Sample records for pseudouridine synthesis monitored

  1. Transfection of pseudouridine-modified mRNA encoding CPD-photolyase leads to repair of DNA damage in human keratinocytes: a new approach with future therapeutic potential (United States)

    Boros, Gábor; Miko, Edit; Muramatsu, Hiromi; Weissman, Drew; Emri, Eszter; Rózsa, Dávid; Nagy, Georgina; Juhász, Attila; Juhász, István; van der Horst, Gijsbertus; Horkay, Irén; Remenyik, Éva; Karikó, Katalin; Emri, Gabriella


    UVB irradiation induces harmful photochemical reactions, including formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in DNA. Accumulation of unrepaired CPD lesions causes inflammation, premature ageing and skin cancer. Photolyases are DNA repair enzymes that can rapidly restore DNA integrity in a light-dependent process called photoreactivation, but these enzymes are absent in humans. Here, we present a novel mRNA-based gene therapy method that directs synthesis of a marsupial, Potorous tridactylus, CPD-photolyase in cultured human keratinocytes. Pseudouridine was incorporated during in vitro transcription to make the mRNA non-immunogenic and highly translatable. Keratinocytes transfected with lipofectamine-complexed mRNA expressed photolyase in the nuclei for at least 2 days. Exposing photolyase mRNA-transfected cells to UVB irradiation resulted in significantly less CPD in those cells that were also treated with photoreactivating light, which is required for photolyase activity. The functional photolyase also diminished other UVB-mediated effects, including induction of IL-6 and inhibition of cell proliferation. These results demonstrate that pseudouridine-containing photolyase mRNA is a powerful tool to repair UVB-induced DNA lesions. The pseudouridine-modified mRNA approach has a strong potential to discern cellular effects of CPD in UV-related cell biological studies. The mRNA-based transient expression of proteins offers a number of opportunities for future application in medicine. PMID:24211294

  2. HDHD1, which is often deleted in X-linked ichthyosis, encodes a pseudouridine-5'-phosphatase. (United States)

    Preumont, Alice; Rzem, Rim; Vertommen, Didier; Van Schaftingen, Emile


    Pseudouridine, the fifth-most abundant nucleoside in RNA, is not metabolized in mammals, but is excreted intact in urine. The purpose of the present work was to search for an enzyme that would dephosphorylate pseudouridine 5'-phosphate, a potential intermediate in RNA degradation. We show that human erythrocytes contain a pseudouridine-5'-phosphatase displaying a Km ≤ 1 μM for its substrate. The activity of the partially purified enzyme was dependent on Mg2+, and was inhibited by Ca2+ and vanadate, suggesting that it belonged to the 'haloacid dehalogenase' family of phosphatases. Its low molecular mass (26 kDa) suggested that this phosphatase could correspond to the protein encoded by the HDHD1 (haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase domain-containing 1) gene, present next to the STS (steroid sulfatase) gene on human chromosome Xp22. Purified human recombinant HDHD1 dephosphorylated pseudouridine 5'-phosphate with a kcat of 1.6 s-1, a Km of 0.3 μM and a catalytic efficiency at least 1000-fold higher than that on which it acted on other phosphate esters, including 5'-UMP. The molecular identity of pseudouridine-5'-phosphatase was confirmed by the finding that its activity was negligible (X-linked ichthyosis patients harbouring a combined deletion of the STS gene (the X-linked ichthyosis gene) and the HDHD1 gene. Furthermore, pseudouridine-5'-phosphatase activity was 1.5-fold higher in erythrocytes from women compared with men, in agreement with the HDHD1 gene undergoing only partial inactivation in females. In conclusion, HDHD1 is a phosphatase specifically involved in dephosphorylation of a modified nucleotide present in RNA.

  3. Decision support system for structure synthesis of monitoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skatkov A. V.


    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with a structure synthesis of monitoring systems. In the article a decision support system for such synthesis was proposed and described. In the first phase of the process, the proposed classification of monitoring systems is used. Then adaptive algorithms, simulation and analytic modeling are used. The results of studies carried out by means of the proposed program are represented. The topicality of proposed approach was demonstrated. It should be mentioned, that algorithms were thoroughly described, the computing experiments were carried out. The authors believe that the proposed decision support system has many advantages and, consequently, is very useful in structure synthesis of monitoring systems.

  4. A synthesis of evaluation monitoring projects by the forest health monitoring program (1998-2007) (United States)

    William A. Bechtold; Michael J. Bohne; Barbara L. Conkling; Dana L. Friedman; Borys M. Tkacz


    The national Forest Health Monitoring Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, has funded over 200 Evaluation Monitoring projects. Evaluation Monitoring is designed to verify and define the extent of deterioration in forest ecosystems where potential problems have been identified. This report is a synthesis of results from over 150 Evaluation...

  5. Cell-specific monitoring of protein synthesis in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Kourtis

    Full Text Available Analysis of general and specific protein synthesis provides important information, relevant to cellular physiology and function. However, existing methodologies, involving metabolic labelling by incorporation of radioactive amino acids into nascent polypeptides, cannot be applied to monitor protein synthesis in specific cells or tissues, in live specimens. We have developed a novel approach for monitoring protein synthesis in specific cells or tissues, in vivo. Fluorescent reporter proteins such as GFP are expressed in specific cells and tissues of interest or throughout animals using appropriate promoters. Protein synthesis rates are assessed by following fluorescence recovery after partial photobleaching of the fluorophore at targeted sites. We evaluate the method by examining protein synthesis rates in diverse cell types of live, wild type or mRNA translation-defective Caenorhabditis elegans animals. Because it is non-invasive, our approach allows monitoring of protein synthesis in single cells or tissues with intrinsically different protein synthesis rates. Furthermore, it can be readily implemented in other organisms or cell culture systems.

  6. NMR reaction monitoring in flow synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Victoria Gomez


    Full Text Available Recent advances in the use of flow chemistry with in-line and on-line analysis by NMR are presented. The use of macro- and microreactors, coupled with standard and custom made NMR probes involving microcoils, incorporated into high resolution and benchtop NMR instruments is reviewed. Some recent selected applications have been collected, including synthetic applications, the determination of the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters and reaction optimization, even in single experiments and on the μL scale. Finally, software that allows automatic reaction monitoring and optimization is discussed.

  7. Pseudouridine and N6-methyladenosine modifications weaken PUF protein/RNA interactions. (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Pavanapuresan P; AlSadhan, Ishraq; Merriman, Dawn K; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M; Herschlag, Daniel


    RNA modifications are ubiquitous in biology, with over 100 distinct modifications. While the vast majority were identified and characterized on abundant noncoding RNA such as tRNA and rRNA, the advent of sensitive sequencing-based approaches has led to the discovery of extensive and regulated modification of eukaryotic messenger RNAs as well. The two most abundant mRNA modifications-pseudouridine (Ψ) and N6-methyladenosine (m6A)-affect diverse cellular processes including mRNA splicing, localization, translation, and decay and modulate RNA structure. Here, we test the hypothesis that RNA modifications directly affect interactions between RNA-binding proteins and target RNA. We show that Ψ and m6A weaken the binding of the human single-stranded RNA binding protein Pumilio 2 (hPUM2) to its consensus motif, with individual modifications having effects up to approximately threefold and multiple modifications giving larger effects. While there are likely to be some cases where RNA modifications essentially fully ablate protein binding, here we see modest responses that may be more common. Such modest effects could nevertheless profoundly alter the complex landscape of RNA:protein interactions, and the quantitative rather than qualitative nature of these effects underscores the need for quantitative, systems-level accounting of RNA:protein interactions to understand post-transcriptional regulation. © 2017 Vaidyanathan et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  8. Monitoring the synthesis of biomolecules using mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Miyagi, Masaru; Kasumov, Takhar


    The controlled and selective synthesis/clearance of biomolecules is critical for most cellular processes. In most high-throughput 'omics' studies, we measure the static quantities of only one class of biomolecules (e.g. DNA, mRNA, proteins or metabolites). It is, however, important to recognize that biological systems are highly dynamic in which biomolecules are continuously renewed and different classes of biomolecules interact and affect each other's production/clearance. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the turnover of diverse classes of biomolecules to understand the dynamic nature of biological systems. Herein, we explain why the kinetic analysis of a diverse range of biomolecules is important and how such an analysis can be done. We argue that heavy water ((2)H2O) could be a universal tracer for monitoring the synthesis of biomolecules on a global scale.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Monitoring non-thermal plasma processes for nanoparticle synthesis (United States)

    Mangolini, Lorenzo


    Process characterization tools have played a crucial role in the investigation of dusty plasmas. The presence of dust in certain non-thermal plasma processes was first detected by laser light scattering measurements. Techniques like laser induced particle explosive evaporation and ion mass spectrometry have provided the experimental evidence necessary for the development of the theory of particle nucleation in silane-containing non-thermal plasmas. This review provides first a summary of these early efforts, and then discusses recent investigations using in situ characterization techniques to understand the interaction between nanoparticles and plasmas. The advancement of such monitoring techniques is necessary to fully develop the potential of non-thermal plasmas as unique materials synthesis and processing platforms. At the same time, the strong coupling between materials and plasma properties suggest that it is also necessary to advance techniques for the measurement of plasma properties while in presence of dust. Recent progress in this area will be discussed.

  10. Synthesis of Upper Verde River research and monitoring 1993-2008 (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Alvin L. Medina; John N. Rinne


    This volume is a state-of-knowledge synthesis of monitoring and research conducted on the Upper Verde River (UVR) of Arizona. It contains information on the history, hydrology, soils, geomorphology, vegetation, and fish fauna of the area that can help land managers and other scientists in successfully conducting ecosystem management and future monitoring and research...

  11. Pseudouridine synthase 1 deficient mice, a model for Mitochondrial Myopathy with Sideroblastic Anemia, exhibit muscle morphology and physiology alterations. (United States)

    Mangum, Joshua E; Hardee, Justin P; Fix, Dennis K; Puppa, Melissa J; Elkes, Johnathon; Altomare, Diego; Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Campagna, Dean R; Schmidt, Paul J; Sendamarai, Anoop K; Lidov, Hart G W; Barlow, Shayne C; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Fleming, Mark D; Carson, James A; Patton, Jeffrey R


    Mitochondrial myopathy with lactic acidosis and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is an oxidative phosphorylation disorder, with primary clinical manifestations of myopathic exercise intolerance and a macrocytic sideroblastic anemia. One cause of MLASA is recessive mutations in PUS1, which encodes pseudouridine (Ψ) synthase 1 (Pus1p). Here we describe a mouse model of MLASA due to mutations in PUS1. As expected, certain Ψ modifications were missing in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial tRNAs from Pus1(-/-) animals. Pus1(-/-) mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequency and were non-dysmorphic. At 14 weeks the mutants displayed reduced exercise capacity. Examination of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle morphology and histochemistry demonstrated an increase in the cross sectional area and proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIB and low succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) expressing myofibers, without a change in the size of MHC IIA positive or high SDH myofibers. Cytochrome c oxidase activity was significantly reduced in extracts from red gastrocnemius muscle from Pus1(-/-) mice. Transmission electron microscopy on red gastrocnemius muscle demonstrated that Pus1(-/-) mice also had lower intermyofibrillar mitochondrial density and smaller mitochondria. Collectively, these results suggest that alterations in muscle metabolism related to mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity may account for the reduced exercise capacity in Pus1(-/-) mice.

  12. Quantitative single cell monitoring of protein synthesis at subcellular resolution using fluorescently labeled tRNA (United States)

    Barhoom, Sima; Kaur, Jaskiran; Cooperman, Barry S.; Smorodinsky, Nechama I.; Smilansky, Zeev; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Elroy-Stein, Orna


    We have developed a novel technique of using fluorescent tRNA for translation monitoring (FtTM). FtTM enables the identification and monitoring of active protein synthesis sites within live cells at submicron resolution through quantitative microscopy of transfected bulk uncharged tRNA, fluorescently labeled in the D-loop (fl-tRNA). The localization of fl-tRNA to active translation sites was confirmed through its co-localization with cellular factors and its dynamic alterations upon inhibition of protein synthesis. Moreover, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signals, generated when fl-tRNAs, separately labeled as a FRET pair occupy adjacent sites on the ribosome, quantitatively reflect levels of protein synthesis in defined cellular regions. In addition, FRET signals enable detection of intra-populational variability in protein synthesis activity. We demonstrate that FtTM allows quantitative comparison of protein synthesis between different cell types, monitoring effects of antibiotics and stress agents, and characterization of changes in spatial compartmentalization of protein synthesis upon viral infection. PMID:21795382

  13. The challenge of integrated rangeland monitoring: synthesis address

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utility of monitoring and its guiding principles will only work effectively where good environmental governance is practiced by users and producers affecting rangeland ecosystems. Keywords: adaptive management, complex, environmental governance, human impacts, multi-scale, socio-ecological. African Journal of ...

  14. The challenge of integrated rangeland monitoring: synthesis address

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... akin to business approaches than conventional science. As demanding as such an integrated approach may seem, much of the socio-economic data already exists and physical and biological data can increasingly be collected and collated by new imaging technologies. For monitoring to be locally and globally useful, ...

  15. Monitoring Nanoparticle Synthesis in a Carbon Arc Discharge Environment, In Situ (United States)

    Mitrani, James

    This work presents experimental and theoretical studies of gas-phase synthesis of fullerenes and carbon nanoparticles in the presence of an atmospheric-pressure, arc discharge plasma. Carbon arc discharges have been used for synthesizing carbon nanotubes for over 25 years, and have the potential for economically synthesizing industrial-scale quantities of fullerenes. However, the efficiency and selectivity of fullerene synthesis with carbon arc discharges are quite low. Optimizing carbon arc discharges for fullerene synthesis requires a thorough understanding of the dynamics behind gas-phase nanoparticle synthesis in the presence of an arc discharge plasma. We built a carbon arc discharge setup to study nanoparticle and fullerene synthesis. The laser-induced incandescence (LII) diagnostic was applied for monitoring nanoparticle synthesis, in situ. The LII diagnostic had previously been applied as a combustion diagnostic for in situ measurements of concentrations and sizes of soot particles in flame environments. Prior to the present study, it had never been applied for studying fullerenes, nor had it been applied to study nanoparticles in the presence of an atmospheric-pressure plasma. Therefore, experiments were designed that allowed for the calibration of the LII diagnostic with research-grade, arc-synthesized soot particles and carbon nanotubes. Additionally, the theory and models underpinning the LII diagnostic were adapted to include the presence of an atmospheric-pressure, arc-discharge plasma. Results presented in this work confirm the ability of the LII diagnostic to measure sizes of arc-synthesized nanoparticles in situ, and show the spatial location of high densities of arc-synthesized nanoparticles with respect to the arc discharge plasma. Determining the spatial location of nanoparticle synthesis and growth is crucial for understanding the background conditions (e.g. background gas temperature, electron densities ...) in which nanoparticles nucleate and

  16. Automatized and desktop AC-susceptometer for the in situ and real time monitoring of magnetic nanoparticles' synthesis by coprecipitation. (United States)

    Fernández-García, M P; Teixeira, J M; Machado, P; Oliveira, M R F F; Maia, J M; Pereira, C; Pereira, A M; Freire, C; Araujo, J P


    The main purpose of this work was to design, develop, and construct a simple desktop AC susceptometer to monitor in situ and in real time the coprecipitation synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles. The design incorporates one pair of identical pick-up sensing coils and one pair of Helmholtz coils. The picked up signal is detected by a lock-in SR850 amplifier that measures the in- and out-of-phase signals. The apparatus also includes a stirrer with 45°-angle blades to promote the fast homogenization of the reaction mixture. Our susceptometer has been successfully used to monitor the coprecipitation reaction for the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles.

  17. Long-Term Biological Monitoring of an Impaired Stream: Synthesis and Environmental Management Implications (United States)

    Peterson, Mark J.; Efroymson, Rebecca A.; Adams, S. Marshall


    The long-term ecological recovery of an impaired stream in response to an industrial facility's pollution abatement actions and the implications of the biological monitoring effort to environmental management is the subject of this special issue of Environmental Management. This final article focuses on the synthesis of the biological monitoring program's components and methods, the efficacy of various biological monitoring techniques to environmental management, and the lessons learned from the program that might be applicable to the design and application of other programs. The focus of the 25-year program has been on East Fork Poplar Creek, an ecologically impaired stream in Oak Ridge, Tennessee with varied and complex stressors from a Department of Energy facility in its headwaters. Major components of the long-term program included testing and monitoring of invertebrate and fish toxicity, bioindicators of fish health, fish contaminant accumulation, and instream communities (including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish). Key parallel components of the program include water chemistry sampling and data management. Multiple lines of evidence suggested positive ecological responses during three major pollution abatement periods. Based on this case study and the related literature, effective environmental management of impaired streams starts with program design that is consistent across space and time, but also adaptable to changing conditions. The biological monitoring approaches used for the program provided a strong basis for assessments of recovery from remedial actions, and the likely causes of impairment. This case study provides a unique application of multidisciplinary and quantitative techniques to address multiple and complex regulatory and programmatic goals, environmental stressors, and remedial actions.

  18. One-pot synthesis of a gold nanoparticle-Vmh2 hydrophobin nanobiocomplex for glucose monitoring (United States)

    Politi, Jane; De Stefano, Luca; Rea, Ilaria; Gravagnuolo, Alfredo Maria; Giardina, Paola; Methivier, Christophe; Casale, Sandra; Spadavecchia, Jolanda


    HydrophobinVmh2 is a small amphiphilic protein, which self-assembles on different surfaces and naturally interacts with glucose. Here, we report on the synthesis of a nanobiocomplex made of polyethylene glycol, Vmh2 and gold nanoparticles by a one-step process and on its ability to recognise glucose in an aqueous solution at 0.3-0.6-1.2 mg ml-1 concentrations. Even though the Vmh2 proteins are intrinsically bonded to the gold core, effective glucose interaction monitoring was demonstrated by using dynamic light scattering, ultraviolet-visible, polarization-modulated infrared reflection-absorption and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. Experimental results highlighted an affinity constant of 7.3 ± 0.3 mg ml-1 between the nanobiosystem and the sugar, and a detection sensitivity of 0.13 ± 0.06 a.u./mg ml-1.

  19. Elk monitoring in Lewis and Clark National Historical Park: 2008-2012 synthesis report (United States)

    Griffin, Paul C.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Cole, Carla; Clatterbuck, Chris; Boetsch, John; Beirne, Katherine


    Maintaining elk (Cervus elaphus roosevelti) herds that frequent Lewis and Clark National Historical Park (NHP) is central to the park’s purpose of preserving the historic, cultural, scenic, and natural resources associated with the winter encampment of the Lewis and Clark expedition. Elk were critically important to the Lewis and Clark expedition in providing food and hides that sustained the expedition during the winter of 1805-06 and supplied them for their return east during 1806. Today, elk remain a key component of interpreting the Lewis and Clark story to over 200,000 park visitors each year at the Fort Clatsop visitor center. In 2008, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began collaborating with Lewis and Clark NHP and the NPS North Coast and Cascades Network to develop a protocol for monitoring long-term changes in the magnitude and spatial patterns of elk use within and adjacent to Lewis and Clark NHP (Griffin et al. 2011). Specific objectives of the monitoring program were to measure trends in (1) relative use of the Fort Clatsop unit by elk during winter; (2) the proportion of areas where elk sign is present in the Fort Clatsop unit in winter; and (3) the frequency of elk sightings from roads in and around the Fort Clatsop unit. This report synthesizes the results of the first four years of monitoring elk distribution and use in Lewis and Clark NHP from 2008-2012. We also present data from FY2012 (Appendix 1), in lieu of an annual report for that year. We used fecal pellet group surveys as the cornerstone for monitoring trends in both relative use of the Fort Clatsop Unit by elk and the proportion of areas where elk sign was present at the end of winter. We estimated pellet group density based on data collected from a network of fecal pellet plots distributed systematically throughout the unit. We developed a double observer sampling scheme that enabled us to estimate detection biases and improve the accuracy of pellet group density estimates. We computed

  20. Effects of fish farm waste on Posidonia oceanica meadows: Synthesis and provision of monitoring and management tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmer, Marianne [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)], E-mail:; Argyrou, Marina [Marine Environment Division, Department of Fisheries and Marine Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, 101 Bethleem Street, 1416 Nicosia (Cyprus); Dalsgaard, Tage [Department of Marine Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Vejlsovej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Danovaro, Roberto [Department of Marine Science, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Diaz-Almela, Elena; Duarte, Carlos M. [IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles (Illes Balears) (Spain); Frederiksen, Morten [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Grau, Antoni [Direccio General de Pesca, Conselleria d' Agricultura i Pesca, Govern de les Illes Balears, Foners 10, 07006 Palma de Mallorca (Illes Balears) (Spain); Karakassis, Ioannis [Marine Ecology Laboratory, Biology Department, University of Crete, Heraklion, 71409 Crete (Greece); Marba, Nuria [IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles (Illes Balears) (Spain); Mirto, Simone [Institute for the Marine Coastal Environment, National Council of Research, Spianata S. Raineri, 86, 98122 Messina (Italy); Perez, Marta [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pusceddu, Antonio [Department of Marine Science, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Tsapakis, Manolis [Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Center for Marine Research, P.O. Box 2214, GR 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)


    This paper provides a synthesis of the EU project MedVeg addressing the fate of nutrients released from fish farming in the Mediterranean with particular focus on the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica habitat. The objectives were to identify the main drivers of seagrass decline linked to fish farming and to provide sensitive indicators of environmental change, which can be used for monitoring purposes. The sedimentation of waste particles in the farm vicinities emerges as the main driver of benthic deterioration, such as accumulation of organic matter, sediment anoxia as well as seagrass decline. The effects of fish farming on P. oceanica meadows are diverse and complex and detected through various metrics and indicators. A safety distance of 400 m is suggested for management of P. oceanica near fish farms followed by establishment of permanent seagrass plots revisited annually for monitoring the health of the meadows.

  1. Laser-induced incandescence (LII) diagnostic for in situ monitoring of nanoparticle synthesis in a high-pressure arc discharge (United States)

    Yatom, Shurik; Vekselman, Vladislav; Mitrani, James; Stratton, Brentley; Raitses, Yevgeny; LaboratoryPlasma Nanosynthesis Team


    A DC arc discharge is commonly used for synthesis of carbon nanoparticles, including buckyballs, carbon nanotubes, and graphene flakes. In this work we show the first results of nanoparticles monitored during the arc discharge. The graphite electrode is vaporized by high current (60 A) in a buffer Helium gas leading to nanoparticle synthesis in a low temperature plasma. The arc was shown to oscillate, which can possibly influence the nano-synthesis. To visualize the nanoparticles in-situ we employ the LII technique. The nanoparticles with radii >50 nm, emerging from the arc area are heated with a short laser pulse and incandesce. The resulting radiation is captured with an ICCD camera, showing the location of the generated nanoparticles. The images of incandescence are studied together with temporally synchronized fast-framing imaging of C2 emission, to connect the dynamics of arc instabilities, C2 molecules concentration and nanoparticles. The time-resolved incandescence signal is analyzed with combination of ex-situ measurements of the synthesized nanoparticles and LII modeling, to provide the size distribution of produced nanoparticles. This work was supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  2. Synthesis of a probe for monitoring HSV1-tk reporter gene expression using chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI. (United States)

    Bar-Shir, Amnon; Liu, Guanshu; Greenberg, Marc M; Bulte, Jeff W M; Gilad, Assaf A


    In experiments involving transgenic animals or animals treated with transgenic cells, it is important to have a method to monitor the expression of the relevant genes longitudinally and noninvasively. An MRI-based reporter gene enables monitoring of gene expression in the deep tissues of living subjects. This information can be co-registered with detailed high-resolution anatomical and functional information. We describe here the synthesis of the reporter probe, 5-methyl-5,6-dihydrothymidine (5-MDHT), which can be used for imaging of the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) reporter gene expression in rodents by MRI. The protocol also includes data acquisition and data processing routines customized for chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast mechanisms. The dihydropyrimidine 5-MDHT is synthesized through a catalytic hydrogenation of the 5,6-double bond of thymidine to yield 5,6-dihydrothymidine, which is methylated on the C-5 position of the resulting saturated pyrimidine ring. The synthesis of 5-MDHT can be completed within 5 d, and the compound is stable for more than 1 year.

  3. The value of surrogate markers to monitor cholesterol absorption, synthesis and bioconversion to bile acids under lipid lowering therapies. (United States)

    Stellaard, Frans; von Bergmann, Klaus; Sudhop, Thomas; Lütjohann, Dieter


    Regulation of cholesterol (Chol) homeostasis is controlled by three main fluxes, i.e. intestinal absorption, de novo synthesis (ChS) and catabolism, predominantly as bile acid synthesis (BAS). High serum total Chol and LDL-Chol concentrations in particular are considered risk factors and markers for the development of atherosclerosis. Pharmaceutical treatments to lower serum Chol have focused on reducing absorption or ChS and increasing BAS. Monitoring of these three parameters is complex involving isotope techniques, cholesterol balance experiments and advanced mass spectrometry based analysis methods. Surrogate markers were explored that require only one single fasting blood sample collection. These markers were validated in specific, mostly physiological conditions and during statin treatment to inhibit ChS. They were also applied under cholesterol absorption restriction, but were not validated in this condition. We retrospectively evaluated the use of serum campesterol (Camp), sitosterol (Sit) and cholestanol (Cholol) as markers for cholesterol absorption, lathosterol (Lath) as marker for ChS and 7α-hydroxycholesterol (7α-OH-Ch) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH-Ch) as markers for BAS under conditions of Chol absorption restriction. Additionally, their values were corrected for Chol concentration (R_sterol or oxysterols). Thirty-seven healthy male omnivore subjects were studied under treatments with placebo (PLAC), ezetimibe (EZE) to inhibit cholesterol absorption, simvastatin (SIMVA) to reduce cholesterol synthesis and a combination of both (EZE+SIMVA). Results were compared to those obtained in 18 pure vegetarian subjects (vegans) whose dietary Chol intake is extremely low. Relative or fractional Chol absorption (FrChA) was measured with the continuous feeding stable isotope procedure, ChS and BAS with the cholesterol balance method. The daily Chol intake (DICh) was inventoried and the daily Chol absorption (DACh) calculated. Monitoring cholesterol

  4. Modeling and Monitoring Terrestrial Primary Production in a Changing Global Environment: Toward a Multiscale Synthesis of Observation and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufen Pan


    Full Text Available There is a critical need to monitor and predict terrestrial primary production, the key indicator of ecosystem functioning, in a changing global environment. Here we provide a brief review of three major approaches to monitoring and predicting terrestrial primary production: (1 ground-based field measurements, (2 satellite-based observations, and (3 process-based ecosystem modelling. Much uncertainty exists in the multi-approach estimations of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP and net primary production (NPP. To improve the capacity of model simulation and prediction, it is essential to evaluate ecosystem models against ground and satellite-based measurements and observations. As a case, we have shown the performance of the dynamic land ecosystem model (DLEM at various scales from site to region to global. We also discuss how terrestrial primary production might respond to climate change and increasing atmospheric CO2 and uncertainties associated with model and data. Further progress in monitoring and predicting terrestrial primary production requires a multiscale synthesis of observations and model simulations. In the Anthropocene era in which human activity has indeed changed the Earth’s biosphere, therefore, it is essential to incorporate the socioeconomic component into terrestrial ecosystem models for accurately estimating and predicting terrestrial primary production in a changing global environment.

  5. Monitoring enzyme synthesis as a means of studying peptide transport and utilization in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Bell, G; Payne, G M; Payne, J W


    A new method has been developed for measuring peptide transport in aminoacid auxotrophs of Escherichia coli by following induction of beta-galactosidase. Appearance of the enzyme was determined after addition of inducer and peptides to amino-acid starved bacteria. For a given number of lysine equivalents, the rate and the extent of enzyme synthesis were the same for lysine and lysyl peptides; similar results were found for glycine and glycl peptides. Saturation constants for peptide transport were determined from the exogenous peptide concentration that gave half maximal rates of enzyme synthesis. The saturation constants, studies with mutants defective in peptide transport, and detection of competition between peptides for uptake, all endorsed earlier conclusions from growth tests about the structural specificities for peptide transport. The new method is quicker, more sensitive and more informative than growth tests.

  6. Monitoring (United States)

    ... Heart Disease and Diabetes Blood Glucose Monitoring Insulin Injection Resources Mental Health and Diabetes Healthy Holiday Eating Lifestyle Resources Improve Medication Taking Spanish Language Resources AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors ...

  7. Aquatic organism passage at road-stream crossings—synthesis and guidelines for effectiveness monitoring (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert L.; Dunham, Jason B.; Hansen, Bruce P.


    Restoration and maintenance of passage for aquatic organisms at road-stream crossings represents a major management priority, involving an investment of hundreds of millions of dollars (for example, U.S. Government Accounting Office, 2001). In recent years, passage at hundreds of crossings has been restored, primarily by replacing barrier road culverts with bridges or stream simulation culverts designed to pass all species and all life stages of aquatic life and simulate natural hydro-geomorphic processes (U.S. Forest Service, 2008). The current situation has motivated two general questions: 1. Are current design standards for stream simulation culverts adequately re-establishing passage for aquatic biota? and 2. How do we monitor and evaluate effectiveness of passage restoration? To address the latter question, a national workshop was held in March 2010, in Portland, Oregon. The workshop included experts on aquatic organism passage from across the nation (see table of participants, APPENDIX) who addressed four classes of methods for monitoring effectiveness of aquatic organism passage—individual movement, occupancy, demography, and genetics. This report has been written, in part, for field biologists who will be undertaking and evaluating the effectiveness of aquatic organism passage restoration projects at road-stream crossings. The report outlines basic methods for evaluating road-stream crossing passage impairment and restoration and discusses under what circumstances and conditions each method will be useful; what questions each method can potentially answer; how to design and implement an evaluation study; and points out the fundamental reality that most evaluation projects will require special funding and partnerships among researchers and resource managers. The report is organized into the following sections, which can be read independently: 1. Historical context: In this section, we provide a brief history of events leading up to the present situation

  8. Synthesis of juvenile lamprey migration and passage research and monitoring at Columbia and Snake River Dams (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.


    We compiled and summarized previous sources of data and research results related to the presence, numbers, and migration timing characteristics of juvenile (eyed macropthalmia) and larval (ammocoetes) Pacific lamprey Entosphenus tridentatus, in the Columbia River basin (CRB). Included were data from various screw trap collections, data from historic fyke net studies, catch records of lampreys at JBS facilities, turbine cooling water strainer collections, and information on the occurrence of lampreys in the diets of avian and piscine predators. We identified key data gaps and uncertainties that should be addressed in a juvenile lamprey passage research program. The goal of this work was to summarize information from disparate sources so that managers can use it to prioritize and guide future research and monitoring efforts related to the downstream migration of juvenile Pacific lamprey within the CRB. A common finding in all datasets was the high level of variation observed for CRB lamprey in numbers present, timing and spatial distribution. This will make developing monitoring programs to accurately characterize lamprey migrations and passage more challenging. Primary data gaps centered around our uncertainty on the numbers of juvenile and larval present in the system which affects the ability to assign risk to passage conditions and prioritize management actions. Recommendations include developing standardized monitoring methods, such as at juvenile bypass systems (JBS’s), to better document numbers and timing of lamprey migrations at dams, and use biotelemetry tracking techniques to estimate survival potentials for different migration histories.

  9. Ribosome profiling: a Hi-Def monitor for protein synthesis at the genome-wide scale (United States)

    Michel, Audrey M; Baranov, Pavel V


    Ribosome profiling or ribo-seq is a new technique that provides genome-wide information on protein synthesis (GWIPS) in vivo. It is based on the deep sequencing of ribosome protected mRNA fragments allowing the measurement of ribosome density along all RNA molecules present in the cell. At the same time, the high resolution of this technique allows detailed analysis of ribosome density on individual RNAs. Since its invention, the ribosome profiling technique has been utilized in a range of studies in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Several studies have adapted and refined the original ribosome profiling protocol for studying specific aspects of translation. Ribosome profiling of initiating ribosomes has been used to map sites of translation initiation. These studies revealed the surprisingly complex organization of translation initiation sites in eukaryotes. Multiple initiation sites are responsible for the generation of N-terminally extended and truncated isoforms of known proteins as well as for the translation of numerous open reading frames (ORFs), upstream of protein coding ORFs. Ribosome profiling of elongating ribosomes has been used for measuring differential gene expression at the level of translation, the identification of novel protein coding genes and ribosome pausing. It has also provided data for developing quantitative models of translation. Although only a dozen or so ribosome profiling datasets have been published so far, they have already dramatically changed our understanding of translational control and have led to new hypotheses regarding the origin of protein coding genes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23696005

  10. Monitoring the on-surface synthesis of graphene nanoribbons by mass spectrometry

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Wen


    We present a mass spectrometric approach to monitor and characterize the intermediates of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) formation by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on top of Au(111) surfaces. Information regarding the repeating units, lengths, and termini can be obtained directly from the surface sample by a modified matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) method. The mass spectrometric results reveal ample oxidative side reactions under CVD conditions which can, however, be diminished drastically by introduction of protective H2 gas at ambient pressure. Simultaneously, addition of hydrogen extends the lengths of the oligophenylenes and thus the final GNRs. Moreover, the prematurely formed cyclodehydrogenation products during the oligomer growth can be assigned by the mass spectrometric method. The obtained mechanistic insights provide valuable information for optimizing and upscaling the bottom-up fabrication of GNRs. Given the important role of GNRs as semiconductors, the mass spectrometric characterization provides a readily available tool to improve and characterize their structural perfection.

  11. Using size exclusion chromatography to monitor the synthesis of melanins from catecholamines. (United States)

    Vercruysse, Koen P; Clark, Astiney M; Bello, Paola A F; Alhumaidi, Majidah


    We have employed size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to the study of the auto- and Cu 2+ -mediated oxidation of the catecholamines, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine, into melanins. We observed that, due to non-size exclusion-mediated effects, the catecholamines and some of the low molecular mass intermediates generated during the oxidation reactions, could be resolved from each other and from the high molecular mass pigment generated. Thus, SEC allowed us to monitor the disappearance of the catecholamine starting compounds, the appearance and subsequent disappearance of the low molecular mass chromophores generated in the initial phase of the reactions and the appearance of the high molecular mass melanins. In the process of this research, we observed that many, mostly anionic polysaccharides (PS), enhanced both the auto- and Cu 2+ -mediated oxidation of all three catecholamines. SEC analyses of reaction mixtures involving PS suggested that very high molecular mass aggregates between PS and melanins can be generated. In addition, SEC analysis allowed us to verify the efficiency of the dialysis purification process employed to obtain pure and dried melanin materials for cell-biological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Summary of the 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.


    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report is a summary of the 2006 synthesis report prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  13. Applying a laser-induced incandescence (LII) diagnostic to monitor nanoparticle synthesis in an atmospheric plasma, in situ (United States)

    Yatom, Shurik; Mitrani, James; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Shneider, Mikhail; Stratton, Brentley; Raitses, Yevgeny


    A DC arc discharge with a consumed graphite anode is commonly used for synthesis of carbon nanoparticles, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene flakes. The graphite electrode is physically vaporized by high currents (20-60 A) in a buffer gas at 100-600 torr, leading to nanoparticle synthesis in a low temperature (>1 eV), plasma. Utilizing arc plasma synthesis technique has resulted in the synthesis of higher quality nanomaterials. However, the formation of nanoparticles in arc discharge plasmas is poorly understood. A particularly interesting question is where in the arc the nanoparticles nucleate and grow. In our current work we show the results of studying the formation of carbon nanotubes in an arc discharge, in situ, using laser-induced incandescence (LII). The results of LII are discussed in combination with ex situ measurements of the synthesized nanoparticles and modeling, to provide an insight into the physics behind nanoparticle synthesis in plasma. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  14. Utilizing on- and off-line monitoring tools to follow a kinetic resolution step during flow synthesis. (United States)

    Farley, Kathleen A; Reilly, Usa; Anderson, Dennis P; Boscoe, Brian P; Bundesmann, Mark W; Foley, David A; Lall, Manjinder S; Li, Chao; Reese, Matthew R; Yan, Jiangli


    In situ reaction monitoring tools offer the ability to track the progress of a synthetic reaction in real time to facilitate reaction optimization and provide kinetic/mechanistic insight. Herein, we report the utilization of flow NMR, flow IR, and other off-line spectroscopy tools to monitor the progress of a flow chemistry reaction. The on-line and off-line tools were selected to facilitate the stereoselective kinetic resolution of a key racemic monomer, which lacked a chromophore, making conventional reaction monitoring difficult. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Synthesis of tocopheryl succinate phospholipid conjugates and monitoring of phospholipase A2 activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Palle Jacob; Viart, Helene Marie-France; Melander, Fredrik


    Tocopheryl succinates (TOSs) are, in contrast to tocopherols, highly cytotoxic against many cancer cells. In this study the enzyme activity of secretory phospholipase A2 towards various succinate-phospholipid conjugates has been investigated. The synthesis of six novel phospholipids is described......, including two TOS phospholipids conjugates. The studies revealed that the TOS conjugates are poor substrates for the enzyme whereas the phospholipids with alkyl and phenyl succinate moieties were hydrolyzed by the enzyme to a high extent....

  16. Monitoring and Control of a Continuous Grignard Reaction for the Synthesis of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using Inline NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Nielsen, Jesper; Jønch Pedersen, Michael


    Inline near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to monitor a continuous synthesis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) intermediate by a Grignard alkylation reaction. The reaction between a ketone substrate and allylmagnesium chloride may form significant impurities with excess...... feeding of the Grignard reagent beyond the stoichiometric ratio. On the other hand, limiting this reagent would imply a loss in yield. Therefore, accurate dosing of the two reactants is essential. A feedforward–feedback control loop was conceived in order to maintain the reaction as closely as possible...... to the stoichiometric ratio, leading the path to full process automation. The feedback control loop relies on NIR transmission measurements performed in a flow cell where, in contrast to labor-intensive offline HPLC analytical methods, the whole reaction product can be scanned in real time without sample dilution...

  17. 2005 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.


    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2005 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  18. 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.


    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  19. Chemical Analyzer for In Situ and Real Time Surface Monitoring for Composition Control During Synthesis of Compound Semiconductor Films (United States)


    and Callibrate – Examples Using MathCad B 1.1B Deoxidation Monitoring for GaSb and InAs Substrates B 2.1 Sb Signal Monitored during Surface... MathCad B 2.4B A Preliminary Detailed Auger Analysis of BE growth Dynamics in InAsSb B 3.1A Impact of RHEED on MBE Process B 4.1 Ionization Cross...collected. Using one approach, LabView routines were developed to analyze the spectra. In another, MathCad routines were written to process the spectra

  20. Universal chitosan-assisted synthesis of Ag-including heterostructured nanocrystals for label-free in situ SERS monitoring. (United States)

    Cai, Kai; Xiao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Huan; Lu, Zhicheng; Liu, Jiawei; Li, Qin; Liu, Chen; Foda, Mohamed F; Han, Heyou


    A universal chitosan-assisted method was developed to synthesize various Ag-including heterostructured nanocrystals, in which chelation probably plays a vital role. The as-prepared Ag/Pd heterostructured nanocrystals show outstanding properties when used as bifunctional nanocomposites in label-free in situ SERS monitoring of Pd-catalyzed reaction.

  1. Measuring success in obesity prevention: a synthesis of Health Promotion Switzerland's long-term monitoring and evaluation strategy. (United States)

    Ackermann, Günter; Kirschner, Michael; Guggenbühl, Lisa; Abel, Bettina; Klohn, Axel; Mattig, Thomas


    Since 2007, Health Promotion Switzerland has implemented a national priority program for a healthy body weight. This article provides insight into the methodological challenges and results of the program evaluation. Evaluation of the long-term program required targeted monitoring and evaluation projects addressing different outcome levels. The evaluation was carried out according to the Swiss Model for Outcome Classification (SMOC), a model designed to classify the effects of health promotion and prevention efforts. The results presented in this article emphasize both content and methods. The national program successfully achieved outcomes on many different levels within complex societal structures. The evaluation system built around the SMOC enabled assessment of program progress and the development of key indicators. However, it is not possible to determine definitively to what extent the national program helped stabilize the prevalence of obesity in Switzerland. The model has shown its utility in providing a basis for evaluation and monitoring of the national program. Continuous analysis of data from evaluation and monitoring has made it possible to check the plausibility of suspected causal relationships as well as to establish an overall perspective and assessment of effectiveness supported by a growing body of evidence. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  2. Measuring Success in Obesity Prevention: A Synthesis of Health Promotion Switzerland's Long-Term Monitoring and Evaluation Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Ackermann


    Full Text Available Aims: Since 2007, Health Promotion Switzerland has implemented a national priority program for a healthy body weight. This article provides insight into the methodological challenges and results of the program evaluation. Methods: Evaluation of the long-term program required targeted monitoring and evaluation projects addressing different outcome levels. The evaluation was carried out according to the Swiss Model for Outcome Classification (SMOC, a model designed to classify the effects of health promotion and prevention efforts. Results: The results presented in this article emphasize both content and methods. The national program successfully achieved outcomes on many different levels within complex societal structures. The evaluation system built around the SMOC enabled assessment of program progress and the development of key indicators. However, it is not possible to determine definitively to what extent the national program helped stabilize the prevalence of obesity in Switzerland. Conclusion: The model has shown its utility in providing a basis for evaluation and monitoring of the national program. Continuous analysis of data from evaluation and monitoring has made it possible to check the plausibility of suspected causal relationships as well as to establish an overall perspective and assessment of effectiveness supported by a growing body of evidence.

  3. Seabirds and marine plastic debris in the northeastern Atlantic: A synthesis and recommendations for monitoring and research. (United States)

    O'Hanlon, Nina J; James, Neil A; Masden, Elizabeth A; Bond, Alexander L


    Marine plastic pollution is an increasing, and global, environmental issue. Numerous marine species are affected by plastic debris through entanglement, nest incorporation, and ingestion, which can lead to lethal and sub-lethal impacts. However, in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, an area of international importance for seabirds, there has been little effort to date to assess information from studies of wildlife and plastic to better understand the spatiotemporal variation of how marine plastic affects different seabird species. To improve our understanding of seabirds and marine plastic in this region, we completed a synthesis of the published and grey literature to obtain information on all known documented cases of plastic ingestion and nest incorporation by this group. We found that of 69 seabird species that commonly occur in the northeastern Atlantic, 25 had evidence of ingesting plastic. However, data on plastic ingestion was available for only 49% of all species, with 74% of investigated species recorded ingesting plastic. We found only three published studies on nest incorporation, for the Northern Gannet (Morus bassanus) and Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla). For many species, sample sizes were small or not reported, and only 39% of studies were from the 21st century, whilst information from multiple countries and years was only available for 11 species. This indicates that we actually know very little about the current prevalence of plastic ingestion and nest incorporation for many species, several of them globally threatened. Furthermore, in the majority of studies, the metrics reported were inadequate to carry out robust comparisons among locations and species or perform meta-analyses. We recommend multi-jurisdictional collaboration to obtain a more comprehensive and current understanding of how marine plastic is affecting seabirds in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis and photonic property study of ZnO nanowires for a real time photodynamic therapy monitoring probe (United States)

    Sridhar, D.; Xie, Jining; Abraham, Jose K.; Varadan, Vijay K.


    In this paper, we present how the photonic properties of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires can be used to potentially advance the effectiveness of Photodynamic therapy (PDT), one of the most recent and promising approaches among cancer therapies. Presently, PDT employs laser light to activate intravenously or topically administered photosensitizers to give rise to highly reactive singlet oxygen which has a very short lifetime and is capable of biochemical damage to cell membranes of the tumor. A probe that can monitor in real time the penetration depth of the laser in the tumor and also the evolution of the singlet oxygen, which is critical for tumor eradication, is capable of improving the efficacy of PDT quite significantly. Such a probe, by providing real time feedback, can help us determine whether to increase or decrease the light exposure dose and also if further local administration of photosensitizers is required or not. ZnO nanowires are known to be photoconductive and recent research also demonstrated the temperature dependence of the photocurrent in the nanowires. They are also sensitive to blue and other near UV spectra which is same range of activation wavelengths of most photosensitizers, and hence making them a good candidate for a potential PDT monitoring probe. ZnO nanowires were fabricated on silicon substrates by vapor phase deposition using e-beam evaporated gold as a catalyst. Control of the dimensions of the nanowires could be achieved by varying the dimensions of the catalyst by means of e-beam evaporation process. Photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanowires were investigated at UV and near UV wavelengths. Further, ZnO is also known for its antimicrobial properties, thereby ruling out any possibility of bacterial infection because of the implanted probe. This study was done to compliment the existing expertise of our research group in the design and fabrication of several nanowire based probes and microsensors specifically for neuroelectronic and

  5. Synthesis of data from high-frequency nutrient and associated biogeochemical monitoring for the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, northern California (United States)

    Downing, Bryan D.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.


    Executive SummaryThis report is the second in a series of three reports that provide information about high-frequency (HF) nutrient and biogeochemical monitoring in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of northern California (Delta). The purpose of this report is to synthesize the data available from a nutrient and water-quality HF (about every 15 minutes) monitoring network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the northern Delta. In this report, we describe the network and focus on the purpose of each station. We then present and discuss the available data, at various timescales—first at the monthly, seasonal, and inter-annual timescales, and second, for comparison, at the tidal and event timescales. As expected, we determined that there is substantial variability in nitrate-N concentrations at short timescales within hours, but also significant variability at longer timescales such as months or years. Resolving this variability is made possible by the HF data, with the largest variability caused by storms, tides, and diel biological processes. Given this large temporal variability, calculations of cumulative nutrient fluxes (for example, daily, monthly, or annual loads) is difficult without HF data. For example, in the Cache Slough, calculation of the annual load without the tidal variability resulted in a 30 percent underestimation of the true annual load value. We conclude that HF measurements are important for accurate determination of fluxes and loads in tidal environments, but, more importantly, provide important insights into processes and rates of nutrient cycling.This report, along with the other two reports of this series (Bergamaschi and others, 2017; Kraus, Bergamaschi, and others, 2017), was drafted in cooperation with the Delta Regional Monitoring Program to help scientists, managers, and planners understand how HF data improve our understanding of nutrient sources and sinks, drivers, and effects in the Delta. The first report in the series

  6. Development of a Bio-Equivalent Ultraviolet Dosimeter to Monitor the Capacity for Vitamin D Synthesis of Sunlight Final Report CRADA No. TC02086.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wood, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    This project represents a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC as manager and operator of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Rhyolite Technology Group, Inc. (Rhyolite) to develop concepts and designs for a consumer ultraviolet (UV) biodosimeter based on the human biochemistry of Vitamin D synthesis. Rhyolite was established to engage in product development, licensing and consulting for the manufacture and supply of new products worldwide. Rhyolite worked jointly with LLNL and the Kiev Institute of Physics (KIP) in Ukraine to leverage previously developed UV sensor technologies by extending the previous work into commercially viable products. The project consisted primarily of the scientific, engineering and business activities needed to develop the UV bio-dosimeter for applications that include health and industrial measurement of ultraviolet radiation.

  7. Real-Time Spectroscopic Monitoring of the Synthesis of Core and Core/Shell Upconversion Nanocrystals and Finite-Difference Time Domain Modeling of the Interaction Between Light and Spherical Microwell Arrays (United States)

    Suter, John

    Nanocrystalline beta-NaYF4:17% Yb3+, 3% Er 3+ has significant potential for applications in a wide variety of fields including solar technologies, security printing, and biological imaging and sensing. In order to increase the potential of these nanocrystals for these applications, we have developed a method for the real-time, in situ, spectroscopic monitoring of nanocrystal growth and shell-addition. In situ real-time monitoring of upconversion emission is applied to study the reaction mechanism for the synthesis of beta-NaYF 4:17% Yb3+, 3% Er3++ nanoparticles in oleic acid and octadecene via the heat-up method. Transmission electron microscopy is used to correlate the spectroscopic signature of the reaction mixture with its composition. The power of real-time spectroscopic monitoring to precisely time the duration of the various stages of the reaction, and to accurately identify the transitions between those stages, including the completion of the reaction, is demonstrated. Real-time spectroscopic monitoring is used to study the effect of increasing the oleic acid concentration on the duration of these stages as well as the size and shape of resulting nanocrystals. The use of real-time spectroscopic monitoring to study shell-addition, specifically, the addition of an un-doped NaYF4 shell, is also discussed. Patterned gold surfaces are known to enhance the upconversion efficiency of lanthanide based upconversion materials, such as nanocrystalline beta-NaYF 4:17% Yb3+, 3% Er3+. Here, spherical microwell arrays are shown to provide up to a 40x enhancement of upconversion emission from beta-NaYF4:17% Yb3+, 3% Er 3+ nanocrystals. Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) is a method to solve, numerically, the Maxwell equations across a 3D simulation grid and has been used to simulate the interaction of light with a variety of materials, including metal surfaces and particles. FDTD simulations is used to investigate the nature of the enhancement from the patterned gold

  8. Monitoring of monooctanoyl phosphatidylcholine synthesis by enzymatic acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine and caprylic acid by thin-layer chromatography with a flame ionization detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikbjerg, Anders Falk; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing


    Thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detector (TLC-FID) method was used for monitoring the production of structured phospholipids (ML-type: L-long chain fatty acids; M-medium chain fatty acids) by enzyme-catalyzed acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) and caprylic acid....... It was found that the structured PC fractionated into 2-3 distinct bands on both plate thin layer chromatography (TLC) and Chromarod TLC. These 3 bands represented PC of LL-type, ML-type and MM-type, respectively. The TLC-FID method was applied in the present study to examine the influence of enzyme dosage...

  9. Synthesis of core-shell heterostructured Cu/Cu2O nanowires monitored by in situ XRD as efficient visible-light photocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei


    Core-shell heterostructured Cu/Cu2O nanowires with a high aspect ratio were synthesized from Cu foam using a novel oxidation/reduction process. In situ XRD was used as an efficient tool to acquire phase transformation details during the temperature-programmed oxidation of Cu foam and the subsequent reduction process. Based on knowledge of the crucial phase transformation, optimal synthesis conditions for producing high-quality CuO and core-shell Cu/Cu2O nanowires were determined. In favor of efficient charge separation induced by the special core-shell heterostructure and the advanced three-dimensional spatial configuration, Cu/Cu2O nanowires exhibited superior visible-light activity in the degradation of methylene blue. The present study illustrates a novel strategy for fabricating efficiently core-shell heterostructured nanowires and provides the potential for developing their applications in electronic devices, for environmental remediation and in solar energy utilization fields. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Boron bridging of rhamnogalacturonan-II, monitored by gel electrophoresis, occurs during polysaccharide synthesis and secretion but not post-secretion. (United States)

    Chormova, Dimitra; Messenger, David J; Fry, Stephen C


    The cell-wall pectic domain rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) is cross-linked via borate diester bridges, which influence the expansion, thickness and porosity of the wall. Previously, little was known about the mechanism or subcellular site of this cross-linking. Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to separate monomeric from dimeric (boron-bridged) RG-II, we confirmed that Pb(2+) promotes H3 BO3 -dependent dimerisation in vitro. H3 BO3 concentrations as high as 50 mm did not prevent cross-linking. For in-vivo experiments, we successfully cultured 'Paul's Scarlet' rose (Rosa sp.) cells in boron-free medium: their wall-bound pectin contained monomeric RG-II domains but no detectable dimers. Thus pectins containing RG-II domains can be held in the wall other than via boron bridges. Re-addition of H3 BO3 to 3.3 μm triggered a gradual appearance of RG-II dimer over 24 h but without detectable loss of existing monomers, suggesting that only newly synthesised RG-II was amenable to boron bridging. In agreement with this, Rosa cultures whose polysaccharide biosynthetic machinery had been compromised (by carbon starvation, respiratory inhibitors, anaerobiosis, freezing or boiling) lost the ability to generate RG-II dimers. We conclude that RG-II normally becomes boron-bridged during synthesis or secretion but not post-secretion. Supporting this conclusion, exogenous [(3) H]RG-II was neither dimerised in the medium nor cross-linked to existing wall-associated RG-II domains when added to Rosa cultures. In conclusion, in cultured Rosa cells RG-II domains have a brief window of opportunity for boron-bridging intraprotoplasmically or during secretion, but secretion into the apoplast is a point of no return beyond which additional boron-bridging does not readily occur. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and molecular weight monitoring of a novel Schiff base polymer containing phenol group: Thermal stability, conductivity and antimicrobial properties (United States)

    Yılmaz Baran, Nuray; Saçak, Mehmet


    A novel Schiff base polymer containing phenol group, Poly(3-[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino]phenol) P(3-DBAP), was prepared by oxidative polycondensation reaction of 3-[[4-(dimethylamino)benzylidene]amino]phenol (3-DBAP) using NaOCl, H2O2, O2 oxidants in aqueous alkaline medium. Yield and molecular weight distribution of P(3-DBAP) were monitored depending on oxidant types and concentration, monomer concentration and as well as polymerization temperature and time. UV-Vis, FTIR and 1HNMR techniques were used to identify the structures of Schiff base monomer and polymer. Thermal behavior of P(3-DBAP), which was determined to be thermally stable up to 1200 °C via TG-DTG techniques, was illuminated by Thermo-IR spectra recorded in the temperature range of 25-800 °C. It was determined that the electrical conductivity value of the P(3-DBAP) increased 108 fold after doped with iodine for 24 h at 60 °C according to undoped form and it was measured 4.6 × 10-4 S/cm. Also, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the monomer and polymer were assayed against Sarcina lutea, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus Feacalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis bacteria, and Candida albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi.

  12. Marine and coastal environmental education in the context of global climate changes - synthesis and subsidies for ReBentos (Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto S. Berchez

    Full Text Available Abstract As changes in coastal and marine environments are expected to negatively affect Brazilian ecosystems, the importance of Marine Environmental Education (MEE comes to the fore. However, so far only 32 contributions related to this issue have been published in Brazil. The MEE workgroup of ReBentos aims at promoting EE and the communication of marine ecological research to the scholastic public as a whole, as well as to groups which exert an influence on general perception, such as the media, politicians, and scientists. This paper presents an overview of the initiatives of MEE in Brazil, with emphasis on the ReBentos projects and guidelines. The conceptual background of action is based on the Rio'92 Treaty on Environmental Education, thereby implying an MEE with Transdisciplinar, emancipatory and reflexive characteristics, directed to changes in values, principles and attitudes. During the period 2011 to 2015, 10 projects were developed from Alagoas to Santa Catarina States, involving the development, implementation and testing through scientific research of 16 MEE activity-models. The didactic material subsequently produced comprised three books and 21 book-chapters. A public of around 6,500 Conservation Unit visitors, 250 public school teachers and 800 high school students have been impacted to date. To act as monitors and multipliers, 250 undergraduate students and professionals were trained. Research project evaluation generated the publication of nine papers. As a further step, the need for protocol elaboration for each model is placed in evidence, in order to direct and facilitate future initiatives.

  13. Monitoring of monooctanoylphosphatidylcholine synthesis by enzymatic acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine and caprylic acid by thin-layer chromatography with a flame ionization detector. (United States)

    Vikbjerg, Anders F; Mu, Huiling; Xu, Xuebing


    Thin-layer chromatography with a flame ionization detector (TLC-FID) was used for monitoring the production of structured phospholipids (ML type: L, long-chain fatty acids; M, medium-chain fatty acids) by enzyme-catalyzed acidolysis between soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) and caprylic acid. It was found that the structured PC fractionated into two to three distinct bands on both plate thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and Chromarod TLC. These three bands represented PC of the LL type, ML type, and MM type, respectively. The TLC-FID method was applied in the present study to examine the influence of enzyme dosage, reaction temperature, solvent amount, reaction time, and substrate ratio (caprylic acid/PC, mol/mol) on formation of ML-type PC in a batch reactor with Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase as the catalyst. The formation of ML-type PC was dependent on all parameters examined except for the substrate ratio. The ML-type PC content increased with increasing enzyme dosage, reaction temperature, solvent amount, and reaction time. The substrate ratio had no significant effect on the formation of ML-type PC within the tested range (3-15 mol/mol). The formation of MM-type PC was observed in some experiments, indicating that acyl migration is taking place during reaction since the lipase is claimed to be 1,3-specific. The TLC-FID method offers a simple and cheap technique for elucidation of product and byproduct formation during enzyme-catalyzed reactions for production of phospholipids containing mixtures of long- and medium-chain fatty acids.

  14. Environmental monitoring network for India (United States)

    P.V. Sundareshwar; R. Murtugudde; G. Srinivasan; S. Singh; K.J. Ramesh; R. Ramesh; S.B. Verma; D. Agarwal; D. Baldocchi; C.K. Baru; K.K. Baruah; G.R. Chowdhury; V.K. Dadhwal; C.B.S. Dutt; J. Fuentes; Prabhat Gupta; W.W. Hardgrove; M. Howard; C.S. Jha; S. Lal; W.K. Michener; A.P. Mitra; J.T. Morris; R.R. Myneni; M. Naja; R. Nemani; R. Purvaja; S. Raha; S.K. Santhana Vanan; M. Sharma; A. Subramaniam; R. Sukumar; R.R. Twilley; P.R. Zimmerman


    Understanding the consequences of global environmental change and its mitigation will require an integrated global effort of comprehensive long-term data collection, synthesis, and action (1). The last decade has seen a dramatic global increase in the number of networked monitoring sites. For example, FLUXNET is a global collection of >300 micrometeorological...

  15. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1324-1332. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords. Alumina; combustion; refractory materials; urea. Author Affiliations. Tanu Mimani1.

  16. Fire Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 2. Fire Synthesis - Preparation of Alumina Products. Tanu Mimani. General Article Volume 5 Issue 2 February 2000 pp 50-57. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  17. Mobility Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schæbel, Anne-Lise; Dybbro, Karina Løvendahl; Andersen, Lisbeth Støvring


    Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby......Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby...

  18. Triboluminescence theory, synthesis, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Okoli, Okenwa; Fontenot, Ross; Hollerman, William


    This book expounds on progress made over the last 35 years in the theory, synthesis, and application of triboluminescence for creating smart structures. It presents in detail the research into utilization of the triboluminescent properties of certain crystals as new sensor systems for smart engineering structures, as well as triboluminescence-based sensor systems that have the potential to enable wireless, in-situ, real time and distributed (WIRD) structural health monitoring of composite structures. The sensor component of any structural health monitoring (SHM) technology — measures the effects of the external load/event and provides the necessary inputs for appropriate preventive/corrective action to be taken in a smart structure — sits at the heart of such a system. This volume explores advances in materials properties and structural behavior underlying creation of smart composite structures and sensor systems for structural health monitoring of critical engineering structures, such as bridges, aircraf...

  19. Recombination monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    This is a brief report on LEReC recombination monitor design considerations. The recombination produced Au78+ ion rate is reviewed. Based on this two designs are discussed. One is to use the large dispersion lattice. It is shown that even with the large separation of the Au78+ beam from the Au79+ beam, the continued monitoring of the recombination is not possible. Accumulation of Au78+ ions is needed, plus collimation of the Au79+ beam. In another design, it is shown that the recombination monitor can be built based on the proposed scheme with the nominal lattice. From machine operation point of view, this design is preferable. Finally, possible studies and the alternative strategies with the basic goal of the monitor are discussed.

  20. Monitoring Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Gurmukh


    This book is useful for Hadoop administrators who need to learn how to monitor and diagnose their clusters. Also, the book will prove useful for new users of the technology, as the language used is simple and easy to grasp.

  1. Monitoring Leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geanakoplos, John; Heje Pedersen, Lasse


    We argue that leverage is a central element of economic cycles and discuss how leverage can be properly monitored. While traditionally the interest rate has been regarded as the single key feature of a loan, we contend that the size of the loan, i.e., the leverage, is in fact a more important...... measure of systemic risk. Indeed, systemic crises tend to erupt when highly leveraged economic agents are forced to deleverage, sending the economy into recession. We emphasize the importance of measuring both the average leverage on old loans (which captures the economy's vulnerability) and the leverage...... and monitored....

  2. Ammonothermal Synthesis of Earth-Abundant Nitride Semiconductors ZnSiN2 and ZnGeN2 and Dissolution Monitoring by In Situ X-ray Imaging. (United States)

    Häusler, Jonas; Schimmel, Saskia; Wellmann, Peter; Schnick, Wolfgang


    In this contribution, first synthesis of semiconducting ZnSiN2 and ZnGeN2 from solution is reported with supercritical ammonia as solvent and KNH2 as ammonobasic mineralizer. The reactions were conducted in custom-built high-pressure autoclaves made of nickel-based superalloy. The nitrides were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and their crystal structures were refined by the Rietveld method. ZnSiN2 (a=5.24637(4), b=6.28025(5), c=5.02228(4) Å, Z=4, Rwp =0.0556) and isotypic ZnGeN2 (a=5.46677(10), b=6.44640(12), c=5.19080(10) Å, Z=4, Rwp =0.0494) crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pna21 (no. 33). The morphology and elemental composition of the nitrides were examined by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Well-defined single crystals with a diameter up to 7 μm were grown by ammonothermal synthesis at temperatures between 870 and 1070 K and pressures up to 230 MPa. Optical properties have been analyzed with diffuse reflectance measurements. The band gaps of ZnSiN2 and ZnGeN2 were determined to be 3.7 and 3.2 eV at room temperature, respectively. In situ X-ray measurements were performed to exemplarily investigate the crystallization mechanism of ZnGeN2 . Dissolution in ammonobasic supercritical ammonia between 570 and 670 K was observed which is quite promising for the crystal growth of ternary nitrides under ammonothermal conditions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Energy Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus T.; Madsen, Dines; Christiensen, Thomas

    Energy measurement has become an important aspect of our daily lives since we have learned that energy consumption, is one of the main source of global warming. Measuring instruments varies from a simple watt-meter to more sophisticated microprocessor control devices. The negative effects...... that fossil fuels induce on our environment has forced us to research renewable energy such as sunlight, wind etc. This new environmental awareness has also helped us to realize the importance of monitoring and controlling our energy use. The main purpose in this research is to introduce a more sophisticated...... but affordable way to monitor energy consumption of individuals or groups of home appliances. By knowing their consumption the utilization can be regulated for more efficient use. A prototype system has been constructed to demonstrate our idea....


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIBACTERIAL EVALUATION OF. SOME NOVEL DERIVATIVES OF ... ABSTRACT. In the present study, synthesis, and biological evaluation of some novel derivatives of 2- .... dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and concentrated under vacuum to give the desired product.

  5. Technology monitoring; Technologie-Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicher, H.; Rigassi, R. [Eicher und Pauli AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Ott, W. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)


    This study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines ways of systematically monitoring energy technology development and the cost of such technologies in order to pave the way to a basis for judging the economic development of new energy technologies. Initial results of a survey of the past development of these technologies are presented and estimates are made of future developments in the areas of motor-based combined heat and power systems, fuel-cell heating units for single-family homes and apartment buildings, air/water heat pumps for new housing projects and high-performance thermal insulation. The methodology used for the monitoring and analysis of the various technologies is described. Tables and diagrams illustrate the present situation and development potential of various fields of technology.

  6. WEB Server monitoring


    Sorin POPA


    This paper introduces web-server monitoring, explaining its importance and describing various monitoring concepts and types. A set of reasons of web-server monitoring are enumerated. Then, in a monitoring strategy, various types of monitor are presented along with a comparison between deep and shallow monitors. Monitoring process meaning and elements are described, revealing that the monitoring process is largely dictated by the monitoring software package in use. A comparison between interna...

  7. A LTL Fragment for GR(1-Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Schneider


    Full Text Available The idea of automatic synthesis of reactive programs starting from temporal logic (LTL specifications is quite old, but was commonly thought to be infeasible due to the known double exponential complexity of the problem. However, new ideas have recently renewed the interest in LTL synthesis: One major new contribution in this area is the recent work of Piterman et al. who showed how polynomial time synthesis can be achieved for a large class of LTL specifications that is expressive enough to cover many practical examples. These LTL specifications are equivalent to omega-automata having a so-called GR(1 acceptance condition. This approach has been used to automatically synthesize implementations of real-world applications. To this end, manually written deterministic omega-automata having GR(1 conditions were used instead of the original LTL specifications. However, manually generating deterministic monitors is, of course, a hard and error-prone task. In this paper, we therefore present algorithms to automatically translate specifications of a remarkable large fragment of LTL to deterministic monitors having a GR(1 acceptance condition so that the synthesis algorithms can start with more readable LTL specifications.

  8. Electrically controlled nanoparticle synthesis inside nanopores. (United States)

    Venta, Kimberly; Wanunu, Meni; Drndić, Marija


    From their realization just over a decade ago, nanopores in silicon nitride membranes have allowed numerous transport-based single-molecule measurements. Here we report the use of these nanopores as subzeptoliter mixing volumes for the controlled synthesis of metal nanoparticles. Particle synthesis is controlled and monitored through an electric field applied across the nanopore membrane, which is positioned so as to separate electrolyte solutions of a metal precursor and a reducing agent. When the electric field drives reactive ions to the nanopore, a characteristic drop in the ion current is observed, indicating the formation of a nanoparticle inside the nanopore. While traditional chemical synthesis relies on temperature and timing to monitor particle growth, here we observe it in real time by monitoring electrical current. We describe the dynamics of gold particle formation in sub-10 nm diameter silicon nitride pores and the effects of salt concentration and additives on the particle's shape and size. The current versus time signal during particle formation in the nanopore is in excellent agreement with the Richards growth curve, indicating an access-limited growth mechanism.

  9. Analytical techniques for small molecule solid phase synthesis. (United States)

    Scicinski, Jan J; Congreveb, Miles S; Kay, Corinne; Ley, Steven V


    Although resin-based chemistry offers many practical advantages over conventional solution phase for the synthesis of combinatorial libraries, effective monitoring of reactions conducted on the support remains a challenge. A number of techniques have been developed to enable the analysis of solid phase organic synthesis either by monitoring the resin-bound species directly or by the analysis of small quantities of material cleaved from the support. This review outlines some of the principles of the various techniques for the analysis of intermediates and products obtained from solid-phase chemistry.

  10. Contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamares, A.L. [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)


    By virture of Republic Act 2067, as amended the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), now renamed Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is the government agency charged with the regulations and control of radioactive materials in the Philippines. The protection against the hazards of non-ionizing radiation is being monitored by the Radiological Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health pursuant to the provision of Presidental Decree 480. The RHS issues licenses for possession, handling, and use of x-ray machines and equipment, both industrial and medical, and provide radiation protection training to x-ray technologists and technicians. As part of its regulatory function, the PNRI is charged with the responsibility of assuring that the radiation workers and the public are protected from the hazards associated with the possession, handling, production, manufacturing, and the use of radioactive materials and atomic energy facilities in the Philippines. The protection of radiation workers from the hazards of ionizing radiation has always been a primary concern of PNRI and by limiting the exposure of radiation workers, the risk to population is kept to within acceptable level. In this paper, the following items are described: radiation protection program, radiation protection services, radiation control, and problems encountered/recommendation. (G.K.)

  11. Application of environmental DNA for inventory and monitoring of aquatic species (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Laramie, Matthew B.; Waits, Lisette P.


    This fact sheet was created to help biologists and resource managers understand emerging methods for detecting environmental DNA and their potential application for inventorying and monitoring aquatic species. It is a synthesis of published information.

  12. Automating multistep flow synthesis: approach and challenges in integrating chemistry, machines and logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmay A. Shukla


    Full Text Available The implementation of automation in the multistep flow synthesis is essential for transforming laboratory-scale chemistry into a reliable industrial process. In this review, we briefly introduce the role of automation based on its application in synthesis viz. auto sampling and inline monitoring, optimization and process control. Subsequently, we have critically reviewed a few multistep flow synthesis and suggested a possible control strategy to be implemented so that it helps to reliably transfer the laboratory-scale synthesis strategy to a pilot scale at its optimum conditions. Due to the vast literature in multistep synthesis, we have classified the literature and have identified the case studies based on few criteria viz. type of reaction, heating methods, processes involving in-line separation units, telescopic synthesis, processes involving in-line quenching and process with the smallest time scale of operation. This classification will cover the broader range in the multistep synthesis literature.

  13. Automating multistep flow synthesis: approach and challenges in integrating chemistry, machines and logic. (United States)

    Shukla, Chinmay A; Kulkarni, Amol A


    The implementation of automation in the multistep flow synthesis is essential for transforming laboratory-scale chemistry into a reliable industrial process. In this review, we briefly introduce the role of automation based on its application in synthesis viz. auto sampling and inline monitoring, optimization and process control. Subsequently, we have critically reviewed a few multistep flow synthesis and suggested a possible control strategy to be implemented so that it helps to reliably transfer the laboratory-scale synthesis strategy to a pilot scale at its optimum conditions. Due to the vast literature in multistep synthesis, we have classified the literature and have identified the case studies based on few criteria viz. type of reaction, heating methods, processes involving in-line separation units, telescopic synthesis, processes involving in-line quenching and process with the smallest time scale of operation. This classification will cover the broader range in the multistep synthesis literature.

  14. Synthesis of Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, John Michael


    These notes describe an automated procedure for analysis and synthesis of mechanisms. The analysis method is based on the body coordinate formulation, and the synthesis is based on applying optimization methods, used to minimize the difference between an actual and a desired behaviour......These notes describe an automated procedure for analysis and synthesis of mechanisms. The analysis method is based on the body coordinate formulation, and the synthesis is based on applying optimization methods, used to minimize the difference between an actual and a desired behaviour...

  15. Real-time assay for testing components of protein synthesis (United States)

    Rosenblum, Gabriel; Chen, Chunlai; Kaur, Jaskiran; Cui, Xiaonan; Goldman, Yale E.; Cooperman, Barry S.


    We present a flexible, real-time-coupled transcription–translation assay that involves the continuous monitoring of fluorescent Emerald GFP formation. Along with numerical simulation of a reaction kinetics model, the assay permits quantitative estimation of the effects on full-length protein synthesis of various additions, subtractions or substitutions to the protein synthesis machinery. Since the assay uses continuous fluorescence monitoring, it is much simpler and more rapid than other assays of protein synthesis and is compatible with high-throughput formats. Straightforward alterations of the assay permit determination of (i) the fraction of ribosomes in a cell-free protein synthesis kit that is active in full-length protein synthesis and (ii) the relative activities in supporting protein synthesis of modified (e.g. mutated, fluorescent-labeled) exogenous components (ribosomes, amino acid-specific tRNAs) that replace the corresponding endogenous components. Ribosomes containing fluorescent-labeled L11 and tRNAs labeled with fluorophores in the D-loop retain substantial activity. In the latter case, the extent of activity loss correlates with a combination of steric bulk and hydrophobicity of the fluorophore. PMID:22422844

  16. Purification, Structure and Properties of Escherichia coli tRNA Pseudouridine Synthase 1. (United States)


    enzymes which are reactive at C5 of uracil ( thymidylate synthase and aminoacyl synthetases). The deduced amino acid sequence of PSUI was also compared with...localize the sites of tRNA interaction with PSUI. The mechanism elucidated by Santi and others for thymidylate synthase (34-38) provides a conceptual...aminoacyl tRNA synthetases with residue U8 of their cognate tRNA substrates (39,40). In the case of thymidylate synthase , I the catalytic nucleophile is

  17. Synthesis of oligonucleotide phosphorodithioates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaton, G.; Brill, W. K D; Grandas, A.


    The synthesis of DNA containing sulfur at the two nonbonding internucleotide valencies is reported. Several different routes using either tervalent or pentavalent mononucleotide synthons are described.......The synthesis of DNA containing sulfur at the two nonbonding internucleotide valencies is reported. Several different routes using either tervalent or pentavalent mononucleotide synthons are described....

  18. Synthesis of Isoiminosugars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldtoft, Lene; Godskesen, Michael Anders; Lundt, Inge


    A short synthesis of isoiminosugars have been developed. Bromolactones are diastereoselectively alkylated at C-2 followed by ring closure to the corresponding lactams. Reduction of these then gives isoiminosugars......A short synthesis of isoiminosugars have been developed. Bromolactones are diastereoselectively alkylated at C-2 followed by ring closure to the corresponding lactams. Reduction of these then gives isoiminosugars...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to improve the synthesis of peptides with asparagine and glutamine residues, various carboxamide ... protecting groups in solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS). This method eliminates all .... to the filtrate, the solution was washed with three 9 mL portions of 5% aqueous citric acid, three 12 mL portions of 5% ...

  20. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis


    大矢, 健一


    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  1. Synthesis and Reactivity of Backfluorinated NHC Carbene Complexes (Briefing Charts) (United States)


    REPORT NO. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQRP 10 E. Saturn Blvd. Edwards AFB, CA 93524-7680 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING...SAR 28 19b. TELEPHONE NO (include area code ) 661-275-5768 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 1 Synthesis and

  2. VHDL for logic synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rushton, Andrew


    Many engineers encountering VHDL (very high speed integrated circuits hardware description language) for the first time can feel overwhelmed by it. This book bridges the gap between the VHDL language and the hardware that results from logic synthesis with clear organisation, progressing from the basics of combinational logic, types, and operators; through special structures such as tristate buses, register banks and memories, to advanced themes such as developing your own packages, writing test benches and using the full range of synthesis types. This third edition has been substantially rewritten to include the new VHDL-2008 features that enable synthesis of fixed-point and floating-point hardware. Extensively updated throughout to reflect modern logic synthesis usage, it also contains a complete case study to demonstrate the updated features. Features to this edition include: * a common VHDL subset which will work across a range of different synthesis systems, targeting a very wide range of technologies...

  3. Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Monitoring Knowledge Base (MKB) is a compilation of emissions measurement and monitoring techniques associated with air pollution control devices, industrial...

  4. Synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Teresa J. (Arizona State University); Hsu, Julia W. P.


    The vapor-liquid-solid growth process for synthesis of group-IV semiconducting nanowires using silane, germane, disilane and digermane precursor gases has been investigated. The nanowire growth process combines in situ gold seed formation by vapor deposition on atomically clean silicon (111) surfaces, in situ growth from the gaseous precursor(s), and real-time monitoring of nanowire growth as a function of temperature and pressure by a novel optical reflectometry technique. A significant dependence on precursor pressure and growth temperature for the synthesis of silicon and germanium nanowires is observed, depending on the stability of the specific precursor used. Also, the presence of a nucleation time for the onset of nanowire growth has been found using our new in situ optical reflectometry technique.

  5. Stereoselective tetrahydrofuran synthesis


    Shaw, Duncan Edward


    This thesis begins in Chapter One with a discussion of the role of electrophilic cyclisation in the synthesis of tetrahydrofurans. Chapter Two begins with a discussion of the synthesis of iodo-olactones, by the iodolactonisation of β-silyloxy-δ-alkenoic acids (Scheme A). It will show how the potential of this chemistry has been expanded by proving the absolute stereochemistry at the iodine centre. Chapter Two goes on to consider the stereospecific synthesis of 2,3,5-trisubstituted iodo-te...

  6. Asymmetric synthesis v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, James


    Asymmetric Synthesis, Volume 4: The Chiral Carbon Pool and Chiral Sulfur, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Silicon Centers describes the practical methods of obtaining chiral fragments. Divided into five chapters, this book specifically examines initial chiral transmission and extension. The opening chapter describes the so-called chiral carbon pool, the readily available chiral carbon fragments used as building blocks in synthesis. This chapter also provides a list of 375 chiral building blocks, along with their commercial sources, approximate prices, and methods of synthesis. Schemes involving

  7. Critical care monitoring. (United States)

    Heard, D J


    Critical care monitoring in exotic practice is limited by the small size and the physiologic diversity of many patients. However, many of the principles applied to humans and other mammals can be extrapolated to monitoring in exotic animals. Advances in the monitoring of human patients offer the potential for more practical, low-cost monitoring in critical exotic patients in the future.

  8. Pavement scores synthesis. (United States)


    The purpose of this synthesis was to summarize the use of pavement scores by the states, including the : rating methods used, the score scales, and descriptions; if the scores are used for recommending pavement : maintenance and rehabilitation action...

  9. Synthesis Polarimetry Calibration (United States)

    Moellenbrock, George


    Synthesis instrumental polarization calibration fundamentals for both linear (ALMA) and circular (EVLA) feed bases are reviewed, with special attention to the calibration heuristics supported in CASA. Practical problems affecting modern instruments are also discussed.

  10. Facile Synthesis of Bisphosphonates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    KUNDA, Uma Maheswara Rao; HAMADA, Fumio


    Sodium hydride in polyethylene glycol has been used as a sustainable, non-volatile, and ecofriendly catalytic medium for the green synthesis of bisphosphonates with an alkyl/aryl/heterocyclic group...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail:; Tel: +92 915641658/915843456. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF. TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES OF IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVE. Saeed-ur-Rehman*, Muhammad Ikram, Sadia Rehman, Alia Faiz and Shahnawaz.

  12. Streamlining amine synthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurti, L


    ... that are produced by plants and living organisms (i.e., natural products) (, ). Not surprisingly, organic chemists spend a considerable amount of time with the synthesis and late-stage functionalization of amines...

  13. Instrument Modeling and Synthesis (United States)

    Horner, Andrew B.; Beauchamp, James W.

    During the 1970s and 1980s, before synthesizers based on direct sampling of musical sounds became popular, replicating musical instruments using frequency modulation (FM) or wavetable synthesis was one of the “holy grails” of music synthesis. Synthesizers such as the Yamaha DX7 allowed users great flexibility in mixing and matching sounds, but were notoriously difficult to coerce into producing sounds like those of a given instrument. Instrument design wizards practiced the mysteries of FM instrument design.

  14. Simplified Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Jelinskas, Adomas


    This project can be considered as a model for a simplified grid monitoring. In particular, I was creating a specific monitoring instance, which can be easily set up on a machine and, depending on an input information, automatically start monitoring services using Nagios software application. I had to automate the set up process and configuration of the monitoring system in order for the user to use it easily. I developed a script which automatically sets up the monitoring system, configures it and starts monitoring. I put the script, files and instructions in the repository ';a=summary' under the sub-directory called SNCG.

  15. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices (United States)

    ... In Vitro Diagnostics Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... care settings to measure the amount of sugar (glucose) in your blood. What is glucose? Glucose is ...

  16. EMC Compliance Assurance Monitoring (United States)

    The Compliance Assurance Monitoring, or CAM, rule is designed to satisfy the requirements for monitoring and compliance certification in the Part 70 operating permits program and Title VII of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

  17. Spacecraft Power Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Spacecraft Power Monitor (SPM) which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). NEMO transforms the power...

  18. Biological Monitoring Team (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Biological Monitoring Team (BMT) was a pilot project focused on addressing NWRS inventory and monitoring needs in Regions 3 and 5. The BMT was a precursor to the...

  19. USAID Colombia - Clearinghouse Monitor (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) Clearinghouse-Monitor is a web-based Information System that provides the Mission with information about the status and...

  20. Blazar Monitoring List (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a compilation of sources in major blazar monitoring programs. This list contains all blazars known to be regularly monitored, plus all the MOJAVE- &...

  1. Lunar Health Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  2. Flight Systems Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project will develop the Flight System Monitor which will use non-intrusive electrical monitoring (NEMO). The electronic system health of...

  3. Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMS: Inductive Monitoring System The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a tool that uses a data mining technique called clustering to extract models of normal...

  4. Apnea monitor (image) (United States)

    An apnea monitor checks the heart rate and respiration of the baby to make sure he or she is breathing properly. ... either one falls below normal levels, the apnea monitor beeps to notify the care provider that something ...

  5. Holter monitor (24h) (United States)

    ... page: // Holter monitor (24h) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Holter monitor is a machine that continuously records the heart's ...

  6. Community Air Monitoring Training (United States)

    EPA hosted a training workshop to share tools used to conduct citizen science projects involving Next Generation Air Monitoring (NGAM) technology and to educate interested groups and individuals on best practices for successful air monitoring projects.

  7. Nosepiece respiration monitor (United States)

    Lavery, A. L.; Long, L. E.; Rice, N. E.


    Comfortable, inexpensive nosepiece respiration monitor produces rapid response signals to most conventional high impedance medical signal conditioners. The monitor measures respiration in a manner that produces a large signal with minimum delay.

  8. Monitoring Structural Change.


    Chu, Chia-Shang James; Stinchcombe, Maxwell; White, Halbert


    Contemporary tests for structural change are designed to detect a structural break within a given historical data set of fixed size. Due to the law of the iterated logarithm, these one-shot tests cannot be applied to monitor out-of-sample stability each time new data arrive. The authors propose and analyze two real-time monitoring procedures with controlled size asymptotically: the fluctuation and CUSUM monitoring procedures. Simulation results show that the proposed monitoring procedures ind...

  9. Total synthesis of aeruginazole A


    Bruno, Paolo; Peña, Stella; Just Baringo, Xavier; Albericio Palomera, Fernando; Álvarez Domingo, Mercedes


    The first total synthesis of Aeruginazole A, prepared via a convergent strategy that involved both solid-phase peptide synthesis and solution phase chemistry and that enabled conservation of the stereochemistry of the intermediates, is reported.

  10. Rapid flow-based peptide synthesis. (United States)

    Simon, Mark D; Heider, Patrick L; Adamo, Andrea; Vinogradov, Alexander A; Mong, Surin K; Li, Xiyuan; Berger, Tatiana; Policarpo, Rocco L; Zhang, Chi; Zou, Yekui; Liao, Xiaoli; Spokoyny, Alexander M; Jensen, Klavs F; Pentelute, Bradley L


    A flow-based solid-phase peptide synthesis methodology that enables the incorporation of an amino acid residue every 1.8 min under automatic control or every 3 min under manual control is described. This is accomplished by passing a stream of reagent through a heat exchanger into a low volume, low backpressure reaction vessel, and through a UV detector. These features enable continuous delivery of heated solvents and reagents to the solid support at high flow rate, thereby maintaining maximal concentration of reagents in the reaction vessel, quickly exchanging reagents, and eliminating the need to rapidly heat reagents after they have been added to the vessel. The UV detector enables continuous monitoring of the process. To demonstrate the broad applicability and reliability of this method, it was employed in the total synthesis of a small protein, as well as dozens of peptides. The quality of the material obtained with this method is comparable to that for traditional batch methods, and, in all cases, the desired material was readily purifiable by RP-HPLC. The application of this method to the synthesis of the 113-residue Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RNase and the 130-residue DARPin pE59 is described in the accompanying manuscript. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. BPA genetic monitoring - BPA Genetic Monitoring Project (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Initiated in 1989, this study monitors genetic changes associated with hatchery propagation in multiple Snake River sub-basins for Chinook salmon and steelhead. We...

  12. On-line core axial power distribution synthesis method from in-core and ex-core neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Wang Kee; Cho, Byung Oh [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)


    This document describes the methodology in detail and the synthesis coefficients of the Fourier series expansion and the cubic spline synthesis techniques. A computer program was developed to generate the synthesis coefficients and the core power distribution. For the illustration, various axial power shapes for YGN 3 Cycle 1 and SMART were synthesized using the simulated in-core and/or ex-core detector signals. The results of this study will be useful to select the best synthesis method for the SMART core monitoring and protection systems and to evaluate the accuracy of the synthesized power shape. 4 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  13. Seismic Imaging and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

  14. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)


    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  15. Synthesis of Trigger Properties (United States)

    Kupferman, Orna; Vardi, Moshe Y.

    In automated synthesis, we transform a specification into a system that is guaranteed to satisfy the specification. In spite of the rich theory developed for temporal synthesis, little of this theory has been reduced to practice. This is in contrast with model-checking theory, which has led to industrial development and use of formal verification tools. We address this problem here by considering a certain class of PSL properties; this class covers most of the properties used in practice by system designers. We refer to this class as the class of trigger properties.

  16. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask


    , in order to answer is not yet another partisan suggestion, but rather an attempt at making intelligible both the oppositions and the possibilities of synthesis between normative and empirical approaches to law. Based on our assessment and rational reconstruction of current arguments and positions, we...... therefore outline a taxonomy consisting of the following three basic, ideal-types in terms of the epistemological understanding of the interface of law and empirical studies: toleration, synthesis and replacement. This tripartite model proves useful with a view to teasing out and better articulating...

  17. Supercritical Synthesis of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Vaultier


    Full Text Available The synthesis of biodiesel fuel from lipids (vegetable oils and animal fats has gained in importance as a possible source of renewable non-fossil energy in an attempt to reduce our dependence on petroleum-based fuels. The catalytic processes commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel present a series of limitations and drawbacks, among them the high energy consumption required for complex purification operations and undesirable side reactions. Supercritical fluid (SCF technologies offer an interesting alternative to conventional processes for preparing biodiesel. This review highlights the advances, advantages, drawbacks and new tendencies involved in the use of supercritical fluids (SCFs for biodiesel synthesis.

  18. Synthesis And Characterization Of Gd2O3: Tb 30% (United States)

    Djebara, Abdelhakim; Halimi, Rachid


    Over the past decade, nanotechnology has grown leading to the control of the synthesis and functionalization of nanoparticule for applications in the biological marking. The manufacture of nanoparticule luminescent intrinsically could move towards a single detection. By saving this very small optical signal, we can track the movement of the receptor in the membrane during unprecedented times, reaching overtime. This result is a significant advantage compared to the fluorescent molecules whose average lifespan is more limited. These particles can be detected by both the luminescence of rare earth ions present in the heart and that of organic fluorophore. The results look very encouraging. This work aims to study the development of nanoparticule of rare earth oxide as probes to monitor the dynamics of action unique biological entities. The goal of my work has been improved reproducibility of the synthesis and optimization protocol synthesis.

  19. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)


    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. This revision to the Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to document the changes made to the Monitoring Program during 1992. Some of the data (most notably the statistical analyses of past monitoring data) has not been changed.

  20. Ethylene, light, and anthocyanin synthesis. (United States)

    Craker, L E; Wetherbee, P J


    Ethylene control of anthocyanin formation functions only through light-initiated synthesis pathways of the rapid synthesis phase. Treatment with ethylene in the dark had no effect on dark anthocyanin synthesis in red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.). Pretreatment of both red cabbage and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare L.) with ethylene for 24 hours in the dark did increase the rate of synthesis when the tissue was placed in the light. Light-initiated anthocyanin synthesis is inhibited by ethylene when the tissue is returned to the dark.

  1. Total Synthesis of Codeine. (United States)

    Li, Qilin; Zhang, Hongbin


    In this paper, a new strategy towards the synthesis of codeine and morphine is reported. This new approach features a cascade cyclization to construct the dihydrofuran ring, and an intramolecular palladium catalyzed C-H olefination of unactivated aliphatic alkene to install the morphinan ring system. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND PHOTOCATALYTIC ACTIVITIES OF. Ag-N-CODOPED ZnO NANOPARTICLES FOR DEGRADATION OF METHYL RED. Tesfay Welderfael1, O.P. Yadav1, Abi M. Taddesse1* and Jyotsna Kaushal2. 1Chemistry Department, Haramaya University, P.B. Box 138, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.

  3. Asymmetric synthesis of acetomycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinderman, S.S.; Feringa, B.L.


    The synthesis of (-)-acetomycin, a highly functionalized γ-lactone with antitumor activity, was achieved in five steps with nearly complete enantioselectivity. The key step was realized by a large scale lipase R catalyzed esterification of 5-hydroxy-4-methyl-2(5H)-furanone providing


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    KEY WORDS: 1,10-Phenanthroline, Imidazole, Cobalt complex, Nickel complex, Copper complex,. Antibacterial activity. INTRODUCTION. Metal complexes containing diimine ligands such as 1,10-phenanthroline and its derivatives have gained importance because of their versatile roles as building blocks for the synthesis ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Synthesis, stereochemistry and antimicrobial activity of copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2011, 25(3). 363 recorded in DMF using a Perkin-Elmer 575 spectrophotometer (USA). Nuclear magnetic ... ESR spectra of the complexes were obtained on a Varian E4-EPR spectrometer at about 9.4 GHz ...

  6. Design synthesis exercise 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melkert, J.A.


    The design synthesis exercise forms the closing piece of the third year of the Bachelor degree curriculum of the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering at TU Delft. In this exercise the students learn to apply their acquired knowledge from all aerospace disciplines in one complete design. The object of

  7. Enzymatic synthesis of vanillin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, RHH; Fraaije, MW; Laane, C; van Berkel, WJH; Heuvel, Robert H.H. van den; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    Due to increasing interest in natural vanillin, two enzymatic routes for the synthesis of vanillin were developed. The flavoprotein vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) acts on a wide range of phenolic compounds and converts both creosol and vanillylamine to vanillin with high yield. The VAO-mediated

  8. Distributed Priority Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Ruess


    Full Text Available Given a set of interacting components with non-deterministic variable update and given safety requirements, the goal of priority synthesis is to restrict, by means of priorities, the set of possible interactions in such a way as to guarantee the given safety conditions for all possible runs. In distributed priority synthesis we are interested in obtaining local sets of priorities, which are deployed in terms of local component controllers sharing intended next moves between components in local neighborhoods only. These possible communication paths between local controllers are specified by means of a communication architecture. We formally define the problem of distributed priority synthesis in terms of a multi-player safety game between players for (angelically selecting the next transition of the components and an environment for (demonically updating uncontrollable variables. We analyze the complexity of the problem, and propose several optimizations including a solution-space exploration based on a diagnosis method using a nested extension of the usual attractor computation in games together with a reduction to corresponding SAT problems. When diagnosis fails, the method proposes potential candidates to guide the exploration. These optimized algorithms for solving distributed priority synthesis problems have been integrated into the VissBIP framework. An experimental validation of this implementation is performed using a range of case studies including scheduling in multicore processors and modular robotics.

  9. Synthesis of supported catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Krijn P. de


    Research reports on the synthesis of supported catalysts during the review period (1997-1998) have shown the use of carbon nanotubes and new hetropolyanions as examples of novel supports and of novel precursors of active components, respectively. Studies of absorption and precipitation chemistry

  10. Microfluidic Synthesis of Nanohybrids. (United States)

    Wang, Junmei; Song, Yujun


    Nanohybrids composed of two or more components exhibit many distinct physicochemical properties and hold great promise for applications in optics, electronics, magnetics, new energy, environment protection, and biomedical engineering. Microfluidic systems exhibit many advantages due to their unique characteristics of narrow channels, variable length, controllable number of channels and multiple integrations. Particularly their spatial-temporarily splitting of the formation stages during nanomaterials formation along the microfluidic channels favors the online control of the reaction kinetic parameters and in situ tuning of the product properties. This Review is focused on the features of the current types of microfluidic devices in the synthesis of different types of nanohybrids based on the classification of the four main kinds of materials: metal, nonmetal inorganic, polymer and composites. Their morphologies, compositions and properties can be adjusted conveniently in these synthesis systems. Synthesis advantages of varieties of microfluidic devices for specific nanohybrids of defined surfaces and interfaces are presented according to their process and microstructure features of devices as compared with conventional methods. A summary is presented, and challenges are put forward for the future development of the microfluidic synthesis of nanohybrids for advanced applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Total synthesis of aquatolide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saya, J.M.; Vos, K.; Klein Nijenhuis, R.A.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Ingemann, S.; Hiemstra, H.


    A total synthesis of the sesquiterpene lactone aquatolide has been accomplished. The central step is an intramolecular [2 + 2]-photocycloaddition of an allene onto an alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactone. Other key steps are an intramolecular Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction to close the lactone and

  12. Synthesis of SYEP Plasticizer (United States)


    by formaldehyde make difficult to study this reaction quantitatively. Eplchlorohydrin homologues containing better leaving groups than chlorine ...condensinj of anhydrides by a Friedel Crafts catalyst, usually boron trifluoride : BF (ROO) 0 £-> R 00 This route was investigated for the synthesis of l...ever, fluorodlnitroethoxyacetic anhydride reacted with boron trifluoride to give fluorodinitroethoxymethyl fluorodlnltroethoxyacetate, rather than

  13. Synthesis of the catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    50 585; Duan Y C, Ma Y C, Zhang E, Shi X J, Wang M M, Ye X W and Liu H M 2013 Design and synthesis of novel 1,2,3-triazole-dithiocarbamate hybrids as ... M, Minato T, Bao M and Yamamoto Y 2011 Nanoporous Copper Metal Catalyst in Click Chemistry: Nanoporosity-Dependent Activity without Supports and Bases; ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carboxamide protecting group in peptide synthesis. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION l-Tetralinylamines used as precursors to prepare the carboxamide derivatives of asparagine and glutamine are shown in Table 1: Table 1. Summary of l-tetralinyl amines. Amines Aromatic ring NHZ. X Y Z Z. 1 H H H. 2 OCH; H H. 3 H OCH ...

  15. Synthesis through Trans-disciplinarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring


    When looking up the word ‘synthesis' in a dictionary, one comes across the following definition: "The combining of separate elements or substances to form a coherent whole."[1] Based on this definition one could argue that all great architectureis achieved through synthesis in one way or another...... experience. In relation to ‘environmentally sustainable' architecture the importance of synthesis becomes even more apparent, however, as the success of the design depends on how, and if, a synthesis is achieved between technology and architectural design.[2] This understanding has led me to consider how....... These parameters play a fundamental role in relation to the achievement of synthesis in a world where professions merge and new hybrid professions and educations emerge. [1]: 2006: (accessed April 1st 2006) [2]: If synthesis...

  16. Comprehensive air monitoring plan: general monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Recommendations are provided for general monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) in ambient air in parts of Colusa, Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma counties potentially impacted by emissions from geothermal development projects in the Geysers-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area. Recommendations for types, placement, performance guidelines, and criteria and procedure for triggering establishment and termination of CAMP monitoring equipment were determined after examination of four factors: population location; emission sources; meteorological considerations; and data needs of permitting agencies and applicants. Three alternate financial plans were developed. Locations and equipment for immediate installation are recommended for: two air quality stations in communities where the State ambient air quality standard for H/sub 2/S has been exceeded; three air quality trend stations to monitor progress in reduction of H/sub 2/S emissions; two meteorological observation stations to monitor synoptic wind flow over the area; and one acoustic radar and one rawinsonde station to monitor air inversions which limit the depth of the mixing layer.

  17. Capnography: monitoring CO2. (United States)

    Casey, Georgina


    MONITORING RESPIRATORY and metabolic function by using capnography to measure end tidal carbon dioxide is standard practice in anaesthesia. It is also becoming more common in intensive care units and during procedural sedation. End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) monitoring may also be used to assess effectiveness of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Capnography is now emerging in general medical and surgical wards to monitor respiratory depression in patients using opioid analgesics. Using EtCO2 to monitor respiratory function offers many benefits over pulse oximetry. It is important to understand the differences between these two monitoring methods, and why capnography is increasingly favoured in many situations. An understanding of the physiological processes involved in CO2 excretion allows nurses to use capnography in a safe and meaningful way, while monitoring at-risk patients in acute care.

  18. [Blood glucose self monitoring]. (United States)

    Wascher, Thomas C; Stechemesser, Lars


    Self monitoring of blood glucose contributes to the integrated management of diabetes mellitus. It, thus, should be available for all patients with diabetes mellitus type-1 and type-2. Self monitoring of blood glucose improves patients safety, quality of life and glucose control. The current article represents the recommendations of the Austrian Diabetes Association for the use of blood glucose self monitoring according to current scientific evidence.

  19. Regulation of protein synthesis during sea urchin early development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, L.C.


    Fertilization of the sea urchin egg results in a 20-40 fold increase in the rate of protein synthesis. The masked message hypothesis proposes that mRNAs are masked or unavailable for translation in the egg. We devised an in vivo assay to test this hypothesis. Our results show that masked mRNAs limit protein synthesis in the unfertilized egg. In addition, we show that protein synthesis is also regulated at the level of translational machinery. Following fertilization is a period of rapid cell divisions. This period, known as the rapid cleavage stage, is characterized by the transient synthesis of a novel set of proteins. The synthesis of these proteins is programmed by maternal mRNAs stored in the unfertilized egg. To study the behavior of these mRNAs, we prepared a cDNA library from polysomal poly (A+) RNA from 2-hour embryos. ({sup 32}P) labeled probes, prepared from the cDNA library, were used to monitor the levels of individual mRNAs in polysomes at fertilization and during early development.

  20. Real-Time monitoring of intracellular wax ester metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Matti


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wax esters are industrially relevant molecules exploited in several applications of oleochemistry and food industry. At the moment, the production processes mostly rely on chemical synthesis from rather expensive starting materials, and therefore solutions are sought from biotechnology. Bacterial wax esters are attractive alternatives, and especially the wax ester metabolism of Acinetobacter sp. has been extensively studied. However, the lack of suitable tools for rapid and simple monitoring of wax ester metabolism in vivo has partly restricted the screening and analyses of potential hosts and optimal conditions. Results Based on sensitive and specific detection of intracellular long-chain aldehydes, specific intermediates of wax ester synthesis, bacterial luciferase (LuxAB was exploited in studying the wax ester metabolism in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Luminescence was detected in the cultivation of the strain producing wax esters, and the changes in signal levels could be linked to corresponding cell growth and wax ester synthesis phases. Conclusions The monitoring system showed correlation between wax ester synthesis pattern and luminescent signal. The system shows potential for real-time screening purposes and studies on bacterial wax esters, revealing new aspects to dynamics and role of wax ester metabolism in bacteria.

  1. Aerospace Systems Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposal Title: Aerospace Systems Monitor PHASE 1 Technical Abstract: This Phase II STTR project will continue development and commercialization of the Aerospace...

  2. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  3. Network Monitoring with Nagios

    CERN Document Server

    Dondich, Taylor


    Network monitoring can be a complex task to implement and maintain in your IT infrastructure. Nagios, an open-source host, service and network monitoring program can help you streamline your network monitoring tasks and reduce the cost of operation.With this shortcut guide, we'll go over how Nagios fits in the overall network monitoring puzzle. We'll also cover installation and basic usage. Finally, we'll show you how to extend Nagios with other tools to extend functionality.

  4. Remote Maintenance Monitoring System - (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Remote Maintenance and Monitoring System (RMMS) is a collection of subsystems that includes telecommunication components, hardware, and software, which serve to...

  5. Environmental monitoring plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.C.


    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. 52 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Trigger Monitoring at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoti, A; The ATLAS collaboration


    Monitoring the trigger behavior through all the trigger level is of fundamental importance to assess the quality of the data taken, to give fast feedback for the trigger configuration design and to monitor the stability of the HLT farm components. In this paper we will present the online monitoring framework and the various tools available in the ATLAS trigger system going from the ones that build the basic monitoring infrastructure and test the basic functionalities of the system to the more elaborated ones that checks the quality of the data taking looking at physics variables reconstructed online. The early experience in the 2009 cosmics data taking period will also be shown.

  7. Feasibility Study of a Rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring System (HUMS): Usage and Structural Life Monitoring Evaluation (United States)

    Dickson, B.; Cronkhite, J.; Bielefeld, S.; Killian, L.; Hayden, R.


    The objective of this study was to evaluate two techniques, Flight Condition Recognition (FCR) and Flight Load Synthesis (FIS), for usage monitoring and assess the potential benefits of extending the retirement intervals of life-limited components, thus reducing the operator's maintenance and replacement costs. Both techniques involve indirect determination of loads using measured flight parameters and subsequent fatigue analysis to calculate the life expended on the life-limited components. To assess the potential benefit of usage monitoring, the two usage techniques were compared to current methods of component retirement. In addition, comparisons were made with direct load measurements to assess the accuracy of the two techniques.

  8. Synthesis of quantum dots (United States)

    McDaniel, Hunter


    Common approaches to synthesizing alloyed quantum dots employ high-cost, air-sensitive phosphine complexes as the selenium precursor. Disclosed quantum dot synthesis embodiments avoid these hazardous and air-sensitive selenium precursors. Certain embodiments utilize a combination comprising a thiol and an amine that together reduce and complex the elemental selenium to form a highly reactive selenium precursor at room temperature. The same combination of thiol and amine acts as the reaction solvent, stabilizing ligand, and sulfur source in the synthesis of quantum dot cores. A non-injection approach may also be used. The optical properties of the quantum dots synthesized by this new approach can be finely tuned for a variety of applications by controlling size and/or composition of size and composition. Further, using the same approach, a shell can be grown around a quantum dot core that improves stability, luminescence efficiency, and may reduce toxicity.

  9. Voice synthesis application (United States)

    Lightstone, P. C.; Davidson, W. M.


    The military detection assessment laboratory houses an experimental field system which assesses different alarm indicators such as fence disturbance sensors, MILES cables, and microwave Racons. A speech synthesis board which could be interfaced, by means of a computer, to an alarm logger making verbal acknowledgement of alarms possible was purchased. Different products and different types of voice synthesis were analyzed before a linear predictive code device produced by Telesensory Speech Systems of Palo Alto, California was chosen. This device is called the Speech 1000 Board and has a dedicated 8085 processor. A multiplexer card was designed and the Sp 1000 interfaced through the card into a TMS 990/100M Texas Instrument microcomputer. It was also necessary to design the software with the capability of recognizing and flagging an alarm on any 1 of 32 possible lines. The experimental field system was then packaged with a dc power supply, LED indicators, speakers, and switches, and deployed in the field performing reliably.

  10. Global nuclear material monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, J.A.; Monlove, H.O.; Goulding, C.A.; Martinez, B.J.; Coulter, C.A.


    This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project provided a detailed systems design for advanced integrated facility monitoring and identified the components and enabling technologies required to facilitate the development of the monitoring system of the future.

  11. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana


    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  12. Strategic Tutor Monitoring. (United States)

    Chee-kwong, Kenneth Chao


    Discusses effective tutor monitoring strategies based on experiences at the Open Learning Institute of Hong Kong. Highlights include key performance and strategic control points; situational factors, including tutor expectations and relevant culture; Theory X versus Theory Y leadership theories; and monitoring relationships with tutors. (LRW)

  13. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  14. Monitoring mestmarkt 2007: achtergronddocumentatie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luesink, H.H.; Blokland, P.W.; Bosma, J.N.; Hoogeveen, M.W.


    In dit rapport wordt met behulp van berekeningen met het MAMBO$model, registraties van LNV-DR en interviews met mestdistributeurs verslag gedaan van de monitoring van de mestmarkt van het jaar 2007. De monitoring is uitgevoerd zoals beschreven is in Luesink et al. (2006). Zowel uit de berekeningen

  15. Monitor Duurzaam Nederland 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    De Monitor Duurzaam Nederland is een gezamenlijke publicatie van het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, het Centraal Planbureau, het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving en het Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau. Dit is de tweede editie. De Monitor Duurzaam Nederland 2011 geeft een beeld van


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.Q. Carvalho


    Full Text Available The theoretical explanation of biological concepts, associated with the use of teaching games andmodels, intensify the comprehension and increase students interest, stimulating them to participateactively on the teaching-learning process. The sta of dissemination from Centro de BiotecnologiaMolecular Estrutural (CBME, in partnership with the Centro de Divulgac~ao Cientca e Cultural(CDCC, presents, in this work, a new educational resource denoted: Protein Synthesis Game. Theapproach of the game involves the cytological aspects of protein synthesis, directed to high schoolstudents. Students are presented to day-by-day facts related to the function of a given protein in thehuman body. Such task leads players to the goal of solving out a problem through synthesizing aspecied protein. The game comprises: (1 a board illustrated with the transversal section of animalcell, with its main structures and organelles and sequences of hypothetical genes; (2 cards with thedescription of steps and other structures required for protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells; (3 piecesrepresenting nucleotides, polynucleotides, ribosome, amino acids, and polypeptide chains. In order toplay the game, students take cards that sequentially permit them to acquire the necessary pieces forproduction of the protein described in each objective. Players must move the pieces on the board andsimulate the steps of protein synthesis. The dynamic of the game allows students to easily comprehendprocesses of transcription and translation. This game was presented to dierent groups of high schoolteachers and students. Their judgments have been heard and indicated points to be improved, whichhelped us with the game development. Furthermore, the opinions colleted were always favorable forthe application of this game as a teaching resource in classrooms.

  17. Synthesis of (+/-)-vibralactone. (United States)

    Zhou, Quan; Snider, Barry B


    Reductive alkylation of methyl 2-methoxybenzoate with prenyl bromide and hydrolysis afforded methyl 6-oxo-1-prenyl-2-cyclohexenecarboxylate. Reduction of the ketone, hydrolysis, iodolactonization, ozonolysis, and intramolecular aldol reaction provided a spiro lactone cyclopentenal. Retro-iodolactonization with activated Zn, formation of the beta-lactone, and reduction of the aldehyde completed an efficient first synthesis of (+/-)-vibralactone. No protecting groups were used except for the novel use of an iodolactone to protect both the prenyl double bond and carboxylic acid.

  18. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.


    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  19. Monitoring Evolution at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade, P; Murphy, S; Pigueiras, L; Santos, M


    Over the past two years, the operation of the CERN Data Centres went through significant changes with the introduction of new mechanisms for hardware procurement, new services for cloud provisioning and configuration management, among other improvements. These changes resulted in an increase of resources being operated in a more dynamic environment. Today, the CERN Data Centres provide over 11000 multi-core processor servers, 130 PB disk servers, 100 PB tape robots, and 150 high performance tape drives. To cope with these developments, an evolution of the data centre monitoring tools was also required. This modernisation was based on a number of guiding rules: sustain the increase of resources, adapt to the new dynamic nature of the data centres, make monitoring data easier to share, give more flexibility to Service Managers on how they publish and consume monitoring metrics and logs, establish a common repository of monitoring data, optimise the handling of monitoring notifications, and replace the previous ...

  20. Monitoring on the Move (United States)


    The MyoMonitor EMG system was developed by Delsys, Inc. under SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center. It is a wearable four-channel device that can monitor muscle performance. Presently, its application include rehabilitative therapy, injury prevention, sports medicine, exercise training, and various other muscle monitoring activities. The MyoMonitor uses a two-bar single differential electrode. Due to the electrode-skin interface in traditional EMG equipment, during rigorous muscular activity, the movement of the skin causes the electrode detection surfaces to become compromised. The MyoMonitor eliminates this problem, enabling a wide array of applications and experiments during intense muscular activity. The ability to make such recordings, for example, enables novel experiments aboard the International Space Station for investigating the effect of microgravity on muscle performance. Product still commercially available as of March 2002.

  1. Monitoring Cray Cooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Don E [ORNL; Ezell, Matthew A [ORNL; Becklehimer, Jeff [Cray, Inc.; Donovan, Matthew J [ORNL; Layton, Christopher C [ORNL


    While sites generally have systems in place to monitor the health of Cray computers themselves, often the cooling systems are ignored until a computer failure requires investigation into the source of the failure. The Liebert XDP units used to cool the Cray XE/XK models as well as the Cray proprietary cooling system used for the Cray XC30 models provide data useful for health monitoring. Unfortunately, this valuable information is often available only to custom solutions not accessible by a center-wide monitoring system or is simply ignored entirely. In this paper, methods and tools used to harvest the monitoring data available are discussed, and the implementation needed to integrate the data into a center-wide monitoring system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is provided.

  2. Total Synthesis of Astellatol. (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Yin, Shuqiang; Xie, Shengling; Yan, Hao; Ren, Pan; Chen, Gui; Chen, Fang; Xu, Jing


    A nearly-30-year-old unanswered synthetic puzzle, astellatol, has been solved in an enantiospecific manner. The highly congested pentacyclic skeleton of this rare sesterterpenoid, which possesses a unique bicyclo[4.1.1]octane motif, ten stereocenters, a cyclobutane that contains two quaternary centers, an exo-methylene group, and a sterically encumbered isopropyl trans-hydrindane motif, makes astellatol arguably one of the most challenging targets for sesterterpenoid synthesis. An intramolecular Pauson-Khand reaction was exploited to construct the right-hand side scaffold of this sesterterpenoid. An unprecedented reductive radical 1,6-addition, mediated by SmI 2 , forged the cyclobutane motif. Last, a strategic oxidation/reduction step provided not only the decisive solution for the remarkably challenging late-stage transformations, but also a highly valuable unravelling of the notorious issue of trans-hydrindane synthesis. Importantly, the synthesis of astellatol showcases a rapid, scalable strategy to access diverse complex isopropyl trans-hydrindane sesterterpenoids. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Gold Nanoparticle Microwave Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Kelsie E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Christian, Jonathan H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Coopersmith, Kaitlin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, Aaron L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Murph, Simona H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    At the nanometer scale, numerous compounds display different properties than those found in bulk material that can prove useful in areas such as medicinal chemistry. Gold nanoparticles, for example, display promise in newly developed hyperthermia therapies for cancer treatment. Currently, gold nanoparticle synthesis is performed via the hot injection technique which has large variability in final particle size and a longer reaction time. One underdeveloped area by which these particles could be produced is through microwave synthesis. To initiate heating, microwaves agitate polar molecules creating a vibration that gives off the heat energy needed. Previous studies have used microwaves for gold nanoparticle synthesis; however, polar solvents were used that partially absorbed incident microwaves, leading to partial thermal heating of the sample rather than taking full advantage of the microwave to solely heat the gold nanoparticle precursors in a non-polar solution. Through this project, microwaves were utilized as the sole heat source, and non-polar solvents were used to explore the effects of microwave heating only as pertains to the precursor material. Our findings show that the use of non-polar solvents allows for more rapid heating as compared to polar solvents, and a reduction in reaction time from 10 minutes to 1 minute; this maximizes the efficiency of the reaction, and allows for reproducibility in the size/shape of the fabricated nanoparticles.

  4. Liquid-phase combinatorial synthesis.


    Han, H; Wolfe, M M; Brenner, S; Janda, K D


    A concept termed liquid-phase combinatorial synthesis (LPCS) is described. The central feature of this methodology is that it combines the advantages that classic organic synthesis in solution offers with those that solid-phase synthesis can provide, through the application of a linear homogeneous polymer. To validate this concept two libraries were prepared, one of peptide and the second of nonpeptide origin. The peptide-based library was synthesized by a recursive deconvolution strategy [Er...

  5. Green Chemistry for Chemical Synthesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chao-Jun Li; Barry M. Trost


    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize...

  6. Safety system status monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.


    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  7. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Bowen, B M; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Larson, J M; Laycak, D; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M J; Rueppel, D; Williams, R A; Wilson, K; Woods, N


    The purpose of the environmental monitoring plan (EMP) is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with DOE operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from DOE activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of the DOE activity. In addition, the EMP addresses the analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of radionuclide samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until recently, environmental monitoring at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was required by DOE Order 5400.1, which was canceled in January 2003. LLNL is in the process of adopting the ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, which contains requirements to perform and document environmental monitoring. The ISO 14001 standard is not as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, which expressly required an EMP. LLNL will continue to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that the work is conducted appropriately. The environmental monitoring addressed by the plan includes preoperational characterization and assessment, and effluent and surveillance monitoring. Additional environmental monitoring is conducted at LLNL as part of the compliance with the

  8. Application of chalcones in heterocycles synthesis: Synthesis of 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 3. Application of chalcones in heterocycles synthesis: Synthesis of 2-(isoxazolo, pyrazolo and pyrimido) substituted analogues of 1,4-benzodiazepin-5-carboxamides linked through an oxyphenyl bridge. N Kaur D Kishore. Volume 125 Issue 3 May 2013 pp ...

  9. The Effect of Synthesis Parameters on the Catalytic Synthesis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... synthesis time was increased from 5 to 360 min. Indeed, the most influential parameter in controlling CNT purity, length and o.d. was found to be the synthesis time. The as-synthesized CNTs were purified using a single-step mild acid treatment process (30 % HNO3), which readily removed the support and metal particles.

  10. Source Monitoring in Alzheimer's Disease (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe


    Source monitoring is the process of making judgments about the origin of memories. There are three categories of source monitoring: reality monitoring (discrimination between self- versus other-generated sources), external monitoring (discrimination between several external sources), and internal monitoring (discrimination between two types of…

  11. Synthesis and characterization of anisotropic magnetic hydrogels (United States)

    Hinrichs, Stephan; Nun, Nils; Fischer, Birgit


    Multiresponsive hydrogels are an interesting new class of materials. They offer the advantage, that they respond to different stimuli like temperature, pH and magnetic fields. By this they can change their properties which makes the hydrogels ideal candidates for many applications in the technical as well as medical field. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of hydrogels - micro- as well as macrogels - which consist of an iron oxide core, varying in phase and morphology, embedded in a thermoresponsive polymer, consisting of poly N-isopropylacrylamide. By using dynamic light scattering we investigated the thermoresponsive properties. In addition we were able to follow the formation of the macrogel by monitoring the shear viscosity.

  12. Monitoring Forsmark. Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin (Dept. of Animal Ecology, Lund Univ. (Sweden))


    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds Directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002-2010. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2010 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from the monitoring in 2010 differed somewhat from results gathered in earlier years. Most monitored species have increased in local numbers during the study years, and from most years continued increases have been reported. Between 2009 and 2010 most species (seven, 64% of the monitored ones) instead decreased in numbers. Only one species (honey buzzard) increased in numbers between the years and in this case this was probably more a result of small moves by certain pairs so that they this year had parts reaching into the regional model area, while in 2009 their territories were outside of this. No dramatic changes in bird numbers were however recorded and all the studied species show stable or increasing local populations over the study period. Number of Black-throated diver pairs was normal and breeding success was good this year. The breeding success of divers has improved considerably over the studied period and the patterns recorded in Forsmark closely follow recorded patterns at the national level. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, above the average for the whole period, and breeding success was better than in 2009. Even if breeding success of honey buzzards is not monitored in any detail, there were still signs of at least a few successful breedings in the area this year. Breeding success of ospreys was below average, but still within the normal variation for most years. The local white-tailed eagles had a poor breeding season and no young at all were produced within the study area. All three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) decreased in numbers between 2009 and 2010. Note however that the large amounts of snow

  13. Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (PMN) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Phytoplankton Monitoring Network (PMN) is a part of the National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS). The PMN was created as an outreach program to connect...

  14. Lunar Health Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Orbital Research has successfully demonstrated a dry electrode (no electrolyte or gel required) for heart rate and ECG monitoring. Preliminary data has indicated...

  15. Infrastructure monitoring data management. (United States)


    The primary objective of this project is to advance the development of a structural health monitoring : system (SHMS) for the Cut River Bridge. The scope includes performing an analysis from the fiber : optic strain gauge readings and making recommen...

  16. Compliance Assurance Monitoring (United States)

    Compliance assurance monitoring is intended to provide a reasonable assurance of compliance with applicable requirements under the Clean Air Act for large emission units that rely on pollution control device equipment to achieve compliance.

  17. Monitoring vooroeververdediging Oosterschelde 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangelder, M.; Schellekens, T.; Kluijver, de M.; Heuvel-Greve, van den M.J.


    Dit rapport beschrijft de uitkomsten van de eco(toxico)logische monitoring van de vooroeververdediging in de Oosterschelde. Aanleiding hiervoor is dat Rijkswaterstaat sinds 2009 op locaties met voortschrijdende erosie in de Ooster- en Westerschelde bestortingen met staalslakken en breuksteen

  18. Reconfigurable Sensor Monitoring System (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Dutton, Kenneth R. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)


    A reconfigurable sensor monitoring system includes software tunable filters, each of which is programmable to condition one type of analog signal. A processor coupled to the software tunable filters receives each type of analog signal so-conditioned.

  19. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen


    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  20. Equal Rights Monitor 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wil Portegijs; Annemarie Boelens; Saskia Keuzenkamp


    Original title: Emancipatiemonitor 2002. The Emancipation Monitor 2002 (Emancipatiemonitor 2002) provides statistics on the progress of the emancipation process, collected and analysed jointly by Statistics Netherlands (CBS) and the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP. Is the

  1. Monitoring Microbially Influenced Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    Abstract Microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of carbon steel may occur in media with microbiological activity of especially sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The applicability and reliability of a number of corrosion monitoring techniques for monitoring MIC has been evaluated in experiments...... and diffusional effects and unreliable corrosion rates, when biofilm and ferrous sulphide corrosion products cover the steel surface. Corrosion rates can be overestimated by a factor of 10 to 100 by electrochemical techniques. Weight loss coupons and ER are recommended as necessary basic monitoring techniques....... EIS might be used for detection of MIC as the appearance of very large capacitances can be attributed to the combined ferrous sulphide and biofilm formation. Capacitance correlates directly with sulphide concentration in sterile sulphide media. Keywords: Corrosion monitoring, carbon steel, MIC, SRB...

  2. Embodied-self-monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagalkot, Naveen L.

    . In response to this call, I take an embodied interaction perspective in the design of pervasive self-monitoring technology. Taking the embodied interaction perspective means considering the context as being emergent and constantly shaped by the rehabilitee’s actions of compliance; it is a context...... of the ‘context’ where compliance happens. However, field-based works within the field highlight how compliance is shaped by the particularities of the setting of a home. These works call for considering the way rehabilitees comply with their therapy in the design of pervasive self-monitoring technology......-self-monitoring offers an a priori orientation to embrace the way rehabilitees engage with the particularities of a setting in order to comply with the therapy. I demonstrate the prospects of embodied-self-monitoring through engaging in two sets of design explorations—MagicMirror and ReHandles—set in Denmark and India...

  3. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring (United States)

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  4. Heart failure - home monitoring (United States)

    ... this page: // Heart failure - home monitoring To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Heart failure is a condition in which the heart is ...

  5. Maine River Temperature Monitoring (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We collect seasonal and annual temperature measurements on an hourly or quarter hourly basis to monitor habitat suitability for ATS and other species. Temperature...

  6. Aerospace Systems Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I STTR project will demonstrate the Aerospace System Monitor (ASM). This technology transforms the power distribution network in a spacecraft or aircraft...

  7. Atomic vapor density monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewall, N.; Harris, W.; Beeler, R.; Wooldridge, J.; Chen, H.L.


    This report presents information on the Atomic Vapor Density Monitor (AVDM) system that measures the density of a vapor by measuring the absorption of light from a swept-wavelength laser that passes through an atomic vapor stream.

  8. Cardiac event monitors (United States)

    ... the sensors and the monitor. These may include: Cell phones Electric blankets Electric toothbrushes High-voltage areas Magnets ... Cardiology, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, ...

  9. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM) (United States)

    Lisy, Frederick J.


    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  10. Water Quality Monitoring Sites (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Water Quality Monitoring Site identifies locations across the state of Vermont where water quality data has been collected, including habitat, chemistry, fish and/or...

  11. Cardiac output monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Eric. E. C.; Wappler, Frank; Buhre, Wolfgang F.

    Purpose of review The primary goal of hemodynamic therapy is the prevention of inadequate tissue perfusion and inadequate oxygenation. Advanced cardiovascular monitoring is a prerequisite to optimize hemodynamic treatment in critically ill patients prone to cardiocirculatory failure. The most ideal

  12. Regional Seismic Threshold Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kvaerna, Tormod


    ... model to be used for predicting the travel times of regional phases. We have applied these attenuation relations to develop and assess a regional threshold monitoring scheme for selected subregions of the European Arctic...

  13. Environmental monitoring plan - environmental monitoring section. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilt, G.C. [ed.; Tate, P.J.; Brigdon, S.L. [and others


    This report presents the environmental monitoring plan for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A site characterization is provided along with monitoring and measurement techniques and quality assurance measures.

  14. Monitoring for structural assessment


    Van Balen, Koenraad; Schueremans, Luc


    The architectural preservation process is generally based on a sequence of anamnesis and analysis, diagnosis, therapy, control and prognosis. The importance of structural monitoring within this process is generally accepted. Ongoing research at the Building Materials and Building Technology Division of the Civil Engineering Department in collaboration with the RLICC of K.U.Leuven focuses on different non-destructive monitoring techniques and their value within the preventive conservation of t...

  15. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr. [ed.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.


    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  16. Computer networks monitoring


    Antončič , Polona


    The present thesis entitled Computer Networks Monitoring introduces the basics of computer networks, the aim and the computer data reclamation from networking devices, software for the system follow-up together with the case of monitoring a real network with tens of network devices. The networks represent an important part in the modern information technology and serve for the exchange of data and sources which makes their impeccability of crucial importance. Correct and efficient sys...

  17. VDC Monitoring Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Porat, Itay Gershon


    Electron drift velocity is an important parameter for muon path reconstruction capabilities of CMS drift tube chambers. The parameter is monitored independently by six dedicated drift velocity chambers (VDC). This report presents monitoring tools developed to study key VDC parameters such as anode voltage and current, as well as gas source. These graphical tools can be used to learn about VDC operation and performance, and contribute to understanding anode wire aging in the systems.

  18. Structure function monitor (United States)

    McGraw, John T [Placitas, NM; Zimmer, Peter C [Albuquerque, NM; Ackermann, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM


    Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.

  19. Monitoring natural phytoplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraguchi, L.; Jakobsen, H. H.; Lundholm, Nina


    The phytoplankton community can vary within hours (physiology) to years (climatic and anthropogenic responses), and monitoring at different timescales is relevant for understanding community functioning and assessing changes. However, standard techniques used in monitoring programmes are time...... carbon biomass with PFCM, applying the same conversion factors as for microscopy. Biomasses obtained with PFCM, estimated from live cells, were higher than microscopy for natural samples. We conclude that PFCM results are comparable to classical techniques, yet the data from PFCM had poor taxonomic...

  20. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.


    Nicholson, W R; Matthews, J. N.; O'Sullivan, J J; WREN, C.


    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in adults is proving to be useful. The aim of this study was to determine if ABPM is accurate in the lower blood pressure range encountered in children and, equally important, whether it is acceptable to children. Thirty one children, between the ages of 6 and 18 years, were assessed using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor that uses an auscultatory method. Blood pressure was measured in the contralateral arm with a mercury sphygmomanometer and an...

  1. Radiochemical synthesis of etomoxir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Hafiz G. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL), New Campus Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Yunus, M. [University of the Punjab, New Campus Road, Lahore (Pakistan); Feinendegen, Ludwig E., E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf, Wannental 45, 88131 Lindau (Germany)


    Sodium 2-{l_brace}6-(4-chlorophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylate (Etomoxir) inhibits transport of fatty acids via the carnitine shuttle into mitochondria of muscle cells and prevents long chain fatty acids from providing energy through {beta}-oxidation especially for muscle contraction. The objective of this synthesis is to develop a method for radioiodination of Etomoxir in order to explore its potential in diagnostic metabolic studies and molecular imaging. Thus, a method is described for the radiochemical synthesis and purification of ethyl 2-{l_brace}6-(4-[{sup 131}I]iodophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylate (3) and 2-{l_brace}6-(4-[{sup 131}I]iodo-phenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylic acid (4). For the synthesis of these new agents, ethyl 2-{l_brace}6-(4-bromophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylate (1) and 2-{l_brace}6-(4-bromophenoxy)hexyl{r_brace}oxirane-2-carboxylic acid (2) were refluxed with [{sup 131}I]NaI in the presence of anhydrous acetone at a temperature of 80 {sup o}C and 90 {sup o}C for a period of 3-4 hours, respectively. The method of radiolabeling, based on the nucleophilic exchange reaction, resulted in a radiochemical yield of 43% and 67% for compounds 3 and 4, respectively. This paper reports on the labeling of etomoxir with radioiodine as {sup 124}I labeled etomoxir may be of great importance in molecular imaging.

  2. synthesis, physical characterization, antibacterial activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [19-23], we report here the synthesis, characterization and spectral studies of the new complexes. [Co(Chel)(PBu3)]ClO4.H2O ... Synthesis of five coodrdinate cobalt(III) Schiff base complexes. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. ...... Hofman, K. The Chemistry of Hetrocyclic Compounds, Imidazole and Its Derivatives, Part I,. Interscience ...

  3. Gene Synthesis with HG Khorana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 12. Gene Synthesis with H G Khorana. Marvin H Caruthers. General Article Volume 17 Issue 12 December 2012 pp ... Keywords. Chemical synthesis of genes for yeast alanine tRNA and E. coli supressor tRNA; Khorana's philosophy on science.

  4. Organic Synthesis using Clay Catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    His work includes organic synthesis and reaction mechanisms mainly in the area of organosilicon chemistry. Presently he is also working on organic synthesis under solvent- free conditions and using clay-catalyses. Keywords. Montmorillonite, ion-exchange, clay-nanomaterials, dehydration pyrolysis, rearrangement, steric.

  5. Chemical Synthesis of Antimicrobial Peptides. (United States)

    Münzker, Lena; Oddo, Alberto; Hansen, Paul R


    Solid-phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) is the method of choice for chemical synthesis of peptides. In this nonspecialist review, we describe commonly used resins, linkers, protecting groups, and coupling reagents in 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) SPPS. Finally, a detailed protocol for manual Fmoc SPPS is presented.

  6. Chemical synthesis on SU-8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Katrine; Taveras, Kennedy; Thastrup, Ole


    In this paper we describe a highly effective surface modification of SU-8 microparticles, the attachment of appropriate linkers for solid-supported synthesis, and the successful chemical modification of these particles via controlled multi-step organic synthesis leading to molecules attached...

  7. Hydrothermal synthesis, characterization and luminescent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    methods, hydrothermal synthesis allows excellent control over particle size, shape, distribution and crystallinity of the material. Synthesis is conducted in a ... terns were recorded on Tecnai G2 S-twin transmission elec- tron microscope with field emission gun operating at 200 kV. Samples for TEM measurements were ...

  8. Home apnea monitor use - infants (United States)

    ... this page: // Home apnea monitor use - infants To use the sharing ... portable. Why is an Apnea Monitor Used at Home? A monitor may be needed when: Your baby ...

  9. Learning via Query Synthesis

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim Mansour


    Active learning is a subfield of machine learning that has been successfully used in many applications. One of the main branches of active learning is query synthe- sis, where the learning agent constructs artificial queries from scratch in order to reveal sensitive information about the underlying decision boundary. It has found applications in areas, such as adversarial reverse engineering, automated science, and computational chemistry. Nevertheless, the existing literature on membership query synthesis has, generally, focused on finite concept classes or toy problems, with a limited extension to real-world applications. In this thesis, I develop two spectral algorithms for learning halfspaces via query synthesis. The first algorithm is a maximum-determinant convex optimization method while the second algorithm is a Markovian method that relies on Khachiyan’s classical update formulas for solving linear programs. The general theme of these methods is to construct an ellipsoidal approximation of the version space and to synthesize queries, afterward, via spectral decomposition. Moreover, I also describe how these algorithms can be extended to other settings as well, such as pool-based active learning. Having demonstrated that halfspaces can be learned quite efficiently via query synthesis, the second part of this thesis proposes strategies for mitigating the risk of reverse engineering in adversarial environments. One approach that can be used to render query synthesis algorithms ineffective is to implement a randomized response. In this thesis, I propose a semidefinite program (SDP) for learning a distribution of classifiers, subject to the constraint that any individual classifier picked at random from this distributions provides reliable predictions with a high probability. This algorithm is, then, justified both theoretically and empirically. A second approach is to use a non-parametric classification method, such as similarity-based classification. In this

  10. Microemulsion Synthesis of Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotić, M.


    Full Text Available Nanoparticles and nanomaterials have wide applications in electronics, physics, material design, being also utilized as sensors, catalysts, and more and more in biomedicine. Microemulsions are an exceptionally suitable medium for the synthesis of nanoparticles due to their thermodynamical stability, great solubility of both polar and nonpolar components, as well as their ability to control the size, dispersity and shape of the particles. This review presents microemulsion techniques for the synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles. It takes place in water-in-oil microemulsions by mixing one microemulsion with a cationic precursor, and the other with a precipitating or reducing agent, or by direct addition of reducing agents or gas (O2, NH3 ili CO2 into microemul sion (Fig. 1. Metal nanoparticles are used as catalysts, sensors, ferrofluids etc. They are produced by reducing the metal cation with a suitable reducing agent. In a similar way, one can prepare nanoparticles of alloys from the metal salts, provided that the metals are mutually soluble. The microemulsion technique is also suitable for depositing nanoparticles onto various surfaces. Highly active catalysts made from nanoparticles of Pt, Pd, Rh and other noble metals may be obtained in this way. Metal oxides and hydroxides may be prepared by hydrolysis or precipitation in the water core of microemulsion. Precipitation can be initiated by adding the base or precipitating agent into the microemulsion with water solution of metal ions. Similarly, nanoparticles may be prepared of sulphides, halogenides, cyanides, carbonates, sulphates and other insoluble metal salts. To prevent oxidation of nanoparticles, especially Fe, the particles are coated with inert metals, oxides, various polymers etc. Coating may provide additional functionality; e.g. coating with gold allows subsequent functionalization with organic compounds containing sulphur, due to the strong Au–S bond. Polymer coatings decrease

  11. Rapid development of bromodomain probes using flow synthesis methods and frontal affinity chromatography


    Ingham, Richard; Guetzoyan, Lucie; Nikbin, Nikzad; Ley, Steven V.


    This poster illustrates aspects of a project involving the development of new probes for bromodomain 9 protein. Flow chemistry technologies and remote monitoring techniques were used for the synthesis, and Frontal Affinity Chromatography assays were used for analysis of the products.

  12. Synthesis in land change science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magliocca, Nicholas R.; Rudel, Thomas K.; Verburg, Peter H.


    of these changes, land change science (LCS) draws on a wide array synthetic and meta-study techniques to generate global and regional knowledge from local case studies of land change. Here, we review the characteristics and applications of synthesis methods in LCS and assess the current state of synthetic research...... based on a meta-analysis of synthesis studies from 1995 to 2012. Publication of synthesis research is accelerating, with a clear trend toward increasingly sophisticated and quantitative methods, including meta-analysis. Detailed trends in synthesis objectives, methods, and land change phenomena......, synthesis methods based on local case studies will remain essential for generating systematic global and regional understanding of local land change for the foreseeable future, and multiple opportunities exist to accelerate and enhance the reliability of synthetic LCS research in the future. Demand...

  13. Solid-supported reagents for multi-step organic synthesis: preparation and application. (United States)

    Ley, S V; Baxendale, Ian R; Brusotti, G; Caldarelli, M; Massi, A; Nesi, M


    Since the early days of combinatorial chemistry solid-phase organic synthesis has been the method of choice for the production of large libraries. Solution-phase synthesis is again gaining importance especially for the synthesis of parallel arrays of smaller, focussed libraries containing single compounds with high degrees of purity. In the field of solution-phase library generation, the use of solid-supported reagents, catalysts and scavengers is emerging as a leading strategy, combining the advantages of both solid-phase organic synthesis (e.g. allowing the employment of an excess of reagent without the need for additional purification steps) and solution-phase chemistry (e.g. the ease of monitoring the progress of the reactions by applying LC-MS, TLC or standard NMR techniques). An account of some of the most recent advances in this area of research will be presented.

  14. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  15. Bio-mediated synthesis, characterization and cytotoxicity of gold nanoparticles. (United States)

    Klekotko, Magdalena; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna; Siednienko, Jakub; Olesiak-Banska, Joanna; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Samoc, Marek


    We report here a "green" approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in which the Mentha piperita extract was applied for the bioreduction of chloroauric acid and the stabilization of the formed nanostructures. The obtained GNPs were characterized by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reduction of gold ions with the plant extract leads to the production of nanoparticles with various shapes (spherical, triangular and hexagonal) and sizes (from 10 to 300 nm). The kinetics of the reaction was monitored and various conditions of the synthesis were investigated. As a result, we established protocols optimized towards the synthesis of nanospheres and nanoprisms of gold. The cytotoxic effect of the obtained gold nanoparticles was studied by performing MTT assay, which showed lower cytotoxicity of the biosynthesized GNPs compared to gold nanorods synthesized using the usual seed-mediated growth. The results suggest that the synthesis using plant extracts may be a useful method to produce gold nanostructures for various biological and medical applications.

  16. Information: A Personal Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E. Brenner


    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to capture, in a reasonable space, some of the major developments and currents of thought in information theory and the relations between them. I have particularly tried to include changes in the views of key authors in the field. The domains addressed range from mathematical-categorial, philosophical and computational approaches to systems, causal-compositional, biological and religious approaches and messaging theory. I have related key concepts in each domain to my non-standard extension of logic to real processes that I call Logic in Reality (LIR. The result is not another attempt at a General Theory of Information such as that of Burgin, or a Unified Theory of Information like that of Hofkirchner. It is not a compendium of papers presented at a conference, more or less unified around a particular theme. It is rather a highly personal, limited synthesis which nonetheless may facilitate comparison of insights, including contradictory ones, from different lines of inquiry. As such, it may be an example of the concept proposed by Marijuan, still little developed, of the recombination of knowledge. Like the best of the work to which it refers, the finality of this synthesis is the possible contribution that an improved understanding of the nature and dynamics of information may make to the ethical development of the information society.

  17. Oxygenates vs. synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Alessandra Beretta; Maria A. Burcham; Qun Sun; Yeping Cai; Biswanath Roy


    Methanol synthesis from H{sub 2}/CO has been carried out at 7.6 MPa over zirconia-supported copper catalysts. Catalysts with nominal compositions of 10/90 mol% and 30/70 mol% Cu/ZrO{sub 2} were used in this study. Additionally, a 3 mol% cesium-doped 10/90 catalyst was prepared to study the effect of doping with heavy alkali, and this promoter greatly increased the methanol productivity. The effects of CO{sub 2} addition, water injection, reaction temperature, and H{sub 2}/C0 ratio have been investigated. Both CO{sub 2} addition to the synthesis gas and cesium doping of the catalyst promoted methanol synthesis, while inhibiting the synthesis of dimethyl ether. Injection of water, however, was found to slightly suppress methanol and dimethyl ether formation while being converted to CO{sub 2} via the water gas shift reaction over these catalysts. There was no clear correlation between copper surface area and catalyst activity. Surface analysis of the tested samples revealed that copper tended to migrate and enrich the catalyst surface. The concept of employing a double-bed reactor with a pronounced temperature gradient to enhance higher alcohol synthesis was explored, and it was found that utilization of a Cs-promoted Cu/ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a first lower temperature bed and a Cs-promoted ZnO/Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst as a second high-temperature bed significantly promoted the productivity of 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas mixtures. While the conversion of CO to C{sub 2+} oxygenates over the double-bed configuration was comparable to that observed over the single Cu-based catalyst, major changes in the product distribution occurred by the coupling to the zinc chromite catalyst; that is, the productivity of the C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} alcohols decreased dramatically, and 2-methyl branched alcohols were selectively formed. The desirable methanol/2-methyl oxygenate molar ratios close to 1 were obtained in the present double

  18. Monitoring Forsmark - Bird monitoring in Forsmark 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin [Dept of Biology, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)


    This report summarizes the monitoring of selected listed (Swedish Red List and/or the EU Birds directive) breeding birds in Forsmark 2002 - 2012. Monitoring of eleven listed species was conducted in the regional model area, including the candidate area in 2012 in the same way as in earlier years. The results from 2012 generally follow patterns recorded in earlier years. 2012 was in general a better bird year compared to 2010 and 2011 and most species (82%) showed increasing or stable numbers from 2011 to 2012. Only two species (18%) decreased in numbers between the last two years. All in all, six species (55 %, black-throated diver, honey buzzard, black grouse, ural owl, wryneck and red-backed shrike) show no significant trends since the start of the bird monitoring (2002/2003/2004 depending on species). During this period three species (27 %, white-tailed eagle, osprey and lesser spotted woodpecker) have increased in numbers while just two (18 %, capercaillie and hazelhen) have decreased. A new pair of black-throated divers was discovered in 2012 and seven resident pairs were registered. Breeding success was very good, the second best during the study period. Population development follows the national pattern, but breeding success seems to be better in Forsmark than in the country as a whole. Honey buzzards and ospreys occurred in good numbers, and breeding success for ospreys was good. No signs of successful breedings of honey buzzards were recorded, but this may mean little as no detailed monitoring of breeding success is made for this species. The white-tailed eagles had their best breeding year since the start of the SKB bird monitoring, meaning that during the last two years local breeding success has been back at the level recorded before the site investigations started. The three grouse species (black grouse, capercaillie and hazelhen) again showed somewhat varying patterns between the last two years as well as in the long run. The black grouse increased

  19. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Monitoring Manual Volume 2, Radiation Monitoring and Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Aerial Measurement Systems


    The FRMAC Monitoring and Sampling Manual, Volume 2 provides standard operating procedures (SOPs) for field radiation monitoring and sample collection activities that are performed by the Monitoring group during a FRMAC response to a radiological emergency.

  20. Induced plant volatiles allow sensitive monitoring of plant health status in greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.; Hofstee, J.W.; Wildt, J.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Henten, van E.J.


    This paper provides a synthesis of our research on the use of induced plant volatiles for sensitive monitoring of plant health status in greenhouses. The main research objective of this research was to investigate whether plant-emitted volatiles can be used to detect a Botrytis cinerea infection in

  1. Exploring and Implementing Participatory Action Synthesis (United States)

    Wimpenny, Katherine; Savin-Baden, Maggi


    This article presents participatory action synthesis as a new approach to qualitative synthesis which may be used to facilitate the promotion and use of qualitative research for policy and practice. The authors begin by outlining different forms of qualitative research synthesis and then present participatory action synthesis, a collaborative…

  2. Monitoring pesticides in wildlife (United States)

    Dustman, E.H.; Martin, W.E.; Heath, R.G.; Reichel, W.L.


    Early in the development of the wildlife monitoring program, certain criteria were recognized as being important in the selection of species of wild animals suitable for pesticide monitoring purposes. Ideally, the forms selected should be geographically well distributed, and they should be reasonably abundant and readily available for sampling. In addition, animals occurring near the top of food chains have the capacity to reflect residues in organisms occurring at lower levels in the same food chains. Based on these criteria, species chosen for monitoring include the starling (Sturnus vulgaris), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and black ducks (Anas rubripes), and the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus). The black duck is substituted for the mallard in States where suitable numbers of mallards cannot be obtained. The Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife is held responsible for the execution of the wildlife portion of the National Pesticide Monitoring Program. The primary objective is to ascertain on a nationwide basis and independent of specific treatments the levels and trends of certain pesticidal chemicals and other pollutants in the bodies of selected forms of wildlife. The program was first described by Johnson et al. (4) in 1967. The purpose of this report is to update and redescribe the wildlife monitoring program and briefly review accomplishments.

  3. High Performance Network Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Jesse E [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Network Monitoring requires a substantial use of data and error analysis to overcome issues with clusters. Zenoss and Splunk help to monitor system log messages that are reporting issues about the clusters to monitoring services. Infiniband infrastructure on a number of clusters upgraded to ibmon2. ibmon2 requires different filters to report errors to system administrators. Focus for this summer is to: (1) Implement ibmon2 filters on monitoring boxes to report system errors to system administrators using Zenoss and Splunk; (2) Modify and improve scripts for monitoring and administrative usage; (3) Learn more about networks including services and maintenance for high performance computing systems; and (4) Gain a life experience working with professionals under real world situations. Filters were created to account for clusters running ibmon2 v1.0.0-1 10 Filters currently implemented for ibmon2 using Python. Filters look for threshold of port counters. Over certain counts, filters report errors to on-call system administrators and modifies grid to show local host with issue.

  4. Serial Network Flow Monitor (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.


    Using a commercial software CD and minimal up-mass, SNFM monitors the Payload local area network (LAN) to analyze and troubleshoot LAN data traffic. Validating LAN traffic models may allow for faster and more reliable computer networks to sustain systems and science on future space missions. Research Summary: This experiment studies the function of the computer network onboard the ISS. On-orbit packet statistics are captured and used to validate ground based medium rate data link models and enhance the way that the local area network (LAN) is monitored. This information will allow monitoring and improvement in the data transfer capabilities of on-orbit computer networks. The Serial Network Flow Monitor (SNFM) experiment attempts to characterize the network equivalent of traffic jams on board ISS. The SNFM team is able to specifically target historical problem areas including the SAMS (Space Acceleration Measurement System) communication issues, data transmissions from the ISS to the ground teams, and multiple users on the network at the same time. By looking at how various users interact with each other on the network, conflicts can be identified and work can begin on solutions. SNFM is comprised of a commercial off the shelf software package that monitors packet traffic through the payload Ethernet LANs (local area networks) on board ISS.

  5. Enhanced Raman Monitor Project (United States)

    Westenskow, Dwayne


    Monitoring of gaseous contaminants stems from the need to ensure a healthy and safe environment. NASA/Ames needs sensors that are able to monitor common atmospheric gas concentrations as well as trace amounts of contaminant gases. To provide an accurate assessment of air quality, a monitoring system would need to be continuous and on-line with full spectrum capabilities, allowing simultaneous detection of all gas components in a sample, including both combustible and non-combustible gases. The system demands a high degree of sensitivity to detect low gas concentrations in the low-ppm and sub-ppm regions. For clean and healthy air ('good' category), criteria established by the EPA requires that contaminant concentrations not exceed 4 ppm of carbon monoxide (CO) in an 8 hour period, 60 ppb of ozone(O3) in a one hour period and 30 ppb of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a 24 hour period. One step below this is the National Ambient Air Quality Standard ('moderate' category) which requires that contaminant concentrations not exceed 9 ppm of carbon monoxide (CO), 120 ppb of ozone (O3) and 140 ppb of sulfur dioxide (SO2) for their respective time periods. Ideally a monitor should be able to detect the concentrations specified in the 'good' category. To benchmark current abilities of Raman technology in gas phase analysis, laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the RASCAL II anesthetic gas monitor.

  6. CMS Space Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnikova, N. [Fermilab; Huang, C.-H. [Fermilab; Sanchez-Hernandez, A. [CINVESTAV, IPN; Wildish, T. [Princeton U.; Zhang, X. [Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys.


    During the first LHC run, CMS stored about one hundred petabytes of data. Storage accounting and monitoring help to meet the challenges of storage management, such as efficient space utilization, fair share between users and groups and resource planning. We present a newly developed CMS space monitoring system based on the storage metadata dumps produced at the sites. The information extracted from the storage dumps is aggregated and uploaded to a central database. A web based data service is provided to retrieve the information for a given time interval and a range of sites, so it can be further aggregated and presented in the desired format. The system has been designed based on the analysis of CMS monitoring requirements and experiences of the other LHC experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate how the existing software components of the CMS data placement system, PhEDEx, have been re-used, dramatically reducing the development effort.

  7. MEMS glaucoma monitoring device (United States)

    Shankar, Smitha; Austin, Michael


    Glaucoma is a serious disease, affecting millions of people worldwide requiring continuous monitoring of Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP) to avoid the risk of blindness. Current laboratory measurements are infrequent, intrusive and do not indicate the progression of the disease. The paper reports on the development of an implantable Glaucoma monitoring system that can monitor IOP in the eye to indicate any elevation in risk to the patient. A mathematical model of the anterior chamber of the eye was used to analyze the complex fluid flow and pressure balance in the eye. This was done in order to determine the performance requirements of the actuator, sensor and transmission electronics that could be integrated on a single microchip using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology, to carry out the testing internally. The accuracy of the system was theoretically tested against results from external medical tests. The results were found to be comparable.

  8. Nekton Interaction Monitoring System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The software provides a real-time processing system for sonar to detect and track animals, and to extract water column biomass statistics in order to facilitate continuous monitoring of an underwater environment. The Nekton Interaction Monitoring System (NIMS) extracts and archives tracking and backscatter statistics data from a real-time stream of data from a sonar device. NIMS also sends real-time tracking messages over the network that can be used by other systems to generate other metrics or to trigger instruments such as an optical video camera. A web-based user interface provides remote monitoring and control. NIMS currently supports three popular sonar devices: M3 multi-beam sonar (Kongsberg), EK60 split-beam echo-sounder (Simrad) and BlueView acoustic camera (Teledyne).

  9. Wearable Health Monitoring Systems (United States)

    Bell, John


    The shrinking size and weight of electronic circuitry has given rise to a new generation of smart clothing that enables biological data to be measured and transmitted. As the variation in the number and type of deployable devices and sensors increases, technology must allow their seamless integration so they can be electrically powered, operated, and recharged over a digital pathway. Nyx Illuminated Clothing Company has developed a lightweight health monitoring system that integrates medical sensors, electrodes, electrical connections, circuits, and a power supply into a single wearable assembly. The system is comfortable, bendable in three dimensions, durable, waterproof, and washable. The innovation will allow astronaut health monitoring in a variety of real-time scenarios, with data stored in digital memory for later use in a medical database. Potential commercial uses are numerous, as the technology enables medical personnel to noninvasively monitor patient vital signs in a multitude of health care settings and applications.

  10. Air Quality Monitor (United States)


    The Stak-Tracker CEM (Continuous Emission Monitor) Gas Analyzer is an air quality monitor capable of separating the various gases in a bulk exhaust stream and determining the amounts of individual gases present within the stream. The monitor is produced by GE Reuter- Stokes, a subsidiary of GE Corporate Research & Development Center. The Stak-Tracker uses a Langley Research Center software package which measures the concentration of a target gas by determining the degree to which molecules of that gas absorb an infrared beam. The system is environmental-friendly, fast and has relatively low installation and maintenance costs. It is applicable to gas turbines and various industries including glass, paper and cement.

  11. Monitoring with Data Automata (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus


    We present a form of automaton, referred to as data automata, suited for monitoring sequences of data-carrying events, for example emitted by an executing software system. This form of automata allows states to be parameterized with data, forming named records, which are stored in an efficiently indexed data structure, a form of database. This very explicit approach differs from other automaton-based monitoring approaches. Data automata are also characterized by allowing transition conditions to refer to other parameterized states, and by allowing transitions sequences. The presented automaton concept is inspired by rule-based systems, especially the Rete algorithm, which is one of the well-established algorithms for executing rule-based systems. We present an optimized external DSL for data automata, as well as a comparable unoptimized internal DSL (API) in the Scala programming language, in order to compare the two solutions. An evaluation compares these two solutions to several other monitoring systems.

  12. Synthesis of Fluorosurfactants for Emulsion-Based Biological Applications (United States)


    Microemulsion represents an attractive platform for fundamental and applied biomedical research because the emulsified droplets can serve as millions of compartmentalized micrometer-sized reactors amenable to high-throughput screening or online monitoring. However, establishing stable emulsions with surfactants that are compatible with biological applications remains a significant challenge. Motivated by the lack of commercially available surfactants suitable for microemulsion-based biological assays, this study describes the facile synthesis of a biocompatible fluorosurfactant with nonionic tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl (Tris) polar head groups. We have further demonstrated compatibility of the developed surfactant with diverse emulsion-based applications, including DNA polymeric nanoparticle synthesis, enzymatic activity assay, and bacterial or mammalian cell culture, in the setup of both double- and multiphases of emulsions. PMID:24646088

  13. Novel synthesis strategy for the preparation of individual phytosterol oxides. (United States)

    Gao, Junlan; Yue, Qiulin; Ji, Yishun; Cheng, Beijiu; Zhang, Xin


    Sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols) are important structural components of cell membranes and major constituents of lipid metabolism. Research on their oxides, such as the factors affecting oxidation, oxides' structures, and qualitative and quantitative analysis, aroused more attention in this decade. However, the biological roles of individual phytosterol oxides are still unclear because no commercial individual phytosterol oxide standards are available. Different from the traditional chemical synthesis, in the present study, chemical synthesis from a starting phytosterol mixture followed with a semipreparative HPLC separation produced individual oxides. TLC and analytical HPLC were used here to not only monitor the reaction process but also specifically analyze the synthetic intermediates and oxides. The chromatographic results exhibited strict rules and similar characteristics. Finally, for the first time, four individual phytosterol oxides were successfully separated and collected by a semipreparative HPLC system, thus providing a novel strategy for the preparation of individual phytosterol oxides.


    Rosenblum, Gabriel; Chen, Chunlai; Kaur, Jaskiran; Cui, Xiaonan; Zhang, Haibo; Asahara, Haruichi; Chong, Shaorong; Smilansky, Zeev; Goldman, Yale E.; Cooperman, Barry S.


    Pauses regulate the rhythm of ribosomal protein synthesis. Mutations disrupting even minor pauses can give rise to improperly formed proteins and human disease. Such minor pauses are difficult to characterize by ensemble methods, but can be readily examined by single-molecule (sm) approaches. Here we use smFRET to carry out real-time monitoring of the expression of a full-length protein, the green fluorescent protein variant Emerald GFP. We demonstrate significant correlations between measured elongation rates and codon and isoacceptor tRNA usage, and provide a quantitative estimate of the effect on elongation rate of replacing a codon recognizing an abundant tRNA with a synonymous codon cognate to a rarer tRNA. Our results suggest that tRNA selection plays an important general role in modulating the rates and rhythms of protein synthesis, potentially influencing simultaneous co-translational processes such as folding and chemical modification. PMID:23822614

  15. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002....... The PM10 results from 2000 are spares, only TSP are thus included in this report. The data sets for year 2000 is complete for many stations. The monitoring programme consists of 10 stations plus 2 extra stations under the Municipality of Copenhagen. The SO2 and lead levels are still decreasing and far...

  16. Fetal heart rate monitoring. (United States)

    Nageotte, Michael P


    Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring is a widely utilized means of assessment of fetal status during labor. Whereas little evidence exists regarding efficacy, this modality continues to be used extensively in every modern labor and delivery unit in developed countries. It is of importance that all providers of health care to the woman in labor and her newborn have a clear understanding of the basic pathophysiology of fetal heart rate monitoring and an appreciation for labor course and concerns as they arise in order to optimize outcomes and patient safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Vapor concentration monitor (United States)

    Bayly, John G.; Booth, Ronald J.


    An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

  18. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ


    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  19. The synthesis of clopidogrel (United States)

    Huang, Yuanjun; Zhu, Qingxin


    Cardiac and cerebrovascular disease is a common disease. It is well recognized that antiplatelet agent is effective in the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. Clopidogrel is one of thieno pyridine derivatives, which can inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation. The preparation methods of Clopidogrel were reviewed and Clopidogrel was finally synthesized from 2-chlorobenzyl cyanide via bromination, condensation, hydrolyze, esterification, resolution, Finally with the sulfate, re-crystallization product of the target compound clopidogrel. The overall yield is 16%. Synthesis of the intermediate product and finally the structure of the product through ESI and 1H-NMR corroboration. The improved synthetic procedure has the advantage of low cost and is suitable for industrial production.

  20. Green synthesis of graphene. (United States)

    Kartick, B; Srivastava, S K; Srivastava, I


    The present work reports a green route to synthesis of graphene by reduction of graphite oxide with cocos nucifera L. (coconut water) as reducing agent which is naturally available, non-toxic and environmental friendly. The graphite oxide has been prepared by oxidation of graphite with KCIO3/NaNO3/H2SO4 as reported in our earlier findings. X-ray diffraction, FTIR, UV-Visible and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of graphene. SEM, TEM and AFM analyses have also been carried out to study the morphological characteristics of the obtained product. Also, TG analysis presents the thermal stability behavior of the formed product. Zeta potential measurements were also carried out to determine the surface charge characteristics.

  1. Poverty Monitor 1999

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1999. The Poverty Monitor 1999 (Armoedemonitor 1999) presents as complete and up-to-date a picture as possible of poverty in the Netherlands, and thus provides a factual basis for the debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP

  2. Poverty monitor 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Stella Hoff; Ferdy Otten; Wim Bos


    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2007. The Poverty Monitor 2007 contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP in collaboration with Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The report describes

  3. Poverty Monitor 2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2001. The Poverty Monitor 2001 (Armoedemonitor 2001) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of and

  4. Poverty Monitor 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Original title: Armoedemonitor 1998. The Poverty Monitor 1998 (Armoedemonitor 1998) presents a complete and up-to-date picture of poverty in the Netherlands. It is intended to provide a factual basis for the current debate on poverty. The Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and

  5. Poverty Monitor 2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2000. The Poverty Monitor 2000 (Armoedemonitor 2000) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of

  6. LGBT Monitor 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper


    Original title: LHBT-monitor 2016 What is the public attitude today towards lesbian, homosexual, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) persons? What do large-scale population surveys enable us to say about their position in society? The Netherlands is one of the most positive countries in Europe in its

  7. The ozone monitoring instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, P.F.; Oord, G.H.J. van den; Dobber, M.R.; Mälkki, A.; Visser, H.; Vries, J. de; Stammes, P.; Lundell, J.O.V.; Saari, H.


    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) flies on the National Aeronautics and Space Adminsitration's Earth Observing System Aura satellite launched in July 2004. OMI is a ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) nadir solar backscatter spectrometer, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with a spatial

  8. Effective Monitor Display Design. (United States)

    Harrell, William


    Describes some of the factors that affect computer monitor display design and provides suggestions and insights into how screen displays can be designed more effectively. Topics include color, font choices, organizational structure of text, space outline, and general principles. (Author/LRW)

  9. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source a...

  10. CERN GSM monitoring system

    CERN Multimedia

    Ghabrous Larrea, C


    As a result of the tremendous development of GSM services over the last years, the number of related services used by organizations has drastically increased. Therefore, monitoring GSM services is becoming a business critical issue in order to be able to react appropriately in case of incident. In order to provide with GSM coverage all the CERN underground facilities, more than 50 km of leaky feeder cable have been deployed. This infrastructure is also used to propagate VHF radio signals for the CERN’s fire brigade. Even though CERN’s mobile operator monitors the network, it cannot guarantee the availability of GSM services, and for sure not VHF services, where signals are carried by the leaky feeder cable. So, a global monitoring system has become critical to CERN. In addition, monitoring this infrastructure will allow to characterize its behaviour over time, especially with LHC operation. Given that commercial solutions were not yet mature, CERN developed a system based on GSM probes and an application...

  11. Luminosity monitor at PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.D.; Franklin, M.E.B.


    The luminosity monitor system utilized by the MKII Detector and by the PEP operators is described. This system processes information from 56 photomultipliers and calculates independent luminosities for each of the 3 colliding bunches in PEP. Design considerations, measurement techniques, and sources of error in the luminosity measurement are discussed.

  12. Poverty Monitor 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cok Vrooman; Henk-Jan Dirven; Stella Hoff; Ger Linden


    Original title: Armoedemonitor 2003. The Poverty Monitor 2003 (Armoedemonitor 2003) contains the most up-to-date figures on poverty in the Netherlands. The data were collected and analysed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP and Statistics Netherlands (CBS). The extent of and

  13. Monitor veiligheid en vertrouwen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degen, A.J.G.; Huveneers, S.G.; Kooij, R.E.


    Doelstelling: Om meer inzicht te krijgen in de risico’s bij het gebruik van ICT-diensten en de relatie met het vertrouwen van consumenten en bedrijven, is besloten te werken aan een monitor ‘Vertrouwen in ICT’. Dit onderzoek heeft als doel de eerste noodzakelijke stap te zetten: het bouwen van een

  14. Automatic transmission line monitor (United States)

    Parsons, W. E.; Richards, L. O.


    Monitor improves complex network reliability in computer data links and command transmission lines. System evaluates circuit performance against preselected criteria, identifies and stores data indicating out-of-tolerance conditions, conducts closed loop testing, and provides for operation under command of digital computer that determines restoration priorities.

  15. Robotic weed monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn; Jørgensen, R N


    -farm operating console, the mobile robotic unit, and a field server for generating and storingmaps. The hypothesis is that it is possible to automate the planning and execution of theoperation of monitoring of the in-field weed density and species distribution. The developedplanning system includes the automatic...


    Bradshaw, R.L.; Thomas, J.W.


    The monitor is designed to minimize undesirable background buildup. It consists of an elongated column containing peripheral electrodes in a central portion of the column, and conduits directing an axial flow of radioactively contaminated air through the center of the column and pure air through the annular portion of the column about the electrodes. (AEC)

  17. Trigger Monitoring at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sidoti, A; The ATLAS collaboration


    The Trigger and Data Acquisition system for the ATLAS experiment has to reduce the 40 MHz of LHC bunch crossing rate to ~200 Hz of recording rate. This is achieved through a complex distributed system composed by $sim$ 1.000 CPUs, about a third of the expected final size of the system. Monitoring the trigger behavior through all the trigger level is of fundamental importance to assess the quality of the data taken, to give fast feedback for the trigger configuration design and to monitor the stability of the HLT farm components. In this paper we will present the online monitoring framework and the various tools available in the ATLAS trigger system going from the ones that build the basic monitoring infrastructure and test the basic functionalities of the system to the more elaborated ones that checks the quality of the data taking looking at physics variables reconstructed online. The early experience in the 2009 cosmics data taking period will also be shown.

  18. Intracranial Pressure Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raboel, P H; Bartek, J; Andresen, M


    Monitoring of intracranial pressure (ICP) has been used for decades in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology. There are multiple techniques: invasive as well as noninvasive. This paper aims to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of the most common and well-known methods...

  19. Introduction - regional monitoring programs (United States)

    Richard L. Hutto; C. John Ralph


    There is increasing interest in the initiation of regional or statewide monitoring programs that are less extensive than national efforts such as the Breeding Bird Survey. A number of regional programs have been in existence for a decade or more, so the papers in this section represented an effort to bring together the collective experience of the people who had...

  20. Value activity monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alencar Silva, P.


    Current value modeling ontologies are grounded on the economic premise that profit sharing is a critical condition to be assessed during the configuration of a value constellation. Such a condition ought to be reinforced through a monitoring mechanism design, since a value model expresses only


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    3Research Center for Advanced Materials Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, P.O. ... (System 3) were synthesized by direct tricyanovinylation of .... Synthesis, characterization and DFT study of low cost hydrazone sensitizers. Bull.

  2. Green chemistry for nanoparticle synthesis. (United States)

    Duan, Haohong; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong


    The application of the twelve principles of green chemistry in nanoparticle synthesis is a relatively new emerging issue concerning the sustainability. This field has received great attention in recent years due to its capability to design alternative, safer, energy efficient, and less toxic routes towards synthesis. These routes have been associated with the rational utilization of various substances in the nanoparticle preparations and synthetic methods, which have been broadly discussed in this tutorial review. This article is not meant to provide an exhaustive overview of green synthesis of nanoparticles, but to present several pivotal aspects of synthesis with environmental concerns, involving the selection and evaluation of nontoxic capping and reducing agents, the choice of innocuous solvents and the development of energy-efficient synthetic methods.

  3. Solid phase protein chemical synthesis. (United States)

    Raibaut, Laurent; El Mahdi, Ouafâa; Melnyk, Oleg


    The chemical synthesis of peptides or small proteins is often an important step in many research projects and has stimulated the development of numerous chemical methodologies. The aim of this review is to give a substantial overview of the solid phase methods developed for the production or purification of polypeptides. The solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) technique has facilitated considerably the access to short peptides (peptides have stimulated the development of solid phase covalent or non-covalent capture purification methods. The power of the native chemical ligation (NCL) reaction for protein synthesis in aqueous solution has also been adapted to the solid phase by the combination of novel linker technologies, cysteine protection strategies and thioester or N,S-acyl shift thioester surrogate chemistries. This review details pioneering studies and the most recent publications related to the solid phase chemical synthesis of large peptides and proteins.

  4. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  5. Monitoring tigers with confidence. (United States)

    Linkie, Matthew; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Smith, Joseph; Rayan, D Mark


    With only 5% of the world's wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) remaining since the last century, conservationists urgently need to know whether or not the management strategies currently being employed are effectively protecting these tigers. This knowledge is contingent on the ability to reliably monitor tiger populations, or subsets, over space and time. In the this paper, we focus on the 2 seminal methodologies (camera trap and occupancy surveys) that have enabled the monitoring of tiger populations with greater confidence. Specifically, we: (i) describe their statistical theory and application in the field; (ii) discuss issues associated with their survey designs and state variable modeling; and, (iii) discuss their future directions. These methods have had an unprecedented influence on increasing statistical rigor within tiger surveys and, also, surveys of other carnivore species. Nevertheless, only 2 published camera trap studies have gone beyond single baseline assessments and actually monitored population trends. For low density tiger populations (e.g. tiger/100 km(2)) obtaining sufficient precision for state variable estimates from camera trapping remains a challenge because of insufficient detection probabilities and/or sample sizes. Occupancy surveys have overcome this problem by redefining the sampling unit (e.g. grid cells and not individual tigers). Current research is focusing on developing spatially explicit capture-mark-recapture models and estimating abundance indices from landscape-scale occupancy surveys, as well as the use of genetic information for identifying and monitoring tigers. The widespread application of these monitoring methods in the field now enables complementary studies on the impact of the different threats to tiger populations and their response to varying management intervention. © 2010 ISZS, Blackwell Publishing and IOZ/CAS.

  6. Olefin metathesis in carotenoid synthesis. (United States)

    Kajikawa, Takayuki; Iguchi, Naoko; Katsumura, Shigeo


    Olefin metathesis is a powerful and widely applicable synthetic method for carbon-carbon double bond formation. However, its application to the synthesis of conjugating polyene chains has been very limited because of possible undesired side reactions. We attempted to apply this method to the synthesis of symmetrical carotenoids. In this paper, the syntheses of violaxanthin and mimulaxanthin are described using the olefin metathesis protocol.

  7. Principles of digital image synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Glassner, Andrew S


    Image synthesis, or rendering, is a field of transformation: it changesgeometry and physics into meaningful images. Because the most popularalgorithms frequently change, it is increasingly important for researchersand implementors to have a basic understanding of the principles of imagesynthesis. Focusing on theory, Andrew Glassner provides a comprehensiveexplanation of the three core fields of study that come together to formdigital image synthesis: the human visual system, digital signalprocessing, and the interaction of matter and light. Assuming no more thana basic background in calculus,


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a consequence, the synthesis of dihydropyrimidinone derivatives has attracted significant attention by .... (CDCl3, 75 MHz) δ 169.6 (CHO), 167.5 (C=O ester), 160.7 (C=O ester), 150.9 (N2C=O), 150.4. (CN2), 72.6 (C) .... one-pot synthesis of dihydropyrimidinones/thiones under solvent-free conditions. Lett. Org. Chem.

  9. Essentials of inorganic materials synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, C N R


    This compact handbook describes all the important methods of synthesis employed today for synthesizing inorganic materials. Some features: Focuses on modern inorganic materials with applications in nanotechnology, energy materials, and sustainability Synthesis is a crucial component of materials science and technology; this book provides a simple introduction as well as an updated description of methods Written in a very simple style, providing references to the literature to get details of the methods of preparation when required

  10. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds (United States)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)


    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  11. The greening of peptide synthesis


    Lawrenson, Stefan B.; Arav, Roy; North, Michael


    The synthesis of peptides by amide bond formation between suitably protected amino acids is a fundamental part of the drug discovery process. However, the required coupling and deprotection reactions are routinely carried out in dichloromethane and DMF, both of which have serious toxicity concerns and generate waste solvent which constitutes the vast majority of the waste generated during peptide synthesis. In this work, propylene carbonate has been shown to be a green polar aprotic solvent w...

  12. Synthesis of ferroelectric nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roervik, Per Martin


    The increasing miniaturization of electric and mechanical components makes the synthesis and assembly of nanoscale structures an important step in modern technology. Functional materials, such as the ferroelectric perovskites, are vital to the integration and utility value of nanotechnology in the future. In the present work, chemical methods to synthesize one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites have been studied. To successfully and controllably make 1D nanostructures by chemical methods it is very important to understand the growth mechanism of these nanostructures, in order to design the structures for use in various applications. For the integration of 1D nanostructures into devices it is also very important to be able to make arrays and large-area designed structures from the building blocks that single nanostructures constitute. As functional materials, it is of course also vital to study the properties of the nanostructures. The characterization of properties of single nanostructures is challenging, but essential to the use of such structures. The aim of this work has been to synthesize high quality single-crystalline 1D nanostructures of ferroelectric perovskites with emphasis on PbTiO3 , to make arrays or hierarchical nanostructures of 1D nanostructures on substrates, to understand the growth mechanisms of the 1D nanostructures, and to investigate the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the 1D nanostructures. In Paper I, a molten salt synthesis route, previously reported to yield BaTiO3 , PbTiO3 and Na2Ti6O13 nanorods, was re-examined in order to elucidate the role of volatile chlorides. A precursor mixture containing barium (or lead) and titanium was annealed in the presence of NaCl at 760 degrees Celsius or 820 degrees Celsius. The main products were respectively isometric nanocrystalline BaTiO3 and PbTiO3. Nanorods were also detected, but electron diffraction revealed that the composition of the nanorods was

  13. Monitoring of Grid Scientific Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Balis


    Full Text Available Scientific workflows are a means of conducting in silico experiments in modern computing infrastructures for e-Science, often built on top of Grids. Monitoring of Grid scientific workflows is essential not only for performance analysis but also to collect provenance data and gather feedback useful in future decisions, e.g., related to optimization of resource usage. In this paper, basic problems related to monitoring of Grid scientific workflows are discussed. Being highly distributed, loosely coupled in space and time, heterogeneous, and heavily using legacy codes, workflows are exceptionally challenging from the monitoring point of view. We propose a Grid monitoring architecture for scientific workflows. Monitoring data correlation problem is described and an algorithm for on-line distributed collection of monitoring data is proposed. We demonstrate a prototype implementation of the proposed workflow monitoring architecture, the GEMINI monitoring system, and its use for monitoring of a real-life scientific workflow.

  14. Towards innovative roadside monitoring (United States)

    Ojha, G.; Appel, E.; Magiera, T.


    Soil contamination along roadsides is an important factor of anthropogenic point source pollution. Climatic and traffic-specific factors influence the amount and characteristics of pollution emitted and deposited in the roadside soil. In our present study we focus on monitoring typical traffic pollutants (heavy metals HM, platinum group elements, polycyclic hydrocarbons PAH), and investigate the use of magnetic parameters, especially magnetic susceptibility (MS) as proxy. Monitoring plots were installed along roadside in areas with different climatic conditions and different traffic-specific activities (traffic density and speed, vehicle types, abrasion of tires, brake linings, petrol/diesel compounds and road maintenance). For monitoring we removed 10-15 cm of top soil at 1 m distance from the roadside edge and placed 30 plastic boxes there filled with clean quartz sand, to be sampled after regular intervals within two years. Preliminary data from the first year of monitoring are presented. Magnetic results revealed that a coarse grained magnetite-like phase is responsible for the enhancement of magnetic concentration. The mass-specific MS and concentration of pollutants (HM, PAH) all show a significant increase with time, however, there are obviously also seasonal and site-dependent effects which lead to more stable values over several months or even some decrease in the upper few cm due to migration into depth. Source identification indicates that the accumulated PAHs are primarily emissions from traffic. In order to be able to discriminate in between different kinds of transport and deposition (surface run off from the road and neighbouring soil material, splash water, air transport), we additionally established pillars at the roadside with clean quartz sampling boxes at different heights (surface, 0.5 m, 2 m). As a first surprising result we observed that the increase in the boxes at surface is not necessarily higher than at 0.5 m height. The results from our

  15. DGPS ground station integrity monitoring (United States)

    Skidmore, Trent A.; Vangraas, Frank


    This paper summarizes the development of a unique Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) ground station integrity monitor which can offer improved availability over conventional code-differential monitoring systems. This monitoring technique, called code/carrier integrity monitoring (CCIM), uses the highly stable integrated Doppler measurement to smooth the relatively noisy code-phase measurements. The pseudorange correction is therefore comprised of the integrated Doppler measurement plus the CCIM offset. The design and operational results of a DGPS ground station integrity monitor are reported. A robust integrity monitor is realized which is optimized for applications such as the Special Category I (SCAT-I) defined in the RTCA Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards.

  16. Monitoring cell growth, viability, and apoptosis. (United States)

    Butler, Michael; Spearman, Maureen; Braasch, Katrin


    The accurate determination of cell growth and viability is pivotal to monitoring a bioprocess. Direct methods to determine the cell growth and/or viability in a bioprocess include microscopic counting, electronic particle counting, image analysis, in situ biomass monitoring, and dieletrophoretic cytometry. These methods work most simply when a fixed volume sample can be taken from a suspension culture. Manual microscopic counting is laborious but affords the advantage of allowing cell viability to be determined if a suitable dye is included. Electronic particle counting is a rapid total cell count method for replicate samples, but some data distortion may occur if the sample has significant cell debris or cell aggregates. Image analysis based on the use of digital camera images acquired through a microscope has advanced rapidly with the availability of several commercially available software packages replacing manual microscopic counting and viability determination. Biomass probes detect cells by their dielectric properties or their internal concentration of NADH and can be used as a continuous monitor of the progress of a culture. While the monitoring of cell growth and viability is an integral part of a bioprocess, the monitoring of apoptosis induction is also becoming more and more important in bioprocess control to increase volumetric productivity by extending bioprocess duration. Different fluorescent assays allow for the detection of apoptotic characteristics in a cell sample.Indirect methods of cell determination involve the chemical analysis of a culture component or a measure of metabolic activity. These methods are most useful when it is difficult to obtain intact cell samples. However, the relationship between these parameters and the cell number may not be linear through the phases of a cell culture. The determination of nucleic acid (DNA) or total protein can be used as an estimate of biomass, while the depletion of glucose from the media can be used

  17. OLYMPUS luminosity monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates, Ozgur [Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia (United States); Collaboration: OLYMPUS-Collaboration


    The OLYMPUS experiment at DESY has been measuring the ratio of positron-proton and electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections to quantify the effect of two-photon exchange, which is widely considered to be responsible for the discrepancy between measurements of the proton electric to magnetic form factor ratio with the Rosenbluth and polarization transfer methods. In order to control the systematic uncertainties to the percent level, the luminosities are monitored redundantly with high precision by measuring the rates for symmetric Moller and Bhabha scattering, and by measuring the ep-elastic count rates at forward angles and low momentum transfer with tracking telescopes based on GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) and MWPC (Multi Wire Proportional Chamber) technology. During two data taking periods, performances of GEM and MWPC luminosity monitors are presented.

  18. Bearing Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shah


    Full Text Available Health monitoring of bearings is a widely researched topic and has been attempted by analysing acoustic, thermal and vibration signatures. The methods usually require signal of a healthy bearing to be used as a baseline. This limits their use in practical scenarios. This work proposes a kurtosis based baseline free method of analysing vibration signals to identify the bearing which has generated a fault. It then reports a detailed study on empirical mode decomposition technique for extracting intrinsic mode functions and suggests a set of steps which are necessary and sufficient for the purpose of bearing health monitoring. Thereafter, it compares a few dominant frequencies with the expected ones based on known bearing dimensions. This process has been shown to be fairly accurate in identifying the location of fault in a bearing.

  19. Total Energy Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S


    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  20. HEPA filter monitoring program (United States)

    Kirchner, K. N.; Johnson, C. M.; Aiken, W. F.; Lucerna, J. J.; Barnett, R. L.; Jensen, R. T.


    The testing and replacement of HEPA filters, widely used in the nuclear industry to purify process air, are costly and labor-intensive. Current methods of testing filter performance, such as differential pressure measurement and scanning air monitoring, allow determination of overall filter performance but preclude detection of incipient filter failure such as small holes in the filters. Using current technology, a continual in-situ monitoring system was designed which provides three major improvements over current methods of filter testing and replacement. The improvements include: cost savings by reducing the number of intact filters which are currently being replaced unnecessarily; more accurate and quantitative measurement of filter performance; and reduced personnel exposure to a radioactive environment by automatically performing most testing operations.

  1. Method for radioactivity monitoring (United States)

    Umbarger, C. John; Cowder, Leo R.


    The disclosure relates to a method for analyzing uranium and/or thorium contents of liquid effluents preferably utilizing a sample containing counting chamber. Basically, 185.7-keV gamma rays following .sup.235 U alpha decay to .sup.231 Th which indicate .sup.235 U content and a 63-keV gamma ray doublet found in the nucleus of .sup.234 Pa, a granddaughter of .sup.238 U, are monitored and the ratio thereof taken to derive uranium content and isotopic enrichment .sup.235 U/.sup.235 U + .sup.238 U) in the liquid effluent. Thorium content is determined by monitoring the intensity of 238-keV gamma rays from the nucleus of .sup.212 Bi in the decay chain of .sup.232 Th.

  2. Open Access Monitor - DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Michael; Hansen, Lars Asger Juel; Andersen, Dorte


    Open Access Monitor - DK (OAM-DK) is a 2-year DEFF funded [DEFF.2016-0018] national project running in 2017-2018 with the aim of collecting, documenting and administrating Open Access publishing costs. OAM-DK is lead by Copenhagen University Library under the Royal Danish Library with participation...... of all Danish University Libraries. This poster presents the first results of Open Access costs related to 2015 publications at the The University of Copenhagen....

  3. Monitoring the UKLight network (United States)

    Garrett, B.

    The eScience applications taking part in the ESLEA project aim to utilise the switched light paths offered by UKLight to deliver massive datasets and prove bandwidth intensive data streaming technologies. For debugging, analysis and reporting, the applications need to be able to monitor their bandwidth utilisation. This paper looks at the methods that could be used and the implementation of those technologies within the UKLight infrastructure.

  4. Icinga network monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Viranch


    This book is written in a concise and easy-to-follow approach, it will guide you to get you started with Icinga and lead you through the difficult concepts with illustrated examples and screenshots.If you are a system administrator or Linux enthusiast who is looking for a flexible tool to monitor network infrastructure efficiently, or trying to understand the Icinga software, this is a great book for you. You are expected to have solid foundation in Linux.

  5. Solar weather monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Hochedez


    Full Text Available Space Weather nowcasting and forecasting require solar observations because geoeffective disturbances can arise from three types of solar phenomena: coronal mass ejections (CMEs, flares and coronal holes. For each, we discuss their definition and review their precursors in terms of remote sensing and in-situ observations. The objectives of Space Weather require some specific instrumental features, which we list using the experience gained from the daily operations of the Solar Influences Data analysis Centre (SIDC at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Nowcasting requires real-time monitoring to assess quickly and reliably the severity of any potentially geoeffective solar event. Both research and forecasting could incorporate more observations in order to feed case studies and data assimilation respectively. Numerical models will result in better predictions of geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP events. We review the data types available to monitor solar activity and interplanetary conditions. They come from space missions and ground observatories and range from sequences of dopplergrams, magnetograms, white-light, chromospheric, coronal, coronagraphic and radio images, to irradiance and in-situ time-series. Their role is summarized together with indications about current and future solar monitoring instruments.

  6. Radiation monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Farias, Marcos S. de; Lacerda, Fabio de; Heimlich, Adino [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Design of a portable low-power multichannel analyzer with wireless connectivity for remote radiation monitoring, powered from a solar panel with a internal battery to be operated in field. The multichannel analyzer is based on a single microcontroller which performs the digital functions and an analog signal processing board for implementing a Gaussian shaper preamplifier, a Gaussian stretcher, sample and hold, pile-up rejector and a 10 bit ADC. Now this design is to be used with a NaI(Ti) scintillator detector. This multichannel analyzer is designed to be a part of radiation monitoring network. All of them are connected, by radio in a radius of 10 kilometers, to a supervisor computer that collects data from the network of multichannel analyzers and numerically display the latest radiation measurements or graphically display measurements over time for all multichannel analyzers. Like: dose rate, spectra and operational status. Software also supports remotely configuring operating parameters (such as radiation alarm level) for each monitor independently. (author)

  7. AG Dra monitoring requested (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.


    Dr. Rudolf Gális (Pavel Jozef Šafárik University) and colleagues have requested AAVSO assistance in observing the symbiotic variable AG Dra. Observations are requested as a follow-up to spectroscopic observations and in order to monitor the system for an anticipated outburst. Gális writes: "AG Dra is one of the best studied symbiotic systems, which undergoes characteristic symbiotic activity with alternating quiescent and active stages. The latter ones consist of several outbursts in intervals of about 1 yr. After seven years of flat quiescence following the 2006-08 major outbursts, in the spring of 2015, AG Dra...[entered the active stage]...with...two minor outbursts (in 2015 and 2016) up to now. Such behaviour is quite unusual in the photometric history of AG Dra, so the further systematic photometric monitoring of this symbiotic binary is highly desirable. We expect the next outburst of AG Dra in the late spring of 2017..." Daily monitoring of AG Dra in UBV(RI) filters is requested beginning at once and continuing until further notice. Visual observations are welcome and are encouraged. When the outburst occurs, revised observing instructions will likely be issued via an AAVSO Special Notice. Finder charts with sequence may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter ( Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  8. Monitoring Antiplatelet Therapy. (United States)

    Orme, Rachel; Judge, Heather M; Storey, Robert F


    The increasing use of antiplatelet therapy, particularly aspirin and oral P2Y12 inhibitors, in the prevention and management of arterial thrombosis, has stimulated extensive pharmacodynamic studies and research into tailored antiplatelet regimens. Many different methodologies have been studied for monitoring antiplatelet drugs and some are now well validated and used in clinical practice. However, clinical studies of tailored antiplatelet therapy have not convincingly demonstrated a benefit of this approach in patients treated with aspirin and clopidogrel, coupled with the fact that more potent antiplatelet therapies have more consistent effects compared with clopidogrel and so may reduce the rationale for monitoring. On the other hand, the optimum timing of urgent surgery after cession of oral antiplatelet therapy may be informed by platelet function testing. This review discusses the different methodologies that have been used to monitor the effects of antiplatelet therapy and highlights the current position of platelet function testing in clinical practice. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Synthesis of P005091

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping YU


    Full Text Available To improve the synthesis method of P005091 (1-(5-((2,3-dichlorophenyl thio-4-nitro-2-thienyl ethanone, with 2-chlorothiophene as the starting material, acetyl chloride as the acetylation reagent and aluminium trichloride as the catalyst, acetyl is introduced in the 5th position of 2-chlorothiophene to get 2-acetyl-5-chlorothiophene (compound 2, and the yield is 91%; then with concentrated sulfuric acid as solvent and mixed acid as nitrating agent, 5-acetyl-2-chloro-3-nitrothiophene (compound 3 is obtained by nitration reaction with compound 2, and the yield is 64%; thioetherfication reaction of compound 3 and 2,3-dichlorobenzenethiol in DMF solution under the function of potassium carbonate takes place to obtain the target product P005091, and the yield is 76%. The structure of P005091 is confirmed by mp, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS, and the overall yield is 44%. The improved method has the advantages of low cost, simple operation, and a milder reaction condition compared with the former references, avoiding using the reagent with higher toxicity, and high yield on the premise that the product purity is assured.

  10. The Danish Marine Monitoring System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ærtebjerg, G.


    Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996.......Indeholder abstracts fra Workshop on Marine Monitoring Systems and Technology, Risø, 17-18 April 1996....

  11. Iowater Water Quality Monitoring Sites (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains points representing monitoring locations on streams, lakes and ponds that have been registered by IOWATER monitors. IOWATER, Iowa's volunteer...

  12. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  13. Electrostatic beam-position monitor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    Electrostatic beam-position monitor installed in its final location (bake-out cover removed). The ISR will contain about 110 of these monitors. Their accuracy is better than 1 mm, their band width about 1 MHz.

  14. Printing and Publishing Monitoring Information (United States)

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page covers monitoring information specific to the printing and publishing industry.

  15. Recent advance in patient monitoring


    Nishiyama, Tomoki


    Recent advance in technology has developed a lot of new aspects of clinical monitoring. We can monitor sedation levels during anesthesia using various electroencephalographic (EEG) indices, while it is still not useful for anesthesia depth monitoring. Some attempts are made to monitor the changes in sympathetic nerve activity as one of the indicators of stress, pain/analgesia, or anesthesia. To know the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, heart rate or blood pressure variabil...

  16. Microwave assisted synthesis of some halosubstituted chalcones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Unchadkar


    Full Text Available An efficient microwave assisted synthesis of halosubstituted chalcones by the condensation of halosubstituted ketones and substituted aldehydes. These reactions were found to economically cheap in comparison with classical synthesis.

  17. Synthesis and Biological Activities of Some Benzimidazoles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Synthesis and Biological Activities of Some Benzimidazoles Derivatives. HAMDAN S. AL-EBAISAT ... Key words: Benzimidazole; Antifungal Agent; Fungicides; Aldehyde; Derivative; Chemical Synthesis. Benzimidazole derivatives are ..... acknowledges the financial support from Bin Hayyan. Laboratory. (Aqaba. Special.

  18. Home monitoring of blood pressure


    McGrath, Barry P.


    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  19. Monitoring biodiversity: quantification and interpretation. (United States)

    William L. Gaines; Richy J. Harrod; John F. Lehmkuhl


    Monitoring is necessary for an adaptive management approach and the successful implementation of ecosystem management. In this document, we present an approach to monitoring biological diversity at different levels of ecological organization: landscape, community or ecosystem, population or species, and genetic. Our approach involves identifying monitoring questions...

  20. Microwave-assisted polyol synthesis of Cu nanoparticles (United States)

    Blosi, M.; Albonetti, S.; Dondi, M.; Martelli, C.; Baldi, G.


    Microwave heating was applied to synthesize copper colloidal nanoparticles by a polyol method that exploits the chelating and reducing power of a polidentate alcohol (diethylenglycol). The synthesis was carried out in the presence of eco-friendly additives such as ascorbic acid (reducing agent) and polyvinylpirrolidone (chelating polymer) to improve the reduction kinetics and sols stability. Prepared suspensions, obtained with very high reaction yield, were stable for months in spite of the high metal concentration. In order to optimize suspensions, synthesis parameters were modified and the effects on particle size, optical properties, and reaction yield were investigated. XRD analysis, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and DLS measurements confirmed that prepared sols consist of crystalline metallic copper with a diameter ranging from 45 to 130 nm. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Cu nanoparticles was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy and showed both a red shift and a band weakening due to nanoparticle diameter increase. Microwave use provides rapid, uniform heating of reagents and solvent, while accelerating the reduction of metal precursors and the nucleation of metal clusters, resulting in monodispersed nanostructures. The proposed microwave-assisted synthesis, also usable in large-scale continuous production, makes process intensification possible.

  1. Combustion synthesis of LaFeO3 sensing nanomaterial (United States)

    Zaza, F.; Pallozzi, V.; Serra, E.; Pasquali, M.


    Since industrial revolution, human activities drive towards unsustainable global economy due to the overexploitation of natural resources and the unacceptable emissions of pollution and greenhouse gases. In order to address that issue, engineering research has been focusing on gas sensors development for monitoring gas emissions and controlling the combustion process sustainability. Semiconductors metal oxides sensors are attractive technology because they require simple design and fabrication, involving high accessibility, small size and low cost. Perovskite oxides are the most promising sensing materials because sensitivity, selectivity, stability and speed-response can be modulated and optimized by changing the chemical composition. One of the most convenient synthesis process of perovskite is the citrate-nitrate auto-combustion method, in which nitrate is the oxidizing agent and citrate is the fuel and the chelating argent in the same time. Since the sensibility of perovskite oxides depends on the defective crystallographic structure and the nanomorphology, the experimental was designed in order to study the dependence of powder properties on the synthesis conditions, such as the solution acidity and the relative amount of metals, nitrates and citric acid. Crystalline structure was studied in depth for defining the effects of synthesis conditions on size, morphology and crystallographic structure of nanopowders of LaFeO3.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis of free-template zeolite T from kaolin (United States)

    Arshad, Sazmal E.; Yusslee, Eddy F.; Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Sarkar, Shaheen M.; Patuwan, Siti Z.


    Free-template zeolite T crystals were synthesized via hydrothermal synthesis by utilizing the activated kaolin as silica and alumina source, with the molar composition of 1 SiO2: 0.04 Al2O3: 0.26 Na2O: 0.09 K2O: 14 H2O. Observation of the formation of free-template zeolite crystals were done at temperature 90°C, 100 °C and 110 °C respectively. It was therefore determined that during the 120 h of the synthesis at 90 °C, zeolite T nucleated and formed a first competitive phase with zeolite L. As temperature increases to 100 °C, zeolite T presented itself as a major phase in the system at time 168 h. Subsequently, development of Zeolite T with second competitive phase of zeolite W was observed at temperature 110 °C. In this study, XRD and SEM instruments were used to monitor the behavior of zeolite T crystals with respect of temperature and time. By using natural resource of kaolin clay as a starting material, this paper hence aims to provide new findings in synthesis of zeolite T using low energy consumption and low production cost.

  3. Age synthesis and estimation via faces: a survey. (United States)

    Fu, Yun; Guo, Guodong; Huang, Thomas S


    Human age, as an important personal trait, can be directly inferred by distinct patterns emerging from the facial appearance. Derived from rapid advances in computer graphics and machine vision, computer-based age synthesis and estimation via faces have become particularly prevalent topics recently because of their explosively emerging real-world applications, such as forensic art, electronic customer relationship management, security control and surveillance monitoring, biometrics, entertainment, and cosmetology. Age synthesis is defined to rerender a face image aesthetically with natural aging and rejuvenating effects on the individual face. Age estimation is defined to label a face image automatically with the exact age (year) or the age group (year range) of the individual face. Because of their particularity and complexity, both problems are attractive yet challenging to computer-based application system designers. Large efforts from both academia and industry have been devoted in the last a few decades. In this paper, we survey the complete state-of-the-art techniques in the face image-based age synthesis and estimation topics. Existing models, popular algorithms, system performances, technical difficulties, popular face aging databases, evaluation protocols, and promising future directions are also provided with systematic discussions.

  4. Ascorbate Synthesis Pathway (United States)

    Gabbay, Kenneth H.; Bohren, Kurt M.; Morello, Roy; Bertin, Terry; Liu, Jeff; Vogel, Peter


    Using mouse gene knock-out models, we identify aldehyde reductase (EC, Akr1a4 (GR)) and aldose reductase (EC, Akr1b3 (AR)) as the enzymes responsible for conversion of d-glucuronate to l-gulonate, a key step in the ascorbate (ASC) synthesis pathway in mice. The gene knock-out (KO) mice show that the two enzymes, GR and AR, provide ∼85 and ∼15% of l-gulonate, respectively. GRKO/ARKO double knock-out mice are unable to synthesize ASC (>95% ASC deficit) and develop scurvy. The GRKO mice (∼85% ASC deficit) develop and grow normally when fed regular mouse chow (ASC content = 0) but suffer severe osteopenia and spontaneous fractures with stresses that increase ASC requirements, such as pregnancy or castration. Castration greatly increases osteoclast numbers and activity in GRKO mice and promotes increased bone loss as compared with wild-type controls and additionally induces proliferation of immature dysplastic osteoblasts likely because of an ASC-sensitive block(s) in early differentiation. ASC and the antioxidants pycnogenol and resveratrol block osteoclast proliferation and bone loss, but only ASC feeding restores osteoblast differentiation and prevents their dysplastic proliferation. This is the first in vivo demonstration of two independent roles for ASC as an antioxidant suppressing osteoclast activity and number as well as a cofactor promoting osteoblast differentiation. Although humans have lost the ability to synthesize ASC, our mouse models suggest the mechanisms by which suboptimal ASC availability facilitates the development of osteoporosis, which has important implications for human osteoporosis. PMID:20410296

  5. Synthesis metal nanoparticle (United States)

    Bunge, Scott D.; Boyle, Timothy J.


    A method for providing an anhydrous route for the synthesis of amine capped coinage-metal (copper, silver, and gold) nanoparticles (NPs) using the coinage-metal mesityl (mesityl=C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3 -2,4,6) derivatives. In this method, a solution of (Cu(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5, (Ag(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.4, or (Au(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5 is dissolved in a coordinating solvent, such as a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine; primary, secondary, or tertiary phosphine, or alkyl thiol, to produce a mesityl precursor solution. This solution is subsequently injected into an organic solvent that is heated to a temperature greater than approximately C. After washing with an organic solvent, such as an alcohol (including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and higher molecular-weight alcohols), oxide free coinage NP are prepared that could be extracted with a solvent, such as an aromatic solvent (including, for example, toluene, benzene, and pyridine) or an alkane (including, for example, pentane, hexane, and heptane). Characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the NPs were approximately 9.2.+-.2.3 nm in size for, (no surface oxide present), approximately 8.5.+-.1.1 nm spheres, and approximately 8-80 nm for

  6. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring – Clinical Practice Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Mako


    Full Text Available Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM became a subject of considerable scientific interest. Due to the increasing use of the ABPM in everyday clinical practice it is important that all the users have a correct knowledge on the clinical indications, the methodology of using the device including some technical issues and the interpretation of results. In the last years several guidelines and position papers have been published with recommendations for the monitoring process, reference values, for clinical practice and research. This paper represents a summary of the most important aspects related to the use of ABPM in daily practice, being a synthesis of recommendations from the recent published guidelines and position papers. This reference article presents the practical and technical issues of ABPM, the use of this method in special situations, the clinical interpretation of measured values including the presentation of different ABPM patterns, derived parameters, the prognostic significance and the limitations of this method.

  7. Applied synthesis and characterisation of nanoparticles


    J. C. Bear


    This thesis covers three areas of development of nanomaterials synthesis; namely the synthesis of superhydrophobic polymer-nanoparticle composites (chapter 3), the synthesis of doped quantum dots for catalysis and photoluminescence enhancement (chapter 4) and the synthesis of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles from inexpensive, readily available reagents (chapter 5). Details of characterisation and analytical techniques and synthetic methods used are given in chapter 2, and the thesis summaris...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Widiyanthi


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Intracranial pressure is total of pressure that is produced by brain, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid/CSF in the tight cranial space. As a respon to intracranial pressure increasing, compensation begin by movement of CSF from ventricle to cerebral subarachnoidal space, and increase the absorption of CSF. Increasing of ICP usually caused by increasing of brain volume (cerebral oedem, blood (intracranial bleeding, space occupying lesion, or CSF (hidrocephalus. Indication in ICP monitoring can be seen from : neurological criteria, abnormal CT-scan result when admission, normal CT-scan result, but had more two risk factors. According to the procedure that must be done, there are two methods in ICP monitoring: invasive ICP monitoring methodes and non-invasive measuring method. Increasing of ICP will decrease the compliance of brain, pulsation of artery more clearly, and the component of vein is lost. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  9. Monitoring during Mechnical Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Hess


    Full Text Available Monitoring is a continuous, or nearly continuous, evaluation of the physiological function of a patient in real time to guide management decisions, including when to make therapeutic interventions and assessment of those interventions. Pulse oximeters pass two wavelengths of light through a pulsating vascular bed and determine oxygen saturation. The accuracy of pulse oximetry is about ±4%. Capnography measures carbon dioxide at the airway and displays a waveform called the capnogram. End-tidal PCO2 represents alveolar PCO2 and is determined by the ventilation-perfusion quotient. Use of end-tidal PCO2 as an indication of arterial PCO2 is often deceiving and incorrect in critically ill patients. Because there is normally very little carbon dioxide in the stomach, a useful application of capnography is the detection of esophageal intubation. Intra-arterial blood gas systems are available, but the clinical impact and cost effectiveness of these is unclear. Mixed venous oxygenation (PvO2 or SvO2 is a global indicator of tissue oxygenation and is affected by arterial oxygen content, oxygen consumption and cardiac output. Indirect calorimetry is the calculation of energy expenditure and respiratory quotient by the measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. A variety of mechanics can be determined in mechanically ventilated patients including resistance, compliance, auto-peak end-expiratory pressure (PEEP and work of breathing. The static pressure-volume curve can be used to identify lower and upper infection points, which can be used to determine the appropriate PEEP setting and to avoid alveolar overdistension. Although some forms of monitoring have become a standard of care during mechanical ventilation (eg, pulse oximetry, there is little evidence that use of any monitor affects patient outcome.

  10. FTS3: Quantitative Monitoring (United States)

    Riahi, H.; Salichos, M.; Keeble, O.; Andreeva, J.; Ayllon, A. A.; Di Girolamo, A.; Magini, N.; Roiser, S.; Simon, M. K.


    The overall success of LHC data processing depends heavily on stable, reliable and fast data distribution. The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) relies on the File Transfer Service (FTS) as the data movement middleware for moving sets of files from one site to another. This paper describes the components of FTS3 monitoring infrastructure and how they are built to satisfy the common and particular requirements of the LHC experiments. We show how the system provides a complete and detailed cross-virtual organization (VO) picture of transfers for sites, operators and VOs. This information has proven critical due to the shared nature of the infrastructure, allowing a complete view of all transfers on shared network links between various workflows and VOs using the same FTS transfer manager. We also report on the performance of the FTS service itself, using data generated by the aforementioned monitoring infrastructure both during the commissioning and the first phase of production. We also explain how this monitoring information and network metrics produced can be used both as a starting point for troubleshooting data transfer issues, but also as a mechanism to collect information such as transfer efficiency between sites, achieved throughput and its evolution over time, most common errors, etc, and take decision upon them to further optimize transfer workflows. The service setup is subject to sites policies to control the network resource usage, as well as all the VOs making use of the Grid resources at the site to satisfy their requirements. FTS3 is the new version of FTS and has been deployed in production in August 2014.

  11. Error monitoring in musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens eMaidhof


    Full Text Available To err is human, and hence even professional musicians make errors occasionally during their performances. This paper summarizes recent work investigating error monitoring in musicians, i.e. the processes and their neural correlates associated with the monitoring of ongoing actions and the detection of deviations from intended sounds. EEG Studies reported an early component of the event-related potential (ERP occurring before the onsets of pitch errors. This component, which can be altered in musicians with focal dystonia, likely reflects processes of error detection and/or error compensation, i.e. attempts to cancel the undesired sensory consequence (a wrong tone a musician is about to perceive. Thus, auditory feedback seems not to be a prerequisite for error detection, consistent with previous behavioral results. In contrast, when auditory feedback is externally manipulated and thus unexpected, motor performance can be severely distorted, although not all feedback alterations result in performance impairments. Recent studies investigating the neural correlates of feedback processing showed that unexpected feedback elicits an ERP component after note onsets, which shows larger amplitudes during music performance than during mere perception of the same musical sequences. Hence, these results stress the role of motor actions for the processing of auditory information. Furthermore, recent methodological advances like the combination of 3D motion capture techniques with EEG will be discussed. Such combinations of different measures can potentially help to disentangle the roles of different feedback types such as proprioceptive and auditory feedback, and in general to derive at a better understanding of the complex interactions between the motor and auditory domain during error monitoring. Finally, outstanding questions and future directions in this context will be discussed.

  12. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik


    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...... from 23:00 to 07:00 h for plasma glucose (PG) measurements (gold standard). Results: Valid data were obtained in 217 nights. The sensitivity of CGM was 65% (95% confidence interval, 53-77%) below 4 mmol/L, 40% (24-56%) below 3 mmol/L, and 17% (0-47%) below 2.2 mmol/L. PG and CGM readings correlated...

  13. Milliwave melter monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, William E [North Augusta, SC; Woskov, Paul P [Bedford, MA; Sundaram, Shanmugavelayutham K [Richland, WA


    A milliwave melter monitoring system is presented that has a waveguide with a portion capable of contacting a molten material in a melter for use in measuring one or more properties of the molten material in a furnace under extreme environments. A receiver is configured for use in obtaining signals from the melt/material transmitted to appropriate electronics through the waveguide. The receiver is configured for receiving signals from the waveguide when contacting the molten material for use in determining the viscosity of the molten material. Other embodiments exist in which the temperature, emissivity, viscosity and other properties of the molten material are measured.

  14. Remote Reactor Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Adam [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dazeley, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dobie, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marleau, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brennan, Jim [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gerling, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sumner, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sweany, Melinda [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The overall goal of the WATCHMAN project is to experimentally demonstrate the potential of water Cerenkov antineutrino detectors as a tool for remote monitoring of nuclear reactors. In particular, the project seeks to field a large prototype gadolinium-doped, water-based antineutrino detector to demonstrate sensitivity to a power reactor at ~10 kilometer standoff using a kiloton scale detector. The technology under development, when fully realized at large scale, could provide remote near-real-time information about reactor existence and operational status for small operating nuclear reactors out to distances of many hundreds of kilometers.

  15. Space Derived Air Monitor (United States)


    COPAMS, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Air Monitoring System, derives from technology involved in building unmanned spacecraft. The Nimbus spacecraft carried experimental sensors to measure temperature, pressure, ozone, and water vapor, and instruments for studying solar radiation and telemetry. The process which relayed these findings to Earth formed the basis for COPAMS. The COPAMS system consists of data acquisition units which measure and record pollution level, and sense wind speed and direction, etc. The findings are relayed to a central station where the information is computerized. The system is automatic and supplemented by PAQSS, PA Air Quality Surveillance System.

  16. Storage monitoring system -- 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickelsen, B.; Nilsen, C.; Kinzel, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Davidson, B.; Pollock, R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Sandia National Laboratories has several ongoing projects in the area of nuclear materials management. These projects establish a core capability in monitoring stored nuclear materials. The overarching goal of these projects is to get the right sensor information to the right user to enhance the safety, security and to verify the legitimacy of use of stored nuclear materials. An effort has been initiated to merge these projects into a common system. This paper provides an overview of several of these projects and the integration activities between them.

  17. NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring (United States)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Moser, D. E.


    The MSFC lunar impact monitoring program began in 2006 in support of environment definition for the Constellation (return to Moon) program. Work continued by the Meteoroid Environment Office after Constellation cancellation. Over 330 impacts have been recorded. A paper published in Icarus reported on the first 5 years of observations and 126 calibrated flashes. Icarus:; ArXiv: A NASA Technical Memorandum on flash locations is in press

  18. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, P E; Biermann, A; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Gouveia, F J; Grayson, A; Harrach, R J; Hoppes, W G; Jones, H; Mathews, S; Merrigan, J R; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M; Rueppel, D; Sanchez, L; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Ward, B; Williams, R


    Environmental monitoring personnel from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) prepared this ''Environmental Monitoring Plan'' (EMP) to meet the requirements in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ''Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance'' (DOE 1991) and applicable portions of DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 (see WSS B93 and B94 in Appendix B). ''Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance'' is followed as a best management practice; under Work Smart Standards, LLNL complies with portions of DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 as shown in Appendix B. This document is a revision of the May 1999 EMP (Tate et al. 1999) and is current as of March 1, 2002. LLNL is one of the nation's premier applied-science national security laboratories. Its primary mission is to ensure that the nation's nuclear weapons remain safe, secure, and reliable, and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide. LLNL's programs in advanced technologies, energy, environment, biosciences, and basic science apply LLNL's unique capabilities and enhance the competencies needed for this national security mission. LLNL's mission also involves working with industrial and academic partners to increase national competitiveness and improve science education. LLNL's mission is dynamic and has changed over the years to meet new national needs. In keeping with the Laboratory's mission, the environment, safety, and health (ES&H) have top priority. LLNL's policy is to perform work in a manner that protects the health and safety of employees and the public, preserves the quality of the environment, and prevents property damage. The environment, safety, and health are to be priority considerations in the planning and execution of all work activities at the Laboratory (LLNL 2001

  19. Monitoring of tritium (United States)

    Corbett, James A.; Meacham, Sterling A.


    The fluid from a breeder nuclear reactor, which may be the sodium cooling fluid or the helium reactor-cover-gas, or the helium coolant of a gas-cooled reactor passes over the portion of the enclosure of a gaseous discharge device which is permeable to hydrogen and its isotopes. The tritium diffused into the discharge device is radioactive producing beta rays which ionize the gas (argon) in the discharge device. The tritium is monitored by measuring the ionization current produced when the sodium phase and the gas phase of the hydrogen isotopes within the enclosure are in equilibrium.

  20. Monitoring international nuclear activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, R.B.


    The LBNL Table of Isotopes website provides primary nuclearinformation to>150,000 different users annually. We have developedthe covert technology to identify users by IP address and country todetermine the kinds of nuclear information they are retrieving. Wepropose to develop pattern recognition software to provide an earlywarning system to identify Unusual nuclear activity by country or regionSpecific nuclear/radioactive material interests We have monitored nuclearinformation for over two years and provide this information to the FBIand LLNL. Intelligence is gleaned from the website log files. Thisproposal would expand our reporting capabilities.

  1. Self-Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Langstrup


    orperform self-monitoring subjects whoparticipate in keeping their asthmaticbodies in control through the use of anonline control center. I argue that the bodiesin control and the competent selves relatedto this technology depend on theestablishment of a chronically ill body andon the decentering...... dependson blurring other nodes in the network inthe day-to-day use of this technology, thesebeing, the physician, the technology, andthe scientific set-up. As such, I argue thatagency in the form of the self-monitoringcompetent ill, is best understood as asuccessful performance of invisiblepassages...

  2. Islay LIMPET project monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, T.


    Wavegen was contracted by the DTI as part of its Sustainable Energy Programmes to monitor and report on the final stages of the construction, installation of turbo-generation equipment, commissioning and operation of the LIMPET wave energy system. The report discusses the choice of technology, where the system was installed, power take off, construction of the collector, installation of the turbo-generator, maintenance, operation, management and planning issues. The performance of the system was found to be poorer than expected and the reasons for this were identified. The main conclusions were that the system is sufficiently robust to operate in the marine environment and downtimes are expected to be short.

  3. Structural synthesis of parallel robots

    CERN Document Server

    Gogu, Grigore

    This book represents the fifth part of a larger work dedicated to the structural synthesis of parallel robots. The originality of this work resides in the fact that it combines new formulae for mobility, connectivity, redundancy and overconstraints with evolutionary morphology in a unified structural synthesis approach that yields interesting and innovative solutions for parallel robotic manipulators.  This is the first book on robotics that presents solutions for coupled, decoupled, uncoupled, fully-isotropic and maximally regular robotic manipulators with Schönflies motions systematically generated by using the structural synthesis approach proposed in Part 1.  Overconstrained non-redundant/overactuated/redundantly actuated solutions with simple/complex limbs are proposed. Many solutions are presented here for the first time in the literature. The author had to make a difficult and challenging choice between protecting these solutions through patents and releasing them directly into the public domain. T...

  4. Total synthesis of (-)-salinosporamide A. (United States)

    Kaiya, Yuji; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi; Momose, Takayuki; Sato, Takaaki; Chida, Noritaka


    A detailed description of our second-generation total synthesis of salinosporamide A is presented. Three contiguous stereocenters in the γ-lactam structure seen in the natural product were established by stereoselective functionalization of a D-arabinose scaffold, including an Overman rearrangement to generate a highly congested tetrasubstituted carbon center. One of the definitive reactions in the synthesis was a Lewis acid mediated skeletal rearrangement of a pyranose structure, which enabled the practical conversion of the carbohydrate scaffold to the γ-lactam structure embedded in salinosporamide A. The use of a benzyl ester as a protective group for a sterically hindered carboxylic acid led to a one-pot global deprotection at the end of the synthesis.

  5. The KTH synthesis of singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Sundberg


    Full Text Available This is an overview of the work with synthesizing singing that has been carried out at the Speech Music Hearing Department, KTH since 1977. The origin of the work, a hardware synthesis machine, is described and some aspects of the control program, a modified version of a text-to-speech conversion system are reviewed. Three applications are described in which the synthesis system has paved the way for investigations of specific aspects of the singing voice. One concerns the perceptual relevance of the center frequency of the singer's formant, one deals with characteristics of an ugly voice, and one regards intonation. The article is accompanied by 18 sound examples, several of which were not published before. Finally, limitations and advantages of singing synthesis are discussed.

  6. Gestural Control Of Wavefield synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grani, Francesco; Di Carlo, Diego; Portillo, Jorge Madrid


    We present a report covering our preliminary research on the control of spatial sound sources in wavefield synthesis through gesture based interfaces. After a short general introduction on spatial sound and few basic concepts on wavefield synthesis, we presents a graphical application called sp......AAce which let users to con- trol real-time movements of sound sources by drawing tra- jectories on a screen. The first prototype of this application has been developed bound to WFSCollider, an open-source software based on Supercollider which let users control wavefield synthesis. The spAAce application has...... been im- plemented using Processing, a programming language for sketches and prototypes within the context of visual arts, and communicates with WFSCollider through the Open Sound Control protocol. This application aims to create a new way of interaction for live performance of spatial composition...

  7. Collaboration and Productivity in Scientific Synthesis (United States)

    Hampton, Stephanie E.; Parker, John N.


    Scientific synthesis has transformed ecological research and presents opportunities for advancements across the sciences; to date, however, little is known about the antecedents of success in synthesis. Building on findings from 10 years of detailed research on social interactions in synthesis groups at the National Center for Ecological Analysis…

  8. Fmoc Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis. (United States)

    Hansen, Paul R; Oddo, Alberto


    Synthetic peptides are important as drugs and in research. Currently, the method of choice for producing these compounds is solid-phase peptide synthesis. In this nonspecialist review, we describe the scope and limitations of Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis. Furthermore, we provide a detailed protocol for Fmoc peptide synthesis.

  9. The modern synthesis, Ronald Fisher and creationism. (United States)



    The 'modern evolutionary synthesis' convinced most biologists that natural selection was the only directive influence on adaptive evolution. Today, however, dissatisfaction with the synthesis is widespread, and creationists and antidarwinians are multiplying. The central problem with the synthesis is its failure to show (or to provide distinct signs) that natural selection of random mutations could account for observed levels of adaptation.

  10. β-Molybdenum nitride: synthesis mechanism and catalytic response in the gas phase hydrogenation of p-chloronitrobenzene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cárdenas-Lizana, F.; Gómez-Quero, S.; Perret, N.; Kiwi-Minsker, L.; Keane, M.A.


    A temperature programmed treatment of MoO3 in flowing N2 + H2 has been employed to prepare β-phase molybdenum nitride (β-Mo2N) which has been used to promote, for the first time, the catalytic hydrogenation of p-chloronitrobenzene. The reduction/nitridation synthesis steps have been monitored in

  11. Solid-phase peptide synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Knud Jørgen


    This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of peptide chemistry with a focus on solid-phase peptide synthesis. The background, the most common reagents, and some mechanisms are presented. This chapter also points to the different chapters and puts them into perspective.......This chapter provides an introduction to and overview of peptide chemistry with a focus on solid-phase peptide synthesis. The background, the most common reagents, and some mechanisms are presented. This chapter also points to the different chapters and puts them into perspective....

  12. A Short Synthesis of (+)-Cyclophellitol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Gundorph; Bundgaard, Eva; Madsen, Robert


    A new synthesis of (+)-cyclophellitol, a potent b-glucosidase inhibitor, has been completed in nine steps from D-xylose. The key transformations involve a zinc-mediated fragmentation of benzyl-protected methyl 5-deoxy-5-iodo-xylofuranoside followed by a highly diastereoselective indium-mediated c......-mediated coupling with ethyl 4-bromocrotonate. Subsequent ring-closing olefin metathesis, ester reduction, olefin epoxidation, and deprotection then afford the natural product. This constitutes the shortest synthesis of (+)-cyclophellitol reported to date....

  13. Synthesis of tenuazonic acid analogues. (United States)

    Soliman, F S


    The synthesis of two 1.5-diaryltetramic acids, aryl analogues of tenuazonic acid, is described. The reactivity of position 4 of these tetramic acids towards primary and secondary amines, and o-methylation led to the synthesis of 4-substituted-delta3-pyrroline-2-one. Further, reactivity of position 3 has been indicated by the formation of 3-arylidenepyrrolidine-2.4-diones and by diazo-coupling. The structures assigned to the new compounds are substantiated by IR and NMR data.

  14. Impaired glutathione synthesis in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gysin, René; Kraftsik, Rudolf; Sandell, Julie


    Schizophrenia is a complex multifactorial brain disorder with a genetic component. Convergent evidence has implicated oxidative stress and glutathione (GSH) deficits in the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of the present study was to test whether schizophrenia is associated with a deficit...... of GSH synthesis. Cultured skin fibroblasts from schizophrenia patients and control subjects were challenged with oxidative stress, and parameters of the rate-limiting enzyme for the GSH synthesis, the glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), were measured. Stressed cells of patients had a 26% (P = 0.......002) decreased GCL activity as compared with controls. This reduction correlated with a 29% (P schizophrenia in two...

  15. Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis (United States)

    Eldridge, J. J.; Stanway, E. R.; Xiao, L.; McClelland, L. A. S.; Bray, J. C.; Taylor, G.; Ng, M.


    We have recently released version 2.0 of the Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis (BPASS) population synthesis code. This is designed to construct the spectra and related properties of stellar populations built from ~200,000 detailed, individual stellar models of known age and metallicity. The output products enable a broad range of theoretical predictions for individual stars, binaries, resolved and unresolved stellar populations, supernovae and their progenitors, and compact remnant mergers. Here we summarise key applications that demonstrate that binary populations typically reproduce observations better than single star models.

  16. Homosexuality, ethics and identity synthesis. (United States)

    Yarhouse, Mark


    Implicit metaphysical assumptions concerning the nature of sexual orientation are reflected in the language used to frame ethical debates concerning "reorientation" therapies. An alternative metaphysical construal is presented concerning sexual orientation and sexual identity development and synthesis. This alternative construal allows for humility concerning what we know and do not know about sexual orientation, underscores the client's self-determination and autonomy, and demonstrates regard for personal and religious valuative frameworks. Rather than focusing on therapies aimed specifically at sexual reorientation, clinicians would do well to provide clients with informed consent and to facilitate identity development and synthesis in keeping with their clients' requests for professional services.

  17. Ferroic materials synthesis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Virk, Hardev Singh


    Ferroics is the generic name given to the study of ferromagnets, ferroelectrics, and ferroelastics. The basis of this study is to understand the large changes in physical characteristics that occur over a very narrow temperature range. In recent years, a new class of ferroic materials has been attracting increased interest. These multiferroics exhibit more than one ferroic property simultaneously in a single phase. The present volume: ""Ferroic Materials: Synthesis and Applications"" has ten Chapters, spread over areas as diverse as Magnetic Oxide Nanomaterials, Ferrites Synthesis, Hexaferrite

  18. Concise Synthesis of Broussonone A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeju Jo


    Full Text Available A concise and expeditious approach to the total synthesis of broussonone A, a p-quinol natural compound, has been developed. The key features of the synthesis include the Grubbs II catalyst mediated cross metathesis of two aromatic subunits, and a chemoselective oxidative dearomatizationin the presence of two phenol moieties. Especially, optimization associated with the CM reaction of ortho-alkoxystyrenes was also studied, which are known to be ineffective for Ru-catalyzed metathesis reactions under conventional reaction conditions because ortho-alkoxy group could coordinate to the ruthenium center, resulting in the potential complication of catalyst inhibition.

  19. Ambient Monitoring Technology Information Center (AMTIC) (United States)

    This site contains information on ambient air quality monitoring programs, monitoring methods, quality assurance and control procedures, and federal regulations related to ambient air quality monitoring.

  20. Preparation of the Caspase-3/-7 substrate Ac-DEVD-pNA via Solution-Phase Peptide Synthesis (United States)

    Peterson, Quinn P.; Goode, David R.; West, Diana C.; Botham, Rachel C.; Hergenrother, Paul J.


    The caspase enzymes are integral to cellular inflammation and apoptotic cascades, and are commonly studied by cell biologists, medicinal chemists, and chemical biologists. In particular, the assessment of caspase enzymatic activity is a standard method to evaluate cell death pathways and novel apoptosis-modulating agents. Caspase enzymatic activity can be conveniently monitored with peptidic chromogenic or fluorogenic substrates, with certain peptide sequences imparting selectivity for certain caspases. The synthesis of these peptide substrates is typically performed via solid-phase synthesis, a method that is not ideal for production of the gram quantities needed for high-throughput screening. Described herein is a facile method for the synthesis of the Ac-DEVD-pNA caspase-3 substrate using solution-phase peptide synthesis. This protocol, involving iterative PyBOP-mediated couplings and Fmoc deprotections, is rapid, operationally simple, and can be used to generate over one gram of product. PMID:20134429

  1. Crane hoisting monitoring using smartphone (United States)

    Zhao, Xuefeng; Jiao, Bo; Zhang, Yang; Gao, Shunde; Yu, Yan


    In recent years, smart phone develops very fast, and it has been the most popular tool in daily life of the public. Smart phones, with powerful operating systems, data storage and processing function, varieties of high-performance sensors and easily data transmission when connected to network, are the good choice for structures status monitoring in some occasion. One kind of hoisting monitoring method was proposed in this paper based on smartphone and Monitoring App developed. Firstly, one monitoring App was designed and developed, which can monitor the acceleration and inclination information using MEMS sensors embedded in smartphone. Secondly, typical operation status model of crane hoisting was studied. Then one validation test of hoisting was designed and conducted to monitor the acceleration and inclination of different elements during the operation procedure of one crane. The test results show the feasibility of the crane hoisting safety monitoring method using smartphone.

  2. 1985 environmental monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L.E.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Naidu, J.R. (eds.)


    The environmental monitoring program is designed to determine that BNL facilities operate such that the applicable environmental standards and effluent control requirements have been met. The data were evaluated using the appropriate environmental regulatory criteria. The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1985 are summarized in this report. Detailed data are not included in the main body of the report, but are tabulated and presented in Appendix D. The environmental data include external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the water quality of the potable supply wells; the concentrations of radioactivity in biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratoy; concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory; and the 1984 strontium-90 data which was not available for inclusion in the 1984 Environmental Monitoring Report. In 1985, the results of the surveillance program demonstraed that the Laboratory has operated within the applicable environmental standards.

  3. Monitoring every last trace

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    The LHC is set to reach a record energy of 6.5 TeV per beam next year and will therefore be producing high energy radiation, as will the injectors supplying it. When exposed to this radiation, some equipment could potentially become radioactive and must therefore be carefully identified and monitored... this is where TREC comes in: software developed by CERN and currently being deployed in our accelerators.   If it becomes slightly radioactive, some of the equipment that makes up CERN’s accelerators may potentially become a hazard to the people who handle or work near it. Even though the risk is usually very low, CERN is obliged to record the location of this equipment, identify it and deal with it in an appropriate manner. During LS1 for example, almost 30,000 radiation protection checks were carried out on more than 2,500 tonnes of equipment! In 2009, going one step further in monitoring this equipment and making the Laboratory even safer, Luca Bruno, then the Radiation Safety Of...

  4. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  5. LHCb data quality monitoring (United States)

    Adinolfi, M.; Archilli, F.; Baldini, W.; Baranov, A.; Derkach, D.; Panin, A.; Pearce, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.


    Data quality monitoring, DQM, is crucial in a high-energy physics experiment to ensure the correct functioning of the experimental apparatus during the data taking. DQM at LHCb is carried out in two phases. The first one is performed on-site, in real time, using unprocessed data directly from the LHCb detector, while the second, also performed on-site, requires the reconstruction of the data selected by the LHCb trigger system and occurs later. For the LHC Run II data taking the LHCb collaboration has re-engineered the DQM protocols and the DQM graphical interface, moving the latter to a web-based monitoring system, called Monet, thus allowing researchers to perform the second phase off-site. In order to support the operator’s task, Monet is also equipped with an automated, fully configurable alarm system, thus allowing its use not only for DQM purposes, but also to track and assess the quality of LHCb software and simulation over time.

  6. Intrapartum fetal monitoring. (United States)

    Cahill, Alison G; Spain, Janine


    Intrapartum fetal monitoring to assess fetal well-being during the labor and delivery process has been a central component of intrapartum care for decades. Today, electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) is the most common method used to assess the fetus during labor without substantial evidence to suggest a benefit. A Cochrane review of 13 trials, which included over 37,000 women, found that continuous EFM provided no significant improvement in perinatal death rate [risk ratio (RR) 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59-1.23] or cerebral palsy rate (RR 1.75; 95% CI, 0.84-3.63) as compared with intermittent auscultation; however, there was a significant decrease in neonatal seizures (RR 0.50; 95% CI, 0.31-0.80). In addition, there was a significant increase in cesarean delivery (RR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.29-2.07) and operative vaginal delivery (RR 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.33). Despite the lack of scientific support to suggest that EFM reduces adverse neonatal outcomes, its use is almost universal in the hospital setting and very likely has contributed to the rise in cesarean rate.

  7. Reactor power monitoring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Naotaka; Igawa, Shinji; Kitazono, Hideaki


    The present invention provides a reactor power monitoring device capable of ensuring circumstance resistance, high reliability and high speed transmission even if an APRM is disposed in a reactor building (R/B). Namely, signal processing sections (APRM) for transmitting data to a central control chamber are distributed in the reactor building at an area at the lowest temperature among areas where the temperature control in an emergency state is regulated, and a transmission processing section (APRM-I/F) for transmitting data to the other systems is disposed to the central control chamber. An LPRM signal transmission processing section is constituted such that LPRM signals can be transmitted at a high speed by DMA. Set values relevant to reactor tripping (neutron flux high, thermal output high and sudden reduction of a reactor core flow rate) are stored in the APRM-I/F, and reactor tripping calculation is conducted in the APRM-I/F. With such procedure, a reactor power monitoring device having enhanced control function can be attained. (N.H.)

  8. OSS-1/contamination monitor (United States)

    Kruger, R.; Triolo, J.; McIntosh, R.


    A 20-cm high, 18-cm wide, and 30-cm long (8x7x12 inch) box weighing about 7 kg (15 lbs) and consuming about 7 watts of power was carried on the OSS-1 pallet to monitor the mass build-up or accretion of condensible, volatile materials on surfaces in the shuttle bay during all phases of ascent, on-orbit, and descent. Passively thermally controlled, the box holds two witness samples and four actively temperature controlled quartz crystal microbalances (TQCM) whose temperature can vary from -60 C to +80 C. Graphs show the accretion indicated by the TQCM during the launch and early orbital phase. Conditions during tail to the Sun, nose to the Sun, and bay to the Sun attitudes of the shuttle during STS-3 are reflected in temperatures indicated by the OSS-1 thermistor. These temperatures influence outgassing rates of various materials as well as measurements made by the contamination monitor package. The parameters that bear on TQCM measurements data are shown in graphs and discussed.

  9. Monitoring Outpatient Care (United States)


    Each year, health care costs for managing chronically ill patients increase as the life expectancy of Americans continues to grow. To handle this situation, many hospitals, doctors practices, and home care providers are turning to disease management, a system of coordinated health care interventions and communications, to improve outpatient care. By participating in daily monitoring programs, patients with congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and other chronic conditions requiring significant self-care are facing fewer emergency situations and hospitalizations. Cybernet Medical, a division of Ann Arbor, Michigan-based Cybernet Systems Corporation, is using the latest communications technology to augment the ways health care professionals monitor and assess patients with chronic diseases, while at the same time simplifying the patients interaction with technology. Cybernet s newest commercial product for this purpose evolved from research funded by NASA, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the Advanced Research Projects Agency. The research focused on the physiological assessment of astronauts and soldiers, human performance evaluation, and human-computer interaction. Cybernet Medical's MedStar Disease Management Data Collection System is an affordable, widely deployable solution for improving in-home-patient chronic disease management. The system's battery-powered and portable interface device collects physiological data from off-the-shelf instruments.

  10. An Intelligent Harmonic Synthesis Technique for Air-Gap Eccentricity Fault Diagnosis in Induction Motors (United States)

    Li, De Z.; Wang, Wilson; Ismail, Fathy


    Induction motors (IMs) are commonly used in various industrial applications. To improve energy consumption efficiency, a reliable IM health condition monitoring system is very useful to detect IM fault at its earliest stage to prevent operation degradation, and malfunction of IMs. An intelligent harmonic synthesis technique is proposed in this work to conduct incipient air-gap eccentricity fault detection in IMs. The fault harmonic series are synthesized to enhance fault features. Fault related local spectra are processed to derive fault indicators for IM air-gap eccentricity diagnosis. The effectiveness of the proposed harmonic synthesis technique is examined experimentally by IMs with static air-gap eccentricity and dynamic air-gap eccentricity states under different load conditions. Test results show that the developed harmonic synthesis technique can extract fault features effectively for initial IM air-gap eccentricity fault detection.

  11. Analysis and synthesis of abstract data types through generalization from examples (United States)

    Wild, Christian


    The discovery of general patterns of behavior from a set of input/output examples can be a useful technique in the automated analysis and synthesis of software systems. These generalized descriptions of the behavior form a set of assertions which can be used for validation, program synthesis, program testing, and run-time monitoring. Describing the behavior is characterized as a learning process in which the set of inputs is mapped into an appropriate transform space such that general patterns can be easily characterized. The learning algorithm must chose a transform function and define a subset of the transform space which is related to equivalence classes of behavior in the original domain. An algorithm for analyzing the behavior of abstract data types is presented and several examples are given. The use of the analysis for purposes of program synthesis is also discussed.

  12. Machine-assisted synthesis of modulators of the histone reader BRD9 using flow methods of chemistry and frontal affinity chromatography


    Guetzoyan, Lucie; Ingham, Richard J.; Nikbin, Nikzad; Rossignol, Julien; Wolling, Michael; Baumert, Mark; Burgess-Brown, Nicola A.; Strain-Damerell, Claire M.; Shrestha, Leela; Brennan, Paul E.; Fedorov, Oleg; Knapp, Stefan; Ley, Steven V.


    A combination of conventional organic synthesis, remotely monitored flow synthesis and bioassay platforms, were used for the evaluation of novel inhibitors targeting bromodomains outside the well-studied bromodomain and extra terminal (BET) family, here exemplified by activity measurements on the bromodomain of BRD9 protein, a component of some tissue-specific SWi/SNF chromatin remodelling complexes. The Frontal Affinity Chromatography combined with Mass Spectrometry (FAC-MS) method proved to...

  13. β-Enaminonitriles in heterocylic synthesis: Synthesis of new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    gicides and solvatochromatic dyes. Recently, a num- ber of papers and patents concerning the importance of β-enaminonitriles in the synthesis of biologically active compounds, dihydropyridines analogous to nifedipine and amlodipine as potential calcium channel blockers in the treatment of angina and hypertension have ...

  14. Biocatalytic Synthesis of Fluorescent Conjugated Indole Oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. Bouldin


    Full Text Available Fluorescent conjugated materials exhibiting reasonable biocompatibility that are capable of interacting with biological molecules are of interest for bio-sensing and imaging applications. Traditional approaches do not allow for the synthesis of conjugated materials in the presence of biologically relevant substrates. Further conjugated polymers synthesized using conventional methods are doped and not fluorescent. Here we explore the possibility of synthesizing fluorescent oligomers of indole using enzymes as catalyst under mild conditions. The peroxidase catalyzed coupling reaction presented here creates a photoluminescent material that allows for direct utilization (without purification and separation of the dopant in biosensing applications. The polymerization reaction proceeds smoothly in just deionized water and ethanol. Monitoring of the absorption and fluorescence spectra over one hour shows that the concentration of both absorbing and emitting species grows steadily over time. The presence of anionic buffers and templates is shown to effectively retard the development of light emitting species and instead leads to the formation of an electrically doped conjugated polymer. Structural characterization through FTIR and 1H-NMR analysis suggests that the oligomer is coupled through the 2 and 3 positions on the indole ring.

  15. Estolides Synthesis Catalyzed by Immobilized Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika C. G. Aguieiras


    Full Text Available Estolides are vegetable-oil-based lubricants obtained from oleic acid or any source of hydroxy fatty acids. In this work, the estolides synthesis from oleic acid and methyl ricinoleate (biodiesel from castor oil, using immobilized commercial lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM-IM, and Lipozyme TL-IM in a solvent-free medium was investigated. Acid value was used to monitor the reaction progress by determining the consumption of acid present in the medium. Novozym 435 showed the best performance. Water removal improved the conversion. Novozym 435 was more active at atmospheric pressure. Novozym 435 was reused four times with conversion reaching 15% after the fourth reaction at 80°C. Estolides produced under the reaction conditions used in this work presented good properties, such as, low temperature properties as pour point (−24°C, viscosity (23.9 cSt at 40°C and 5.2 cSt at 100°C, and viscosity index (153.

  16. Inhibition of glutamine synthesis induces glutamate dehydrogenase-dependent ammonia fixation into alanine in co-cultures of astrocytes and neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dadsetan, Sherry; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Sørensen, Michael


    It has been previously demonstrated that ammonia exposure of neurons and astrocytes in co-culture leads to net synthesis not only of glutamine but also of alanine. The latter process involves the concerted action of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT). In the present...... study it was investigated if the glutamine synthetase (GS) inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO) would enhance alanine synthesis by blocking the GS-dependent ammonia scavenging process. Hence, co-cultures of neurons and astrocytes were incubated for 2.5h with [U-(13)C]glucose to monitor de novo...... synthesis of alanine and glutamine in the absence and presence of 5.0 mM NH(4)Cl and 10 mM MSO. Ammonia exposure led to increased incorporation of label but not to a significant increase in the amount of these amino acids. However, in the presence of MSO, glutamine synthesis was blocked and synthesis...

  17. Configuration of Risk Monitor System by PLant Defense-In.Depth Monitor and Relability Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Lind, Morten; Yang, Ming


    A new method of risk monitor system of a nuclear power plant has been proposed from the aspect by what degree of safety functions incorporated in the plant system is maintained by multiple barriers of defense-in-depth (DiD). Wherein, the central idea is plant DiD risk monitor and reliability...... monitor derived from the four aspects of (i) design principle of nuclear safety to realize DiD concept, (ii) definition of risk and risk to be monitored, (iii) severe accident phenomena as major risk, (iv) scheme of risk ranking, and (v) dynamic risk display. In this paper, the overall frame...... of the proposed frame on risk monitor system is summarized and the detailed discussion is made on the definitions of major terminologies of risk, risk ranking, anatomy of fault occurrence, two-layer configuration of risk monitor, how to configure individual elements of plant DiD risk monitor and its example...

  18. Lead inhibition of enzyme synthesis in soil. (United States)

    Cole, M A


    Addition of 2 mg of Pb2+/g of soil concident with or after amendment with starch or maltose resulted in 75 and 50% decreases in net synthesis of amylase and alpha-glucosidase, respectively. Invertase synthesis in sucrose-amended soil was transiently reduced after Pb2+ addition. Amylase activity was several times less sensitive to Pb2+ inhibition than was enzyme synthesis. In most cases, the rate of enzyme synthesis returned to control (Pb2+) values 24 to 48 h after the addition of Pb. The decrease in amylase synthesis was paralleled by a decrease in the number of Pb-sensitive, amylase-producing bacteria, whereas recovery of synthesis was associated with an increase in the number of amylase-producing bacteria. The degree of inhibition of enzyme synthesis was related to the quantity of Pb added and to the specific form of lead. PbSO4 decreased amylase synthesis at concentrations of 10.2 mg of Pb2+/g of soil or more, whereas PbO did not inhibit amylase synthesis at 13 mg of Pb2+/g of soil. Lead acetate, PbCl2, and PbS reduced amylase synthesis at total Pb2+ concentrations of 0.45 mg of Pb2+/g of soil or higher. The results indicated that lead is a potent but somewhat selective inhibitor of enzyme synthesis in soil, and that highly insoluble lead compounds, such as PbS, may be potent modifiers of soil biological activity.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    guest chemistry, catalysis, electrical .... of architectures and topologies but also because of their fascinating potential applications in functional solid ... Synthesis of a new coordination polymer, {[Ba2(Hpydc)2(pydc)(H2O)3].H2O.(H2pydc)}n. Bull.

  20. Organic Synthesis using Clay Catalysts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 1. Organic Synthesis using Clay Catalysts - Clays for 'Green Chemistry'. Gopalpur Nagendrappa. General Article Volume 7 Issue 1 January 2002 pp 64-77. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: SHORT COMMUNICATION. SYNTHESIS OF CYCLOBUTANE ANALOGUES. Yan Bai Yin1, Zhan Qian Song1*, Zong De Wang2, Shi Bin Shang1 and Zhao Sheng Cai1. 1Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products Chinese Academy of Forestry, Nanjing,.

  2. The Total Synthesis of Chlorophyll

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. The Total Synthesis of Chlorophyll. Setty Mallikarjuna Babu Subramania Ranganathan. General Article Volume 19 Issue 7 July 2014 pp 645-648. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Haber Process for Ammonia Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Uses of ammonia. considerable release of heat. The reaction is a reversible reac- tion, that is, it can proceed both in forward direction (ammonia synthesis) and backward direction (ammonia decomposition). The reaction is accompanied by decrease in volume because there is a decrease in number of moles of gas from 2 to ...

  4. synthesis, optical and electrochemical characterization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    characterised using a photodetector, a Hamamatus silicon photodiode (1010BR), an electrometer. (Keithley 617) and a picoamperemeter (Keithley 485). All preparations and characterisations were carried out in ambient atmosphere. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. Synthesis of monomers. The syntheses of the monomeric ...

  5. Multicomponent reactions in polymer synthesis. (United States)

    Kakuchi, Ryohei


    More participants, yet efficient reactions: Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) have found application in polymer chemistry both in the synthesis of multifunctional monomers and in post-polymerization modification. Examples include the Passerini three-component reaction, the Ugi four-component reaction, and the copper-catalyzed MCR. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Efficient synthesis of substituted dihydrotetraazapentacenes. (United States)

    Seillan, Claire; Brisset, Hugues; Siri, Olivier


    We describe a versatile and very efficient synthesis of previously unknown substituted 5,14-dihydro-5,7,12,14-tetraazapentacenes (DHTAPs). A structural study by NMR spectroscopy showed that the conjugated pi-system of the pentacyclic skeleton rearranges depending on the electronic effect of the substituent(s).

  7. Catalysis and prebiotic RNA synthesis (United States)

    Ferris, James P.


    The essential role of catalysis for the origins of life is discussed. The status of the prebiotic synthesis of 2',5'- and 3'5'-linked oligomers of RNA is reviewed. Examples of the role of metal ion and mineral catalysis in RNA oligomer formation are discussed.

  8. Isolation, characterization and chemical synthesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new toxin consists of 26 amino-acid residues and contains three disulfide bonds. The amino-acid sequence was determined by Edman analysis as CKGKGSOCSOTMYNCCRTGCLSGKCT where O = 4-trans-L-hydroxyproline. The sequence of new toxin was further verified by chemical synthesis and coelution studies ...

  9. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis (United States)

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.


    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer


    2Guohong Chemical Co., Ltd., Yankuang Group, Jining, 273512, China. 3Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Nanjing,. 210042, China. (Received December 02, 2011; ... intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds are revealed. KEY WORDS: Synthesis, Single crystal X-ray ...

  11. Compositional Synthesis of Safety Controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, W.


    In my thesis I investigate compositional techniques for synthesis of safety controllers. A safety controller, in this context, is a state machine that gives the set of safe control outputs for every possible sequence of observations from the plant under control. Compositionality, in this context,

  12. Haber Process for Ammonia Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 9. Haber Process for Ammonia Synthesis. Jayant M Modak. General Article Volume 7 Issue 9 September 2002 pp 69-77. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  13. Robust Face Sketch Style Synthesis. (United States)

    Shengchuan Zhang; Xinbo Gao; Nannan Wang; Jie Li


    Heterogeneous image conversion is a critical issue in many computer vision tasks, among which example-based face sketch style synthesis provides a convenient way to make artistic effects for photos. However, existing face sketch style synthesis methods generate stylistic sketches depending on many photo-sketch pairs. This requirement limits the generalization ability of these methods to produce arbitrarily stylistic sketches. To handle such a drawback, we propose a robust face sketch style synthesis method, which can convert photos to arbitrarily stylistic sketches based on only one corresponding template sketch. In the proposed method, a sparse representation-based greedy search strategy is first applied to estimate an initial sketch. Then, multi-scale features and Euclidean distance are employed to select candidate image patches from the initial estimated sketch and the template sketch. In order to further refine the obtained candidate image patches, a multi-feature-based optimization model is introduced. Finally, by assembling the refined candidate image patches, the completed face sketch is obtained. To further enhance the quality of synthesized sketches, a cascaded regression strategy is adopted. Compared with the state-of-the-art face sketch synthesis methods, experimental results on several commonly used face sketch databases and celebrity photos demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Analysis and synthesis of laughter (United States)

    Sundaram, Shiva; Narayanan, Shrikanth


    There is much enthusiasm in the text-to-speech community for synthesis of emotional and natural speech. One idea being proposed is to include emotion dependent paralinguistic cues during synthesis to convey emotions effectively. This requires modeling and synthesis techniques of various cues for different emotions. Motivated by this, a technique to synthesize human laughter is proposed. Laughter is a complex mechanism of expression and has high variability in terms of types and usage in human-human communication. People have their own characteristic way of laughing. Laughter can be seen as a controlled/uncontrolled physiological process of a person resulting from an initial excitation in context. A parametric model based on damped simple harmonic motion to effectively capture these diversities and also maintain the individuals characteristics is developed here. Limited laughter/speech data from actual humans and synthesis ease are the constraints imposed on the accuracy of the model. Analysis techniques are also developed to determine the parameters of the model for a given individual or laughter type. Finally, the effectiveness of the model to capture the individual characteristics and naturalness compared to real human laughter has been analyzed. Through this the factors involved in individual human laughter and their importance can be better understood.

  15. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones. BHUPINDER KAUR and HARISH KUMAR. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal 148 106, India e-mail: MS received 21 May 2012; revised 30 January ...

  16. Synthesis, photophysical, electrochemical and electroluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 9. Synthesis, photophysical, electrochemical and electroluminescence studies of red emitting phosphorescent Ir(III) heteroleptic complexes. FARMAN ALI PABITRA K NAYAK N PERIASAMY NEERAJ AGARWAL. Regular Aricle Volume 129 Issue 9 September 2017 pp 1391-1398 ...

  17. Haber Process for Ammonia Synthesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Haber Process for Ammonia Synthesis. Jayant M Modak. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1159-1167. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  18. Macrocyclic cyclodiphosphazane : synthesis of chalcogen ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Sep 6, 2017 ... CHNCH2)2]2: synthesis of chalcogen derivatives and gold(I) complex. VITTHALRAO S KASHIDa, JOEL T ... on BRUKER mass spectrometer using Electro-spray ion- ization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) ..... studies, and antiproliferative activ- ity toward human cervical and breast cancer cells Inorg. Chem.

  19. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. B. Freidhoff


    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  20. Asteroid impact monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani A.


    Full Text Available Some asteroids and comets with Earth-crossing orbit may impact our planet, thus we need to be able to identify the cases which could have a dangerous close approach within a century. This must be done as soon as such an asteroid is discovered, allowing for follow up observations which might contradict the impact possibility, and in the worst case to organize mitigation, possibly including deflection. The mathematical problem of predicting possible impacts, even with very low probabilities, has been solved by our group in the last few years. This paper presents the basic theory of these impact prediction, and discusses how they are practically used in the impact monitoring systems now operational, in particular the CLOMON2 robot of the Universities of Pisa and Valladolid.

  1. Methane monitoring from space (United States)

    Stephan, C.; Alpers, M.; Millet, B.; Ehret, G.; Flamant, P.


    Methane is one of the strongest anthropogenic greenhouse gases. It contributes by its radiative forcing significantly to the global warming. For a better understanding of climate changes, it is necessary to apply precise space-based measurement techniques in order to obtain a global view on the complex processes that control the methane concentration in the atmosphere. The MERLIN mission is a joint French-German cooperation, on a micro satellite mission for space-based measurement of spatial and temporal gradients of atmospheric methane columns on a global scale. MERLIN will be the first Integrated Path Differential Absorption LIDAR for greenhouse gas monitoring from space. In contrast to passive methane missions, the LIDAR instrument allows measurements at alllatitudes, all-seasons and during night.

  2. Monitoring the normal body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte


    Introduction : An extensive body of literature is concerned with obese people, risk, and weight management. However, little is known about weight management among people not belonging to the extreme BMI categories. Management of weight among normal-weight and moderately overweight individuals...... provides us with knowledge about how to prevent future overweight or obesity. This paper investigates body size ideals and monitoring practices among normal-weight and moderately overweight people. Methods : The study is based on in-depth interviews combined with observations. 24 participants were...... recruited by strategic sampling based on self-reported BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m2 and socio-demographic factors. Inductive analysis was conducted. Results : Normal-weight and moderately overweight people have clear ideals for their body size. Despite being normal weight or close to this, they construct a variety...

  3. Performance Monitoring of Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Vinther

    to the environment. The monitoring of the ship’s performance can be used as decision support in determining when actions to improve performance should be taken. The performance evaluation is based on a model of the ship and the added resistance from wind and waves during operation. Logged data on board the ship...... is used as input to the system and by comparing model and ship behaviour, an index describing the ship’s performance is generated. The work in this thesis is based on data logged through the automation system on board a PostPanmax container ship where data have been logged through a year. A routine...... handling drift in time series, spikes and outliers have been suggested for the purpose of introducing an automatic logging system. The performance system is modelled in software based on the Bond Graph method. The system is described by bond graph elements which describe the characteristics of each...

  4. Cylinder monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderson, J.H. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)


    Cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in storage at the Department of Energy (DOE) gaseous diffusion plants, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are being evaluated to determine their expected storage life. Cylinders evaluated recently have been in storage service for 30 to 40 years. In the present environment, the remaining life for these storage cylinders is estimated to be 30 years or greater. The group of cylinders involved in recent tests will continue to be monitored on a periodic basis, and other storage cylinders will be observed as on a statistical sample population. The program has been extended to all types of large capacity UF{sub 6} cylinders.

  5. CCD Stability Monitor (United States)

    Grogin, Norman


    A moderately crowded stellar field in the cluster 47 Tuc {6 arcmin West of the cluster core} is observed every four months with the WFC. The first visit exercises the full suite of broad and narrow band imaging filters and sub-array modes; following visits observe with only the six most popular Cycle 18 filters in full-frame mode. The positions and magnitudes of objects will be used to monitor local and large scale variations in the plate scale and the sensitivity of the detectors and to derive an independent measure of the detector CTE. One exposure in each sub-array mode with the WFC will allow us to verify that photometry obtained in full-frame and in sub-array modes are repeatable to better than 1%. This test is important for the ACS Photometric Cross-Calibration program, which uses sub-array exposures.

  6. CNGS Muon Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Marsili, A; Ferioli, G; Gschwendtner, E; Holzer, E B; Kramer, Daniel; CERN. Geneva. AB Department


    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) beam facility uses two muon detector stations as on-line feed back for the quality control of the neutrino beam. The muon detector stations are assembled in a cross-shaped array to provide the muon intensity and the vertical and horizontal muon profiles. Each station is equipped with 42 ionisation chambers, which are originally designed as Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs) for the Large Hadron Collider(LHC). The response of the muon detectors during the CNGS run 2007 and possible reasons for a non-linear behaviour with respect to the beam intensity are discussed. Results of the CNGS run 2008 are shown: The modifications done during the shutdown 2007/08 were successful and resulted in the expected linear behaviour of the muon detector response.

  7. The German drought monitor (United States)

    Zink, Matthias; Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Schäfer, David; Marx, Andreas


    The 2003 drought event in Europe had major implications on many societal sectors, including energy production, health, forestry and agriculture. The reduced availability of water accompanied by high temperatures led to substantial economic losses on the order of 1.5 Billion Euros, in agriculture alone. Furthermore, soil droughts have considerable impacts on ecosystems, forest fires and water management. Monitoring soil water availability in near real-time and at high-resolution, i.e., 4 × 4 km2, enables water managers to mitigate the impact of these extreme events. The German drought monitor was established in 2014 as an online platform. It uses an operational modeling system that consists of four steps: (1) a daily update of observed meteorological data by the German Weather Service, with consistency checks and interpolation; (2) an estimation of current soil moisture using the mesoscale hydrological model; (3) calculation of a quantile-based soil moisture index (SMI) based on a 60 year data record; and (4) classification of the SMI into five drought classes ranging from abnormally dry to exceptional drought. Finally, an easy to understand map is produced and published on a daily basis on Analysis of the ongoing 2015 drought event, which garnered broad media attention, shows that 75% of the German territory underwent drought conditions in July 2015. Regions such as Northern Bavaria and Eastern Saxony, however, have been particularly prone to drought conditions since autumn 2014. Comparisons with historical droughts show that the 2015 event is amongst the ten most severe drought events observed in Germany since 1954 in terms of its spatial extent, magnitude and duration.

  8. Cardiac output monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Lailu


    Full Text Available Minimally invasive and non-invasive methods of estimation of cardiac output (CO were developed to overcome the limitations of invasive nature of pulmonary artery catheterization (PAC and direct Fick method used for the measurement of stroke volume (SV. The important minimally invasive techniques available are: oesophageal Doppler monitoring (ODM, the derivative Fick method (using partial carbon dioxide (CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution, lithium indicator dilution, pulse contour and pulse power analysis. Impedance cardiography is probably the only non-invasive technique in true sense. It provides information about haemodynamic status without the risk, cost and skill associated with the other invasive or minimally invasive techniques. It is important to understand what is really being measured and what assumptions and calculations have been incorporated with respect to a monitoring device. Understanding the basic principles of the above techniques as well as their advantages and limitations may be useful. In addition, the clinical validation of new techniques is necessary to convince that these new tools provide reliable measurements. In this review the physics behind the working of ODM, partial CO 2 breathing, transpulmonary thermodilution and lithium dilution techniques are dealt with. The physical and the physiological aspects underlying the pulse contour and pulse power analyses, various pulse contour techniques, their development, advantages and limitations are also covered. The principle of thoracic bioimpedance along with computation of CO from changes in thoracic impedance is explained. The purpose of the review is to help us minimize the dogmatic nature of practice favouring one technique or the other.

  9. An update on insertable cardiac monitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming J; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Krieger, Derk W


    Continuous cardiac rhythm monitoring has undergone compelling progress over the past decades. Cardiac monitoring has emerged from 12-lead electrocardiograms being performed at the discretion of the treating physician to in-hospital telemetry, Holter monitoring, prolonged external event monitoring...

  10. Watermelon rind-mediated green synthesis of noble palladium nanoparticles: catalytic application (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, R.; Palakshi Reddy, B.; Sarada, N. C.; Chidambaram, K.; Khadeer Pasha, Sk.


    The present study reports the feasibility of synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) by watermelon rind. The aqueous extract prepared from watermelon rind, an agro waste, was evaluated as capping and reducing agent for biosynthesis of palladium nanoparticles. The formation of Pd NPs was visually monitored with change in color from pale yellow to dark brown and later monitored with UV-Vis spectroscopy. The synthesized Pd NPs were further characterized by XRD, FTIR, DLS, AFM and TEM techniques. The synthesized Pd NPs were employed in Suzuki coupling reaction as catalyst. The results reveal that watermelon rind, an agro waste, is capable of synthesizing spherical-shaped Pd NPs with catalytic activity.

  11. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plants extract and analysis of their antimicrobial property


    Logeswari, Peter; Silambarasan, Sivagnanam; ABRAHAM, Jayanthi


    Plants extract from Ocimum tenuiflorum, Solanum tricobatum, Syzygium cumini, Centella asiatica and Citrus sinensis was used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) from silver nitrate solution. Ag NPs were characterized by UV–vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffractometer (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The formation and stability of the reduced silver nanoparticles in the colloidal solution were monitored by UV–vis spectrophotometer analys...

  12. Advantages of barium peroxide in the powder synthesis of perovskite superconductors (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Gaier, J. R.; Philipp, W. H.; Warner, J. D.; Garlick, R. G.; Pouch, J. J.


    This paper compares reaction chemistry, material processing, and material characteristics for the solid state reaction using BaCO3 or BaO2 in the synthesis of perovskite superconductors. Results are presented for weight loss and X-ray diffraction, sample morphology and homogeneity as monitored by SEM and EDS, and the superconductivity critical temperature and ac susceptibility. Greater mass density, increased sample homogeneity, lower resistance, and improved reproducibility for material are found when BaO32 is used.

  13. Fungus-Mediated Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aspergillus terreus


    Koji Yokoyama; Li Wang; Yan Cui; Song Gao; Yongqing Qian; Guangquan Li; Buyuan Guan; Dan He,


    The biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due to the growing need to develop safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly technologies for nano-materials synthesis. In this report, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using a reduction of aqueous Ag+ ion with the culture supernatants of Aspergillus terreus. The reaction occurred at ambient temperature and in a few hours. The bioreduction of AgNPs was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and th...

  14. Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles Using Averrhoa bilimbi Fruit Extract


    Rimal Isaac, R. S.; Sakthivel, G.; Ch. Murthy


    We report on rapid one-step green synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using fruit extract of Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy was used to monitor the quantitative formation of gold and silver nanoparticles. The characteristics of the obtained gold and silver nanoparticles were studied using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy (UV/Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). UV/Vis spe...

  15. 3M Personal Air Monitoring Systems


    ECT Team, Purdue


    3M monitors are made to allow sample desorption directly in the monitor itself. The monitor comes with a snap-on elution cap that permits the desorbing solvent to be injected into the monitor. The solution is then poured into sample vials for analysis. 3M monitors use standard analytical methods: gas chromatography for the organic vapor monitor and ethylene oxide monitor, and colorimetry for the formaldehyde monitor.

  16. Preliminary Results Towards Contract Monitorability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalizz Vella


    Full Text Available This paper discusses preliminary investigations on the monitorability of contracts for web service descriptions. There are settings where servers do not guarantee statically whether they satisfy some specified contract, which forces the client (i.e., the entity interacting with the server to perform dynamic checks. This scenario may be viewed as an instance of Runtime Verification, where a pertinent question is whether contracts can be monitored for adequately at runtime, otherwise stated as the monitorability of contracts. We consider a simple language of finitary contracts describing both clients and servers, and develop a formal framework that describes server contract monitoring. We define monitor properties that potentially contribute towards a comprehensive notion of contract monitorability and show that our simple contract language satisfies these properties.

  17. Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcomer, D.R.; Thornton, E.C.; Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.


    Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The US Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories plume and trend tracking, treatment/storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kazakevych


    Full Text Available The major concepts of the elaboration and realization of the bridge construction monitoring systemic approach are presented in this paper. The main peculiarity of the bridge monitoring modern aspect is pointed out here, namely, the transition from the demands of providing the reliability to the demands of providing the whole complex of the structure consumer qualities. The criteria of diagnostics of the bridge exploitation reliability as the fundamental aim of monitoring are formulated here.

  19. Automatic radio-transmission monitor (United States)

    Bernstein, A. J.


    System continuously monitors radio transmissions stored in memory. If spectrum deviates beyond present limits, alarm is tripped and spectrum is transferred to long-term storage for later analysis. Monitor can be useful in ensuring proper power level and spectral quality and in finding cause of failure. It might also be used to monitor radio-frequency interference or power levels of citizen's-band transmitters.

  20. Wind turbine control and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ningsu; Acho, Leonardo


    Maximizing reader insights into the latest technical developments and trends involving wind turbine control and monitoring, fault diagnosis, and wind power systems, 'Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring' presents an accessible and straightforward introduction to wind turbines, but also includes an in-depth analysis incorporating illustrations, tables and examples on how to use wind turbine modeling and simulation software.   Featuring analysis from leading experts and researchers in the field, the book provides new understanding, methodologies and algorithms of control and monitoring, comput

  1. 21 CFR 868.2377 - Apnea monitor. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Apnea monitor. 868.2377 Section 868.2377 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2377 Apnea monitor. (a) Identification. An apnea monitor is a... breath. The apnea monitor also includes indirect methods of apnea detection such as monitoring of heart...

  2. Android Based Area Web Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanigoro Bayu


    Full Text Available The research objective is to develop an application that can be used in the monitoring of an area by using a webcam. It aims to create a sense of security on the user's application because it can monitor an area using mobile phone anywhere. The results obtained in this study is to create an area with a webcam monitoring application that can be accessed anywhere as long as the monitoring results have internet access and can also be accessed through Android Based Mobile Phone.

  3. Recent advance in patient monitoring. (United States)

    Nishiyama, Tomoki


    Recent advance in technology has developed a lot of new aspects of clinical monitoring. We can monitor sedation levels during anesthesia using various electroencephalographic (EEG) indices, while it is still not useful for anesthesia depth monitoring. Some attempts are made to monitor the changes in sympathetic nerve activity as one of the indicators of stress, pain/analgesia, or anesthesia. To know the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity, heart rate or blood pressure variability is investigated. For trend of cardiac output, low invasive monitors have been investigated. Improvement of ultrasound enables us to see cardiac structure and function continuously and clearer, increases success rate and decreases complication of central venous puncture and various kinds of nerve blocks. Without inserting an arterial catheter, trends of arterial oxygen tension or carbon dioxide tension can be monitored. Indirect visualization of the airway decreases difficult intubation and makes it easier to teach tracheal intubation. The changes in blood volume can be speculated non-invasively. Cerebral perfusion and metabolism are not ordinary monitored yet, but some studies show their usefulness in management of critically ill. This review introduces recent advances in various monitors used in anesthesia and critical care including some studies of the author, especially focused on EEG and cardiac output. However, the most important is that these new monitors are not almighty but should be used adequately in a limited situation where their meaning is confirmed.

  4. Adiantum philippense L. Frond Assisted Rapid Green Synthesis of Gold and Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duhita G. Sant


    Full Text Available Development of an ecofriendly, reliable, and rapid process for synthesis of nanoparticles using biological system is an important bulge in nanotechnology. Antioxidant potential and medicinal value of Adiantum philippense L. fascinated us to utilize it for biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and AgNPs. The current paper reports utility of aqueous extract of A. philippense L. fronds for the green synthesis of AuNPs and AgNPs. Effect of various parameters on synthesis of nanoparticles was monitored by UV-Vis spectrometry. Optimum conditions for AuNPs synthesis were 1 : 1 proportion of original extract at pH 11 and 5 mM tetrachloroauric acid, whereas optimum conditions for AgNPs synthesis were 1 : 1 proportion of original extract at pH 12 and 9 mM silver nitrate. Characterization of nanoparticles was done by TEM, SAED, XRD, EDS, FTIR, and DLS analyses. The results revealed that AuNPs and AgNPs were anisotropic. Monocrystalline AuNPs and polycrystalline AgNPs measured 10 to 18 nm in size. EDS and XRD analyses confirmed the presence of elemental gold and silver. FTIR analysis revealed a possible binding of extract to AuNPs through –NH2 group and to AgNPs through C=C group. These nanoparticles stabilized by a biological capping agent could further be utilized for biomedical applications.

  5. Mass spectrometry feedback control for synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate granule microstructures in Ralstonia eutropha. (United States)

    Pederson, Erik N; Srienc, Friedrich


    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules with core-shell layered microstructure were synthesized in Ralstonia eutropha using periodic feeding of valeric acid into a growth medium containing excess fructose. The O2 consumption and CO2 evolution rates, determined by off-gas mass spectrometry, have been used as sensitive measures to indicate the type of nutrients utilized by R. eutropha during PHA synthesis. Domains of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) were formed during polymer storage conditions when only fructose was present. Feeding of valeric acid (pentanoic acid) resulted in the synthesis of hydroxyvalerate (HV) monomers, forming a poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate (PHBV) copolymer. The synthesis of desired polymer microstructures was monitored and controlled using online mass spectrometry (MS). The respiratory quotient (RQ) was unique to the type of polymer being synthesized due to increased O2 consumption during PHBV synthesis. MS data was used as the control signal for nutrient feeding strategies in the bioreactor. The core-shell structures synthesized were verified in cells using transmission electron microscopy after thin sectioning and staining with RuO4. It was demonstrated that the synthesis of core-shell microstructures can be precisely controlled utilizing a MS feedback control system.

  6. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extract: Mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Teimuri-mofrad


    Full Text Available In this review, we examine the greenest nanoparticles of zero-valent metals, metal oxides and metal salts, with emphasis on recent developments routes. Products from nature or those derived from natural products, such as extracts of several plants or parts of plants, tea, coffee, banana, simple amino acids, as well as wine, table sugar and glucose, have been used as reductants and as capping agents during the present synthesis method. Polyphenols found in plant material often play a key role in the processes mentioned here. The techniques involved are generally one-pot processes, environmentally friendly and simple. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using several extracts and spices extracts was conducted, in which aqueous extracts HAuCl4.3H2O reduce to Au° has establishing themselves in specific crystal phase. Synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by the color change of auric chloride which is yellow. The growth of nanoparticles was monitored by the behavior of surface Plasmon using UV-Vis spectroscopy; also the pH was determined meanwhile. Moreover, this approach is not only of a green rapid synthesis kind and considered as a better alternative to chemical synthesis, but also found to be effective for large scale synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

  7. Framework for ecological monitoring on lands of Alaska National Wildlife Refuges and their partners (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Beever, Erik A.


    National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska and throughout the U.S. have begun developing a spatially comprehensive monitoring program to inform management decisions, and to provide data to broader research projects. In an era of unprecedented rates of climate change, monitoring is essential to detecting, understanding, communicating and mitigating climate-change effects on refuge and other resources under the protection of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and requires monitoring results to address spatial scales broader than individual refuges. This document provides guidance for building a monitoring program for refuges in Alaska that meets refuge-specific management needs while also allowing synthesis and summary of ecological conditions at the ecoregional and statewide spatial scales.

  8. Review of Offshore Wind Farm Impact Monitoring and Mitigation with Regard to Marine Mammals. (United States)

    Verfuss, Ursula K; Sparling, Carol E; Arnot, Charlie; Judd, Adrian; Coyle, Michael


    Monitoring and mitigation reports from 19 UK and 9 other European Union (EU) offshore wind farm (OWF) developments were reviewed, providing a synthesis of the evidence associated with the observed environmental impact on marine mammals. UK licensing conditions were largely concerned with mitigation measures reducing the risk of physical and auditory injury from pile driving. At the other EU sites, impact monitoring was conducted along with mitigation measures. Noise-mitigation measures were developed and tested in UK and German waters in German government-financed projects. We highlight some of the review's findings and lessons learned with regard to noise impact on marine mammals.

  9. Monitoring the depth of anesthesia with a BIS monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller-Petrun


    Conclusions: BIS monitor is a clinically usefull tool for monitoring the depth of general anesthesia. With its use we can easier avoid the dangers of too shallow or too deep anesthesia. With BISmonitor we cannot directly measure the level of analgesia. It is also important to keep in mind the factors, ot en present in clinical practice, which limit its usability.

  10. In-situ IR monitoring of the formation of Zr-fumarate MOF (United States)

    Ren, Jianwei; Musyoka, Nicholas M.; Langmi, Henrietta W.; North, Brian C.; Mathe, Mkhulu; Pang, Wan; Wang, Mingjie; Walker, Joseph


    The in-situ IR technique was employed to monitor the crystallization process of Zr-fumarate (Zr-fum) MOF under real synthesis conditions. The results evidenced the participations of both modulator acid (HCOOH) and solvent (DMF) during the structural formation of Zr-fum MOF. This observation will contribute to the quest for understanding of the formation of structural defects in MOFs, which is a topic that is currently under intense investigation.

  11. Permafrost Monitoring Sonnblick (United States)

    Reisenhofer, Stefan; Riedl, Claudia


    Within the project 'Permafrost Monitoring Sonnblick' (PERSON) the spatial distribution of permafrost is investigated by the 'Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik' (ZAMG) in the Sonnblick area, in the Hohe Tauern in Austria. The aim of PERSON is to identify parameters affecting permafrost (geological, geomorphological, orographical and climatic factors), to determine its spatio-temporal behaviour under present day climate conditions and to estimate its possible future extension under a climate change scenario. PERSON makes use of a permafrost monitoring network that was installed 2005 in the Sonnblick area and is made up by four study sites: On the one hand the spatial extension of permafrost was focused at the ice-dammed lake Pilatus and the rock glacier Zirmsee. On the other hand, at two sites, namely Goldbergspitze and Wintergasse measurements of 'Ground-Surface Temperature' (GST) and 'Bottom Temperatures of the Snow cover' (BTS) are measured. In order to record temperatures in the uppermost layer of the ground and avoid heating by direct solar radiation loggers were buried a few centimetres into the ground or installed in boreholes at depths between 2 and 140 cm. Each of the 'Near Surface Temperature' (NST) borehole mouths is closed up with insulating foam to protect the measurements from atmospheric influence. In addition to these measurements, continuous temperature records from three 20 m deep boreholes located at the southern slope of Hoher Sonnblick are available since 2007, which represent the longest series of its kind in Austria. Furthermore, data from seismic and geoelectric measurements, temperature sensors readings at the surface and extensive meteorological observations from the Sonnblick Observatory are available. Already collected and evaluated data indicate that the thickness of the debris layer around the boreholes reaches a depth of 2 m but no more. The active layer thickness measured in the borehole next to the glacier ranges between

  12. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G M; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Campbell, C G; Grayson, A R; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Rosene, C A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R; Jones, H E


    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Specifically, environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring is also a major component of compliance demonstration for permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. LLNL prepares the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that environmental monitoring work, which is integral to the implementation of LLNL's Environmental Management System, is conducted appropriately. Furthermore, the Environmental Monitoring Plan helps LLNL ensure compliance with DOE Order 231.1 Change 2, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting

  13. Electromyostimulation, circuits and monitoring (United States)

    Doerr, Donald F.


    One method to determine the benefit of electromyostimulation (EMS) requires an accurate strength assessment of the muscle of interest using a muscle force testing device. Several commercial devices are available. After a pre-EMS muscle assessment, a protocol with accurately controlled stimulation parameters must be applied and monitored. both the actual current and the resultant muscle force must be measured throughout the study. At the conclusion of the study, a reassessment of the muscle strength must be gathered. In our laboratory, electromyostimulation is being studied as a possible countermeasure to the muscle atrophy (degeneration) experienced in space. This muscle loss not only weakens the astronaut, but adversely affects his/her readaptation to 1-g upon return from space. Muscle atrophy is expected to have a more significant effect in long term space flight as anticipated in our space station. Our studies have concentrated on stimulating the four major muscle groups in the leg. These muscles were stimulated sequentially to allow individual muscle force quantification above the knee and ankle. The leg must be restrained in an instrumented brace to allow this measurement and preclude muscle cramping.

  14. Online color monitoring (United States)

    Massen, Robert C.


    Monitoring color in the production line requires to remotely observe moving and not-aligned objects with in general complex surface features: multicolored, textured, non-flat, showing highlights and shadows. We discuss the use of color cameras and associated color image processing technologies for what we call 'imaging colorimetry.' This is a 2-step procedure which first uses color for segmentation and for finding Regions-of- Interest on the moving objects and then uses cluster-based color image processing for computing color deviations relative to previously trained references. This colorimetry is much more a measurement of aesthetic consistency of the visual appearance of a product then the traditional measurement of a more physically defined mean color vector difference. We show how traditional non-imaging colorimetry looses most of this aesthetic information due to the computation of a mean color vector or mean color vector difference, by averaging over the sensor's field-of-view. A large number of industrial applications are presented where complex inspection tasks have been solved based on this approach. The expansion to a higher feature space dimensions based on the 'multisensorial camera' concept gives an outlook to future developments.

  15. Human health monitoring technology (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Hyun; Yook, Jong-Gwan


    Monitoring vital signs from human body is very important to healthcare and medical diagnosis, because they contain valuable information about arterial occlusions, arrhythmia, atherosclerosis, autonomous nervous system pathologies, stress level, and obstructive sleep apnea. Existing methods, such as electrocardiogram (ECG) sensor and photoplethysmogram (PPG) sensor, requires direct contact to the skin and it can causes skin irritation and the inconvenience of long-term wearing. For reducing the inconvenience in the conventional sensors, microwave and millimeter-wave sensors have been proposed since 1970s using micro-Doppler effect from one's cardiopulmonary activity. The Doppler radar sensor can remotely detect the respiration and heartbeat up to few meters away from the subject, but they have a multiple subject issue and are not suitable for an ambulatory subject. As a compromise, a noncontact proximity vital sign sensor has been recently proposed and developed. The purpose of this paper is to review the noncontact proximity vital sign sensors for detection of respiration, heartbeat rate, and/or wrist pulse. This sensor basically employs near-field perturbation of radio-frequency (RF) planar resonator due to the proximity of the one's chest or radial artery at the wrist. Various sensing systems based on the SAW filter, phase-locked loop (PLL) synthesizer, reflectometer, and interferometer have been proposed. These self-sustained systems can measure the nearfield perturbation and transform it into DC voltage variation. Consequently, they can detect the respiration and heartbeat rate near the chest of subject and pulse from radial artery at the wrist.

  16. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions (United States)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.


    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  17. Vapor spill pipe monitor (United States)

    Bianchini, G. M.; McRae, T. G.


    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote IR gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote IR sensor which measures the gas composition.

  18. ACS CCD Stability Monitor (United States)

    Grogin, Norman


    A moderately crowded stellar field in the cluster 47 Tuc {6 arcmin West of the cluster core} is observed every four months with the WFC. The first visit exercises the full suite of broad and narrow band imaging filters and sub-array modes; following visits observe with only the six most popular Cycle 18 filters in full-frame mode. The positions and magnitudes of objects will be used to monitor local and large scale variations in the plate scale and the sensitivity of the detectors and to derive an independent measure of the detector CTE. One exposure in each sub-array mode with the WFC will allow us to verify that photometry obtained in full-frame and in sub-array modes are repeatable to better than 1%. This test is important for the ACS Photometric Cross-Calibration program, which uses sub-array exposures. This program may receive additional orbits to investigate ORIENT-dependent geometric distortion, which motivates the ORIENT and BETWEEN requirement on the first visit.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuentes


    Full Text Available In this work we present a blood pressure monitor which measures both the high blood pressure (systolic pressure,and the low blood pressure (diastolic pressure. It is a semiautomatic meter because the inflation of the occlusivecuff is carried out in a manual way. The transducer used is a piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor integrated onchip which provides a proportional voltage to the input pressure, with a measurement range from 0 to 50 kPa (0–7.3 PSI. The oscillometric method is employed, which consists on detecting the oscillometric signal on brachialartery, being processed at each pressure step, when the cuff is gradually deflated. Signal sampling is carried out ata rate determined by the heart rate.In order to program the digital electronics of the circuit we used Altera tools, with the compiler MAX-PLUS II, andthe device selected to implement the design was an EPM7128SLC84-15 CPLD (Complex Programmable LogicDevice

  20. Monitoring and thermal management. (United States)

    Lenhardt, Rainer


    Anaesthesia alters normal thermoregulatory control of the body, usually leading to perioperative hypothermia. Hypothermia is associated with a large number of serious complications. To assess perianaesthetic hypothermia, core temperature should be monitored vigorously. Pulmonary artery, tympanic membrane, distal oesophageal or nasopharyngeal temperatures reflect core temperature reliably. Core temperatures can be often estimated with reasonable accuracy using oral, axillary and bladder temperatures, except during extreme thermal perturbations. The body site for measurements should be chosen according to the surgical procedure. Unless hypothermia is specifically indicated, efforts should be made to maintain intraoperative core temperatures above 36 degrees C. Forced air is the most effective, commonly available, non-invasive warming method. Resistive heating electrical blankets and circulating water garment systems are an equally effective alternative. Intravenous fluid warming is also helpful when large volumes are required. In some patients, induction of mild therapeutic hypothermia may become an issue for the future. Recent studies indicate that patients suffering from neurological disease may profit from rapid core cooling.

  1. Interactive Inventory Monitoring (United States)

    Garud, Sumedha


    Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (lAD) module that communicates with, or is part of the base station to provide an initial inquiry. lnformation on location(s) of the larget invenlory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventgory item. Another embodiment provides inventory informatin for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person adjacent to that stack.

  2. Combine mobile monitoring conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolyarevsky, I.; Ivanov, J.A.; Arkhipov, N. [Chernobyl Scientific and Technical Center for International Researches (CHESCIR) (Ukraine)] [and others


    This work is a document of joint final report of the collaboration between CHESCIR and JAERI on the Subject-1 'A Study on the Measurements and Evaluation of External Dose after Nuclear Accident' of JCP-1 project 'A Study on the Assessment, Analysis and Verification of the Consequences of the accident at Chernobyl' in the framework of the Agreement between JAERI and RIA 'PRIPYAT' (since 1994, CHESCIR) for 1995-1999. The most substantial part of the collaboration was research with using mobile gamma survey system, that was developed in JAERI and equipped with GIS - navigator that was developed in CHESCIR. During collaboration the carbone survey on the network of roads covered most are contaminated by Chernobyl fallout in Ukraine, Belorussia and Russia. Routes of carbone survey, carried out by CHESCIR team together with JAERI and alone for the last 5 years are shown in a non-complete map. Length of all routes taking into considers double raids is longer than 18,000 km. Experimental and methodological experience of mobile monitoring that collected by both sides allows to make considerations and conclusions, which are available in this final report. (J.P.N.)

  3. Optical oxygen concentration monitor (United States)

    Kebabian, Paul


    A system for measuring and monitoring the concentration of oxygen uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to one of oxygen's A-band absorption lines. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split into sets of components of shorter and longer wavelengths by a magnetic field of approximately 2000 Gauss that is parallel to the light propagation from the lamp. The longer wavelength components are centered on an absorption line of oxygen and thus readily absorbed, and the shorter wavelength components are moved away from that line and minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the set of the longer wavelength, or upshifted, components or the set of the shorter wavelength, or downshifted, components and passes the selected set to an environment of interest. After transmission over a path through that environment, the transmitted optical flux of the argon line varies as a result of the differential absorption. The system then determines the concentration of oxygen in the environment based on the changes in the transmitted optical flux between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments modulation is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to either the emitting plasma of the lamp or the environment of interest.

  4. Monitoring ventilation during anesthesia. (United States)

    Kay, B


    In patients under anesthesia, ventilation is often monitored less adequately than circulation. A simple method, neglected in adults, is the use of a precordial or oesophageal stethoscope. Respiratory volumes may be measured directly, or inferred from flowrates or pressure changes. A rough measurement of inspired volumes may be made using a nonrebreathing valve, and controlling fresh gas input to maintain a constant underfilled reservoir bag. Spirometry of expired volumes is difficult and requires sophisticated apparatus. Respiratory volumes are easily inferred from flowrates using the Wright or Dräger respirometers. Flowrates may also be inferred from pressure changes, which are easy to record, as in the pneumotachorgraph. Accurate measurements require attention to many details, such as linearity of the transducer response over the flowrates measured. Calibration should be with the anesthetic gases used, at controlled temperature and humidity. Positive pressure ventilation peaks give a high flow artefact, and electronic drift requires regular recalibration. Electrical impedance changes may also be used to infer and record respiratory volumes, with reasonable accuracy if individual calibration is carried out. Anesthesia offers excellent opportunities to measure compliance and resistance, but itself changes these values, so that relation to normal values or changes due to pathology is difficult. Occlusion pressure is also readily measured during anesthesia, as an indication of respiratory drive, but rigid control of all other factors affecting respiratory muscle tensions is necessary.

  5. Monitor Bouwen met de Natuur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lulofs, K.; Groot, A.M.E.; Ottow, B.; Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.


    Part I Introduction and justification of the Monitor Building with Nature This report describes the Monitor Building with Nature in the IJsselmeer region. When it comes to implementing the concept of building with nature the main issue is not how it is technically possible, but whether stakeholders

  6. Fetal brain monitoring: Future applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.I.


    Future application of fetal brain monitoring is explored by selecting and analysing articles for information on types of brain damage that can be monitored, where in the brain this can be done, how long after the risk exposure, and with what method of investigation. A limited number of-mainly-case

  7. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia



    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Antipov


    Full Text Available The article discusses the General approaches for monitoring tourist destinations on the basis of GIS-technologies. Great attention is paid to the possible development of apps to promote tourist areas. Again this article describes functional blocks of monitoring in GIS, and the possibility of modeling processes in tourism.

  9. Monitoring in South African grasslands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mentis, MT


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this document is to propose how ecological monitoring might be developed in the Grassland Biome of South Africa. Monitoring is defined as the maintenance of regular surveillance to test the null hypothesis of no change...

  10. Flow “Fine” Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods (United States)


    Abstract The concept of flow “fine” synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow “fine” synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society. PMID:26337828

  11. Polyurethane synthesis reactions in asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukowski, A.; Gretkiewicz, J.


    A series of asphalt-polyurethane composites was prepared by means of polyurethane synthesis in asphalt and carried out in melt. The applied materials were asphalts of differentiated group components content, polyester polyols of chain structure from linear to strongly branched, 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate, 4,4-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), and tinorganic catalyst. The asphalt components react with isocyanates to a minimal degree. The influence of the applied substrates, temperature, and polyurethane content in the system on the basic kinetic relations characterizing the process is presented. Polyurethane synthesis in asphalts does not differ in a fundamental way from the obtaining of polyurethanes, especially when their content in the composition is significant, 20 wt% and more.

  12. Sustainable Process Synthesis-Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    in order to generate new and/or existing unit operations that are configured into flowsheet alternatives inclusive of hybrid/intensified unit operations. The flowsheet alternatives that satisfy the performance criteria and design targets, give innovative and more sustainable, non-trade off flowsheet...... materials (feedstock) and the use of sustainable technologies or processes which directly impacts and improves sustainability/LCA factors. Process intensification is a concept by which processes, whether conceptual or existing, can be designed or redesigned to achieve more efficient and sustainable designs....... Therefore sustainable process design can be achieved by performing process syn-thesis and process intensification together. The main contribution of this work is the development of a systematic computer-aided multi-scale, multi-level framework for performing process synthesis-intensification that aims...

  13. Synthesis of phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs). (United States)

    Stadelmaier, Andreas; Schmidt, Richard R


    Two strategies towards the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol mannosides (PIMs) were elaborated which permit selective access to the O-1-, O-2-, and the O-6 position of the myo-inositol residue. Starting materials are 1,2:5,6- and 1,2:4,5-di-O-cyclohexylidene-DL-myo-inositol, respectively. In the latter case, the required assignment to the D- or L-series is based on the transformation of one enantiomer into known (-)-liriodentritol. The efficiency and potential versatility of the two approaches is exemplified in the synthesis of PIMs (D)-1a and its pseudoenantiomer (L)-1b, both having myristoyl residues as part of the phosphatidyl moiety.

  14. Synthesis of Polycyclic Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tuan Hoang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    With the continuous advancements in molecular biology and modern medicine, organic synthesis has become vital to the support and extension of those discoveries. The isolations of new natural products allow for the understanding of their biological activities and therapeutic value. Organic synthesis is employed to aid in the determination of the relationship between structure and function of these natural products. The development of synthetic methodologies in the course of total syntheses is imperative for the expansion of this highly interdisciplinary field of science. In addition to the practical applications of total syntheses, the structural complexity of natural products represents a worthwhile challenge in itself. The pursuit of concise and efficient syntheses of complex molecules is both gratifying and enjoyable.

  15. Sustainable Process Synthesis-Intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Holtbruegge, Johannes; Lutze, Philip


    Sustainable process design can be achieved by performing process synthesis and process intensification together. This approach first defines a design target through a sustainability analysis and then finds design alternatives that match the target through process intensification. A systematic......, multi-stage framework for process synthesis- intensification that identifies more sustainable process designs has been developed. At stages 1-2, the working scale is at the level of unit operations, where a base case design is identified and analyzed with respect to sustainability metrics. At stages 3...... concepts and the framework are presented together with the results from a case study highlighting the application of the framework to the sustainable design of a production process for dimethyl carbonate....

  16. ATLAS Online Data Quality Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Cuenca Almenar, C; The ATLAS collaboration


    With the delivery of the first proton-proton collisions by the LHC, the ATLAS collaboration had the opportunity to operate the detector under the environment it was designed for. These first events have been of great interest not only for the high energy physics outcome, but also as a means to perform a general commissioning of system. A highly scalable distributed monitoring framework assesses the quality of the data and the operational conditions of the detector, trigger and data acquisition system. Every minute of an ATLAS data taking session the monitoring framework serves several thousands physics events to monitoring data analysis applications, handles millions of histogram updates coming from thousands applications, executes over forty thousand advanced data quality checks for a subset of those histograms, displays histograms and results of these checks on several dozens of monitors installed in main and satellite ATLAS control rooms. The online data quality monitoring system has been of great help in ...

  17. ATLAS online data quality monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Cuenca Almenar, C; The ATLAS collaboration


    With the delivery of the first proton-proton collisions by the LHC, the ATLAS collaboration had the opportunity to operate the detector under the environment it was designed for. These first events have been of great interest not only for the high energy physics outcome, but also as a means to perform a general commissioning of system. A highly scalable distributed monitoring framework assesses the quality of the data and the operational conditions of the detector, trigger and data acquisition system. Every minute of an ATLAS data taking session the monitoring framework serves several thousands physics events to monitoring data analysis applications, handles millions of histogram updates coming from thousands applications, executes over forty thousand advanced data quality checks for a subset of those histograms, displays histograms and results of these checks on several dozens of monitors installed in main and satellite ATLAS control rooms. The online data quality monitoring system has been of great help in ...

  18. CERN Safety System Monitoring - SSM

    CERN Document Server

    Hakulinen, T; Valentini, F; Gonzalez, J; Salatko-Petryszcze, C


    CERN SSM (Safety System Monitoring) [1] is a system for monitoring state-of-health of the various access and safety systems of the CERN site and accelerator infrastructure. The emphasis of SSM is on the needs of maintenance and system operation with the aim of providing an independent and reliable verification path of the basic operational parameters of each system. Included are all network-connected devices, such as PLCs, servers, panel displays, operator posts, etc. The basic monitoring engine of SSM is a freely available system-monitoring framework Zabbix [2], on top of which a simplified traffic-light-type web-interface has been built. The web-interface of SSM is designed to be ultra-light to facilitate access from handheld devices over slow connections. The underlying Zabbix system offers history and notification mechanisms typical of advanced monitoring systems.

  19. ATLAS online data quality monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Cuenca Almenar, C; The ATLAS collaboration; Hadavand, H; Ilchenko, Y; Kolos, S; Slagle, K; Taffard, A


    Every minute the ATLAS detector is taking data, the monitoring framework serves several thousands physics events to monitoring data analysis applications, handles millions of histogram updates coming from thousands applications, executes over forty thousand advanced data quality checks for a subset of those histograms, displays histograms and results of these checks on several dozens of monitors installed in main and satellite ATLAS control rooms. The online data quality monitoring system has been of great help in providing quick feedback to the subsystems about the functioning and performance of the different parts of ATLAS by providing a configurable easy and fast visualization of all this information. The Data Quality Monitoring Display (DQMD) is a visualization tool for the automatic data quality assessment of the ATLAS experiment. It is the interface through which the shift crew and experts can validate the quality of the data being recorded or processed, be warned of problems related to data quality, an...

  20. Arduino Based Infant Monitoring System (United States)

    Farhanah Mohamad Ishak, Daing Noor; Jamil, Muhammad Mahadi Abdul; Ambar, Radzi


    This paper proposes a system for monitoring infant in an incubator and records the relevant data into a computer. The data recorded by the system can be further referred by the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) personnel for diagnostic or research purposes. The study focuses on designing the monitoring system that consists of an incubator equipped with humidity sensor to measure the humidity level, and a pulse sensor that can be attached on an infant placed inside the incubator to monitor infant’s heart pulse. The measurement results which are the pulse rate and humidity level are sent to the PC via Arduino microcontroller. The advantage of this system will be that in the future, it may also enable doctors to closely monitor the infant condition through local area network and internet. This work is aimed as an example of an application that contributes towards remote tele-health monitoring system.

  1. Oil Analysis and Condition Monitoring (United States)

    Toms, A.; Toms, L.

    Lubricants are essential and expensive components of machine systems needing sampling, analysis and monitoring. Monitoring can be either performance testing or oil condition monitoring. Knowledge of the system's critical failure modes is essential for cost-effective oil and machinery monitoring. Contamination occurs by water, fuel, glycol, dirt, wrong oil, metal particulate, soot, oil degradation and additive depletion. Oil test methods include in situ or laboratory FT-IR, electronic particle counting, elemental metal measurement, X-ray fluorescence, viscosity, gas chromatography, water determination and RULER®. Condition monitoring data must be managed by storage, analysis and interpretation. Status levels must be established from the database and reported upon for individual and sequential runs of samples as condition indicators.

  2. Zeolite catalysis in the synthesis of isobutylene from hydrous ethanol (United States)

    Phillips, Cory Bernard


    This work deals with the synthesis of isobutylene from a hydrous ethanol feedstock over zeolites. The synthesis is accomplished in three steps: (1) low-temperature direct ethanol conversion to ethylene on H-ZSM-5 zeolite, (2) ethylene conversion to butene products over metal-exchanged zeolites, and (3) butene skeletal rearrangement to isobutylene over FER zeolites. The key to understanding and optimizing each synthesis step lies in the ability to control and regulate the zeolite acidity (Bronsted and Lewis)---both strength and number. Therefore, the continuous temperature programmed amine desorption (CTPAD) technique was further developed to simultaneously count the Bronsted acid sites and quantitatively characterize their strength. The adsorption of ethanol, reaction products, amines, coke and ethanol-derived residue (EDR) were monitored gravimetrically using the highly sensitive, novel Tapered Element Oscillating Microreactor (TEOM) apparatus. The TEOM was also used also in conjunction with CTPAD to characterize Bronsted acidity which is a new application for the instrument. For the first synthesis step, a parallel reaction exists which simultaneously produces diethyl ether and ethylene directly over H-ZSM-5. The reaction rates for each pathway were measured directly using a differential reactor operating at low temperatures (<473 K). Water in the ethanol feed enhances the rate of ethylene formation. A mechanism and kinetic expression are proposed for this reaction over H-ZSM-5, with diethyl-ether desorption and ethylene formation as the rate limiting steps. Heat of adsorption values measured from the independent microcalorimetry work reported in the literature are incorporated into the kinetic analysis which reduces the number of regressed parameters. For the remaining synthesis steps, several zeolite structures (ZSM-5, Y, FER) partially exchanged with Pd, Ti, Ni and Au were prepared and tested. It was determined from this screening study that the zeolites

  3. Verified OS Interface Code Synthesis (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0015 Verified OS Interface Code Synthesis Gerwin Klein NATIONAL ICT AUSTRALIA LIMITED Final Report 02/14/2017 DISTRIBUTION A...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) NATIONAL ICT AUSTRALIA LIMITED L 5 13 GARDEN ST EVELEIGH, 2015 AU 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...public release: distribution unlimited. 1 Introduction The central question of this project was how to ensure the correctness of Operating System (OS

  4. Artificial Intelligence A New Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Nils J


    Intelligent agents are employed as the central characters in this new introductory text. Beginning with elementary reactive agents, Nilsson gradually increases their cognitive horsepower to illustrate the most important and lasting ideas in AI. Neural networks, genetic programming, computer vision, heuristic search, knowledge representation and reasoning, Bayes networks, planning, and language understanding are each revealed through the growing capabilities of these agents. The book provides a refreshing and motivating new synthesis of the field by one of AI's master expositors and leading re

  5. Synthesis of thermit noncorrodible steels


    Жигуц, Юрій Юрійович


    The present paper the basic solutions to the problem of obtaining cavitation-resistant steels examined the use of thermite steels, the benefits of combining thermite steels with metallotermic methods of getting is showed. The advantages of metallotermic synthesis methods include: autonomy of processes, independence of energy sources, simplicity of equipment, high-performance process and easy transition from experimental research to industrial production. The need to developed the technology o...

  6. Behavioral synthesis of asynchronous circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard


    is idle. This reduces unnecessary switching activity in the individual functional units and therefore the energy consumption of the entire circuit. A collection of behavioral synthesis algorithms have been developed allowing the designer to perform time and power constrained design space exploration....... The datapath and control architecture is then expressed in the Balsa-language, and using syntax directed compilation a corresponding handshake circuit implementation (and eventually a layout) is produced....

  7. Combinatorial Methods in Oligosaccharide Synthesis (United States)

    Tanaka, Katsunori; Fujimoto, Yukari; Tanaka, Shin-Ichi; Mori, Yasutaka; Fukase, Koichi

    This chapter will focus on recent achievements in the combinatorial approach to glycobiology. Significant advances in polymer-supported synthesis as well as chemoenzymic methods have led to the assembly of complex oligosaccharides in a combinatorial fashion even on desired positions of target peptides or proteins. The successful application of oligosaccharide libraries and carbohydrate mimetics to glycobiology such as elucidation of the immunobiological function of glycoconjugates or the discovery of carbohydrate/protein interactions on the basis of microarrays will also be discussed.

  8. Facile Enzymatic Synthesis of Ketoses. (United States)

    Wen, Liuqing; Huang, Kenneth; Wei, Mohui; Meisner, Jeffrey; Liu, Yunpeng; Garner, Kristina; Zang, Lanlan; Wang, Xuan; Li, Xu; Fang, Junqiang; Zhang, Houcheng; Wang, Peng George


    Studies of rare ketoses have been hampered by a lack of efficient preparation methods. A convenient, efficient, and cost-effective platform for the facile synthesis of ketoses is described. This method enables the preparation of difficult-to-access ketopentoses and ketohexoses from common and inexpensive starting materials with high yield and purity and without the need for a tedious isomer separation step. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Synthesis of a sulfahydantoin library. (United States)

    Albericio, F; Bryman, L M; Garcia, J; Michelotti, E L; Nicolás, E; Tice, C M


    A five-step solid-phase synthesis of sulfahydantoins from alpha-amino acids and aldehydes was developed. The synthetic method allows the use of hindered amino acids, including Val, Phg, and Aib, and use of aromatic aldehydes substituted with electron-withdrawing and -donating groups. Some limitations were encountered with amino acids with reactive side chains. A small but diverse library of compounds was produced for biological testing.

  10. Substructuring and Component Mode Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Seshu


    Full Text Available Substructuring and component mode synthesis (CMS, is a very popular method of model reduction for large structural dynamics problems. Starting from the pioneering works on this technique in the early 1960s, many researchers have studied and used this technique in a variety of applications. Besides model reduction, CMS offers several other crucial advantages. The present work aims to provide a review of the available literature on this important technique.

  11. New frontiers in design synthesis. (United States)

    Goldin, D S; Venneri, S L; Noor, A K


    The Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE), which is one of the major strategic technologies under development at NASA centers and the University of Virginia, is described. One of the major objectives of ISE is to significantly enhance the rapid creation of innovative affordable products and missions. ISE uses a synergistic combination of leading-edge technologies, including high performance computing, high capacity communications and networking, human-centered computing, knowledge-based engineering, computational intelligence, virtual product development, and product information management. The environment will link scientists, design teams, manufacturers, suppliers, and consultants who participate in the mission synthesis as well as in the creation and operation of the aerospace system. It will radically advance the process by which complex science missions are synthesized, and high-tech engineering Systems are designed, manufactured and operated. The five major components critical to ISE are human-centered computing, infrastructure for distributed collaboration, rapid synthesis and simulation tools, life cycle integration and validation, and cultural change in both the engineering and science creative process. The five components and their subelements are described. Related U.S. government programs are outlined and the future impact of ISE on engineering research and education is discussed.

  12. Borophene synthesis on Au(111) (United States)

    Guisinger, Nathan; Kiraly, Brian; Zhang, Zhuhua; Mannix, Andrew; Hersam, Mark C.; Yakobson, Boris I.

    The recent experimental discovery of borophene, the metallic 2-dimensional allotrope of boron, has sparked tremendous interest in further exploration of this unique material. The initial synthesis of borophene was accomplished on Ag substrates and serves as a quintessential example of predictive modeling to experimental realization. In this talk, we expand the phase-space of borophene synthesis to Au. Borophene synthesis was accomplished by evaporating elemental boron onto a Au(111) substrate. The synthesized borophene retains its metallic character on Au as verified with scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Most fascinating is the difference in growth dynamics on the Au(111) substrate where the reconstructed surface presents a unique energy landscape for borophene nucleation and growth. We find that the initial low-coverage growth of borophene modifies the herringbone reconstruction into a ``trigonal'' network, where the 2D boron islands are uniformly templated across the surface. Increasing coverage results in the increasing size of the templated borophene islands until they coalesce into larger sheets. The observed growth dynamics are supported by the computational modeling of boron nucleation on Au.

  13. Zeolite membranes for efficient synthesis of biofuels


    Sandström, Linda


    The greenhouse effect and the limited fossil oil resources have increased the demand of renewable fuels. Zeolite membranes have potential applications in numerous separation processes, and could be useful in the development of efficient processes for renewable fuel production. Methanol synthesis from synthesis gas is equilibrium limited, and continuous removal of products in a zeolite membrane reactor could improve the productivity of a conventional methanol synthesis process. In this work, m...

  14. Urea synthesis in patients with chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Sonne, J


    Up-regulation of urea synthesis by amino acids and dietary protein intake may be impaired in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) due to the reduced glucagon secretion. Conversely, urea synthesis may be increased as a result of the chronic inflammation. The aims of the study were to determine...... urea synthesis kinetics in CP patients in relation to glucagon secretion (study I) and during an increase in protein intake (study II)....

  15. Dissipative Systems Synthesis: a Linear Algebraic Approach


    Belur, Madhu N.; Pillai, Harish K.; Trentelman, H.L.


    In this paper we consider the problem of synthesis of dissipative systems for the case that first and higher order derivatives of the concerned variables also appear in the weighting function. The problem is formulated and solved using the behavioral approach to systems and control. We relate the problem of weighted H-infinity control as a special case of this synthesis problem. The synthesis problem and its solution can be systematically understood when one notices that it is similar to find...

  16. Overview of high level synthesis tools

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, J


    High Level Synthesis takes an abstract behavioural or algorithmic description of a digital system and creates a register transfer level structure that realises the described behaviour. Various methodologies have been developed to perform such synthesis tasks. This paper presents the different HLS concepts used in the current leading tools. It makes a comparison between the different approaches and highlights their advantages and limitations. We also present a high level synthesis example.

  17. Matrix-assisted peptide synthesis on nanoparticles. (United States)

    Khandadash, Raz; Machtey, Victoria; Weiss, Aryeh; Byk, Gerardo


    We report a new method for multistep peptide synthesis on polymeric nanoparticles of differing sizes. Polymeric nanoparticles were functionalized via their temporary embedment into a magnetic inorganic matrix that allows multistep peptide synthesis. The matrix is removed at the end of the process for obtaining nanoparticles functionalized with peptides. The matrix-assisted synthesis on nanoparticles was proved by generating various biologically relevant peptides. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Automatic Synthesis of Multilevel Combinational Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders C.; Madsen, Jan; Madsen, J.R.


    This paper describes a system for the synthesis of multilevel combinational logic, transforming functional description into mask layout. The system includes a logic synthesis part, partly consisting of tools developed at Eindhoven University of Technology, which has been interfaced to the layout...... synthesis part in the CATOE-system, developed at the DesignCenter of Electronics Institute. The various steps in the transformation are presented together with a complete design example, implementing a multi-output combinational decoder function....

  19. Synthesis of luminescent ceramics from alumina nanopowder (United States)

    Kortov, V.; Kiryakov, A.; Ananchenko, D.; Zvonarev, S.


    The effect of the conditions of high-temperature synthesis in a reducing medium on the density, area and cathodoluminescence of ceramics made of compacted α-Al2O3 powder is the focus of this work. The dependence of the luminescence intensity on the temperature and duration of the synthesis of ceramics is presented. The optimal parameters for synthesis of luminescent ceramics from alumina nanopowder are defined.

  20. Review of present groundwater monitoring programs at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershey, R.L.; Gillespie, D.


    Groundwater monitoring at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is conducted to detect the presence of radionuclides produced by underground nuclear testing and to verify the quality and safety of groundwater supplies as required by the State of Nevada and federal regulations, and by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. Groundwater is monitored at water-supply wells and at other boreholes and wells not specifically designed or located for traditional groundwater monitoring objectives. Different groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS are conducted by several DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) contractors. Presently, these individual groundwater monitoring programs have not been assessed or administered under a comprehensive planning approach. Redundancy exists among the programs in both the sampling locations and the constituents analyzed. Also, sampling for certain radionuclides is conducted more frequently than required. The purpose of this report is to review the existing NTS groundwater monitoring programs and make recommendations for modifying the programs so a coordinated, streamlined, and comprehensive monitoring effort may be achieved by DOE/NV. This review will be accomplished in several steps. These include: summarizing the present knowledge of the hydrogeology of the NTS and the potential radionuclide source areas for groundwater contamination; reviewing the existing groundwater monitoring programs at the NTS; examining the rationale for monitoring and the constituents analyzed; reviewing the analytical methods used to quantify tritium activity; discussing monitoring network design criteria; and synthesizing the information presented and making recommendations based on the synthesis. This scope of work was requested by the DOE/NV Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and satisfies the 1993 (fiscal year) HRMP Groundwater Monitoring Program Review task.

  1. Plant enzyme synthesis: Hormonal regulation of invertase and peroxidase synthesis in sugar cane. (United States)

    Gayler, K R; Glasziou, K T


    Using sugar-cane internodal tissue in which RNA synthesis was ratelimiting for invertase of peroxidase synthesis, measurements were made of enzymeforming-capacity after blocking further RNA synthesis with actinomycin D or 6-methylpurine. In this way it was possible to determine whether added auxin (naphthaleneacetic acid) or gibberellic acid (GA3) affected steps prior or subsequent to synthesis of the RNA fractions specifically required for synthesis of either enzyme. Both auxin and GA3 increased the enzyme-forming-capacity for invertase but not for peroxidase. The effects of the two hormones are interpreted as causing stabilization of mRNA for invertase.Abscisic acid (ABA) increased the rate of synthesis of invertase but not peroxidase. ABA did not change the rate of loss of invertase when peptide-bond formation was blocked with cycloheximide, but stimulated its synthesis when RNA synthesis was blocked with 6-methyl purine. Hence, the site of action of ABA is subsequent to invertase-mRNA formation and prior to invertase destruction.Kinetin had no short-term effects when RNA synthesis was limiting for invertase production, and does not appear to directly modulate mRNA synthesis or stabilization, or amino-acid-polymerization steps. In treatments longer than 5 hours, kinetin inhibited synthesis of all three enzymes studied, so that its effect on enzyme synthesis in this tissue appears to be unspecific.

  2. Synthesis centers as critical research infrastructure (United States)

    Baron, Jill; Specht, Alison; Garnier, Eric; Bishop, Pamela; Campbell, C. Andrew; Davis, Frank W.; Fady, Bruno; Field, Dawn; Gross, Louis J.; Guru, Siddeswara M.; Halpern, Benjamin S; Hampton, Stephanie E.; Leavitt, Peter R.; Meagher, Thomas R.; Ometto, Jean; Parker, John N.; Price, Richard; Rawson, Casey H.; Rodrigo, Allen; Sheble, Laura A.; Winter, Marten


    Demand for the opportunity to participate in a synthesis-center activity has increased in the years since the US National Science Foundation (NSF)–funded National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) opened its doors in 1995 and as more scientists across a diversity of scientific disciplines have become aware of what synthesis centers provide. The NSF has funded four synthesis centers, and more than a dozen new synthesis centers have been established around the world, some following the NSF model and others following different models suited to their national funding environment ( synthesis integrates diverse data and knowledge to increase the scope and applicability of results and yield novel insights or explanations within and across disciplines (Pickett et al. 2007, Carpenter et al. 2009). The demand for synthesis comes from the pressing societal need to address grand challenges related to global change and other issues that cut across multiple societal sectors and disciplines and from recognition that substantial added scientific value can be achieved through the synthesis-based analysis of existing data. Demand also comes from groups of scientists who see exciting opportunities to generate new knowledge from interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary collaboration, often capitalizing on the increasingly large volume and variety of available data (Kelling et al. 2009, Bishop et al. 2014, Specht et al. 2015b). The ever-changing nature of societal challenges and the availability of data with which to address them suggest there will be an expanding need for synthesis.However, we are now entering a phase in which government support for some existing synthesis centers has ended or will be ending soon, forcing those centers to close or develop new operational models, approaches, and funding streams. We argue here that synthesis centers play such a unique role in science that continued long-term public

  3. Uncertainty of dustfall monitoring results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. van Nierop


    Full Text Available Fugitive dust has the ability to cause a nuisance and pollute the ambient environment, particularly from human activities including construction and industrial sites and mining operations. As such, dustfall monitoring has occurred for many decades in South Africa; little has been published on the repeatability, uncertainty, accuracy and precision of dustfall monitoring. Repeatability assesses the consistency associated with the results of a particular measurement under the same conditions; the consistency of the laboratory is assessed to determine the uncertainty associated with dustfall monitoring conducted by the laboratory. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of the uncertainty in dustfall monitoring; thereby improving the confidence in dustfall monitoring. Uncertainty of dustfall monitoring was assessed through a 12-month study of 12 sites that were located on the boundary of the study area. Each site contained a directional dustfall sampler, which was modified by removing the rotating lid, with four buckets (A, B, C and D installed. Having four buckets on one stand allows for each bucket to be exposed to the same conditions, for the same period of time; therefore, should have equal amounts of dust deposited in these buckets. The difference in the weight (mg of the dust recorded from each bucket at each respective site was determined using the American Society for Testing and Materials method D1739 (ASTM D1739. The variability of the dust would provide the confidence level of dustfall monitoring when reporting to clients.

  4. Monitoring Technology Meets Care Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bygholm, Ann


    Monitoring technology, especially sensor-based technology, is increasingly taken into use in care work. Despite the simplicity of these technologies – aimed to automate what appear as mundane monitoring tasks – recent research has identified major challenges primarily related to the technology's ...... wet beds at a nursing home. The analysis identifies the multifaceted nature of monitoring work and the intricacy of integrating sensor technology into the complex knowledge system of monitoring work.......Monitoring technology, especially sensor-based technology, is increasingly taken into use in care work. Despite the simplicity of these technologies – aimed to automate what appear as mundane monitoring tasks – recent research has identified major challenges primarily related to the technology......'s ability to meet the complexity of care work. Understanding intersectional challenges between these care technologies and care work is fundamental to improve design and use of health informatics. In this paper we present an analysis of interaction challenges between a wet-sensor at the task of monitoring...

  5. Hail Monitor Sensor (United States)

    Younquist, Robert; Haskell, William; Immer, Christopher; Cox, Bobby; Lane, John


    An inexpensive and simple hail monitor design has been developed that has a single piezoelectric ceramic disc and uses a metal plate as a sounding board. The structure is durable and able to withstand the launch environment. This design has several advantages over a multi-ceramic sensor, including reduced cost and complexity, increased durability, and improvement in impact response uniformity over the active surface. However, the most important characteristic of this design is the potential to use frequency discrimination between the spectrum created from raindrop impact and a hailstone impact. The sound of hail hitting a metal plate is distinctly different from the sound of rain hitting the same plate. This fortuitous behavior of the pyramid sensor may lead to a signal processing strategy, which is inherently more reliable than one depending on amplitude processing only. The initial concept has been im proved by forming a shallow pyramid structure so that hail is encouraged to bounce away from the sensor so as not to be counted more than once. The sloped surface also discourages water from collecting. Additionally, the final prototype version includes a mounting box for the piezo-ceramic, which is offset from the pyramid apex, thus helping to reduce non-uniform response (see Figure 2). The frequency spectra from a single raindrop impact and a single ice ball impact have been compared. The most notable feature of the frequency resonant peaks is the ratio of the 5.2 kHz to 3.1 kHz components. In the case of a raindrop, this ratio is very small. But in the case of an ice ball, the ratio is roughly one third. This frequency signature of ice balls should provide a robust method for discriminating raindrops from hailstones. Considering that hail size distributions (HSDs) and fall rates are roughly 1 percent that of rainfall, hailstone sizes range from a few tenths of a centimeter to several centimeters. There may be considerable size overlap between large rain and small

  6. Agriculture and land management: the landscape monitoring system in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Marinai


    Full Text Available With respect to the reduced weight in the Gross National Product (GDP and the continuous decrease in manpower which has been recorded in the last decades, an important role is recognized to the rural sector in the current developmetn model which justify the heavy financial committment of Europe and Italy to sustain european agriculture.Within this role, land preservation has an important role for the sector competitiveness, the rural space quality and the citizen’s life quality, and this role is nowadays recognized even by the politics for landscape defined for the Piano strategico nazionale 2007-20131. Both action definitions and planning and development of landscape resources firstly require to define landscape monitoring systems pointing out trends, and critical and strength points represented by the great historical and environmental differences of Italian landscapes. This study is a synthesis of the results from a 5 year project aimed to the definition of a landscape monitoring system in Tuscany, ranging from 1800 and 2000 and based on study areas covering around 1% of the regional territory, which will soon be implemented. The first recorded results show a strong decrease of landscape diversity (40-50% in the investigated time period. This study want to be an example for the implementation of the future monitoring system of this resource.

  7. OCT monitoring of cosmetic creams in human skin in vivo (United States)

    Han, Seung Hee; Yoon, Chang Han; Conroy, Leigh; Vitkin, I. Alex


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a tool currently used for noninvasive diagnosis of human disease as well as for monitoring treatment during or after therapy. In this study, OCT was used to examine penetration and accumulation of cosmetic creams on human hand skin. The samples varied in collagen content with one formulation containing soluble collagen as its primary active ingredient. Collagen is a major connective tissue protein that is essential in maintaining health vitality and strength of many organs. The penetration and localization of collagen in cosmetic creams is thought to be the main determinant of the efficacy of new collagen synthesis. Detection and quantification of collagen in cosmetic creams applied to skin may thus help predict the eventual efficacy of the product in skin collagen regeneration. We hypothesize that the topically applied collagen may be detectable by OCT through its modulation of skin scattering properties. To test this hypothesis, we used a FDML swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. A particular location on the skin of two male adult volunteers was used to investigate 4 different cosmetic creams. The duration of OCT monitoring of cosmetic penetration into skin ranged from 5 minutes to 2 hours following topical application. The results showed that OCT can discriminate between a cream with collagen and other collagen-free formulations. Thus it seems feasible that OCT intensity can monitor the in vivo effects of topical application of collagen contained in cosmetic formulations.

  8. The CUORE slow monitoring systems (United States)

    Gladstone, L.; Biare, D.; Cappelli, L.; Cushman, J. S.; Del Corso, F.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Hickerson, K. P.; Moggi, N.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Schmidt, B.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Welliver, B.; Winslow, L. A.


    CUORE is a cryogenic experiment searching primarily for neutrinoless double decay in 130Te. It will begin data-taking operations in 2016. To monitor the cryostat and detector during commissioning and data taking, we have designed and developed Slow Monitoring systems. In addition to real-time systems using LabVIEW, we have an alarm, analysis, and archiving website that uses MongoDB, AngularJS, and Bootstrap software. These modern, state of the art software packages make the monitoring system transparent, easily maintainable, and accessible on many platforms including mobile devices.

  9. Indicators for Monitoring Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bispo, A.; Cluzeau, D.; Creamer, R.


    is made for a set of suitable indicators for monitoring the decline in soil biodiversity (Bispo et al. 2007). These indicators were selected both from a literature review and an inventory of national monitoring programmes. Decline in soil biodiversity was defined as the reduction of forms of life living...... indicators are actually measured.   For monitoring application it was considered in ENVASSO that only three key indicators per soil stress were practical. For indicating biodiversity decline it was difficult to arrive at a small set of indicators due to the complexity of soil biota and functions. Therefore...

  10. Essential Grid Workflow Monitoring Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, Daniel K.; Jackson, Keith R.; Konerding, David E.; Lee,Jason R.; Tierney, Brian L.


    Troubleshooting Grid workflows is difficult. A typicalworkflow involves a large number of components networks, middleware,hosts, etc. that can fail. Even when monitoring data from all thesecomponents is accessible, it is hard to tell whether failures andanomalies in these components are related toa given workflow. For theGrid to be truly usable, much of this uncertainty must be elim- inated.We propose two new Grid monitoring elements, Grid workflow identifiersand consistent component lifecycle events, that will make Gridtroubleshooting easier, and thus make Grids more usable, by simplifyingthe correlation of Grid monitoring data with a particular Gridworkflow.

  11. Monitoring of Underground Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wagoner, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramirez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    For efficient and responsible UCG operations, a UCG process must be monitored in the following three categories: 1) process parameters such as injection and product gas flow rates, temperature, pressure and syngas content and heating value; 2) geomechanical parameters, e.g., cavity and coal seam pressures, cavity development, subsidence and ground deformation; and 3) environmental parameters, e.g., groundwater chemistry and air quality. This report focuses on UCG monitoring with geophysical techniques that can contribute to monitoring of subsurface temperature, cavity development, burn front, subsidence and deformation.

  12. Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (United States)

    Miller, Luke; Edsall, Ashley


    Gas House Autonomous System Monitoring (GHASM) will employ Integrated System Health Monitoring (ISHM) of cryogenic fluids in the High Pressure Gas Facility at Stennis Space Center. The preliminary focus of development incorporates the passive monitoring and eventual commanding of the Nitrogen System. ISHM offers generic system awareness, adept at using concepts rather than specific error cases. As an enabler for autonomy, ISHM provides capabilities inclusive of anomaly detection, diagnosis, and abnormality prediction. Advancing ISHM and Autonomous Operation functional capabilities enhances quality of data, optimizes safety, improves cost effectiveness, and has direct benefits to a wide spectrum of aerospace applications.

  13. Rapid synthesis of acetylcholine receptors at neuromuscular junctions. (United States)

    Ramsay, D A; Drachman, D B; Pestronk, A


    The rate of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) degradation in mature, innervated mammalian neuromuscular junctions has recently been shown to be biphasic; up to 20% are rapidly turned over (RTOs; half life less than 1 day) whereas the remainder are lost more slowly ('stable' AChRs; half life 10-12 days). In order to maintain normal junctional receptor density, synthesis and insertion of AChRs should presumably be sufficiently rapid to replace both the RTOs and the stable receptors. We have tested this prediction by blocking pre-existing AChRs in the mouse sternomastoid muscle with alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BuTx), and monitoring the subsequent appearance of 'new' junctional AChRs at intervals of 3 h to 20 days by labeling them with 125I-alpha-BuTx. The results show that new receptors were initially inserted rapidly (16% at 24 h and 28% at 48 h). The rate of increase of 'new' 125I-alpha-BuTx binding sites gradually slowed down during the remainder of the time period studied. Control observations excluded possible artifacts of the experimental procedure including incomplete blockade of AChRs, dissociation of toxin-receptor complexes, or experimentally induced alteration of receptor synthesis. The present demonstration of rapid synthesis and incorporation of AChRs at innervated neuromuscular junctions provides support for the concept of a subpopulation of rapidly turned over AChRs. The RTOs may serve as precursors for the larger population of stable receptors and have an important role in the metabolism of the neuromuscular synapse.

  14. Synthesis of Organics in the Early Solar Nebula (United States)

    Johnson, Natasha M.; Manning, S.; Nuth, J. A., III


    It is unknown what process or processes made the organics that are found or detected in extraterrestrial materials. One process that forms organics are Fischer-Tropsch type (FTT) reactions. Fischer-Tropsch type synthesis produces complex hydrocarbons by hydrogenating carbon monoxide via surface mediated reactions. The products of these reactions have been well-studied using `natural’ catalysts [1] and calculations of the efficiency of FTT synthesis in the Solar Nebula suggest that these types of reactions could make significant contributions to material near three AU [2]. We use FTT synthesis to coat Fe-silicate amorphous grains with organic material to simulate the chemistry in the early Solar Nebula. These coatings are composed of macromolecular organic phases [3]. Previous work also showed that as the grains became coated, Haber-Bosch type reactions took place resulting in nitrogen-bearing organics [4]. Our experiments consist of circulating CO, N2, and H2 gas through Fe- amorphous silicate grains that are maintained at a specific temperature in a closed system. The gases are passed through an FTIR spectrometer and are measured to monitor the reaction progress. Samples are analyzed using FTIR, and GCMS (including pyrolysis) and extraction techniques are used to analyze the organic coatings. These experiments show that these types of reactions are an effective means to produce complex hydrocarbons. We present the analysis of the produced organics (solid and gas phase) and the change in the production rate of several compounds as the grains become coated. Organics generated by this technique could represent the carbonaceous material incorporated in comets and meteorites. References: [1] Hayatsu and Anders 1981. Topics in Current Chemistry 99:1-37. [2] Kress and Tielens 2001. MAPS 36:75-91. [3] Johnson et al. 2004. #1876. 35th LPSC. [4] Hill and Nuth 2003. Astrobiology 3:291-304. This work was supported by a grant from NASA.

  15. Synthesis and testing of hypergolic ionic liquids for chemical propulsion (United States)

    Stovbun, S. V.; Shchegolikhin, A. N.; Usachev, S. V.; Khomik, S. V.; Medvedev, S. P.


    Synthesis of new highly energetic ionic liquids (ILs) is described, and their hypergolic ignition properties are tested. The synthesized ILs combine the advantages of conventional rocket propellants with the energy characteristics of acetylene derivatives. To this end, N-alkylated imidazoles (alkyl = ethyl, butyl) have been synthesized and alkylated with propargyl bromide. The desired ionic liquids have been produced by metathesis using Ag dicyanamide. Modified hypergolic drop tests with white fuming nitric acid have been performed for N-ethyl (IL-1) and N-butyl propargylimidazolium (IL-2) ionic liquids. In the modified drop tests, high-speed shadowgraph imaging is used to visualize the process, and the temperature rise due to ignition is monitored with a two-color photodetector. It is shown that the ignition delay is shorter for IL-1 as compared to IL-2. The ignition of IL-1 occurs in two stages, whereas the combustion of IL-2 proceeds smoothly without secondary flashes.

  16. Combustion synthesis of one-dimensional nanocrystalline silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynski, M.; Dabrowska, A.; Bystrzejewski, M.; Huczko, A. [Laboratory of Nanomaterials Physics and Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University, 1 Pasteur str., 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)


    Beta-SiC (cubic phase) nanowires (SiCNWs) have been grown spontaneously during the autothermal self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) from elemental silicon and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) powder mixtures in oxygen-enriched atmosphere. The combustion process was on-line monitored using high-speed photography in order to estimate the reaction processing time which was well below 1 s. From the emission spectroscopy the averaged combustion temperature was evaluated to be close to 2000 K. The products were characterized by wet chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The raw products were processed by wet chemistry to obtain pure (above 90%) well-crystallized one-dimensional single crystals of SiCNWs. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Synthesis of hydroxy thio-ether derivatives of vegetable oil. (United States)

    Sharma, Brajendra K; Adhvaryu, A; Erhan, S Z


    Bio-based additives are desirable commodities due to their eco-friendly nature. These additives can demonstrate physical and chemical properties comparable to those of conventional mineral oil-based products. Sulfur incorporated triacylglycerol can function as an antiwear/antifriction additive for lubricants. The synthesis of four useful hydroxy thio-ether derivatives of vegetable oils, from commercially available epoxidized soybean oil and common organic thiols, is reported in this paper. The common thiols used herein were 1-butanethiol, 1-decanethiol, 1-octadecanethiol, and cyclohexyl mercaptan. Currently, there is no reported literature describing the synthesis of hydroxy thio-ether derivatives of vegetable oil. The reaction was monitored, and products were confirmed by NMR and FTIR spectroscopies. Experimental conditions involving various thiols, solvent, catalyst amount, time, and temperature were optimized for research quantity and laboratory scale-up. The synthetic process retains the vegetable oil structure, eliminates polyunsaturation in the molecule, and adds polar functional groups on triacylglycerol. These products can be used as agriculturally-based antiwear additives for lubricant applications.

  18. Green Chemistry Approach for Synthesis of Effective Anticancer Palladium Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangiliyandi Gurunathan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and synthesize Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs using an environmentally friendly approach and evaluate the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to monitor the conversion of Pd(II ions to Pd(0NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD revealed the crystallinity of the as-synthesized PdNPs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR further confirmed the role of the leaf extract of Evolvulus alsinoides as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of PdNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM showed that the average size of the NPs was 5 nm. After a 24-h exposure to PdNPs, cell viability and light microscopy assays revealed the dose-dependent toxicity of the PdNPs. Furthermore, the dose-dependent cytotoxicity of the PdNPs was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, activation of PdNPs-induced autophagy, impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and detection of TUNEL-positive cells. Our study demonstrates a single, simple, dependable and green approach for the synthesis of PdNPs using leaf extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides. Furthermore, the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer cells suggests that it could be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer therapy.

  19. Solution synthesis of nanoparticular binary transition metal antimonides. (United States)

    Kieslich, Gregor; Birkel, Christina S; Stewart, Andrew; Kolb, Ute; Tremel, Wolfgang


    The preparation of nanoengineered materials with controlled nanostructures, for example, with an anisotropic phase segregated structure or a regular periodicity rather than with a broad range of interparticle distances, has remained a synthetic challenge for intermetallics. Artificially structured materials, including multilayers, amorphous alloys, quasicrystals, metastable crystalline alloys, or granular metals, are mostly prepared using physical gas phase procedures. We report a novel, powerful solution-mediated approach for the formation of nanoparticular binary antimonides based on presynthesized antimony nanoparticles. The transition metal antimonides M-Sb (M = Co, Ni, Cu(2), Zn) were obtained with sizes ranging from 20 and 60 nm. Through careful control of the reaction conditions, single-phase nanoparticular antimonides were synthesized. The nanophases were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction and (high resolution) electron microscopy. The approach is based on activated metal nanoparticles as precursors for the synthesis of the intermetallic compounds. X-ray powder diffraction studies of reaction intermediates allowed monitoring of the reaction kinetics. The small particle size of the reactants ensures short diffusion paths, low activation barriers, and low reaction temperatures, thereby eliminating solid-solid diffusion as the rate-limiting step in conventional bulk-scale solid-state synthesis. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. Green Chemistry Approach for Synthesis of Effective Anticancer Palladium Nanoparticles. (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, EunSu; Han, Jae Woong; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi


    The purpose of this study was to design and synthesize Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using an environmentally friendly approach and evaluate the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy was used to monitor the conversion of Pd(II) ions to Pd(0)NPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the crystallinity of the as-synthesized PdNPs and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) further confirmed the role of the leaf extract of Evolvulus alsinoides as a reducing and stabilizing agent for the synthesis of PdNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the average size of the NPs was 5 nm. After a 24-h exposure to PdNPs, cell viability and light microscopy assays revealed the dose-dependent toxicity of the PdNPs. Furthermore, the dose-dependent cytotoxicity of the PdNPs was confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, activation of PdNPs-induced autophagy, impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), enhanced caspase-3 activity, and detection of TUNEL-positive cells. Our study demonstrates a single, simple, dependable and green approach for the synthesis of PdNPs using leaf extracts of Evolvulus alsinoides. Furthermore, the in vitro efficacy of PdNPs in human ovarian cancer cells suggests that it could be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer therapy.

  1. Synthesis of indium nanoparticles: digestive ripening under mild conditions. (United States)

    Cingarapu, Sreeram; Yang, Zhiqiang; Sorensen, Christopher M; Klabunde, Kenneth J


    Here we report the synthesis of monodispersed indium nanoparticles by evaporation/condensation of indium shot using the solvated metal atom dispersion (SMAD) technique, followed by digestive ripening in low boiling point (BP 38 °C) methylene chloride and in a high boiling point (BP 110 °C) toluene solvent. The as-prepared SMAD indium nanoparticles are polydispersed with particle size ranging from 25 to 50 nm, but upon digestive ripening (heating of colloidal material at the boiling point of solvent in presence of excess surface active ligands) in methylene chloride, a remarkable reduction of particle size was achieved. In higher boiling solvent (toluene), where the indium nanoparticles at reflux temperature are probably melted, it does not allow the best result, and less monodispersity is achieved. We employed different surface active ligands (amine, phosphine, and mixed ligands) to passivate these indium nanoparticles. The temporal evolution of the surface plasmon of indium nanoparticles was monitored by in situ UV-vis spectroscopy, and particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The merits of this synthesis procedure are the use of bulk indium as starting material, tuning the particle size in low boiling point solvent, particle size adjustment with the choice of ligand, and a possible scale up. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Polar low monitoring (United States)

    Bobylev, Leonid; Zabolotskikh, Elizaveta; Mitnik, Leonid


    passive microwave data make it possible to retrieve several important atmospheric and oceanic parameters inside the polar lows, such as sea surface wind speed, water vapour content in the atmosphere, total liquid water content in the clouds and others, providing not only qualitative image of a vortex, but also quantitative information about these severe events, constituting a promising tool for their study and monitoring. An approach for detection and tracking of polar lows is developed utilizing the data from two sensors: SSM/I onboard DMSP and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) onboard Aqua satellite. This approach consists of two stages. At the first stage total atmospheric water vapor fields are retrieved from SSM/I and AMSRE-E measurement data using precise Arctic polar algorithms, developed at NIERSC. These algorithms are applicable over open water. They have high retrieval accuracies under a wide range of environmental conditions. Algorithms are based on numerical simulation of brightness temperatures and their inversion by means of Neural Networks. At the second stage the vortex structures are detected in these fields, polar lows are identified and tracked and some of their parameters are calculated. A few case studies are comprehensively conducted based on SSM/I and AMSRE-E measurements and using other satellite data including visible, infrared and SAR images, QuickScat Scatterometer wind fields, surface analysis maps and re-analysis data, which demonstrated the advantages of satellite passive microwave data usage in the polar low studies.

  3. Astrobiology - The New Synthesis (United States)

    Sik, A.; Simon, T.

    á vált sötétebb helyekre való költöztetése: mélyen a föld alá helyezik, a forró vulkáni kőzetek hasadékaiba, ahol bőségesen találhatott magának ként, vasat, hidrogént és szenet. A genetikai bizonyítékok alapján a hő- és mélységkedvelők es- 4 nek legközelebb az egyetemes őshöz. [16]. The synthesis Mindezek alapján a földi extremofilek vizsgálata során deríthetjük ki, hogy más égitesteken (egyelőre a Naprendszerben) hol kell keresnünk az életet, és mit kell keresnünk a planetológiai kutatások során egyre jobban megismert szélsőséges környezetekben. Segítségükkel megtudhatjuk, melyek azok az alak- tani, geokémiai, esetleg biokémiai jegyek, amelyek életre utalhatnak; melyek az élet azon alapvető jellemzői, amelyek elég általánosak és biztonsággal kimu- tathatók, milyen műszerekkel kell felszerelnünk a jövő űrszondáit, milyen módszereket kell alkalmaznunk, hogy sikerrel kutathassunk a Földön kívüli élet után. References [1] H. Hargitai et. al., XXXIII. LPSC (2002), Houston, #1261; [2] Origins Roadmap, 2000, JPL; [3] [4] upsand/upsand.html [5] [6] A. Kereszturi, and A. Sik, XXXI. LPSC (2000), Houston, #1216; [7] S. W. Squyres et. al. (1992) in H. H. Kieffer, et. al.: Mars, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 523-554; [8] [9] [10] [11] http://www- marsmets/alh84001/sample.htm [12] P. Davies: The fifth miracle - The search for the origin of life (1998), Orion; [13] M. T. Madigan and B. L. Marrs: Extremophiles, Scientific American (1997), 276, 82-87; [14] J. A. Lake et al.: Methanococcus Genome, Science (1996), 274, 901-905; [15] N. C. Kyrpides and G. J. Olsen: Archaeal and bacterial hyperthermophiles: Horizontal gene exchange or common ancestry?, Trends in

  4. Microminiature thermocouple monitors own installation (United States)

    Garrett, A. J.; Sellers, J. P., Jr.


    Microminiature thermocouple makes precision gas sidewall temperature readings inside large thrust chambers. It is installed by a technique whereby the sensor monitors its own installation to insure against thermal damage to the thermocouple and ensure minimum disturbance to chamber surfaces.

  5. [Therapeutic drug monitoring of antimicrobials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, J.W.; Aarnoutse, R.E.


    The importance of dose adjustments of antimicrobials based on measured concentrations in an individual ('therapeutic drug monitoring', TDM) is increasingly recognized. There are several reasons for this. First, there is a better understanding of the relationships between doses administered,

  6. MCSP Monarch and Plant Monitoring (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The US Fish and Wildlife Service has engaged in a multi-partnered, integrated strategy for monitoring conservation of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus...

  7. Wearable Health Monitoring Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate the feasibility of producing a wearable health monitoring system for the human body that is functional, comfortable,...

  8. Crew Cerebral Oxygen Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase II SBIR proposal is aimed at developing a non-invasive, optical method for monitoring crew member state of awareness in operational environments. All...

  9. Environmental Monitoring Plan - February 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bertoldo, N. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Blake, R. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fish, C. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grayson, A. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Griffin, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jones, H. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Patterson, L. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Revelli, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rosene, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wegrecki, T M; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R


    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection oft/ic Pubile and the Environment. Specifically, environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the hiota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring is also a major component of compliance demonstration for permits and other regulatory requirements.

  10. Monitoring by Control Technique - Cyclone (United States)

    Stationary source emissions monitoring is required to demonstrate that a source is meeting the requirements in Federal or state rules. This page is about cyclone control techniques used to reduce pollutant emissions.

  11. Multispectral Particle Absorption Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase II project concerns the development of a multi-wavelength monitor that will provide rapid, real-time measurement of the...

  12. Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Program Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA uses the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring (UCM) program to collect data for contaminants suspected to be present in drinking water, but that do not have...

  13. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have built and tested an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This sensor sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a few...

  14. Biological Sample Monitoring Database (BSMDBS) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Biological Sample Monitoring Database System (BSMDBS) was developed for the Northeast Fisheries Regional Office and Science Center (NER/NEFSC) to record and...

  15. Multispectral Particle Absorption Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project concerns the development of a multi-wavelength monitor that will provide rapid, real-time measurement of the...

  16. Continuation of superpave projects monitoring. (United States)


    This study involved the continuous monitoring of material properties and field performance of twelve Superpave project sections in Florida for the establishment of reasonable and effective mixture design guidelines and criteria, the identification an...

  17. Crew Cerebral Oxygen Monitor Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposal is aimed at developing a non-invasive, optical method for monitoring the state of consciousness of crew members in operational...

  18. Volunteer Monitoring to Protect Wetlands (United States)

    The involvement of volunteers in ecological monitoring is a realistic, cost-effective, and beneficial way to obtain important information which might otherwise be unavailable due to lack of resources at government agencies.

  19. Interagency Wildeness Character Monitoring Database (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This database houses wilderness measures and measure values to support long-term monitoring of wilderness character on federal lands. It was created through a...

  20. Blood pressure monitors for home (United States)

    ... this page: // Blood pressure monitors for home To use the sharing features ... may ask you to keep track of your blood pressure at home. To do this, you will need ...