korean adults. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (K-CIDI 2.1) was administered to 6027 subjects aged 18-74 years. Subjects who experienced a traumatic event before the age of 18 years, the childhood trauma exposure group, were compared with controls without childhood exposure to PTEs. In the childhood trauma exposure group, subjects who experienced only a single type of PTE and subjects who experienced two or more types of PTEs were compared further. Childhood exposure to PTEs was linked to a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities, with a higher risk for exposure to multiple types of PTEs than for exposure to a single type of PTE. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and somatoform disorder were significantly associated with exposure to multiple types of PTEs but not with exposure to a single type of PTE. Exposure to multiple types of PTEs was associated with reports of marked fatigue and pain. Future research should examine the psychiatric sequelae associated with various types of childhood PTEs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Prevalence of Alcohol and Substance Use Disorder among Psychiatric Inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of alcohol and substance use disorders in psychiatric inpatient clinics and determine the frequencies of alcohol and substance use disorder among psychiatric disease groups and find out the differences in between these groups. Material and Methods: Thus all patients admitted to inpatients psychiatric clinics of in one year period were approached for inclusion into this study, and 155 patients with a hospitalization period longer than one day who provided informed consent were included in the study. All patients included in the study were interviewed with a semi structured interview scale to get information regarding the presence of alcohol, nicotine and other substance use disorder. Results: The results of this study confirmed high rates of alcohol, nicotine and substance use disorder comorbidity in psychiatric inpatients. The results of one year prospective follow up study revealed that 57.4% of patients had nicotine dependence, 21.9% alcohol dependence and misuse and 9% had sedative misuse or dependence. The rate of substance use disorder was high among all psychiatric disorder subgroups. Considering all substances including nicotine together, 55% of patients with psychotic disorder had at least one substance use disorder whereas these figures were 61% and 81% for affective disorders and anxiety disorders respectively. Conclusion: Professionals dealing with treatment of psychiatric disorders should always be aware of substance use disorder comorbidity, and start treatment immediately without causing any delay in treatment. Obviously we need future large prospective studies to get more insight into these dual-diagnose disorders. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(1.000: 37-48

  3. Fatty acids and oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonello Lucio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether there is published evidence for increased oxidative stress in neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods A PubMed search was carried out using the MeSH search term 'oxidative stress' in conjunction with each of the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association in order to identify potential studies. Results There was published evidence of increased oxidative stress in the following DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categories: mental retardation; autistic disorder; Rett's disorder; attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; delirium; dementia; amnestic disorders; alcohol-related disorders; amphetamine (or amphetamine-like-related disorders; hallucinogen-related disorders; nicotine-related disorders; opioid-related disorders; schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders; mood disorders; anxiety disorders; sexual dysfunctions; eating disorders; and sleep disorders. Conclusion Most psychiatric disorders are associated with increased oxidative stress. Patients suffering from that subgroup of these psychiatric disorders in which there is increased lipid peroxidation might therefore benefit from fatty acid supplementation (preferably with the inclusion of an antioxidant-rich diet while patients suffering from all these psychiatric disorders might benefit from a change to a whole-food plant-based diet devoid of refined carbohydrate products.

  4. High psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents with dissociative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hasan; Duzman Mutluer, Tuba; Kose, Cigdem; Zoroglu, Salih

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychiatric comorbidity rates and patterns in a sample of clinically referred adolescents diagnosed with dissociative disorders (DD) by using a structured interview. All participants completed a comprehensive test battery, which consisted of a questionnaire for sociodemographic data and clinical history, Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index, Childhood Abuse and Neglect Questionnaire and the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale. Diagnosis was made by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children - Present and Lifetime Version. A total of 25 adolescent subjects aged 12-18 years participated in the study. Ten adolescents were diagnosed as having dissociative identity disorder and 15 of them were diagnosed as having dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders findings. Adolescents with dissociative identity disorder were found to have higher scores on the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale and Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index than the dissociative disorder-not otherwise specified group. Sexual and physical abuses were also found to be among the main traumatic events. Incest was reported in six cases of the study sample. All subjects had at least one comorbid psychiatric disorder. The most common psychiatric diagnoses were major depressive disorder (n = 25; 100%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 22; 88%). High psychiatric comorbidity rates were found in adolescents diagnosed with DD. A prevalent history of abuse and traumatic events was represented. Clinicians should be aware of the impacts of DD on adolescents' mental health. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  5. Gender, status, and psychiatric labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Harkness, Sarah K; Brown, Ryan P; Thomas, Lauren S

    2015-11-01

    We examine a key modified labeling theory proposition-that a psychiatric label increases vulnerability to competence-based criticism and rejection-within task- and collectively oriented dyads comprised of same-sex individuals with equivalent education. Drawing on empirical work that approximates these conditions, we expect the proposition to hold only among men. We also expect education, operationalized with college class standing, to moderate the effects of gender by reducing men's and increasing women's criticism and rejection. But, we also expect the effect of education to weaken when men work with a psychiatric patient. As predicted, men reject suggestions from teammates with a psychiatric history more frequently than they reject suggestions from other teammates, while women's resistance to influence is unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Men also rate psychiatric patient teammates as less powerful but no lower in status than other teammates, while women's teammate assessments are unaffected by their teammate's psychiatric status. Also as predicted, education reduces men's resistance to influence when their teammate has no psychiatric history. Education also increases men's ratings of their teammate's power, as predicted, but has no effect on women's resistance to influence or teammate ratings. We discuss the implications of these findings for the modified labeling theory of mental illness and status characteristics theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Health related quality of life among patients with chronic hepatitis C: a cross-sectional study of sociodemographic, psychopathological and psychiatric determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fábregas, Bruno Cópio; de Ávila, Renata Eliane; Faria, Marjore Novaes; Moura, Alexandre Sampaio; Carmo, Ricardo Andrade; Teixeira, Antonio Lúcio

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus infection patients have higher rates of psychiatric disorders than the general population. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is known to be associated with impaired health related quality of life. To our knowledge, there is no previous research of health related quality of life in chronic hepatitis C patients that combined structured psychiatric interview and careful psychopathological evaluation, including depression, anxiety and fatigue instruments. The aim of this study was to evaluate health related quality of life of chronic hepatitis C patients and to investigate the association with sociodemographic, psychopathological and psychiatric factors. Eighty-one individuals with chronic hepatitis C virus infection receiving care at a Brazilian public university-based outpatient service for infectious diseases were enrolled in the study. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Brief Version was used to assess health related quality of life. Standard psychiatric interview (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus) was conducted to establish Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. Further instruments completed psychopathological investigation: Beck Depression Inventory, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Brief Fatigue Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale and Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Pearson Chi-Square and Kruskal-Wallis were performed for categorical and continuous univariate analysis, respectively. Correlation between psychopathological and health related quality of life scores was performed according to Spearman's correlation. Multivariate analysis was performed according to stepwise forward ordinal logistic regression. The significance threshold was fixed at α=0.05. Depressive disorders were associated with worse scores in overall health related quality of life and in all domains. Fatigue was associated with lower scores in physical and psychological

  7. Psychiatric Morbidity Among Suicide Attempters Who Needed ICU Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MMA Shalahuddin Qusar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a tragic and serious but preventable public health problem all over the world including Bangladesh. Committing suicide has become a burning issue and mortality rate increases especially in young females. Psychiatric evaluation is needed in suicide attempted patients for better management plan to reduce such unnatural mortality, as well as the impairment related to suicidal thought and psychiatric disorders. Objectives: To assess the psychiatric disorders and conditions that needed sufficient clinical attention among the suicide attempters who needed ICU intervention. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU of a private hospital of Dhaka City from July 2008 to December 2008. Total forty four subjects of attempted suicide were included in the study and psychiatric diagnosis was made by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV by psychiatrists after initial physical problems subsided. Results: The most common psychiatric diagnosis was Major Depressive Disorder. Female suffered more and among them attention-seeking behaviors were frequent. Thirty-four patients (77.3% had previous history of psychiatric disorder. Chemicals (like; organophosphorous, kerosene, harpic and other medicine overdose ingestion was the most frequently used method by the suicide attempters. Conclusion: This study may be helpful for further research regarding suicide attempters and its' association with mental problems. In primary health care setting, the physicians may get a clue to design a system for preventing, early recognition and managing suicidal ideas, thoughts and attempts. Psychiatric consultation should be made mandatory for all patients admitted following attempted suicide. DOI: 10.3329/bsmmuj.v2i2.4761 BSMMU J 2009; 2(2: 73-77

  8. [THE PSYCHIATRIC DIAGNOSIS GUIDE - DSM-5 - INNOVATIONS AND CRITICISM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Shmuel; Zemishlany, Zvi

    2015-05-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) as a guide for diagnosing psychiatric diseases and enables the alignment of psychiatric diagnoses with those of the psychologists, the social workers, the nursing staff and other mental health professionals. In addition, it helps bring cohesion to research, public health policy, education, the field of insurance and compensation and the legal system. After 14 years of hard work, the updated version of the DSM, the DSM-5, was published on May 2013. The current review aims to update the readers on the essence of the DSM and the methods of psychiatric diagnosing and to present the main changes in the field, as expressed in the 5th edition of the guide. In addition to details of those changes we included discussions of the criticisms brought against them. We hope that the review will contribute to broadening the readers' knowledge, broaden exposure and familiarity with the psychiatric lingo and to strengthening the professional ties between psychiatrists and professionals in other, tangential, medical fields.

  9. Psychiatric comorbidity and personality traits in patients with hyperacusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüris, Linda; Andersson, Gerhard; Larsen, Hans Christian; Ekselius, Lisa

    2013-04-01

    Hyperacusis, defined as unusual intolerance of ordinary environmental sounds, is a common problem. In spite of this, there is limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms. We hypothesized that individuals with hyperacusis would be prone to suffer from psychiatric disorders, related in particular to anxiety. Therefore, psychiatric morbidity and personality traits were investigated, along with different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Patients were assessed with a clinical interview related to symptoms of hyperacusis, the Mini-international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI), and the Swedish Universities scales of Personality (SSP) to study psychiatric disorders and personality traits. A group of 62 Swedish patients with hyperacusis between 18 and 61 years (mean 40.2, SD 12.2) was included. Altogether 56% of the patients had at least one psychiatric disorder, and 47% had an anxiety disorder. Also, personality traits related to neuroticism were over-represented. A majority, 79%, suffered from comorbid tinnitus, and a similar proportion used measures to avoid noisy environments. The over-representation of anxiety disorders and anxiety-related personality traits in patients with hyperacusis suggests common or cooperating mechanisms. Cognitive behavioural treatment strategies, proven efficient in treating anxiety, may be indicated and are suggested for further studies.

  10. Al Ain Community Survey of Psychiatric Morbidity III. The natural history of psychopathology and the utilization rate of psychiatric services in Al Ain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, T K; Ghubash, R; Abou-Saleh, M T

    2000-12-01

    We evaluated the natural history of psychopathology in a stratified sample (n = 245) comprising subjects with no DSM-III-R psychiatric disorder, subthreshold disorder and threshold (DSM-III-R) psychiatric disorder, respectively, over a 12-months period, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R mental disorders (SCID) as an assessment tool. A representative sample categorized 1 year earlier into DSM-III-R psychiatric disorder, subthreshold disorder and no DSM-III-R psychiatric disorder were reassessed with SCID 1 year on. The incidence, recovery rates and the percentage of subthreshold disorders which become DSM-III-R disorders were calculated. The utilization rate of psychiatric services was also assessed. The incidence rate of new cases was 10.4%. The recovery (remission) rate was 41.5%, and approximately 20% of subthreshold disorders became definitive disorders (DSM-III-R) after 1 year. Anxiety disorders tend to have a higher magnitude of temporal stability in comparison with depressive disorders. Male sex and contact with psychiatric services were found to affect the recovery rate. Approximately 13% of the sample had made contact with psychiatric services with no gender differences, but men were significantly more often hospitalized than women. Our findings indicate that mental disorders are relatively common. The high incidence rate found in this study is attributed in part to the high negative rate at baseline assessment. Approximately 60% of psychiatric disorders in the community are persistent, and patients with emotional disorder under-utilize existing services.

  11. Research Organizations Interview the Poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carol H.

    1974-01-01

    Researchers who conducted 194 interviews surveys of low income populations returned mail questionnaires about their experiences; the results are interpreted as bearing upon both the ease or difficulty of interviewing poor people and how advisable it may be to employ interviewers matched to respondents by class and race/ethnicity in surveys of the…

  12. An Interview with Ralph Tyler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Jeri Ridings

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Ralph Tyler. This interview will be of interest to those entering the field of education as well as for those who have made their home within the field for some time now. In the interview, Dr. Tyler discusses work in education and educational evaluation that spans over a half a century. He describes issues…

  13. Psychiatric nursing as 'different' care: experience of Iranian mental health nurses in inpatient psychiatric wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarea, K; Nikbakht-Nasrabadi, A; Abbaszadeh, A; Mohammadpour, A

    2013-03-01

    Patients with mental illness require unique and specific care. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of nurses, who provide such care for mentally ill people, within the context of Iranian culture. This hermeneutic phenomenological study was carried out in a university-affiliated hospital in an urban area of Iran. We interviewed 10 mental health nurses to capture in detail their experiences in psychiatric units, and the approach developed by Diekelmann et al. was employed to analyse the data. Four themes and five sub-themes were identified: 'being engaged with patients' (sub-themes: 'struggle for monitor/control', 'safety/security concerns', 'supporting physiological and emotional needs'), 'being competent', 'altruistic care' and 'facing difficulties and challenges' (sub-themes: 'socio-cultural' and 'organizational challenges'). The results provide valuable insights and greater understanding of the professional experiences of psychiatric nurses in Iran, and indicate the need for a stable and responsible organizational structure for those nurses who are expected to manage patient care in psychiatric wards. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  14. Lab-on-a-Chip Proteomic Assays for Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Harald; Wienke, Julia; Guest, Paul C; Bistolas, Nikitas; Bier, Frank F

    2017-01-01

    Lab-on-a-chip assays allow rapid identification of multiple parameters on an automated user-friendly platform. Here we describe a fully automated multiplex immunoassay and readout in less than 15 min using the Fraunhofer in vitro diagnostics (ivD) platform to enable inexpensive point-of-care profiling of sera or a single drop of blood from patients with various diseases such as psychiatric disorders.

  15. Causal attributions of job loss among people with psychiatric disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctôt, Nathalie; Bergeron-Brossard, Prunelle; Sanquirgo, Nathalie; Corbière, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Guided by Weiner's attribution theory (1985), the aim of this study is to describe the reasons given by people with psychiatric disabilities to explain job loss. Using a sample of 126 people with psychiatric disabilities participating in a prospective study design, the authors evaluated the causal attributions pattern to explain job loss. During a 9-month follow-up phone interview, clients of supported employment programs were asked to explain the reasons why they had lost their jobs. The reasons provided were categorized according to type of job loss (voluntarily vs. involuntarily), locus of control (external vs. internal) and controllability (controllable vs. uncontrollable). The results show that 73% of participants had voluntarily ended their jobs. For the majority of participants, the reasons given to explain job loss were related to external and uncontrollable factors. Moreover, men used more external (34.1% vs. 23%) and uncontrollable (68.2% vs. 40%) reasons than women. Severity of symptoms and level of education also affected the attributional pattern. However, self-esteem, psychiatric diagnosis and work centrality did not correlate significantly to the attributional pattern. The results demonstrated that reasons given to explain job loss among people with psychiatric disabilities are mostly external. A more systematic evaluation of environmental factors should be put in place to favor longer job tenure for people with psychiatric disabilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The cerebellum and psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph ePhillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum has been considered for a long time to play a role solely in motor coordination. However, studies over the past two decades have shown that the cerebellum also plays a key role in many motor, cognitive, and emotional processes. In addition, studies have also shown that the cerebellum is implicated in many psychiatric disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. In this review, we discuss existing studies reporting cerebellar dysfunction in various psychiatric disorders. We will also discuss future directions for studies linking the cerebellum to psychiatric disorders.

  17. Current psychiatric disorders in patients with epilepsy are predicted by maltreatment experiences during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudda, Kirsten; Illies, Dominik; Herzig, Cornelia; Schröder, Katharina; Bien, Christian G; Neuner, Frank

    2017-09-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders. Although the prevalence of psychiatric disorders is high in epilepsy patients, it is unknown if childhood maltreatment experiences are elevated compared to the normal population and if early maltreatment is a risk factor for current psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy patients. This is the main purpose of this study. Structured interviews were used to assess current Axis I diagnoses in 120 epilepsy patients from a tertiary Epilepsy Center (34 TLE patients, 86 non-TLE patients). Childhood maltreatment in the family and peer victimization were assessed with validated questionnaires. Patients' maltreatment scores were compared with those of a representative matched control group. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the potential impact of childhood maltreatment on current psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy patients. Compared to a matched control group, epilepsy patients had higher emotional and sexual maltreatment scores. Patients with a current psychiatric diagnosis reported more family and peer maltreatment than patients without a psychiatric disorder. Family maltreatment scores predicted the likelihood of a current psychiatric disorder. TLE patients did not differ from non-TLE patients according to maltreatment experiences and rates of current psychiatric disorders. Our findings suggest that in epilepsy patients emotional and sexual childhood maltreatment is experienced more often than in the normal population and that early maltreatment is a general risk factor for psychiatric comorbidities in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [THE CLINICAL ORGANIZATIONAL SUBSTANTIATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGY OF HOSPITAL PSYCHIATRIC CARE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsevatkin, V G; Blinov, D S; Podsevatkin, D V; Podsevatkina, S V; Smirnova, O A

    2015-01-01

    The new technology of hospital psychiatric care, developed and implemented in the Mordovia republican clinical hospital, permits resolving problems of hospitalism, lethality, pharmaceutical resistance and others. The essence of this technology is in staging of hospital care under condition of intensification and standardization of curative diagnostic process, implementation of complex approach to treatment of psychiatric disorders. The patient sequentially passes through three stages: intensive diagnostics and intensive treatment (intensive care department, intensive therapy department), supportive therapy (general psychiatric department); rehabilitation measures (curative rehabilitative department). The concentration of resources at the first stage, application of intensive therapy techniques permit in the shortest period to arrest acute psychotic symptomatic. The described new technology of hospital psychiatric care permits enhancing effectiveness of treatment, significantly shorten period of hospitalization (37.5 days), to obtain lasting and qualitative remission, to rehabilitate most fully social working status of patient and to significantly decrease lethality.

  19. Utilizing interview and self-report assessment of the Five-Factor Model to examine convergence with the alternative model for personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Ashley C; Trull, Timothy J; Widiger, Thomas A; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie N

    2017-07-01

    An alternative model for personality disorders is included in Section III (Emerging Models and Measures) of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (5th ed.; DSM-5). The DSM-5 dimensional trait model is an extension of the Five-Factor Model (FFM; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) assesses the 5 domains and 25 traits in the alternative model. The current study expands on recent research to examine the relationship of the PID-5 with an interview measure of the FFM. The Structured Interview for the Five Factor Model of Personality (SIFFM) assesses the 5 bipolar domains and 30 facets of the FFM. Research has indicated that the SIFFM captures maladaptive aspects of personality (as well as adaptive). The SIFFM, NEO PI-R, and PID-5 were administered to participants to examine their respective convergent and discriminant validity. Results provide evidence for the convergence of the 2 models using self-report and interview measures of the FFM. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed, particularly a call for the development of a structured interview for the assessment of the DSM-5 dimensional trait model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. First rank symptoms: concepts and diagnostic utility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are associated with psychiatric presentations in the absence of clouding of consciousness such as head trauma, encephalitis, psychosis associated with Huntington's disorder, multiple sclerosis and various inter-ictal manifestations of epilepsy.21. Prognostic and diagnostic implications of FRS. The prognostic implications of ...

  1. Symptom diagnostics based on clinical records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Marianne; Punt, Marja; de Groot, Erik; Hielkema, Tjitske; Struik, Marianne; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Child psychiatric diagnoses are generally based on a clinical examination and not on standardized questionnaires. The present study assessed whether symptom diagnostics based on clinical records facilitates the use of non-standardized clinical material for research. Six hundred and eighty-five

  2. Psychiatric Morbidity among Street Children in Duhok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezar Ismet Taib

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Due, in part, to family constraints in dealing with the economical burden of raising a family, a wave of street children is sweeping the developing world. Such children are prone to both somatic and mental illnesses. This is the first ever study that has been conducted to explore the psychopathology among street children in the Duhok Governorate. Methods The study was conducted between March 2004 and May 2005 in Duhok City among street children who attended the Zewa Center—the only center for street children in the region at the time of the study. Among a total of 107 eligible children, 100 agreed to participate (93% response rate. A modified family map (genogram was used to obtain demographic data from the children and their caregivers through semi-structured interviews. In addition, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID structured interviews were conducted with the children. Results The study found that 98% of children worked on the street because of the economic need and pressure on their families. There was high rate of parental illiteracy (90% of fathers and 95% of mothers, and 61% of respondents were shown to have at least one psychiatric disorder. A high percentage (57% of these children suffered from anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorders (29%. Ten percent had depression, and 5% had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Conclusion Street children in Duhok seem to be working children due to their families’ needs.

  3. Screening for Sexual Orientation in Psychiatric Emergency Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Currier, Glenn W; Brown, Gregory; Walsh, Patrick G.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Chaudhury, Sadia; Stanley, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Our goal was to explore whether emergency department (ED) patients would disclose their sexual orientation in a research evaluation and to examine demographic and clinical characteristics of patients by self-identified sexual orientation. Methods: Participants (n=177) presented for psychiatric treatment at three urban EDs in New York City, Rochester, NY, and Philadelphia, PA. Participants were interviewed in the context of a larger study of a standardized s...

  4. Rabeprazole and psychiatric symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeni, Giovanni; Cutroneo, Paola; Gallo, Adele; Gallo, Salvatore; Spina, Edoardo; Caputi, Achille P

    2007-07-01

    To report the case of a patient who developed marked anxiety associated with episodes of panic attacks after starting rabeprazole therapy. An otherwise healthy 55-year-old woman was prescribed rabeprazole 20 mg/day administered in the morning for persistent symptoms of dyspepsia. Ten days later, she presented with a 7 day history of marked anxiety associated with panic attacks, night terror (pavor nocturnus), episodic mental confusion, and attention deficit. Within 2 days of discontinuing rabeprazole, the patient recovered completely from the neuropsychiatric manifestations. Subsequent esomeprazole therapy did not cause psychiatric symptoms. Rabeprazole-induced hypergastrinemia may have played a role in this neuropsychiatric adverse reaction. Several lines of evidence have indicated that gastrin-releasing peptide, whose release is mediated by proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced secretion of gastrin, is involved in regulating aspects of behavior that might be altered in disorders such as anxiety, depression, and dementia. The fact that rabeprazole has the highest capacity of inducing gastrin increase compared with other PPIs might explain why our patient's panic symptoms disappeared after switching to esomeprazole. Based on the Naranjo probability scale, rabeprazole was the probable cause of the adverse reaction. Specific studies are needed to investigate the potential role of PPI-induced hypergastrinemia in neuropsychiatric adverse reactions.

  5. A Validation Study of the Web Screening Questionnaire (WSQ) Compared With the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus (MINI-Plus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuldijk, Denise; Giltay, Erik J; Carlier, Ingrid Ve; van Vliet, Irene M; van Hemert, Albert M; Zitman, Frans G

    2017-08-29

    There is a need for brief screening methods for psychiatric disorders in clinical practice. This study assesses the validity and accuracy of a brief self-report screening questionnaire, the Web Screening Questionnaire (WSQ), in detecting psychiatric disorders in a study group comprising the general population and psychiatric outpatients aged 18 years and older. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the WSQ is an adequate test to screen for the presence of depressive and anxiety disorders in clinical practice. Participants were 1292 adults (1117 subjects from the general population and 175 psychiatric outpatients), aged 18 to 65 years. The discriminant characteristics of the WSQ were examined in relation to the ("gold standard") Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview-Plus (MINI-Plus) disorders, by means of sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and positive and negative predictive values (PPVs, NPVs). The specificity of the WSQ to individually detect depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and alcohol abuse or dependence ranged from 0.89 to 0.97 for most disorders, with the exception of post-traumatic stress disorder (0.52) and specific phobia (0.73). The sensitivity values ranged from 0.67 to 1.00, with the exception of depressive disorder (0.56) and alcohol abuse or dependence (0.56). Given the low prevalence of separate disorders in the general population sample, NPVs were extremely high across disorders (≥0.97), whereas PPVs were of poor strength (range 0.02-0.33). In this study group, the WSQ was a relatively good screening tool to identify individuals without a depressive or anxiety disorder, as it accurately identified those unlikely to suffer from these disorders (except for post-traumatic stress disorders and specific phobias). However, in case of a positive WSQ screening result, further diagnostic procedures are required.

  6. Psychiatric morbidity and its sociodemographic correlates among women in Irbid, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daradkeh, T K; Alawan, A; Al Ma'aitah, R; Otoom, S A

    2006-01-01

    The rate of psychiatric morbidity and its sociodemographic correlates was estimated in 2000 women attending 3 primary care centres in Irbid, Jordan. Women completed standardized diagnostic tools that yielded psychiatric diagnoses, a stress scale and sociodemographic details. The rate of psychiatric morbidity was 26.3% and psychological distress 39.0%. A significant association was found between the amount and severity of stress and psychiatric morbidity. Post-marital status (separated, divorced, widowed), woman's illiteracy, family violence, violent marital relationship, living independently, being in a non-cousin marriage, being a second wife, poor housing and absence of a social support system were significantly associated with psychiatric morbidity in this group of women.

  7. [Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders: diagnosis and pharmacological treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslakis, G; Schredl, M; Alm, B; Sobanski, E

    2013-08-01

    Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity and is a frequent psychiatric disorder with childhood onset. In addition to core symptoms, patients often experience associated symptoms like emotional dysregulation or low self-esteem and suffer from comorbid disorders, particularly depressive episodes, substance abuse, anxiety or sleep disorders. It is recommended to include associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders in the diagnostic set-up and in the treatment plan. Comorbid psychiatric disorders should be addressed with disorder-specific therapies while associated symptoms also often improve with treatment of the ADHD core symptoms. The most impairing psychiatric disorder should be treated first. This review presents recommendations for differential diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD with associated symptoms and comorbid psychiatric disorders with respect to internationally published guidelines, clinical trials and expert opinions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Predictors of patient communication in psychiatric medication encounters among veterans with serious mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Samantha M; Medoff, Deborah R; Brown, Clayton H; Fang, Lijuan; Dixon, Lisa B; Klingaman, Elizabeth A; Park, Stephanie G; Kreyenbuhl, Julie A

    2016-06-01

    Person-centered psychiatric services rely on consumers actively sharing personal information, opinions, and preferences with their providers. This research examined predictors of consumer communication during appointments for psychiatric medication prescriptions. The Roter Interaction Analysis System was used to code recorded Veterans Affairs psychiatric appointments with 175 consumers and 21 psychiatric medication prescribers and categorize communication by purpose: biomedical, psychosocial, facilitation, or rapport-building. Regression analyses found that greater provider communication, symptomology, orientation to psychiatric recovery, and functioning on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status Attention and Language indices, as well as consumer diagnostic label, were positive predictors of consumer communication, though the types of communication impacted varied. Provider communication is the easiest variable to intervene on to create changes in consumer communication. Future research should also consider how cognitive and symptom factors may impact specific types of consumer communication in order to identify subgroups for targeted interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Burnout in nonhospital psychiatric residential facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Laura; Magni, Laura Rosa; Giovannini, Caterina; Panetta, Valentina; Zacchi, Valeria; Rossi, Giuseppe; Placentino, Anna

    2009-11-01

    This study evaluated levels and risk factors of burnout in a sample of mental health professionals employed in nonhospital psychiatric residential facilities of northern Italy. Nurses, nurse assistants, and educators completed a questionnaire evaluating demographic variables, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), job characteristics (Job Diagnostic Survey), workload, relationships with colleagues, and support from supervising coordinators. A total of 202 (83% response rate) questionnaires were analyzed. Logistic linear regressions were used to estimate predictors of burnout dimensions. Burnout risk was widespread. Low feedback about job performance, poor support from coordinators, and young age predicted emotional exhaustion. Low feedback about job performance predicted feelings of depersonalization. Low task identity and young age predicted reduced feelings of personal accomplishment. Interventions to prevent burnout among employees should be developed. These include providing feedback about performance, clearly identifying the tasks of the job, and providing support.

  10. [Assessment of gestures and their psychiatric relevance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulucz, Judit; Simon, Lajos

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing and investigating non-verbal behavior and gestures has been receiving much attention since the last century. Thanks to the pioneer work of Ekman and Friesen we have a number of descriptive-analytic, categorizing and semantic content related scales and scoring systems. Generation of gestures, the integrative system with speech and the inter-cultural differences are in the focus of interest. Furthermore, analysis of the gestural changes caused by lesions of distinct neurological areas point toward to formation of new diagnostic approaches. The more widespread application of computerized methods resulted in an increasing number of experiments which study gesture generation, reproduction in mechanical and virtual reality. Increasing efforts are directed towards the understanding of human and computerized recognition of human gestures. In this review we describe the results emphasizing the relations of those results with psychiatric and neuropsychiatric disorders, specifically schizophrenia and affective spectrum.

  11. The opinion of patients with mental disorder about tobacco and its prohibition in psychiatric hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Marques de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the opinion of patients with mental disorder about tobacco and its prohibition during psychiatric hospitalization. Method: An exploratory study with 96 patients smokers with mental disorders hospitalized in a psychiatric ward of a general hospital. The interviews were conducted individually, using an instrument designed for this study. The content from the interviews was recorded, transcribed and submitted to a thematic content analysis. Results: The patients with mental disorder were identified as perceiving smoking during the psychiatric hospitalization as a help to support the difficulties in socialization and in the lack of activities. The permission for smoking is seen as a signal of respect to their needs. The subjects mentioned to not accept the total smoking prohibition. Conclusion: Tobacco helps to face difficulties and conflicts in the psychiatric hospitalization. There is resistance regarding the possibility to totally withdraw the smoking permission during hospitalization.

  12. Experiences of self-injury and aggression among women admitted to forensic psychiatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenius, Heidi; Strand, Susanne

    2017-05-01

    Self-injury and institutional violence are well-known characteristics of female forensic psychiatric patients, but research on patients' experiences of these behaviours is limited. The aim of the study was to investigate how female forensic psychiatric patients describe their self-injury and aggression. The authors performed qualitative in-depth interviews with 13 female forensic psychiatric inpatients. The interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. The analysis resulted in three themes describing the process of handling negative thoughts and emotions by using self-injury or aggression towards others and thereby experiencing satisfaction. Both self-injury and aggression were experienced as strategies for emotional regulation. The forensic psychiatric care was perceived as important for the women in developing less harmful strategies for coping with negative thoughts and emotions instead of injuring themselves or others. Self-injury and aggression are often risk-assessed separately, but results from the present study suggest that these behaviours need a more holistic approach.

  13. Psychiatric disorders and clinical correlates of suicidal patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishimoto Kayo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital with suicidal behavior (SB are considered to be especially at high risk of suicide. However, the number of studies that have addressed this patient population remains insufficient compared to that of studies on suicidal patients in emergency or medical settings. The purpose of this study is to seek features of a sample of newly admitted suicidal psychiatric patients in a metropolitan area of Japan. Method 155 suicidal patients consecutively admitted to a large psychiatric center during a 20-month period, admission styles of whom were mostly involuntary, were assessed using Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I CV and SCID-II and SB-related psychiatric measures. Associations of the psychiatric diagnoses and SB-related characteristics with gender and age were examined. Results The common DSM-IV axis I diagnoses were affective disorders 62%, anxiety disorders 56% and substance-related disorders 38%. 56% of the subjects were diagnosed as having borderline PD, and 87% of them, at least one type of personality disorder (PD. SB methods used prior to admission were self-cutting 41%, overdosing 32%, self-strangulation 15%, jumping from a height 12% and attempting traffic death 10%, the first two of which were frequent among young females. The median (range of the total number of SBs in the lifetime history was 7 (1-141. Severity of depressive symptomatology, suicidal intent and other symptoms, proportions of the subjects who reported SB-preceding life events and life problems, and childhood and adolescent abuse were comparable to those of the previous studies conducted in medical or emergency service settings. Gender and age-relevant life-problems and life events were identified. Conclusions Features of the studied sample were the high prevalence of affective disorders, anxiety disorders and borderline PD, a variety of SB methods used prior to admission

  14. Lesion procedures in psychiatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shaun R; Aronson, Joshua P; Sheth, Sameer A; Eskandar, Emad N

    2013-01-01

    Lesion procedures for psychiatric indications have a history that spans more than a century. This review provides a brief history of psychiatric surgery and addresses the most recent literature on lesion surgery for the treatment of anxiety and mood disorders. Relevant data described in publications from the early 1900 s through the modern era regarding lesion procedures for psychiatric indications, both historical and current use, are reported. The early procedures of Burkhardt, Moniz, and Freeman are reviewed, followed by descriptions of the more refined techniques of Leksell, Knight, Foltz, White, and Kelly. The application of lesion procedures to obsessive-compulsive disorder, mood disorders, and addiction are discussed. Lesioning procedures have informed modern deep brain stimulation targets. Recent lesioning studies demonstrate the efficacy and durability of these procedures in severely disabled patients. Judicious application of these techniques should continue for appropriately selected patients with severe, refractory psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Tics, ADHD and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of teacher-rated tic behaviors in 3006 school children, from preschool to adolescence, was determined in a study of comorbid psychiatric symptoms at State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY.

  16. Tics, ADHD and Psychiatric Comorbidity

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    The prevalence of teacher-rated tic behaviors in 3006 school children, from preschool to adolescence, was determined in a study of comorbid psychiatric symptoms at State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY.

  17. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Ingmar

    2011-07-01

    Recent research has shown that depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis are more common than previously supposed in elderly populations without dementia. It is unclear whether the frequency of these disorders increases or decreases with age. Clinical expression of psychiatric disorders in old age may be different from that seen in younger age groups, with less and often milder symptoms. Concurrently, comorbidity between different psychiatric disorders is immense, as well as comorbidity with somatic disorders. Cognitive function is often decreased in people with depression, anxiety disorders, and psychosis, but whether these disorders are risk factors for dementia is unclear. Psychiatric disorders in the elderly are often related to cerebral neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease, although psychosocial risk factors are also important. Psychiatric disorders, common among the elderly, have consequences that include social deprivation, poor quality of life, cognitive decline, disability, increased risk for somatic disorders, suicide, and increased nonsuicidal mortality.

  18. We are different: the voices of psychiatric advanced practice nurses on the performance of their roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Yuen-Ling; Chan, Zenobia C Y; Chien, Wai-Tong

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have affirmed that psychiatric advanced practice nurses (APNs) perform multifaceted roles. However, only a limited amount of research has been conducted on their perceptions of the performance of their roles. To explore the lived experiences of psychiatric APNs concerning the performance of their roles. Data were collected from individual semi-structured interviews and analysed using the interpretative phenomenological analysis method. The study was conducted in a hospital cluster in Hong Kong. Thirteen psychiatric APNs were purposively recruited. Three themes were discerned, namely, 'We are different', 'Who am I?', and 'I am who I am'. The findings can help psychiatric APNs and nurse administrators to better understand the needs of the role-bearers (APNs) and to develop strategies to support the development of advanced psychiatric nursing practices in Hong Kong and worldwide.

  19. Psychiatric sequelae of Amok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, E K; Carr, J E

    1977-04-01

    The authors present evidence of an indigenous diagnostic system by which Malay culture defines Amok, and of the disparate relations between individual conceptualization, behavior, and tradition which contributes to the labeling process. Amok is viewed as a cultural prescription for violent behavior in response to a given set of conditions. It is not a disease but rather a behavioral sequence, perceived as illness, that may be precipitated by various etiological factors. Finally, evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that traditional forms of Amok are being replaced by new variants in which psychopathology is increasingly evident.

  20. The Perils of "Adjustment Disorder" as a Diagnostic Category

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, John

    2009-01-01

    "Adjustment disorder" occupies a peculiar position in the diagnostic system of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) straddling the boundary between normal and abnormal psychology. A more human-centered approach in counseling offers a defense of "normal" adjustment as…

  1. Schizoaffective disorder--an ongoing challenge for psychiatric nosology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, M; Haack, S; Becker, T; Frasch, K

    2011-04-01

    Schizoaffective disorder is a common diagnosis in mental health services. The present article aims to provide an overview of diagnostic reliability, symptomatology, outcome, neurobiology and treatment of schizoaffective disorder. Literature was identified by searches in "Medline" and "Cochrane Library". The diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder has a low reliability. There are marked differences between the current diagnostic systems. With respect to psychopathological symptoms, no clear boundaries were found between schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and affective disorders. Common neurobiological factors were found across the traditional diagnostic categories. Schizoaffective disorder according to ICD-10 criteria, but not to DSM-IV criteria, shows a more favorable outcome than schizophrenia. With regard to treatment, only a small and heterogeneous database exists. Due to the low reliability and questionable validity there is a substantial need for revision and unification of the current diagnostic concepts of schizoaffective disorder. If future diagnostic systems return to Kraepelin's dichotomous classification of non-organic psychosis or adopt a dimensional diagnostic approach, schizoaffective disorder will disappear from the psychiatric nomenclature. A nosological model with multiple diagnostic entities, however, would be compatible with retaining the diagnostic category of schizoaffective disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychiatric characteristics of homicide defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martone, Christine A; Mulvey, Edward P; Yang, Suzanne; Nemoianu, Andrei; Shugarman, Ryan; Soliman, Layla

    2013-09-01

    The authors examined the rate of mental disorders in an unselected sample of homicide defendants in a U.S. jurisdiction, seeking to identify psychiatric factors associated with offense characteristics and court outcomes. Defendants charged with homicide in a U.S. urban county between 2001 and 2005 received a psychiatric evaluation after arrest. Demographic, historical, and psychiatric variables as well as offense characteristics and legal outcomes were described. Bivariate analyses examined differences by age group and by race, and logistic models examined predictors of multiple victims, firearm use, guilty plea, and guilty verdict. Fifty-eight percent of the sample had at least one axis I or II diagnosis, most often a substance use disorder (47%). Axis I or II diagnoses were more common (78%) among defendants over age 40. Although 37% of the sample had prior psychiatric treatment, only 8% of the defendants with diagnosed axis I disorders had outpatient treatment during the 3 months preceding the homicide; African Americans were less likely than non-African Americans to be in treatment. African American males were more likely to use a firearm and to have a male victim. In exploratory analyses, psychiatric factors did not predict multiple victims, firearm use in the crime, or a guilty verdict. Rates of axis I disorders were lower than reported in previous studies. Few homicide defendants were in psychiatric treatment at the time of the crime, suggesting limited opportunities for prevention by mental health providers.

  3. Psychiatric aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L

    2011-08-01

    Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.

  4. The impact of epidemic violence on the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Silva Ribeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Violence and other traumatic events, as well as psychiatric disorders are frequent in developing countries, but there are few population studies to show the actual impact of traumatic events in the psychiatric morbidity in low and middle-income countries (LMIC. AIMS: To study the relationship between traumatic events and prevalence of mental disorders in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey carried out in 2007-2008 with a probabilistic representative sample of 15- to 75-year-old residents in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. RESULTS: The sample comprised 3744 interviews. Nearly 90% of participants faced lifetime traumatic events. Lifetime prevalence of any disorders was 44% in Sao Paulo and 42.1% in Rio de Janeiro. One-year estimates were 32.5% and 31.2%. One-year prevalence of traumatic events was higher in Rio de Janeiro than Sao Paulo (35.1 vs. 21.7; p<0.001. Participants from Rio de Janeiro were less likely to have alcohol dependence (OR = 0.55; p = 0.027, depression (OR = 0.6; p = 0.006 generalized anxiety (OR = 0.59; p = 0.021 and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR = 0.62; p = 0.027. Traumatic events correlated with all diagnoses--e.g. assaultive violence with alcohol dependence (OR = 5.7; p<0.001 and with depression (OR = 1.7; p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that psychiatric disorders and traumatic events, especially violence, are extremely common in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, supporting the idea that neuropsychiatric disorders and external causes have become a major public health priority, as they are amongst the leading causes of burden of disease in low and middle-income countries. The comparison between the two cities regarding patterns of violence and psychiatric morbidity suggests that environmental factors may buffer the negative impacts of traumatic events. Identifying

  5. The prevalence and burden of psychiatric disorders in primary health care visits in Qatar: Too little time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, somatization, obsessive compulsive, and bipolar disorders are recognized as causing the biggest burden of disease worldwide. Aim: In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence and burden of common mental disorders at Primary Health Care Centers (PHCC using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WHO-CIDI in the Qatari population, aged 18-65 who attended Primary Health Care (PHC settings. Design: A prospective cross-sectional study conducted during November 2011 to October 2012. Setting: Primary Health Care Centers of the Supreme Council of Health, Qatar. Subjects: A total of 2,000 Qatari subjects aged 18-65 years were approached; 1475 (73.3% agreed to participate. Methods: Prevalence and severity of International Classification of Disease-10 disorders were assessed with the WHO-CIDI (Version 3.0. Results: Of the 1475 participants, 830 (56.3% were females and 645 (43.7% was males. One-third were aged 35-49 years 558 (37.8%. The three most common disorders were major depression disorders (18.31%, any anxiety disorders (17.3%, any mood disorders (16.95%, followed by separation anxiety disorders (15.25%, personality disorder (14.1%. In the present study, prevalence in women was significantly higher than men for the most common psychiatric disorders, specifically generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobias, obsessive compulsive disorders, posttraumatic disorder, somatization, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, dysthymia, and oppositional defiant disorder. Of the total 20% had only one psychiatric diagnosis and 12% had two disorders, 9.7% respondents with three diagnoses, and finally 4.3% of respondents had four or more diagnoses. Conclusion: One-fifth of all adults who attended the PHCC (20% had at least one psychiatric diagnosis. The CIDI is a useful instrument for psychiatric diagnosis in community

  6. Diagnostic specificity and nonspecificity in the dimensions of preschool psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterba, Sonya; Egger, Helen L; Angold, Adrian

    2007-10-01

    The appropriateness of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) nosology for classifying preschool mental health disturbances continues to be debated. To inform this debate, we investigate whether preschool psychopathology shows differentiation along diagnostically specific lines when DSM-IV symptoms are aggregated statistically. One thousand seventy-three parents of preschoolers aged 2-5 years attending a large pediatric clinic completed the Child Behavior Checklist 1.5-5. A stratified probability sample of 193 parents of high scorers and 114 parents of low scorers were interviewed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on symptoms from seven DSM disorders. Comparison of competing models supported the differentiation of emotional syndromes into three factors: social phobia (SOC), separation anxiety (SAD), and depression/generalized anxiety (MDD/GAD), and the differentiation of disruptive syndromes into three factors: oppositional defiant/conduct syndrome (ODD/CD), hyperactivity/impulsivity, and inattention. Latent syndrome correlations were moderately high after accounting for symptom overlap and measurement error. Psychopathology appears to be differentiated among preschoolers much as it is among older children, and adolescents. We conclude that it is as reasonable to apply the DSM-IV nosology to preschoolers as it is to apply it to older individuals.

  7. Psychiatric hospital nursing staff's experiences of participating in group-based clinical supervision:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Angel, Sanne; Traynor, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Group-based clinical supervision is commonly offered as a stress-reducing intervention in psychiatric settings, but nurses often feel ambivalent about participating. This study aimed at exploring psychiatric nurses' experiences of participating in groupbased supervision and identifying psychosocial...... reasons for their ambivalence. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 psychiatric nurses at a Danish university hospital. The results indicated that participation in clinical supervision was difficult for the nurses because of an uncomfortable exposure to the professional community. The sense...... of exposure was caused by the particular interactional organisation during the sessions, which brought to light pre-existing but covert conflicts among the nurses....

  8. Psychiatric Symptoms, Parental Attachment, and Reasons for Use as Correlates of Heavy Substance Use Among Treatment-Seeking Hispanic Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattamorta, Karina A; Varela, Alberto; McCabe, Brian E; Mena, Maite P; Santisteban, Daniel A

    2017-02-23

    In early adolescence, Hispanics self-report higher drug use rates compared to White and African American peers. Among adolescent users, heavy users have more negative behavioral and health consequences. The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to examine whether psychiatric symptoms, parental attachment, and reasons for use predict heavy alcohol and illicit drug use (more than 10 times in the past three months) among Hispanic adolescents. This study examines baseline data from a study evaluating a family based substance abuse treatment program for Hispanic adolescents. Participants were 14-17 years old (N = 156, 44% female). Adolescent reports on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scales measured psychiatric symptoms of major depressive disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and anxiety. The Personal Experiences Inventory measured type and amount of drug use, as well as perceived social and psychological benefits of drug use. The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment measured trust, communication, and alienation between adolescents and their mothers. Logistic regression identified correlates of heavy alcohol use and heavy illicit drug use among Hispanic adolescents. Higher social benefits were associated with increased likelihood of heavy alcohol use. Conduct disorder, higher levels of maternal attachment, lower levels of acculturation, and higher levels of psychological benefits of use were associated with an increased likelihood of heavy illicit drug use. These findings support the assumption that substance use treatment among Hispanic adolescents must be capable of addressing co-occurring psychiatric disorders, familial relationships, and the individual reasons/motivators to use.

  9. Psychiatric disorders in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mireille C; Claudino, Denise A; Grigolon, Ruth B; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Claudino, Angélica M

    2018-02-01

    To study the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes, the factors associated with its presence, and to test the reliability of a screening tool for use in clinical settings. Eighty-one adolescents were enrolled in this case-control study, including 36 diabetic participants and 45 controls. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected and psychiatric symptoms and diagnoses were obtained from adolescents and their parents using a screening tool (Strengths & Difficulties Questionnaire) and a semi-structured interview (Development and Well-Being Assessment). Psychiatric disorders were identified in 22.2% of the sample (30.56% among diabetic adolescents vs. 15.56% of controls: OR = 2.39, 95%CI 0.82-6.99; p = 0.11). Overweight (body mass index percentile ≥ 85) was the only factor associated with psychiatric disorder (OR = 3.07; 95%CI 1.03-9.14; p = 0.04). Compared to the semi-structured interview, the screening instrument showed 80% sensitivity, 96% specificity, 88.9% positive predictive value and 92.3% negative predictive value for the presence of psychiatric diagnoses in adolescents. Psychiatric morbidity was high in this sample of adolescents, especially among those with diabetes. Routine use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire can help with early detection of psychiatric disorders in this at-risk group.

  10. Career Choice and Longevity in U.S. Psychiatric-Mental Health Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robbi K; Diefenbeck, Cynthia A; Brown, Carlton G

    2015-06-01

    The demand for mental health services in the United States taxes the existing care continuum and is projected to increase as federal initiatives such as the Affordable Care Act and mental health parity improve access to, and coverage for, mental health services. Quality health care providers, such as psychiatric-mental health nurses, are needed to bolster the mental health system. Prior research has focused on the unpopularity of psychiatric nursing as a career choice for nursing students. The purpose of this study is to understand how seasoned psychiatric nurses came to choose and remain in the specialty; descriptive phenomenology is used. In a face-to-face interview, eight registered nurses described their experiences with psychiatric nursing as a student, their entry into psychiatric nursing, and factors related to their longevity in the specialty. Giorgi's Existential Phenomenological Research Method was employed to analyze the interview data. Three themes emerged related to career choice: Interest Developed Prior to or While in Nursing School, Personal Relevance, and Validation of Potential. Three themes emerged related to retention: Overcoming Stereotypes to Develop Career Pride, Positive Team Dynamics, and Remaining Hopeful. Nurse educators play an important role in identifying talent, validating capability, enhancing interest, and increasing students' confidence to pursue a psychiatric nursing career, while nursing administrators and clinical specialists play a key role in retention. Findings also stimulate pertinent questions surrounding the long-term viability of the psychiatric-mental health nursing specialty.

  11. Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Ane; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    and children of different ages. When used for child obesity prevention, motivational interviewing was connected with dilemmas which should not be left to the individual nurse but be handled in practice by the school health service management. It is suggested to distinguish carefully between obesity prevention...... a prevention strategy targeting children with a high risk of obesity with an intervention conducted by school nurses using motivational interviewing.Motivational interviewing is a counselling method to bring about behavioural change (Miller and Rollnick 1995). Effect has been documented for a range of problem...... for what data told about motivational interviewing. Next, specifically according to the keywords of the motivational interviewing spirit and techniques. Key results : The study showed that the motivational interviewing spirit and techniques are integrated, inseparable, and adapted by the school nurses...

  12. How Voting and Consensus Created the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, James

    2017-04-01

    This paper examines how Task Force votes were central to the development of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III and DSM-III-R). Data were obtained through a literature review, investigation of DSM archival material housed at the American Psychiatric Association (APA), and interviews with key Task Force members of DSM-III and DSM-III-R. Such data indicate that Task Force votes played a central role in the making of DSM-III, from establishing diagnostic criteria and diagnostic definitions to settling questions about the inclusion or removal of diagnostic categories. The paper concludes that while the APA represented DSM-III, and the return to descriptive psychiatry it inaugurated, as a triumph of empirically based decision-making, the evidence presented here fails to support that view. Since the DSM is a cumulative project, and as DSM-III lives on through subsequent editions, this paper calls for a more socio-historically informed understanding of DSM's construction to be deployed in how the DSM is taught and implemented in training and clinical settings.

  13. 'Let the heart speak out'--interviewing practices by psychiatrists from two different traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Diana; Ribeiro, Branca Telles; Lopes Dantas, Maria Tereza

    2005-01-01

    In the present article, we investigate the extent to which professional theories that underlie, inform, and guide the interviewing practices of two psychiatrists (a neuropsychiatrist and a psychoanalyst) are discursively displayed in their ways of conducting a psychiatric interview. This study analyses excerpts from two audio-recorded psychiatric interviews held at the Institute of Psychiatry of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. It follows theoretical and methodological frameworks derived from interactional sociolinguistics. Ethnographic data and research interviews with both clinicians also ground our discussion. Using frame analysis as a central tool, we found that the psychiatrist who subscribes to a neuropsychiatric orientation displays a concern on assessing the patient's cognitive processes, and shifts topics away from the patient's delusions to (re)introduce the institutional frame of the psychiatric interview. By contrast, the psychiatrist who holds a psychoanalytic orientation towards interviewing not only listens attentively to very personal topics introduced by the patient, but also sustains and develops these topics. Most of all, she proposes and stays within conversational frames. In keeping a dual understanding about their practices in the interview situation, both doctors balance the need to follow the institutional agenda and the need to listen to the patient, despite their different theoretical orientations.

  14. Structured Interviewing: Raising the Psychometric Properties of the Employment Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Michael A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Proposes a highly structured six-step employment interviewing technique which includes asking the same questions, consistently administering the process to all candidates, and having an interview panel. Results of a field study of 243 job applicants using this technique demonstrated interrater reliability, predictive validity, test fairness for…

  15. Interviewers' challenging questions in British broadcast debate interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmertsen, Sofie

    2007-01-01

    In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show...

  16. Motivational interviewing for medication adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Marissa C; Cannon-Breland, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    To familiarize pharmacists with motivational interviewing as a way to engage patients in discussions about medication adherence. Motivational interviewing is a collaborative, patient-centered communications skill set that can increase behavior change by stimulating a patient's own internal motivation for change. Pharmacists using motivational interviewing can explore factors associated with medication nonadherence, assess patient ambivalence and/or resistance, and educate a patient to promote medication-adherent behaviors. Pharmacists can use motivational interviewing to effectively engage patients in a conversation that addresses medication adherence.

  17. Dissociation, shame, complex PTSD, child maltreatment and intimate relationship self-concept in dissociative disorder, chronic PTSD and mixed psychiatric groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; McGurrin, Patrick; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron

    2015-02-01

    Whilst a growing body of research has examined dissociation and other psychiatric symptoms in severe dissociative disorders (DDs), there has been no systematic examination of shame and sense of self in relationships in DDs. Chronic child abuse often associated with severe DDs, like dissociative identity disorder, is likely to heighten shame and relationship concerns. This study investigated complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), borderline and Schneiderian symptoms, dissociation, shame, child abuse, and various markers of self in relationships (e.g., relationship esteem, relationship depression, fear of relationships). Participants were assessed via clinical interview with psychometrically sound questionnaires. They fell into three diagnostic groups, dissociative disorder (n=39; primarily dissociative identity disorder), chronic PTSD (Chr-PTSD; n=13) or mixed psychiatric presentations (MP; n=21; primarily mood and anxiety disorders). All participants had a history of child abuse and/or neglect, and the groups did not differ on age and gender. The DD group was higher on nearly all measured variables than the MP group, and had more severe dissociative, borderline and Schneiderian symptoms than the Chr-PTSD sample. Shame and complex PTSD symptoms fell marginally short of predicting reductions in relationship esteem, pathological dissociative symptoms predicted increased relationship depression, and complex PTSD symptoms predicted fear of relationships. The representativeness of the samples was unknown. Severe psychiatric symptoms differentiate DDs from chronic PTSD, while dissociation and shame have a meaningful impact on specific markers of relationship functioning in psychiatric patients with a history of child abuse and neglect. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Modified personal interviews: resurrecting reliable personal interviews for admissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark D; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan Mahan; Woods, Nicole N; Fechtig, Lindsey; Anderson, Geoff

    2012-10-01

    Traditional admissions personal interviews provide flexible faculty-student interactions but are plagued by low inter-interview reliability. Axelson and Kreiter (2009) retrospectively showed that multiple independent sampling (MIS) may improve reliability of personal interviews; thus, the authors incorporated MIS into the admissions process for medical students applying to the University of Toronto's Leadership Education and Development Program (LEAD). They examined the reliability and resource demands of this modified personal interview (MPI) format. In 2010-2011, LEAD candidates submitted written applications, which were used to screen for participation in the MPI process. Selected candidates completed four brief (10-12 minutes) independent MPIs each with a different interviewer. The authors blueprinted MPI questions to (i.e., aligned them with) leadership attributes, and interviewers assessed candidates' eligibility on a five-point Likert-type scale. The authors analyzed inter-interview reliability using the generalizability theory. Sixteen candidates submitted applications; 10 proceeded to the MPI stage. Reliability of the written application components was 0.75. The MPI process had overall inter-interview reliability of 0.79. Correlation between the written application and MPI scores was 0.49. A decision study showed acceptable reliability of 0.74 with only three MPIs scored using one global rating. Furthermore, a traditional admissions interview format would take 66% more time than the MPI format. The MPI format, used during the LEAD admissions process, achieved high reliability with minimal faculty resources. The MPI format's reliability and effective resource use were possible through MIS and employment of expert interviewers. MPIs may be useful for other admissions tasks.

  19. The impact of sleep and psychiatric symptoms on alcohol consequences among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary Beth; Van Reen, Eliza; Barker, David H; Roane, Brandy M; Borsari, Brian; McGeary, John E; Seifer, Ronald; Carskadon, Mary A

    2017-03-01

    Independent lines of research have documented links between psychiatric symptoms and poor sleep quality, psychiatric symptoms and alcohol use, and alcohol use and poor sleep quality. The current study examined the synergistic effect of poor sleep quality and psychiatric symptoms on alcohol-related consequences in heavy-drinking young adults. Matriculating college students reporting at least one heavy drinking episode over the first nine weeks of the semester (N=385, 52% female) were categorized as experiencing 'good' (n=280) versus 'poor' sleep quality (n=105) and screening 'positive' (n=203) or 'negative' (n=182) for a psychiatric disorder. Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; psychiatric diagnosis was assessed using the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire; and alcohol-related consequences were assessed using the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire. General linear models were used to examine the main effects and interaction between sleep quality and psychiatric symptoms on alcohol-related consequences. Sleep quality moderated the association between psychiatric screen and alcohol-related consequences among heavy-drinking college students, such that psychiatric symptoms were associated with more alcohol-related consequences in the context of poor sleep quality. The combination of poor sleep quality and psychiatric symptoms is associated with increased alcohol-related consequences among heavy-drinking college students. Given the significant interaction between these symptoms, healthcare providers are encouraged to screen for the presence of sleep and psychiatric disorders among heavy-drinking young adults and to provide empirically-supported treatments as appropriate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Child psychiatric disorders in a primary care Arab population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Al-Sabosy, Moza; Saeed, Mohammed; Sabri, Sufyan

    2004-01-01

    Physical and psychiatric comorbidity is relatively common in general practice but there have been few systematic studies using clinical interviews of children attending the primary care services in the Arab population, and none from the Gulf countries. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and nature of child psychiatric morbidity in primary care in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Systematic psychiatric evaluations were carried out on consecutive children aged 6 to 18 years visiting their primary care doctors in Al Ain. The sample consisted of 141 (50.7%) boys and 137 (49.3%) girls. Forty-three percent of the 278 children received a DSM-IV diagnosis. Of these, 46 (38%) were males and 74 (62%) were females. However, only 1.1% (3/120) of the patients consulted general practitioners for a primary psychiatric symptom. The most common diagnosis was anxiety disorder followed by depression. Obsessive compulsive disorder was present in 11%, conduct disorder in 7%, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in 3% of those with a diagnosis. A statistically significant association was found between DSM-IV caseness and female gender, higher number of children in the household, relationship problems in the family, physical illness and family history of psychiatric disorder. Other factors that did not show any significant association were age, nationality, socioeconomic status, parental education or occupation, scholastic performance or developmental delay in the child, or parental consanguinity. Our findings suggest that psychiatric disorders are common among young people of Arab origin attending primary care facilities, and that doctors need to be vigilant about this possibility.