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Sample records for psoriasis-like generalized tinea

  1. Generalized Tinea Corporis: Report of Two Cases

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    Enver Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tinea corporis is a dermatophytic infection, caused by zoophilic or geophilic, occasionally anthropophilic strains which is observed in all body regions except for specific locations (ie, scalp, groin, palms, and soles. The typical lesions are slightly indurated patches or plaques which enlarge peripherally and which is sharply demarcated with a more erythematous and scaly active border. The disease may be transmitted by another person, animals and the nature (ie, air, soil. Diagnosis of the cases which have been caused by zoophilic strains may be difficult especially since they cause inflammatory lesions. In this report we present two cases of tinea corporis which have atypical clinical features and present with inflammatory and generalized lesions.

  2. Generalized favus: the story of a legendary case of tinea favosa.

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    Conde-Salazar Gómez, L; Heras Mendaza, F

    2015-06-01

    From the moment the Olavide Museum opened its doors in 1882 until its content was packed up around 1965 and lost sight of for a time, it underwent a succession of changes. Some of those changes cannot be fully documented now because the archives of the Provincial Council (Diputación) of Madrid were lost during the Spanish Civil War. The museum was initially housed in Hospital de San Juan de Dios, in the neighborhood of Atocha. Because this hospital treated mainly venereal diseases, much of the information we have about it comes from newspapers or magazines of the period, and their accounts were often sensationalistic. When a large number of the museum's wax figures were rediscovered, along with a great many accompanying documents, in December 2005, the material allowed 3 sculptors-Zofío, Barta, and López Álvarez-to be identified. Case histories corresponding to the figures were also among the papers found. As a result, the truth about certain legends associated with the museum, the sculptors, and the patients could be unraveled. Among the patients whose stories were brought to light was one referred to as the boy with generalized tinea favosa, or crusted ringworm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  3. Tinea Versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the trunk and shoulders. Tinea versicolor (TIN-ee-uh vur-si-KUL-ur), occurs most frequently ... Clinical Advisor 2015: 5 Books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby Elsevier; 2015. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed ...

  4. Tinea incognito: Case series

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    Mikail Yılmaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinea incognito is a dermatophytic infection which has lost its typical clinical appearance because of inappropriate use of topical or systemic corticosteroids. The clinical manifestations of tinea incognito can mimic many dermatoses such as eczema, psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis and atopic dermatitis. The diagnosis of tinea incognito is confirmed by direct KOH (potassium hydroxide examination ( native preparation, making the fungal cultures from the lesion and histopathological examination in some cases. Systemic antifungal therapy is recommended in the treatment of tinea incognito. Herein, 10 cases of tinea incognito which mimicking various dermatoses were diagnosed and treated in our clinic in 2014 is presented.

  5. Interdigital erosions: Tinea pedis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Orgaz-Molina, Jacinto; Orgaz-Molina, Maria Carmen; Cotugno, Marilena; Arias-Santiago, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Interdigital erosions are frequently due to tinea pedis. However, other infectious conditions, such as candidiasis, erythrasma or bacterial infections, can generate lesions that cannot be differentiated at the clinical level...

  6. Topical antifungal treatments for tinea cruris and tinea corporis.

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    El-Gohary, Magdy; van Zuuren, Esther J; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Burgess, Hana; Doney, Liz; Stuart, Beth; Moore, Michael; Little, Paul

    2014-08-04

    .53 to 0.84, NNT 6, 95% CI 5 to 13), but there was no difference in mycological cure rate (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.05). The quality of evidence for these two outcomes was rated as low for mycological cure and very low for clinical cure.All of the treatments that were examined appeared to be effective, but most comparisons were evaluated in single studies. There was no evidence for a difference in cure rates between tinea cruris and tinea corporis. Adverse effects were minimal - mainly irritation and burning; results were generally imprecise between active interventions and placebo, and between different classes of treatment. The pooled data suggest that the individual treatments terbinafine and naftifine are effective. Adverse effects were generally mild and reported infrequently. A substantial number of the studies were more than 20 years old and of unclear or high risk of bias; there is however, some evidence that other topical antifungal treatments also provide similar clinical and mycological cure rates, particularly azoles although most were evaluated in single studies.There is insufficient evidence to determine if Whitfield's ointment, a widely used agent is effective.Although combinations of topical steroids and antifungals are not currently recommended in any clinical guidelines, relevant studies included in this review reported higher clinical cure rates with similar mycological cure rates at the end of treatment, but the quality of evidence for these outcomes was rated very low due to imprecision, indirectness and risk of bias. There was insufficient evidence to confidently assess relapse rates in the individual or combination treatments.Although there was little difference between different classes of treatment in achieving cure, some interventions may be more appealing as they require fewer applications and a shorter duration of treatment. Further, high quality, adequately powered trials focusing on patient-centred outcomes, such as patient satisfaction

  7. RIG-I antiviral signaling drives interleukin-23 production and psoriasis-like skin disease.

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    Zhu, Huiyuan; Lou, Fangzhou; Yin, Qianqian; Gao, Yuanyuan; Sun, Yang; Bai, Jing; Xu, Zhenyao; Liu, Zhaoyuan; Cai, Wei; Ke, Fang; Zhang, Lingyun; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Hong; Wang, Gang; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Hongxin; Wang, Zhugang; Ginhoux, Florent; Lu, Chuanjian; Su, Bing; Wang, Honglin

    2017-05-01

    Retinoic acid inducible-gene I (RIG-I) functions as one of the major sensors of RNA viruses. DDX58, which encodes the RIG-I protein, has been newly identified as a susceptibility gene in psoriasis. Here, we show that the activation of RIG-I by 5'ppp-dsRNA, its synthetic ligand, directly causes the production of IL-23 and triggers psoriasis-like skin disease in mice. Repeated injections of IL-23 to the ears failed to induce IL-23 production and a full psoriasis-like skin phenotype, in either germ-free or RIG-I-deficient mice. RIG-I is also critical for a full development of skin inflammation in imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mouse model. Furthermore, RIG-I-mediated endogenous IL-23 production was mainly confined to the CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) via nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, and stimulated RIG-I expression in an auto-regulatory feedback loop. Thus, our data suggest that the dysregulation in the antiviral immune responses of hosts through the innate pattern recognition receptors may trigger the skin inflammatory conditions in the pathophysiology of psoriasis. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  8. The frequency of Tinea Pedis in patients with Tinea Cruris

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    Farivar M

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of tinea pedis in patients with tinea cruris has not been elucidated. The main objective of this study is to define this frequency all patients referred to the Mycological Laboratory of Razi Hospital, Tehran, during a 3-month period in 1997, who had a positive KOH smear for dermatophyte in the groin area were included in the study. A culture from this site, and a smear and culture from the foot (regardless of the presence of any lesion, were performed. Sixty patients (46 males and 14 females entered the study .Epidermophyton floccosum was the most frequent isolated fungus in tinea cruris. Four patients (6.4% had concurrent tinea pedis proved by smear and culture; and the sole isolate form the foot, was Trichophyton mentagrophtes. In three of them, the corresponding dermatophyte in the groin was E. floccosum. In this study, the frequency of tinea pedis in patients with tinea cruris was low

  9. [Tinea capitis. Dermoscopic findings in 37 patients].

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    Arrazola-Guerrero, Jisel; Isa-Isa, Rafael; Torres-Guerrero, Edoardo; Arenas, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common fungal infection in children. Diagnosis is confirmed by mycological study, including direct examination of the samples with potassium hydroxide/chlorazol black and culture. Previous studies have reported the presence of "comma hairs" and "corkscrew hairs", as well as short hairs and black dots. To describe the dermoscopic patterns in the trichoscopic examination in patients with tinea capitis. A descriptive, observational and cross-sectional study was conducted on 37 patients with tinea capitis, studied during May, 2012, at Dr. Manuel Gea González General Hospital in Mexico, and the Instituto Dermatológico y Cirugía de Piel Dr. Huberto Bogaert Díaz, in the Dominican Republic. Clinical, mycological and dermoscopic evaluations were performed. Of the 37 patients included, 28 were of mixed race from Dominican Republic and 9 mixed race cases from Mexico. Seventy six percent were male and 24% female, and 94% were children. The following dermoscopic patterns were confirmed: "comma hairs" (41%), "corkscrew hairs" (22%), short hairs (49%), and black dots (33%). The presence of scales (89%), peripilar casts (46%), alopecia (65%), pustules (8%), and meliceric crusts (16%), were also observed. Dermoscopy in tinea capitis showed the presence of "comma hairs", and "corkscrew hairs". Scales, peripilar casts and alopecia were also found. It would be desirable to establish this diagnostic tool, particularly when an optical microscope or a mycology reference laboratory are not available. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Tinea on a Tattoo.

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    Oanţă, Alexandru; Irimie, Marius

    2016-08-01

    In the last twenty years, the prevalence of individuals with tattoos in the general population has increased in Europe (1) as well as in Australia (2) and the United States of America (3). A series of complications such as acute inflammatory reactions, allergic contact dermatitis (4,5), photoinduced, lichenoid, and granulomatous reactions (6, 7), pseudolymphoma (8), pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (9), skin infections (6), and skin cancers (10) may occur on tattoos. Infectious complications on tattoos include bacterial infections (pyoderma, leprosy, syphilis, cutaneous tuberculosis, mycobacteriosis) (11-14), viral infections (molluscum contagiosum, warts, herpes simplex, hepatitis B and C) (15-17), and fungal infections (sporotrichosis, dermatophytosis) (18,19). We present the case of a 29-year-old immunocompetent female patient who was consulted for the development of an erythematous-squamous placard that appeared on a tattoo about 18 days after tattooing. Dermatological examination revealed a circular, erythematous, scaly plaque, with centrifugal growth and central resolution, presenting an active, raised, erythematous, vesiculopustular edge, giving the appearance of tinea corporis. The lesion's starting point was on the tattoo in two colors located on the middle third of the left calf and subsequently evolved to beyond the surface of tattoo (Figure 1). No other skin, scalp, or nail lesions were observed. Mycological examination of the material obtained by scraping of the scales and the vesicles from the edges and the surface of the plaque revealed numerous hyphae on direct microscopy examination, and white, flat colonies with a cottony surface and radial grooves developed in Sabouraud dextrose agar culture (Figure 2). Spindle-shaped, thick-walled macroconidia and a few pyriform microconidia were observed on microscopic examinations of the colonies. Based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, Microsporum canis was identified. Gram stain and bacterial

  11. Mycological study of tinea versicolor

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    Sankara Rao I

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycological study of 100 cases of tinea versicolor was undertaken. Skin scrapings from 100 cases were subjected for culture in Sabouraud′s dextrose agar, out of which 60 positive cultures (60% were obtained.

  12. Tinea capitis in Botswana

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    Thakur R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rameshwari ThakurDepartment of Microbiology, Muzaffarnagar Medical College, Muzaffarnagar, IndiaBackground: Tinea capitis (TC is a common dermatophyte infection of the scalp that can also involve the eyebrows and eyelashes.Aim: This study aimed to find the causative fungus responsible for TC in Botswana and determine its association with the clinical types of TC.Methods: Samples for potassium hydroxide 10% mounts and fungal cultures were collected in a microbiology laboratory at the National Health Laboratory, Gaborone, Botswana. Dermasel agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar were inoculated with the samples. Lactophenol cotton blue mounts were prepared from the culture-positive samples to study the morphological characteristics.Results: Trichophyton violaceum was found to be the predominant causative organism of TC. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated from one patient. Both are anthropophilic species.Conclusion: TC was found to be most common in those aged 1–15 years (81%. Of 17 patients in this age group, 16 were younger than 10 years old and one was 14 years old. T. violaceum was the most common dermatophyte species isolated.Keywords: Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton violaceum white variant, Trichophyton tonsurans, dermatophyte

  13. Antipsoriatic Effects of Wannachawee Recipe on Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-Like Dermatitis in BALB/c Mice

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    Mingkwan Na Takuathung

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by thick and erythema raised plaques with adherent silvery scales. T-cells are activated via the IL-23/Th17 axis which is involved in psoriasis pathogenesis. Conventional treatments of psoriasis have adverse events that influence patients’ adherence. Wannachawee Recipe (WCR is Thai traditional medicine that is known to be effective for psoriasis patients; however, preclinical evidence is still lacking. This study investigated the therapeutic potential of WCR on antiproliferant activity using imiquimod- (IMQ- induced psoriasis-like dermatitis in a mouse model. Psoriasis-like dermatitis was induced on the shaved dorsal skin and right ear pinna of BALB/c mice by topical application of IMQ for 15 consecutive days after which WCR was administered to the mice by oral gavage for 10 days. Phenotypical observations, histopathological examinations, and ELISA of skin and blood samples were conducted. WCR significantly ameliorated development of IMQ-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis and reduced levels of Th17 cytokines (IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23 in both serum and dorsal skin. Histopathological findings showed a decrease in epidermal thickness and inflammatory T-cell infiltration in the WCR-treated groups. The WCR has pharmacological actions which regulate Th17 related cytokines suggesting that it is a potential alternative therapeutic strategy for psoriasis.

  14. Management of tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis: A comprehensive review

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    Alok Kumar Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of superficial mycotic infection worldwide is 20–25% of which dermatophytes are the most common agents. Recent developments in understanding the pathophysiology of dermatophytosis have confirmed the central role of cell-mediated immunity in countering these infections. Hence, a lack of delayed hypersensitivity reaction in presence of a positive immediate hypersensitivity (IH response to trichophytin antigen points toward the chronicity of disease. Diagnosis, though essentially clinical should be confirmed by laboratory-based investigations. Several new techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR and mass spectroscopy can help to identify the different dermatophyte strains. Management involves the use of topical antifungals in limited disease, and oral therapy is usually reserved for more extensive cases. The last few years have seen a significant rise in the incidence of chronic dermatophyte infections of skin which have proven difficult to treat. However, due to the lack of updated national or international guidelines on the management of tinea corporis, cruris, and pedis, treatment with systemic antifungals is often empirical. The present review aims to revisit this important topic and will detail the recent advances in the pathophysiology and management of tinea corporis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedia while highlighting the lack of clarity of certain management issues.

  15. Atypical manifestations of tinea faciei

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    Mittal R

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 58 paitents of tinea faciei was conducted. Twenty five (43.1% patients had history of photosensitivity. Twenty eight (48.2% patients were applying topical steroids, 2 (3.4% patients were on 10 mg of prednisolone daily. Associated tinea of other sites were observed in 14 (24.13%. 23 (39.6% patients had typical circinate, arcuate, annular plaques with raised margin showing vesiculo-pustules. Atypical manifestations were in the form of arcuate plaques on the pinna in 4 patients, erythematous plaques full of vesiculo-pustules without central clearing in 3. Thirty two (55.17% patients had plaques with broad edges and indistinct central clearing. In 2 patients lesions resembled discoid lupus erythematosus. Skin scrapings for fungus was positive in 36 (62.06% cases. All patients responded to systemic griseofulvin 10mg/kg with 1% clotrimazole topicaly in 4-8 weeks.

  16. Oral fluconazole in tinea versicolor

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    Sankara Rao I

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 patients with extensive tinea versicolor were treated with single oral dose of 400 mg of fluconazole. 25 patients returned for follow-up. Follow-up at 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 8 weeks showed 100% clinical cure rate and 92% mycological cure rate. No significant side effects were noticed. The majority of patients found the treatment effective, safe and convenient.

  17. An alternative treatment for pityriasis versicolor, tinea cruris, tinea corporis and tinea faciei with topical application of honey, olive oil and beeswax mixture: an open pilot study.

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    Al-Waili, N S

    2004-03-01

    To evaluate the possible role of honey, olive oil and beeswax in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Thirty-seven patients with pityriasis versicolor, tinea cruris, tinea corporis and tinea faciei were studied. After clinical evaluation of redness, scaling, pruritus and burning/pain sensation and mycological assessment, honey mixture containing honey, olive oil and beeswax (1:1:1) was applied to the lesions three times daily for a maximum of 4 weeks. Clinical response was obtained in 86% of patients with pityriasis versicolor, 78% of patients with tinea cruris and in 75% of patients with tinea corporis. Mycological cure was obtained in 75, 71 and 62% of patients with PV, tinea cruris and tinea corporis, respectively. The patient with tinea faciei showed clinical and mycological cure 3 weeks after commencement of therapy. Honey mixture may have place in the management of these skin conditions and rigorous, controlled trials are justified.

  18. TERAPI DENYUT ITRAKONAZOL PADA KASUS TINEA UNGUIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Yuda Sujana; IGK Darmada; Luh Made Mas Rusyati

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal infection on skin, hair, and nail which caused bydermatophyt. Onicomycosis refers to nail infection which caused by fungal dermatophyt,fungal nondermatophyt, or yeast. Dermatophyt that infected the nail called tinea unguium.Diagnosis for tinea unguium based on the microscopic test with KOH 20%, cultureSaboraud’s dextrose agar (SDA) and histopathologic. In this case reported male, 28 years oldwith changed of the color of nail since four years ago. Dermat...

  19. Systemic ALA-PDT effectively blocks the development of psoriasis-like lesions and alleviates leucocyte infiltration in the K14-VEGF transgenic mouse.

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    Chen, T; Zhang, L-W; Fu, L-X; Wu, Y-B; Liu, X-Y; Guo, Z-P

    2017-12-01

    Psoriasis is one of the most common immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disorders. In spite of significant advances in the treatment of psoriasis, more effective and safer therapeutic strategies are still needed. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a method of light treatment that is being used increasingly in the treatment of dermatological diseases. To evaluate the therapeutic effects of systemic 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-PDT on psoriasis and to explore its potential mechanism of action. We investigated the therapeutic effects of systemic ALA-PDT in K14-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transgenic homozygous mice, an animal model of psoriasis, which has many clinical and histopathological characteristics similar to those of human psoriasis. Using haematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR respectively, we assessed the changes in psoriasis-like lesions, cellular infiltration of T cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and neutrophils, and the mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ in the lesions. Systemic ALA-PDT blocked the development of psoriasis-like lesions and moderately attenuated the histopathological changes in K14-VEGF transgenic mice. Furthermore, systemic ALA-PDT produced an obvious reduction in infiltration of T cells, CD11c+ DCs and neutrophils in psoriasis-like lesions. In addition, systemic ALA-PDT also significantly decreased the mRNA expression of IL-17 and IFN-γ. We suggest that the mechanism of systemic ALA-PDT in this psoriasis-like model might be associated with selective damage to abnormal T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells, and reduction of the inflammatory cytokines IL-17 and IFN-γ. These observations partly explain the potential mechanism of systemic ALA-PDT in psoriasis and other inflammatory skin diseases. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  20. Itraconazole versus griseofulvine in the treatment of tinea corporis and tinea cruris

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    Acharya K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available 126 patients (82 males and 44 females aged above 12 years, suffering from tinea corporis and/or tinea cruris, were treated with either itraconazole (100 mg once a day for 2 weeks and then plecebo for 2 weeks (63 patients, or griseofulvin (250 mg twice a day for 4 weeks. 90.47% of the patients treated with itraconzole improved whereas griseofulvin imporved 76.19% of patients, clinically. Mycological response was 72% with itraconazole and 57% with griseofulvin

  1. Tinea nigra: successful treatment with topical butenafine.

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    Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a case of Tinea nigra in an 8-year-old child, male, from Itajaí, SC, Brazil, with lesions of the macular hyperchromic type, unique, asymptomatic, localized in the right palmar area. The lesion was treated with the topical antifungal butenafine, with remission of symptoms and without recurrence at follow-up for two years.

  2. Tinea nigra: successful treatment with topical butenafine*

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    Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a case of Tinea nigra in an 8-year-old child, male, from Itajaí, SC, Brazil, with lesions of the macular hyperchromic type, unique, asymptomatic, localized in the right palmar area. The lesion was treated with the topical antifungal butenafine, with remission of symptoms and without recurrence at follow-up for two years. PMID:23197223

  3. Aspergillus niger – a possible new etiopathogenic agent in Tinea capitis? Presentation of two cases

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    Anastasiya Atanasova Chokoeva

    Full Text Available Abstract Tinea capitis is generally considered as the most frequent fungal infection in childhood, as it accounts for approximately 92% of all mycosis in children. The epidemiology of this disease varies widely ranging from antropophillic, zoophilic, and geophillic dermatophytes, as the main causative agent in different geographic areas, depending on several additional factors. Nowadays, the etiology is considered to vary with age, as well with gender, and general health condition. The former reported extraordinary Tinea capitis case reports have been replaced by original articles and researches dealing with progressively changing patterns in etiology and clinical manifestation of the disease. This fact is indicative that under the umbrella of the well-known disease there are facts still hidden for future revelations. Herein, we present two rare cases of Tinea capitis in children, which totally differ from the recently established pattern, in their clinical presentation, as well as in the etiological aspect, as we discuss this potential new etiological pattern of the disease, focusing on our retrospective and clinical observation. Collected data suggest that pathogenic molds should be considered as a potential source of infection in some geographic regions, which require total rationalization of the former therapeutic conception, regarding the molds’ higher antimitotic resistance compared to dermatophytes. Molds-induced Tinea capitis should be also considered in clinically resistant and atypical cases, with further investigations of the antifungal susceptibility of the newest pathogens in the frame of the old disease. Further investigations are still needed to confirm or reject this proposal.

  4. Pigmentary changes of tinea versicolor in dark-skinned patients.

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    Aljabre, S H; Alzayir, A A; Abdulghani, M; Osman, O O

    2001-04-01

    Tinea versicolor causes scaly macular lesions which vary in color from white to brown. In patients with dark skin, tinea versicolor is thought to have a tendency to be hypopigmented. This view has not been formally documented. Our objective was to determine the pigmentary changes of lesions of tinea versicolor in patients with skin types IV and V. One hundred cases of tinea versicolor in persons with skin types IV and V were studied. The pigmentary changes and their correlation with the age and sex of the patients and the duration, recurrence, site, and symptomatology of the lesions were determined. There was no correlation between the pigmentary variations of tinea versicolor and the type of skin, sex, and age of our patients or the duration, recurrence, site, and symptomatology of the lesions. In dark-skinned individuals, tinea versicolor does not tend to be significantly hypopigmented.

  5. A clinico-mycological study of tinea capitis

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    B Ashvith Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinea capitis is the dermatophytosis of the scalp and hair. It is predominant in children especially in the tropical region. The epidemiology and etiology of tinea capitis keeps changing with time and varies considerably with respect to geography and specific population groups. The present study was undertaken to study the incidence, morphological pattern, direct microscopy and to establish the species causing tinea capitis in this geographical area (Bangalore

  6. GPR43 activation enhances psoriasis-like inflammation through epidermal upregulation of IL-6 and dual oxidase 2 signaling in a murine model.

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    Nadeem, Ahmed; Ahmad, Sheikh F; Al-Harbi, Naif O; El-Sherbeeny, Ahmed M; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Almukhlafi, Talal S

    2017-05-01

    The gut is densely inhabited by commensal bacteria, which metabolize dietary fibers/undigested carbohydrates and produce short-chain fatty acids such as acetate. GPR43 is one of the receptors to sense short-chain fatty acids, and expressed in various immune and non-immune cells. Acetate/GPR43 signaling has been shown to affect various inflammatory diseases through Th17 responses and NADPH oxidase (NOX)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. However, no study has previously explored the effects of GPR43 activation during psoriasis-like inflammation. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of acetate/phenylacetamide (GPR43 agonists) on imiquimod induced skin inflammation in mice. Mice were administered phenylacetamide/acetate followed by assessment of skin inflammation, NOXs (NOX-2, NOX-4, dual oxidases), and Th17 related signaling. Our study showed induction of epidermal GPR43 after imiquimod treatment, i.e. psoriasis-like inflammation. Acetate administration in psoriatic mice led to further increase in skin inflammation (ear thickness/myeloperoxidase activity) with concurrent increase in Th17 immune responses and epidermal dual oxidase-2 signaling. Further, topical application of GPR43 agonist, phenylacetamide led to enhanced ear thickness with concomitant epidermal IL-6 signaling as well as dual oxidase-2 upregulation which may be responsible for increased psoriasis-like inflammation. Taken together, dual oxidase-2 and IL-6 play important roles in GPR43-mediated skin inflammation. The current study suggests that GPR43 activation in psoriatic patients may lead to aggravation of psoriatic inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. TERAPI DENYUT ITRAKONAZOL PADA KASUS TINEA UNGUIUM

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    Kadek Yuda Sujana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal infection on skin, hair, and nail which caused bydermatophyt. Onicomycosis refers to nail infection which caused by fungal dermatophyt,fungal nondermatophyt, or yeast. Dermatophyt that infected the nail called tinea unguium.Diagnosis for tinea unguium based on the microscopic test with KOH 20%, cultureSaboraud’s dextrose agar (SDA and histopathologic. In this case reported male, 28 years oldwith changed of the color of nail since four years ago. Dermatologic states is located on tenhand’s fingers and ten foot’s fingers which looked like the nail is thickening, there are keratindebris on the distal part of nail with rough end and nail plate looked like picked up. KOH20% test from nail’s scratch founded long hypha and branched. This patient gives treatmentwith Itraconazol dose 200 mg twice a day for one week in one month and repeated for threemonths. The prognosis is good.

  8. Tinea Corporis: Five-year Retrospective Evaluation

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    Aslı Günaydın

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Desgin: Tinea corporis is an cutaneous infection due to dermatophytes, excluding palms-soles, nails and groins.The distributation of agents varies with geographic and socio-economic factors. In thıs study we aimed to analyse the agents seen in tinea corporis and their relationship with the patients’ age, gender and lesion location. Material and Method: In thıs study, between January 2007 and December 2011, 62 patients referred to our dermatology policlinic and diagnosed as tinea corporis, restrospectively analyzed. Results compared with patients’ age, sex and location of lesions for the statistical significance. Results: The avarage age of the patiesnts was 40,5 and accounted for 62,9% of them were female, 37,1% were male. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequent species in both gender (56,5 %, followed by Microsporum canis (35,5 %, Trichophyton violaceum (4,8 % and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (3,2 %. The incidence of Microsporum canis 46,5 % in women and 17,3 % in men and the diffrence attributed to the contact of women with pets which are an important source of contamination for he zoophilic dermatophyte Microsporum canis more than men. Conclusion: In our study, the frequency and the species of tinea corporis were detected similiar to the literatüre. There was no statistically significant difference between the variables of agent species, localization, gender and age. However, epidemiological data can be an important factor in the conditions that mycological culture can not be considered.

  9. Tinea Unguium: Diagnosis and Treatment in Practice.

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    Asz-Sigall, Daniel; Tosti, Antonella; Arenas, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    Onychomycosis is caused by dermatophytes, yeasts or non-dermatophyte molds; when caused by dermatophytes, it is called tinea unguium. The main etiological agents are Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale. The most frequent types are distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis. Diagnosis usually requires mycological laboratory confirmation. Dermoscopy can be helpful and also biopsy is an excellent diagnostic method in uncommon cases or when mycological test is negative. Treatment must be chosen according to clinical type, number of affected nails and severity. The goal for antifungal therapy is the clearing of clinical signs or mycological cure.

  10. Annular Lupus Vulgaris Mimicking Tinea Cruris

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    Heo, Young Soo; Shin, Won Woong; Kim, Yong Ju; Song, Hae Jun

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is an infrequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It is often clinically and histopathologically confused with various cutaneous disorders. A 36-year-old man attended our clinic with slowly progressive, asymptomatic, annular skin lesions on both the thighs and buttocks for 10 years. He consulted with many physicians and was improperly treated with an oral antifungal agent for several months under the diagnosis of tinea cruris, but no resolution of his condition was observed. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was made based on the histopathologic examination and the polymerase chain reaction assay. Anti-tuberculosis therapy was administered and the lesions started to regress. PMID:20548922

  11. Effect of Topical Application of Black Seed Oil on Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-like Lesions in the Thin Skin of Adult Male Albino Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okasha, Ebtsam F; Bayomy, Naglaa A; Abdelaziz, Eman Z

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects about 1%-3% of the world's population. Black seed oil, i.e., the oil extracted from black seeds (Nigella sativa seeds), possesses a broad spectrum of pharmacological actions including anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and antioxidant properties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of black seed oil on imiquimod (IMQ) induced psoriasis-like skin lesions. To this end, 30 male albino rats were divided into three groups: group I, control group; group II, psoriasis-induced group receiving daily topical applications of IMQ cream (5%) on the shaved back skin for 10 consecutive days; and group III, black seed oil group receiving a daily topical dose of black seed oil 5 mg/kg body weight for 10 days after induction of psoriasis. Animals of all groups were sacrificed and specimens obtained from the skin of the central part of the back were processed for histological and immunohistochemical staining with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). IMQ application led to epidermal inflammation, hyperplasia and alterations in the normal appearance of keratinocytes with degenerative changes observed at both light and electron microscopic levels. Collagenous fibers were abundant in the dermis and PCNA-positive cells were detected in all layers of the epidermis. However, topical use of black seed oil strongly inhibited IMQ-induced psoriasis-like inflammation and alleviated all epidermal and dermal changes observed after IMQ application, allowing us to conclude that black seed oil can be used as an adjuvant topical therapy for treating psoriasis. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 301:166-174, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. PAMs ameliorates the imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin disease in mice by inhibition of translocation of NF-κB and production of inflammatory cytokines.

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    Rongkun Dou

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic and persistent inflammatory skin disease seriously affecting the quality of human life. In this study, we reported an ancient formula of Chinese folk medicine, the natural plant antimicrobial solution (PAMs for its anti-inflammatory effects and proposed the primary mechanisms on inhibiting the inflammatory response in TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells and imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin disease mouse model. Two main functional components of hydroxysafflor Yellow A and allantoin in PAMs were quantified by HPLC to be 94.2±2.2 and 262.9±12.5 μg/mL respectively. PAMs could significantly reduce the gene expression and inflammatory cytokines production of Macrophage-Derived Chemokine (MDC, IL-8 and IL-6 in TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells. PAMs also significantly ameliorates the psoriatic-like symptoms in a mouse model with the evaluation scores for both the single (scales, thickness, erythema and cumulative features were in the order of blank control < Dexamethasone < PAMs < 50% ethanol < model groups. The results were further confirmed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry. The down-regulated gene expression of IL-8, TNF-α, ICAM-1 and IL-23 in mouse tissues was consistent with the results from those of the HaCaT cells. The inhibition of psoriasis-like skin inflammation by PAMs was correlated with the inactivation of the translocation of P65 protein into cellular nucleus, indicating the inhibition of the inflammatory NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that PAMs may be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis.

  13. Management of tinea capitis in childhood

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    Antoni Bennassar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Antoni Bennassar, Ramon GrimaltDept of Dermatology, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Tinea capitis (TC is a common dermatophyte infection affecting primarily ­prepubertal children. The causative pathogens belong to only two genera: Trichophyton and Microsporum. Although there is a great local variation in the epidemiology of TC worldwide, T. tonsurans is currently the most common cause of TC with M. canis second. Even though there is an emerging number of anthropophilic scalp infections, M. canis remains the predominant causative organism in many countries of the Mediterranean basin, the most important dermatophyte carriers being stray cats and dogs as well as pet puppies, kittens and rabbits. TC always requires systemic treatment because topical antifungal agents do not penetrate down to the deepest part of the hair follicle. Since the late 1950s, griseofulvin has been the gold standard for systemic therapy of TC. It is active against dermatophytes and has a long-term safety profile. The main disadvantage of griseofulvin is the long duration of treatment required which may lead to reduced compliance. The newer oral antifungal agents including terbinafine, itraconazole, ketokonazole, and fluconazole appear to have efficacy rates and potential adverse effects similar to those of griseofulvin in children with TC caused by Trichophyton species, while requiring a much shorter duration of treatment. They may, however, be more expensive.Keywords: tinea capitis, children, fungal infection, greseofulvin, terbinafine, itraconazole, fluconazole, treatment, pediatric infection

  14. Tinea Facialis Incognito: A Case Related to Topical Tacrolimus Usage

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    Berna Aksoy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tinea incognito is a clinical condition that is associated with topical corticosteroid and calcineurin inhibitor usage. A seventy year old male patient applied to the outpatient clinic with complaints of pruritus and erythema that began first on his forehead and spread to his whole face later and his complaints had been present for 50 days. He did not get any benefit from topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment during the previous one month. On dermatologic examination, tinea pedis et manuum and onychomycosis were detected. Direct misroscopic examination of scrapings from erythematous papules and plaques located in the face revealed fungal elements. His lesions disappeared after systemic and topical antifungal treatment. Tinea incognito, which is usually underestimated and misdiagnosed, may develop after topical calcineurin usage and, interestingly, this disorder mimics other dermatologic diseases. In this manuscript our aim was to remind physicians of tinea incognito by presenting this case.

  15. Tinea pedis due to Cylindrocarpon lichenicola beginning onycholysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diongue, Khadim; Diallo, Mamadou Alpha; Seck, Mame Cheikh; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou; Badiane, Aïda Sadikh; Diop, Abdoulaye; Ndiaye, Yaye Dié; Ndir, Omar; Ndiaye, Daouda

    2016-01-01

    A 33 year old woman presented with both feet, humid and white Tinea pedis at the second, third and fourth inter-toes areas associated with a beginning onycholysis of the nails lasting for 18 months...

  16. TINEA CAPITIS– SIGNIFICANCE OF TIMELY TREATMENT TO PREVENT SCARRING ALOPECIA

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    Sandrina Carvalho

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The treatment of tinea capitis is simple and effective. Timely identification and treatment are essential to prevent the formation of a cicatricial alopecia, often disturbing for the patient.

  17. Decreased expression of IL-27 in moderate-to-severe psoriasis and its anti-inflammation role in imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjuan; Gong, Yu; Zhang, Xilin; Tong, Yunlei; Wang, Xiuxiu; Fei, Chengwen; Xu, Hui; Yu, Qian; Wang, Yao; Shi, Yuling

    2017-02-01

    Psoriasis is a high-incident T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease mainly affecting the skin. Interleukin (IL)-27 is a novel member of the IL-6/IL-12 cytokine family, which plays a versatile role in the differentiation and function of distinct T cell subsets. Previous studies uncovered that IL-27 promoted the onset of psoriasis through enhancing the differentiation of T helper (Th) 1 cells. However, the role of IL-27 in other psoriasis-related Th lineages, especially Th17 cells, remains elusive. The study aimed to investigate the role of IL-27 in the progression of psoriasis and its underlying mechanisms, particularly its influence on Th1 and Th17. IL-27 and IL-27 receptor α (IL-27Rα) expressions in normal and lesional skin were determined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Serum levels of IL-27 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Expression levels of IL-27 and IL-27 receptor (IL-27R) mRNA in the skin tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. To explore the function of IL-27 in vivo, we used imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis mouse model. We treated mice with IL-27 or its antagonist, evaluated disease severity and detected the cytokine secretion from splenic CD4+ T cells by flow cytometric analysis and the expression levels of IL-17 and IFN-γ in serum and skin lesion. The expression levels of IL-27 and IL-27Rα were significantly reduced in the moderate-to-severe psoriatic lesions, along with a consistent decrease in serum IL-27 levels, compared with those of healthy control subjects. Moreover, subcutaneous administration of IL-27 recombinant protein lessened severity of IMQ-induced psoriasis-like cutaneous lesions, whereas IL-27p28 antagonist exaggerated the disease severity. Further analysis revealed that IL-27 significantly repressed IL-17 secretion from CD4+ T lymphocytes. Also administration of IL-27 decreased IL-17A level while IL-27p28 antagonist increased IL-17A

  18. Dermatology for the practicing allergist: Tinea pedis and its complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaswamy Guha

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tinea pedis is a chronic fungal infection of the feet, very often observed in patients who are immuno-suppressed or have diabetes mellitus. The practicing allergist may be called upon to treat this disease for various reasons. Sometimes tinea infection may be mistaken for atopic dermatitis or allergic eczema. In other patients, tinea pedis may complicate allergy and asthma and may contribute to refractory atopic disease. Patients with recurrent cellulitis may be referred to the allergist/immunologist for an immune evaluation and discovered to have tinea pedis as a predisposing factor. From a molecular standpoint, superficial fungal infections may induce a type2 T helper cell response (Th2 that can aggravate atopy. Th2 cytokines may induce eosinophil recruitment and immunoglobulin E (IgE class switching by B cells, thereby leading to exacerbation of atopic conditions. Three groups of fungal pathogens, referred to as dermatophytes, have been shown to cause tinea pedis: Trychophyton sp, Epidermophyton sp, and Microsporum sp. The disease manifests as a pruritic, erythematous, scaly eruption on the foot and depending on its location, three variants have been described: interdigital type, moccasin type, and vesiculobullous type. Tinea pedis may be associated with recurrent cellulitis, as the fungal pathogens provide a portal for bacterial invasion of subcutaneous tissues. In some cases of refractory asthma, treatment of the associated tinea pedis infection may induce remission in airway disease. Very often, protracted topical and/or oral antifungal agents are required to treat this often frustrating and morbid disease. An evaluation for underlying immuno-suppression or diabetes may be indicated in patients with refractory disease.

  19. Involvement of µ-opioid Receptors and κ-opioid Receptors in Itch-related Scratching Behaviour of Imiquimod-induced Psoriasis-like Dermatitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobuaki; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Kosaka, Ryohei; Kamata, Yayoi; Umehara, Yoshie; Matsuda, Hironori; Sakaguchi, Azumi; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji

    2017-08-31

    The pathogenesis of psoriatic itch is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of opioid receptors in scratching behaviour of imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis model mice. Topical application of 5% imiquimod cream to the rostral back skin of mice induced antihistamine-resistant scratching behaviour. The expression of µ-opioid receptor (MOR) protein increased in the epidermis, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord of imiquimod-treated mice. In contrast, the expression of κ-opioid receptor (KOR) protein decreased in the DRG and spinal cord of imiquimod-treated mice, and was undetectable in the epidermis of both groups. Topical or intraperitoneal administration of the MOR antagonist naloxone and oral administration of the centrally acting KOR agonist ICI-199,441 inhibited scratching behaviour, whereas oral administration of the peri-pherally-selective KOR agonist asimadoline did not. These results suggest that peripheral and central MOR and central KOR may be involved in the modulation of scratching behaviour in imiquimod-treated mice.

  20. Involvement of µ-opioid Receptors and κ-opioid Receptors in Itch-related Scratching Behaviour of Imiquimod-induced Psoriasis-like Dermatitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Takahashi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of psoriatic itch is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of opioid receptors in scratching behaviour of imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis model mice. Topical application of 5% imiquimod cream to the rostral back skin of mice induced antihistamine-resistant scratching behaviour. The expression of µ-opioid receptor (MOR protein increased in the epidermis, dorsal root ganglia (DRG and spinal cord of imiquimod-treated mice. In contrast, the expression of κ-opioid receptor (KOR protein decreased in the DRG and spinal cord of imiquimod-treated mice, and was undetectable in the epidermis of both groups. Topical or intraperitoneal administration of the MOR antagonist naloxone and oral administration of the centrally acting KOR agonist ICI-199,441 inhibited scratching behaviour, whereas oral administration of the peri­pherally-selective KOR agonist asimadoline did not. These results suggest that peripheral and central MOR and central KOR may be involved in the modulation of scratching behaviour in imiquimod-treated mice.

  1. Knockout of the Arp2/3 complex in epidermis causes a psoriasis-like disease hallmarked by hyperactivation of transcription factor Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kammen, Rob; Song, Ji-Ying; de Rink, Iris; Janssen, Hans; Madonna, Stefania; Scarponi, Claudia; Albanesi, Cristina; Brugman, Wim; Innocenti, Metello

    2017-12-15

    The Arp2/3 complex assembles branched actin filaments, which are key to many cellular processes, but its organismal roles remain poorly understood. Here, we employed conditional Arpc4 knockout mice to study the function of the Arp2/3 complex in the epidermis. We found that depletion of the Arp2/3 complex by knockout of Arpc4 results in skin abnormalities at birth that evolve into a severe psoriasis-like disease hallmarked by hyperactivation of transcription factor Nrf2. Knockout of Arpc4 in cultured keratinocytes was sufficient to induce nuclear accumulation of Nrf2, upregulation of Nrf2 target genes and decreased filamentous actin levels. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex unmasked the role of branched actin filaments in Nrf2 regulation. Consistent with this, we revealed that Nrf2 associates with the actin cytoskeleton in cells and binds to filamentous actin in vitro Finally, we discovered that Arpc4 is downregulated in both human and mouse psoriatic epidermis. Thus, the Arp2/3 complex affects keratinocyte shape and transcriptome through an actin-based cell-autonomous mechanism that influences epidermal morphogenesis and homeostasis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Ultrastructural Alterations in the Epidermis of Patients with Tinea Pedis

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    Yurdagül Canberk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tinea pedis is the most common superficial fungal infection of the foot. Although light microscopic characteristics of tinea pedis have already been described and are well known, electron microscopic data is still lacking. In this study, we aimed to examine the ultrastructural changes in the epidermis of patients diagnosed with tinea pedis.Material and Methods: Biopsies were taken from the lesions between the toes of patients with untreated tinea pedis and from healthy volunteers with no fungal infections. The materials obtained were prepared for electron microscopy and examined by transmission electron microscope.Results: The ultrastructural examination revealed the following changes: (1 Disturbances in the form and organization of keratinocytes; (2 Irregular distribution and interlacing of tonofilament bundles in keratinocytes; (3 Disruption of desmosomes and detachment of adjoining keratinocytes; (4 Excessive widening of intercellular spaces between keratinocytes; (5 Dilatation of intercellular spaces between basal cells; (6 Degranulation of melanocytes in the stratum basale; (7 Migration of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes between keratinocytes in the stratum spinosum; (8 Degradation of basal lamina; (9 Pericapillary edema in the apillary dermis. Conclusion: The ultrastructural findings in tinea pedis are described and related to the clinical symptoms and histopathologic features of the disease.

  3. Efficacy of topical griseofulvin in treatment of tinea corporis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A A; Esmat, Samia; Bendas, Eihab R; El-Komy, Mohamed H M

    2006-05-01

    Tinea infections are among the most common dermatological conditions throughout the world. Griseofulvin is a classical oral fungistatic antibiotic, active against Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton and Microsporum species, the causative fungi of tinea corporis. To evaluate the efficacy of topical griseofulvin in the treatment of tinea circinata using three different vehicles for drug delivery. Sixteen patients with tinea circinata were instructed to apply either griseofulvin gel form in group A or a similar placebo gel for control group; a niosomal gel formulation of griseofulvin for group B or; a liposomal gel formulation of griseofulvin for group C. Patients were evaluated both clinically and mycologically after 3 weeks. Marked improvement was seen for groups A, B and C both clinically and mycologically while no improvement was observed in the placebo group. Mild and transient irritation was reported in four patients. Our results show that topical griseofulvin preparations may be effective and safe in treating tinea circinata and that further large-scale studies may establish the high efficacy of the niosomal gel formulation.

  4. Prevalence, Etiology, and Risk Factors of Tinea Pedis and Tinea Unguium in Tunisia

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    Nourchène Toukabri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Foot mycoses are a frequent disease that represents a public health problem worldwide. Objectives. This study aims to evaluate the epidemiology of foot mycoses among Tunisian patients, in order to determine the fungal etiological agents and to identify possible risk factors. Patients and Methods. A prospective study of three hundred and ninety-two patients was undertaken during one year (2013-2014. All subjects were asked to collect demographic data related to the risk factors of foot mycoses. A complete mycological diagnosis was carried out on all patients. Results. A total of 485 samples were collected; tinea pedis and tinea unguium were confirmed in 88.2% of cases. Dermatophytes were isolated in 70.5% and the most frequent pathogen was Trichophyton rubrum (98.1%, followed by yeasts (17.7% commonly Candida parapsilosis. Non-dermatophyte molds (NDMs were observed in 8.02% cases and Fusarium sp. was the frequent genus (29.1%. The main predisposing factors of fungal foot infections were practicing ritual washing (56.6% and frequentation of communal showers (50.5%. Conclusion. This is a recent survey of foot mycoses in Tunisia. Epidemiological studies can be useful to eradicate these infections and to provide further measures of hygiene and education.

  5. Skin-targeted inhibition of PPAR β/δ by selective antagonists to treat PPAR β/δ-mediated psoriasis-like skin disease in vivo.

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    Katrin Hack

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that peroxisome proliferator activating receptor ß/δ (PPAR β/δ is overexpressed in psoriasis. PPAR β/δ is not present in adult epidermis of mice. Targeted expression of PPAR β/δ and activation by a selective synthetic agonist is sufficient to induce an inflammatory skin disease resembling psoriasis. Several signalling pathways dysregulated in psoriasis are replicated in this model, suggesting that PPAR β/δ activation contributes to psoriasis pathogenesis. Thus, inhibition of PPAR β/δ might harbour therapeutical potential. Since PPAR β/δ has pleiotropic functions in metabolism, skin-targeted inhibition offer the potential of reducing systemic adverse effects. Here, we report that three selective PPAR β/δ antagonists, GSK0660, compound 3 h, and GSK3787 can be formulated for topical application to the skin and that their skin concentration can be accurately quantified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC/mass spectrometry. These antagonists show efficacy in our transgenic mouse model in reducing psoriasis-like changes triggered by activation of PPAR β/δ. PPAR β/δ antagonists GSK0660 and compound 3 do not exhibit systemic drug accumulation after prolonged application to the skin, nor do they induce inflammatory or irritant changes. Significantly, the irreversible PPAR β/δ antagonist (GSK3787 retains efficacy when applied topically only three times per week which could be of practical clinical usefulness. Our data suggest that topical inhibition of PPAR β/δ to treat psoriasis may warrant further exploration.

  6. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton rubrum mimicking favus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alan S

    2016-12-01

    Favus is an uncommon form of tinea capitis (TC) currently seen in geographic areas with poor sanitation and limited access to health care such as emerging nations. Several variants of this condition have been described including one exhibiting a plaque composed of parchmentlike material. The makeup of this plaque has not been described. Tinea capitis is rare in adults, particularly when the infectious agent is Trichophyton rubrum, and affected patients often exhibit comorbidities associated with diminished immune surveillance. This case report describes an elderly woman with TC due to T rubrum mimicking a rare form of favus.

  7. Tinea Incognita in a Patient with Crest Syndrome: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgievska-Sukarovska, Biljana; Skerlev, Mihael; Žele-Starčević, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Tinea incognita is a dermatophytic infection that is difficult to diagnose, usually modified by inappropriate topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy. We report an extensive case of tinea incognita caused by the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes (var. granulosa) in a 49-year-old female patient with CREST (Calcinosis; Raynaud phenomenon; Esophageal involvement; Sclerodactyly; Teleangiectasia) syndrome. Immunocompromised patients, as well as patients with keratinization disorders, seem to be especially susceptible to dermatophytic infections with atypical clinical presentation that is sometimes bizarre and difficult to recognize. Therefore, close monitoring and mycological skin examination is recommended in order to avoid misdiagnosis and to give the patient the best chance of recovery.

  8. [Detection of fungi in liquor workers with tinea corporis and tinea cruris using arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Li, Liao; Chen, De-yu; Zhang, Yu-hua; Hu, Chao-hui; Deng, Zheng-hua

    2007-03-01

    To explore the method of rapid detection of skin fungi and the significance of conventional diagnosis liquor worker tinea corporis and tinea cruris using arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction AP-PCR. Among liquor workers who were 50 tinea corporis patients, 58 tinea cruris patients and 50 health persons, we amplified the DNAs of the dermatophytes were amplified using AP-PCR and random primers OPD18 5'-GAGAGCCAAC-3' and OPAA11 5'-ACCCGACCTG-3', at the same time, the dermatophytes with microscope were detected and cultured. AP-PCR analysis detected fungal DNA in 45 patients(90.00%) among 50 liquor worker patients with tinea corporis, 31 patients(62.00%) had the positive results of microscope detection, and 41 patients(82.00%) had the positive results of standard culture. Among these workers who suffered from tinea corporis, T.rubrum, T.mentagrophyte, M. canis and E.floccosum were detected by AP-PCR. T.rubrum, T.mentagrophyte and M.canis were detected by standard culture. AP-PCR analysis detected fungal DNA in 53 patients(91.38%) among 58 liquor worker patients with tinea cruris, 37 patients(63.79%) had the positive results of microscope detection, and 48(82.76%) had the positive results of standard culture. Among the 58 workers who had tinea cruris, T.rubrum, E.floccosum and T.mentagrophyte were detected by AP-PCR and standard culture. Among 50 health persons, AP-PCR analysis detected fungal DNA in 3 persons(6.00%). The detection result with AP-PCR indicated that the kinds of fungi were T.rubrum and T.mentagrophyte. No one health person had the positive result in detection of fungi using microscope detection. Only one(2.00%) health person was detected to be infected by fungus with cultural way. The kind of fungus was T.rubrum. AP-PCR is a rapid, sensitive and specific detection method for occupational dermatophyte patients. It can be used to detect and diagnose professional dermatophytosis.

  9. Tinea nigra in geographical forms of "heart" and "parrot beak".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella

    2011-01-01

    Through a photographic essay, we identified similarities between hyperchromic maculas of two cases of Tinea Nigra with images of a heart-shaped mangrove called "Coeur de Voh", located on the French island of New Caledonia (Oceania) and of a rock formation called "Parrot Beak" located on Cabeçudas Beach, Itajaí, Santa Catarina State (Brazil).

  10. Spontaneous cure in a case of Tinea nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a case (in Itajai, Santa Catarina State, Brazil) of tinea nigra in a 4-year-old female child which spontaneously healed. We discuss the clinical and epidemiological aspects of the mycosis and this rare case of spontaneous healing.

  11. Paeonol ameliorates imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions in BALB/c mice by inhibiting the maturation and activation of dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yujiao; Wang, Mingxing; Xie, Xiangjiang; Di, Tingting; Zhao, Jingxia; Lin, Yan; Xu, Xiaolong; Li, Ningfei; Zhai, Yating; Wang, Yan; Li, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Paeonol, an active component derived from the traditional Chinese medicine Cortex Moutan, possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant and anti-allergic properties. Psoriasis is a chronic, recurrent, inflammatory dermatosis accompanied by excessive activation of Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) in dendritic cells (DCs), which are primarily responsible for initiating an immune response. We investigated the effect of paeonol on inflammation in an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like mouse model and murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) stimulated by R848. Mice were intragastrically administered 100 mg/kg (high), 50 mg/kg (medium) and 25 mg/kg (low) paeonol, respectively. We evaluated inflammation of psori-asis‑like lesions based on histological changes, protein levels of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and TLR8 in skin lesions by western blotting, and levels of CD11c+ DCs in skin by immunoassay and in spleens by flow cytometry. Inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-23, IL-12 and IL-1β] in skin lesions and BMDCs were also assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Application of paeonol decreased IMQ-induced keratinocyte proliferation, and infiltration of CD3+ cells, while the treatment ameliorated CD11c+ cells in the spleen and skin, and reduced MyD88 and TLR8 proteins in skin lesions. Paeonol inhibited IMQ-induced mRNA expression of IL-23, but not IL-12 and IL-1β in BMDCs, along with significantly lower levels of DCs expressing MHCⅡ, CD80 and CD86 in vitro. These results indicate that paeonol suppresses the maturation and activation of DCs by decreasing MyD88 and TLR8 proteins in the TLR7/8 signaling pathway which finally alleviates psoriasis‑like skin lesions. The TLR7/8 signaling pathway in DCs provides an important insight into the mechanism of psoriasis, and paeonol may be a potent therapeutic drug for psoriasis.

  12. A clinico-cycological study on tinea pedis at Ranchi

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    Singh Arun

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical diagnosis of tinea pedis was made in 51(0.45% of 11,386 consecutive patients, attending the skin OPD of Rajendra Medical College and Hospital, Ranchi. Direct microscopy revealed fungus in 66.6% of cases, while, 37(72.5% were positive by culture, which included 8(15.5% KOH negative cases also. This disparity as well as the factors responsible for low prevalence of tinea pedis have been discussed. Trichophyton rubrum was recovered predominantly from the dry, scaly lesions, and also constituted the bulk (48.6% of isolates as a whole. Trichophyton mentagrophytes lay next to it, and was isolated mostly from the vesicular or macerated lesions. Candida sp. and Epidermophyton floccosum happened to be the other causatives identified.

  13. Treatment of tinea capitis - griseofulvin versus fluconazole - a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer, Avner; Plotnik, Ira Bernstein; Davidovici, Batya; Grunwald, Marcelo H; Magun, Ronen; Amichai, Boaz

    2013-08-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of fluconazole and griseofulvin in the treatment of tinea capitis. Patients with tinea capitis (n = 113) with positive fungal cultures entered the study. The patients were divided into four groups with different treatment regimes. Two groups received griseofulvin 15 or 25 mg/kg/day and two groups received fluconazole 4 or 6 mg/kg/day, all for up to 12 weeks. Griseofulvin was found to be slightly better than fluconazole. The lower doses for both griseofulvin and fluconazole required significantly longer treatment duration until mycological cure than the higher doses, independent of the fungus type. Since no significant difference was found between the drugs, it is suggested that the choice should be based on tolerability, availability and cost of the drugs. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  14. Tinea nigra presenting speckled or "salt and pepper" pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Haddad, Vidal Junior

    2014-06-01

    A 7-year-old Caucasian female resident of the southern coast of Brazil presented dark spots on the left palm that converged to a unique macule with speckled pattern at about 1 month. The mycological exam and the fungi culture were typical of Hortaea werneckii, the agent of the superficial mycosis Tinea nigra. The patient received butenafine hydrochloride 1% for 30 days, resulting in a complete remission of the lesion. At a follow-up visit 12 months after treatment, there was no lesion recurrence. We describe a form of rare geographical Tinea nigra with a speckled pattern. The "salt and pepper" aspect should be taken into consideration when the mycosis was suspected. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Tinea pedis due to Cylindrocarpon lichenicola beginning onycholysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadim Diongue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 33 year old woman presented with both feet, humid and white Tinea pedis at the second, third and fourth inter-toes areas associated with a beginning onycholysis of the nails lasting for 18 months. KOH mount of the samples was positive for fungal hyphae. The fungus was isolated on Sabouraud-chlorampphenicol agar and identified as Cylindrocarpon lichenicola. The patient was treated with an association of terbinafine tablet and terbinafine cream and presented clinical cure after three months.

  16. Tratamento da Tinea pedis com Miconazole em pacientes de ambulatório Treatment of Tinea pedis outpatientes with Miconazole

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    J. Martins de Barros

    1972-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e seis portadores de Tinea pedis foram tratados durante 4 semanas, duas a três vezes por dia, com aplicações de Miconazole sob forma de pó, loção ou creme, isolados ou associados. Em 23 casos (88%, as lesões melhoraram ou desapareceram, num período de 2 a 4 semanas.

  17. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. 311.22 Section 311.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.22 Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. Carcasses of hogs affected with urticaria (nettle rash), tinea tonsurans, demodex...

  18. Clinical Trial Of Ketoconazole 2% + Zinc Pyrithione 1% Shampoo In The Management Of Tinea Versicolor

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    Ramesh M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An open uncontrolled trial, to assess the efficacy of ketoconazole 2%+zinc pyrithione 1% shampoo was conducted in patients with extensive tinea versicolor. The results show that this is an effective and well tolerated combination in the management of tinea versicolor.

  19. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a 20-day-old neonate

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    Sita Malhotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although candidiasis in newborns is not uncommon, superficial dermatophyte infections of infants is quite rare. The causative agents of neonatal tinea reported in various case studies have been Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, and Trichophyton violaceum. To the best of our knowledge, no case report of neonatal tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes has been reported earlier.

  20. Tinea Corporis, Caused by Microsporum Canis - a Case Report From Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokollari, Fatime; Daka, Aferdita; Blyta, Ymrane; Ismajli, Fellanza; Haxhijaha-Lulaj, Kujtesa

    2015-10-01

    Tinea corporis (B35.6) caused by Microsporum canis which is fungal species that causes numerous forms of disease. It is part of a group of fungi known as Dermatophytes. Though mostly well known for ringworm in pets, it is also known to infect humans. This fact makes this pathogen both anthrophilic and zoophilic in nature. Microsporum canis is a communicable pathogen. We will report about a case, 22-year-old female, residing in a village, with typical changes of a mycotic infection caused by M. Canis. Dermatological description can be summarized with polymorphic erythematous, papulosquamous changes, erosions mainly on genital organ and spread to the thighs and lower abdomen which are accompanied with itching and burning. Diagnosis B35.6 was determined on the basis of clinical appearance complemented with anamnesis, microscopic examination and culture. The patient was treated successfully with general and local antimycotics and antibiotics.

  1. A case of tinea nigra palmaris in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uezato, Hiroshi; Gushi, Makiko; Hagiwara, Keisuke; Kayo, Susumu; Hosokawa, Atsushi; Nonaka, Shigeo

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of tinea nigra on the left palm of a 13-year-old girl. She had noticed a pigmented, asymptomatic macule on the left palm approximately 4-5 years prior to her first visit to our hospital. The color of the lesion tended to change before and after a bath; it became lighter after a bath and darkened some time later. Physical examination revealed that the macule was 4 cm x 5 cm in size, dark brown in color and irregularly shaped. Direct potassium hydroxide (KOH) microscopic examination from skin scrapings revealed branched brown hyphae with light brown septa. A fungal culture on Sabouraud's agar media produced wet, medium brown, yeast-like colonies, the surface of which later became black and shiny. A slide culture disclosed light brown, elliptic or peanut-shaped conidia comprised of one to two ampullaceous cells. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the conidia showed both annellation conidia with lunate bud scars and sympodial conidiogenesis. Using extracted DNA from separately cultured fungi, we performed polymerase chain reaction with the primers specific to Hortaea werneckii. The results showed positive bands. We performed direct sequencing with the DNA segments from the positive bands. The causative fungus in our case was determined to be type C of H. werneckii on the grounds of the base sequences obtained. The final diagnosis of the present case was made as tinea nigra by H. werneckii. We also report a brief survey of all the cases of tinea nigra reported in Japan to date.

  2. [Epidemiology of Tinea capitis in the suburbs of Tipasa, Algeria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjaballah-Laliam, A; Djazer, H

    2014-06-01

    Tinea capitis represent a public health problem in Algeria, despite improvement of living conditions. We conducted a retrospective study of cases diagnosed in the hospital Hadjout (Tipasa), Algeria, during 3 years (January 2010-January 2013). Among a total of 213 hair samples, 133 were positive (direct examination or culture). Incidence average was 44 cases per year. Patients were under 12 years of age in 91%. Three species of dermatophytes were isolated: Trichophyton violaceum (66%), Microsporum canis (32.5%) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (1.5%). No favus was diagnosed during the study period. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Prophylactic ketoconazole shampoo for tinea capitis in a high-risk pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstaver, P Brandon; Watson, Holly J; Winters, Shauna D; Carlson, Adrian L; Schulz, Richard M

    2011-07-01

    Although topical agents for the treatment of tinea capitis decrease viable fungal elements and reduce shedding, their use as a prophylactic agent has not been investigated. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a prophylactic ketoconazole shampoo (Nizoral 2%) protocol to reduce the number of clinically evident tinea capitis infections in a high-risk African American, urban population. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a ketoconazole prophylaxis protocol that was implemented at an urban pediatric clinic for medically fragile children. Patients at high risk for tinea capitis received twice-weekly ketoconazole shampoo. The primary outcome of the study was a reduction in the number of documented tinea capitis infections between the 12-month preprotocol and 12-month postprotocol periods. A secondary outcome included the evaluation of predisposing risk factors for acquiring tinea infections. Ninety-seven patients, with a mean age of 8.06 years, were included. Most patients (78%) were African American. There were a total of 13 tinea capitis infections during the 12-month preprotocol period. During the 12-month postprotocol period, 41 infections were documented: 37 (90.2%) in the prophylaxis group and 4 (9.8%) in the nonprophylaxis group. The average numbers of per-patient infections in the postprotocol period were 0.79 and 0.08 in the prophylaxis and nonprophylaxis groups, respectively. Initiation of prophylaxis did not reduce tinea capitis infections (p=NS). Previous history of infection and a high level of care were significant predictors of infections (pshampoo) prophylaxis protocol.

  4. Screening for tinea unguium by thermography in older adults with subungual hyperkeratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yuka; Takehara, Kimie; Nakagami, Gojiro; Amemiya, Ayumi; Kanazawa, Toshiki; Kimura, Nao; Kishi, Chihiro; Koyano, Yuiko; Tamai, Nao; Nakamura, Tetsuro; Kawashima, Makoto; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the difference in foot temperature between tinea unguium-positive older adults with subungual hyperkeratosis and tinea unguium-negative older adults with subungual hyperkeratosis to develop a temperature-based screening method for tinea unguium. The present cross-sectional, observational study investigated 51 residents with subungual hyperkeratosis in two facilities covered by long-term care insurance between October 2011 and December 2011. One dermatologist recorded the clinical signs of abnormal toenails. Nail specimens were collected from all abnormal nails, and the presence of tinea unguium was confirmed when fungus was detected by direct microscopy. Foot temperature was measured by infrared thermography. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the ability to determine whether residents with subungual hyperkeratosis have tinea unguium and to determine the cut-off point. Among the people with subungual hyperkeratosis, the mean toe temperature in the tinea unguium-positive group (30.2 ± 2.6°C) was significantly lower than that in the tinea unguium-negative group (32.8 ± 3.2°C, P = 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.74 (95% confidence interval 0.621-0.876), and the threshold temperature was set at 33.0°C, resulting in a sensitivity of 81.8% and specificity of 65.7%. Our study suggests that foot temperature can be used to screen for tinea unguium in people with subungual hyperkeratosis. This non-invasive and simple screening method would help clinicians to set priorities in terms of carrying out direct microscopy to diagnose tinea unguium in elderly residents in care facilities. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

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    Xin Ran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  6. Faktor - Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Kejadian Tinea Pedis Pada Pemulung Di TPA Jatibarang Semarang

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    Ratna Dian Kurniawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background : Tinea pedis is a parasit disease caused by the dermatopoyd fungi and found on skin  around sole of foot and toe. Several risk factors of Tinea pedis are as follow: wearing the shoes for whole day, wearing the sock while working, and hight exposure of fungi. The aim of this research was to determine relationship between the living environment and  the incidence of Tinea pedis on "Pemulung" (the collector of abandoned goods at the final disposal place of Jatibarang in Semarang. And also to know  the relationship between practise of personal-hygiene and the incidence of Tinea pedis on "Pemulung" . Methods : This was an observational research using cross sectional approach. Samples were "Pemulung" at the final disposal place of Jatibarang in Semarang. Number of samples taken were 56 persons. Independent variables were type of floor, source of water, wearing the shoes while working, wearing the sock while working, changing of the sock, washing the foot after working, drying the foot after washing, washing the shoes after wearing, frequency of taking a bath everyday, and wearing the sandal at home. Results : Results of regression logistic analysis showed that the factors, which influence the occurrence of Tinea pedis, were: sources of water and wearing the sandal at home. With p value for  source of water is 0,016 and wearing the sandal at home is 0,039. The efforts that can be done to prevent transmission of Tinea pedis such as: avoid using the river water and using the monitoring well. "Pemulung" should wear the sandal at home in order to reduce transmission of fungi. Beside that, they should keep clean at around their home to prevent growth of Tinea pedis fungi. Key words : Environmental Sanitation, Practise of Personal-Hygiene, Tinea Pedis

  7. Dual Inhibition of PI3K/Akt and mTOR by the Dietary Antioxidant, Delphinidin, Ameliorates Psoriatic Features In Vitro and in an Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis-Like Disease in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamcheu, Jean Christopher; Adhami, Vaqar M; Esnault, Stephane; Sechi, Mario; Siddiqui, Imtiaz A; Satyshur, Kenneth A; Syed, Deeba N; Dodwad, Shah-Jahan M; Chaves-Rodriquez, Maria-Ines; Longley, B Jack; Wood, Gary S; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2017-01-10

    The treatment of psoriasis remains elusive, underscoring the need for identifying novel disease targets and mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. We recently reported that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway that is frequently deregulated in many malignancies is also clinically relevant for psoriasis. We also provided rationale for developing delphinidin (Del), a dietary antioxidant for the management of psoriasis. This study utilized high-throughput biophysical and biochemical approaches and in vitro and in vivo models to identify molecular targets regulated by Del in psoriasis. A kinome-level screen and Kds analyses against a panel of 102 human kinase targets showed that Del binds to three lipid (PIK3CG, PIK3C2B, and PIK3CA) and six serine/threonine (PIM1, PIM3, mTOR, S6K1, PLK2, and AURKB) kinases, five of which belong to the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Surface plasmon resonance and in silico molecular modeling corroborated Del's direct interactions with three PI3Ks (α/c2β/γ), mTOR, and p70S6K. Del treatment of interleukin-22 or TPA-stimulated normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) significantly inhibited proliferation, activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR components, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. To establish the in vivo relevance of these findings, an imiquimod (IMQ)-induced Balb/c mouse psoriasis-like skin model was employed. Topical treatment of Del significantly decreased (i) hyperproliferation and epidermal thickness, (ii) skin infiltration by immune cells, (iii) psoriasis-related cytokines/chemokines, (iv) PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activation, and (v) increased differentiation when compared with controls. Innovation and Conclusion: Our observation that Del inhibits key kinases involved in psoriasis pathogenesis and alleviates IMQ-induced murine psoriasis-like disease suggests a novel PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway modulator that could be developed to treat psoriasis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 49-69.

  8. Topical administration of reversible SAHH inhibitor ameliorates imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions in mice via suppression of TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced inflammatory response in keratinocytes and T cell-derived IL-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ze-Min; Ma, Meng; Li, Heng; Qi, Qing; Liu, Yu-Ting; Yan, Yu-Xi; Shen, Yun-Fu; Yang, Xiao-Qian; Zhu, Feng-Hua; He, Shi-Jun; Tang, Wei; Zuo, Jian-Ping

    2018-03-01

    DZ2002, a reversible S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) inhibitor with immunosuppressive properties and potent therapeutic activity against various autoimmune diseases in mice. The present study was designed to characterize the potential therapeutic effects of DZ2002 on murine model of psoriasis and reveal the correlated mechanisms. In this report, we demonstrated that in vitro, DZ2002 significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecule including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and ICAM-1 by inhibiting the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK and JNK in TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated HaCaT human keratinocytes. Topical administration of DZ2002 alleviated the imiquimod (IMQ)-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions and inflammation in mice, the therapeutic effect was comparable with the Calcipotriol. Moreover, the inflammatory skin disorder was restored by DZ2002 treatment characterized by reducing both of the CD3 + T cell accumulation and the psoriasis-specific cytokines expression. Further, we found that DZ2002 improved IMQ-induced splenomegaly and decreased the frequency of splenic IL-17-producing T cells. Our finding offered the convincing evidence that SAHH inhibitor DZ2002 might attenuate psoriasis by simultaneously interfering the abnormal activation and differentiation of keratinocytes and accumulation of IL-17-producing T cells in skin lesions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. KERION TYPE OF TINEA CAPITIS TREATED WITH DOUBLE PULSE DOSE TERBINAFINE

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    Franky Chandra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tinea capitis is a common dermatophyte infection affecting hair and skin which always requires systemic treatment to get a clinical and mycologic cure, preventing relapse, and infection spread. Griseofulvin has been the antifungal therapy of choice for tinea capitis, but it often requires higher doses and a longer duration than recommended. Thus, effective alternative antifungal with good oral tolerability and shorter course of treatment are therefore required. The objective of this report is to evaluate the effectiveness of double pulse dose terbinafine for tinea capitis alternative therapy. Method: A case of kerion type of tinea capitis in a two-year-old girl was reported. Diagnosis was established based on clinical manifestations of alopecia, presented as erythematous macule with pustules, hemorrhagic crusts, and scales on the scalp, accompanied with occipital lymphadenopathy. Fungal culture showed growth of Microsporum canis (M. canis colonies. Patient was treated with doubled pulse dose terbinafine 125 mg/day and 2% ketoconazole shampoo for two months. Result: Clinical improvements were found on 35th day of follow up, while mycologic cure was achieved on 60th day of follow up. Tolerability was excellent and no side effects observed. Conclusion: Double pulse dose terbinafine is effective for kerion type of tinea capitis.

  10. Griseofulvin and Fluconazole Reduce Transmission of Tinea Capitis in Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemer, Avner; Grunwald, Marcello H; Gupta, Aditya K; Lyakhovitsky, Anna; Daniel, Carlton Ralph; Amichai, Boaz

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of griseofulvin and fluconazole in reducing the potential for person-to-person transmission of tinea capitis (TC) in children. Children with TC with positive fungal cultures were treated with griseofulvin 25 mg/kg/day (group A) or fluconazole 6 mg/kg/day (group B) for at least 21 days and up to 12 weeks until cure was achieved. Clinical and mycologic examinations occurred before treatment and on days 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21 of treatment. During each visit, mycologic examination was performed from scalp lesions of children and fingertips of medical staff and parents after a brief touch of the patient's scalp lesions. Ninety patients were enrolled: 48 treated with griseofulvin and 42 with fluconazole. The predominant species were Trichophyton violaceum (n = 44) and Microsporum canis (n = 41), followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (n = 3) and Trichophyton rubrum (n = 2). Ten days after treatment more than 75% of patients from both treatment groups were noncontagious. At day 21, all patients from group A were noncontagious and two (7%) with positive culture of M. canis from group B were still contagious. No statistically significant differences were found between treatment groups. Griseofulvin and fluconazole reduced the potential for disease transmission in children with TC, with griseofulvin being more effective for M. canis infections, although children with TC may be potentially contagious even after up to 3 weeks of treatment. These data should be considered regarding school attendance of children with TC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Dermatitis herpetiformis misdiagnosed and treated as tinea cutis glabrae

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    Marta Stawczyk-Macieja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Dermatitis herpetiformis is a rare bullous disorder. Autoimmunological disturbances associated with hypersensitivity to gluten play the main role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Clinical manifestations include polymorphic skin lesions which may cause diagnostic difficulties. Objective. To present a case of dermatitis herpetiformis diagnosed and treated without any clinical improvement as tinea cutis glabrae. Case report . A 20-year-old male patient was admitted for the evaluation of polymorphic skin lesions of 7-month duration distributed symmetrically on the skin of elbows, knees, face and the gluteal and sacral region. The patient was previously treated with systemic and topical antimycotic drugs. Due to a typical distribution of skin lesions as well as symptoms reported by the patient, we started to suspect Duhring’s disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence of skin biopsy and serological tests. Systemic treatment with dapsone and a gluten-free diet led to clinical improvement. Conclusions . The morphology and localization of skin lesions in Duhring’s disease may be similar to the clinical presentation of fungal infection of the skin, which in equivocal cases should be excluded by a mycological test.

  12. Tinea Pedis Presenting as Asymmetric Purpuric Papules on the Sole of the Foot: A Case Report

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    Jennifer Yan Fei Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this report we describe a unique case of tinea pedis. A 29-year-old man presented with a 3-day history of asymptomatic purpuric papules predominantly on his left foot. Potassium hydroxide preparation demonstrated fungal hyphae and culture yielded Trichophyton mentagrophytes. This patient presented unusually with purpuric papules, unlike the three commonly described types of tinea pedis. Given the morphology, positive potassium hydroxide slide preparation, T. mentagrophytes on fungal culture and clinical response to ketoconazole cream, we conclude that this represents a unique variant of tinea pedis. We recognize that even common dermatological diagnoses can have unique presentations, and it is important for clinicians to maintain a broad differential for new dermatologic cases.

  13. Tinea capitis in adults in southern Spain. A 17-year epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lova-Navarro, Miguel; Gómez-Moyano, Elisabeth; Martínez Pilar, Leandro; Fernandez-Ballesteros, María Dolores; Godoy-Díaz, Daniel Jesus; Vera-Casaño, Angel; Crespo-Erchiga, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Tinea capitis is an infection of the hair due to keratinophilic fungi, known as dermatophytes. Although the disease is common in children, several studies have also shown that it is far from unusual in adults, especially in post-menopausal women and immunocompromised persons. To determine the incidence of tinea capitis in adults in our area, as well as the predisposing factors (gender, immunity), and causative species. A retrospective study was conducted over a period of 17 years, from 1995 to 2011, collecting data on cases of tinea capitis diagnosed in our dermatology department. Information collected for all patients included age, gender, location of the lesions, results of direct examination and culture, immune status, cause of immunosuppression, and the prescribed treatment. Thirty-three cases (11.4%) out of 289 cases of tinea capitis occurred in adults. Most of these adults (72%) were immunocompetent, and the rest were immunocompromised for different reasons. Three of the patients were men and 30 women, with 70% of the latter being post-menopausal. Trichophyton species were isolated in 76% of these adult patients, with Trichophyton violaceum being the most common. Treatment with oral terbinafine was successful in all these cases. Microsporum species were responsible for the other cases, all treated successfully with oral griseofulvin. This series of tinea capitis in adults is one of the largest to date. It shows that tinea capitis is not uncommon among the immunocompetent adult population. In our geographical area, except for prepubescent patients, most cases affecting the adult population were caused by species of the genus Trichophyton. In these cases the treatment of choice was oral terbinafine, which considerably shortened the treatment time, and was associated with fewer side effects than the classical griseofulvin. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Trichotillomania in a young male complicated by tinea capitis associated with Cryptococcus laurentii and Candida parapsilosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellner MJ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Fellner Department of Dermatology, New York Medical College, New York, NY, USA Abstract: This is the first case report of tinea capitis associated with Cryptococcus laurentii as well as Candida parapsilosis in an eleven year old male which responded to treatments with griseofulvin, lamisil, as well as fluconazole only to show recurrent alopecia from an underlying problem of trichotillomania. When confronted with the biopsy diagnosis of trichotillomania, the family admitted knowledge of the hair pulling disorder for at least five years. It took three providers to finally solve the question of the recalcitrant alopecia. Keywords: tinea capitis, trichotillomania, lamisil, fluconazole, griseofulvin, cryptococcus laurentii, candida parapsilosis

  15. Tinea pedis in rubbish picker workers, in cartagena de indias city

    OpenAIRE

    Villafañe Ferrer, Lucy Margarita; Química Farmacéutica. M.Sc. Corporación Universitaria Rafael Núñez (CURN).; Castro Orozco, Raimundo; Químico Farmacéutico. M.Sc. Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Montealegre (IDIBAM). Universidad de San Buenaventura, seccional Cartagena.; Guerrero, Darlis; Bacterióloga. Universidad de San Buenaventura, seccional Cartagena.; López, Marianela; Bacterióloga. Universidad de San Buenaventura, seccional Cartagena.; Velásquez, Yaniris; Bacterióloga. Universidad de San Buenaventura, seccional Cartagena

    2015-01-01

    Objective:The purpose of this study was to establish the frequency of Tinea Pedis and associated factors, in rubbish picker workers in Cartagena de Indias city. A sample of 134 individuals was studied, 66 of them, (49,25%), showed injuries suggesting foot dermatophytosis; 66 cases showed fungal infection; however, only 56 samples, (41,8%), were positive in a direct examination in which the hyphae were observed on 40 samples, (71,43%).  Culture results demonstrated Tinea Pedis in 62 cases, (93...

  16. Rapid real-time diagnostic PCR for Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes in patients with tinea unguium and tinea pedis using specific fluorescent probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Yoshiharu; Satoh, Kazuo; Uchida, Takao; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Michiko; Watanabe, Shin-ichi; Makimura, Miho; Makimura, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes human-type (synonym, Trichophyton interdigitale (anthropophilic)) are major causative pathogens of tinea unguium. For suitable diagnosis and treatment, rapid and accurate identification of etiologic agents in clinical samples using reliable molecular based method is required. For identification of organisms causing tinea unguium, we developed a new real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a pan-fungal primer set and probe, as well as specific primer sets and probes for T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes human-type. We designed two sets of primers from the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of fungal ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and three quadruple fluorescent probes, one for detection wide range pathogenic fungi and two for classification of T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes by specific binding to different sites in the ITS1 region. We investigated the specificity of these primer sets and probes using fungal genomic DNA, and also examined 42 clinical specimens with our real-time PCR. The primers and probes specifically detected T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and a wide range of pathogenic fungi. The causative pathogens were identified in 42 nail and skin samples from 32 patients. The total time required for identification of fungal species in each clinical specimen was about 3h. The copy number of each fungal DNA in the clinical specimens was estimated from the intensity of fluorescence simultaneously. This PCR system is one of the most rapid and sensitive methods available for diagnosing dermatophytosis, including tinea unguium and tinea pedis. Copyright © 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dermatophytic blepharitis due to Microsporum gypseum. An adult variety of tinea faciei with dermatophytoma

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    Edoardo Torres – Guerrero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinea faciei, is a facial superficial mycosis. The most frequent etiological agents are Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and T. tonsurans. We report a 40 year-old woman, with an eight days history of an erythematous plaque on her superior right eyelid. Hyphae and dermatophytoma were easily visualized in KOH examination, and Microsporum gypseum was isolated.

  18. Tinea capitis: predictive value of symptoms and time to cure with griseofulvin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch Dauk, Kelly C; Comrov, Elana; Blumer, Jeffrey L; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Furman, Lydia M

    2010-03-01

    To describe (a) the predictive value of symptoms for diagnosis of tinea capitis and (b) the rate and timing of cure with high-dose griseofulvin treatment. This prospective open-label study enrolled children aged 1 to 12 years with clinical tinea capitis. Participants with a positive dermatophyte culture received oral griseofulvin (20-25 mg/kg/day) and topical selenium sulfide shampoo for 6 weeks. Main outcome measures. The rate of symptoms of tinea capitis, and rates of mycologic and clinical cure. The positive predictive values of any 1, 2, 3, or 4 symptoms for a positive culture were 88%, 82%, 78%, and 77%, respectively. The observed rates of mycologic, clinical, and complete cure were 89%, 66%, and 49%, respectively. conclusion: In a high-risk population it is reasonable to diagnose tinea capitis using one or more cardinal symptoms. Oral griseofulvin at 20 to 25 mg/ kg/day with adjunctive shampooing for 6 weeks is moderately successful as treatment.

  19. Severe Tinea corporis resulting from the use of topical steroids as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of systemic and topical steroids is associated with many side effects. Cutaneous side effects of steroid include with many others susceptibility to cutaneous infections. One of such infections is Tinea corporis. Steroids form an important component of skin lightening and toning creams. Among females in our society the ...

  20. Pyocyanin as anti-tyrosinase and anti tinea corporis: A novel treatment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Zawawy, Nessma A; Ali, Sameh S

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of pyocyanin pigment as a novel compound active against tyrosinase with its depigmentation efficiency for combating Trichophyton rubrum which could be a major causative agent of tinea corporis. Fifty swabs of fungal tinea corporis infections were collected and identified. Five MDRPA isolates were tested for their levels of pyocyanin production. The purified extracted pyocyanin was characterized by UV spectrum and FT-IR analysis. Pyocyanin activity against tyrosinase was determined by dopachrome micro-plate. In addition, the antidermatophytic activity of pyocyanin against T. rubrum was detected by radial growth technique. In vivo novel trial was conducted to evaluate the efficiency and safety of pyocyanin as an alternative natural therapeutic compound against T. rubrum causing tinea corporis. Purified pyocyanin showed highly significant inhibitory activity against tyrosinase and T. rubrum. In vivo topical treatments with pyocyanin ointment revealed the efficiency of pyocyanin (MIC 2000 μg/ml) to cure tinea corporis compared to fluconazole, which showed a partial curing at a higher concentration (MIC 3500 μg/ml) after two weeks of treatment. In addition, the results revealed complete healing and disappear of hyperpigmentation by testing the safety of pyocyanin ointment and its histopathological efficiency in the skin treatment without any significant toxic effect. Pyocyanin pigment could be a promising anti-tyrosinase and a new active compound against T. rubrum, which could be a major causative agent of tinea corporis. In fact, if pyocyanin secondary metabolite is going to be used in practical medication, it will support the continuous demand of novel antimycotic natural agents against troublesome fungal infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Tinea capitis in the military hospital Avicenna (Morocco): Review of 8 years (2006-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mezouari, E; Hocar, O; Atarguine, H; Akhdari, N; Amal, S; Moutaj, R

    2016-03-01

    Tinea capitis are due to fungal infection by dermatophytes. They are common in developing countries including Morocco. The objective of this study intended to describe the epidemiology, clinical and mycological profile of tinea capitis in Avicenna military hospital of Marrakech. This is a retrospective study over an 8-year period (from 1st January 2006 to 31st December 2013). All patients targeted through this study presented to the laboratory with the suspicion of tinea capitis, they were under a detailed investigation with a careful mycological analysis; diagnosis of tinea capitis was established as the direct examination and/or the sampling proved positive. Of the 334 patients investigated, 216 had a TC with an overall prevalence of 64.67%. The average age was 6 years. The M/F sex ratio was 0.55. The isolated dermatophytes were Microsporum canis with 105 cases (63.26%), Trichophyton violaceum in 44 cases (26.51%), T. mentographytes in 8 cases (4.81%), M. langeronii in 5 cases (3.01%), T. verrucosum in 3 cases (1.8%) and T. schoenleinii in 1 case (0.61%). The contact with animals was found in 40% of cases and immunosupression in 3.47% of cases. We verify through our investigation that tineas predominate among school age children with a female predominance. The epidemiological profile of TC in our study is similar to that of other studies in Moroccan and Maghrebian countries investigations. The TC is relatively a mild infection but can be confused with other dermatoses not easy to diagnose. For this reason, their treatment necessitates a mycological analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. The Tinea Hospital in Granada, 1679-1923: an institution with a long history.

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    Girón, F; Lozano, C; Serrano-Ortega, S

    2015-10-01

    The Tinea hospital in Granada, Spain, was a charitable health facility founded in the 17th century and still treating patients well into the 20th century. The hospital accepted patients from anywhere, not only those residing in the surrounding area. We describe the hospital's founding and the characteristics of the patients and caregivers. We also discuss how tinea was considered at the time, including the typology and treatment protocols applied as well as diet and hygiene measures used. It is striking that a hospital so focused on treating a single disease did not produce studies on the condition or on the application of contemporary knowledge to guide treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  3. Tinea nigra Presenting Speckled or “Salt and Pepper” Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Junior, Vidal Haddad

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old Caucasian female resident of the southern coast of Brazil presented dark spots on the left palm that converged to a unique macule with speckled pattern at about 1 month. The mycological exam and the fungi culture were typical of Hortaea werneckii, the agent of the superficial mycosis Tinea nigra. The patient received butenafine hydrochloride 1% for 30 days, resulting in a complete remission of the lesion. At a follow-up visit 12 months after treatment, there was no lesion recurrence. We describe a form of rare geographical Tinea nigra with a speckled pattern. The “salt and pepper” aspect should be taken into consideration when the mycosis was suspected. PMID:24898980

  4. A clinico-mycological study of tinea pedis in North-Eastern India

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    C Ramanan

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2306 patients were examined for ′ the clinical evidence of tinea pedis. Only 52 of these were found to suffer from this condition. Trichophyton rubrum was the commonest (47.6% isolate and it produced predominantly non-inflammatory scaly lesions. T mentagrophytes was the next commonest (21.4% agent: it was responsible for most of the macerated lesions.

  5. [Tinea barbae profunda due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes after journey to Thailand : Case report and review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendrock-Shiga, G; Mechtel, D; Uhrlaß, S; Koch, D; Krüger, C; Nenoff, P

    2017-08-01

    Tinea barbae represents a very rare dermatophytosis. We report on a tinea barbae profunda following a journey to Southeast Asia. After travel to Thailand, a businessman was affected by a foudroyant proceeding abscessing infection of the upper lip and beard area. The initial therapy with oral acyclovir and oral ciprofloxacin, which later was changed to ampicillin plus sulbactam, intravenously, was unsuccessful. In a biopsy sample, histologically, with Grocott-Gomori's methenamine silver stain, fungal mycelium was apparent in the tissue. Thereupon, terbinafine 250 mg was given for 4 weeks, topically, a 1% ciclopiroxolamine-containing cream. In fungal culture, T. mentagrophytes were found to grow. Meanwhile, the patient's German wife suffered from a tinea faciei. From skin scrapings from the cheek, T. mentagrophytes was also cultivated. This zoophilic dermatophyte was identical with other zoophilic strains of T. mentagrophytes currently found in Germany, which were also acquired in Thailand. The patient had contact with Thai female sex workers who must be considered as a source of infection of the dermatophytosis. There was no animal contact, neither in Thailand, nor in Germany. The infection chain of the dermatophytosis from Thailand probably reached from a female sex worker via the here described patient to his wife in Germany. This pathway of infection has been known for 1 or 2 years, but until now, in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria exclusively via pubogenital infections (tinea genitalis profunda) due to T. mentagrophytes after journeys to Southeast Asia. For treatment, oral antifungal agents should be used, first of all terbinafine, alternatively fluconazole or itraconazole.

  6. A case report of tinea pedis caused by Trichosporon faecale in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahi, Ali akbar; Moazeni, Maryam; Noorbakhsh, Fatemeh; Kordbacheh, Parivash; Farideh ZAINI; MIRHENDI, Hossein; Zeraati, Hojjat; Sassan REZAIE

    2012-01-01

    Trichosporon species are known as the causative agents of cutaneous infections and are involved in systemic, localized, as well as disseminated mycoses particularly in immunocompromised patients. Here we report a case of tinea pedis infection caused by Trichosporon faecale in a healthy 29-year-old woman in the north of Iran. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics using direct examination as well as culture method revealed the causative agent as Trichosporon species.

  7. [Identification of geophilic and zoophilic dermatophytes in siblings with tinea capitis. A pathogenic factor or contamination?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, S; Ott, H; Barker, M; Heimann, G; Poblete-Gutiérrez, P; Frank, J

    2004-10-01

    Two siblings of African origin presented with multiple scaling patches and alopecia on the scalp four weeks after returning from a vacation in Eritrea. Direct KOH examination revealed fungal elements; Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton terrestre were identified in the fungal culture. We discuss the putative pathogenic role of both microorganisms in causing disease. Although infection with Microsporum canis currently accounts for almost fifty percent of all cases of tinea capitis in Germany, other fungi have gained importance due to tourism and increasing migration.

  8. Comparison of Oral Terbinafine with Itraconazole in the Treatment of Tinea Pedis

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    Memet Bilgili

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine and itraconazole in the treatment of the patients with interdigital tinea pedis. Material and Method: A total 60 patients with clinically and mycologically diagnosed as interdigital tinea pedis were enrolled to the study. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group received oral terbinafine 250 mg/day for two weeks (n:30. The second group received itraconazole 200 mg daily for 7 days (n:30. At the first visit and 15, 30, 60 days after the start of the study, signs and symptoms were assessed clinically and scales were taken for mycological assessments. Results: Six patients who did not return after the first visit were excluded from the study (2 on terbinafine, 4 on itraconazole. The effectiveness of therapy was evaluated at day 15, 30, 60. Symptoms were absent in 57.1% of terbinafine group and 46.1% of the itraconazole group in the first control. The effectiveness of the terbinafine group was 82.1% and 73.1% of the itraconazole group in second control. At day 60, the cure rates were similar (89.3% for terbinafine, 84.6% for itraconazole. No statistical significant differences between the two groups was observed (p>0.05. Discussion: Oral terbinafine and itraconazole have the same effectiveness and tolerability in the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis.

  9. Safety and efficacy of tinea pedis and onychomycosis treatment in people with diabetes: a systematic review

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    Matricciani Lisa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective treatment of tinea pedis and onychomycosis is crucial for patients with diabetes as these infections may lead to foot ulcers and secondary bacterial infections resulting in eventual lower limb amputation. Although numerous studies have assessed the effectiveness of antifungal drug and treatment regimens, most exclude patients with diabetes and examine otherwise healthy individuals. While these studies are useful, results cannot necessarily be extrapolated to patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to therefore identify the best evidence-based treatment interventions for tinea pedis or onychomycosis in people with diabetes. Methods The question for this systemic review was: 'what evidence is there for the safety and/or efficacy of all treatment interventions for adults with tinea pedis and/or onychomycosis in people with diabetes'? A systematic literature search of four electronic databases (Scopus, EbscoHost, Ovid, Web of Science was undertaken (6/1/11. The primary outcome measure for safety was self-reported adverse events likely to be drug-related, while the primary outcome measures assessed for 'efficacy' were mycological, clinical and complete cure. Results The systematic review identified six studies that examined the safety and/or efficacy of treatment interventions for onychomycosis in people with diabetes. No studies were identified that examined treatment for tinea pedis. Of the studies identified, two were randomised controlled trials (RCTs and four were case series. Based on the best available evidence identified, it can be suggested that oral terbinafine is as safe and effective as oral itraconazole therapy for the treatment of onychomycosis in people with diabetes. However, efficacy results were found to be poor. Conclusions This review indicates that there is good evidence (Level II to suggest oral terbinafine is as safe and effective as itraconazole therapy for the treatment of

  10. In vitro pharmacodynamic characteristics of griseofulvin against dermatophyte isolates of Trichophyton tonsurans from tinea capitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Williams, Judith V; Zaman, Muhammad; Singh, Jagpal

    2009-12-01

    Tinea capitis is the most commonly observed fungal infection in childhood and is primarily caused by the dermatophyte species Trichophyton tonsurans, Microsporum canis, and Trichophyton violaceum. In North America and the United Kingdom T. tonsurans is responsible for more than 90% of cases. Griseofulvin has been the treatment of choice for tinea capitis for more than 40 years and is the sole oral antifungal agent approved by the FDA for the management of tinea capitis. Some researchers have expressed concern about the possibility of emerging resistance in tinea capitis isolates, especially when there is clinical failure to treatment. A total of 151 isolates of T. tonsurans (142), M. canis (7), and T. violaceum (2) collected from tinea capitis patients were evaluated for their susceptibility to griseofulvin using the CLSI M38-A method. MIC ranges and geometric means in parenthesis were observed for T. tonsurans 0.125-16 microg/ml (1.1 microg/ml), M. canis 0.25-2 microg/ml (0.61 microg/ml), and T. violaceum 2-4 microg/ml (2.82 microg/ml), respectively. In a time kill assay with T. tonsurans UAMH 9334, 50% and 90% reduction was observed in the number of colony forming units with >2x MIC after 6 h and 12 h of exposure to the griseofulvin, respectively. Of 142 T. tonsurans isolates studied, only three could grow on SDA containing 4 times to their griseofulvin MIC, representing resistance frequencies of 1.3 x 10(-6), 6.9 x 10(-7), and 9.7 x 10(-7). Furthermore a two-fold increase in MIC was observed in isolates collected at two time intervals in only one of eight patients. Interestingly, these isolates did not show the same increase in their in vitro resistance as exhibited by the three isolated mentioned above. In light of this data, we could not confirm any correlation between increased MIC and therapy failure.

  11. Clinical studies of Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine in treatment of patients with tinea unguium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Ming-bing; Chen, Nanjin; Chao, Changyuan

    1993-03-01

    Forty-seven patients with tinea unguium and 110 tinea unguium, proven bacteriologically and pathologically, were treated with an Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine, after which they were analyzed. All patients were adult men and women. The duration of illness varied from 1 to 10 years. The patients were treated with Nd:YAG laser wavelength 1.06 micrometers and the ending output power 500 w/cm2. The diseased nail was removed by laser scanning or cauterization, charring, gasification and coagulation layer by layer until the nail matrix was exposed, and then it was bandaged with a small amount of Chinese herbal medicine. The cure rate is 80.0%. The tinea unguium infection rate of pars super finialis is very high in cities, accounting for more than 80% of the cases among the population. It influences patients' lives and finger appearance. However, removal of tinea unguium with Nd:YAG laser cauterization and coagulation is simple, painless, and does not require disinfection. Also, the reoccurrence rate is low. Treatment of tinea unguium is intractable. Oral administration of griseofulvin and ketoconazole are not completely satisfactory and hardly persist for a long-term treatment course. Moreover, long-term administration of these drugs might produce serious side effects such as renal injuries, leukopenia, psychosis, etc. Thus, we conclude from this data that Nd:YAG laser and Chinese herbal medicine are an effective treatment for hypertrophic scarand kiloid and valuable for further investigations.

  12. Tinea capitis: study of asymptomatic carriers and sick adolescents, adults and elderly who live with children with the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERGSON Christiane Loureiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection that occurs mainly in childhood; there are few reports, in Brazil, in adolescents and adults. The detection of asymptomatic carriers is of great importance in the disease control. From February 1998 to February 1999, a study was performed at the outpatient Dermatologic Unit of Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil to verify the frequency of asymptomatic carriers and tinea capitis between 79 adolescents, adults and elderly who lived in the same household of 56 children (0-12 years with tinea capitis. Of these, one female and one male adults (2.5% were asymptomatic carriers and the cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis respectively. One female adolescent and two female adults (3.8% had tinea capitis and all cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans. The study has shown that adolescents and adults who live in the same household of children with tinea capitis may be sick or asymptomatic carriers.

  13. Efficacy and safety of terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream vs. sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream in tinea corporis and tinea cruris: A comparative therapeutic trial

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    S V Choudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: To the best of our knowledge, till date no study comparing the efficacy and safety of terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream has been done in localized tinea corporis and tinea cruris. Aims: This clinical trial was carried out to study and compare the efficacy of topical terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream in localized tinea corporis and tinea cruris and to know the adverse effects of these antifungal creams. Settings and Design: In this prospective, single blind, randomized control trial with two arms, patient were randomized into two groups Group A (treatment with terbinafine cream and Group B (treatment with sertaconazole cream. A total of 38 patients were enrolled for the study, 20 patients in group A and 18 patients in group B. But five patients of group A and three patients of group B were lost for follow-ups. Therefore sample size was of 30 patients with 15 patients in group A and group B each. Materials and Methods: Patients in group A and B were treated with twice daily topical 1% terbinafine hydrochloride and 2% sertaconazole nitrate cream respectively for a total duration of three weeks. Clinical improvement in signs and symptoms of each clinical parameter, namely itching, erythema, papules, pustules, vesicles, and scaling were graded weekly and clinical cure was assessed. KOH mount and culture was done weekly up to 3 weeks to access mycological cure. Fungal culture was done on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using students paired and unpaired t-tests from the data obtained. Results: Comparison between Group A and Group B for complete cure (clinical and mycological showed that at the end of 3 weeks both terbinafine and sertaconazole groups had 100% complete cure. When the two groups were compared for complete cure, at the end of 1 st and 2 nd week, statistically non

  14. A random comparative study of terbinafine versus griseofulvin in patients with tinea capitis in Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, S; Hu, H; Abliz, P; Wan, Z; Wang, A; Cheng, W; Li, R

    2011-11-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of terbinafine with griseofulvin in the treatment of tinea capitis in Western China. Children (2-14 years of age) with clinically diagnosed and potassium hydroxide microscopy-confirmed tinea capitis were randomized into three groups: group GRI4 received 4 weeks of griseofulvin; group TBF2 received 2 weeks of terbinafine; and Group TBF4 received 4 weeks of terbinafine. Clinical and mycological evaluations were done in 0, 2, 4, and 8 weeks and 1 year after therapy started. The isolated pathogenic fungi were evaluated for in vitro susceptibility by detecting the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against terbinafine, griseofulvin, itraconazole, and ketoconazole. The clinical effectiveness rate of GRI4, TBF2, and TBF4 were 100% (95% CI-confidence interval: 82-100%), 96.3% (95% CI: 81-100%), and 100%(95% CI: 85-100%), respectively, at week 8 and 100% after 1 year for the 3 groups; clinical cure rates were 84.2%(95% CI: 77-99%), 85.2%(95% CI: 71-98%), and 78.3%(95% CI: 61-95%), respectively, at week 8 and 100% after 1 year for all agents; mycological cure rates were 100%(95% CI: 74-100%), 95.0%(95% CI: 74-100%), and 94.1%(95% CI: 50-93%) at week 8 and 100% after 1 year for the 3 groups. In vitro, all patient-derived cultures were sensitive to the four antifungal agents. Data from the clinical trial and in vitro antifungal activity indicated that terbinafine is efficacious and well tolerated in the treatment for Trichophyton infections (T. violaceum; Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii; and T. tonsurans) of the scalp, i.e., a 2- to 4-week course of terbinafine is as effective as a 4-week course of griseofulvin; in fact, a 2-week course of terbinafine is sufficient. Terbinafine is an effective alternative to griseofulvin against tinea capitis of Trichophyton infections.

  15. Treatment of Signs and Symptoms (Pruritus) of Interdigital Tinea Pedis With Econazole Nitrate Foam, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lauren K; Raymond, Isabelle; Kircik, Leon

    2018-02-01

    Tinea pedis is the most common dermatophyte infection. Treatment is critical to alleviate pruritic symptoms, to reduce the risk for secondary bacterial infection, and to limit the spread of infection to other body sites or other individuals. The objective of this study was to compare the abilities of econazole nitrate topical foam, 1% and ketoconazole cream (2%) to reduce pruritus, thus improving quality of life, and to determine patient preference for the foam product versus the cream product in patients with interdigital tinea pedis. A single-center, investigator-blinded, observational pilot study was conducted to compare econazole nitrate topical foam (1%) to ketoconazole cream (2%). In this split-body study, 20 subjects received both econazole nitrate topical foam and ketoconazole cream and applied the medications daily to either the right or left foot for 14 days. Improvements in patient quality of life (pruritus) and patient preference were measured using the pruritus visual analog scale (VAS), Skindex-16, and patient preference questionnaires. Nineteen subjects completed the study and one subject was lost to follow-up. Reductions in VAS scores of econazole nitrate topical foam were significantly greater than those of ketoconazole cream, indicating the superiority of the econazole nitrate foam in reducing pruritus. Skindex-16 data showed significant reductions in total scores and individual domains, including patient symptom, emotional, and functional domains, by the final visit. Since each subject received both medications the questionnaire was not medication-specific. Responses to patient preference questionnaires showed that econazole nitrate topical foam,1% was rated as "good" or "excellent" in all measures assessed. One adverse event was noted. In patients with interdigital tinea pedis, application of econazole nitrate topical foam 1% twice daily for two weeks was clinically effective and significantly superior to ketoconazole cream 2% in reducing

  16. A comparison between topical Griseofulvin and topical Clotrimazole in Tinea Versicolor

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    Mansoori P

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available Griseofulvin is a well-known, effective, systemic antifungal agent which has not been used topically in the current clinical practice. In order to treat the common superficial fungal infection of tinea versicolor, a new topical formulation of griseofulvin (1% was tried in 105 patients during a double blind study and its efficacy compared with placebo (its vehicle and clotrimazol (1% solutions. As a result, 17.9% of patients treated by griseofulvin, 38.9% of patients on clotrimazole and 3.3% of patients receiving placebo were completely cured. This study suggests that in proper solvent, topical griseofulvin might show its antifungal action.

  17. Ide cutaneus reaction in patient with Tinea cruris incognito due to Trichophyton rubrum

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    Dino De Conno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A 70- year-old-Caucasian male was admitted to our Department of Dermatology because since about two years, erithematosus macules-papules and pustoles itching appared to neck, referable to id or dermatophytid reaction. A year before the patient performed a skin biopsy on a lesion of the neck to hospital Department of Surgery with resulted inexact and despise diagnosis. Tinea cruris incognito was present in tratment with corticosteroid topic for two years. Fungal culture showed colonies of Trichophyton rubrum.A topic tratment with terbinafine and sertaconazole was given only on the inguinal region.At control, three weeks later, all lesions had cleared up.

  18. In vitro activity of antifungal and antiseptic agents against dermatophyte isolates from patients with tinea pedis

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    Soares Maria Magali Stelato Rocha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro activity of antifungal and antiseptic agents were evaluated against dermatophytes isolated from patients with tinea pedis. The antifungals studied were: ciclopirox olamine, cetoconazole, tolciclate and terbinafine, and the antiseptics were: povidine iodine (PVPI, propolis, Fungol®, Andriodermol®, and boric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC or the minimal dilution concentration (MDC was determined by an agar dilution method using modified yeast nitrogen agar base, and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC or minimum fungicidal dilution (MFD was determined with subcultures on Sabouraud dextrose agar. All drugs studied were active against the dermatophytes at lower concentrations than those used in products and/or pharmaceutical preparations for topical use. Some antifungal agents, mainly terbinafine and tolciclate, presented higher efficacy than the other drugs, with lower MICs and MFCs values. It was concluded that the use of these antiseptic drugs represent an excellent alternative for the topical treatment of tinea pedis. For the treatment of severe cases these are the antifungal agents of choice.

  19. Meta-analysis: griseofulvin efficacy in the treatment of tinea capitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Cooper, Elizabeth A; Bowen, Jenna E

    2008-04-01

    Despite its long history in clinical use, reported efficacy rates of griseofulvin remain highly variable. A meta-analysis of clinical trials of griseofulvin use in tinea capitis was performed to determine mean griseofulvin efficacy. A review of the literature identified 7 studies. When all 7 studies were pooled, the overall mean effective cure (negative KOH and culture) of griseofulvin at 4 to 6 weeks posttreatment was 73.4% +/- 7% (7 studies, n = 438 patients). Higher efficacy rates appeared to be reported with the use of higher dosages of griseofulvin (> 18 mg/kg/d). When broken down by species, the mean efficacy for Trichophyton and Microsporum were 67.6% +/- 9% (5 studies, n = 396) and 88.1% +/- 5% (2 studies, n = 42 patients), respectively. Based on these studies, griseofulvin efficacy has remained consistently high over the past decade. Both genera showed good efficacy with griseofulvin therapy given from 6 to 8 weeks. Griseofulvin remains an effective therapy for tinea capitis.

  20. Estudo clínico com o uso do itraconazol em tinha crural, tinha do corpo e tinha do pé interdigital Clinical trial with itraconazole in the treatment of Tinea cruris, Tinea corporis and tinea pedis interdigital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisse Zaitz

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Os autores estudaram 31 pacientes portadores de tinhas crural, do corpo e do pé interdigital, tratados com 100 mg de itraconazol, administrados junto com o almoço, durante 15 dias. Foram realizadas 3 avaliações clínicas e micológicas: no pré-tratamento, no final do tratamento e 2 semanas após o tratamento. O itraconazol mostrou-se eficaz para o tratamento das dermatofitoses estudadas, na dose empregada, com 100% de cura micológica. Em relação a evolução clínica, houve diminuição estatística significante (teste de Friedman - p The authors studied 31 patients with Tinea cruris, corporis or pedis interdigital. The patients were treated with 100 mg of itraconazole, once a day, during the lunch, for 15 days. Mycological and clinical evaluations were performed at the pre-treatment, by the end of treatment and 2 weeks after finishing the treatment. The results showed that itraconazole is effective for the treatment of dermatophytosis, at the studied posology. with 100% of mycological cure. Clinical evaluation showed a significant reduction (Friedman test - p < 0.001 of signs and symptoms. No side-effect was registered.

  1. A case of Tinea nigra associated to a bite from a European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Leporidae): the role of dermoscopy in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Corrêa, Patricia Rossetto; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Pereira, Eduardo Figueiredo; Haddad Filho, Vidal

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of Tinea nigra in an adolescent living in Itapema, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who presented a hyperchromic macule on the palm of the left hand, close to another erythematous macule caused by a rabbit bite. The patient received guidance on accidents and animal bites and evolved well treated with topical butenafine for the dermatomycosis. The authors also highlight the efficacy of the dermoscopic exam in diagnosing Tinea nigra with animal bite lesions and other traumas.

  2. A case of Tinea nigra associated to a bite from a European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Leporidae): the role of dermoscopy in diagnosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Corrêa, Patricia Rossetto; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Pereira, Eduardo Figueiredo; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of Tinea nigra in an adolescent living in Itapema, Santa Catarina, Brazil, who presented a hyperchromic macule on the palm of the left hand, close to another erythematous macule caused by a rabbit bite. The patient received guidance on accidents and animal bites and evolved well treated with topical butenafine for the dermatomycosis. The authors also highlight the efficacy of the dermoscopic exam in diagnosing Tinea nigra with animal bite lesions and other traumas. PMID:24626667

  3. [Evolution of tinea capitis observed in mycology laboratory of institute Pasteur of Algeria from1995 to 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamroune, Z; Mazouz, A; Benelmouffok, A-B; Kellou, D

    2016-12-01

    Tinea capitis are common in Algeria and are a frequent reason for consultation. This mycosis affects children and rarely adults. This is a retrospective study over a period of 20 years from 1995 to 2015 at the mycology laboratory of the Pasteur institute of Algeria. Observe the evolution of these tinea over the years, to study the epidemiological aspects and identify the responsible agents. This study concerned patients of all ages and sexes living in the region of Algiers and the environs, consultant for various scalp lesions. For each patient, a completed information sheet is developed in insisting on the presence of animals and people with similar lesions. For each sampling, direct examination and culture on Sabouraud medium and antibiotics are utilized. The cultures are put at T° 27 to 28°C and controlled regularly during 3 to 4 weeks. A total of 2664 samples were collected, 892 examinations were positive corresponding to a frequency of 33.48%. The age group 0-10 years is the most affected 710 cases (79.60%), with a slight predominance for male sex 502 cases (56.27%) and 390 cases (43.72%) for female sex. Eight hundred and fifty-five dermatophytes strains were isolated. Among the species found, Trichophyton violaceum is the most species isolated (59.41%), followed by Microsporum canis to 35.08%. In our series, the number of cases of tinea has increased slightly over the years, the rate of 26% in 2001 has progressed to 41.02% in 2015. From 1995 to 2011, T. violaceum was the predominant species, but from the year 2011 we see an increase of M. canis and decreased of T. violaceum. Tinea capitis remains frequent in Algeria and affects preferentially the children. T. violaceum and M. canis dominate the dermatophytic flora. Tinea trichophytic anthropophiles have progressively decreased in favor of tinea microsporic zoophiles who saw their number increased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy of ozonized sunflower oil in the treatment of tinea pedis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, S; Falcón, L; Simón, D R; Landa, N

    2002-10-01

    Ozonized sunflower oil, Oleozon, has a remarkable gerrmicidal action. In the present study, the efficacy of Oleozon in the treatment of tinea pedis was demonstrated in a controlled randomized phase III assay, comparing topical Oleozon with ketoconazole cream 2% (Nizoral) in 200 patients (100 in each group). The treatment administered was twice per day for a period of 6 weeks. The efficacy was evaluated clinically (disappearance of all lesions, with or without negative mycological results) and mycologically (negative culture results). A complete clinical and mycological cure was obtained in 75 and 81% for Oleozon and ketoconazole, respectively, with no significant differences between both groups. No side-effects or bacterial super-infections were observed. Patients were evaluated 6 months after the end of the treatment and no recurrence was observed in the Oleozon group. Oleozon can be an effective alternative low-cost antimycotic drug.

  5. Chronically recurrent and widespread tinea corporis due to Trichophyton rubrum in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Q T; Du, X; Yang, R; Huang, S Y; Sang, H; Liu, W D

    2015-04-01

    A 31-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with a 4-year history of extensive erythematous and scaly plaques involving the abdomen, gluteal and inguen regions with concomitant tinea pedis and onychomycosis is described. Diagnosis was based on positive mycological examination and positive histopathologic examination. Species identification was performed by growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar and by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA region. The pathogen identified was Trichophyton rubrum. The same fungal species was cultured from his abdominal, gluteal, foot and toenail. A combination therapy with systemic terbinafine and topically applied terbinafine cream was successful. A 1-year follow-up did not show any recurrence of infection.

  6. Epidemiological changes in tinea capitis over the sixty years of economic growth in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ping; Li, Dongmei; Wang, Chong; Sun, Jiufeng; Geng, Chengfang; Xiong, Zhiwei; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Liu, Weida; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-09-01

    Tinea capitis is a fungal infection of the scalp occurring commonly in children. Historical data indicate that clinical manifestations and the spectrum of etiologic agents vary greatly with geography, as well as socioeconomic affected populations. To study the possible connection between socioeconomic status, the disease patterns and the variability of etiological agents. We reviewed tinea capitis in China through literature since 1956. The disease pattern was correlated with economic and public health management protocols. Historical data on fungal identification were mostly obtained by morphology. The accuracy of these historical results was further confirmed by use of both morphological and ITS identification on a control set of 90 isolates collected recently from local hospital. Full agreement of the two identification methods implies that data from the literature were sufficiently reliable to allow comparison across reported cases. In sum, 88 papers involving 25 administrative provinces and municipalities with 38,962 clinical strains met the inclusion criteria of this review. Zoophilic species Microsporum canis is the most prevalent agent within large, modernized cities in China today accounting for over 80% of infections. In contrast, anthropophilic dermatophytes, particularly Trichophyton violaceum, are geographically endemic only in some southeastern and northwestern regions. Economic development and urbanization of cities favor a shift of etiological agents from anthroponoses to zoonoses in contemporary China. Pets are becoming the most likely sources of infection in modern lifestyles, replacing the earlier human-to-human transmission mode. However, the latter transmission mode is still prevalent in less developed areas lacking adequate social and public health facilities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  7. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-04-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations.

  8. Tinea Versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the skin with a special device called a Wood's lamp . The dermatologist will hold the Wood's lamp about 4 or 5 inches from the ... normal color. To help even out your skin tone, you should protect your skin from the sun ...

  9. SCC, Bowen's disease and BCC arising on chronic radiation dermatitis due to radiation therapy for tinea pedis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, Eri; Aoki, Mikako; Ikemura, Akiko; Igarashi, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Kayano; Kawana, Seiji [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital

    2000-05-01

    We reported a case who developed three different types of skin cancers: SCC, BCC, and Bowen's disease, on the chronic radiation dermatitis. He had been treated for his tinea pedis et palmaris with radiotherapy in 1940's. It is very ratre that three different types of skin cancers arise in the same patient. This is a second case reported in Japan. (author)

  10. Tinea imbricata: autosomal dominant pattern of susceptibility in a polygamous indigenous family of the Nahuatl zone in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, A; Araiza, J; Koffman-Alfaro, Susana; Paredes-Solis, Vanessa; Cuevas-Covarrubias, S; Rivera, M R

    2004-08-01

    We report on 9 confirmed cases of tinea imbricata (Tokelau, infection due to Trichophyton concentricum) out of 16 family members. They had a common mother with three different fathers. The genetic analysis of the family suggests an autosomal dominant pattern of susceptibility. Most cases (8/9) were presented as concentric and lamellar forms. One patient also had onychomycosis due to T. concentricum. Only two out of nine cases had a positive response to trichophytin.

  11. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials comparing griseofulvin and terbinafine in the treatment of tinea capitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Hong Liang; Tan, Andy Soon Leong; Chan, Yuin Chew

    2011-04-01

    Griseofulvin has been the standard treatment for tinea capitis but newer antifungal agents, particularly terbinafine, are increasingly being used because of their shorter duration of treatment and more consistent absorption rates. We sought to compare the efficacy of oral griseofulvin and oral terbinafine in the treatment of tinea capitis. A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, and the Cochrane Skin Group Ongoing Skin Trials Register was performed up to January 2010 for randomized controlled trials comparing griseofulvin and terbinafine in the treatment of tinea capitis in immunocompetent patients. The primary outcome measure was the complete cure rate. The mycological and clinical cure rates and adverse effects were secondary outcome measures. Pooling of treatment effect was accomplished using a random effects model and the I(2) test was used to check for heterogeneity among the studies. Seven studies involving 2163 subjects were included. There was no significant difference in efficacy between griseofulvin (mean duration of treatment 8 weeks, range 6-12 weeks) and terbinafine (mean duration of treatment 4 weeks, range 2-6 weeks); odds ratio = 1.22 favoring terbinafine (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.785-1.919; P = .37). In the pooled analysis of 5 studies in which Trichophyton species were the predominant (≥65%) pathogenic dermatophyte, terbinafine showed a trend toward greater efficacy (odds ratio 1.49; 95% CI = 0.975-2.277; P = .065). Subgroup analysis revealed that terbinafine was more efficacious than griseofulvin in treating Trichophyton species (1.616; 95% CI = 1.274-2.051; P griseofulvin was more efficacious than terbinafine in treating Microsporum species (0.408; 95% CI = 0.254-0.656; P griseofulvin and terbinafine demonstrated good safety profiles in the studies. Data on efficacy of griseofulvin and terbinafine for separate groups of Trichophyton and Microsporum species were not available from every study. In the

  12. General

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page S20: NMR compound 4i. Page S22: NMR compound 4j. General: Chemicals were purchased from Fluka, Merck and Aldrich Chemical Companies. All the products were characterized by comparison of their IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic data and their melting points with reported values. General procedure ...

  13. Comparative evaluation of griseofulvin, terbinafine and fluconazole in the treatment of tinea capitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Chander; Arora, Pooja; Manchanda, Vikas

    2012-04-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a common childhood fungal infection which, if untreated, can cause long-term scarring. A number of antifungal drugs with proven efficacy are available for the treatment of TC. However, varying dosage schedules, changes in epidemiology, and rising drug resistance are factors that hamper treatment in some cases. A prospective, non-blinded, cross-sectional study of three commonly used drugs (terbinafine, griseofulvin, and fluconazole) was undertaken in children aged ≤12 years, presenting to a pediatric superspecialty hospital. The comparative efficacies of these three drugs were evaluated. A total of 75 patients (25 in each treatment group) who completed the designated treatment protocol were included in the final analysis. Of these, 60% had non-inflammatory TC and 56% had an ectothrix pattern on hair microscopy. Trichophyton violaceum was the most commonly isolated fungus. Cure rates of 96%, 88%, and 84% were achieved with griseofulvin, terbinafine, and fluconazole, respectively. Overall, seven patients required prolonged therapy. No side effects to therapy were seen. Griseofulvin remains the drug of choice in the treatment of TC. Terbinafine was the second best agent and offered the advantage of a shorter course of therapy. Fluconazole had comparatively low cure rates but was easier to administer than the other two medications. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Tinea capitis outbreak among paediatric refugee population, an evolving healthcare challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashiah, Jacob; Kutz, Ana; Ben Ami, Ronen; Savion, Mihal; Goldberg, Ilan; Gan Or, Tamar; Zidan, Omri; Sprecher, Eli; Harel, Avikam

    2016-09-01

    Outbreaks of tinea capitis (TC) represent a major medical and economic burden. Population migrations have become a phenomenon of increasing relevance for medical conditions management. Given the recent massive arrival of immigrants, we sought to determine epidemiologic trends for TC among paediatric populations at the Tel Aviv Medical Center. We conducted a retrospective study of all TC cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 in a paediatric dermatology unit of a tertiary medical centre, serving as a referral centre for the paediatric refugee population from the great Tel Aviv area. Epidemiologic, clinical and treatment data including effectiveness and safety were reviewed. In all, 145 children met the inclusion criteria. Trend analyses showed increases in TC rates over the study period. Incidence rates were higher in boys than in girls. Children of African origin had the highest TC incidence rates as compared with other ethnic groups. Trichophyton violaceum and Microsporum audouinii were the predominant causative organisms. Treatment with griseofulvin was satisfactory in all cases. There was a significant increase in TC incidence rates in the Tel Aviv area over the study period. TV and MA were the predominant organisms. These trends may be a result of poor living conditions and crowded school premises. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Association between Washing Residue on the Feet and Tinea Pedis in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimie Takehara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinea pedis (TP may lead to the development of foot ulcers in diabetic patients; thus, its prevention in diabetic patients is important. TP occurs after dermatophytes on the skin scales of TP patients attach to the feet. Therefore, it is necessary to remove the scales and dermatophytes, and this can be performed using various methods, including foot washing. This study aimed to objectively examine the association between the presence of TP and foot-washing habits. We included 33 diabetic patients, and, of these, 17 had TP. The presence of washing residue on the feet was determined by applying a fluorescent cream to the participants’ feet, and images of the feet were captured under ultraviolet light before and after foot washing. Our results showed that diabetic patients with TP had higher levels of washing residue on their feet than those without TP. The importance of washing feet to prevent TP needs to be emphasized through educational programs for diabetic patients. Furthermore, the development of an effective foot-washing technique is essential.

  16. A randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Catherine; Koch, Laine H; Dice, James E; Dempsey, Kimberly K; Moskowitz, Alan B; Barnes-Eley, Myra L; Hubbard, Thomas W; Williams, Judith V

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children. Forty children aged 1-11 years with clinically diagnosed tinea capitis were randomized to receive selenium sulfide shampoo 1% or ciclopirox shampoo 1% twice a week as adjuncts to an 8-week course of ultramicronized griseofulvin dosed at 10-12 mg/kg/day. At weeks 2, 4, and 8, subjects returned to the clinic for evaluation and scalp cultures. Subjects then returned for follow-up visits 4 weeks after completing treatment. Overall, by 8 weeks, 30 of 33 (90.9%) treated children demonstrated mycological cure. Selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% were equally effective as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children in our study. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials comparing particular doses of griseofulvin and terbinafine for the treatment of tinea capitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Drummond-Main, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Two oral antifungal agents, griseofulvin and terbinafine, have regulatory approval in the United States, but it is unknown whether one has superior overall efficacy. Genus-specific differences in efficacy are believed to exist for the two agents. It is not clear at what doses and durations of treatment these differences apply. The goals of this meta-analysis were to determine whether a statistically significant difference in efficacy exists between these agents at a given dose and duration of each in tinea capitis infections overall and to determine whether a genus-specific difference in efficacy exists for these two treatments at a given dose and duration of each. We performed a literature search for clinically and methodologically similar randomized controlled trials comparing 8 weeks of griseofulvin (6.25-12.5 mg/kg/day) to 4 weeks of terbinafine (3.125-6.25 mg/kg/day) in the treatment of tinea capitis. A meta-analysis was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel method and random effects model; results were expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials did not show a significant difference in the overall efficacy of the two drugs at the doses specified, but specific efficacy differences were observed based on the infectious species. For tinea capitis caused by Microsporum spp., griseofulvin is superior (p = 0.04), whereas terbinafine is superior for Trichophyton spp. infection (p = 0.04). Our results support species-specific differences in treatment efficacy between griseofulvin and terbinafine and provide a clinical context in which this knowledge may be applied. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Genetic alterations in thyroid tumors from patients irradiated in childhood for tinea capitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Paula; Pereira, Dina; Celestino, Ricardo; Mendes, Adélia; Nakasawa, Tadao; Teixeira-Gomes, José; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2013-11-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation at young age is the strongest risk factor for the occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). RET/PTC rearrangements are the most frequent genetic alterations associated with radiation-induced PTC, whereas BRAF and RAS mutations and PAX8-PPARG rearrangement have been associated with sporadic PTC. We decided to search for such genetic alterations in PTCs of patients subjected in childhood to scalp irradiation. We studied 67 thyroid tumors from 49 individuals irradiated in childhood for tinea capitis scalp epilation: 36 malignant (12 cases of conventional PTC (cPTC), two cPTC metastases, 20 cases of follicular variant PTC (FVPTC), one oncocytic variant of PTC and one follicular carcinoma) and 31 follicular thyroid adenomas. The lesions were screened for the BRAF(V600E) and NRAS mutations and for RET/PTC and PAX8-PPARG rearrangements. BRAF(V600E) mutation was detected in seven of 14 (50%) cPTC and two of 20 FVPTC (10%) (P=0.019). NRAS mutation was present in one case of FVPTC (5%). RET/PTC1 rearrangement was found, by RT-PCR, in one of 17 cases (5.9%) and by fluorescence in situ hybridization in two of six cases (33%). PAX8-PPARG rearrangement was not detected in any carcinoma. None of the follicular adenomas presented any of the aforementioned genetic alterations. The prevalence of BRAF(V600E) mutation in our series is the highest reported in series of PTCs arising in radiation-exposed individuals. The prevalence of RET/PTC1 rearrangement fits with the values recently described in a similar setting.

  19. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Potassium Hydroxide Smear and Fungal Culture Relative to Clinical Assessment in the Evaluation of Tinea Pedis: A Pooled Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Oren Levitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are relatively few studies published examining the sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide (KOH smear and fungal culture examination of tinea pedis. Objective. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture for diagnosing tinea pedis. Methods. A pooled analysis of data from five similarly conducted bioequivalence trials for antifungal drugs was performed. Data from 460 patients enrolled in the vehicle arms of these studies with clinical diagnosis of tinea pedis supported by positive fungal culture were analyzed 6 weeks after initiation of the study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture. Results. Using clinical assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivities for KOH smear and culture were 73.3% (95% CI: 66.3 to 79.5% and 41.7% (34.6 to 49.1%, respectively. The respective specificities for culture and KOH smear were 77.7% (72.2 to 82.5% and 42.5% (36.6 to 48.6%. Conclusion. KOH smear and fungal culture are complementary diagnostic tests for tinea pedis, with the former being the more sensitive test of the two, and the latter being more specific.

  20. Antifungal Effect of Non-Woven Textiles Containing Polyhexamethylene Biguanide with Sophorolipid: A Potential Method for Tinea Pedis Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Hiromi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Takehara, Kimie; Goto, Taichi; Ishii, Nanase; Yoshida, Satoshi; Ryu, Mizuyuki; Tsunemi, Yuichiro

    2014-04-08

    Tinea pedis is a preventable skin disease common in elderly or diabetic patients. Daily foot washing is effective for prevention, but can be difficult for many patients. Additionally, conventional methods cannot eliminate fungi within the stratum corneum, a common site for fungal invasion. This study investigates the antifungal effects, cytotoxicity, permeability, and efficacy of non-woven textiles containing polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) mixed with sophorolipid. Permeability of PHMB with varying concentrations of sophorolipid was assessed via a cultured skin model. Stratum corneum PHMB concentration was quantified by polyvinylsulphuric acid potassium salt titration and cytotoxicity was assayed via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Antifungal effects were evaluated via a new cultured skin/Trichophyton mentagrophytes model, with varying PHMB exposure duration. Clinically-isolated Trichophyton were applied to the feet of four healthy volunteers and then immediately treated with the following methods: washing with soap, a non-woven textile with PHMB, the textile without PHMB, or without washing. Fungal colony forming units (CFUs) were evaluated after one of these treatments were performed. Sophorolipid with various concentrations significantly facilitated PHMB permeation into the stratum corneum, which was not in a dose-dependent manner. Significant PHMB antifungal effects were achieved at 30 min, with low cytotoxicity. Textiles containing PHMB significantly reduced CFU of fungi in healthy volunteers to levels comparable to soap washing. Our results indicate the utility of this product for tinea pedis prevention in clinical settings.

  1. Mycostatic effect of recombinant dermcidin against Trichophyton rubrum and reduced dermcidin expression in the sweat of tinea pedis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Satoru; Yoshino, Takashi; Fujimura, Takao; Maruyama, Sachie; Nakano, Toshiaki; Mukuno, Akira; Sato, Naoya; Katsuoka, Kensei

    2015-01-01

    Trichophytosis, a common dermatophytosis, affects nearly 20-25% of the world's population. However, little is known about mechanisms for preventing colonization of Trichophyton on the skin. Dermcidin, an antimicrobial peptide that provides innate immunity to the skin and is constitutively secreted even in the absence of inflammatory stimulation, was studied to elucidate its antimycotic activity against Trichophyton. Recombinant dermcidin was determined to have antimycotic activity against Trichophyton rubrum, as evaluated by colony-forming unit (CFU) assays. The killing rate of dermcidin was 40.5% and 93.4% at 50 μg/mL (the average dermcidin concentration in healthy subjects) and 270 μg/mL, respectively. An effect of dermcidin treatment was found to be a reduction of the metabolic activity of Trichophyton as determined by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide assay. Further, dermcidin concentrations in sweat of tinea pedis patients were found to be lower than those of healthy subjects. These findings suggest a mycostatic role for dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations. Accordingly, we suspect that dermcidin, at normal sweat concentrations, inhibits growth of Trichophyton, where Trichophyton is subsequently eliminated in conjunction with epidermis turnover. Dermcidin, therefore, appears to play a role in the skin protection mechanism that prevents colonization of tinea pedis. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  2. Antifungal Effect of Non-Woven Textiles Containing Polyhexamethylene Biguanide with Sophorolipid: A Potential Method for Tinea Pedis Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Sanada

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tinea pedis is a preventable skin disease common in elderly or diabetic patients. Daily foot washing is effective for prevention, but can be difficult for many patients. Additionally, conventional methods cannot eliminate fungi within the stratum corneum, a common site for fungal invasion. This study investigates the antifungal effects, cytotoxicity, permeability, and efficacy of non-woven textiles containing polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB mixed with sophorolipid. Permeability of PHMB with varying concentrations of sophorolipid was assessed via a cultured skin model. Stratum corneum PHMB concentration was quantified by polyvinylsulphuric acid potassium salt titration and cytotoxicity was assayed via 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. Antifungal effects were evaluated via a new cultured skin/Trichophyton mentagrophytes model, with varying PHMB exposure duration. Clinically-isolated Trichophyton were applied to the feet of four healthy volunteers and then immediately treated with the following methods: washing with soap, a non-woven textile with PHMB, the textile without PHMB, or without washing. Fungal colony forming units (CFUs were evaluated after one of these treatments were performed. Sophorolipid with various concentrations significantly facilitated PHMB permeation into the stratum corneum, which was not in a dose-dependent manner. Significant PHMB antifungal effects were achieved at 30 min, with low cytotoxicity. Textiles containing PHMB significantly reduced CFU of fungi in healthy volunteers to levels comparable to soap washing. Our results indicate the utility of this product for tinea pedis prevention in clinical settings.

  3. Head and neck basal cell carcinoma prevalence in individuals submitted to childhood X-ray epilation for tinea capitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Paula; Oliveira, Rosa; Pereira, Dina; Soares, Paula; Teixeira-Gomes, José

    2012-01-01

    A higher prevalence for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has been associated with radiation, namely with tinea capitis epilation treatment. To evaluate the prevalence of head and neck basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and to identify the major risk factors for BCC in individuals irradiated in childhood for tinea capitis treatment. We clinically observed 1,308 individuals from an original cohort of 5,356 irradiated between 1950 and 1963, registering previous skin lesions excisions and proposing for surgery all the suspicious lesions detected. In 585 participants, 47 with BCC, the skin pigmentation was measured. The overall prevalence of BCC was 8.0% and of multiple BCC was 2.4%. Both total (14.7%) and multiple BCC (6.6%) were significantly more common in the individuals who had received a higher radiation dose. Multiple BCC was more prevalent (3.7%) in younger irradiated individuals and total BCC (9.4%) in women. Participants with BCC and without BCC presented similar skin pigmentation. Younger age at irradiation, higher dose and female gender increased the risk of developing BCC in these irradiated individuals.

  4. Sanitization of contaminated footwear from onychomycosis patients using ozone gas: a novel adjunct therapy for treating onychomycosis and tinea pedis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditya K; Brintnell, William C

    2013-01-01

    Ozone gas possesses antimicrobial properties against bacteria, viruses, and yeasts. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of ozone in killing ATCC strains of the dermatophyte fungi Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. To test the efficacy of ozone gas in sanitizing onychomycosis patient footwear contaminated with fungal material as a means of minimizing the risk of reinfection. Swabs of footwear from onychomycosis patients were cultured prior to and after ozone exposure to test the ability of ozone to sanitize these items. We identified contamination of footwear from most onychomycosis patients, a potential source of reinfection in these individuals. Furthermore, ozone gas was effective in sanitizing contaminated footwear. Ozone gas is effective in sanitizing footwear and represents a novel adjunct therapy to be used in conjunction with antifungal medications and/or devices to better treat onychomycosis and tinea pedis patients in both the short and the long term.

  5. TERT promoter mutations: a genetic signature of benign and malignant thyroid tumours occurring in the context of tinea capitis irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaventura, Paula; Batista, Rui; Pestana, Ana; Reis, Marta; Mendes, Adélia; Eloy, Catarina; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and molecular characteristics of TERTp mutations in thyroid adenomas and carcinomas occurring in the low-dose radiation exposure tinea capitis setting. Twenty-seven patients with 34 well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 28 patients with 29 follicular adenomas diagnosed in a Portuguese tinea capitis cohort were studied. Blood samples were obtained from all the patients. Screening for TERTp mutations was performed by PCR amplification followed by Sanger sequencing. A series of 33 sporadic thyroid adenomas was used as control. TERTp mutations were detected in six of the 28 patients with adenoma (21.4%) and in four of the 27 patients with carcinoma (14.8%). Three tumours (two carcinomas and one adenoma) had the tandem mutation -124/-125 GG>AA (30.0%), whereas the remaining seven had the -124G > A. The 20.7% frequency of TERTp mutations in adenomas contrasts with the absence of mutations in the adenomas from the control group and from most series on record, whereas the one found in carcinomas (11.8%) is similar to those reported in the literature for sporadic carcinomas. TERTp mutations, including the tandem mutation -124/-125 GG>AA not described previously in thyroid tumours, appear to represent a genetic signature for thyroid tumours in patients submitted to low-dose X-ray irradiation. The high frequency of TERTp mutations in the adenomas of our cohort contrasts with their absence in sporadically occurring, as well as in adenomas of the Chernobyl series. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Double-blind study with topical Isoconazole and Terbinafine for the treatment of one patient with bilateral Tinea nigra plantaris and suggestions for new differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, André Luiz; Cruz, Rosana Cé Bella; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2013-01-01

    The authors report a case of bilateral Tinea nigra plantaris treated through a double-blind study with the topical antifungal agents Isoconazole and Terbinafine. The objective of the study was to clinically compare the efficacy of these two topical antifungal agents on days 10, 20 and 30 of the treatment. No significant clinical differences were found, as all the plantar lesions regressed completely by the end of the treatment. Our conclusion was that in the case reported, the topical antifungal agents Isoconazole and Terbinafine demonstrated identical efficacy as a clinical cure. We also suggest the inclusion of injuries caused by arthropods of the Diplopoda Class in the differential diagnosis of Tinea nigra plantaris, due to the persistent acral hyperpigmentation.

  7. Long term effects of exposure to ionizing irradiation on periodontal health status – the Tinea Capitis cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegal eSadetzki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies among long term survivors of childhood cancer who had received high dose irradiation therapy of 4-60 Gy, demonstrated acute and chronic dental effects including periodontal diseases. However, the possible effects of low to moderate doses of radiation on dental health are sparse. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of ionizing radiation and periodontal health following 50 years from the exposure. The study population included 253 irradiated subjects (treated for Tinea Capitis in the 1950s and, 162 non-irradiated subjects, treated for Tinea Capitis in the 1950s. The estimated dose to the teeth was 0.2-0.4Gy. Dental examination was performed according to the Community Periodontal Index (CPI. Socio-economic and health behavior variables were obtained through a personal questionnaire. Periodontal disease was operationally defined as deep periodontal pockets. A multivariate logistic regression model was used for the association of irradiation status and other independent variables with periodontal status.The results showed that among the irradiated subjects, 23% (95% CI 18%-28% demonstrated complete edentulousness or insufficient teeth for CPI scoring as compared to 13% (95% CI 8%-19% among the non-irradiated subjects (p=0.01. Periodontal disease was detected among 54% of the irradiated subjects as compared to 40% of the non-irradiated (p=0.008. Controlling for education and smoking, the ORs for the association between radiation and periodontal disease were 1.61 (95% CI 1.01-2.57 and 1.95 (95% CI 1.1-3.5 for ever never and per 1 Gy absorbed in the salivary gland, respectively. In line with other studies, a protective effect for periodontal diseases among those with high education and an increased risk for ever smokers were observed. In conclusion, childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of ionizing radiation might be associated with later outcomes of dental health. The

  8. Tinea pedis and onychomycosis frequency in diabetes mellitus patients and diabetic foot ulcers. A cross sectional - observational study.

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    Akkus, Gamze; Evran, Mehtap; Gungor, Dilek; Karakas, Mehmet; Sert, Murat; Tetiker, Tamer

    2016-01-01

    Impaired cellular immunity and reduced phagocytic function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes facilitate the development of skin fungal and bacterial infections due to uncontrolled hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. In our study, we aimed to assess onychomycosis and/or tinea pedis frequency in diabetic patients, and effects on the development of chronic complications, particularly foot ulcer. We included 227 diabetic patients in the study. Forty-three patients had diabetic foot ulcer. We screened and recorded demographic characteristics, HbA1c levels of patients, and presence of complications We examined patients dermatologically, and collected samples by scalpel from skin between toes, and from sole, toe nail, and area surrounding nails from suspected to have fungal infection. Native positivity between toes was higher in men compared to women (pdiabetic foot ulcer compared to patients without diabetic foot ulcer (pdiabetic foot ulcer correlated with presence of fungal infection examination findings (pdiabetic patients in compliance with the literature, and the presence of fungal infection may also responsible for the development of foot ulcers.

  9. Alternative uses of dermoscopy in general dermatology

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    Eleni Papakonstantinou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, dermoscopy has been shown to be an effective diagnostic tool in assisting the noninvasive diagnosis not only of skin tumors but also of various general dermatological disorders. The use of dermoscopy has offered a new morphological dimension supporting the diagnosis and clinical follow-up of several dermatological conditions. Within the last years, dermoscopy is gaining ground in general dermatology as well. Among the large spectrum of skin infections, specific dermoscopic patterns have been described for common skin infections such as viral warts, molluscum contagiosum, scabies, and pediculosis, as well as for tinea nigra, tungiasis, and cutaneous larva migrans. Also, common skin disorders such as psoriasis, pityriasis rosea or lichen planus show characteristic dermoscopic patterns. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the use of dermoscopy in general dermatology by analyzing the dermoscopic differential diagnosis of relatively common dermatological   disorders grouped according to their clinical characteristics.

  10. A comparative randomized open label study to evaluate efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness between topical 2% sertaconazole and topical 1% butenafine in tinea infections of skin

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    Saket J Thaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophytoses are the superficial fungal infections of skin, hair, and nail. Butenafine is a benzylamine group of antifungal that inhibits the biosynthesis of ergosterol by blocking squalene epoxidase. Sertaconazole is a newer imidazole antifungal which inhibits the biosynthesis of ergosterol by inhibiting 14-a lanosterol demethylase. The study was done to compare a newer antifungal with a relatively older one. Aim: To compare the efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness of topical 2% sertaconazole cream and 1% butenafine in tinea infections of skin Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. They were advised to apply the drug topically twice a day for one month on the lesions. They were followed up at an interval of 10 days. Clinical score and Global Evaluation Response were assessed at baseline and during each follow up. Results: A total 125 patients were recruited, out of them 111 completed the whole study. Median Sign and Symptom Score of tinea on the baseline was 9 [5,9] that was reduced to 0 [0,4] by 2% sertaconazole while it was 9 [6,9] in the butenafine group on the baseline that was reduced to 0 [0,6] at the end of the treatment. 98% and 90% of the patients got complete clearance of the lesions with butenafine and sertaconazole, respectively. Treatment with butenafine was more cost effective as compared to sertaconazole. Conclusion: 1% butenafine is more efficacious, cost effective, and equally safe as compared to 2% sertaconazole in the tinea infections of skin.

  11. Thyroid and parathyroid tumours in patients submitted to X-ray scalp epilation during the tinea capitis eradication campaign in the North of Portugal (1950-1963).

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    Boaventura, Paula; Pereira, Dina; Mendes, Adélia; Teixeira-Gomes, José; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-10-01

    Tinea capitis attained epidemical proportions in the fifth and sixth decades in Portugal, as in other countries. Before starting the utilization of griseofulvin in 1959, the best approach to treat tinea capitis infection was X-ray scalp epilation combined with topical antimycotic ointments. A long-term side effect of this therapy is thyroid disease, namely thyroid cancer; data on parathyroid lesions (hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma) are scarce. We observed clinically 1,375 individuals irradiated in childhood for tinea capitis treatment in the North of Portugal with the main purpose of evaluating thyroid and parathyroid tumours as possible sequelae of the irradiation treatment. For each individual, a cervical ultrasound and a serum calcium measurement were proposed. Fine needle aspiration cytology was suggested whenever ultrasound thyroid nodules presented suspicious features. We observed a 54 % frequency of thyroid nodules and a 2.8 % frequency of thyroid carcinoma (38/1,375). Nineteen of the 38 (50 %) carcinomas were diagnosed by us, whereas the remaining 19 carcinomas had been diagnosed and treated prior to our observation. The carcinomas were significantly more frequent in women than in men. Benign excised lesions were also significantly more frequent in women and in patients irradiated at younger ages. Seven women, considered asymptomatic until our clinical observation, had laboratory signs of hyperparathyroidism. The data we have obtained, namely high thyroid cancer frequency, corroborate previous data from childhood irradiated cohorts and highlight the need for the close follow-up of these populations in order to identify and treat early undiagnosed head and neck lesions. No evidence of increased parathyroid disease was found in this cohort of head and neck X-irradiated patients.

  12. IL6-174 G>C Polymorphism (rs1800795) Association with Late Effects of Low Dose Radiation Exposure in the Portuguese Tinea Capitis Cohort.

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    Boaventura, Paula; Durães, Cecília; Mendes, Adélia; Costa, Natália Rios; Chora, Inês; Ferreira, Sara; Araújo, Emanuel; Lopes, Pedro; Rosa, Gilberto; Marques, Pedro; Bettencourt, Paulo; Oliveira, Inês; Costa, Francisco; Ramos, Isabel; Teles, Maria José; Guimarães, João Tiago; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    Head and neck cancers, and cardiovascular disease have been described as late effects of low dose radiation (LDR) exposure, namely in tinea capitis cohorts. In addition to radiation dose, gender and younger age at exposure, the genetic background might be involved in the susceptibility to LDR late effects. The -174 G>C (rs1800795) SNP in IL6 has been associated with cancer and cardiovascular disease, nevertheless this association is still controversial. We assessed the association of the IL6-174 G>C SNP with LDR effects such as thyroid carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and carotid atherosclerosis in the Portuguese tinea capitis cohort. The IL6-174 G>C SNP was genotyped in 1269 individuals formerly irradiated for tinea capitis. This sampling group included thyroid cancer (n = 36), basal cell carcinoma (n = 113) and cases without thyroid or basal cell carcinoma (1120). A subgroup was assessed for atherosclerosis by ultrasonography (n = 379) and included matched controls (n = 222). Genotypes were discriminated by real-time PCR using a TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. In the irradiated group, we observed that the CC genotype was significantly associated with carotid plaque risk, both in the genotypic (OR = 3.57, CI = 1.60-7.95, p-value = 0.002) and in the recessive (OR = 3.02, CI = 1.42-6.42, p-value = 0.004) models. Irradiation alone was not a risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis. We did not find a significant association of the IL6-174 C allele with thyroid carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma risk. The IL6-174 CC genotype confers a three-fold risk for carotid atherosclerotic disease suggesting it may represent a genetic susceptibility factor in the LDR context.

  13. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (molecular type Arthroderma benhamiae ) mimics impetigo : a case report and literature review of cases in Japan.

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    Kimura, Utako; Yokoyama, Kae; Hiruma, Masataro; Kano, Rui; Takamori, Kenji; Suga, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old female elementary schoolteacher presented with aggregated serous papules surrounded by mild erythema, extending from both nasal wings/nostrils down to the upper lip. No improvement was seen following treatment of the lesions with topical antibiotics for impetigo. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) direct microscopy confirmed the presence of mycelia, and the infection was diagnosed as tinea faciei. The isolate was identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes using morphological analysis and as Arthroderma benhamiae using genetic analysis. Here we describe that case and summarize the clinical features of other cases of A. benhamiae infection in Japan that have been reported in the literature.

  14. Evaluation of local trace element status and 8-Iso-prostaglandin F2α concentrations in patients with Tinea pedis.

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    Miraloglu, Meral; Kurutas, Ergul Belge; Ozturk, Perihan; Arican, Ozer

    2016-01-01

    Tinea pedis (TP) is an infection of the feet caused by fungi. The infectious diseases caused by dermatophytes are mainly related to the enzymes produced by these fungi. Up to the now, the local 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), concentration as oxidative stress biomarker and trace elements status have not been published in patients with TP. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress and trace elements (Cu, Zn, Se), and to evaluate the ratios of Cu/Zn and Cu/Se in this disorder. Forty-three consecutive patients with a diagnosis of unilateral interdigital TP were enrolled in this study. The samples were obtained by scraping the skin surface. 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in scraping samples were determined by ELISA. In addition, the levels of Se, Zn and Cu in scraping samples were determined on flame and furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer using Zeeman background correction. Oxidative stress was confirmed by the significant elevation in 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations (p iso-PGF2α parameters, but negative correlations between Se-Cu; Se-8-iso-PGF2α parameters in lesional area. Furthermore, the ratios of Cu/Zn and Cu/Se were significantly higher on the lesional area than the non-lesional area (p iso-PGF2α and trace elements in patients with TP (p > 0.05). Our results showed that there is a possible link between oxidative stress (increased 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations) and imbalanced of trace elements status in lesional area of TP patients. The use of antifungal agents together with both Zn and Se drugs could be helpful in the both regression of disease and in shortening the duration of disease.

  15. Terbinafine hydrochloride oral granules versus oral griseofulvin suspension in children with tinea capitis: results of two randomized, investigator-blinded, multicenter, international, controlled trials.

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    Elewski, Boni E; Cáceres, Hector W; DeLeon, Liberation; El Shimy, Saleh; Hunter, Judy A; Korotkiy, Nicolay; Rachesky, Ingrid Johnson; Sanchez-Bal, Victoria; Todd, Gail; Wraith, LindaAnn; Cai, Bin; Tavakkol, Amir; Bakshi, Rajesh; Nyirady, Judit; Friedlander, Sheila Fallon

    2008-07-01

    Although griseofulvin is currently considered the primary antifungal agent used to treat tinea capitis in many countries, increasingly higher doses and longer durations of treatment are becoming necessary to achieve effective treatment. Alternative antifungal therapies with shorter/simpler treatment regimens may be important to develop for this indication. To compare the efficacy and safety of a new pediatric formulation of terbinafine hydrochloride oral granules with griseofulvin oral suspension in the treatment of tinea capitis. Children (4-12 years of age) with clinically diagnosed and potassium hydroxide microscopy-confirmed tinea capitis were randomized in two identical studies (trial 1, trial 2) to once-daily treatment with terbinafine (5-8 mg/kg; n = 1040) or griseofulvin administered per label (10-20 mg/kg; n = 509) for a period of 6 weeks followed by 4 weeks of follow-up. End-of-study complete cure (negative fungal culture and microscopy with Total Signs and Symptoms Score [TSSS] = 0), and mycologic (negative culture and microscopy) and clinical cure (TSSS = 0) were primary and secondary efficacy variables, respectively. Efficacy analysis was based on pooled data using modified intent-to-treat population (those who received at least one dose of study drug and had positive baseline fungal culture, N = 1286). Safety assessments included monitoring of the frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs). Rates of complete cure and mycologic cure were significantly higher for terbinafine than for griseofulvin (45.1% vs 39.2% and 61.5% vs 55.5%, respectively; P griseofulvin, 10 to 19.9 mg/kg per day; complete cure rate was not found to be higher among patients who received griseofulvin more than 20 mg/kg per day compared with those who received less than 20 mg/kg per day. Complete cure rate was statistically significantly greater for terbinafine compared to griseofulvin in trial 1 (46.23% vs 34.01%) but not in trial 2 (43.99% vs 43.46%). On the basis of pooled

  16. Caries Experience among Adults Exposed to Low to Moderate Doses of Ionizing Radiation in Childhood – The Tinea Capitis Cohort

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    Vered, Yuval; Chetrit, Angela; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D.; Amitai, Tova; Mann, Jonathan; Even-Nir, Hadas; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2016-01-01

    While the impact of therapeutic levels of ionizing radiation during childhood on dental defects has been documented, the possible effect of low doses on dental health is unknown. The study aim was to assess the association between childhood exposure to low–moderate doses of therapeutic radiation and caries experience among a cohort of adults 50 years following the exposure. The analysis was based on a sample of 253 irradiated (in the treatment of tinea capitis) and 162 non-irradiated subjects. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was assessed during a clinical dental examination and questions regarding dental care services utilization, oral hygiene behavior, current self-perceived mouth dryness, socio-demographic parameters, and health behavior variables were obtained through a face-to-face interview. An ordered multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the association of the main independent variable (irradiation status) and other relevant independent variables on the increase in DMFT. Mean caries experience levels (DMFT) were 18.6 ± 7.5 for irradiated subjects compared to 16.4 ± 7.2 for the non-irradiated (p = 0.002). Controlling for gender, age, education, income, smoking, dental visit in the last year, and brushing teeth behavior, irradiation was associated with a 72% increased risk for higher DMFT level (95% CI: 1.19–2.50). A quantification of the risk by dose absorbed in the salivary gland and in the thyroid gland showed adjusted ORs of 2.21 per 1 Gy (95% CI: 1.40–3.50) and 1.05 per 1 cGy (95% CI: 1.01–1.09), respectively. Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation (0.2–0.4 Gy) might be associated with late outcomes of dental health. In line with the guidelines of the American Dental Association, these results call for caution when using dental radiographs. PMID:26942172

  17. Tinea capitis: epidemiologia e ecologia dos casos observados entre 1983 e 2003 na Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Tinea capitis: epidemiological and ecological aspects of cases observed from 1983 to 2003 in the Botucatu Medical School, state of São Paulo-Brazil

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    Silvio Alencar Marques

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Tinea capitis é importante infecção fúngica de interesse dermatológico e pediátrico. No Brasil sua prevalência é desconhecida, e os agentes causais principais são o Trichophyton tonsurans nas regiões Norte-Nordeste e o Microsporum canis no Sul-Sudeste do país. Conhecimento sobre gênero e espécies mais prevalentes tem importância sanitária e terapêutica. OBJETIVOS: Identificar espécies de dermatófitos, causa de Tinea capitis, em serviço universitário que atende clientela do Sistema Único de Saúde, de procedência urbana e rural, no interior do Estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Amostras de casos clínicos suspeitos de Tinea capitis, procedentes da área de abrangência da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu-Unesp, foram investigadas por exame direto e cultivo visando ao diagnóstico e isolamento do agente causal. RESULTADOS: De 1.055 suspeitas, 594 foram confirmadas por exame direto, em 364 (61,1% isolou-se o agente: M. canis em 88,2%, seguindo-se T. tonsurans (4,7%, T. rubrum (3,3%, M. gypseum (1,9%, T. mentagrophytes (1,6%. O sexo masculino correspondeu a 55,7% dos casos, e a faixa etária entre 0-5 anos predominou com 62,6% (p BACKGROUND: Tinea capitis is an important fungal infection of both pediatrical and dermatological interest. In Brazil, its prevalence is unknown, and main causal agents are Trichophyton tonsurans n northern and northeastern regions and Microsporum canis in southern and southeastern regions of the country. Knowledge on the most prevalent geni and species has sanitary and therapeutical importance. OBJECTIVE: To identify dermatophyte species causing Tinea capitis, in a University Hospital that sees patients of the Public Health System (SUS, coming from both urban and rural areas in the interior of State of São Paulo. METHODS: Samples of clinical cases with suspicion of Tinea capitis, coming from the area under Boucatu Medical School - Unesp’s responsibility, were investigated by means of

  18. Fungus Infections: Tinea

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    ... JAOCD Information for Authors Information for Reviewers Human & Animal Rights Job Postings Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive ... up with appropriate creams. If due to an animal, even if it has no signs of a ... moth-eaten but with the right treatment the hair will grow back normally and ...

  19. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Topical 1% Butenafine and Topical 1% Ciclopirox Olamine in the Treatment of Tinea Pedis and Evaluation of the Effects on the Quality of Life of These Treatmens: A Randomized Single-Blind Trial

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    Asude Kara Polat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to compare efficacy and safety of topical 1% butenafine and topical 1% ciclopirox olamine in tinea pedis and to evaluate effects of these treatments on quality of life. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial on 80 patients with tinea pedis between May 2014 and May 2015. Of 80 patients, 40 were treated with 1% butenafine cream and 40 were treated with 1% ciclopirox olamine cream for one month. Clinical characteristics, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI scores, Physician’s Global Assessment (PhGA, and Patient’s Global Assessment were recorded. Results: Forty patients (21 male, 19 female on butenafine therapy and 40 patients (15 male, 25 female on ciclopirox olamine therapy were enrolled in the study. Both treatments significantly improved the clinical signs and symptoms, but no significant difference was found between the groups (p>0.05. The DLQI scores decreased significantly after the treatments in both groups. The recurrence was observed only in two patients from ciclopirox olamine group. Conclusion: Topical butenafine and ciclopirox olamine had similar high efficacy and safety in the treatment of tinea pedis. In addition, both two drugs had positive improvement on quality of life of the patients.

  20. Fast and sensitive detection of Trichophyton rubrum in superficial tinea and onychomycosis by use of a direct polymerase chain reaction assay.

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    Brasch, J; Beck-Jendroschek, V; Gläser, R

    2011-09-01

    Detection of Trichophyton rubrum in superficial skin infections by conventional methods is time consuming and not always successful. However, with modern molecular methods, an alternative is in sight. The aim of this study was to compare the detection of T. rubrum by conventional methods and by a direct specific PCR assay under routine conditions. Skin scrapings (n = 464) and nail samples (n = 230) collected from suspected tinea lesions were equally divided for KOH-mounts, cultures and PCR-analysis. For the latter, DNA was extracted and PCR was performed with T. rubrum-specific primers. Of the scale samples, 16% were positive for T. rubrum in the culture and PCR as well, 9% were positive in the PCR only and 3% in the culture only, whereas 5% were only KOH-positive. The corresponding results for nail samples were 17%, 20%, 3% and 7%. PCR results were available after 2-5 days, culture results after 2-3 weeks. Our results show that a specific PCR assay can successfully be used to detect T. rubrum directly in samples collected from superficial skin lesions and nails under routine conditions. Compared with conventional methods, it is faster and more sensitive. We recommend its complementary use. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Intestinal Microbiota Promotes Psoriasis-Like Skin Inflammation by Enhancing Th17 Response.

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    Zuzana Zákostelská

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease in which Th17 cells play a crucial role. Since indigenous gut microbiota influences the development and reactivity of immune cells, we analyzed the link among microbiota, T cells and the formation of psoriatic lesions in the imiquimod-induced murine model of psoriasis. To explore the role of microbiota, we induced skin inflammation in germ-free (GF, broad-spectrum antibiotic (ATB-treated or conventional (CV BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We found that both mice reared in GF conditions for several generations and CV mice treated with ATB were more resistant to imiquimod-induced skin inflammation than CV mice. The ATB treatment dramatically changed the diversity of gut bacteria, which remained stable after subsequent imiquimod application; ATB treatment resulted in a substantial increase in the order Lactobacillales and a significant decrease in Coriobacteriales and Clostridiales. Moreover, as compared to CV mice, imiquimod induced a lower degree of local and systemic Th17 activation in both GF and ATB-treated mice. These findings suggest that gut microbiota control imiquimod-induced skin inflammation by altering the T cell response.

  2. Wood’s Lamp Examination: Evaluation of Basic Knowledge in General Physicians

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    Pudit Suraprasit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wood’s lamp examination is a useful diagnostic test in many dermatological disorders. However, there was limited data on knowledge of physicians about this tool. Objective: To evaluate basic knowledge of physicians on Wood’s lamp and its applications. Methods: The study used questionnaires in Thai general physicians who attended the 2013 Dermatology Annual Meeting. The questionnaire composed of a picture of a Wood’s lamp instrument and two open-end questions including 1 What is the name of this device? 2 Which diseases can this device help to make the diagnosis? Results: Eighty-two physicians enrolled in this study. Only 55 physicians (67.1% answered the name of a Wood’s lamp correctly. There were 29 out of 55 physicians (52.7% knew at least one application of Wood’s lamp. About half did not know any applications. Tinea versicolor, followed by melasma, tinea captitis, erythrasma, acne, porphyria, and vitiligo, respectively were the common applications that most physicians answered. Conclusion: This study showed around two-third of physicians know Wood’s lamp, but only half of them were knowledgeable about its’ application in dermatoses. Education regarding Wood’s lamp and application should be emphasized more in physicians to assist in dermatologic diagnoses.

  3. Outbreak of Tinea capitis by Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis in Niterói, RJ, Brazil Microepidemia de tinha do couro cabeludo por Trichophyton tonsurans e Microsporum canis em Niterói, RJ, Brasil

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    Loan Towersey

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available 18 girls from an orphanage (Orfanato Santo Antônio in Niterói presented tinea capitis due to Trichophyton tonsurans (15 cases - 83.3% and Microsporum canis (3 cases - 26.7%. Comments are made about clinical, mycological and therapeutic aspects of this microepidemy18 meninas internas do Orfanato Santo Antônio em Niterói apresentaram tinha do couro cabeludo causada por Trichophyton tonsurans (15 casos - 83,3% e Microsporum canis (3 casos - 26,7%. São discutidos aspectos clínicos e terapêuticos desta microepidemia

  4. Tinha do couro cabeludo em crianças de Goiânia, Brasil Tinea capitis in children from Goiânia, Brazil

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    Tatiana Dias

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Durante o período de janeiro de 1999 a julho de 2002 um total de 164 casos de tinha do couro cabeludo foram diagnosticados através de exames micológicos, realizados no Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública da Universidade Federal de Goiás. Destes pacientes, 94 (57,3% pertenciam ao sexo masculino, com idades variando de 3 meses a 13 anos. O diagnóstico e identificação dos agentes de dermatofitoses do couro cabeludo foram feitos utilizando-se exame direto com KOH a 20% e cultivo em ágar Mycobiotic e em ágar Sabouraud dextrose acrescido de cloranfenicol. As seguintes espécies foram identificadas: Microsporum canis (71,3%, Trichophyton tonsurans (11%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (7,9%, Trichophyton rubrum (6,7% and Microsporum gypseum (3%. Nossos estudos mostraram que o fungo de habitat natural no animal (zoofílico, Microsporum canis foi o agente mais comum de lesões no couro cabeludo em humanos.During the period January 1999 to July 2002 a total de 164 cases of Tinea capitis were diagnosed by mycological examination in Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública of the Universidade Federal de Goiás. Of the 164 patients 94 (57.3% were males, with an age of 3 months to 13 years. Laboratory studies were performed by direct examination with 20% KOH and cultivated on Mycobiotic agar medium and Sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol. The following species were identified: Microsporum canis (71.3%, Trichophyton tonsurans (11%, Trichophyton mentagrophytes (7.9%, Trichophyton rubrum (6.7%, and Microsporum gypseum (3%. Our study showed that the most frequent riseof scalp infection was a zoophylic fungi, called Microsporum canis.

  5. Basal cell carcinoma of the scalp after radiation therapy for tinea capitis: 33 patients; Carcinomes basocellulaires du cuir chevelu secondaires a une radiotherapie pour teigne: une serie de 33 malades

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    Mseddi, M.; Bouassida, S.; Marrekchi, S.; Khemakhem, M.; Gargouri, N.; Turki, H.; Zahaf, A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hedi Chaker, Service de Dermatologie, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2004-08-01

    Occurrence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) following radiotherapy for tinea capitis is well known. The aim of this study was to specify the clinical and histological features of these BCC seen in 33 patients (1995 000). Twenty seven men and six women were diagnosed with BCC. The age of onset varied between 32 an 62 years. Radiotherapy was received between 5 and 17 years of age. The interval between irradiation and the onset of carcinoma varied between 21 and 51 years. Total number of lesions was 55. Forty percent of BCC occurred on the occipital area, the number varied from 1 to 5 and the size from 2 to 45 mm. Clinically, the nodular type was found in 51% of cases. Pigment was present in 64% of cases. Histological study showed a nodular aspect in 76% and pigmentation in 63% of cases. Nodular and pigmented type were the predominant BCC occurring after radiotherapy for tinea capitis in our series. In the literature, BCC are the most frequent carcinomas occurring after radiotherapy (70-100%). Pigmentation was not described in other series. The nodular histological form was the most frequent. (author)

  6. Tinha favosa: relato de ocorrência familiar em Itapecerica da Serra (município da Grande São Paulo Tinea favosa: familiar occurence in Itapecerica da Serra (São Paulo State - Brazil

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    Walter Belda Junior

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam 4 casos de tinha favosa por Trichophyton schoenleinii de ocorrência familiar, identificados na cidade de Itapecerica da Serra, município da Grande São Paulo. Todos os casos foram tratados com griseofulvina por via oral na dose de 1.0 mg/kg/dia por no mínimo 3 meses, tendo ocorrido cura clínica e laboratorial em 2 pacientes, e os dois restantes necessitaram de terapêutica mais prolongada.Four cases of Tinea favosa occurred in the same family are reported in a small city of Brazil (Itapecerica da Serra - State of São Paulo. Trichophyton schoenleinii was isolated from all four cases. Treatment consisted of oral griseofulvin (10 mg/kg/day for at least three months.

  7. A TEN-YEAR SURVEY OF Tinea pedis IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL Um estudo de dez anos sobre a tinha do pé na região central do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Jorge O. LOPES

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Tinea pedis is the most common type of dermatophytosis, but can mimic many cutaneous diseases and tend to be chronic. We present a study of the frequency, epidemiology and clinical aspects of tinea pedis in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul during the period 1988-1997.A tinha dos pés é a forma mais comum das dermatofitoses, mas pode simular outras doenças da pele e tende a se tornar crônica. Apresentamos um estudo da freqüência, epidemiologia e aspectos clínicos da tinha dos pés na região central do Rio Grande do Sul durante o período 1988-1997.

  8. IL-23 induces atopic dermatitis-like inflammation instead of psoriasis-like inflammation in CCR2-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon K Bromley

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory skin disease, characterized by epidermal hyperplasia and infiltration of leukocytes into the dermis and epidermis. IL-23 is expressed in psoriatic skin, and IL-23 injected into the skin of mice produces IL-22-dependent dermal inflammation and acanthosis. The chemokine receptor CCR2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including psoriasis. CCR2-positive cells and the CCR2 ligand, CCL2 are abundant in psoriatic lesions. To examine the requirement of CCR2 in the development of IL-23-induced cutaneous inflammation, we injected the ears of wild-type (WT and CCR2-deficient (CCR2(-/- mice with IL-23. CCR2(-/- mice had increased ear swelling and epidermal thickening, which was correlated with increased cutaneous IL-4 levels and increased numbers of eosinophils within the skin. In addition, TSLP, a cytokine known to promote and amplify T helper cell type 2 (Th2 immune responses, was also increased within the inflamed skin of CCR2(-/- mice. Our data suggest that increased levels of TSLP in CCR2(-/- mice may contribute to the propensity of these mice to develop increased Th2-type immune responses.

  9. Generalized product

    OpenAIRE

    Greco,Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0,1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0,1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [–1,1], stressing the axiomatic point of view. Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas and bipolar copulas.

  10. Age and sex prevalence of infectious dermatoses among primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The five most prevalent clinical forms of infectious dermatoses, in order of decreasing prevalence, were tinea capitis (35.2%), scabies (10.5%), tinea corporis (5.8%), tinea pedis (5.5%), and impetigo (5.0%). More cases, generally, occurred among males than females (80.4% vs 67.2%)); while some specific clinical types, ...

  11. General Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The General Conformity requirements ensure that the actions taken by federal agencies in nonattainment and maintenance areas do not interfere with a state’s plans to meet national standards for air quality.

  12. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Van Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    Generalized Polygons is the first book to cover, in a coherent manner, the theory of polygons from scratch. In particular, it fills elementary gaps in the literature and gives an up-to-date account of current research in this area, including most proofs, which are often unified and streamlined in comparison to the versions generally known. Generalized Polygons will be welcomed both by the student seeking an introduction to the subject as well as the researcher who will value the work as a reference. In particular, it will be of great value for specialists working in the field of generalized polygons (which are, incidentally, the rank 2 Tits-buildings) or in fields directly related to Tits-buildings, incidence geometry and finite geometry. The approach taken in the book is of geometric nature, but algebraic results are included and proven (in a geometric way!). A noteworthy feature is that the book unifies and generalizes notions, definitions and results that exist for quadrangles, hexagons, octagons - in the ...

  13. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Canuto, V

    2015-01-01

    This is an English translation of the Italian version of an encyclopedia chapter that appeared in the Italian Encyclopedia of the Physical Sciences, edited by Bruno Bertotti (1994). Following requests from colleagues we have decided to make it available to a more general readership. We present the motivation for constructing General Relativity, provide a short discussion of tensor algebra, and follow the set up of Einstein equations. We discuss briefly the initial value problem, the linear approximation and how should non gravitational physics be described in curved spacetime.

  14. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Straumann, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a completely revised and expanded version of the previous classic edition ‘General Relativity and Relativistic Astrophysics’. In Part I the foundations of general relativity are thoroughly developed, while Part II is devoted to tests of general relativity and many of its applications. Binary pulsars – our best laboratories for general relativity – are studied in considerable detail. An introduction to gravitational lensing theory is included as well, so as to make the current literature on the subject accessible to readers. Considerable attention is devoted to the study of compact objects, especially to black holes. This includes a detailed derivation of the Kerr solution, Israel’s proof of his uniqueness theorem, and a derivation of the basic laws of black hole physics. Part II ends with Witten’s proof of the positive energy theorem, which is presented in detail, together with the required tools on spin structures and spinor analysis. In Part III, all of the differential geomet...

  15. General Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... general pedagogical knowledge (e.g. classroom control, using group work), pedagogical content knowledge, curriculum knowledge, knowledge of learners and their characteristics, knowledge of educational contexts (e.g. schools and the wider community), and knowledge of educational ends purposes ...

  16. General anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Affect your ability to breathe Make you uncomfortable Cause too much anxiety You may also be able to have conscious sedation for your procedure. Sometimes, though, it is not enough to make you comfortable. Children may need general anesthesia for a medical or ...

  17. GENERAL Iarticle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 3. Twin Primes and the Pentium Chip. C S Yogananda. General Article Volume 8 Issue 3 March 2003 pp 32-32. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/03/0032-0032. Author Affiliations.

  18. Generalized Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Skov; Lando, David; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We characterize when physical probabilities, marginal utilities, and the discount rate can be recovered from observed state prices for several future time periods. We make no assumptions of the probability distribution, thus generalizing the time-homogeneous stationary model of Ross (2015). Recov...... our model empirically, testing the predictive power of the recovered expected return and other recovered statistics....

  19. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    services at public hospitals across the country are currently delivered by IMGs.6 Although some IMGs wish to stay on in the hope of entering ... accredited by the Health Professions Council of South Africa. (HPCSA), the national regulatory authority for medical licensing. The general surgery registrar programme lasts for a.

  20. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  1. Generale preventie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1949-01-01

    In part I of this study a survey has veen given of what Dutch authors have written since 1870, when capital punishment was abolished, on subjects concerning the general preventive effect of punishment. This historical survey ends where, during the years 1940-1945, under the stress of the occupation

  2. GENERAL SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of these, patients with external abdominal hernias constituted nine hundred and eighteen. (918). Operation for hernias constituted about 12.5% of the operative workload of the general surgeons in this hospital. The descending order of occurrence of external abdominal hernias was inguinal, femoral and incisional.

  3. General topology

    CERN Document Server

    Willard, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Among the best available reference introductions to general topology, this volume is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Its treatment encompasses two broad areas of topology: ""continuous topology,"" represented by sections on convergence, compactness, metrization and complete metric spaces, uniform spaces, and function spaces; and ""geometric topology,"" covered by nine sections on connectivity properties, topological characterization theorems, and homotopy theory. Many standard spaces are introduced in the related problems that accompany each section (340

  4. Generalized polygons

    CERN Document Server

    Maldeghem, Hendrik

    1998-01-01

    This book is intended to be an introduction to the fascinating theory ofgeneralized polygons for both the graduate student and the specialized researcher in the field. It gathers together a lot of basic properties (some of which are usually referred to in research papers as belonging to folklore) and very recent and sometimes deep results. I have chosen a fairly strict geometrical approach, which requires some knowledge of basic projective geometry. Yet, it enables one to prove some typically group-theoretical results such as the determination of the automorphism groups of certain Moufang polygons. As such, some basic group-theoretical knowledge is required of the reader. The notion of a generalized polygon is a relatively recent one. But it is one of the most important concepts in incidence geometry. Generalized polygons are the building bricks of Tits buildings. They are the prototypes and precursors of more general geometries such as partial geometries, partial quadrangles, semi-partial ge­ ometries, near...

  5. Generalizing quasinormality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cossey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Quasinormal subgroups have been studied for nearly 80 years. In finite groups, questions concerning them invariably reduce to p-groups, and here they have the added interest of being invariant under projectivities, unlike normal subgroups. However, it has been shown recently that certain groups, constructed by Berger and Gross in 1982, of an important universal nature with regard to the existence of core-free quasinormal subgroups gener- ally, have remarkably few such subgroups. Therefore in order to overcome this misfortune, a generalization of the concept of quasi- normality will be defined. It could be the beginning of a lengthy undertaking. But some of the initial findings are encouraging, in particular the fact that this larger class of subgroups also remains invariant under projectivities of finite p-groups, thus connecting group and subgroup lattice structures.

  6. General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Khriplovich, I. B

    2005-01-01

    This book offers an alternative to other textbooks on the subject, providing a more specific discussion of numerous general relativistic effects for readers who have knowledge of classical mechanics and electrodynamics, including special relativity. Coverage includes gravitational lensing, signal retardation in the gravitational field of the Sun, the Reissner-Nordström solution, selected spin effects, the resonance transformation of an electromagnetic wave into a gravitational one, and the entropy and temperature of black holes. The book includes numerous problems at various levels of difficulty, making it ideal also for independent study by a broad readership of advanced students and researchers. I.B. Khriplovich is Chief Researcher, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, and Chair of Theoretical Physics at Novosibirsk University. Dr. Khriplovich is a Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. He has been awarded the Dirac Medal ``For the advancement of theoretical physics'' by Univ...

  7. Tinea Infections (Ringworm, Athlete's Foot, Jock Itch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is already infected. The fungi thrive in warm, damp environments and at times can be spread in ... the infection—for example, by gently scraping a damp area of the scalp with a blunt scalpel ...

  8. Low dose radiation risks for women surviving the a-bombs in Japan: generalized additive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dropkin, Greg

    2016-11-24

    Analyses of cancer mortality and incidence in Japanese A-bomb survivors have been used to estimate radiation risks, which are generally higher for women. Relative Risk (RR) is usually modelled as a linear function of dose. Extrapolation from data including high doses predicts small risks at low doses. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) are flexible methods for modelling non-linear behaviour. GAMs are applied to cancer incidence in female low dose subcohorts, using anonymous public data for the 1958 - 1998 Life Span Study, to test for linearity, explore interactions, adjust for the skewed dose distribution, examine significance below 100 mGy, and estimate risks at 10 mGy. For all solid cancer incidence, RR estimated from 0 - 100 mGy and 0 - 20 mGy subcohorts is significantly raised. The response tapers above 150 mGy. At low doses, RR increases with age-at-exposure and decreases with time-since-exposure, the preferred covariate. Using the empirical cumulative distribution of dose improves model fit, and capacity to detect non-linear responses. RR is elevated over wide ranges of covariate values. Results are stable under simulation, or when removing exceptional data cells, or adjusting neutron RBE. Estimates of Excess RR at 10 mGy using the cumulative dose distribution are 10 - 45 times higher than extrapolations from a linear model fitted to the full cohort. Below 100 mGy, quasipoisson models find significant effects for all solid, squamous, uterus, corpus, and thyroid cancers, and for respiratory cancers when age-at-exposure > 35 yrs. Results for the thyroid are compatible with studies of children treated for tinea capitis, and Chernobyl survivors. Results for the uterus are compatible with studies of UK nuclear workers and the Techa River cohort. Non-linear models find large, significant cancer risks for Japanese women exposed to low dose radiation from the atomic bombings. The risks should be reflected in protection standards.

  9. TRIM21is important in the early phase of inflammation in the imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like skin inflammation mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ane Langkilde-Lauesen; Vinter, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic cutaneous inflammatory disease. The immunopathogenesis is a complex interplay between T cells, dendritic cells and the epidermis in which T cells and dendritic cells maintain skin inflammation. Anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF)-α agents have been approved for therapeutic...

  10. Effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions on systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolaemic apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Marie; Hansen, Peter Riis; Nielsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    skin inflammation with increased epidermal thickness, infiltration of inflammatory-like cells and augmented tissue interleukin-17F levels. Systemic effects of the topical application of TPA were demonstrated by increased plasma concentration of serum amyloid A and splenic immune modulation...... systemic immune-inflammatory effects, but did not affect atherogenesis. The results may question the role of psoriasis-induced inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in psoriasis patients....

  11. Oral administration of a novel RORγt antagonist attenuates psoriasis-like skin lesion of two independent mouse models through neutralization of IL-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Mikiro; Ishizaki, Masayuki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Isobe, Takashi; Shimozato, Takaichi; Sano, Shigetoshi

    2017-01-01

    Targeting the IL-17 pathway represents a highly effective strategy for the treatment of psoriasis, using antibodies against IL-17A and IL-17 receptor, suggesting that Th17 cells essentially contribute to development of psoriasis. Th17 differentiation depends on the key transcription factor, RORγt. To develop a novel RORγt antagonist which is effective on psoriasis via oral administration. A chemical library was screened using cell-based high-throughput methods, luciferase reporter assay, competitive binding assay, and T cell differentiation assay. To evaluate in vivo effects of a novel RORγt antagonist, A213, we orally administrated it to two independent mouse models of psoriasis; IL-23-injection model and K5.Stat3C transgenic mouse. Oral administration of A213 resulted in attenuation of skin inflammation in the both mouse models. At the same time, increased levels of IL-17A expression were significantly reduced in the skin lesions and skin-draining lymph nodes. These results implicate a new therapeutic application of RORγt antagonist for the treatment of psoriasis. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures ... limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces ...

  13. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  14. Calfornia General Plans Rural

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...

  15. Calfornia General Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...

  16. Fractal generalized Pascal matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Burlachenko, E.

    2016-01-01

    Set of generalized Pascal matrices whose elements are generalized binomial coefficients is considered as an integral object. The special system of generalized Pascal matrices, based on which we are building fractal generalized Pascal matrices, is introduced. Pascal matrix (Pascal triangle) is the Hadamard product of the fractal generalized Pascal matrices. The concept of zero generalized Pascal matrices, an example of which is the Pascal triangle modulo 2, arise in connection with the system ...

  17. How general is general information construct?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Zarevski

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a small number of constructs in the field of differential psychology that have raised so much debate between psychologists and professionals in related disciplines as is the case of general (verbal information construct. It seemed reasonable to test the validity of this construct measured with general information test in comparison with other measures of knowledge (cultural knowledge, vocabulary, knowledge of the most recent events, foreign language knowledge, and a standard verbal type g test. A sample of 376 candidates for state services was tested in a selection situation. Three analyses were conducted to determine the position of general information test in the space of other verbal competency measures. The first analysis questioned latent structure of the space of four tests having the same format and asking about the knowledge of international terms, general culture, knowledge of most recent events, and general information. The second analysis included the g-factor intelligence test so to see how the above described structure changes when this new test is introduced. The third analysis introduced an English language test. In all of the three component analyses only one eigenvalue was larger than 1 and it explained between 52 and 64% of variance. In all analyses general information test had the highest projection on the only significant latent dimension of these cognitive spaces. In other words, it can be concluded that the construct of general information is in the center of this hyperconus. That is why we consider measurement of general information knowledge, as well as the construct itself, to be an important question in psychological diagnostics. Thus, it is important to go further with the investigation of this construct because it does not seem that it is named general information by accident.

  18. Generalized quantum entropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.P., E-mail: alysonpaulo@dfte.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Fisica, Natal, RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Silva, R., E-mail: raimundosilva@dfte.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Fisica, Natal, RN 59072-970 (Brazil); Universidade do Estado Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Fisica, Mossoro, RN 59610-210 (Brazil); Alcaniz, J.S., E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Anselmo, D.H.A.L., E-mail: doryh@dfte.ufrn.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Fisica, Natal, RN 59072-970 (Brazil)

    2011-08-15

    A deduction of generalized quantum entropies within the Tsallis and Kaniadakis frameworks is derived using a generalization of the ordinary multinomial coefficient. This generalization is based on the respective deformed multiplication and division. We show that the two above entropies are consistent with ones arbitrarily assumed at other contexts. -- Highlights: → Derivation of generalized quantum entropies. → Generalized combinatorial method. → Non-Gaussian quantum statistics.

  19. Generalized convexity, generalized monotonicity recent results

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Legaz, Juan-Enrique; Volle, Michel

    1998-01-01

    A function is convex if its epigraph is convex. This geometrical structure has very strong implications in terms of continuity and differentiability. Separation theorems lead to optimality conditions and duality for convex problems. A function is quasiconvex if its lower level sets are convex. Here again, the geo­ metrical structure of the level sets implies some continuity and differentiability properties for quasiconvex functions. Optimality conditions and duality can be derived for optimization problems involving such functions as well. Over a period of about fifty years, quasiconvex and other generalized convex functions have been considered in a variety of fields including economies, man­ agement science, engineering, probability and applied sciences in accordance with the need of particular applications. During the last twenty-five years, an increase of research activities in this field has been witnessed. More recently generalized monotonicity of maps has been studied. It relates to generalized conve...

  20. Academy of General Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Examine Oral Systemic Health Nov 14, 2017 General Dentistry and American Family Physician Collaborate to Examine Oral ... Oral Health Oct 23, 2017 Academy of General Dentistry Foundation Celebrates 45 Years Raising Awareness for Oral ...

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, and produces pictures of the inside of the body using ...

  2. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound examinations can help to diagnose ...

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? What is General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... be heard with every heartbeat. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Ultrasound ...

  4. Delphi General Ledger -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Delphi general ledger contains the following data elements, but is not limited to the United States Standard General Ledger (USSGL) chart of accounts, stores actual,...

  5. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  6. Forces in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced…

  7. Generalized quantum entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. P.; Silva, R.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Anselmo, D. H. A. L.

    2011-08-01

    A deduction of generalized quantum entropies within the Tsallis and Kaniadakis frameworks is derived using a generalization of the ordinary multinomial coefficient. This generalization is based on the respective deformed multiplication and division. We show that the two above entropies are consistent with ones arbitrarily assumed at other contexts.

  8. Unsupervised Learning and Generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The concept of generalization is defined for a general class of unsupervised learning machines. The generalization error is a straightforward extension of the corresponding concept for supervised learning, and may be estimated empirically using a test set or by statistical means-in close analogy...

  9. Generalized Riemann derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Radulescu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Initiated by Marshall Ash in 1966, the study of generalized Riemann derivative draw significant attention of the mathematical community and numerous studies where carried out since then. One of the major areas that benefits from these developments is the numerical analysis, as the use of generalized Riemann derivatives leads to solving a wider class of problems that are not solvable with the classical tools. This article studies the generalized Riemann derivative and its properties and establishes relationships between Riemann generalized derivative and the classical one. The existence of classical derivative implies the existence of the Riemann generalized derivative, and we study conditions necessary for the generalized Riemann derivative to imply the existence of the classical derivative. Furthermore, we provide conditions on the generalized Riemann derivative that are sufficient for the existence of the classical derivative.

  10. Stabilities of generalized entropies

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Sumiyoshi; Kaniadakis, G.; Scarfone, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The generalized entropic measure, which is optimized by a given arbitrary distribution under the constraints on normalization of the distribution and the finite ordinary expectation value of a physical random quantity, is considered and its Lesche stability property (that is different from thermodynamic stability) is examined. A general condition, under which the generalized entropy becomes stable, is derived. Examples known in the literature, including the entropy for the stretched-exponenti...

  11. Unsupervised Learning and Generalization

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The concept of generalization is defined for a general class of unsupervised learning machines. The generalization error is a straightforward extension of the corresponding concept for supervised learning, and may be estimated empirically using a test set or by statistical means-in close analogy with supervised learning. The empirical and analytical estimates are compared for principal component analysis and for K-means clustering based density estimation

  12. Generalized quasi variational inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M.A. [King Saud Univ., Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we establish the equivalence between the generalized quasi variational inequalities and the generalized implicit Wiener-Hopf equations using essentially the projection technique. This equivalence is used to suggest and analyze a number of new iterative algorithms for solving generalized quasi variational inequalities and the related complementarity problems. The convergence criteria is also considered. The results proved in this paper represent a significant improvement and refinement of the previously known results.

  13. Forces in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-07-01

    Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.

  14. [Apprenticeship in general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkley, B; Frećhelin, E; Pilet, F

    2007-11-28

    Residency in general practice/family medicine in Switzerland is ridden with structural difficulties, and suffers from low prestige among trainees and hospital-based trainers. A more attractive postgraduate training is sought by a group of practitioners, through a common initiative with local governments, general practice associations and training sites.

  15. Generalizing: The descriptive struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110 They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without any real thought of knowledge about them. In this chapter I wish to explore this struggle for the purpose of explaining that the various contra arguments to using descriptive generalizations DO NOT apply to the ease of using conceptual generalizations yielded in SGT and especially FGT. I will not argue for the use of descriptive generalization. I agree with Lincoln and Guba with respect to QDA, “the only generalization is: there is no generalization.” It is up to the QDA methodologists, of whom there are many; to continue the struggle and I wish them well.

  16. Projective simulation with generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Alexey A; Makmal, Adi; Dunjko, Vedran; Briegel, Hans J

    2017-10-31

    The ability to generalize is an important feature of any intelligent agent. Not only because it may allow the agent to cope with large amounts of data, but also because in some environments, an agent with no generalization capabilities cannot learn. In this work we outline several criteria for generalization, and present a dynamic and autonomous machinery that enables projective simulation agents to meaningfully generalize. Projective simulation, a novel, physical approach to artificial intelligence, was recently shown to perform well in standard reinforcement learning problems, with applications in advanced robotics as well as quantum experiments. Both the basic projective simulation model and the presented generalization machinery are based on very simple principles. This allows us to provide a full analytical analysis of the agent's performance and to illustrate the benefit the agent gains by generalizing. Specifically, we show that already in basic (but extreme) environments, learning without generalization may be impossible, and demonstrate how the presented generalization machinery enables the projective simulation agent to learn.

  17. Generalizing smooth transition autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chini, Emilio Zanetti

    We introduce a variant of the smooth transition autoregression - the GSTAR model - capable to parametrize the asymmetry in the tails of the transition equation by using a particular generalization of the logistic function. A General-to-Specific modelling strategy is discussed in detail...

  18. Quantity Constrained General Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babenko, R.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    In a standard general equilibrium model it is assumed that there are no price restrictions and that prices adjust infinitely fast to their equilibrium values.In case of price restrictions a general equilibrium may not exist and rationing on net demands or supplies is needed to clear the markets.In

  19. Generalized connectivity of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    Noteworthy results, proof techniques, open problems and conjectures in generalized (edge-) connectivity are discussed in this book. Both theoretical and practical analyses for generalized (edge-) connectivity of graphs are provided. Topics covered in this book include: generalized (edge-) connectivity of graph classes, algorithms, computational complexity, sharp bounds, Nordhaus-Gaddum-type results, maximum generalized local connectivity, extremal problems, random graphs, multigraphs, relations with the Steiner tree packing problem and generalizations of connectivity. This book enables graduate students to understand and master a segment of graph theory and combinatorial optimization. Researchers in graph theory, combinatorics, combinatorial optimization, probability, computer science, discrete algorithms, complexity analysis, network design, and the information transferring models will find this book useful in their studies.

  20. Context-dependent Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A Taylor

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of generalization following motor learning can provide a probe on the neural mechanisms underlying learning. For example, the breadth of generalization to untrained regions of space after visuomotor adaptation to targets in a restricted region of space has been attributed to the directional tuning properties of neurons in the motor system. Building on this idea, the effect of different types of perturbations on generalization (e.g., rotation versus visual translation have been attributed to the selection of differentially tuned populations. Overlooked in this discussion is consideration of how the context of the training environment may constrain generalization. Here, we explore the role of context by having participants learn a visuomotor rotation or a translational shift in two different contexts, one in which the array of targets were presented in a circular arrangement and the other in which they were presented in a rectilinear arrangement. The perturbation and environments were either consistent (e.g., rotation with circular arrangement or inconsistent (e.g., rotation with rectilinear arrangement. The pattern of generalization across the workspace was much more dependent on the context of the environment than on the perturbation, with broad generalization for the rectilinear arrangement for both types of perturbations. Moreover, the generalization pattern for this context was evident, even when the perturbation was introduced in a gradual manner, precluding the use of an explicit strategy. We describe how current models of generalization might be modified to incorporate these results, building on the idea that context provides a strong bias for how the motor system infers the nature of the visuomotor perturbation and, in turn, how this information influences the pattern of generalization.

  1. Modern general topology

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, J-I

    1985-01-01

    This classic work has been fundamentally revised to take account of recent developments in general topology. The first three chapters remain unchanged except for numerous minor corrections and additional exercises, but chapters IV-VII and the new chapter VIII cover the rapid changes that have occurred since 1968 when the first edition appeared.The reader will find many new topics in chapters IV-VIII, e.g. theory of Wallmann-Shanin's compactification, realcompact space, various generalizations of paracompactness, generalized metric spaces, Dugundji type extension theory, linearly ordered topolo

  2. General game playing

    CERN Document Server

    Genesereth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    General game players are computer systems able to play strategy games based solely on formal game descriptions supplied at ""runtime"" (n other words, they don't know the rules until the game starts). Unlike specialized game players, such as Deep Blue, general game players cannot rely on algorithms designed in advance for specific games; they must discover such algorithms themselves. General game playing expertise depends on intelligence on the part of the game player and not just intelligence of the programmer of the game player.GGP is an interesting application in its own right. It is intell

  3. Abduction of Generalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjerk Gauderis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abduction of generalizations is the process in which explanatory hypotheses are formed for an observed, yet puzzling generalization such as ``pineapples taste sweet" or ``rainbows appear when the sun breaks through the rain". This phenomenon has received little attention in formal logic and philosophy of science. The current paper remedies this lacuna by first giving an overview of some general characteristics of this process, elaborating on its ubiquity in scientific and daily life reasoning. Second, the adaptive logic $\\LAG$ is presented to explicate this process formally.

  4. Generalized estimating equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hardin, James W

    2002-01-01

    Although powerful and flexible, the method of generalized linear models (GLM) is limited in its ability to accurately deal with longitudinal and clustered data. Developed specifically to accommodate these data types, the method of Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) extends the GLM algorithm to accommodate the correlated data encountered in health research, social science, biology, and other related fields.Generalized Estimating Equations provides the first complete treatment of GEE methodology in all of its variations. After introducing the subject and reviewing GLM, the authors examine th

  5. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... time imaging, making it a good tool for guiding minimally invasive procedures such as needle biopsies and ... here Images × Image Gallery General ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests ...

  6. General American: An Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, William R.

    1973-01-01

    Disputes use of the term General American'' because of the excessive breadth of its scope and its indefiniteness; article is part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. (DD)

  7. Advanced General Dentistry Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Douglas M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A description of the University of Maryland at Baltimore's one-year postdoctoral program in advanced general dentistry focuses on its goals and objectives, curriculum design, patient population, faculty and staff, finances, and program evaluation measures. (MSE)

  8. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... inserted into a man's rectum to view the prostate. Transvaginal ultrasound. The transducer is inserted into a ... Stenting Ultrasound-Guided Breast Biopsy Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound - Prostate Biopsies - Overview Images related to General Ultrasound Videos ...

  9. Tuberculosis: General Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    TB Elimination Tuberculosis: General Information What is TB? Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by germs that are spread from person ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination CS227840_A What Does a Positive Test ...

  10. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of ... pictures of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or ...

  11. Engineering general intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Goertzel, Ben; Geisweiller, Nil

    2014-01-01

    The work outlines a detailed blueprint for the creation of an Artificial General Intelligence system with capability at the human level and ultimately beyond, according to the Cog Prime AGI design and the Open Cog software architecture.

  12. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery General ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special ...

  13. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the ... of the inside of the body using sound waves. Ultrasound imaging, also called ultrasound scanning or sonography , ...

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery General ultrasound procedure View full size with ... possible charges you will incur. Web page review process: This Web page is reviewed regularly by a ...

  15. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... General ultrasound procedure View full size with caption Pediatric Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. ...

  16. Securing General Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elias, Bart

    2005-01-01

    General aviation (GA) -- a catch-all category that includes about 57% of all civilian aviation activity within the United States -- encompasses a wide range of airports, aircraft, and flight operations...

  17. General practice registrars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Catherine; Seal, Alexa; McGirr, Joe; Caton, Tim

    2015-10-05

    The models of practice that general practice registrars (GPRs) envisage undertaking will affect workforce supply. The aim of this research was to determine practice intentions of current GPRs in a regional general practice training program (Coast City Country General Practice Training). Questionnaires were circulated to 220 GPRs undertaking general practice placements to determine characteristics of ideal practice models and intentions for future practice. Responses were received for 99 participants (45%). Current GPRs intend to work an average of less than eight half-day sessions/week, with male participants intending to work more hours (t(91) = 3.528, P = 0.001). More than one-third of this regional cohort intends to practice in metropolitan centres. Proximity to family and friends was the most important factor influencing the choice of practice location. Men ranked remuneration for work as more important (t (88) = -4.280, P GPRs into rural practice.

  18. Generalized Fractional Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kaniadakis, G.; A. Lavagno(Politecnico di Torino and INFN Sezione di Torino, Torino Italy); Quarati, P.

    1996-01-01

    We link, by means of a semiclassical approach, the fractional statistics of particles obeying the Haldane exclusion principle to the Tsallis statistics and derive a generalized quantum entropy and its associated statistics.

  19. Engineering general intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Goertzel, Ben; Geisweiller, Nil

    2014-01-01

    The work outlines a novel conceptual and theoretical framework for understanding Artificial General Intelligence and based on this framework outlines a practical roadmap for the development of AGI with capability at the human level and ultimately beyond.

  20. -Metric Space: A Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Khojasteh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of -metric as a generalization of a metric by replacing the triangle inequality with a more generalized inequality. We investigate the topology of the spaces induced by a -metric and present some essential properties of it. Further, we give characterization of well-known fixed point theorems, such as the Banach and Caristi types in the context of such spaces.

  1. Defibrillators in general practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde, C; Kerr, A; Varghese, A; Wilson, C

    1984-01-01

    After a successful pilot scheme introduced in 1975, when six portable defibrillators were provided for health centres, an additional 50 defibrillators were provided in February 1982 for general practitioners to use. Between December 1975 and February 1984 defibrillation was attempted in 54 patients who collapsed with clinical cardiac arrest in the presence of general practitioners or less than five minutes before their arrival. A cardiac output was achieved in 32 patients, 28 survived to reac...

  2. Generalized Stirling transform

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani, Mourad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, algorithms are developed for computing the Stirling transform and the inverse Stirling transform; specifically, we investigate a class of sequences satisfying a two-term recurrence. We derive a general identity which generalizes the usual Stirling transform and investigate the corresponding generating functions also. In addition, some interesting consequences of these results related to classical sequences like Fibonacci, Bernoulli and the numbers of derangements have been deri...

  3. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassl, Markus; Shor, Peter; Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John; Zeng, Bei

    2009-05-01

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  4. Generalized galilean genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Toshima, Tokyo 175-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-31

    The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by α) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as opposed to what happens in quasi-de Sitter inflation. We show that the spectral index of curvature perturbations is determined solely from the parameter α and does not depend on the other details of the model. In contrast to the original model, a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations is obtained for a specific choice of α.

  5. Lectures on general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Papapetrou, Achille

    1974-01-01

    This book is an elaboration of lecture notes for the graduate course on General Rela­ tivity given by the author at Boston University in the spring semester of 1972. It is an introduction to the subject only, as the time available for the course was limited. The author of an introduction to General Relativity is faced from the beginning with the difficult task of choosing which material to include. A general criterion as­ sisting in this choice is provided by the didactic character of the book: Those chapters have to be included in priority, which will be most useful to the reader in enabling him to understand the methods used in General Relativity, the results obtained so far and possibly the problems still to be solved. This criterion is not sufficient to ensure a unique choice. General Relativity has developed to such a degree, that it is impossible to include in an introductory textbook of a reasonable length even a very condensed treatment of all important problems which have been discussed unt...

  6. Generalized phase contrast:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...... (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than...... the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light...

  7. Generalized Phase Contrast

    CERN Document Server

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, ...

  8. Stabilities of generalized entropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Sumiyoshi [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Kaniadakis, G [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia (INFM), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Scarfone, A M [Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia (INFM), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2004-11-05

    The generalized entropic measure, which is maximized by a given arbitrary distribution under the constraints on normalization of the distribution and the finite ordinary expectation value of a physical random quantity, is considered. To examine if it can be of physical relevance, its experimental robustness is discussed. In particular, Lesche's criterion is analysed, which states that an entropic measure is stable if its change under an arbitrary weak deformation of the distribution (representing fluctuations of experimental data) remains small. It is essential to note the difference between this criterion and thermodynamic stability. A general condition, under which the generalized entropy becomes stable, is derived. Examples known in the literature, including the entropy for the stretched-exponential distribution, the quantum-group entropy and the {kappa}-entropy are discussed.

  9. Mechanics of Generalized Continua

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gerard A

    2010-01-01

    In their 1909 publication "Theorie des corps deformables", Eugene and Francois Cosserat made a historic contribution to materials science by establishing the fundamental principles of the mechanics of generalized continua. The chapters collected in this volume showcase the many areas of continuum mechanics that grew out of the foundational work of the Cosserat brothers. The included contributions provide a detailed survey of the most recent theoretical developments in the field of generalized continuum mechanics. The diverse topics covered include: the properties of Cosserat media, m

  10. Lectures in general algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosh, A G; Stark, M; Ulam, S

    1965-01-01

    Lectures in General Algebra is a translation from the Russian and is based on lectures on specialized courses in general algebra at Moscow University. The book starts with the basics of algebra. The text briefly describes the theory of sets, binary relations, equivalence relations, partial ordering, minimum condition, and theorems equivalent to the axiom of choice. The text gives the definition of binary algebraic operation and the concepts of groups, groupoids, and semigroups. The book examines the parallelism between the theory of groups and the theory of rings; such examinations show the

  11. Topics in general topology

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, K

    1989-01-01

    Being an advanced account of certain aspects of general topology, the primary purpose of this volume is to provide the reader with an overview of recent developments.The papers cover basic fields such as metrization and extension of maps, as well as newly-developed fields like categorical topology and topological dynamics. Each chapter may be read independently of the others, with a few exceptions. It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of set theory, algebra, analysis and basic general topology.

  12. A Generalized Jacobi Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, S.; Krenk, S.

    An algorithm is developed for the generalized eigenvalue problem (A - λB)φ = O where A and B are real symmetric matrices. The matrices A and B are diagonalized simultaneously by a series of generalized Jacobi transformations and all eigenvalues and eigenvectors are obtained. A criterion expressed...... in terms of the transformation parameters is used to omit transformations leading to very small changes. The algorithm is described in pseudo code for lower triangular matrices A and B and implemented in the programming Language C....

  13. Impetigo in General Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Koning (Sander)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractImpetigo is a common skin infection, usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus that mainly occurs in children. Patients with impetigo usually consult their general practitioner, who also treats the vast majority of cases. Impetigo is considered highly infectious, and consequently

  14. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transducer sends out high-frequency sound waves (that the human ear cannot hear) into the body and then ... ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are ...

  15. perception of general practitioners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: General Practitioners identified factors that limit patient's access to diagnostic imaging services in Nigeria and the perceived ... INTRODUCTION. Access could be defined as the opportunity or Open access to radiological services has been ... included the practitioner's definition of direct access to imaging service ...

  16. Generalized bisimulation metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzikokolakis, K.; Gebler, D.; Palamidessi, C.

    2014-01-01

    The bisimilarity pseudometric based on the Kantorovich lifting is one of the most popular metrics for probabilistic processes proposed in the literature. However, its application in verification is limited to linear properties. We propose a generalization of this metric which allows to deal with a

  17. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  18. Generalized Morphology using Sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Gronde, Jasper J.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical morphology has traditionally been grounded in lattice theory. For non-scalar data lattices often prove too restrictive, however. In this paper we present a more general alternative, sponges, that still allows useful definitions of various properties and concepts from morphological

  19. General minisum circle location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Körner, Mark; Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In our paper we approximate a set of given points by a general circle. More precisely, we consider the problem of locating and scaling the unit ball of some given norm k1 with respect to xed points on the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the xed points...

  20. Generalized granuloma annulare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-years-old female patient had generalized pruritic papular lesions, distributed like dermatitis herpetiformis for last 4 years. Histopathologic changes were typical of granuloma annulare with negative results of direct immunofluorescence. The patient did not have association of diabetes mellitus or any other systemic disease. She failed to respond to dapsone therapy and 13-cis-retinoic acid.

  1. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as needle biopsies and fluid aspiration. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on humans. top of page What are the limitations of General Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound waves are disrupted by air or gas; therefore ultrasound is not an ideal ...

  2. General relativistic plasma dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moortgat, Joachim Benedictus

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss the importance of general relativity on plasma physics in several astrophysical and cosmological contexts. The first chapters show how gravitational waves can excite all three fundamental low frequency magnetohydrodynamic plasma modes, the Alfven, slow and fast

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging ...

  4. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A-Z General Ultrasound Ultrasound imaging uses sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. It is used to help diagnose the causes of pain, swelling and infection in the body’s internal organs and to examine a baby in pregnant women and the brain and hips in infants. It’s also used to ...

  5. Generalizing double graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagaglia Salvi, Norma

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the graphs which are direct product of a simple graph G with the graphs obtained by the complete graph Kk adding a loop to each vertex; thus these graphs turn out to be a generalization of the double graphs.

  6. Generality in Artificial Intelligence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 3. Generality in Artificial Intelligence. John McCarthy. Classics Volume 19 Issue 3 March 2014 pp 283-296. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/03/0283-0296. Author Affiliations.

  7. Generalized Pickands constants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Debicki

    2001-01-01

    textabstractPickands constants play an important role in the exact asymptotic of extreme values for Gaussian stochastic processes. By the {it generalized Pickands constant ${cal H_{eta$ we mean the limit begin{eqnarray* {cal H_{eta= lim_{T to inftyfrac{ {cal H_{eta(T){T, end{eqnarray* where ${cal

  8. General Jacobi Identity Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Hirokazu

    1999-01-01

    In a previous paper (Nishimura, 1997) we probedthe deeper structure of the Jacobi identity of vectorfields with respect to Lie brackets within the realm ofsynthetic differential geometry to find what might be called the general Jacobi identity ofmicrocubes. The main objective of this paper is topresent a less esoteric and more lucid proof ofit.

  9. Tinea incognito due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Gubelin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Las tiñas son infecciones frecuentes causadas por dermatofitos, capaces de invadir tejido queratinizado, produciendo placas anulares, eritematosas y descamativas. Sin embargo, en la tiña incógnita esta clínica es modificada por el uso inapropiado de corticoides o inhibidores de calcineurina tópicos, dificultando su diagnóstico. Presentamos el caso de un paciente masculino de 12 años, con lesiones eritematosas localizadas en la región ciliar derecha. Se interpretó como una dermatitis de contacto y se indicaron corticoides tópicos, pero evolucionó con lesiones más inflamatorias. Se obtuvo un cultivo de hongos positivo para Tricophyton mentagrophytes. De este reporte se concluye que las tiñas pueden imitar otras condiciones dermatológicas. Por ende, se debe tener precaución al indicar corticoides o inhibidores de calcineurina tópicos sin una certeza diagnóstica. Ello, debido a que en el caso de corresponder a una tiña, se alteran las características clínicas, dificultando el diagnóstico y manejo.

  10. [Tinea pedis due to Fusarium solani in Dakar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diongue, K; Ndiaye, M; Badiane, A S; Seck, M C; Ndoye, N W; Diallo, S; Diallo, M A; Ndir, O; Ndiaye, D

    2015-06-01

    A patient presented with intertrigo at the second, third and fourth interdigitals spaces lasting for four years in which Fusarium solani was highlighted. The search for contributing factors revealed a concept of foot washing with water at least five times a day for ablutions, associated with wearing closed shoes all day and the absence of immunosuppression and diabetes. The diagnosis of Fusarium was made on the basis of direct examination and culture. Combined treatment with griseofulvin oral and topical ciclopirox was introduced and allowed healing after 45 days at which an antifungal powder was prescribed for relay. This case adds to the rare cases of intertrigo Fusarium sp. and confirms the frequent practice of ablutions as favoring factor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Tinea capitis in a 21-day-old neonate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... The hair on the lesion was lost. A culture of lesion scrapings on Sabouraud's dextrose agar with chloramphenicol grew Trichophyton verrucosum after five days' incubation. The baby was treated with topical ketoconazole cream with complete resolution of the lesion in three weeks and growth of hair on the ...

  12. Hygiene-Related Diseases: Athlete's Foot (Tinea Pedis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Water, Sanitation & Environmentally-related Hygiene Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Handwashing & Nail Hygiene Keeping Hands Clean Nail Hygiene ...

  13. Tinea capitis in a 21-day-old neonate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo. 2001;43:83–5. 4. Nweze EI. Etiology of dermatophytoses amongst children in northeastern. Nigeria. Medical Mycology 2001;39(2):181–4. 5. Enweani IB, Ozan CC, Agbonlahor EE, Ndip RN. Dermatophytosis in school children in Ekpoma, Nigeria.

  14. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of topical treatments for tinea infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, N H; Einarson, T R; Arikian, S R; Doyle, J J; van Assche, D

    1998-01-01

    A payor-perspective economic analysis of the topical creams ciclopirox, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, and terbinafine (TER) used to treat dermatophytosis has been made. This pharmacoeconomic evaluation was conducted in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. A four-phase approach was used. Phase 1: experts were assembled to identify the standard approach for management of fungal infections and a decision tree was constructed to model the process. Phase 2: meta-analysis was used to determine success, failure, and relapse rates. Phase 3: economic analyses performed included cost of regimen, total expected cost, and cost-effectiveness. Phase 4: sensitivity analyses (robustness analysis) were also executed to determine the validity of the assumptions. In the total expected cost analysis, TER demonstrated the lowest overall cost of treating patients. Terbinafine also provided the highest number of disease-free days during the analytic time horizon and, consequently, the lowest cost per disease-free day. Sensitivity analyses suggest that TER is the most cost-effective topical product for treating dermatophytosis in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. All analytic scenarios suggest that TER therapy demonstrates lower expected costs and generates more DFDs when compared with the fungistatic topical therapies included in this pharmacoeconomic analysis. Terbinafine is expected to be the most cost-effective choice in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland for treatment of dermatophytosis minor.

  15. Meeting Generalized Others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøbæk, Pernille Solveig; Willert, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Following George Herbert Mead, we contend that work-related organizational behavior requires continued negotiation of meaning – using linguistic, behavioral, and social tools. The meaning structures of the Generalized Other(s) of a particular employing organization provide the regulatory framework...... life. Such meaning structures may be challenged in the event of organizational mergers. Drawing upon existing focus group interview data from an ongoing research project on a major organizational merger we present an explorative study on materialized aspects of Generalized Others across groups...... with different pre-merger backgrounds. Our findings suggest that analyzing dominant material discourse themes may throw light on the way work teams define and regulate their social practice, and, hence, that such analyses may be useful tools for studying the social dynamics of materiality and agency...

  16. General Education for Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kunihiko

    The basic program of general education of engineers is based on European culture from the times of ancient Greece to the 20th century. However, when considering its results, such as colonialism and the World Wars, this system can be said to lack the most important goal of “culture,” which is “to accept the existence of others.” In particular, the cooperation of European culture and engineering has ravaged the weaker cultures and is currently causing severe environmental problems in nature. Therefore, when considering the general education of engineers, it is indispensable to doubt European scholarship and to analyze what is lacking in current Japanese educational programs. Then, it is desirable that the relationship between the mind and the body, the characteristics of the Japanese climate, and the essence of Japanese artisanship be taken into consideration. It may also be beneficial to study the Ainu culture for its qualities as a peaceful culture.

  17. Categorization = Decision Making + Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Carol A; Peterson, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    We rarely, if ever, repeatedly encounter exactly the same situation. This makes generalization crucial for real world decision making. We argue that categorization, the study of generalizable representations, is a type of decision making, and that categorization learning research would benefit from approaches developed to study the neuroscience of decision making. Similarly, methods developed to examine generalization and learning within the field of categorization may enhance decision making research. We first discuss perceptual information processing and integration, with an emphasis on accumulator models. We then examine learning the value of different decision making choices via experience, emphasizing reinforcement learning modeling approaches. Next we discuss how value is combined with other factors in decision making, emphasizing the effects of uncertainty. Finally, we describe how a final decision is selected via thresholding processes implemented by the basal ganglia and related regions. We also consider how memory related functions in the hippocampus may be integrated with decision making mechanisms and contribute to categorization. PMID:23548891

  18. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  19. Annual General Asssembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2005-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Thursday 13 October 2005 at 14:30 The Agenda comprises: Opening Remarks (J. Bezemer) Results and presentation of the Annual Report 2004 - Role of asset classes in pension funds (C. Cuénoud). Copies of the 2004 Report are available from departmental secretariats. Package of measures aiming at equilibrating the Fund - Proposals by the Governing Board (J.-P. Matheys). Questions from members and beneficiaries. Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (J. Bezemer). As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2004 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel.(+4122)767 27 42; e-mail Sophia.Revol@cern.ch)

  20. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, Mohammad Akbar Hosain

    2014-12-04

    Various examples are provided for generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI). In one example, among others, a method includes generating a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and rendering the higher order internal multiple image for presentation. In another example, a system includes a computing device and a generalized internal multiple imaging (GIMI) application executable in the computing device. The GIMI application includes logic that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and logic that renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device. In another example, a non-transitory computer readable medium has a program executable by processing circuitry that generates a higher order internal multiple image using a background Green\\'s function and renders the higher order internal multiple image for display on a display device.

  1. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  2. Elements of general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agakov, Vsevolod G.; Zel'Manov, Abram L.

    The main principles of general relativity (GR) are expounded, and some of its astronomical applications are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on mathematical methods of GR developed by Zel'manov, i.e., methods of chronometrically and kinemetrically invariant quantities, and the orthometric form of the monad formalism. The application of Zel'manov's methods to problems of relativistic cosmology are considered, and a semiinverse method for solving the Einstein gravitation equations is developed.

  3. General introduction to glucosinolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2016-01-01

    will be presented a general introduction to glucosinolates ranging from the evolution of glucosinolates to the many roles glucosinolates have for humans as well as an overview of the current knowledge on the orchestration of the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The latter includes an introduction to the genes...... to the plasma membrane. Examples of how the knowledge gained from basic research has been translated into applied glucosinolate research through pathway and transport engineering will be presented....

  4. Generalized Asynchronous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Kudryashova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper consider a mathematical model of a concurrent system, the special case of which is an asynchronous system. Distributed asynchronous automata are introduced here. It is proved that Petri nets and transition systems with independence can be considered as distributed asynchronous automata. Time distributed asynchronous automata are defined in a standard way by correspondence which relates events with time intervals. It is proved that the time distributed asynchronous automata generalize time Petri nets and asynchronous systems.

  5. Generalized fiber Fourier optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, Gabriella

    2011-06-15

    A twofold generalization of the optical schemes that perform the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is given: new passive planar architectures are presented where the 2 × 2 3 dB couplers are replaced by M × M hybrids, reducing the number of required connections and phase shifters. Furthermore, the planar implementation of the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFrFT) is also described, with a waveguide grating router (WGR) configuration and a properly modified slab coupler.

  6. Beyond generalized Proca theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia, E-mail: lavinia.heisenberg@eth-its.ethz.ch [Institute for Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich, Clausiusstrasse 47, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Kase, Ryotaro; Tsujikawa, Shinji [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

    2016-09-10

    We consider higher-order derivative interactions beyond second-order generalized Proca theories that propagate only the three desired polarizations of a massive vector field besides the two tensor polarizations from gravity. These new interactions follow the similar construction criteria to those arising in the extension of scalar–tensor Horndeski theories to Gleyzes–Langlois–Piazza–Vernizzi (GLPV) theories. On the isotropic cosmological background, we show the existence of a constraint with a vanishing Hamiltonian that removes the would-be Ostrogradski ghost. We study the behavior of linear perturbations on top of the isotropic cosmological background in the presence of a matter perfect fluid and find the same number of propagating degrees of freedom as in generalized Proca theories (two tensor polarizations, two transverse vector modes, and two scalar modes). Moreover, we obtain the conditions for the avoidance of ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of tensor, vector, and scalar perturbations. We observe key differences in the scalar sound speed, which is mixed with the matter sound speed outside the domain of generalized Proca theories.

  7. General Relativity and Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Berger, Beverly; Isenberg, James; MacCallum, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    Part I. Einstein's Triumph: 1. 100 years of general relativity George F. R. Ellis; 2. Was Einstein right? Clifford M. Will; 3. Cosmology David Wands, Misao Sasaki, Eiichiro Komatsu, Roy Maartens and Malcolm A. H. MacCallum; 4. Relativistic astrophysics Peter Schneider, Ramesh Narayan, Jeffrey E. McClintock, Peter Mészáros and Martin J. Rees; Part II. New Window on the Universe: 5. Receiving gravitational waves Beverly K. Berger, Karsten Danzmann, Gabriela Gonzalez, Andrea Lommen, Guido Mueller, Albrecht Rüdiger and William Joseph Weber; 6. Sources of gravitational waves. Theory and observations Alessandra Buonanno and B. S. Sathyaprakash; Part III. Gravity is Geometry, After All: 7. Probing strong field gravity through numerical simulations Frans Pretorius, Matthew W. Choptuik and Luis Lehner; 8. The initial value problem of general relativity and its implications Gregory J. Galloway, Pengzi Miao and Richard Schoen; 9. Global behavior of solutions to Einstein's equations Stefanos Aretakis, James Isenberg, Vincent Moncrief and Igor Rodnianski; Part IV. Beyond Einstein: 10. Quantum fields in curved space-times Stefan Hollands and Robert M. Wald; 11. From general relativity to quantum gravity Abhay Ashtekar, Martin Reuter and Carlo Rovelli; 12. Quantum gravity via unification Henriette Elvang and Gary T. Horowitz.

  8. Hyperuniformity and its generalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    Disordered many-particle hyperuniform systems are exotic amorphous states of matter that lie between crystal and liquid: They are like perfect crystals in the way they suppress large-scale density fluctuations and yet are like liquids or glasses in that they are statistically isotropic with no Bragg peaks. These exotic states of matter play a vital role in a number of problems across the physical, mathematical as well as biological sciences and, because they are endowed with novel physical properties, have technological importance. Given the fundamental as well as practical importance of disordered hyperuniform systems elucidated thus far, it is natural to explore the generalizations of the hyperuniformity notion and its consequences. In this paper, we substantially broaden the hyperuniformity concept along four different directions. This includes generalizations to treat fluctuations in the interfacial area (one of the Minkowski functionals) in heterogeneous media and surface-area driven evolving microstructures, random scalar fields, divergence-free random vector fields, and statistically anisotropic many-particle systems and two-phase media. In all cases, the relevant mathematical underpinnings are formulated and illustrative calculations are provided. Interfacial-area fluctuations play a major role in characterizing the microstructure of two-phase systems (e.g., fluid-saturated porous media), physical properties that intimately depend on the geometry of the interface, and evolving two-phase microstructures that depend on interfacial energies (e.g., spinodal decomposition). In the instances of random vector fields and statistically anisotropic structures, we show that the standard definition of hyperuniformity must be generalized such that it accounts for the dependence of the relevant spectral functions on the direction in which the origin in Fourier space is approached (nonanalyticities at the origin). Using this analysis, we place some well-known energy

  9. Mechanics of Generalized Continua

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm; Erofeev, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    This collection on auMechanics of Generalized Continua - from Micromechanical Basics to Engineering Applications" brings together leading scientists in this field from France, Russian Federation, and Germany. The attention in this publication is be focussed on the most recent research items, i.e., - new models, - application of well-known models to new problems, - micro-macro aspects, - computational effort, - possibilities to identify the constitutive equations, and - old problems with incorrect or non-satisfying solutions based on the classical continua assumptions.

  10. General Criterion for Harmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proesmans, Karel; Vandebroek, Hans; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Inspired by Kubo-Anderson Markov processes, we introduce a new class of transfer matrices whose largest eigenvalue is determined by a simple explicit algebraic equation. Applications include the free energy calculation for various equilibrium systems and a general criterion for perfect harmonicity, i.e., a free energy that is exactly quadratic in the external field. As an illustration, we construct a "perfect spring," namely, a polymer with non-Gaussian, exponentially distributed subunits which, nevertheless, remains harmonic until it is fully stretched. This surprising discovery is confirmed by Monte Carlo and Langevin simulations.

  11. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret...... of view as well as w.r.t. computational complexity. Finally, we present algorithms for both approaches for NMI which is comparable in speed to Sum of Squared Differences (SSD), and we illustrate the differences between PW and GPV on a number of registration examples....

  12. general dispatching time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Woo Lee

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a production system with a finite feedback buffer and dispatching time. Parts enter a “main buffer” before they are processed. Processed parts leave the system with probability 1−p or are fed back to a “feedback buffer” with probability p. As soon as the feedback buffer becomes full, the parts in the feedback buffer are dispatched, all at once, to the main buffer by the server for reprocessing. The dispatching time follows a general distribution. Thus the server is engaged either in one of the following states: idle, processing, dispatching.

  13. General engineering knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Mcgeorge, H D

    2012-01-01

    This book covers the general engineering knowledge required by candidates for the Department of Transport's Certificates of Competency in Marine Engineering, Class One and Class Two. The text is updated throughout in this third edition, and new chapters have been added on production of fresh water and on noise and vibration. Reference is also provided to up-to-date papers and official publications on specialized topics. These updates ensure that this little volume will continue to be a useful pre-examination and revision text. - Marine Engineers Review, January 1992

  14. Generalized Conjunction/Disjunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dujmovic, Jozo; Larsen, Henrik Legind

    2007-01-01

    The generalized conjunction/disjunction function (GCD) is a continuous logic function of two or more variables that integrates conjunctive and disjunctive properties in a single function. It is used as a mathematical model of simultaneity and replaceability of inputs. Special cases of this function...... include the full (pure) conjunction, the partial conjunction, the arithmetic mean, the partial disjunction, and the full (pure) disjunction. GCD enables a continuous transition from the full conjunction to the full disjunction, using a parameter that specifies a desired level of conjunction (andness...

  15. The generalized Levinger transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, M.; Maroulas, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present new results relating the numerical range of a matrix $A$ with generalized Levinger transformation $\\mathcal{L}(A,\\alpha,\\beta) = \\alphaH_A +\\betaS_A$, where $H_A$ and $S_A$, are respectively the Hermitian and skew-hermitian parts of $A$. Using these results, we derive expressions for eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the perturbed matrix $A + \\mathcal{L}(E,\\alpha,\\beta)$, for a fixed matrix $E$ and $\\alpha, \\beta$ are real parameters.

  16. Directors General appointed

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    At a special session on 21 March, presided over by P. Levaux, the Council of the European Organization for Nuclear Research appointed J . B. Adams and L . Van Hove as Directors General of the Organization for a period of five years beginning 1 January 1976. Dr. Adams will be responsible for the administration of CERN, for the operation of the equipment and services and for the construction of buildings and major equipment. Professor Van Hove will be responsible for the research activities of the Organization.

  17. Generalized holographic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Souvik; Bhowmick, Samrat; Sahay, Anurag; Siopsis, George

    2013-04-01

    We consider general black hole solutions in five-dimensional spacetime in the presence of a negative cosmological constant. We obtain a cosmological evolution via the gravity/gauge theory duality (holography) by defining appropriate boundary conditions on a four-dimensional boundary hypersurface. The standard counterterms are shown to renormalize the bare parameters of the system (the four-dimensional Newton's constant and cosmological constant). We discuss the thermodynamics of cosmological evolution and present various examples. The standard brane-world scenarios are shown to be special cases of our holographic construction.

  18. Orthognathic surgery: general considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khechoyan, David Y

    2013-08-01

    a patient's appearance and occlusal function can be improved significantly, impacting the patient's sense of self and well-being. Successful outcomes in modern orthognathic surgery rely on close collaboration between the surgeon and the orthodontist across all stages of treatment, from preoperative planning to finalization of occlusion. Virtual computer planning promotes a more accurate analysis of dentofacial deformity and preoperative planning. It is also an invaluable aid in providing comprehensive patient education. In this article, the author describes the general surgical principles that underlie orthognathic surgery, highlighting the sequence of treatment, preoperative analysis of dentofacial deformity, surgical execution of the treatment plan, and possible complications.

  19. General Permits for Ocean Dumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    General permits are issued by EPA for the ocean dumping of certain materials that will have a minimal adverse environmental impact and are generally disposed of in small quantities. Information includes examples and ocean disposal sites for general permits

  20. ANNUAL GENERAL ASSEMBLY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual General Asssembly to be held in the CERN Auditorium on Wednesday 3 October 2001 at 14.30 hrs The Agenda comprises:   Opening Remarks (P. Levaux) Some aspects of risk in a pension fund (C. Cuénoud) Annual Report 2000: Presentation and results (C. Cuénoud) Copies of the Report are available from divisional secretariats. Results of the actuarial reviews (G. Maurin) Questions from members and beneficiaries Persons wishing to ask questions are encouraged to submit them, where possible, in writing in advance, addressed to Mr C. Cuénoud, Administrator of the Fund. Conclusions (P. Levaux) As usual, participants are invited to drinks after the assembly. NB The minutes of the 2000 General Assembly are available from the Administration of the Fund (tel. + 41 22 767 91 94; e-mail Graziella.Praire@cern.ch) The English version will be published next week.

  1. Generalized etale cohomology theories

    CERN Document Server

    Jardine, John F

    1997-01-01

    A generalized etale cohomology theory is a theory which is represented by a presheaf of spectra on an etale site for an algebraic variety, in analogy with the way an ordinary spectrum represents a cohomology theory for spaces. Examples include etale cohomology and etale K-theory. This book gives new and complete proofs of both Thomason's descent theorem for Bott periodic K-theory and the Nisnevich descent theorem. In doing so, it exposes most of the major ideas of the homotopy theory of presheaves of spectra, and generalized etale homology theories in particular. The treatment includes, for the purpose of adequately dealing with cup product structures, a development of stable homotopy theory for n-fold spectra, which is then promoted to the level of presheaves of n-fold spectra.   This book should be of interest to all researchers working in fields related to algebraic K-theory. The techniques presented here are essentially combinatorial, and hence algebraic. An extensive background in traditional stable hom...

  2. The general prioritization framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Malishevsky

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the general prioritization framework for test case prioritization during regression testing. Regression testing (RT is done to ensure that modifications have not created new faults or that modifications fulfilled their intended purpose by correctly altering software functionality. Being performed multiple times, RT can have a profound effect on the software budget. The test case prioritization orders test cases for execution to reach a certain objective. Usually, such an objective is to detect faults as early as possible during the testing process. Many prioritization techniques have been developed that successfully reach this objective. However, most of these techniques were developed and studied independently from each other despite the fact that they have many similarities. This article presents the framework that allows to represent known prioritization techniques. Thus, it helps to improve existing and devise new techniques. Also, it allows to implement a single tool that emulates any prioritization technique by just setting the correct parameters. The proposed framework includes the combination/condensation (CC structure and the structure functions including {\\em element combination functions}, {\\em condensation functions}, and a {\\em super-group combination function}.By defining two such structures together with the corresponding structure functions, one for computing award values and one for their update, any known prioritization technique can be expressed. A general prioritization algorithm is presented that can express any known prioritization technique.

  3. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly ma...

  4. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may require t...

  5. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Modifications to the statutes of the association Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda...

  6. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may r...

  7. What is general relativity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Alan A.; Wiltshire, David L.

    2017-05-01

    General relativity is a set of physical and geometric principles, which lead to a set of (Einstein) field equations that determine the gravitational field and to the geodesic equations that describe light propagation and the motion of particles on the background. But open questions remain, including: what is the scale on which matter and geometry are dynamically coupled in the Einstein equations? Are the field equations valid on small and large scales? What is the largest scale on which matter can be coarse grained while following a geodesic of a solution to Einstein’s equations? We address these questions. If the field equations are causal evolution equations, whose average on cosmological scales is not an exact solution of the Einstein equations, then some simplifying physical principle is required to explain the statistical homogeneity of the late epoch Universe. Such a principle may have its origin in the dynamical coupling between matter and geometry at the quantum level in the early Universe. This possibility is hinted at by diverse approaches to quantum gravity which find a dynamical reduction to two effective dimensions at high energies on one hand, and by cosmological observations which are beginning to strongly restrict the class of viable inflationary phenomenologies on the other. We suggest that the foundational principles of general relativity will play a central role in reformulating the theory of spacetime structure to meet the challenges of cosmology in the 21st century.

  8. Generalized Nonlinear Yule Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, Petr; Polito, Federico; Sacerdote, Laura

    2016-11-01

    With the aim of considering models related to random graphs growth exhibiting persistent memory, we propose a fractional nonlinear modification of the classical Yule model often studied in the context of macroevolution. Here the model is analyzed and interpreted in the framework of the development of networks such as the World Wide Web. Nonlinearity is introduced by replacing the linear birth process governing the growth of the in-links of each specific webpage with a fractional nonlinear birth process with completely general birth rates. Among the main results we derive the explicit distribution of the number of in-links of a webpage chosen uniformly at random recognizing the contribution to the asymptotics and the finite time correction. The mean value of the latter distribution is also calculated explicitly in the most general case. Furthermore, in order to show the usefulness of our results, we particularize them in the case of specific birth rates giving rise to a saturating behaviour, a property that is often observed in nature. The further specialization to the non-fractional case allows us to extend the Yule model accounting for a nonlinear growth.

  9. Generalized Wideband Cyclic MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang-Meng Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of Spectral Correlation-Signal Subspace Fitting (SC-SSF fails to separate wideband cyclostationary signals with coherent second-order cyclic statistics (SOCS. Averaged Cyclic MUSIC (ACM method made up for the drawback to some degree via temporally averaging the cyclic cross-correlation of the array output. This paper interprets ACM from another perspective and proposes a new DOA estimation method by generalizing ACM for wideband cyclostationary signals. The proposed method successfully makes up for the aforementioned drawback of SC-SSF and obtains a more satisfying performance than ACM. It is also demonstrated that ACM is a simplified form of the proposed method when only a single spectral frequency is exploited, and the integration of the frequencies within the signal bandwidth helps the new method to outperform ACM.

  10. The general dynamic model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael K.; Matthews, Thomas J.; Whittaker, Robert James

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Island biogeography focuses on understanding the processes that underlie a set of well-described patterns on islands, but it lacks a unified theoretical framework for integrating these processes. The recently proposed general dynamic model (GDM) of oceanic island biogeography offers a step...... towards this goal. Here, we present an analysis of causality within the GDM and investigate its potential for the further development of island biogeographical theory. Further, we extend the GDM to include subduction-based island arcs and continental fragment islands. Location: A conceptual analysis...... of evolutionary processes in simulations derived from the mechanistic assumptions of the GDM corresponded broadly to those initially suggested, with the exception of trends in extinction rates. Expanding the model to incorporate different scenarios of island ontogeny and isolation revealed a sensitivity...

  11. On generalized quaternion algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Szeto

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Let B be a commutative ring with 1, and G(={σ} an automorphism group of B of order 2. The generalized quaternion ring extension B[j] over B is defined by S. Parimala and R. Sridharan such that (1 B[j] is a free B-module with a basis {1,j}, and (2 j2=−1 and jb=σ(bj for each b in B. The purpose of this paper is to study the separability of B[j]. The separable extension of B[j] over B is characterized in terms of the trace (=1+σ of B over the subring of fixed elements under σ. Also, the characterization of a Galois extension of a commutative ring given by Parimala and Sridharan is improved.

  12. Ocean General Circulation Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jin-Ho; Ma, Po-Lun

    2012-09-30

    1. Definition of Subject The purpose of this text is to provide an introduction to aspects of oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), an important component of Climate System or Earth System Model (ESM). The role of the ocean in ESMs is described in Chapter XX (EDITOR: PLEASE FIND THE COUPLED CLIMATE or EARTH SYSTEM MODELING CHAPTERS). The emerging need for understanding the Earth’s climate system and especially projecting its future evolution has encouraged scientists to explore the dynamical, physical, and biogeochemical processes in the ocean. Understanding the role of these processes in the climate system is an interesting and challenging scientific subject. For example, a research question how much extra heat or CO2 generated by anthropogenic activities can be stored in the deep ocean is not only scientifically interesting but also important in projecting future climate of the earth. Thus, OGCMs have been developed and applied to investigate the various oceanic processes and their role in the climate system.

  13. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoroff, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    The key clinical features of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) are the acute occurrence of numerous pinhead-sized nonfollicular sterile pustules on an edematous erythema accompanied by fever and leukocytosis. Histology shows mainly spongiform subcorneal and/or intraepidermal pustules, frequently a marked edema of the papillary dermis, neutrophils, and often eosinophils. AGEP is a reaction pattern mostly caused by drugs, the ones with the highest risk being antibacterial agents like ampicillin/amoxicillin, and quinolones, pristinamycin, anti-infective sulfonamides, the antimycotic drug terbinafine, (hydroxy)chloroquine, and diltiazem. In addition, a large number of other drugs as well as infections have been reported as triggers. AGEP is an acute and sometimes severe reaction. When the causative agent is withdrawn, it usually resolves quickly without specific treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Recruitment of general practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Allan; Jensen, Cathrine Elgaard; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Health service research often involves the active participation of healthcare professionals. However, their ability and commitment to research varies. This can cause recruitment difficulties and thereby prolong the study period and inflate budgets. Solberg has identified seven R......-factors as determinants for successfully recruiting healthcare professionals: relationships, reputation, requirements, rewards, reciprocity, resolution, and respect. Method: This is a process evaluation of the seven R-factors. We applied these factors to guide the design of our recruitment strategy as well as to make...... adjustments when recruiting general practices in a guideline implementation study. In the guideline implementation study, we studied the effect of outreach visits, quality reports, and new patient stratification tools for low back pain patients. Results: During a period of 15 months, we recruited 60 practices...

  15. Nanotechnologies a general introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ferrari, M; Li Bassi, A

    2007-01-01

    After a brief description of what is nanotechnology (a triple definition will be attempted) and of its importance for the society, this first lecture manly aims at showing how nanoscience makes various nanotechnologies possible. The surprising story of direct imaging and manipulation of atoms (scanning probe microscopies will be the specific subject of the third lecture by prof. Andrea Li Bassi) is told to naturally introduce the crucial role of quantum confinement and surface defects. The electronic and vibrational properties of nanostructures are then discussed to understand the connection between the deeply modified (with respect to the bulk) quantum spectra and the physico-chemical properties of nanoscopic objects. In this context the concept of superatom (and its generalizations) is stressed. The essential role of both size and size control is finally emphasized discussing some significant applications in the fields of materials, devices and medicine. To this last argument (nanomedicine) the second lectu...

  16. General and Statistical Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Tahir-Kheli, Raza

    2012-01-01

    This textbook explains completely the general and statistical thermodynamics. It begins with an introductory statistical mechanics course, deriving all the important formulae meticulously and explicitly, without mathematical short cuts. The main part of the book deals with the careful discussion of the concepts and laws of thermodynamics, van der Waals, Kelvin and Claudius theories, ideal and real gases, thermodynamic potentials, phonons and all the related aspects. To elucidate the concepts introduced and to provide practical problem solving support, numerous carefully worked examples are of great value for students. The text is clearly written and punctuated with many interesting anecdotes. This book is written as main textbook for upper undergraduate students attending a course on thermodynamics.

  17. Introduction to general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarthy, R

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL RELATIVITY begins with a description of the geometry of curved space, explaining geodesics, parallel transport, covariant differentiation, geodesic deviation and spacetime symmetry by killing vectors. It then introduces Einstein's theory of gravitation followed by Schwarzschild solution with its relevance to Positive Mass theorem. The three tests for Einstein's gravity are explained. Other exact solutions such as Vaidya, Kerr and Reisner - Nordstrom metric are included. In the Chapter on cosmological solutions, a detailed description of Godel metric is provided. It then introduces five dimensional spacetime of Kaluza showing the unification of gravity with electromagnetism. This is extended to include non-Abelian gauge theory by invoking compact extra dimensions. Explicit expressions in this case for Christoffel connections and ricci tensor are derived and the higher dimensional gravity action is shown to compactification are given.

  18. Generalized conjugate gradient squared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokkema, D.R.; Sleijpen, G.L.G. [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands)

    1994-12-31

    In order to solve non-symmetric linear systems of equations, the Conjugate Gradient Squared (CGS) is a well-known and widely used iterative method. In practice the method converges fast, often twice as fast as the Bi-Conjugate Gradient method. This is what you may expect, since CGS uses the square of the BiCG polynomial. However, CGS may suffer from its erratic convergence behavior. The method may diverge or the approximate solution may be inaccurate. BiCGSTAB uses the BiCG polynomial and a product of linear factors in an attempt to smoothen the convergence. In many cases, this has proven to be very effective. Unfortunately, the convergence of BiCGSTAB may stall when a linear factor (nearly) degenerates. BiCGstab({ell}) is designed to overcome this degeneration of linear factors. It generalizes BiCGSTAB and uses both the BiCG polynomial and a product of higher order factors. Still, CGS may converge faster than BiCGSTAB or BiCGstab({ell}). So instead of using a product of linear or higher order factors, it may be worthwhile to look for other polynomials. Since the BiCG polynomial is based on a three term recursion, a natural choice would be a polynomial based on another three term recursion. Possibly, a suitable choice of recursion coefficients would result in method that converges faster or as fast as CGS, but less erratic. It turns out that an algorithm for such a method can easily be formulated. One particular choice for the recursion coefficients leads to CGS. Therefore one could call this algorithm generalized CGS. Another choice for the recursion coefficients leads to BiCGSTAB. It is therefore possible to mix linear factors and some polynomial based on a three term recursion. This way one may get the best of both worlds. The authors will report on their findings.

  19. Generalized internal multiple imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A. H.

    2014-08-05

    Internal multiples deteriorate the image when the imaging procedure assumes only single scattering, especially if the velocity model does not have sharp contrasts to reproduce such scattering in the Green’s function through forward modeling. If properly imaged, internal multiples (internally scattered energy) can enhance the seismic image. Conventionally, to image internal multiples, accurate, sharp contrasts in the velocity model are required to construct a Green’s function with all the scattered energy. As an alternative, we have developed a generalized internal multiple imaging procedure that images any order internal scattering using the background Green’s function (from the surface to each image point), constructed from a smooth velocity model, usually used for conventional imaging. For the first-order internal multiples, the approach consisted of three steps, in which we first back propagated the recorded surface seismic data using the background Green’s function, then crosscorrelated the back-propagated data with the recorded data, and finally crosscorrelated the result with the original background Green’s function. This procedure images the contribution of the recorded first-order internal multiples, and it is almost free of the single-scattering recorded energy. The cost includes one additional crosscorrelation over the conventional single-scattering imaging application. We generalized this method to image internal multiples of any order separately. The resulting images can be added to the conventional single-scattering image, obtained, e.g., from Kirchhoff or reverse-time migration, to enhance the image. Application to synthetic data with reflectors illuminated by multiple scattering (double scattering) demonstrated the effectiveness of the approach.

  20. Adenotomy under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokurka, J; Jakoubková, S; Vít, Z; Drahokoupilová, M

    1989-01-01

    Experience obtained from adenotomy (AT) under general anesthesia using Ketamin hydrochloride (Ketalar, Narkamon) in children are presented in this paper. The authors had used intramuscular premedication with Prothazin, Dolsin and Atropin at the first stage, then they shifted to oral administration of a combination of Diazepam, Theadryl and Atropin. Ketamin may be applied intravenously in the dosage of 1.0 to 1.5 mg/kg of body weight in most children. Where it is not possible, a triple dose into the muscle is used. A total of 2,266 AT were performed. About 70% of patients were calm during the operation, once a suspected aspiration was considered but it was not confirmed. The main contribution of the method is 100% amnesia of the surgery made. The procedure is a compromise between a requirement for minimal traumatization of the child's psyche by the intervention and the resources available, particularly the need of personnel at the majority of otorhinolaryngo-logical departments nowadays.

  1. [Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoroff, A

    2014-05-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a reaction pattern mostly caused by drugs. It is characterized by the rapid occurrence of dozens to thousands pinhead-sized, non-follicular, sterile pustules on a slightly edematous erythematous base, commonly with accentuation in the major flexures and usually accompanied by a facial edema, fever and leukocytosis. Histology reveals spongiform subcorneal and/or intraepidermal pustules, an inflammatory infiltrate consisting of neutrophils and often eosinophils and frequently a marked edema of the papillary dermis. Even if in single case reports a large number of drugs has been described as triggers for AGEP, larger studies have revealed a list with an elevated risk to cause the reaction which includes antibacterial agents like ampicillin/amoxicillin, quinolones, pristinamycin, anti-infective sulfonamides, the antimycotic drug terbinafine, (hydroxy)chloroquine, and diltiazem. In some cases infections have been reported as triggers. AGEP is an acute and--especially in patients with concomitant diseases--sometimes severe reaction. Withdrawal of the causative agent usually leads to a rapid and complete resolution--even without further specific therapy.

  2. Generalized differential semblance optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, S.

    2013-06-10

    This paper inverts space-lags in the suboffset-domain CIGs instead of time-lags for velocity estimate. As a reminder, the conventional DSO is an image-domain method for wave-equation tomography, where the essence of this method is to focus the image at zero suboffset and minimize the image at nonzero suboffset. At each iteration, the velocity model is updated by smearing the image on the nonzero sub- offset along wavepath. The space-lag is used as a penalty operator which annihilates the image energy at nonzero lags, where this space-lag is independent of the velocity model. This new method, denoted as generalized DSO, treats the space-lag as a function of velocity model. It is an extension of the conventional DSO except it updates the velocity model not only by smearing the image on the nonzero suboffset as in conventional DSO but also by smearing the nonzero suboffset along the wavepath. The former minimizes the image in the nonzero suboffset and the latter minimizes the nonzero suboffset of the image. Both methods aim to focus the image energy at zero suboffset. The mathematical derivation and numerical examples are presented to demonstrate its effectiveness in velocity inversion.

  3. Beurling generalized numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, Harold G; Cheung, Man Ping

    2016-01-01

    "Generalized numbers" is a multiplicative structure introduced by A. Beurling to study how independent prime number theory is from the additivity of the natural numbers. The results and techniques of this theory apply to other systems having the character of prime numbers and integers; for example, it is used in the study of the prime number theorem (PNT) for ideals of algebraic number fields. Using both analytic and elementary methods, this book presents many old and new theorems, including several of the authors' results, and many examples of extremal behavior of g-number systems. Also, the authors give detailed accounts of the L^2 PNT theorem of J. P. Kahane and of the example created with H. L. Montgomery, showing that additive structure is needed for proving the Riemann hypothesis. Other interesting topics discussed are propositions "equivalent" to the PNT, the role of multiplicative convolution and Chebyshev's prime number formula for g-numbers, and how Beurling theory provides an interpretation of the ...

  4. MEDEX: a general overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansa, A.; Alpert, P.; Arbogast, P.; Buzzi, A.; Ivancan-Picek, B.; Kotroni, V.; Llasat, M. C.; Ramis, C.; Richard, E.; Romero, R.; Speranza, A.

    2014-08-01

    The general objective of the international MEDiterranean EXperiment (MEDEX) was the better understanding and forecasting of cyclones that produce high impact weather in the Mediterranean. This paper reviews the motivation and foundation of MEDEX, the gestation, history and organisation of the project, as well as the main products and scientific achievements obtained from it. MEDEX obtained the approval of World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and can be considered as framed within other WMO actions, such as the ALPine EXperiment (ALPEX), the Mediterranean Cyclones Study Project (MCP) and, to a certain extent, THe Observing System Research and Predictability EXperiment (THORPEX) and the HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment (HyMeX). Through two phases (2000-2005 and 2006-2010), MEDEX has produced a specific database, with information about cyclones and severe or high impact weather events, several main reports and a specific data targeting system field campaign (DTS-MEDEX-2009). The scientific achievements are significant in fields like climatology, dynamical understanding of the physical processes and social impact of cyclones, as well as in aspects related to the location of sensitive zones for individual cases, the climatology of sensitivity zones and the improvement of the forecasts through innovative methods like mesoscale ensemble prediction systems.

  5. I in generalized supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, T.; Ó Colgáin, E.; Sakamoto, J.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Yoshida, K.

    2017-11-01

    We showed in previous work that for homogeneous Yang-Baxter (YB) deformations of AdS_5× S^5 the open string metric and coupling and as a result the closed string density e^{-2 Φ } √{g} remain undeformed. In this work, in addition to extending these results to the deformation associated with the modified CYBE or η -deformation, we identify the Page forms as the open string counterpart for RR fields and demonstrate case by case that the non-zero Page forms remain invariant under YB deformations. We give a physical meaning to the Killing vector I of generalized supergravity and show for all YB deformations: (1) I appears as a current for the center of mass motion on the worldvolume of a D-brane probing the background, (2) I is equal to the divergence of the noncommutativity parameter, (3) I exhibits "holographic" behavior where the radial component of I vanishes at the AdS boundary and (4) in pure spinor formalism I is related to a certain state in the BRST cohomology.

  6. Labetalol in general practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    1 The results of the treatment of 8573 hypertensive patients with labetalol in general practice, for periods between 1 month and 5 yr, are reviewed. 2 The data reviewed were obtained from the published literature together with our own published (Kane et al., 1976; Kane et al., 1979) and more recent (unpublished) work. 3 Between 60% and 80% of severe (diastolic blood pressure > 120 mmHg) and previously uncontrolled hypertensives responded satisfactorily to the drug, as did up to 88% of mild to moderate hypertensives. 4 The anti-hypertensive effect of labetalol was not dependent on the frequency of administration, twice and three times daily treatment regimes being equally effective. 5 The withdrawal rate attributable to side-effects was between 6% and 13%. Tiredness, dizziness, headache and upper gastro-intestinal symptoms were the four principal side-effects, but they were usually transient when labetalol treatment was continued. 6 No drug interactions or adverse haematological or biochemical changes were seen. PMID:7093101

  7. Anaphylaxis to general anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneret-Vautrin, D Anne; Mertes, P Michel

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of hypersensitivity reactions to anesthetics is estimated 1 in 13,000 anesthetics up to 1 in 3,180. The rate of mortality ranges between 3 and 9%. 90% of reactions appear at anesthesia induction. Cardiovascular collapse and bronchospasm are more frequent in IgE-dependent reactions. The leading causes are neuromuscular blocking agents (50-70% of cases). IgE-dependent reactions are predominant. Previous sensitization by other compounds containing quaternary ions is suspected. Cross-reactions are frequent. Latex allergy is the second cause, followed by antibiotics and beta-lactams in general. The incidence of anaphylaxis to vital dyes and chlorhexidine increases. Anaphylaxis to intravenous hypnotics, plasma substitutes, aprotinin, protamine and other drugs can occur. Any suspected hypersensitivity reaction during anesthesia must be extensively investigated to confirm the nature of the reaction, to identify the responsible drug, to study cross-reactivity in cases of anaphylaxis to a neuromuscular blocking agent and to provide recommendations for future anesthetic procedures. Tryptase assay at the time of the reaction has to be implemented by thorough investigations carried out weeks later: prick tests and intradermal tests, quantification of specific IgE to compounds containing quaternary ammonium ions, histamine release test or cytometric analysis of basophile activation. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. 75 FR 62879 - Individual Exemption Involving General Motors Company, General Motors Holdings LLC, and General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Benefits Security Administration Individual Exemption Involving General Motors Company, General Motors Holdings LLC, and General Motors LLC, Located in Detroit, MI AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security... ERISA (the Notice).\\2\\ The proposed exemption was requested in an application filed by General Motors...

  9. Inositoylated platelet-activating factor (Ino-C2-PAF) modulates dynamic lymphocyte-endothelial cell interactions and alleviates psoriasis-like skin inflammation in two complementary mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkel, Susann; Schön, Margarete; Hildmann, Annette; Claßen, Anna; John, Swen-Malte; Danker, Kerstin; Schön, Michael P

    2014-10-01

    Psoriasis, a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-governed inflammatory disorder with prominent dysregulation of cutaneous vascular functions, has evolved into a model disorder for studying anti-inflammatory therapies. We present experimental in vitro and in vivo data on 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-(2-(myo-inositolyl)-ethyl)-sn-glycero-3-(R/S)-phosphatidyl-choline (Ino-C2-PAF), the lead compound of a class of synthetic glycosylated phospholipids, in anti-inflammatory therapy. Ino-C2-PAF strongly induced apoptosis only in TNFα-stimulated, but not in untreated human vascular endothelial cells. Moreover, TNFα-induced endothelial adhesion molecules that mediated the rolling and firm adhesion of leukocytes (vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, and ICAM-1) were selectively downregulated by Ino-C2-PAF. Similarly, expression of L-selectin, VCAM-1 receptor α4β1 integrin , and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was reduced without induction of apoptosis. Functionally, these changes were accompanied by significant impairment of rolling and adhesion of human peripheral blood lymphocytes on TNFα-activated endothelial cells in a dynamic flow chamber system. When the therapeutic potential of Ino-C2-PAF was assessed in two complementary mouse models of psoriasis, K5.hTGFβ1 transgenic and JunB/c-Jun-deficient mice, Ino-C2-PAF led to significant alleviation of the clinical symptoms and normalized the pathological cutaneous changes including vascularization. There were no overt adverse effects. These findings suggested that Ino-C2-PAF is a potential candidate in the therapy of inflammatory skin diseases that include abnormal vascular functions.

  10. Action Principle for the Generalized Harmonic Formulation of General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, J David

    2010-01-01

    An action principle for the generalized harmonic formulation of general relativity is presented. The action is a functional of the spacetime metric and the gauge source vector. The Z4 formulation of general relativity also can be defined by an action principle, as discussed by Bona, Bona--Casas and Palenzuela. The relationship between the generalized harmonic and Z4 actions is presented in detail.

  11. Generalization of stochastic visuomotor rotations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo L Fernandes

    Full Text Available Generalization studies examine the influence of perturbations imposed on one movement onto other movements. The strength of generalization is traditionally interpreted as a reflection of the similarity of the underlying neural representations. Uncertainty fundamentally affects both sensory integration and learning and is at the heart of many theories of neural representation. However, little is known about how uncertainty, resulting from variability in the environment, affects generalization curves. Here we extend standard movement generalization experiments to ask how uncertainty affects the generalization of visuomotor rotations. We find that although uncertainty affects how fast subjects learn, the perturbation generalizes independently of uncertainty.

  12. Generalization of Stochastic Visuomotor Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Hugo L.; Stevenson, Ian H.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2012-01-01

    Generalization studies examine the influence of perturbations imposed on one movement onto other movements. The strength of generalization is traditionally interpreted as a reflection of the similarity of the underlying neural representations. Uncertainty fundamentally affects both sensory integration and learning and is at the heart of many theories of neural representation. However, little is known about how uncertainty, resulting from variability in the environment, affects generalization curves. Here we extend standard movement generalization experiments to ask how uncertainty affects the generalization of visuomotor rotations. We find that although uncertainty affects how fast subjects learn, the perturbation generalizes independently of uncertainty. PMID:22916198

  13. GVS - GENERAL VISUALIZATION SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of GVS (General Visualization System) is to support scientific visualization of data output by the panel method PMARC_12 (inventory number ARC-13362) on the Silicon Graphics Iris computer. GVS allows the user to view PMARC geometries and wakes as wire frames or as light shaded objects. Additionally, geometries can be color shaded according to phenomena such as pressure coefficient or velocity. Screen objects can be interactively translated and/or rotated to permit easy viewing. Keyframe animation is also available for studying unsteady cases. The purpose of scientific visualization is to allow the investigator to gain insight into the phenomena they are examining, therefore GVS emphasizes analysis, not artistic quality. GVS uses existing IRIX 4.0 image processing tools to allow for conversion of SGI RGB files to other formats. GVS is a self-contained program which contains all the necessary interfaces to control interaction with PMARC data. This includes 1) the GVS Tool Box, which supports color histogram analysis, lighting control, rendering control, animation, and positioning, 2) GVS on-line help, which allows the user to access control elements and get information about each control simultaneously, and 3) a limited set of basic GVS data conversion filters, which allows for the display of data requiring simpler data formats. Specialized controls for handling PMARC data include animation and wakes, and visualization of off-body scan volumes. GVS is written in C-language for use on SGI Iris series computers running IRIX. It requires 28Mb of RAM for execution. Two separate hardcopy documents are available for GVS. The basic document price for ARC-13361 includes only the GVS User's Manual, which outlines major features of the program and provides a tutorial on using GVS with PMARC_12 data. Programmers interested in modifying GVS for use with data in formats other than PMARC_12 format may purchase a copy of the draft GVS 3.1 Software Maintenance

  14. The General Factor of Personality: A General Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Revelle, William; Wilt, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that all non-cognitive measures of personality share a general factor of personality. A problem with many of these studies is a lack of clarity in defining a general factor. In this paper we address the multiple ways in which a general factor has been identified and argue that many of these approaches find factors that are not in fact general. Through the use of artificial examples, we show that a general factor is not: The first factor or component of a correla...

  15. A Generalization of Riemann Sums

    OpenAIRE

    Kouba, Omran

    2014-01-01

    We generalize the property that Riemann sums of a continuous function corresponding to equidistant subdivision of an interval converge to the integral of that function, and we give some applications of this generalization.

  16. General Healthcare Maintenance of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share It is important to continue general health maintenance. While working with your gastroenterologist, also remember to speak with your primary care health care provider about other important issues including: Vaccinations: Adults with IBD should generally follow ...

  17. The General Factor of Personality: A General Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelle, William; Wilt, Joshua

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that all non-cognitive measures of personality share a general factor of personality. A problem with many of these studies is a lack of clarity in defining a general factor. In this paper we address the multiple ways in which a general factor has been identified and argue that many of these approaches find factors that are not in fact general. Through the use of artificial examples, we show that a general factor is not: The first factor or component of a correlation or covariance matrix.The first factor resulting from a bifactor rotation or biquartimin transformationNecessarily the result of a confirmatory factor analysis forcing a bifactor solution We consider how the definition of what constitutes a general factor can lead to confusion, and we will demonstrate alternative ways of estimating the general factor saturation that are more appropriate.

  18. OLEDS FOR GENERAL LIGHTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anil Duggal; Don Foust; Chris Heller; Bill Nealon; Larry Turner; Joe Shiang; Nick Baynes; Tim Butler; Nalin Patel

    2004-02-29

    The goal of this program was to reduce the long term technical risks that were keeping the lighting industry from embracing and developing organic light-emitting diode (OLED) technology for general illumination. The specific goal was to develop OLEDs for lighting to the point where it was possible to demonstrate a large area white light panel with brightness and light quality comparable to a fluorescence source and with an efficacy comparable to that of an incandescent source. it was recognized that achieving this would require significant advances in three area: (1) the improvement of white light quality for illumination, (2) the improvement of OLED energy efficiency at high brightness, and (3) the development of cost-effective large area fabrication techniques. The program was organized such that, each year, a ''deliverable'' device would be fabricated which demonstrated progress in one or more of the three critical research areas. In the first year (2001), effort concentrated on developing an OLED capable of generating high illumination-quality white light. Ultimately, a down-conversion method where a blue OLED was coupled with various down-conversion layers was chosen. Various color and scattering models were developed to aid in material development and device optimization. The first year utilized this approach to deliver a 1 inch x 1 inch OLED with higher illumination-quality than available fluorescent sources. A picture of this device is shown and performance metrics are listed. To their knowledge, this was the first demonstration of true illumination-quality light from an OLED. During the second year, effort concentrated on developing a scalable approach to large area devices. A novel device architecture consisting of dividing the device area into smaller elements that are monolithically connected in series was developed. In the course of this development, it was realized that, in addition to being scalable, this approach made the device

  19. The general NFP hospital model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Mona

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the past 30 years, there has been a lot of controversy surrounding the proliferation of new forms of health care delivery organizations that challenge and compete with general NFP community hospitals. Traditionally, the health care system in the United States has been dominated by general NFP (NFP) voluntary hospitals. With the number of for-profit general hospitals, physician-owned specialty hospitals, and ambulatory surgical centers increasing, a question arises: “Why is the general NFP community hospital the dominant model?” In order to address this question, this paper reexamines the history of the hospital industry. By understanding how the “general NFP hospital” model emerged and dominated, we attempt to explain the current dominance of general NFP hospitals in the ever changing hospital industry in the United States.

  20. General relativity basics and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Date, Ghanashyam

    2015-01-01

    A Broad Perspective on the Theory of General Relativity and Its Observable Implications General Relativity: Basics and Beyond familiarizes students and beginning researchers with the basic features of the theory of general relativity as well as some of its more advanced aspects. Employing the pedagogical style of a textbook, it includes essential ideas and just enough background material needed for readers to appreciate the issues and current research. Basics The first five chapters form the core of an introductory course on general relativity. The author traces Einstein’s arguments and presents examples of space-times corresponding to different types of gravitational fields. He discusses the adaptation of dynamics in a Riemannian geometry framework, the Einstein equation and its elementary properties, and different phenomena predicted or influenced by general relativity. Beyond Moving on to more sophisticated features of general relativity, the book presents the physical requirements of a well-defined de...

  1. Characterization of generalized Orlicz spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, Rita

    2016-12-14

    The norm in classical Sobolev spaces can be expressed as a difference quotient. This expression can be used to generalize the space to the fractional smoothness case. Because the difference quotient is based on shifting the function, it cannot be used in generalized Orlicz spaces. In its place, we introduce a smoothed difference quotient and show that it can be used to characterize the generalized Orlicz-Sobolev space. Our results are new even in Orlicz spaces and variable exponent spaces.

  2. Generalized bipolar product and sum

    OpenAIRE

    Greco,Salvatore; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Aggregation functions on [0, 1] with annihilator 0 can be seen as a generalized product on [0, 1]. We study the generalized product on the bipolar scale [−1, 1], stressing the axiomatic point of view ( compare also [9]). Based on newly introduced bipolar properties, such as the bipolar increasingness, bipolar unit element, bipolar idempotent element, several kinds of generalized bipolar product are introduced and studied. A special stress is put on bipolar semicopulas, bipolar quasi-copulas a...

  3. On a generalized Hankel type convolution of generalized functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The classical generalized Hankel type convolution are defined and extended to a class of generalized functions. Algebraic properties of the convolution are explained and the existence and significance of an identity element are discussed. Author Affiliations. S P Malgonde1 G S Gaikawad1 2. Department of Mathematics ...

  4. Generalized Cole–Hopf transformations for generalized Burgers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-15

    Oct 15, 2015 ... Generalized Cole–Hopf transformations for generalized. Burgers equations. B MAYIL VAGANAN∗ and E EMILY PRIYA. Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, School of Mathematics,. Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, India. ∗Corresponding author. E-mail: vkbmv66@gmail.com.

  5. A generalization of Gale's lemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alishahi, Meysam; Hajiabolhassan, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    n this work, we present a generalization of Gale's lemma. Using this generalization, we introduce two sharp combinatorial lower bounds for coind (B0(G)) + 1 andcoind(B(G)) + 2, the two classic topological lower boundsfor the chromatic number of a graph G.......n this work, we present a generalization of Gale's lemma. Using this generalization, we introduce two sharp combinatorial lower bounds for coind (B0(G)) + 1 andcoind(B(G)) + 2, the two classic topological lower boundsfor the chromatic number of a graph G....

  6. Topological generalizations of network motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashtan, N.; Itzkovitz, S.; Milo, R.; Alon, U.

    2004-09-01

    Biological and technological networks contain patterns, termed network motifs, which occur far more often than in randomized networks. Network motifs were suggested to be elementary building blocks that carry out key functions in the network. It is of interest to understand how network motifs combine to form larger structures. To address this, we present a systematic approach to define “motif generalizations”: families of motifs of different sizes that share a common architectural theme. To define motif generalizations, we first define “roles” in a subgraph according to structural equivalence. For example, the feedforward loop triad—a motif in transcription, neuronal, and some electronic networks—has three roles: an input node, an output node, and an internal node. The roles are used to define possible generalizations of the motif. The feedforward loop can have three simple generalizations, based on replicating each of the three roles and their connections. We present algorithms for efficiently detecting motif generalizations. We find that the transcription networks of bacteria and yeast display only one of the three generalizations, the multi-output feedforward generalization. In contrast, the neuronal network of C. elegans mainly displays the multi-input generalization. Forward-logic electronic circuits display a multi-input, multi-output hybrid. Thus, networks which share a common motif can have very different generalizations of that motif. Using mathematical modeling, we describe the information processing functions of the different motif generalizations in transcription, neuronal, and electronic networks.

  7. Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Daniel J.; Dry, Matthew J.; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key "sampling" assumption about how the available data were generated.…

  8. Nigerian Journal of General Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The Nigerian Journal of General Practice is the official publication of the Association of General and Private Medical Practitioners of Nigeria. It is a multi-disciplinary, biannual, peer-reviewed biomedical journal that has been published since 1985. It invites scholarly manuscripts relevant to the ...

  9. The future of general classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2013-01-01

    Discusses problems related to accessing multiple collections using a single retrieval language. Surveys the concepts of interoperability and switching language. Finds that mapping between more indexing languages always will be an approximation. Surveys the issues related to general classification...... and contrasts that to special classifications. Argues for the use of general classifications to provide access to collections nationally and internationally....

  10. Generalized r-Lah numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we consider a two-parameter polynomial generalization, denoted by Ga,b(n, k; r), of the r-Lah numbers which reduces to these recently intro- duced numbers when a = b = 1. We present several identities for Ga,b(n, k; r) that generalize earlier identities given for the r-Lah and r-Stirling numbers.

  11. General Editorial on Publication Ethics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 1. General Editorial on Publication Ethics. R Ramaswamy. General Editorial Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 1-2. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/01/0001-0002 ...

  12. General Secondary or Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    After the completion of the basic general education program (after the ninth grade), Russian students must choose one of two educational trajectories: to continue their general secondary education (enroll in 10th grade) or to enter a vocational education program. What do Russian schoolchildren choose? This article examines data from the last 15…

  13. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 9. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series: For Kids from Five to Fifteen. Zurab Silagadze. General Article Volume 20 Issue 9 September 2015 pp 822-843 ... Keywords. Riemann zeta function; integral representation; Basel problem.

  14. Generalizations of Heisenberg uncertainty relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trifonov, D.A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2002-09-01

    A survey on the generalizations of Heisenberg uncertainty relation and a general scheme for their entangled extensions to several states and observables is presented. The scheme is illustrated on the examples of one and two states and canonical quantum observables, and spin and quasi-spin components. Several new uncertainty relations are displayed. (author)

  15. Generalized functionals of Brownian motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. Ahmed

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss some recent developments in the theory of generalized functionals of Brownian motion. First we give a brief summary of the Wiener-Ito multiple Integrals. We discuss some of their basic properties, and related functional analysis on Wiener measure space. then we discuss the generalized functionals constructed by Hida. The generalized functionals of Hida are based on L2-Sobolev spaces, thereby, admitting only Hs, s∈R valued kernels in the multiple stochastic integrals. These functionals are much more general than the classical Wiener-Ito class. The more recent development, due to the author, introduces a much more broad class of generalized functionals which are based on Lp-Sobolev spaces admitting kernels from the spaces p,s, s∈R. This allows analysis of a very broad class of nonlinear functionals of Brownian motion, which can not be handled by either the Wiener-Ito class or the Hida class. For s≤0, they represent generalized functionals on the Wiener measure space like Schwarz distributions on finite dimensional spaces. In this paper we also introduce some further generalizations, and construct a locally convex topological vector space of generalized functionals. We also present some discussion on the applications of these results.

  16. Methodological practicalities in analytical generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the existing literature on qualitative methodologies tend to discuss analytical generalization at a relatively abstract and general theoretical level. It is, however, not particularly straightforward to “translate” such abstract epistemological principles into more...

  17. General relativity and mathematics; Relatividad General y Matematicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, M.

    2015-07-01

    General relativity is more than a theory of gravity, since any physical process occupies space and lasts for a time, forcing to reconcile that physical theory that describes what the dynamic nature of space-time itself. (Author)

  18. 2008 Contruction General Permits & Multi-Sector General Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — View stormwater notices of intent (NOIs) for construction projects under EPA's 2008 Construction General Permit (CGP), for Low Erosivity Waivers (LEWs) submitted...

  19. General base-general acid catalysis by terpenoid cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Travis A; Christianson, David W

    2016-07-01

    Terpenoid cyclases catalyze the most complex reactions in biology, in that more than half of the substrate carbon atoms often undergo changes in bonding during the course of a multistep cyclization cascade that proceeds through multiple carbocation intermediates. Many cyclization mechanisms require stereospecific deprotonation and reprotonation steps, and most cyclization cascades are terminated by deprotonation to yield an olefin product. The first bacterial terpenoid cyclase to yield a crystal structure was pentalenene synthase from Streptomyces exfoliatus UC5319. This cyclase generates the hydrocarbon precursor of the pentalenolactone family of antibiotics. The structures of pentalenene synthase and other terpenoid cyclases reveal predominantly nonpolar active sites typically lacking amino acid side chains capable of serving general base-general acid functions. What chemical species, then, enables the Brønsted acid-base chemistry required in the catalytic mechanisms of these enzymes? The most likely candidate for such general base-general acid chemistry is the co-product inorganic pyrophosphate. Here, we briefly review biological and nonbiological systems in which phosphate and its derivatives serve general base and general acid functions in catalysis. These examples highlight the fact that the Brønsted acid-base activities of phosphate derivatives are comparable to the Brønsted acid-base activities of amino acid side chains.

  20. Recent advances in general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanson, E M

    1977-08-01

    In order to give an overview of recent advances in general surgery, it is necessary to define: (i) what is general surgery; (ii) what is recent; and (iii) what constitutes an advance. General surgery appears to have entered an era of conservatism. This is particularly evident in the surgery of breast cancer, peptic ulceration, varicose veins, liver trauma, portal hypertension, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and hiatal hernia. Controlled clinical trials in surgery have become popular. The following are considered to be advances: parenteral nutrition, suction drainage, control of Gram-negative sepsis, bypass surgery for pathological obesity, and a discriminatory approach to transplant surgery.

  1. Acute Paraplegia After General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Ghaedi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute paraplegia is a rare but catastrophic complication of surgeries performed on aorta and corrective operations of vertebral column. Trauma to spinal cord after spinal anesthesia and ischemia of spinal cord also may lead to acute paraplegia. Acute paraplegia as a complication of general anesthesia in surgeries performed on sites other than aorta and vertebral column is very rare. Here we present a 56 year old woman with acute paraplegia due to spinal cord infarction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anesthesia probably caused by atherosclerosis of feeding spinal arteries and ischemia of spinal cord after reduction of blood flow possibly due to hypotension during general anesthesia.

  2. Generalized metric spaces and mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Shou

    2016-01-01

    The idea of mutual classification of spaces and mappings is one of the main research directions of point set topology. In a systematical way, this book discusses the basic theory of generalized metric spaces by using the mapping method, and summarizes the most important research achievements, particularly those from Chinese scholars, in the theory of spaces and mappings since the 1960s. This book has three chapters, two appendices and a list of more than 400 references. The chapters are "The origin of generalized metric spaces", "Mappings on metric spaces" and "Classes of generalized metric spaces". Graduates or senior undergraduates in mathematics major can use this book as their text to study the theory of generalized metric spaces. Researchers in this field can also use this book as a valuable reference.

  3. Categorical database generalization in GIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: Categorical database, categorical database generalization, Formal data structure, constraints, transformation unit, classification hierarchy, aggregation hierarchy, semantic similarity, data model,

  4. Algebraic properties of generalized inverses

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetković‐Ilić, Dragana S

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses selected topics in the theory of generalized inverses. Following a discussion of the “reverse order law” problem and certain problems involving completions of operator matrices, it subsequently presents a specific approach to solving the problem of the reverse order law for {1} -generalized inverses. Particular emphasis is placed on the existence of Drazin invertible completions of an upper triangular operator matrix; on the invertibility and different types of generalized invertibility of a linear combination of operators on Hilbert spaces and Banach algebra elements; on the problem of finding representations of the Drazin inverse of a 2x2 block matrix; and on selected additive results and algebraic properties for the Drazin inverse. In addition to the clarity of its content, the book discusses the relevant open problems for each topic discussed. Comments on the latest references on generalized inverses are also included. Accordingly, the book will be useful for graduate students, Ph...

  5. Construction Manager or General Contractor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, John

    1991-01-01

    Unlike the general contractor approach, the construction management firm acts on behalf of the school district in school construction. Examines the development and nature of construction management, and cites its advantages and disadvantages. (MLF)

  6. General Information about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  7. General characteristics of neonicotinoid pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    BAZAKA G.Y.; DUCHNYTSKYI V.B.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the chemical structure, mechanism of action, general properties and application in agriculture of neonicotinoid insecticides. Based on a review of foreign literature summarizes toxicology hygienic characteristics of neonicotinoid insecticides used in Ukraine.

  8. Juvenile Dermatomyositis with Generalized Edema

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl presenting with an 8-week history of fatigue, myalgia, dyspnea, and generalized, nonpitting edema of the extremities, face, chest, and abdomen, is reported from the Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC.

  9. Juvenile Dermatomyositis with Generalized Edema

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    A 7-year-old girl presenting with an 8-week history of fatigue, myalgia, dyspnea, and generalized, nonpitting edema of the extremities, face, chest, and abdomen, is reported from the Walter Reed Army...

  10. A game generalizing Hall's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Rabern, Landon

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the initial positions from which the first player has a winning strategy in a certain two-player game. This provides a generalization of Hall's theorem. Vizing's edge coloring theorem follows from a special case.

  11. Exact solution for generalized pairing

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Feng; Draayer, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    An infinite dimensional algebra, which is useful for deriving exact solutions of the generalized pairing problem, is introduced. A formalism for diagonalizing the corresponding Hamiltonian is also proposed. The theory is illustrated with some numerical examples.

  12. Interallophonic Generalization of /r/ Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul R.

    1983-01-01

    Twelve primary grade children who inconsistently misarticulated "r" participated in training programs for specific allophones of "r." Training steps included production of syllables, nouns, noun phrases, and simple sentences. Generalizing to untrained allophones occurred for all children. (Author)

  13. Generalized Frol\\'ik classes

    OpenAIRE

    Lipparini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The class $\\mathfrak C $ relative to countably compact topological spaces and the class $\\mathfrak P$ relative to pseudocompact spaces introduced by Z. Frol\\'ik are naturally generalized relative to every topological property. We provide a characterization of such generalized Frol\\'ik classes in the broad case of properties defined in terms of filter convergence. If a class of spaces can be defined in terms of filter convergence, then the same is true for its Frol\\'ik class.

  14. The elderly and general anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2010-01-01

    Due to the aging population, the number of elderly patients taking advantage of healthcare services is increasing. A general physical decline of all organ systems and a high frequency of chronic disease accompanying aging.Comorbidity and polypharmacy are therefore common in the elderly. Hence, th......, the administration of general anesthesia to the elderly can be a very challenging task. This paper aims to highlight some of the important issues presented to the elderly undergoing surgery and to suggest some strategies for management....

  15. A note on generalized pentagons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Thomassen introduced the notion of a generalized pentagon and proved that the chromatic number of a triangle-free graph with n vertices and minimum degree at least cn, c>13, is at most 2(3c-1)-(4c-1)(3c-1), the first bound independent of the order n. We present a short proof of the stronger upper...... bound (3c-1)-1, again based on generalized pentagons....

  16. General Galilei Covariant Gaussian Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarri, Giulio; Toroš, Marko; Bassi, Angelo

    2017-09-01

    We characterize general non-Markovian Gaussian maps which are covariant under Galilean transformations. In particular, we consider translational and Galilean covariant maps and show that they reduce to the known Holevo result in the Markovian limit. We apply the results to discuss measures of macroscopicity based on classicalization maps, specifically addressing dissipation, Galilean covariance and non-Markovianity. We further suggest a possible generalization of the macroscopicity measure defined by Nimmrichter and Hornberger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 16 (2013)].

  17. GENERAL THEORY OF THE UNIVERSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Astafyev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Creation and World genetic, energy and information Unity Theory is created. Created on its basis is a theory of the Creator’s Self-creation and of the Creation by Him of the World Basic Genome as basis for World evolution and his General Laws. Conclusion is made that in order to provide for its life and evolution, mankind community is toorganize own vital activities so as to follow the General World Laws.

  18. The elderly and general anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinmetz, J; Rasmussen, L S

    2010-01-01

    Due to the aging population, the number of elderly patients taking advantage of healthcare services is increasing. A general physical decline of all organ systems and a high frequency of chronic disease accompanying aging.Comorbidity and polypharmacy are therefore common in the elderly. Hence......, the administration of general anesthesia to the elderly can be a very challenging task. This paper aims to highlight some of the important issues presented to the elderly undergoing surgery and to suggest some strategies for management....

  19. A generalized nonlocal vector calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, Bacim; Liu, Kuo; Gunzburger, Max

    2015-10-01

    A nonlocal vector calculus was introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) that has proved useful for the analysis of the peridynamics model of nonlocal mechanics and nonlocal diffusion models. A formulation is developed that provides a more general setting for the nonlocal vector calculus that is independent of particular nonlocal models. It is shown that general nonlocal calculus operators are integral operators with specific integral kernels. General nonlocal calculus properties are developed, including nonlocal integration by parts formula and Green's identities. The nonlocal vector calculus introduced in Du et al. (Math Model Meth Appl Sci 23:493-540, 2013) is shown to be recoverable from the general formulation as a special example. This special nonlocal vector calculus is used to reformulate the peridynamics equation of motion in terms of the nonlocal gradient operator and its adjoint. A new example of nonlocal vector calculus operators is introduced, which shows the potential use of the general formulation for general nonlocal models.

  20. Perfil profesional del cirujano general: Professional profile General surgeon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Hernández Varea

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El perfil del egresado es un elemento clave para confección del currículo, y constituye el modelo de las características, conocimientos y habilidades que se aspira formar en el futuro cirujano. Dicho perfil debe responder a las necesidades sociales, permitir la planificación del proceso docente-educativo y concretar la relación universidad-sociedad. En el presente artículo se analizan, a partir de la situación actual, los antecedentes históricos del modelo de formación del especialista en cirugía general, la definición de cirugía general, los principales cambios internacionales en el modelo de formación de cirujanos y las funciones generales que se deben considerar en el perfil profesional del cirujano y su cumplimiento en el programa de cirugía.Graduate profile is a key element to make the curriculum, and it is a representation of the possible features, knowledges, and abilities in the future surgeon. Such profile must to account for social needs, to allow the planning of teaching-educational process, and to stay exactly the university-society relation. In present paper, from a current situation, are analyzed the historical backgrounds of training model of general surgery specialist, general surgery definition, the main international changes in the training model of surgeon, and its fulfillment in surgery program.

  1. 76 FR 56661 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for General Service Fluorescent Lamps, General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... General Service Fluorescent Lamps, General Service Incandescent Lamps, and Incandescent Reflector Lamps... proposing to revise its test procedures for general service fluorescent lamps (GSFLs) and general service... Procedures for General Service Fluorescent Lamps, General Service Incandescent Lamps, and Incandescent...

  2. Teachers' Understanding of Algebraic Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Casey Wayne

    Generalization has been identified as a cornerstone of algebraic thinking (e.g., Lee, 1996; Sfard, 1995) and is at the center of a rich conceptualization of K-8 algebra (Kaput, 2008; Smith, 2003). Moreover, mathematics teachers are being encouraged to use figural-pattern generalizing tasks as a basis of student-centered instruction, whereby teachers respond to and build upon the ideas that arise from students' explorations of these activities. Although more and more teachers are engaging their students in such generalizing tasks, little is known about teachers' understanding of generalization and their understanding of students' mathematical thinking in this domain. In this work, I addressed this gap, exploring the understanding of algebraic generalization of 4 exemplary 8th-grade teachers from multiple perspectives. A significant feature of this investigation is an examination of teachers' understanding of the generalization process, including the use of algebraic symbols. The research consisted of two phases. Phase I was an examination of the teachers' understandings of the underlying quantities and quantitative relationships represented by algebraic notation. In Phase II, I observed the instruction of 2 of these teachers. Using the lens of professional noticing of students' mathematical thinking, I explored the teachers' enacted knowledge of algebraic generalization, characterizing how it supported them to effectively respond to the needs and queries of their students. Results indicated that teachers predominantly see these figural patterns as enrichment activities, disconnected from course content. Furthermore, in my analysis, I identified conceptual difficulties teachers experienced when solving generalization tasks, in particular, connecting multiple symbolic representations with the quantities in the figures. Moreover, while the teachers strived to overcome the challenges of connecting different representations, they invoked both productive and unproductive

  3. Numerical Stability of Generalized Entropies

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbrecher, György

    2016-01-01

    In many applications, the probability density function is subject to experimental errors. In this work the continuos dependence of a class of generalized entropies on the experimental errors is studied. This class includes the C. Shannon, C. Tsallis, A. R\\'enyi and generalized R\\'enyi entropies. By using the connection between R\\'enyi or Tsallis entropies, and the "distance" in a family of metric functional spaces, family that includes the Lebesgue normed vector spaces, we introduce a further extensive generalizations of the R\\'enyi entropy. In this work we suppose that the experimental error is measured by some $L^{p}$ norm. In line with the methodology normally used for treating the so called "ill-posed problems", auxiliary stabilizing conditions are determined, such that small - in the sense of $L^{p}$ metric - experimental errors provoke small variations of the classical and generalized entropies. These stabilizing conditions are formulated in terms of $L^{p}$ metric in a class of generalized $L^{p}$ spac...

  4. Rapid generalization in phonotactic learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Linzen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Speakers judge novel strings to be better potential words of their language if those strings consist of sound sequences that are attested in the language. These intuitions are often generalized to new sequences that share some properties with attested ones: Participants exposed to an artificial language where all words start with the voiced stops [b] and [d] will prefer words that start with other voiced stops (e.g., [g] to words that start with vowels or nasals. The current study tracks the evolution of generalization across sounds during the early stages of artificial language learning. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants received varying amounts of exposure to an artificial language. Learners rapidly generalized to new sounds: In fact, following short exposure to the language, attested patterns were not distinguished from unattested patterns that were similar in their phonological properties to the attested ones. Following additional exposure, participants showed an increasing preference for attested sounds, alongside sustained generalization to unattested ones. Finally, Experiment 3 tested whether participants can rapidly generalize to new sounds based on a single type of sound. We discuss the implications of our results for computational models of phonotactic learning.

  5. UN Secretary General visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    UN Secretary General praises CERN in recent visit. Ban Ki-moon, Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Sergei Ordzhonikidze, Director-General of the United Nations Office in Geneva at the CMS site.On Sunday 31 August, Ban Ki-moon, the UN Secretary General, made an important visit to CERN. Arriving in the late afternoon, he was warmly greeted at Point 5 by Robert Aymar, the Director-General, and the Sous-préfet of Gex, Olivier Laurens-Bernard. Accompanied by a UN delegation, Ban Ki-moon was also introduced to Jos Engelen, the Chief Scientific Officer, and Jim Virdee, the CMS spokesperson. He then took the opportunity to visit CMS and the machine tunnel. At the end of his short trip, Ban Ki-moon signed the Guest Book in the tradition of important dignitaries visiting CERN. Expressing his admiration for CERN’s spirit of collaboration, Ban Ki-moon said, "I am very honored to visit CERN, an invaluable scientific institution a...

  6. THE ESSENCE OF GENERAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Frolov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to disclosure essence, purpose and coherence of the system of general education through its subject content. Methods. The methods involve literature overview, theoretical research and observation. Combined application on the methodological level has provided a systematic approach to identifying the goals of general education and the structuring of its substantive content. Results. The development of students’ speculative powers should be the main task of general education whereby they can create individual model representation according to form but meaningfully adequate to the real life. The scheme of model representations development in the process of general education is proposed. Scientific novelty. The pedagogical model of development of educational process is proposed as the instrument of educational and social adaptation for students; the model represents a logical sequence of formation by students an adequate model of reality with increasing complexity. Practical significance. The proposed pedagogical model allows considering the process of general education mastery and development in absolute unity of its subject content, which should lead to the formation and development of competence in the field of adequate modeling of situations of reality. 

  7. Generalized Fractional Integral Operators on Generalized Local Morrey Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Guliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the continuity properties of the generalized fractional integral operator Iρ on the generalized local Morrey spaces LMp,φ{x0} and generalized Morrey spaces Mp,φ. We find conditions on the triple (φ1,φ2,ρ which ensure the Spanne-type boundedness of Iρ from one generalized local Morrey space LMp,φ1{x0} to another LMq,φ2{x0}, 1

  8. Generalized Cole–Hopf transformations for generalized Burgers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-15

    Oct 15, 2015 ... A detailed review of the invention of Cole–Hopf transformations for the Burgers equation and all the subsequent works which include generalizations of the Burgers equation and the corresponding developments in Cole–Hopf transformations are documented.

  9. On a generalized Hankel type convolution of generalized functions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Springer Verlag Heidelberg #4 2048 1996 Dec 15 10:16:45

    extension has useful applications, when dealing with continuous linear systems which can be characterized by a Hankel convolutional representation; such systems, which we may call 'generalized Hankel translation invariant continuous linear systems', may thereafter be considered when developing sampling expansions ...

  10. Introduction to generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, Annette J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Background Scope Notation Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution Quadratic Forms Estimation Model Fitting Introduction Examples Some Principles of Statistical Modeling Notation and Coding for Explanatory Variables Exponential Family and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Exponential Family of Distributions Properties of Distributions in the Exponential Family Generalized Linear Models Examples Estimation Introduction Example: Failure Times for Pressure Vessels Maximum Likelihood Estimation Poisson Regression Example Inference Introduction Sampling Distribution for Score Statistics Taylor Series Approximations Sampling Distribution for MLEs Log-Likelihood Ratio Statistic Sampling Distribution for the Deviance Hypothesis Testing Normal Linear Models Introduction Basic Results Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models Binary Variables and Logistic Regression Probability Distributions ...

  11. Generalized Eruptive Syringoma: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Çevirgen Cemil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Syringomas are benign adnexal tumors of eccrine sweat glands. Clinically, they present as small skin-colored or slightly pigmented papules. Depending of the location, eyelid syringoma is the most frequent and those localized on the other areas, such as the genital region, scalp, and acral areas. Onset of the syringomas is usually before or during the peripubertal period. From Kaposi’s description in the nineteenth century the eruptive form is very rare. Friedman and Butler reported a classification, based on the clinical features. These are a localized form, a familial form, a form associated with Down’s syndrome, and a generalized form that encompasses multiple and eruptive syringoma. The lesions are benign and may spontaneously resolve, or, more commonly, remain stable. Benign disease is generally treated cosmetically. In the present case, we have described a rare form of syringoma which is generalized eruptive syringoma.

  12. Pseudo-complex general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Peter O; Greiner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents an pseudo-complex extension of General Relativity which addresses these issues and presents proposals for experimental examinations in strong fields near a large mass. General Relativity is a beautiful and well tested theory of gravitation. Nevertheless, it implies conceptual problems like the creation of singularities (Black Holes) as a result of the collapse of large masses, or the appearance of event horizons which exclude parts of the space-time from the observation of external observers. The mathematical and geometrical foundations of this extension are displayed in detail, and applications including orbits and accretion disks around large central masses, neutron stars or cosmological models are introduced. Calculations both for classical and extended applications are often executed in the form of problems with extensive solutions, which makes this volume also a valuable resource for any student of General Relativity.

  13. Generalization of EMG biofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppen, R; Hanson, H B; Ip, S M

    1988-09-01

    Five young adults received audio biofeedback training to reduce trapezius EMG levels while they engaged in reading in an office, seated at a table. A multiple-baseline-across subjects design was employed in two separate studies. After training, all subjects demonstrated reduced EMG levels while reading in a home or library setting. The first study suggested that subjects reduced EMG levels by minimizing movements and altering their postures; the second study systematically demonstrated changes in such behavior, which was correlated with EMG levels. The data provide evidence that EMG biofeedback resulted in response generalization across several motoric classes, and in stimulus generalization from the training setting to the natural environment. The importance of assessing generalization is discussed.

  14. A generalization of gauge invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Dan-Radu

    2017-08-01

    We consider perturbative quantum field theory in the causal framework. Gauge invariance is, in this framework, an identity involving chronological products of the interaction Lagrangian; it expresses the fact that the scattering matrix must leave invariant the sub-space of physical states. We are interested in generalizations of such identity involving Wick sub-monomials of the interaction Lagrangian. The analysis can be performed by direct computation in the lower orders of perturbation theory; guided by these computations, we conjecture a generalization for arbitrary orders.

  15. Generalized, Linear, and Mixed Models

    CERN Document Server

    McCulloch, Charles E; Neuhaus, John M

    2011-01-01

    An accessible and self-contained introduction to statistical models-now in a modernized new editionGeneralized, Linear, and Mixed Models, Second Edition provides an up-to-date treatment of the essential techniques for developing and applying a wide variety of statistical models. The book presents thorough and unified coverage of the theory behind generalized, linear, and mixed models and highlights their similarities and differences in various construction, application, and computational aspects.A clear introduction to the basic ideas of fixed effects models, random effects models, and mixed m

  16. General relativity and gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Johanna

    1961-01-01

    An internationally famous physicist and electrical engineer, the author of this text was a pioneer in the investigation of gravitational waves. Joseph Weber's General Relativity and Gravitational Waves offers a classic treatment of the subject. Appropriate for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text remains ever relevant. Brief but thorough in its introduction to the foundations of general relativity, it also examines the elements of Riemannian geometry and tensor calculus applicable to this field.Approximately a quarter of the contents explores theoretical and experimenta

  17. General Purpose (office) Network reorganisation

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday 27 August, the IT Department’s Communication Systems group will perform a major reorganisation of CERN’s General Purpose Network.   This reorganisation will cause network interruptions on Saturday 27 August (and possibly Sunday 28 August) and will be followed by a change to the IP addresses of connected systems that will come into effect on Monday 3 October. For further details and information about the actions you may need to take, please see: https://information-technology.web.cern.ch/news/general-purpose-office-network-reorganisation.

  18. General Practitioners and Involuntary Admission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Britta; Lomborg, Kirsten; Engberg, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    in involuntary admissions. Setting: General practice, Aarhus, Denmark. Method: One focus group interview and six individual interviews were conducted with 13 Danish GPs, who had recently sectioned one of their own patients. Results: GPs experienced stress and found the admission procedure time consuming...

  19. [Tetanus prophylaxis in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boukes, F.S.; Wiersma, T.J.; Beaujean, D.; Burgmeijer, R.J.; Timen, A.

    2004-01-01

    In response to the report 'Immunisation against tetanus following injuries' from the Dutch Health Council, the Dutch College of General Practitioners, the National Coordinating Body for the Control of Infectious Diseases and The Netherlands Vaccine Institute have drawn up guidelines for tetanus

  20. General Instructions for Disposable Respirators

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    This podcast, intended for the general public, demonstrates how to put on and take off disposable respirators that are to be used in areas affected by the influenza outbreak.  Created: 4/9/2009 by CDC, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 4/29/2009.

  1. The 'simple' general dental anaesthetic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of procedural sedation for dentistry is beyond the scope of this article. It deals with general dental anaesthesia. History of dental anaesthesia. Early developments in the modern history of anaesthesia were sparked by the quest for painless dentistry. Horace Wells, dentist and mayor of Hartford, Connecticut, USA ...

  2. Exploring General Education Development Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sharon D.

    2013-01-01

    According to the instructors and administrators at a local adult education (AE) program in Houston, Texas, retaining and graduating general education development (GED) students has been a constant challenge. Locating GED attendance barriers could enable AE programs to develop techniques that increase student retention and graduation rates. The…

  3. Generalization of the Bernoulli ODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Douglas; Valentino, Michele C.

    2017-01-01

    In this note, we propose a generalization of the famous Bernoulli differential equation by introducing a class of nonlinear first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). We provide a family of solutions for this introduced class of ODEs and also we present some examples in order to illustrate the applications of our result.

  4. Bakhtin and the "General Intellect"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    One of the key concepts in autonomist Marxism is the "general intellect." As capitalism develops, labour and its products become increasingly "immaterial", inasmuch as the physical side of production is taken over by automated systems. The result is that all aspects of the collective worker's affective, desiring and cognitive…

  5. General assessment of estuarine pollution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Estuaries are generally free from contamination by chlorinated pesticides. India being signatory to Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, their levels in estuaries is no more a concern. ... Information is largely lacking for several chemical pollutants such as PAHs, phenols, dyes and pigments etc.

  6. Characterizations of Generalized Hyperexponential Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    in subsection 3. 1 to show that any CDF on 0,oI can he approximated arbitrarily closely by a generalized hypere xpo : t in ai CDF. Theorem 3i.4. 1 Let F...Approximation Techniques in the Solution of Queueing Problems. Naval Research Logistics Quarterly, 26, 311-326. Boas, R. P. (1972). A Primer of Real

  7. A generalized advection dispersion equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    –Segel equation; Adv. Diff. Eq. 2013, 2013:94, doi:10.1186/1687-1847-2013-94. Abdon Atangana, Aden Ahmed O and Necdet Bıldık 2013. A generalized version of a low velocity impact between a rigid sphere and a transversely isotropic ...

  8. General Laws and Centripetal Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The large number of discoveries in the last few decades has caused a scientific crisis that is characterised by overspecialisation and compartmentalisation. To deal with this crisis, scientists look for integrating approaches, such as general laws and unifying theories. Representing what can be

  9. Convergence of generalized eigenfunction expansions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Sakata

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a simplified theory of generalized eigenfunction expansions for a commuting family of bounded operators and with finitely many unbounded operators. We also study the convergence of these expansions, giving an abstract type of uniform convergence result, and illustrate the theory by giving two examples: The Fourier transform on Hecke operators, and the Laplacian operators in hyperbolic spaces.

  10. Prolegomenon to a general biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, S A

    2001-05-01

    This chapter is a slightly modified version of Chapter 1 of my book, Investigations. I discuss "autonomous agents," the origin of life, autocatalytic sets of polymers, work cycles, puzzles-about evolutionary theory, and the birth of a general biology dealing with biospheres anywhere in the universe.

  11. General Editorial on Publication Ethics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 34; Issue 1. General Editorial on Publication Ethics. Ram Sagar R. Ramaswamy N. Mukunda. Volume 34 Issue 1 March 2013 pp 1-2. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/joaa/034/01/0001-0002 ...

  12. General editorial on publication ethics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    General editorial on publication ethics. DOI: 10.1007/s12043-014-0923-2; ePublication: The scientific research and publishing communities the world over are by now well aware that over the past few decades, instances of scientific misconduct seem to be on the rise. These are consequences of the increasing pressures to ...

  13. A note on generalized characters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Mathematics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120, India. E-mail: subhashbhaib@yahoo.co.in; hvdedania@yahoo.com. MS received 23 November 2004; revised 9 July 2005. Abstract. For a compactly generated LCA group G, it is shown that the set H (G) of all generalized characters on G ...

  14. Burnout contagion among general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.

    2001-01-01

    This study used a representative sample of 507 general practitioners (GPs) to test the hypothesis that burnout is contagious. Following a two-dimensional conceptualization of burnout, it is assumed that burnout is comprised of emotional exhaustion and negative attitudes (i.e., depersonalization and

  15. Generalizing Fuzzy Logic Probabilistic Inferences

    OpenAIRE

    Ursic, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    Linear representations for a subclass of boolean symmetric functions selected by a parity condition are shown to constitute a generalization of the linear constraints on probabilities introduced by Boole. These linear constraints are necessary to compute probabilities of events with relations between the. arbitrarily specified with propositional calculus boolean formulas.

  16. Nutrition communication in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.M.E.; Hiddink, G.J.; Koelen, M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are frequently confronted with patients who suffer from obesity or other nutrition-related diseases, such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. There is increasing evidence that nutrition communication is effective in changing nutrition behaviour. Moreover, it is widely

  17. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

  18. Monochromatic metrics are generalized Berwald

    OpenAIRE

    Bartelmeß, Nina; Matveev, Vladimir S.

    2017-01-01

    We show that monochromatic Finsler metrics, i.e., Finsler metrics such that each two tangent spaces are isomorphic as normed spaces, are generalized Berwald metrics, i.e., there exists an affine connection, possibly with torsion, that preserves the Finsler function

  19. Risk premia in general equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    solutions of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models, including a novel solution with endogenous labor supply, to obtain closed-form expressions for the risk premium in production economies. We find that the curvature of the policy functions affects the risk premium through controlling the individual...

  20. Dimensional Analysis and General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovatt, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Newton's law of gravitation is a central topic in the first-year physics curriculum. A lecturer can go beyond the physical details and use the history of gravitation to discuss the development of scientific ideas; unfortunately, the most recent chapter in this history, general relativity, is not covered in first-year courses. This paper discusses…

  1. Generalized Cherednik-Macdonald identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, J.V.

    2008-01-01

    We derive generalizations of the Cherednik-Macdonald constant term identities associated to root systems which depend, besides on the usual Multiplicity function, symmetrically on two additional parameters omega +/-. They are natural analogues of the Cherednik-Macdonald constant term q-identities in

  2. Periodontal Emergencies in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, Reena; Ide, Mark

    2017-05-01

    Diagnosing and managing periodontal emergencies is a common part of general dental practice. This article summarises the presentation, aetiology and management of the key periodontal emergencies, including gingival abscess, periodontal abscess, peri-coronitis/peri-coronal abscess, perio-endo lesion/ abscess, necrotising gingivitis and periodontitis, acute herpetic gingivostomatitis, acute physical/chemical/thermal injury and subgingival root fracture.

  3. General Topology of the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Pandya, Aalok

    2002-01-01

    General topology of the universe is descibed. It is concluded that topology of the present universe is greater or stronger than the topology of the universe in the past and topology of the future universe will be stronger or greater than the present topology of the universe. Consequently, the universe remains unbounded.

  4. A note on generalized characters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For a compactly generated LCA group , it is shown that the set H ( G ) of all generalized characters on equipped with the compact-open topology is a LCA group and H ( G ) = G ^ (the dual group of ) if and only if is compact. Both results fail for arbitrary LCA groups. Further, if is second countable, then the Gel'fand ...

  5. General Information about Laryngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Need To Know About™ Cancer of the Larynx Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Lasers in Cancer Treatment Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer Head and Neck Cancers Tobacco (includes help with quitting) For general cancer information ...

  6. Clinical computing in general dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Titus K L; Thyvalikakath, Thankam P; Spallek, Heiko; Torres-Urquidy, Miguel H; Hernandez, Pedro; Yuhaniak, Jeannie

    2006-01-01

    Measure the adoption and utilization of, opinions about, and attitudes toward clinical computing among general dentists in the United States. Telephone survey of a random sample of 256 general dentists in active practice in the United States. A 39-item telephone interview measuring practice characteristics and information technology infrastructure; clinical information storage; data entry and access; attitudes toward and opinions about clinical computing (features of practice management systems, barriers, advantages, disadvantages, and potential improvements); clinical Internet use; and attitudes toward the National Health Information Infrastructure. The authors successfully screened 1,039 of 1,159 randomly sampled U.S. general dentists in active practice (89.6% response rate). Two hundred fifty-six (24.6%) respondents had computers at chairside and thus were eligible for this study. The authors successfully interviewed 102 respondents (39.8%). Clinical information associated with administration and billing, such as appointments and treatment plans, was stored predominantly on the computer; other information, such as the medical history and progress notes, primarily resided on paper. Nineteen respondents, or 1.8% of all general dentists, were completely paperless. Auxiliary personnel, such as dental assistants and hygienists, entered most data. Respondents adopted clinical computing to improve office efficiency and operations, support diagnosis and treatment, and enhance patient communication and perception. Barriers included insufficient operational reliability, program limitations, a steep learning curve, cost, and infection control issues. Clinical computing is being increasingly adopted in general dentistry. However, future research must address usefulness and ease of use, workflow support, infection control, integration, and implementation issues.

  7. Conformal Methods in General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente Kroon, Juan A.

    2016-07-01

    List of symbols; Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. Geometric Tools: 2. Differential Geometry; 3. Spacetime spinors; 4. Space spinors; 5. Conformal Geometry; Part II. General Relativity and Conformal Geometry: 6. Conformal extensions of exact solutions; 7. Asymptotic simplicity; 8. The conformal Einstein field equations; 9. Matter models; 10. Asymptotics; Part III. Methods of PDE Theory: 11. The conformal constraint equations; 12. Methods of the theory of hyperbolic differential equations; 13. Hyperbolic reductions; 14. Causality and the Cauchy problem in General Relativity; Part IV. Applications: 15. De Sitter-like spacetimes; 16. Minkowski-like spacetimes; 17. Anti-de Sitter-like spacetimes; 18. Characteristic problems for the conformal field equations; 19. Static solutions; 20. Spatial infinity; 21. Perspectives; References; Index.

  8. Prescribing antibiotics in general practice:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Rikke Vognbjerg; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov; Plejdrup Hansen, Malene

    -2019. The hypotheses and anticipated perspectives will be discussed at the conference. Conclusion This project will contribute with solid knowledge on diagnostic approaches for management of infections in Danish general practice. The results will create a base for targeted interventions aiming to optimize diagnostic......Objectives The majority of antibiotics are prescribed from general practice. The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics increases the risk of development of bacteria resistant to antibiotic treatment. In spite of guidelines aiming to minimize the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics we see an increase....... A questionnaire comprising a discrete choice experiment will allow us to investigate the relative importance of selected factors (e.g. microbiological diagnostics, point-of-care tests, patients' expectations) in the management of infectious diseases. Results This PhD project is scheduled to be carried out in 2016...

  9. Multivariate covariance generalized linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonat, W. H.; Jørgensen, Bent

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general framework for non-normal multivariate data analysis called multivariate covariance generalized linear models, designed to handle multivariate response variables, along with a wide range of temporal and spatial correlation structures defined in terms of a covariance link...... function combined with a matrix linear predictor involving known matrices. The method is motivated by three data examples that are not easily handled by existing methods. The first example concerns multivariate count data, the second involves response variables of mixed types, combined with repeated...... measures and longitudinal structures, and the third involves a spatiotemporal analysis of rainfall data. The models take non-normality into account in the conventional way by means of a variance function, and the mean structure is modelled by means of a link function and a linear predictor. The models...

  10. Group supervision for general practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galina Nielsen, Helena; Sofie Davidsen, Annette; Dalsted, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    to the communication with local community psychiatry centres. Furthermore, the GPs experienced that supervision had a positive 'spill-over effect' on everyday consultations, and that the supervision group became a forum for coping with other difficulties in their professional life as well. Trust and continuity were......AIM: Group supervision is a sparsely researched method for professional development in general practice. The aim of this study was to explore general practitioners' (GPs') experiences of the benefits of group supervision for improving the treatment of mental disorders. METHODS: One long......-established supervision group was studied closely for six months by observing the group sessions, and by interviewing GPs and their supervisors, individually and collectively. The interviews were recorded digitally and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation. RESULTS: The GPs found...

  11. Acoustic reflex and general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Z

    1983-01-01

    Infant and small children are not always able to cooperate in impedance measurements. For this reason it was decided, -in special cases, -to perform acoustic reflex examination under general anaesthesia. The first report on stapedius reflex and general anaesthesia was published by Mink et al. in 1981. Under the effect of Tiobutabarbital, Propanidid and Diazepam there is no reflex response. Acoustic reflex can be elicited with Ketamin-hydrochlorid and Alphaxalone-alphadolone acetate narcosis. The reflex threshold remains unchanged and the amplitude of muscle contraction is somewhat increased. The method was used: 1. to assess the type and degree of hearing loss in children with cleft palate and/or lip prior to surgery. 2. to exclude neuromuscular disorders with indication of pharyngoplasties. 3. to quantify hearing level in children--mostly multiply handicapped--with retarded speech development. The results of Behavioral Observation and Impedance Audiometry are discussed and evaluated.

  12. The 2015 Nigerian General Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkwachukwu Orji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high level of success of Nigeria’s 2015 general elections was unexpected, considering the difficult political and security environment in which the elections were conducted. The major obstacles to the smooth conduct of the elections include the grave security threat posed by the Boko Haram insurgency, the competing claims to the presidency by northern and southern politicians, a keenly contested campaign smeared by inflammatory messages, and serious gaps in electoral preparations. Against the backdrop of these challenges, this article assesses Nigeria’s 2015 general elections, looking closely at the key issues that affected the polls, the major electoral outcomes, and the critical post-election issues raised by the outcomes.

  13. Generalized Lorenz-Mie theories

    CERN Document Server

    Gouesbet, Gérard

    2017-01-01

    This book explores generalized Lorenz–Mie theories when the illuminating beam is an electromagnetic arbitrary shaped beam relying on the method of separation of variables. The new edition includes an additional chapter covering the latest advances in both research and applications, which are highly relevant for readers. Although it particularly focuses on the homogeneous sphere, the book also considers other regular particles. It discusses in detail the methods available for evaluating beam shape coefficients describing the illuminating beam. In addition it features applications used in many fields such as optical particle sizing and, more generally, optical particle characterization, morphology-dependent resonances and the mechanical effects of light for optical trapping, optical tweezers and optical stretchers. Furthermore, it provides various computer programs relevant to the content.

  14. The genesis of general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Norton, John; Renn, Jürgen; Sauer, Tilman; Stachel, John

    2007-01-01

    This four-volume work represents the most comprehensive documentation and study of the creation of general relativity; one of the fundamental physical theories of the 20th century. It comprises key sources from Einstein and others who from the late 19th to the early 20th century contributed to this monumental development. Some of these sources are presented here in translation for the first time. Einstein’s famous Zurich notebook, which documents the pivotal steps toward general relativity, is reproduced here for the first time and transcribed in its entirety. The volumes offer detailed commentaries and analyses of these sources that are based on a close reading of these documents supplemented by interpretations by the leading historians of relativity. All in all, the facets of this work, based on more than a decade of research, combine to constitute one of the most in-depth studies of a scientific revolution ever written.

  15. Generalized sine-Gordon solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, C dos [Centro de Fisica e Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rubiera-Garcia, D, E-mail: cssilva@fc.up.pt, E-mail: rubieradiego@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2011-10-21

    In this paper, we construct analytical self-dual soliton solutions in (1+1) dimensions for two families of models which can be seen as generalizations of the sine-Gordon system but where the kinetic term is non-canonical. For that purpose we use a projection method applied to the sine-Gordon soliton. We focus our attention on the wall and lump-like soliton solutions of these k-field models. These solutions and their potentials reduce to those of the Klein-Gordon kink and the standard lump for the case of a canonical kinetic term. As we increase the nonlinearity on the kinetic term the corresponding potentials get modified and the nature of the soliton may change, in particular, undergoing a topology modification. The procedure constructed here is shown to be a sort of generalization of the deformation method for a specific class of k-field models. (paper)

  16. Generalized eigenvalue based spectrum sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Spectrum sensing is one of the fundamental components in cognitive radio networks. In this chapter, a generalized spectrum sensing framework which is referred to as Generalized Mean Detector (GMD) has been introduced. In this context, we generalize the detectors based on the eigenvalues of the received signal covariance matrix and transform the eigenvalue based spectrum sensing detectors namely: (i) the Eigenvalue Ratio Detector (ERD) and two newly proposed detectors which are referred to as (ii) the GEometric Mean Detector (GEMD) and (iii) the ARithmetic Mean Detector (ARMD) into an unified framework of generalize spectrum sensing. The foundation of the proposed framework is based on the calculation of exact analytical moments of the random variables of the decision threshold of the respective detectors. The decision threshold has been calculated in a closed form which is based on the approximation of Cumulative Distribution Functions (CDFs) of the respective test statistics. In this context, we exchange the analytical moments of the two random variables of the respective test statistics with the moments of the Gaussian (or Gamma) distribution function. The performance of the eigenvalue based detectors is compared with the several traditional detectors including the energy detector (ED) to validate the importance of the eigenvalue based detectors and the performance of the GEMD and the ARMD particularly in realistic wireless cognitive radio network. Analytical and simulation results show that the newly proposed detectors yields considerable performance advantage in realistic spectrum sensing scenarios. Moreover, the presented results based on proposed approximation approaches are in perfect agreement with the empirical results. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  17. General Relativity by Kawaguchi geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Erico

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We construct a parameterisation invariant Lagrange theory of fields up to second order by using multivector bundles and Kawaguchi geometry. In this setup, the spacetime is an dynamical object which is a submanifold of the greater manifold, and the actual spacetime is the solution of Euler-Lagrange equations. Such theory is a reasonable mathematical foundation to describe an extended theory of Einstein’s general relativity, and is capable of being a stage for unification with other physical fields.

  18. A Generalized Reverse Jacket Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Moon Ho; Rajan, Sundar B; Park, JY

    2001-01-01

    Generalization of the well-known Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT), namely center-weighted Hadamard transform (CWHT) and complex reverse-jacket transform (CRJT) have been proposed and their fast implementation and simple index generation algorithms have recently been reported. These transforms are of size 2(r) x 2(r) for integral values or r, and defined in terms of binary radix representation of integers. In this paper, using appropriate mixed-radix representation of integers, we present a gene...

  19. General footage ISOLDE experimental hall

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Overview of the ISOLDE experimental hall. Equipment and experiments. Taken from the WITCH / EBIS platform: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, GHM line, LA1, LA2, LA0, central beamline, COLLAPS experiment, CRIS experiment, ISOLTRAP experiment, laser guidance from building 508 into the hall for laser spectroscopy COLLAPS and CRIS. Taken from the HIE ISOLDE shielding tunnel roof: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, WITCH experiment, VITO line, TAS experiment. General footage: High Tension room entrance and EBIS platform, staircases and passages in the experimental hall.

  20. General sGoldstino Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio

    2016-10-24

    We prove that all inflationary models, including those with dark energy after the end of inflation, can be embedded in minimal supergravity with a single chiral superfield. Moreover, the amount of supersymmetry breaking is independently tunable due to a degeneracy in the choice for the superpotential. The inflaton is a scalar partner of the Goldstino in this set-up. We illustrate our general procedure with two examples that are favoured by the Planck data.

  1. Multivariate Generalized Multiscale Entropy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Humeau-Heurtier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiscale entropy (MSE was introduced in the 2000s to quantify systems’ complexity. MSE relies on (i a coarse-graining procedure to derive a set of time series representing the system dynamics on different time scales; (ii the computation of the sample entropy for each coarse-grained time series. A refined composite MSE (rcMSE—based on the same steps as MSE—also exists. Compared to MSE, rcMSE increases the accuracy of entropy estimation and reduces the probability of inducing undefined entropy for short time series. The multivariate versions of MSE (MMSE and rcMSE (MrcMSE have also been introduced. In the coarse-graining step used in MSE, rcMSE, MMSE, and MrcMSE, the mean value is used to derive representations of the original data at different resolutions. A generalization of MSE was recently published, using the computation of different moments in the coarse-graining procedure. However, so far, this generalization only exists for univariate signals. We therefore herein propose an extension of this generalized MSE to multivariate data. The multivariate generalized algorithms of MMSE and MrcMSE presented herein (MGMSE and MGrcMSE, respectively are first analyzed through the processing of synthetic signals. We reveal that MGrcMSE shows better performance than MGMSE for short multivariate data. We then study the performance of MGrcMSE on two sets of short multivariate electroencephalograms (EEG available in the public domain. We report that MGrcMSE may show better performance than MrcMSE in distinguishing different types of multivariate EEG data. MGrcMSE could therefore supplement MMSE or MrcMSE in the processing of multivariate datasets.

  2. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    mathematical problems for kids from 5 to 15 to stimulate critical thinking in them. ... that technical details of the general case do not obscure the simple ... and, therefore, ζ(2) = Li2(1) = −. 1. ∫. 0 ln (1 − x) x dx = ∫∫. ✷ dxdy. 1 − xy. , (4) where ✷ = {(x, y):0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1} is the unit square. Let us note. ∫∫. ✷ dxdy.

  3. Chronotype, gender and general health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbian, Fabio; Zucchi, Beatrice; De Giorgi, Alfredo; Tiseo, Ruana; Boari, Benedetta; Salmi, Raffaella; Cappadona, Rosaria; Gianesini, Gloria; Bassi, Erika; Signani, Fulvia; Raparelli, Valeria; Basili, Stefania; Manfredini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Light-dark alternation has always been the strongest external circadian "zeitgeber" for humans. Due to its growing technological preference, our society is quickly transforming toward a progressive "eveningness" (E), with consequences on personal circadian preference (chronotype), depending on gender as well. The aim of this study was to review the available evidence of possible relationships between chronotype and gender, with relevance on disturbances that could negatively impact general health, including daily life aspects. Electronic searches of the published literature were performed in the databases MEDLINE and Web of Science, by using the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH), when available, or other specific keywords. Results were grouped into four general areas, i.e. (a) "General and Cardiovascular Issues", (b) "Psychological and Psychopathological Issues", (c) "Sleep and Sleep-Related Issues" and (d) "School and School-Related Issues". (a) E is associated with unhealthy and dietary habits, smoking and alcohol drinking (in younger subjects) and, in adults, with diabetes and metabolic syndrome; (b) E is associated with impulsivity and anger, depression, anxiety disorders and nightmares (especially in women), risk taking behavior, use of alcohol, coffee and stimulants, psychopathology and personality traits; (c) E has been associated, especially in young subjects, with later bedtime and wake-up time, irregular sleep-wake schedule, subjective poor sleep, school performance and motivation, health-related quality of life; (d) E was associated with lowest mood and lower overall grade point average (especially for women). Eveningness may impact general health, either physical or mental, sleep, school results and achievements, especially in younger age and in women. The role of family support is crucial, and parents should be deeply informed that abuse of technological devices during night hours may lead to the immature adjustment function of children's endogenous

  4. General Aviation Land Use Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Isenberg, Nick; Payne, Brian; Muia, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In this session we discuss the value of land use planning sessions in determining airside and landside short-, mid-, and long-term needs of the airport. Land use plans have been used to secure funding and increase commercial landside and military airside growth. Currently a plan is being used to develop the first general aviation aerotropolis concept. Join us to learn how a land use plan can increase the marketability and revenue generation of your airport.

  5. Fermions as generalized Ising models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetterich, C., E-mail: c.wetterich@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2017-04-15

    We establish a general map between Grassmann functionals for fermions and probability or weight distributions for Ising spins. The equivalence between the two formulations is based on identical transfer matrices and expectation values of products of observables. The map preserves locality properties and can be realized for arbitrary dimensions. We present a simple example where a quantum field theory for free massless Dirac fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space is represented by an asymmetric Ising model on a euclidean square lattice.

  6. Annual Progress report - General Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesnousky, S.G.

    1993-09-30

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project {open_quotes}Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).{close_quotes} A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1991 to 30 September 1992. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing tasks.

  7. General Centrality in a hypergraph

    OpenAIRE

    Busseniers, Evo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a centrality measurement for the nodes of a hypergraph, by using existing literature which extends eigenvector centrality from a graph to a hypergraph, and literature which give a general centrality measurement for a graph. We will use this measurement to say more about the number of communications in a hypergraph, to implement a learning mechanism, and to construct certain networks.

  8. Supermagic Generalized Double Graphs 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančo Jaroslav

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A graph G is called supermagic if it admits a labelling of the edges by pairwise di erent consecutive integers such that the sum of the labels of the edges incident with a vertex is independent of the particular vertex. In this paper we will introduce some constructions of supermagic labellings of some graphs generalizing double graphs. Inter alia we show that the double graphs of regular Hamiltonian graphs and some circulant graphs are supermagic.

  9. General relativity 50 years old

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    In May 1916, 'The Foundations of General Relativity Theory' by Albert Einstein was published in 'Annalen der Physik'. Fifty years later, this major contribution to scientific thought still has a rather isolated position with respect to the main-stream of scientific theory. (In contrast, the Special Theory of Relativity is one of the cornerstones of sub-nuclear physics.) To mark the anniversary of the publication of Einstein's paper a theoretician from CERN discusses the theory and its present status.

  10. Robot-assisted general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazey, Jeffrey W; Melvin, W Scott

    2004-06-01

    With the initiation of laparoscopic techniques in general surgery, we have seen a significant expansion of minimally invasive techniques in the last 16 years. More recently, robotic-assisted laparoscopy has moved into the general surgeon's armamentarium to address some of the shortcomings of laparoscopic surgery. AESOP (Computer Motion, Goleta, CA) addressed the issue of visualization as a robotic camera holder. With the introduction of the ZEUS robotic surgical system (Computer Motion), the ability to remotely operate laparoscopic instruments became a reality. US Food and Drug Administration approval in July 2000 of the da Vinci robotic surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) further defined the ability of a robotic-assist device to address limitations in laparoscopy. This includes a significant improvement in instrument dexterity, dampening of natural hand tremors, three-dimensional visualization, ergonomics, and camera stability. As experience with robotic technology increased and its applications to advanced laparoscopic procedures have become more understood, more procedures have been performed with robotic assistance. Numerous studies have shown equivalent or improved patient outcomes when robotic-assist devices are used. Initially, robotic-assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy was deemed safe, and now robotics has been shown to be safe in foregut procedures, including Nissen fundoplication, Heller myotomy, gastric banding procedures, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. These techniques have been extrapolated to solid-organ procedures (splenectomy, adrenalectomy, and pancreatic surgery) as well as robotic-assisted laparoscopic colectomy. In this chapter, we review the evolution of robotic technology and its applications in general surgical procedures.

  11. Map labeling and its generalizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doddi, S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Marathe, M.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Mirzaian, A. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Computer Science; Moret, B.M.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Zhu, B. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Map labeling is of fundamental importance in cartography and geographical information systems and is one of the areas targeted for research by the ACM Computational Geometry Impact Task Force. Previous work on map labeling has focused on the problem of placing maximal uniform, axis-aligned, disjoint rectangles on the plane so that each point feature to be labeled lies at the corner of one rectangle. Here, we consider a number of variants of the map labeling problem. We obtain three general types of results. First, we devise constant-factor polynomial-time-approximation algorithms for labeling point features by rectangular labels, where the feature may lie anywhere on the boundary of its label region and where labeling rectangles may be placed in any orientation. These results generalize to the case of elliptical labels. Secondly, we consider the problem of labeling a map consisting of disjoint rectilinear fine segments. We obtain constant-factor polynomial-time approximation algorithms for the general problem and an optimal algorithm for the special case where all segments are horizontal. Finally, we formulate a bicriteria version of the map-labeling problem and provide bicriteria polynomial- time approximation schemes for a number of such problems.

  12. Testing general relativity on accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigran Kalaydzhyan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the general theory of relativity, the curvature of spacetime is related to the energy and momentum of the present matter and radiation. One of the more specific predictions of general relativity is the deflection of light and particle trajectories in the gravitational field of massive objects. Bending angles for electromagnetic waves and light in particular were measured with a high precision. However, the effect of gravity on relativistic massive particles was never studied experimentally. Here we propose and analyze experiments devoted to that purpose. We demonstrate a high sensitivity of the laser Compton scattering at high energy accelerators to the effects of gravity. The main observable – maximal energy of the scattered photons – would experience a significant shift in the ambient gravitational field even for otherwise negligible violation of the equivalence principle. We confirm predictions of general relativity for ultrarelativistic electrons of energy of tens of GeV at a current level of resolution and expect our work to be a starting point of further high-precision studies on current and future accelerators, such as PETRA, European XFEL and ILC.

  13. Fermions as generalized Ising models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We establish a general map between Grassmann functionals for fermions and probability or weight distributions for Ising spins. The equivalence between the two formulations is based on identical transfer matrices and expectation values of products of observables. The map preserves locality properties and can be realized for arbitrary dimensions. We present a simple example where a quantum field theory for free massless Dirac fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space is represented by an asymmetric Ising model on a euclidean square lattice.

  14. Gravitation. [Book on general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misner, C. W.; Thorne, K. S.; Wheeler, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    This textbook on gravitation physics (Einstein's general relativity or geometrodynamics) is designed for a rigorous full-year course at the graduate level. The material is presented in two parallel tracks in an attempt to divide key physical ideas from more complex enrichment material to be selected at the discretion of the reader or teacher. The full book is intended to provide competence relative to the laws of physics in flat space-time, Einstein's geometric framework for physics, applications with pulsars and neutron stars, cosmology, the Schwarzschild geometry and gravitational collapse, gravitational waves, experimental tests of Einstein's theory, and mathematical concepts of differential geometry.

  15. Nonlinear Pendulum: A Simple Generalization

    OpenAIRE

    Neto, J. P. Juchem

    2010-01-01

    In this work we solve the nonlinear second order differential equation of the simple pendulum with a general initial angular displacement ($\\theta(0)=\\theta_0$) and velocity ($\\dot{\\theta}(0)=\\phi_0$), obtaining a closed-form solution in terms of the Jacobi elliptic function $\\text{sn}(u,k)$, and of the the incomplete elliptical integral of the first kind $F(\\varphi,k)$. Such a problem can be used to introduce concepts like elliptical integrals and functions to advanced undergraduate students...

  16. General purpose steam table library :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, John H.; Belcourt, Kenneth Noel; Nourgaliev, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Completion of the CASL L3 milestone THM.CFD.P7.04 provides a general purpose tabular interpolation library for material properties to support, in particular, standardized models for steam properties. The software consists of three parts, implementations of analytic steam models, a code to generate tables from those models, and an interpolation package to interface the tables to CFD codes such as Hydra-TH. Verification of the standard model is maintained through the entire train of routines. The performance of interpolation package exceeds that of freely available analytic implementation of the steam properties by over an order of magnitude.

  17. Ray pencils of general divergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Harris

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available That a thin refracting element can have a dioptric power which is asymmetric immediately raises questions at the fundamentals of linear optics.  In optometry the important concept of vergence, in particular, depends on the concept of a pencil of rays which in turn depends on the existence of a focus.  But systems that contain refracting elements of asymmetric power may have no focus at all.  Thus the existence of thin systems with asym-metric power forces one to go back to basics and redevelop a linear optics from scratch that is sufficiently general to be able to accommodate suchsystems.  This paper offers an axiomatic approach to such a generalized linear optics.  The paper makes use of two axioms: (i a ray in a homogeneous medium is a segment of a straight line, and (ii at an interface between two homogeneous media a ray refracts according to Snell’s equation.  The familiar paraxial assumption of linear optics is also made.  From the axioms a pencil of rays at a transverse plane T in a homogeneous medium is defined formally (Definition 1 as an equivalence relation with no necessary association with a focus.  At T the reduced inclination of a ray in a pencil is an af-fine function of its transverse position.  If the pencilis centred the function is linear.  The multiplying factor M, called the divergency of the pencil at T, is a real  2 2×  matrix.  Equations are derived for the change of divergency across thin systems and homogeneous gaps.  Although divergency is un-defined at refracting surfaces and focal planes the pencil of rays is defined at every transverse plane ina system (Definition 2.  The eigenstructure gives aprincipal meridional representation of divergency;and divergency can be decomposed into four natural components.  Depending on its divergency a pencil in a homogeneous gap may have exactly one point focus, one line focus, two line foci or no foci.Equations are presented for the position of a focusand of its

  18. General Considerations on the Oligopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Angelo Ioan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the main aspects of oligopoly, in the case of n firms. The analysis has made, as a rule, for arbitrary marginal costs, each time, however, by considering these costs constant recovering well known results of the models presented: the Stackelberg model, the case of more production leaders, the price leader, the Cournot equilibrium for duopoly, the Cournot equilibrium for oligopoly or in the case of perfect competition and cartels. We also treat the problems above for the general case of cost function, again customizing the overall results for linear functions and obtaining the corresponding classical relations.

  19. Weight Changes in General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    This PhD thesis is about weight changes. What determines long-term weight changes in the adult general population? Is it possible that weight loss may not always be healthy? The present clinical guidelines for general practice advice most overweight persons and patients with type 2 diabetes to lose weight. Are the guidelines based on firm evidence?   METHODS: The back-bone of the thesis is constituted by three scientific articles based on three different population based cohort studies. Multivariable modeling and other epidemiological methods were used.   RESULTS: Article 1 examined weight changes in the general population in relation to smoking status, and proposed a graphical 'smoking cessation weight change model', demonstrating the importance of time, age and smoking status in relation to long-term weight changes. Article 2 suggested new methods to improve the processing of dietary data. It was demonstrated how median imputation for missing values and assumptions about standard portion sizes were inferior to stochastic methods conditioning on information about physiology of the individual. Article 3 evaluated the influence of prospectively planned intentional weight loss on long-term morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therapeutic intentional weight loss supervised by a medical doctor was not associated with reduced morbidity or mortality. In the general population the dietary intake of fructose and soft drinks sweetened with sugar was not associated with weight change over 9 years. Weight gain rates were large in young adults and incrementally smaller in middle aged adults. Subjects more than 60 years lost weight on average. Historical weight data suggest that the body weight increases throughout life to the age of 60-65years. A study with simulated data indicates that bias in baseline BMI may misleadingly have favored weight loss in earlier cohort studies of intentional weight loss and mortality.   DISCUSSION: The findings regarding

  20. Generalized connected domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kouider

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As a generalization of connected domination in a graph G we consider domination by sets having at most k components. The order γ c k (G of such a smallest set we relate to γ c (G, the order of a smallest connected dominating set. For a tree T we give bounds on γ c k (T in terms of minimum valency and diameter. For trees the inequality γ c k (T≤ n-k-1 is known to hold, we determine the class of trees, for which equality holds.

  1. [Diabetes Infobus 1999. General facts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauner, W

    2002-01-01

    In Austria in 1999, a Diabetes screening program was carried out by the Austrian Diabetes Association and by Novo Nordisk and Roche Diagnostics with a special equipped bus touring through more than 90 cities. The population was invited to a screening of blood glucose (random), blood pressure, body weight und serum-cholesterol. The diabetes risk was evaluated by history and familiar burden with a questionnaire. The results were handed over to the visitors and their general practitioners, and a copy was used for anonymously analysis.

  2. A generalized memory test algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, E. J.

    1982-01-01

    A general algorithm for testing digital computer memory is presented. The test checks that (1) every bit can be cleared and set in each memory work, and (2) bits are not erroneously cleared and/or set elsewhere in memory at the same time. The algorithm can be applied to any size memory block and any size memory word. It is concise and efficient, requiring the very few cycles through memory. For example, a test of 16-bit-word-size memory requries only 384 cycles through memory. Approximately 15 seconds were required to test a 32K block of such memory, using a microcomputer having a cycle time of 133 nanoseconds.

  3. Varieties of the generality constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Clapp

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction by Evans (1982, the generality constraint (GC has been invoked by various philosophers for different purposes. Our purpose here is, first, to clarify what precisely the GC states by way of an interpretive framework, the GC Schema, and second, to demonstrate in terms of this framework some problems that arise if one invokes the GC (or systematicity without clearly specifying an appropriate interpretation. By utilizing the GC Schema these sorts of problems can be avoided, and we thus propose it as a tool to facilitate argumentation that appeals to the GC.

  4. On general Earth's rotation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumberg, V.; Ivanova, T.

    2009-09-01

    This paper dealing with the general problem of the rigid-body rotation of the three-axial Earth represents a straightforward extension of (Brumberg and Ivanova, 2007) where the simplified Poisson equations of rotation of the axially symmetrical Earth have been considered. The aim of the present paper is to reduce the equations of the translatory motion of the major planets and the Moon and the equations of the Earth's rotation around its centre of mass to the secular system describing the evolution of the planetary and lunar orbits (independent of the Earth's rotation) and the evolution of the Earth's rotation (depending on the planetary and lunar evolution).

  5. General equilibrium without utility functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balasko, Yves; Tvede, Mich

    2010-01-01

    How far can we go in weakening the assumptions of the general equilibrium model? Existence of equilibrium, structural stability and finiteness of equilibria of regular economies, genericity of regular economies and an index formula for the equilibria of regular economies have been known...... and the diffeomorphism of the equilibrium manifold with a Euclidean space; (2) the diffeomorphism of the set of no-trade equilibria with a Euclidean space; (3) the openness and genericity of the set of regular equilibria as a subset of the equilibrium manifold; (4) for small trade vectors, the uniqueness, regularity...... and stability of equilibrium for two version of tatonnement; (5) the pathconnectedness of the sets of stable equilibria....

  6. Results from Numerical General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    For several years numerical simulations have been revealing the details of general relativity's predictions for the dynamical interactions of merging black holes. I will review what has been learned of the rich phenomenology of these mergers and the resulting gravitational wave signatures. These wave forms provide a potentially observable record of the powerful astronomical events, a central target of gravitational wave astronomy. Asymmetric radiation can produce a thrust on the system which may accelerate the single black hole resulting from the merger to high relative velocity.

  7. On Generalized Fractional Differentiator Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid A. Jalab

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By employing the generalized fractional differential operator, we introduce a system of fractional order derivative for a uniformly sampled polynomial signal. The calculation of the bring in signal depends on the additive combination of the weighted bring-in of N cascaded digital differentiators. The weights are imposed in a closed formula containing the Stirling numbers of the first kind. The approach taken in this work is to consider that signal function in terms of Newton series. The convergence of the system to a fractional time differentiator is discussed.

  8. Numerical Hydrodynamics in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Font José A.

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The current status of numerical solutions for the equations of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics is reviewed. Different formulations of the equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well-adapted to advanced numerical methods. A representative sample of available numerical schemes is discussed and particular emphasis is paid to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. A comprehensive summary of relevant astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields, including gravitational collapse, accretion onto black holes and evolution of neutron stars, is also presented.

  9. 14 CFR Section 2 - General Accounting Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General Accounting Policies Section 2 Section 2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... General Accounting Provisions Section 2 General Accounting Policies ...

  10. A generalized sense of number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Roberto; Togoli, Irene; Burr, David C

    2014-12-22

    Much evidence has accumulated to suggest that many animals, including young human infants, possess an abstract sense of approximate quantity, a number sense. Most research has concentrated on apparent numerosity of spatial arrays of dots or other objects, but a truly abstract sense of number should be capable of encoding the numerosity of any set of discrete elements, however displayed and in whatever sensory modality. Here, we use the psychophysical technique of adaptation to study the sense of number for serially presented items. We show that numerosity of both auditory and visual sequences is greatly affected by prior adaptation to slow or rapid sequences of events. The adaptation to visual stimuli was spatially selective (in external, not retinal coordinates), pointing to a sensory rather than cognitive process. However, adaptation generalized across modalities, from auditory to visual and vice versa. Adaptation also generalized across formats: adapting to sequential streams of flashes affected the perceived numerosity of spatial arrays. All these results point to a perceptual system that transcends vision and audition to encode an abstract sense of number in space and in time.

  11. Using MIQUEST in General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Hammersley

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes ten months' experience with MIQUEST software used for the collection of data from computerised databases in General Practice. We report on the following: the MIQUEST software in use, the time costs to the practice, the completeness of confidentiality barriers and the accuracy of data collected using MIQUEST compared with similar data collected by the practice system (EMIS. There were no problems encountered with installation of MIQUEST-related software. With experience, MIQUEST was equal to the practice system for speed and ease of use. The confidentiality safeguards were found to be in accordance with the GMSC/RCGP Guidelines - patients could not be directly, or indirectly, identified from the data extracted by external searches. Inaccuracies in the data collected using MIQUEST were identified, but these were largely attributable to problems with the EMIS-written interpreter available on the practice system at the time, or with the coding schemes used by the practice. In an individual practice, MIQUEST represents an alternative data collection method to the practice-based software. For data collection from multiple general practices it should prove an invaluable tool for Health Authorities and research organisations.

  12. Two generalizations of Kohonen clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, James C.; Pal, Nikhil R.; Tsao, Eric C. K.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between the sequential hard c-means (SHCM), learning vector quantization (LVQ), and fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithms is discussed. LVQ and SHCM suffer from several major problems. For example, they depend heavily on initialization. If the initial values of the cluster centers are outside the convex hull of the input data, such algorithms, even if they terminate, may not produce meaningful results in terms of prototypes for cluster representation. This is due in part to the fact that they update only the winning prototype for every input vector. The impact and interaction of these two families with Kohonen's self-organizing feature mapping (SOFM), which is not a clustering method, but which often leads ideas to clustering algorithms is discussed. Then two generalizations of LVQ that are explicitly designed as clustering algorithms are presented; these algorithms are referred to as generalized LVQ = GLVQ; and fuzzy LVQ = FLVQ. Learning rules are derived to optimize an objective function whose goal is to produce 'good clusters'. GLVQ/FLVQ (may) update every node in the clustering net for each input vector. Neither GLVQ nor FLVQ depends upon a choice for the update neighborhood or learning rate distribution - these are taken care of automatically. Segmentation of a gray tone image is used as a typical application of these algorithms to illustrate the performance of GLVQ/FLVQ.

  13. Epilepsy care in general practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varley, J

    2009-06-01

    Epilepsy care in Ireland is shared between primary, secondary and tertiary care services with the General Practitioner (GP) managing the process. Barriers to effective epilepsy care in Irish general practice remain undocumented although sub-optimal and fragmented services are frequently anecdotally reported. This survey of Irish GPs reports on such barriers to epilepsy care and on the Information & Communication Technology (ICT) issues potentially relevant to the use of an epilepsy specific Electronic Patient Record (EPR). The response rate was 247\\/700 (35.3%). Respondents supported the concept of shared care for epilepsy 237 (96%) however they were very dissatisfied with existing neurology services, including pathways of referral 207 (84%) and access to specialist neurology advice and investigations 232 (94%). They reported that neurology services and investigations may be accessed more expeditiously by patients with private health insurance than those without 178 (72%). Consequently many patients are referred to the emergency department for assessment and treatment 180 (73%). A deficit in epilepsy care expertise among GPs was acknowledged 86 (35%). While computerisation of GP practices appears widespread 230 (93%), just over half the respondents utilise available electronic functionalities specific to chronic disease management. GP specific electronic systems infrequently link or communicate with external electronic sources 133 (54%). While the current pathways of care for epilepsy in Ireland appear fragmented and inadequate, further investigations to determine the quality and cost effectiveness of the current service are required.

  14. Numerical Hydrodynamics in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Font José A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The current status of numerical solutions for the equations of ideal general relativistic hydrodynamics is reviewed. With respect to an earlier version of the article, the present update provides additional information on numerical schemes, and extends the discussion of astrophysical simulations in general relativistic hydrodynamics. Different formulations of the equations are presented, with special mention of conservative and hyperbolic formulations well-adapted to advanced numerical methods. A large sample of available numerical schemes is discussed, paying particular attention to solution procedures based on schemes exploiting the characteristic structure of the equations through linearized Riemann solvers. A comprehensive summary of astrophysical simulations in strong gravitational fields is presented. These include gravitational collapse, accretion onto black holes, and hydrodynamical evolutions of neutron stars. The material contained in these sections highlights the numerical challenges of various representative simulations. It also follows, to some extent, the chronological development of the field, concerning advances on the formulation of the gravitational field and hydrodynamic equations and the numerical methodology designed to solve them.

  15. Generalized Dandelin’s Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheyfets, A. L.

    2017-11-01

    The paper gives a geometric proof of the theorem which states that in case of the plane section of a second-order surface of rotation (quadrics of rotation, QR), such conics as an ellipse, a hyperbola or a parabola (types of conic sections) are formed. The theorem supplements the well-known Dandelin’s theorem which gives the geometric proof only for a circular cone and applies the proof to all QR, namely an ellipsoid, a hyperboloid, a paraboloid and a cylinder. That’s why the considered theorem is known as the generalized Dandelin’s theorem (GDT). The GDT proof is based on a relatively unknown generalized directrix definition (GDD) of conics. The work outlines the GDD proof for all types of conics as their necessary and sufficient condition. Based on the GDD, the author proves the GDT for all QR in case of a random position of the cutting plane. The graphical stereometric structures necessary for the proof are given. The implementation of the structures by 3d computer methods is considered. The article shows the examples of the builds made in the AutoCAD package. The theorem is intended for the training course of theoretical training of elite student groups of architectural and construction specialties.

  16. Generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowitsch, Jonathan; Ge, Yan; Young, Benjamin; Hu, Feifang

    2012-12-10

    Dynamic allocation has received considerable attention since it was first proposed in the 1970s as an alternative means of allocating treatments in clinical trials which helps to secure the balance of prognostic factors across treatment groups. The purpose of this paper is to present a generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method that simultaneously balances treatment assignments at three key levels: within the overall study, within each level of each prognostic factor, and within each stratum, that is, combination of levels of different factors Further it offers capabilities for unbalanced and adaptive designs for trials. The treatment balancing performance of the proposed method is investigated through simulations which compare multidimensional dynamic allocation with traditional stratified block randomization and the Pocock-Simon method. On the basis of these results, we conclude that this generalized multidimensional dynamic allocation method is an improvement over conventional dynamic allocation methods and is flexible enough to be applied for most trial settings including Phases I, II and III trials. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Operational Approach to Generalized Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartino, Salvatore; DeSiena, Silvio

    1996-01-01

    Generalized coherent states for general potentials, constructed through a controlling mechanism, can also be obtained applying on a reference state suitable operators. An explicit example is supplied.

  18. Lymphoma in acquired generalized lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rebecca J; Chan, Jean L; Jaffe, Elaine S; Cochran, Elaine; DePaoli, Alex M; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Goujard, Cecile; Vigouroux, Corinne; Gorden, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is a rare disease thought to result from autoimmune destruction of adipose tissue. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) has been reported in two AGL patients. We report five additional cases of lymphoma in AGL, and analyze the role of underlying autoimmunity and recombinant human leptin (metreleptin) replacement in lymphoma development. Three patients developed lymphoma during metreleptin treatment (two PTCL and one ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma), and two developed lymphomas (mycosis fungoides and Burkitt lymphoma) without metreleptin. AGL is associated with high risk for lymphoma, especially PTCL. Autoimmunity likely contributes to this risk. Lymphoma developed with or without metreleptin, suggesting metreleptin does not directly cause lymphoma development; a theoretical role of metreleptin in lymphoma progression remains possible. For most patients with AGL and severe metabolic complications, the proven benefits of metreleptin on metabolic disease will likely outweigh theoretical risks of metreleptin in lymphoma development or progression.

  19. Generalized helicity and Beltrami fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buniy, Roman V., E-mail: roman.buniy@gmail.com [Schmid College of Science, Chapman University, Orange, CA 92866 (United States); Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0EH (United Kingdom); Kephart, Thomas W., E-mail: tom.kephart@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Isaac Newton Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0EH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    We propose covariant and non-abelian generalizations of the magnetic helicity and Beltrami equation. The gauge invariance, variational principle, conserved current, energy–momentum tensor and choice of boundary conditions elucidate the subject. In particular, we prove that any extremal of the Yang–Mills action functional 1/4 ∫{sub Ω}trF{sub μν}F{sup μν}d{sup 4}x subject to the local constraint ε{sup μναβ}trF{sub μν}F{sub αβ}=0 satisfies the covariant non-abelian Beltrami equation. -- Highlights: •We introduce the covariant non-abelian helicity and Beltrami equation. •The Yang–Mills action and instanton term constraint lead to the Beltrami equation. •Solutions of the Beltrami equation conserve helicity.

  20. Six basics for general managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A E

    1989-01-01

    To sum up, outstanding GMs affect their companies in six important ways. They develop a distinctive work environment; spearhead innovative strategic thinking; manage company resources productively; direct the people development and deployment process; build a dynamic organization; and oversee day-to-day operations. Individually, none of these things is totally new or unique. But successful GMs are better at seeing the interrelationships among these six areas, setting priorities, and making the right things happen. As a result, their activities in these areas make a coherent and consistent pattern that moves the business forward. These six responsibilities don't tell the whole story, of course. Leadership skills and the GM's personal style and experience are important pieces of the whole. But focusing effort in these six areas will help any GM become more effective. And that should mean making the right things happen faster and more often--which is what all of us want to achieve as general managers.

  1. Stochastic Generalized Method of Moments

    KAUST Repository

    Yin, Guosheng

    2011-08-16

    The generalized method of moments (GMM) is a very popular estimation and inference procedure based on moment conditions. When likelihood-based methods are difficult to implement, one can often derive various moment conditions and construct the GMM objective function. However, minimization of the objective function in the GMM may be challenging, especially over a large parameter space. Due to the special structure of the GMM, we propose a new sampling-based algorithm, the stochastic GMM sampler, which replaces the multivariate minimization problem by a series of conditional sampling procedures. We develop the theoretical properties of the proposed iterative Monte Carlo method, and demonstrate its superior performance over other GMM estimation procedures in simulation studies. As an illustration, we apply the stochastic GMM sampler to a Medfly life longevity study. Supplemental materials for the article are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association.

  2. Seismic migration in generalized coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, C.; Duque, L. F.

    2017-06-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is a technique widely used nowadays to obtain images of the earth’s sub-surface, using artificially produced seismic waves. This technique has been developed for zones with flat surface and when applied to zones with rugged topography some corrections must be introduced in order to adapt it. This can produce defects in the final image called artifacts. We introduce a simple mathematical map that transforms a scenario with rugged topography into a flat one. The three steps of the RTM can be applied in a way similar to the conventional ones just by changing the Laplacian in the acoustic wave equation for a generalized one. We present a test of this technique using the Canadian foothills SEG velocity model.

  3. General Purpose Heat Source Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Bill

    2008-01-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) simulator project is designed to replicate through the use of electrical heaters, the form, fit, and function of actual GPHS modules which generate heat through the radioactive decay of Pu238. The use of electrically heated modules rather than modules containing Pu238 facilitates the testing of spacecraft subsystems and systems without sacrificing the quantity and quality of the test data gathered. Previous GPHS activities are centered around developing robust heater designs with sizes and weights that closely matched those of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks. These efforts were successful, although their maximum temperature capabilities were limited to around 850 C. New designs are being pursued which also replicate the sizes and weights of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks but will allow operation up to 1100 C.

  4. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  5. A Generalized DRM Architectural Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIU, V. V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Online digital goods distribution environment lead to the need for a system to protect digital intellectual property. Digital Rights Management (DRM is the system born to protect and control distribution and use of those digital assets. The present paper is a review of the current state of DRM, focusing on architectural design, security technologies, and important DRM deployments. The paper primarily synthesizes DRM architectures within a general framework. We also present DRM ecosystem as providing a better understanding of what is currently happening to content rights management from a technological point of view. This paper includes conclusions of several DRM initiative studies, related to rights management systems with the purpose of identifying and describing the most significant DRM architectural models. The basic functions and processes of the DRM solutions are identified.

  6. General Relativity, Time and Determinism

    CERN Document Server

    Isenberg, James

    2016-01-01

    Einstein's theory of general relativity models the physical universe using spacetimes which satisfy Einstein's gravitational field equations. To date, Einstein's theory has been enormously successful in modeling observed gravitational phenomena, both at the astrophysical and the cosmological levels. The collection of spacetime solutions of Einstein's equations which have been effectively used for modeling the physical universe is a very small subset of the full set of solutions. Among this larger set, there are many spacetimes in which strange phenomena related to time are present: There are solutions containing regions in which determinism and the predictability of experimental outcomes breaks down (the Taub-NUT spacetimes), and there others in which the breakdown of determinism occurs everywhere (the G\\"odel universe). Should the existence of these strange solutions lead us to question the usefulness of Einstein's theory in modeling physical phenomena? Should it instead lead us to seriously search for stran...

  7. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Steven P. (Compiler)

    2016-01-01

    This is a software tutorial and presentation demonstrating the application of the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) to the critical design phase of NASA missions. The demonstration discusses GMAT basics, then presents a detailed example of GMAT application to the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. Other examples include OSIRIS-Rex. This talk is a combination of existing presentations; a GMAT basics and overview, and technical presentations from the TESS and OSIRIS-REx projects on their application of GMAT to critical mission design. The GMAT basics slides are taken from the open source training material. The OSIRIS-REx slides are from a previous conference presentation. The TESS slides are a streamlined version of the CDR package provided by the project with SBU and ITAR data removed by the TESS project.

  8. Brownian Motion and General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    O'Hara, Paul

    2013-01-01

    We construct a model of Brownian Motion on a pseudo-Riemannian manifold associated with general relativity. There are two aspects of the problem: The first is to define a sequence of stopping times associated with the Brownian "kicks" or impulses. The second is to define the dynamics of the particle along geodesics in between the Brownian kicks. When these two aspects are taken together, we can associate various distributions with the motion. We will find that the statistics of space-time events will obey a temperature dependent four dimensional Gaussian distribution defined over the quaternions which locally can be identified with Minkowski space. Analogously, the statistics of the 4-velocities will obey a kind of Maxwell-Juttner distribution. In contrast to previous work, our processes are characterized by two independent proper time variables defined with respect to the laboratory frame: a discrete one corresponding to the stopping times when the impulses take place and a continuous one corresponding to th...

  9. General introduction to simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette

    2012-01-01

    trials. However, if simulation models would be used, good quality input data must be available. To model FMD, several disease spread models are available. For this project, we chose three simulation model; Davis Animal Disease Spread (DADS), that has been upgraded to DTU-DADS, InterSpread Plus (ISP......) and the North American Animal Disease Spread Model (NAADSM). The models are rather data intensive, but in varying degrees. They generally demand data on the farm level, including farm location, type, number of animals, and movement and contact frequency to other farms. To be able to generate a useful model...... of FMD spread that can provide useful and trustworthy advises, there are four important issues, which the model should represent: 1) The herd structure of the country in question, 2) the dynamics of animal movements and contacts between herds, 3) the biology of the disease, and 4) the regulations...

  10. Are general quantum correlations monogamous?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streltsov, Alexander; Bruss, Dagmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany); Adesso, Gerardo [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Piani, Marco [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Quantum entanglement and quantum non-locality are known to exhibit monogamy; that is, they obey strong constraints on how they can be distributed among multipartite systems. Quantum correlations that comprise and go beyond entanglement are quantified by, e.g., quantum discord. It was observed recently that for some states quantum discord is not monogamous. We prove, in general, that any measure of correlations that is monogamous for all states and satisfies reasonable basic properties must vanish for all separable states: only entanglement measures can be strictly monogamous. Monogamy of other than entanglement measures can still be satisfied for special, restricted cases: we prove that the geometric measure of discord satisfies the monogamy inequality on all pure states of three qubits.

  11. Spacecraft Tests of General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Current spacecraft tests of general relativity depend on coherent radio tracking referred to atomic frequency standards at the ground stations. This paper addresses the possibility of improved tests using essentially the current system, but with the added possibility of a space-borne atomic clock. Outside of the obvious measurement of the gravitational frequency shift of the spacecraft clock, a successor to the suborbital flight of a Scout D rocket in 1976 (GP-A Project), other metric tests would benefit most directly by a possible improved sensitivity for the reduced coherent data. For purposes of illustration, two possible missions are discussed. The first is a highly eccentric Earth orbiter, and the second a solar-conjunction experiment to measure the Shapiro time delay using coherent Doppler data instead of the conventional ranging modulation.

  12. Generalizing cell segmentation and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhou; Li, Haixing

    2017-03-23

    In recent years, the microscopy technology for imaging cells has developed greatly and rapidly. The accompanying requirements for automatic segmentation and quantification of the imaged cells are becoming more and more. After studied widely in both scientific research and industrial applications for many decades, cell segmentation has achieved great progress, especially in segmenting some specific types of cells, e.g. muscle cells. However, it lacks a framework to address the cell segmentation problems generally. On the contrary, different segmentation methods were proposed to address the different types of cells, which makes the research work divergent. In addition, most of the popular segmentation and quantification tools usually require a great part of manual work. To make the cell segmentation work more convergent, we propose a framework that is able to segment different kinds of cells automatically and robustly in this paper. This framework evolves the previously proposed method in segmenting the muscle cells and generalizes it to be suitable for segmenting and quantifying a variety of cell images by adding more union cases. Compared to the previous methods, the segmentation and quantification accuracy of the proposed framework is also improved by three novel procedures: (1) a simplified calibration method is proposed and added for the threshold selection process; (2) a noise blob filter is proposed to get rid of the noise blobs. (3) a boundary smoothing filter is proposed to reduce the false seeds produced by the iterative erosion. As it turned out, the quantification accuracy of the proposed framework increases from 93.4 to 96.8% compared to the previous method. In addition, the accuracy of the proposed framework is also better in quantifying the muscle cells than two available state-of-the-art methods. The proposed framework is able to automatically segment and quantify more types of cells than state-of-the-art methods.

  13. Generalized analysis of molecular variance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Nievergelt

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Many studies in the fields of genetic epidemiology and applied population genetics are predicated on, or require, an assessment of the genetic background diversity of the individuals chosen for study. A number of strategies have been developed for assessing genetic background diversity. These strategies typically focus on genotype data collected on the individuals in the study, based on a panel of DNA markers. However, many of these strategies are either rooted in cluster analysis techniques, and hence suffer from problems inherent to the assignment of the biological and statistical meaning to resulting clusters, or have formulations that do not permit easy and intuitive extensions. We describe a very general approach to the problem of assessing genetic background diversity that extends the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA strategy introduced by Excoffier and colleagues some time ago. As in the original AMOVA strategy, the proposed approach, termed generalized AMOVA (GAMOVA, requires a genetic similarity matrix constructed from the allelic profiles of individuals under study and/or allele frequency summaries of the populations from which the individuals have been sampled. The proposed strategy can be used to either estimate the fraction of genetic variation explained by grouping factors such as country of origin, race, or ethnicity, or to quantify the strength of the relationship of the observed genetic background variation to quantitative measures collected on the subjects, such as blood pressure levels or anthropometric measures. Since the formulation of our test statistic is rooted in multivariate linear models, sets of variables can be related to genetic background in multiple regression-like contexts. GAMOVA can also be used to complement graphical representations of genetic diversity such as tree diagrams (dendrograms or heatmaps. We examine features, advantages, and power of the proposed procedure and showcase its flexibility by

  14. Securitization: A state attorney general`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, F.J.

    1997-10-01

    Securitization will put hundreds of millions of dollars in the hands of utilities and line the pockets of Wall Street bankers, but it`s a highly dubious proposition for consumers and advocates of competition. Investor-owned utilities are not just salivating over large stranded cost recovery for past uneconomic decisions, but are dreaming of billions of dollars of up-front cash that securitization will provide. Whether the utilities sense any {open_quotes}ill a brewing,{close_quotes} the author does not know, but he believes that once the particulars of securitization are brought to the light of day, public pressures will mount and will indeed bring {open_quotes}some ill a-brewing{close_quotes} to the morass known as securitization. Securitization has arisen as a means by which utilities can recover their stranded costs. Under the pending concept of securitization, utilities calculate their estimated future losses and then offer bonds on the open market equal to the amount of stranded costs they wish to recover. This article addresses the myriad shortcomings of the securitization process from the perspective of the general public. It does not address whether any level of stranded cost recovery, in and of itself, is appropriate, but assumes, for the sake of argument, that utilities will be permitted some level of stranded cost recovery and addresses only the question of whether securitization is the proper vehicle for recovery of those costs.

  15. Generalized spin Sutherland systems revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fehér

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present generalizations of the spin Sutherland systems obtained earlier by Blom and Langmann and by Polychronakos in two different ways: from SU(n Yang–Mills theory on the cylinder and by constraining geodesic motion on the N-fold direct product of SU(n with itself, for any N>1. Our systems are in correspondence with the Dynkin diagram automorphisms of arbitrary connected and simply connected compact simple Lie groups. We give a finite-dimensional as well as an infinite-dimensional derivation and shed light on the mechanism whereby they lead to the same classical integrable systems. The infinite-dimensional approach, based on twisted current algebras (alias Yang–Mills with twisted boundary conditions, was inspired by the derivation of the spinless Sutherland model due to Gorsky and Nekrasov. The finite-dimensional method relies on Hamiltonian reduction under twisted conjugations of N-fold direct product groups, linking the quantum mechanics of the reduced systems to representation theory similarly as was explored previously in the N=1 case.

  16. General lighting requirements for photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiger, D.R. [Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A review of the general lighting requirements for photosynthesis reveals that four aspects of light are important: irradiance, quality, timing and duration. These properties of light affect photosynthesis by providing the energy that drives carbon assimilation as well as by exerting control over physiology, structure and morphology of plants. Irradiance, expressed as energy flux, W m{sup -2}, or photon irradiance, {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, determines the rate at which energy is being delivered to the photosynthetic reaction centers. Spectral quality, the wavelength composition of light, is important because photons differ in their probability of being absorbed by the light harvesting complex and hence their ability to drive carbon assimilation. Also the various light receptors for light-mediated regulation of plant form and physiology have characteristic absorption spectra and hence photons differ in their effectiveness for eliciting responses. Duration is important because both carbon assimilation and regulation are affected by the total energy or integrated irradiance delivered during a given period. Many processes associated with photosynthesis are time-dependent, increasing or decreasing with duration. Timing is important because the effectiveness of light in the regulation of plant processes varies with the phase of the diumal cycle as determined by the plant`s time-measuring mechanisms.

  17. Generalization of exotic quark searches

    CERN Document Server

    Garberson, F

    2013-01-01

    General limits on exotic heavy quarks T, B and X with masses above 300 GeV are presented for arbitrary branching fractions of T=>Wb, T=>Zt, T=>Ht, B=>Wt, B=>Zb, B=>Hb and X=>Wt. The results are based on a CMS search in final states with three isolated leptons (electron or muon) or two isolated leptons with the same electric charge. Exotic heavy quark pair production through the strong interaction is considered. In the context of vector-like quark models, T quarks with a mass mT < 480 GeV and mT < 550 GeV are excluded for weak isospin singlets and doublets, respectively, and B quarks with a mass mB < 480 GeV are excluded for singlets, all at 95% confidence level. Mass limits at 95% confidence level for T and B singlets, (T,B) doublets and (X,T) doublets are presented as a function of the corresponding heavy quark masses. For equal mass mT = mB and mX = mT vector-like quarks are excluded at 95% confidence level with masses below 550 GeV for T and B singlets, 640 GeV for a (T,B) doublet and 640 GeV for ...

  18. Generalized Selection Weighted Vector Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Lukac

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a class of nonlinear multichannel filters capable of removing impulsive noise in color images. The here-proposed generalized selection weighted vector filter class constitutes a powerful filtering framework for multichannel signal processing. Previously defined multichannel filters such as vector median filter, basic vector directional filter, directional-distance filter, weighted vector median filters, and weighted vector directional filters are treated from a global viewpoint using the proposed framework. Robust order-statistic concepts and increased degree of freedom in filter design make the proposed method attractive for a variety of applications. Introduced multichannel sigmoidal adaptation of the filter parameters and its modifications allow to accommodate the filter parameters to varying signal and noise statistics. Simulation studies reported in this paper indicate that the proposed filter class is computationally attractive, yields excellent performance, and is able to preserve fine details and color information while efficiently suppressing impulsive noise. This paper is an extended version of the paper by Lukac et al. presented at the 2003 IEEE-EURASIP Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing (NSIP '03 in Grado, Italy.

  19. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Paiva Pires

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  20. Generalization of the Born rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Bruno

    2008-10-01

    An alternative formulation of quantum mechanics is proposed based on a principle that can be considered a generalization of the Born rule. The principle is composed of a mathematical expression and an associated interpretation, and establishes a correlation between the positions of a particle at two different times. Under reasonable conditions for the wave function, this correlation implies that the particles follow quasiclassical trajectories. It is also shown that the Born rule is equivalent to a particular case of the evolved principle. These features allow the principle to provide a unified explanation of the results of the statistical experiments and of the quasiclassical macroscopic evolution. There is a strong analogy between the quantum principle and a probabilistic principle which is necessary to derive empirical predictions from the mathematical formalism of probability theory. This principle is referred to by some authors as Cournot’s principle, while other authors use the equivalent notion of typicality. In this paper probability theory and quantum mechanics are formulated in such a way as to explicitly include the two principles and to emphasize the very similar conceptual structure of the two theories.

  1. Evolution of general transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunbin, K V; Ruvinsky, A

    2013-02-01

    Three genes GTF2IRD1, GTF2I, and GTF2IRD2, which encode members of the GTF2I (or TFII-I) family of so-called general transcription factors, were discovered and studied during the last two decades. Chromosome location and similarity of exon-intron structures suggest that the family evolved by duplications. The initial duplication of ancestral proto-GTF2IRD1 gene likely occurred in early vertebrates prior to origin of cartilaginous fish and led to formation of GTF2I (>450 MYA), which was later lost in bony fish but successfully evolved in the land vertebrates. The second duplication event, which created GTF2IRD2, occurred prior to major radiation events of eutherian mammalian evolution (>100 MYA). During recent steps of primate evolution there was another duplication which led to formation of GTF2IRD2B (evolution of the genes. The atypical substitutions are often located on secondary structures joining α-helices and affect 3D arrangement of the protein globule. Such substitutions are commonly traced at the early stages of evolution in Tetrapoda, Amniota, and Mammalia.

  2. Generalized sarcoidosis in two horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijerkerk, E P R; Veldhuis Kroeze, E J B; Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M

    2008-08-15

    Equine sarcoidosis is a rare disorder usually characterized by exfoliative dermatitis, moderate to severe wasting, and sarcoidal granulomatous inflammation of multiple organ systems. It has an unknown aetiopathogenesis. The condition is not related to equine sarcoid. This case report describes generalized cutaneous and systemic sarcoidosis in an 11-year-old Trakehner mare (case A) and in a 7-year-old Dutch Warmblood gelding (case B). Case A was presented with cutaneous sarcoidosis on the head and body and was diagnosed on the basis of histological examination of skin. Case B presented with multiple subcutaneous nodules (2-15 cm in diameter) and the diagnosis was established at postmortem examination. Both horses showed distinctive histology of the skin with extensive lymphohistiocytic infiltration and Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells. Haematology and biochemistry revealed a normal total white blood cell count with a right shift in both horses. Case B was anaemic and had a slightly elevated total protein concentration with hyperglobulinaemia. Both horses were unresponsive to corticosteroids and were euthanized.

  3. Profilaxis antimicrobiana preoperatoria. Principios generales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Hernández Vargas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:describir la importancia de la antibioticoterapia en la profilaxis perioperatoria de las infecciones quirúrgicas. Desarrollo:se realizó una revisión y análisis sobre los principios generales de la profilaxis antimicrobiana perioperatoria orientada a la descripción de sus indicaciones y a los principios para su uso, así como los principales criterios emitidos relacionados con su selección y evaluación en diferentes procederes quirúrgicos. Muchos autores refieren que la utilización adecuada y racional de la profilaxis antimicrobiana perioperatoria es un elemento básico de buena práctica médica y su concepción preventiva juega un papel importante en el campo de la cirugía. Las normas de la profilaxis antimicrobiana están establecidas de acuerdo con el tipo de cirugía a efectuar. La selección del fármaco a utilizar debe hacerse sobre la base de los datos locales de la microbiota y los perfiles de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana prevalentes. Conclusiones: la aplicación de una correcta profilaxis antimicrobiana quirúrgica disminuye la tasa de sepsis posoperatoria, la estadía y los costos hospitalarios, así como un menor número de estudios microbiológicos a realizar y reduce el riesgo de resistencia bacteriana e infecciones cruzadas.

  4. Muons and electrons in general

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodulman, L.; Bensinger, J.

    1983-01-01

    We address the problem of simultaneously identifying electrons and muons in a general-purpose detector at a luminosity of 10/sup 33/ cm/sup -2/sec/sup -1/. Those discoveries and important measurements which are reasonably well predicted now are under way and likely to be fairly complete before turn on. The signatures of new effects to be found at high rates are not well predicted, and for flexibility it may be necessary to look simultaneously for some combination of jets, missing E/sub T/, electrons, and muons. This leads immediately to an open geometry with magnetic tracking and calorimetry. At high luminosity, getting out trigger informtion quickly is a prime concern. Note that if a given signature requires isolating individual events then even for an optimistic integration time of 20 ns, the optimal luminosity is about 2x10/sup 32/cm/sup -2/sec/sup -1/. We have not had the opportunity to be very specific in design or to consider the extended momentum range implied by 10 to 20 TeV collisions.

  5. Generalized vector calculus on convex domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Om P.; Xu, Yufeng

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we apply recently proposed generalized integral and differential operators to develop generalized vector calculus and generalized variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In particular, we present some generalization of Green's and Gauss divergence theorems involving some new operators, and apply these theorems to generalized variational calculus. For fractional power kernels, the formulation leads to fractional vector calculus and fractional variational calculus for problems defined over a convex domain. In special cases, when certain parameters take integer values, we obtain formulations for integer order problems. Two examples are presented to demonstrate applications of the generalized variational calculus which utilize the generalized vector calculus developed in the paper. The first example leads to a generalized partial differential equation and the second example leads to a generalized eigenvalue problem, both in two dimensional convex domains. We solve the generalized partial differential equation by using polynomial approximation. A special case of the second example is a generalized isoperimetric problem. We find an approximate solution to this problem. Many physical problems containing integer order integrals and derivatives are defined over arbitrary domains. We speculate that future problems containing fractional and generalized integrals and derivatives in fractional mechanics will be defined over arbitrary domains, and therefore, a general variational calculus incorporating a general vector calculus will be needed for these problems. This research is our first attempt in that direction.

  6. Intercultural communication in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wieringen, Joke C M; Harmsen, Johannes A M; Bruijnzeels, Marc A

    2002-03-01

    Little is known about the causes of problems in communication between health care professionals and ethnic-minority patients. Not only language difficulties, but also cultural differences may result in these problems. This study explores the influence of communication and patient beliefs about health (care) and disease on understanding and compliance of native-born and ethnic-minority patients. In this descriptive study seven general practices located in a multi-ethnic neighbourhood in Rotterdam participated. Eighty-seven parents who visited their GP with a child for a new health problem took part: more than 50% of them belonged to ethnic-minorities. The consultation between GP and patient was recorded on video and a few days after the consultation patients were interviewed at home. GPs filled out a short questionnaire immediately after the consultation. Patient beliefs and previous experiences with health care were measured by different questionnaires in the home interview. Communication was analysed using the Roter Interaction Analysis System based on the videos. Mutual understanding between GP and patient and therapy compliance was assessed by comparing GP's questionnaires with the home interview with the parents. In 33% of the consultations with ethnic-minority patients (versus 13% with native-born patients) mutual understanding was poor. Different aspects of communication had no influence on mutual understanding. Problems in the relationship with the GP, as experienced by patients, showed a significant relation with mutual understanding. Consultations without mutual understanding more often ended in non-compliance with the prescribed therapy. Ethnic-minority parents more often report problems in their relationship with the GP and they have different beliefs about health and health care from native-born parents. Good relationships between GP and patients are necessary for mutual understanding. Mutual understanding has a strong correlation with compliance

  7. Type one generalized Calabi-Yaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Michael; Cavalcanti, Gil R.; Gualtieri, Marco

    2017-10-01

    We study type one generalized complex and generalized Calabi-Yau manifolds. We introduce a cohomology class that obstructs the existence of a globally defined, closed 2-form which agrees with the symplectic form on the leaves of the generalized complex structure, the twisting class. We prove that in a compact, type one, 4 n-dimensional generalized complex manifold the Euler characteristic must be even and equal to the signature modulo four. The generalized Calabi-Yau condition places much stronger constraints: a compact type one generalized Calabi-Yau fibers over the 2-torus and if the structure has one compact leaf, then this fibration can be chosen to be the fibration by the symplectic leaves of the generalized complex structure. If the twisting class vanishes, one can always deform the structure so that it has a compact leaf. Finally we prove that every symplectic fibration over the 2-torus admits a type one generalized Calabi-Yau structure.

  8. Ramsey Theory on Generalized Baire Space

    OpenAIRE

    Hathaway, Dan

    2017-01-01

    We show that although the Galvin-Prikry Theorem does not hold on generalized Baire space with the standard topology, there are similar theorems which do hold on generalized Baire space with certain coarser topologies.

  9. 7 CFR 2610.1 - General statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Advise the Secretary and General Officers in the planning, development, and execution of Department... the IG has responsibility. (vii) Report expeditiously to the Attorney General any matter where there...

  10. Generalization performance of regularized neural network models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1994-01-01

    Architecture optimization is a fundamental problem of neural network modeling. The optimal architecture is defined as the one which minimizes the generalization error. This paper addresses estimation of the generalization performance of regularized, complete neural network models. Regularization...

  11. Mathematical Articles for the general public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2003-01-01

    Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society.......Report on an article competition for mathematical articles addressing the general public arranged by the European Mathematical Society....

  12. Perturbative dynamics of quantum general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Donoghue, John F.

    1997-01-01

    The quantum theory of General Relativity at low energy exists and is of the form called "effective field theory". In this talk I describe the ideas of effective field theory and its application to General Relativity.

  13. Extended generalized exponential power series distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjiratanachot, Natcha; Bodhisuwan, Winai

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Topp-Leone generalized exponential power series class of distributions. It is obtained by compounding the Topp-Leone generalized exponential distribution and the power series family. This new class of distributions can be applied in reliability of parallel system with identical components, where lifetime of each component has the Topp-Leone generalized exponential distribution. The proposed distribution contains several lifetime models such as the Topp-Leone generalized exponential-geometric, Topp-Leone generalized exponential-binomial,Topp-Leone generalized exponential-poisson, and Topp-Leone generalized exponential-logarithmic distributions as special cases. The hazard function of the new distributions can be increasing, decreasing, and v shaped. We obtain several properties of this distributions such as probability density function, quantile and moments. The parameter estimation using maximum likelihood estimation is discussed. Some real datasets are illustrated the flexibility and potentiality of the Topp-Leone generalized exponential power series class of distributions.

  14. 7 CFR 900.350 - General statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Procedure for Determining the Qualification of Cooperative Milk Marketing Associations § 900.350 General statement. Cooperative marketing associations apply for qualification by the Secretary under the Federal milk order...

  15. 21 CFR 11.100 - General requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ELECTRONIC RECORDS; ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES Electronic Signatures § 11.100 General requirements. (a) Each electronic...) Before an organization establishes, assigns, certifies, or otherwise sanctions an individual's electronic...

  16. General Information about Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment Myelodysplastic/ Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Myelodysplastic/ ...

  17. 42 CFR 435.401 - General rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General rules. 435.401 Section 435.401 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA General Eligibility Requirements § 435.401 General rules. (a) A Medicaid agency may... eligibility for optional coverage groups that are— (1) For families and children, more restrictive than those...

  18. 22 CFR 61.9 - General information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General information. 61.9 Section 61.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES WORLD-WIDE FREE FLOW OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS § 61.9 General information. General information and application forms may be obtained by writing to the...

  19. 40 CFR 439.1 - General definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STANDARDS PHARMACEUTICAL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General § 439.1 General definitions. As used in this part: (a) The general definitions, abbreviations and methods of analysis in 40 CFR part 401 shall... bacteria; and analyses of the nitrogen balance demonstrating a reduction in the concentration of ammonia or...

  20. 12 CFR 618.8300 - General regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General regulation. 618.8300 Section 618.8300 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM GENERAL PROVISIONS Releasing Information § 618.8300 General regulation. Except as necessary in performing official duties or as authorized in the...