Sample records for pseudotsuga menziesii forests

  1. Understorey plant community dynamics following a large, mixed severity wildfire in a Pinus ponderosa-Pseudotsuga menziesii forest, Colorado, USA (United States)

    Paula J. Fornwalt; Merrill R. Kaufman


    In 2002, the Hayman Fire burned across 55 800 ha of Colorado Front Range P. ponderosa-P. menziesii forest. Also burned in the fire were 20 upland and five riparian plots within a 400-ha study area. These plots had been surveyed for understorey plant composition and cover 5-6 yrs prior. We re-measured all plots annually from 2003 to 2007, 1-5 yrs post-fire. Changes in...

  2. Holocene vegetation history and fire regimes of Pseudotsuga menziesii forests in the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve, southwestern British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Lucas, Jennifer D.; Lacourse, Terri


    Pollen analysis of a 9.03-m-long lake sediment core from Pender Island on the south coast of British Columbia was used to reconstruct the island's vegetation history over the last 10,000 years. The early Holocene was characterized by open mixed woodlands with abundant Pseudotsuga menziesii and a diverse understory including Salix and Rosaceae shrubs and Pteridium aquilinum ferns. The establishment of Quercus garryana savanna-woodland with P. menziesii and Acer macrophyllum followed deposition of the Mazama tephra until ~ 5500 cal yr BP, when these communities gave way to modern mixed P. menziesii forest. Charcoal analyses of the uppermost sediments revealed low charcoal accumulation over the last 1300 years with a mean fire return interval (mFRI) of 88 years. Fires were more frequent (mFRI = 50 yr) during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) with warm, dry conditions facilitating a higher fire frequency than during the Little Ice Age, when fires were infrequent. Given the projected warming for the next 50-100 years, land managers considering the reintroduction of fire to the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve may want to consider using the mFRI of the MCA as a baseline reference in prescribed burning strategies.

  3. A taper function for Pseudotsuga menziesii plantations in Spain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five stem taper models belonging to three different taper function categories were fitted to data corresponding to 282 Pseudotsuga menziesii trees. The trees were selected in the area surrounding 61 research plots installed in Galicia, Asturias and the Basque Country, northern Spain. The models were simultaneously fitted ...

  4. Fungal endophytes in woody roots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) (United States)

    J. A. Hoff; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald; Jonalea R. Tonn; Mee-Sook Kim; Paul J. Zambino; Paul F. Hessburg; J. D. Rodgers; T. L. Peever; L. M. Carris


    The fungal community inhabiting large woody roots of healthy conifers has not been well documented. To provide more information about such communities, a survey was conducted using increment cores from the woody roots of symptomless Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) growing in dry forests...

  5. Comparative genetic responses to climate for the varieties of Pinus ponderosa and Pseudotsuga menziesii: realized climate niches (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Barry C. Jaquish; Javier Lopez-Upton; Cuauhtemoc Saenz-Romero; J. Bradley St Clair; Laura P. Leites; Dennis G. Joyce


    The Random Forests classification algorithm was used to predict the occurrence of the realized climate niche for two sub-specific varieties of Pinus ponderosa and three varieties of Pseudotsuga menziesii from presence-absence data in forest inventory ground plots. Analyses were based on ca. 271,000 observations for P. ponderosa and ca. 426,000 observations for P....

  6. Species-mediated soil moisture availability and patchy establishment of Pseudotsuga menziesii in chaparral. (United States)

    Dunne, Jennifer A; Parker, V Thomas


    The occurrence of mature individuals of Pseudotsuga menziesii in stands of Arctostaphylos species mark the initial stages of mixed evergreen forest invasion into chaparral in central coastal California. We planted two cohorts of P. menziesii seeds at three sites under stands of two Arctostaphylos species and Adenostoma fasciculatum in order to determine whether first-year seedling emergence and survival, particularly during the regular summer drought, underlie the spatial distribution of mature trees observed in chaparral. Regardless of the chaparral species they were planted under, P. menziesii seeds that were not protected from vertebrate predation displayed very little emergence and no survival. In contrast, emergence of P. menziesii that were protected from vertebrate predators was much higher but still did not significantly differ among the three chaparral species. However, survival of protected seedlings under Arctostaphylos glandulosa was much greater than under A. fasciculatum, with intermediate survival under Arctostaphylos montana. While mortality of protected seedlings due to insect herbivory, fungal infection, and disturbance displayed no consistent patterns, summer drought mortality appeared to drive the patterns of survival of P. menziesii under the different chaparral species. These emergence, mortality, and survival data suggest that spatial patterns of P. menziesii recruitment in chaparral are driven by first-year summer drought seedling mortality, but only in years when seeds and seedlings are released from vertebrate predation pressure. Because the first-year drought mortality and survival patterns of P. menziesii seedlings differed strongly depending on the chaparral species, we examined the additional hypothesis that these patterns are associated with differences in the availability of soil moisture under different chaparral species. Both higher survival and lower drought mortality of P. menziesii seedlings were associated with higher soil

  7. Origin matters! Difference in drought tolerance and productivity of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)) provenances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilmann, B.; Vries, de S.M.G.; Ouden, den J.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Sauren, P.; Sass, U.G.W.


    Forests of the future should be resistant to exacerbating climatic conditions, especially to increasing drought, but at the same time provide a sufficient amount and quality of timber. In this context coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)) is a promising species since it remains

  8. MORFOGÉNESIS IN VITRO DE Pseudotsuga menziesii VAR. glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Carrillo-Benítez


    Full Text Available Se evaluó la respuesta morfogénica a partir de embriones cigóticos cultivados in vitro de semilla almacenada (un año de Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca recolectada en Tlaxcala. Las semillas fueron desinfestadas con detergente y H2O2 (3 % v/v durante 48 h en agitación a 50 rpm, cultivadas en el medio de Murashige y Skoog (1962 sin reguladores. La germinación ocurrió después de siete días y posteriormente subcultivados a un medio MS con 2,4-D (3 mg·L-1 y BA (1 mg·L-1. Con los callos obtenidos en un medio HS se evaluaron tres concentraciones de ABA para promover formación de estructuras embrionarias, presentándose el mejor tratamiento con concentración de 10.0 mg·L-1 (P<.0001. El mejor desarrollo de plántulas se presentó empleando un medio Murashige y Skoog (1962 con sacarosa al 6 %. Se usaron micorrizas para mejor adaptación de plántulas a suelo. No hubo formación de raíces.

  9. A sex-averaged genetic linkage map in coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb] Franco var menziesii) based on RFLP and RAPD markers (United States)

    K.D. Jermstad; D.L. Bassoni; N.C. Wheeler; D.B. Neale


    We have constructed a sex-averaged genetic linkage map in coastal Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var menziesii) using a three-generation outcrossed pedigree and molecular markers. Our research objectives are to learn about genome organization and to identify markers associated with adaptive traits. The map...

  10. Inter-specific competition in mixed forests of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) under climate change – a model-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyer, C.; Lasch, P.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Sterck, F.J.


    Mixed forests feature competitive interactions of the contributing species which influence their response to environmental change. • We analyzed climate change effects on the inter-specific competition in a managed Douglas-fir/beech mixed forest. • Therefore, we initialised the process-based forest

  11. Variation in phenology and monoterpene patterns of defoliated and nondefoliated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca). (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Judith Engle; Catherine Parks; Boyd. Wickman


    Foliage was collected from paired Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) trees characterized as either "resistant" or "susceptible" western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attack. Resistant trees produced more...

  12. Deriving Fuel Mass by Size Class in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Queen


    Full Text Available Requirements for describing coniferous forests are changing in response to wildfire concerns, bio-energy needs, and climate change interests. At the same time, technology advancements are transforming how forest properties can be measured. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is yielding promising results for measuring tree biomass parameters that, historically, have required costly destructive sampling and resulted in small sample sizes. Here we investigate whether TLS intensity data can be used to distinguish foliage and small branches (≤0.635 cm diameter; coincident with the one-hour timelag fuel size class from larger branchwood (>0.635 cm in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii branch specimens. We also consider the use of laser density for predicting biomass by size class. Measurements are addressed across multiple ranges and scan angles. Results show TLS capable of distinguishing fine fuels from branches at a threshold of one standard deviation above mean intensity. Additionally, the relationship between return density and biomass is linear by fuel type for fine fuels (r2 = 0.898; SE 22.7% and branchwood (r2 = 0.937; SE 28.9%, as well as for total mass (r2 = 0.940; SE 25.5%. Intensity decays predictably as scan distances increase; however, the range-intensity relationship is best described by an exponential model rather than 1/d2. Scan angle appears to have no systematic effect on fine fuel discrimination, while some differences are observed in density-mass relationships with changing angles due to shadowing.

  13. Species richness, abundance, and composition of hypogeous and epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarps in young, rotation-age, and old-growth stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the Cascade Range of Oregon, U.S.A. (United States)

    J.E. Smith; R. Molina; M.M.P. Huso; D.L. Luoma; D. McKay; M.A. Castellano; T. Lebel; Y. Valachovic


    Knowledge of the community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi among successional forest age-classes is critical for conserving fungal species diversity. Hypogeous and epigeous sporocarps were collected from three replicate stands in each of three forest age-classes (young, rotation-age, and old-growth) of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)...

  14. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) populations: I. North Idaho and North-East Washington (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt


    Growth, phenology and frost tolerance of seedlings from 50 populations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) were compared in 12 environments. Statistical analyses of six variables (bud burst, bud set, 3-year height, spring and fall frost injuries, and deviation from regression of 3-year height on 2-year height) showed that populations not only differed in...

  15. Influence of a sand soil plough base on the growth of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) FRANCO).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruber, F; Nick, L

    The root/shoot growth of eight year old Douglas fir trees (Pseudotsuga menziesii (MIRB.) FRANCO) planted on ploughed agricultured land in the first generation was investigated. One half of the field was 60 cm deeply ploughed before afforestation. The second half was not deeply ploughed and was

  16. Effects of seed source origin on bark thickness of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) growing in southwestern Germany (United States)

    Ulrich Kohnle; Sebastian Hein; Frank C. Sorensen; Aaron R. Weiskittel


    Provenance-specific variation in bark thickness in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) is important for accurate volume calculations and might carry ecological implications as well. To investigate variation, diameter at breast height (dbh) and double bark thickness (dbt) were measured in 10 experiments in southwestern Germany (16...

  17. Resin duct size and density as ecophysiological traits in fire scars of Pseudotsuga menziesii and Larix occidentalis. (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Stoffel, Markus; Sutherland, Elaine K; Smith, Kevin T; Falk, Donald A


    Resin ducts (RDs) are features present in most conifer species as defence structures against pests and pathogens; however, little is known about RD expression in trees following fire injury. This study investigates changes in RD size and density in fire scars of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western larch (Larix occidentalis) as a means to evaluate the ecophysiological significance of traumatic resinosis for tree defence and survival. Transverse and tangential microsections were prepared for light microscopy and image analysis in order to analyse axial and radial RDs, respectively. Epithelial cells of RDs and fusiform rays associated with radial RDs were also examined. RDs were compared between normal xylem and wound xylem at four different section heights along the fire-injured stem. Following fire injury, P. menziesii axial RDs narrowed by 38-43 % in the first year after injury, and the magnitude of this change increased with stem height. Larix occidentalis axial RDs widened by 46-50 % in the second year after injury. Radial RDs were of equivalent size in P. menziesii, but widened by 162-214 % in L. occidentalis. Fusiform rays were larger following fire injury, by 4-14 % in P. menziesii and by 23-38 % in L. occidentalis. Furthermore, axial RD density increased in both species due to the formation of tangential rows of traumatic RDs, especially in the first and second years after injury. However, radial RD density did not change significantly. These results highlight traumatic resinosis as a species-specific response. Pseudotsuga menziesii produce RDs of equivalent or reduced size, whereas L. occidentalis produce wider RDs in both the axial and radial duct system, thereby increasing resin biosynthesis and accumulation within the whole tree. Larix occidentalis thus appears to allocate more energy to defence than P. menziesii. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For

  18. Bordered pit structure and function determine spatial patterns of air-seeding thresholds in xylem of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii; Pinaceae) trees. (United States)

    J.C. Domec; B. Lachenbruch; F.C. Meinzer


    The air-seeding hypothesis predicts that xylem embolism resistance is linked directly to bordered pit functioning. We tested this prediction in trunks, roots, and branches at different vertical and radial locations in young and old trees of Pseudotsuga menziesii. Dimensions of bordered pits were measured from light and scanning electron micrographs...

  19. Occurrence of Piloderma fallax in young, rotationage, and old-growth stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the Cascade Range of Oregon, U.S.A. (United States)

    J.E. Smith; R. Molina; M.M.P. Huso; M.J. Larsen


    Yellow mycelia and cords of Piloderma fallax (Lib.) Stalp. were more frequently observed in old-growth stands than in younger managed stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Piloderma fallax frequency and percent cover data were collected from 900 plots in three replicate stands in...

  20. Basal area increment series of dominant trees of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco show periodicity according to global climate patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis U. Castruita-Esparza


    Full Text Available Las especies forestales como Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco son sensibles al clima y muestran anillos de crecimiento claramente definidos. La selección cuidadosa de árboles dominantes con fuste circular permite el análisis de tendencias de crecimiento arbóreo. En este estudio se utilizaron mediciones directas del incremento del área basal (IAB para explicar las periodicidades biológicas y elaborar predicciones del crecimiento en el abeto Douglas-fir que crece en el oeste de México. Para eliminar el efecto de la edad en el crecimiento de los árboles se hizo un análisis en términos de la edad del cámbium. Los resultados mostraron correlación significativa (P < 0.05 entre IAB y la precipitación de enero a julio. Además, se encontraron periodicidades de 7, 21, 27 y 60 años en el crecimiento de los árboles; el periodo de 60 años fue determinante para la construcción de un modelo ARIMA (0,1,1 para realizar predicciones del IAB en las próximas décadas. Las proyecciones del crecimiento proponen una reducción del IAB en árboles maduros dominantes en las próximas décadas. Dicha reducción es un resultado inesperado, debido a que el IAB en árboles dominantes permanece constante hasta una edad biológica de senescencia. Los resultados concuerdan con una tendencia general de reducción en el crecimiento en otros bosques del mundo debido a estrés hídrico, lo cual sugiere que la variabilidad climática futura puede empeorar la condición de salud del abeto Douglas-fir de los bosques del norte de México.

  1. Comparison of Proanthocyanidins and Related Compounds in Leaves and Leaf-Derived Cell Cultures of Ginkgo bioloba L., Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco, and Ribes sanguineum Pursh 1 (United States)

    Stafford, Helen A.; Kreitlow, Kelly S.; Lester, Hope H.


    Proanthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, and their flavanoid precursors in leaves and leaf-derived callus and cell suspension cultures have been isolated and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with C18 columns, paper chromatography, and by chemical and spectrophotometric methods. Cultures of Ginkgo biloba and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) produced much greater amounts of proanthocyanidins than leaves per milligram dry weight. In cultures, however, the prodelphinidin component relative to that of procyanidins decreased; this was most pronounced in Pseudotsuga. In contrast, callus cultures of Ribes sanguineum accumulated proanthocyanidins in amounts about equal to those in intact leaves per milligram dry weight and the prodelphinidin content remained high. Although Ginkgo and Ribes leaves contained major amounts of flavan-3-ols and dimers with the 2,3-cis-stereochemistry, their cultures tended to synthesize 2,3-trans-isomers instead. Glycosides of flavanone and 3-hydroxyflavanone precursors accumulated in medium to high amounts on a dry weight basis in leaves and cultures of Ribes and Pseudotsuga, and the 3′-glycosidic linkage predominated when the latter species was cultured with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid rather than naphthaleneacetic acid. PMID:16665147

  2. Effects of Harvesting Systems and Bole Moisture Loss on Weight Scaling of Douglas-Fir Sawlogs (Pseudotsuga Menziesii var. glauca Franco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarred D. Saralecos


    Full Text Available Characterizing the moisture loss from felled trees is essential for determining weight-to-volume (W-V relationships in softwood sawlogs. Several factors affect moisture loss, but research to quantify the effects of bole size and harvest method is limited. This study was designed to test whether bole size, harvest method, environmental factors, and the associated changes in stem moisture content of felled Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca Franco affected the weight-to-volume relationship of sawlogs. Thirty trees in three size classes (12.7–25.4 cm, 25.5–38.1 cm, 38.2–50.8 cm were felled and treated with one of two harvesting processing methods. Moisture content was sampled every two days for four weeks. Results showed 6% greater moisture loss in the crowns of stems that retained limbs after felling compared to stems with limbs removed after harvesting. Additionally, moisture loss rate increased as stem size decreased. The smallest size class lost 58% moisture content compared to 34% in the largest size class throughout the study duration. These stem moisture content changes showed a 17% reduction in average sawlog weight within the largest size class, shifting current W-V relationships from 2.33 tons m−3 to 1.94 tons m−3 during the third seasonal quarter for northern Idaho Douglas-fir and potentially altering relationships year-round.

  3. Impact of climate change on cold hardiness of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii): Environmental and genetic considerations (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Bradley J. St. Clair; Constance A. Harrington; Peter J. Gould


    The success of conifers over much of the world’s terrestrial surface is largely attributable to their tolerance to cold stress (i.e., cold hardiness). Due to an increase in climate variability, climate change may reduce conifer cold hardiness, which in turn could impact ecosystem functioning and productivity in conifer-dominated forests. The expression of cold...

  4. Análisis de sequías y productividad con cronologías de Pseudotsuga menziesii Rob. & Fern., y su asociación con El Niño en el nordeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rafaela Arreola-Ortiz


    Full Text Available Con tres cronologías de Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco obtenidas en la Sierra Madre Oriental (SMO, en el estado de Nuevo León, México, se determinaron periodos de sequías y productividad analizando el patrón de crecimiento radial durante un lapso de 120 años. Se estudió la asociación entre el índice de crecimiento radial de las cronologías y los registros instrumentales de factores climáticos (precipitación y temperatura, obtenidos de cuatro estaciones meteorológicas vecinas a los sitios de muestreo. Se asociaron las cronologías con el índice multivariado del ENSO (MEI. Los resultados indican que en las cronologías resaltan cuatro periodos de sequías que se presentaron entre los años: 1885-1903, 1907-1937, 1950-1963 y 1998-2003. La productividad disminuye notablemente de 1.18 mm año-1 de crecimiento radial en épocas húmedas a 0.82 mm año-1 durante la presencia de sequías. Existe buena asociación entre el Índice de Crecimiento Radial Estandarizado (ICRE de las cronologías con la precipitación invernal observada. La reconstrucción de la precipitación invernal basada en las cronologías, muestra un ascenso paulatino a través del tiempo, desde 1880 hasta 2003. La correlación del ICRE de las tres cronologías y el MEI presenta buena asociación en la mayoría de los meses del año, principalmente, durante los meses que cubren las estaciones de otoño, invierno y primavera, indicando que el crecimiento del ancho de los anillos se ve favorecido con la presencia de bajas temperaturas y precipitaciones por arriba del promedio durante el invierno o la etapas primarias de la primavera.

  5. Stand-level gas-exchange responses to seasonal drought in very young versus old Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA (United States)

    Sonia Wharton; Matt Schroeder; Ken Bible; Matthias Falk; Kyaw Tha Paw U


    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral (ES) stands (0 to 15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) (~450 to 500 years old) forest in the Wind River Experimental Forest,...

  6. Simulating fuel treatment effects in dry forests of the western United States: testing the principles of a fire-safe forest (United States)

    Morris C. Johnson; Maureen C Kennedy; David L. Peterson


    We used the Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FFE-FVS) to simulate fuel treatment effects on stands in low- to midelevation dry forests (e.g., ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. P. & C. Laws.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) of the western United States. We...

  7. Mixed-severity fire regimes in dry forests of southern interior British Columbia, Canada (United States)

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Ken Lertzman; Carmen M. Wong


    Historical fire severity is poorly characterized for dry forests in the interior west of North America. We inferred a multicentury history of fire severity from tree rings in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) - ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) forests in the southern interior of British Columbia,...

  8. Multi-decadal establishment for single-cohort Douglas-fir forests (United States)

    James A. Freund; Jerry F. Franklin; Andrew J. Larson; James A. Lutz


    The rate at which trees regenerate following stand-replacing wildfire is an important but poorly understood process in the multi-century development of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forests. Temporal patterns of Douglas-fir establishment reconstructed from old-growth forests (>450 year) have...

  9. Interim definitions for old growth Douglas-fir and mixed-conifer forests in the Pacific Northwest and California. (United States)

    J.F. Franklin; F. Hall; W. Laudenslayer; C. Maser; J. Nunan; J. Poppino; C.J. Ralph; T. Spies


    Interim definitions of old-growth forests are provided to guide efforts in land-management planning until comprehensive definitions based on research that is currently underway can be formulated. The basic criteria for identifying old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and mixed-conifer forests in western Washington and...

  10. Guide to fuel treatments in dry forests of the Western United States: assessing forest structure and fire hazard. (United States)

    Morris C. Johnson; David L. Peterson; Crystal L. Raymond


    Guide to Fuel Treatments analyzes a range of fuel treatments for representative dry forest stands in the Western United States with overstories dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), and pinyon pine (Pinus edulis). Six silvicultural options (no thinning; thinning...

  11. Tree microhabitat structures as indicators of biodiversity in Douglas-fir forests of different stand ages and management histories in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A. (United States)

    Alexa K. Michel; Susanne. Winter


    In this study, microhabitat structures in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests were defined and their frequency and abundance in natural stands and stands of varying active management histories and stand ages was compared. Indicator microhabitat structures for natural forests were determined and the relationship of the abundance of...

  12. Modelling dominant height growth in plantations of Pseudotsuga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A model for predicting dominant height growth and site index of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco in Spain was constructed. Data from stem analysis of 117 site trees were used. Four dynamic equations using the algebraic difference approach (ADA) and its generalisation (GADA), which have provided good results in ...

  13. Do remnant old-growth trees accelerate rates of succession in mature Douglas-fir forests? (United States)

    William S. Keeton; Jerry F. Franklin


    Biological legacies left by natural disturbances provide ecological functions throughout forest stand development, but their influences on processes of ecological succession are not completely understood. We investigated the successional role of one type of biological legacy: remnant old-growth trees persisting in mature Pseudotsuga menziesii (...

  14. Tree species is the major factor explaining C:N ratios in European forest soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cools, Nathalie; Vesterdal, Lars; De Vos, Bruno


    .) and eucalyptus, the pine species and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) showed the highest C:N ratios in the mineral soil. The second most important explanatory variable in the forest floor and mineral topsoil was the biogeographical zoning (ecoregion). In the peat topsoil and in the deeper...

  15. Ground-based forest harvesting effects on soil physical properties and Douglas-fir growth. (United States)

    Adrian Ares; Thomas A. Terry; Richard E. Miller; Harry W. Anderson; Barry L. Flaming


    Soil properties and forest productivity can be affected by heavy equipment used for harvest and site preparation but these impacts vary greatly with site conditions and operational practices. We assessed the effects of ground-based logging on soil physical properties and subsequent Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb) Franco] growth on a highly...

  16. Species-specific partitioning of soil water resources in an old-growth Douglas-fir/western hemlock forest. (United States)

    F.C. Meinzer; J.M. Warren; J.R. Brooks


    We studied seasonal courses of soil water utilization in a 450-year-old Pseudotsuga menziesii/Tsuga heterophylla forest. Mean root area in the upper 60 cm of soil was significantly greater in the vicinity of T. heterophylla trees. However, seasonal water extraction on a root area basis was significantly...

  17. Wildlife and invertebrate response to fuel reduction treatments in dry coniferous forests of the Western United States: a synthesis (United States)

    David S. Pilliod; Evelyn L. Bull; Jane L. Hayes; Barbara C. Wales


    This paper synthesizes available information on the effects of hazardous fuel reduction treatments on terrestrial wildlife and invertebrates in dry coniferous forest types in the West. We focused on thinning and/or prescribed fire studies in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and dry-type Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii),...

  18. First report of Fusarium proliferatum causing Fusarium root disease on sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) in a forest container nursery in California (United States)

    J. E. Stewart; K. Otto; G. A. Cline; Kas Dumroese; Ned Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim


    Fusarium species, specifically F. commune, F. proliferatum, and F. solani, can cause severe damping-off and root disease in container and bareroot forest nurseries throughout North America. Many conifer and hardwood species can be affected, but Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western white pine (Pinus monticola), and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) are known to be...

  19. Douglas-fir tussock moth- and Douglas-fir beetle-caused mortality in a ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Ann M. Lynch; Willis C. Schaupp; Vladimir Bocharnikov


    An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir...

  20. Growth and yield of all-aged Douglas-fir -- western hemlock forest stands: a matrix model with stand diversity effects. (United States)

    Jingjing Liang; Joseph Buonglorno; Robert A. Monserud


    A density-dependent matrix model was developed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) -- western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forest stands in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The model predicted the number and volume of trees for 4 species groups and 19 diameter classes. The parameters...

  1. Effective height development of four co-occurring species in the gap-phase regeneration of Douglas fir monocultures under nature-oriented conversion. Forest Ecology and Management, Pages 189-198

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.; Breugel, van M.; Sterck, F.J.


    Natural regeneration in gaps in Douglas fir forest stands in the Netherlands mainly consists of Betula pendula (Roth.), Pinus sylvestris (L.), Larix kaempferi (Carr.), and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco). Even though these species are well known, the autogenic development of these species in an

  2. Douglas-fir forests in the Oregon and Washington Cascades: relation of the herpetofauna to stand age and moisture (United States)

    Bury, R. Bruce; Corn, P.S.


    Pitfall traps effectively sampled amphibians but not reptiles in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests. The abundance of only one amphibian species varied across an age gradient or a moisture gradient. Salamanders and frogs that breed in ponds or streams were captured in large numbers in some stands, likely due to the presence of nearby breeding habitat rather than forest conditions. Lizards occurred mostly in dry stands and clearcuts. Time-constrained searches showed different use of downed woody debris among terrestrial salamanders. The occurrence and abundance of species in naturally regenerated forests markedly differed from clearcut stands.

  3. The Importance of Large-Diameter Trees to Forest Structural Heterogeneity (United States)

    Lutz, James A.; Larson, Andrew J.; Freund, James A.; Swanson, Mark E.; Bible, Kenneth J.


    Large-diameter trees dominate the structure, dynamics and function of many temperate and tropical forests. However, their attendant contributions to forest heterogeneity are rarely addressed. We established the Wind River Forest Dynamics Plot, a 25.6 ha permanent plot within which we tagged and mapped all 30,973 woody stems ≥1 cm dbh, all 1,966 snags ≥10 cm dbh, and all shrub patches ≥2 m2. Basal area of the 26 woody species was 62.18 m2/ha, of which 61.60 m2/ha was trees and 0.58 m2/ha was tall shrubs. Large-diameter trees (≥100 cm dbh) comprised 1.5% of stems, 31.8% of basal area, and 17.6% of the heterogeneity of basal area, with basal area dominated by Tsuga heterophylla and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Small-diameter subpopulations of Pseudotsuga menziesii, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata, as well as all tree species combined, exhibited significant aggregation relative to the null model of complete spatial randomness (CSR) up to 9 m (P≤0.001). Patterns of large-diameter trees were either not different from CSR (Tsuga heterophylla), or exhibited slight aggregation (Pseudotsuga menziesii and Thuja plicata). Significant spatial repulsion between large-diameter and small-diameter Tsuga heterophylla suggests that large-diameter Tsuga heterophylla function as organizers of tree demography over decadal timescales through competitive interactions. Comparison among two forest dynamics plots suggests that forest structural diversity responds to intermediate-scale environmental heterogeneity and disturbances, similar to hypotheses about patterns of species richness, and richness- ecosystem function. Large mapped plots with detailed within-plot environmental spatial covariates will be required to test these hypotheses. PMID:24376579

  4. Flight periodicity of the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Colorado, U.S.A (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Willis C. Schaupp; Lee Pederson


    There are about 500 species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the United States (Wood 1982). A number of them are important disturbance agents in forested ecosystems, occasionally creating large tracts of dead trees. One eruptive species is the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, which utilizes Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga...

  5. Climate-related genetic variation in drought-resistance of Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii ) (United States)

    Sheel Bansal; Constance A. Harrington; Peter J. Gould; J. Bradley St.Clair


    There is a general assumption that intraspecific populations originating from relatively arid climates will be better adapted to cope with the expected increase in drought from climate change. For ecologically and economically important species, more comprehensive, genecological studies that utilize large distributions of populations and direct measures of traits...

  6. Induced compression wood formation in Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in microgravity (United States)

    Kwon, M.; Bedgar, D. L.; Piastuch, W.; Davin, L. B.; Lewis, N. G.


    In the microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Columbia (Life and Microgravity Mission STS-78), were grown 1-year-old Douglas fir and loblolly pine plants in a NASA plant growth facility. Several plants were harnessed (at 45 degrees ) to establish if compression wood biosynthesis, involving altered cellulose and lignin deposition and cell wall structure would occur under those conditions of induced mechanical stress. Selected plants were harnessed at day 2 in orbit, with stem sections of specific plants harvested and fixed for subsequent microscopic analyses on days 8, 10 and 15. At the end of the total space mission period (17 days), the remaining healthy harnessed plants and their vertical (upright) controls were harvested and fixed on earth. All harnessed (at 45 degrees ) plant specimens, whether grown at 1 g or in microgravity, formed compression wood. Moreover, not only the cambial cells but also the developing tracheid cells underwent significant morphological changes. This indicated that the developing tracheids from the primary cell wall expansion stage to the fully lignified maturation stage are involved in the perception and transduction of the stimuli stipulating the need for alteration of cell wall architecture. It is thus apparent that, even in a microgravity environment, woody plants can make appropriate corrections to compensate for stress gradients introduced by mechanical bending, thereby enabling compression wood to be formed. The evolutionary implications of these findings are discussed in terms of "variability" in cell wall biosynthesis.

  7. The spatial influence of Pseudotsuga menziesii retention trees on ectomycorrhiza diversity. (United States)

    D.L. Luoma; C.A. Stockdale; R. Molina; J.L. Eberhart


    This study examines the effect of retained green trees on diversity of mycorrhizal fungi after stand harvest. A significant reduction of mycorrhizal root type richness resulted from the harvest treatment. Samples taken under tree crowns showed no significant decline in the mean number of mycorrhiza types per soil core. In areas well removed from retention trees, there...

  8. Breeding graft-compatible Douglas-fir rootstocks (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). (United States)

    D.L. Copes


    A study encompassing 24 years was conducted to determine if a breeding program could produce highly graft-compatible rootstocks. Twenty-seven trees of apparent high graft compatibility were selected and crossed to produce 226 control-pollinated families. Seedlings were grown, field planted, and grafted with test scions. Graft unions from field tests were evaluated...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Combustible properties of treated douglas wood specimens and fire-retardancy of some preservatives were tested in this study. Crib test of ASTM E 160-150 was followed. Results indicated that, aqueous solutions of boric acid (BA, borax (Bx (Na2BO7 10H2O or BA + Bx mixture (7: 3, w: w had fire retardant efficacy (FRE over untreated wood and reduced the combustibility of vinil monomers (Styrene and methylmetacrylate which were applied as secondary treatment.

  10. Bark Thickness Equations for Mixed-Conifer Forest Type in Klamath and Sierra Nevada Mountains of California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickolas E. Zeibig-Kichas


    Full Text Available We studied bark thickness in the mixed-conifer forest type throughout California. Sampling included eight conifer species and covered latitude and elevation gradients. The thickness of tree bark at 1.37 m correlated with diameter at breast height (DBH and varied among species. Trees exhibiting more rapid growth had slightly thinner bark for a given DBH. Variability in bark thickness obscured differences between sample locations. Model predictions for 50 cm DBH trees of each species indicated that bark thickness was ranked Calocedrus decurrens > Pinus jeffreyi > Pinus lambertiana > Abies concolor > Pseudotsuga menziesii > Abies magnifica > Pinus monticola > Pinus contorta. We failed to find reasonable agreement between our bark thickness data and existing bark thickness regressions used in models predicting fire-induced mortality in the mixed-conifer forest type in California. The fire effects software systems generally underpredicted bark thickness for most species, which could lead to an overprediction in fire-caused tree mortality in California. A model for conifers in Oregon predicted that bark was 49% thinner in Abies concolor and 37% thicker in Pseudotsuga menziesii than our samples from across California, suggesting that more data are needed to validate and refine bark thickness equations within existing fire effects models.

  11. Climate Drives Episodic Conifer Establishment after Fire in Dry Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica T. Rother


    Full Text Available In recent years, warming climate and increased fire activity have raised concern about post-fire recovery of western U.S. forests. We assessed relationships between climate variability and tree establishment after fire in dry ponderosa pine forests of the Colorado Front Range. We harvested and aged over 400 post-fire juvenile ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii trees using an improved tree-ring based approach that yielded annually-resolved dates and then assessed relationships between climate variability and pulses of tree establishment. We found that tree establishment was largely concentrated in years of above-average moisture availability in the growing season, including higher amounts of precipitation and more positive values of the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Under continued climate change, drier conditions associated with warming temperatures may limit forest recovery after fire, which could result in lower stand densities or shifts to non-forested vegetation in some areas.

  12. Douglas fir (pseudotsuga menziesii) plantlets responses to as, PB, and sb-contaminated soils from former mines. (United States)

    Bonet, Amandine; Pascaud, Grégoire; Faugeron, Céline; Soubrand, Marilyne; Joussein, Emmanuel; Gloaguen, Vincent; Saladin, Gaëlle


    Phytoremediation of metalloids by conifers is not widely studied although they may be relevant for several contaminated sites, especially those located in cold areas and sometimes under dry climates. Here, seeds of Douglas fir were sown in greenhouse on three soils collected in two French former mines: a gold mine (soils L1 and L2) and a lead and silver mine (soil P). These soils are highly contaminated by Pb, As, and Sb at different concentrations. Plants were harvested after ten weeks. Growth parameters, primary metabolite content, and shoot and root ionomes were determined. Douglas firs grown on the soils L1 and P had a lower biomass than controls and a higher oxidation status whereas those grown on the soil L2 exhibited a more developed root system and only slight modifications of carbon and nitrogen nutrition. Based on trace element (TE) concentrations in shoots and roots and their translocation factor (TF), Douglas fir could be a relevant candidate for As phytoextraction (0.8 g. kg(-1) dry weight in shoots and a TF of 1.1) and may be used to phytostabilize Pb and Sb (8.8 g and 127 mg. kg(-1) in roots for Pb and Sb, respectively, and TF lower than 0.1).

  13. Comparison between mycocenosis living in forest of Cestnut reforested with Douglas Fir; Confronto tra micocenosi presenti nei boschi di latifoglie e rimboschimenti di Douglasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreotti, A.; Serra, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Brasimone, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Dalla Valle, E.; Govi, G. [Bologna, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Protezione e Valorizzazione Agroalimentare. Centro di Micologia


    In this technical report the results of a first mycological research carried out from 1989 to 1990 in Brasimone in the high Bolognan Appennines (Northern Italy) are shown. The study was taken up by making a comparison between the fungus community living in forest plots with different vegetation; in particular, the mycocenosis of plots reforested with Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga (Mirb.) Franco) with those of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Cestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) woods were compared. The results show that the specific richness clearly decreases form mixed broad-leaved forest (90 species) to the mono specific plantation of P. menziesii (41 species). Particularly in the artificial plantation with exotic trees, there are few symbiont species while the saprophytic wood and litter fungi abound in relationship with the large bulk of undecomposed vegetable material present in these habitats.

  14. Effects of past logging and grazing on understory plant communities in a montane Colorado forest (United States)

    Fornwalt, P.J.; Kaufmann, M.R.; Huckaby, L.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.


    Throughout Pinus ponderosa-Pseudotsuga menziesii forests of the southern Colorado Front Range, USA, intense logging and domestic grazing began at the time of Euro-American settlement in the late 1800s and continued until the early 1900s. We investigated the long-term impacts of these settlement-era activities on understory plant communities by comparing understory composition at a historically logged and grazed site to that of an environmentally similar site which was protected from past use. We found that species richness and cover within functional groups rarely differed between sites in either upland or riparian areas. Multivariate analyses revealed little difference in species composition between sites on uplands, though compositional differences were apparent in riparian zones. Our findings suggest that settlement-era logging and grazing have had only minor long-term impacts on understories of upland Front Range P. ponderosa-P. menziesii forests, though they have had a greater long-term influence on riparian understories, where these activities were likely the most intense. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. Técnicas de inoculación de abeto de Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesi (Mirb.) Franco) con los hongos Ectomicorrícicos y su aplicación en reforestación


    Parladé Izquierdo, Xavier


    Descripció del recurs: el 21 setembre 2011 Pendent El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicación de técnicas de inoculación de platnas de abeto de Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)Franco) con hongos ectomicorrícicos seleccionados para las condiciones españolas, con el objetivo de mejorar la calidad de planta de reforestación. Primeramente se ha realizado un proceso de selección de hongos por hábitat, especie asociada, capacidad de crecimiento en cultivo y formación de mico...

  16. Photosynthetic phenological variation may promote coexistence among co-dominant tree species in a Madrean sky island mixed conifer forest. (United States)

    Potts, D L; Minor, R L; Braun, Z; Barron-Gafford, G A


    Across much of western North America, forests are predicted to experience a transition from snow- to rain-dominated precipitation regimes due to anthropogenic climate warming. Madrean sky island mixed conifer forests receive a large portion of their precipitation from summertime convective storms and may serve as a lens into the future for snow-dominated forests after prolonged warming. To better understand the linkage between physiological traits, climate variation, and the structure and function of mixed conifer forests, we measured leaf photosynthetic (A) responses to controlled variation in internal CO2 concentration (Ci) to quantify interspecific phenological variation in A/Ci-derived ecophysiological traits among ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson and C. Lawson), southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis Engelm.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Species had similar, positive responses in net photosynthesis under ambient conditions (Anet) to the onset of summertime monsoonal precipitation, but during the cooler portions of the year P. ponderosa was able to maintain greater Anet than P. menziesii and P. strobiformis. Moreover, P. ponderosa had greater Anet in response to ephemerally favorable springtime conditions than either P. menziesii or P. strobiformis. Monsoonal precipitation was associated with a sharp rise in the maximum rates of electron transport (Jmax) and carboxylation (VCmax) in P. menziesii in comparison with P. ponderosa and P. strobiformis. In contrast, species shared similar low values of Jmax and VCmax in response to cool winter temperatures. Patterns of relative stomatal limitation followed predictions based on species' elevational distributions, reinforcing the role of stomatal behavior in maintaining hydraulic conductivity and shaping bioclimatic limits. Phenological variation in ecophysiologial traits among co-occurring tree species in a Madrean mixed conifer forest may promote temporal resource partitioning

  17. Climate changes and wildfire alter vegetation of Yellowstone National Park, but forest cover persists (United States)

    Clark, Jason A.; Loehman, Rachel A.; Keane, Robert E.


    We present landscape simulation results contrasting effects of changing climates on forest vegetation and fire regimes in Yellowstone National Park, USA, by mid-21st century. We simulated potential changes to fire dynamics and forest characteristics under three future climate projections representing a range of potential future conditions using the FireBGCv2 model. Under the future climate scenarios with moderate warming (>2°C) and moderate increases in precipitation (3–5%), model simulations resulted in 1.2–4.2 times more burned area, decreases in forest cover (10–44%), and reductions in basal area (14–60%). In these same scenarios, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) decreased in basal area (18–41%), while Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) basal area increased (21–58%). Conversely, mild warming (<2°C) coupled with greater increases in precipitation (12–13%) suggested an increase in forest cover and basal area by mid-century, with spruce and subalpine fir increasing in abundance. Overall, we found changes in forest tree species compositions were caused by the climate-mediated changes in fire regime (56–315% increase in annual area burned). Simulated changes in forest composition and fire regime under warming climates portray a landscape that shifts from lodgepole pine to Douglas-fir caused by the interaction between the magnitude and seasonality of future climate changes, by climate-induced changes in the frequency and intensity of wildfires, and by tree species response.

  18. Range-wide genetic variability in Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii): examining disease resistance, growth, and survival in a common garden study (United States)

    Marianne Elliott; Gary A. Chastagner; Gil Dermott; Alan Kanaskie; Richard A. Sniezko; Jim. Hamlin


    Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii Pursh, Ericaceae) is an important evergreen hardwood species in Pacific Northwest (PNW) forests that provides food and habitat for wildlife and has high value in urban environments. Reeves (2007) indicates that Pacific madrone provides habitat for numerous wildlife species, especially cavity-nesting birds. Its...

  19. Spatial and population characteristics of dwarf mistletoe infected trees in an old-growth Douglas-fir - western hemlock forest. (United States)

    David C. Shaw; Jiquan Chen; Elizabeth A. Freeman; David M. Braun


    We investigated the distribution and severity of trees infected with western hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosendahl) G.N. Jones subsp. tsugense) in an old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.)...

  20. A spatial model for predicting effects of climate change on swiss needle cast disease severity in Pacific Northwest forests (United States)

    Jeffrey K. Stone; Leonard B. Coop; Daniel K. Manter


    Swiss needle cast disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is caused by the ascomycete fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Symptoms of the disease are foliage chlorosis and premature needle abscission due to occlusion of stomata by the ascocarps of the pathogen, resulting in impaired needle gas exchange. Severe defoliation...

  1. Water and Forest Health: Drought Stress as a Core Driver of Forest Disturbances and Tree Mortality in Western North America (United States)

    Allen, C. D.; Williams, P.


    Increasing warmth and dry climate conditions have affected large portions of western North America in recent years, causing elevated levels of both chronic and acute forest drought stress. In turn, increases in drought stress amplify the incidence and severity of the most significant forest disturbances in this region, including wildfire, drought-induced tree mortality, and outbreaks of damaging insects and diseases. Regional patterns of drought stress and various forest disturbances are reviewed, including interactions among climate and the various disturbance processes; similar global-scale patterns and trends of drought-amplified forest die-off and high-severity wildfire also are addressed. New research is presented that derives a tree-ring-based Forest Drought Stress Index (FDSI) for the three most widespread conifer species (Pinus edulis, Pinus ponderosa, and Pseudotsuga menziesii) in the southwestern US (Arizona, New Mexico), demonstrating nonlinear escalation of FDSI to levels unprecedented in the past 1000 years, in response to both drought and especially recent warming. This new work further highlights strong correlations between drought stress and amplified forest disturbances (fire, bark beetle outbreaks), and projects that by ca. 2050 anticipated regional warming will cause mean FDSI levels to reach extreme levels that may exceed thresholds for the survival of current tree species in large portions of their current range. Given recent trends of forest disturbance and projections for substantially warmer temperatures and greater drought stress for much of western North America in coming years, the growing risks to western forest health are becoming clear. This emerging understanding suggests an urgent need to determine potentials and methods for managing water on-site to maintain the vigor and resilience of western forests in the face of increasing levels of climate-induced water stress.

  2. Amsinckia menziesii (Lehm.) Nels. & Macbr. in een graanveld bij Venray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leys, H.N.; Bannink, J.F.


    Amsinckia menziesii (Lehm.) Nels. & Macbr., a species occurring in western North America on moist slopes and fields, open valley floors and hillsides, has been found very rarely in 5 places of our country (Gorinchem 1913, Renesse 1952 and 1958, Wageningen 1963, Blauwkapel 1963, Rockanje 1963). In an

  3. Temporal and spatial changes in soil carbon and nitrogen after clearcutting and burning of an old-growth Douglas-fir forest. (United States)

    Joseph A. Antos; Charles B. Halpern; Richard E. Miller; Kermit Cromack; Melora G. Halaj


    We used 135 permanent plots (4 m2) nested within 15 blocks (121 m2) to quantify changes in concentration and spatial variation of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the mineral soil (0- to 10-cm depth) after logging and broadcast burning of an old-growth, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)...

  4. Structure and Composition of a Dry Mixed-Conifer Forest in Absence of Contemporary Treatments, Southwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Cram


    Full Text Available Dry mixed-conifer forests in the Southwest occupy an important ecological and hydrological role in upper watersheds. In the absence of reoccurring fire and silvicultural treatments over the last 50 years, we quantified forest structure and composition on prevailing north and south aspects of a dry mixed-conifer forest in southcentral New Mexico using mixed models and ordination analysis in preparation for an experiment in ecological restoration. Results indicated overstory and midstory were dominated by Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii and shade tolerant/fire intolerant white fir (Abies concolor with interspersed mature aspen on north aspects, and Douglas-fir and Southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis on south aspects. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, which was historically co-dominant with Douglas-fir on north and south aspects, was subdominant on south aspects and almost entirely absent on north aspects. Regeneration was dominated by white fir saplings and seedlings on north aspects while ponderosa pine was completely absent. South aspect saplings and seedlings were characterized by Douglas-fir and Southwestern white pine, but almost no ponderosa pine. Ordination analysis characterized the effect of aspect on species composition. Understanding contemporary forest structure and composition is important when planning for desired future conditions that are to be achieved through ecological restoration using silvicultural techniques designed to foster resilience.

  5. How much does climate change threaten European forest tree species distributions? (United States)

    Dyderski, Marcin K; Paź, Sonia; Frelich, Lee E; Jagodziński, Andrzej M


    Although numerous species distribution models have been developed, most were based on insufficient distribution data or used older climate change scenarios. We aimed to quantify changes in projected ranges and threat level by the years 2061-2080, for 12 European forest tree species under three climate change scenarios. We combined tree distribution data from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, EUFORGEN, and forest inventories, and we developed species distribution models using MaxEnt and 19 bioclimatic variables. Models were developed for three climate change scenarios-optimistic (RCP2.6), moderate (RCP4.5), and pessimistic (RPC8.5)-using three General Circulation Models, for the period 2061-2080. Our study revealed different responses of tree species to projected climate change. The species may be divided into three groups: "winners"-mostly late-successional species: Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur, and Quercus petraea; "losers"-mostly pioneer species: Betula pendula, Larix decidua, Picea abies, and Pinus sylvestris; and alien species-Pseudotsuga menziesii, Quercus rubra, and Robinia pseudoacacia, which may be also considered as "winners." Assuming limited migration, most of the species studied would face a significant decrease in suitable habitat area. The threat level was highest for species that currently have the northernmost distribution centers. Ecological consequences of the projected range contractions would be serious for both forest management and nature conservation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Species-specific and seasonal differences in chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic light response among three evergreen species in a Madrean sky island mixed conifer forest (United States)

    Potts, D. L.; Minor, R. L.; Braun, Z.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.


    Unlike the snowmelt-dominated hydroclimate of more northern mountainous regions, the hydroclimate of the Madrean sky islands is characterized by snowmelt and convective storms associated with the North American Monsoon. These mid-summer storms trigger biological activity and are important drivers of primary productivity. For example, at the highest elevations where mixed conifer forests occur, ecosystem carbon balance is influenced by monsoon rains. Whereas these storms' significance is increasingly recognized at the ecosystem scale, species-specific physiological responses to the monsoon are poorly known. Prior to and following monsoon onset, we measured pre-dawn and light-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence as well as photosynthetic light response in southwestern white pine (Pinus strobiformis), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) in a Madrean sky island mixed conifer forest near Tucson, Arizona. Photochemical quenching (qp), an indicator of the proportion of open PSII reaction centers, was greatest in P. strobiformis and least in P. menziesii and increased in response to monsoon rains (repeated-measures ANOVA; species, F2,14 = 6.17, P = 0.012; time, F2,14= 8.17, P = 0.013). In contrast, non-photochemical quenching (qN), an indicator of heat dissipation ability, was greatest in P. ponderosa and least in P. menziesii, but was not influenced by monsoon onset (repeated-measures ANOVA; species, F2,12 = 4.18, P = 0.042). Estimated from leaf area-adjusted photosynthetic light response curves, maximum photosynthetic rate (Amax) was greatest in P. ponderosa and least in P. menziesii (repeated-measures ANOVA; species, F2,8= 40.8, P = 0.001). Surprisingly, while the monsoon positively influenced Amax among P. ponderosa and P. strobiformis, Amax of P. menziesii declined with monsoon onset (repeated-measures ANOVA; species x time, F2,8 = 13.8, P = 0.002). Calculated as the initial slope of the photosynthetic light response curve, light

  7. Vine maple (Acer circinatum) clone growth and reproduction in managed and unmanaged coastal Oregon douglas-fir forests (United States)

    O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C.


    Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.

  8. Effect of environmental and cultural conditions on medium pH and explant growth performance of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii shoot cultures [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chih Chen


    Full Text Available The medium pH level of plant tissue cultures has been shown to be essential to many aspects of explant development and growth. Sensitivity or tolerance of medium pH change in vitro varies according to specific requirements of individual species. The objectives of this study are to 1 determine medium pH change over time in storage conditions and with presence of explants, 2 evaluate the effects of medium pH change on explant growth performance and 3 assess the effects of adding a pH stabilizer, 2-(N-morpholinoethanesulfonic acid (MES that is commonly used in Douglas-fir micropropagation medium. Vegetative buds were collected in the spring before breaking dormancy from juvenile and mature donor trees for conducting these evaluations. Medium, with or without MES, was pre-adjusted to five pH levels before adding MES, agar and autoclaving. Medium pH changes and explant growth parameters were measured at eight different incubation times. Overall, MES provided a more stable medium pH, relative to starting pH values, under both light and dark storage conditions as well as with presence of explants. A general trend of decreasing medium pH over time was found comparing explants from juvenile and mature donor genotypes. Explant height and weight growth increased over time, but differ among explants from juvenile and mature donor genotypes. Our findings suggest that a 21-day subculture practice may best sustain medium freshness, medium pH level and desirable explant growth.

  9. Transcriptome Changes in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) Induced by Exposure to Diesel Emissions Generated with CeO2 Nanoparticle Fuel Additive (United States)

    When cerium oxide nanoparticles are added to diesel fuel, fuel burning efficiency increases, producing emissions (DECe) with characteristics that differ from conventional diesel exhaust (DE). It has previously been shown that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects in rats on...

  10. Process-Based Modeling to Assess the Effects of Recent Climatic Variation on Site Productivity and Forest Function across Western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard H. Waring


    Full Text Available A process-based forest growth model, 3-PG (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth, parameterized with values of soil properties constrained by satellite-derived estimates of maximum leaf area index (LAImax, was run for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii to contrast the extent to which site growth potential might vary across western North America between a cool, wet period (1950–1975 and a more recent, generally warmer and drier one (2000–2009. LAImax represents a surrogate for overall site growth potential, as demonstrated from a strong correlation between the two variables, with the latter based on the culmination of mean annual increment estimates made at 3356 ground-based U.S. Forest Service survey plots across the states of Oregon and Washington. Results indicate that since 2000, predicted LAImax has decreased more than 20% in portions of the Southwest USA and for much of the forested area in western Alberta. Similar percentage increases in LAImax were predicted for parts of British Columbia, Idaho and Montana. The modeling analysis included an assessment of changes in seasonal constraints on gross primary production (GPP. A general reduction in limitations caused by spring frost occurred across the entire study area. This has led to a longer growing season, along with notable increases in summer evaporative demand and soil drought for much of the study area away from the maritime influence of the Pacific Ocean.

  11. Building Resilience into Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. Forests in Scotland in Response to the Threat of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Cameron


    Full Text Available It is expected that a warming climate will have an impact on the future productivity of European spruce forests. In Scotland, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr. dominates the commercial forestry sector and there is growing pressure to develop alternative management strategies to limit potential economic losses through climate change. This review considers management options to increase the resilience of Sitka spruce dominated forests in Scotland. Given the considerable uncertainty over the potential long-term impacts of climate change, it is recommended that Sitka spruce should continue to be planted where it already grows well. However, new planting and restocking should be established in mixtures where silviculturally practicable, even if no-thin regimes are adopted, to spread future risks of damage. Three potentially compatible species with Sitka spruce are western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. Sarg., grand fir (Abies grandis (Lamb. Lindl. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and all form natural mixtures in its native range in North America. The predicted windier climate will require a range of management inputs, such as early cutting of extraction racks and early selective thinning, to improve stability. The potential to improve resilience to particularly abiotic damage through transforming even-aged stands into irregular structures and limiting the overall size of the growing stock is discussed.

  12. The effects of Douglas fir monoculture on stand characteristics in a zone of Montane beech forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Olga


    Full Text Available The right choice of tree species to form forest cultures is of paramount importance to the preservation of the diversity, fertility and ecological stability of forest ecosystems. To that end, we examined the effect of a 40-year-long cultivation of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb Franco on the floristic composition, characteristics of the forest floor, physical and chemical properties of the soil and the intensity of organic matter decomposition in a beech forest in western Serbia (Mt. Maljen. It was found that the cultivation of Douglas fir caused a reduction in biodiversity, changes in the chemical properties of the soil, that were most pronounced in the surface layers (0-10 cm, and a slowing down in the metabolism of the beech stand. The absence of many plant species characteristic to natural beech forests was observed in the Douglas fir plantation, these were reflected in the detected changes in the chemical properties of the soil, such as lower substitutional acidity (p<0.05, depletion of the adsorption of basis in the cation complex (p<0.001 and lower amounts of C, N, P (p<0.001 and K (p<0.01 in relation to the beech stand (control. No differences were found in soil moisture and active acidity levels. The higher value of the C/N ratio of the Douglas fir litter (p<0.001 provided proof for its lower decomposition rate compared to beech litter (p<0.05. Over time, all these changes could lead to further acidification and degradation of the soil and a reduction in this ecosystem’s productivity.

  13. A Global Perspective on Warmer Droughts as a Key Driver of Forest Disturbances and Tree Mortality (Invited) (United States)

    Allen, C. D.


    Recent global warming, in concert with episodic droughts, is causing elevated levels of both chronic and acute forest water stress across large regions. Such increases in water stress affect forest dynamics in multiple ways, including by amplifying the incidence and severity of many significant forest disturbances, particularly drought-induced tree mortality, wildfire, and outbreaks of damaging insects and diseases. Emerging global-scale patterns of drought-related forest die-off are presented, including a newly updated map overview of documented drought- and heat-induced tree mortality events from around the world, demonstrating the vulnerability of all major forest types to forest drought stress, even in typically wet environments. Comparative patterns of drought stress and associated forest disturbances are reviewed for several regions (southwestern Australia, Inner Asia, western North America, Mediterranean Basin), including interactions among climate and various disturbance processes. From the Southwest USA, research is presented that derives a tree-ring-based Forest Drought Stress Index (FDSI) for the most regionally-widespread conifer species (Pinus edulis, Pinus ponderosa, and Pseudotsuga menziesii), demonstrating recent escalation of FDSI to extreme levels relative to the past 1000 years, due to both drought and especially warming. This new work further highlights strong correlations between drought stress and amplified forest disturbances (fire, bark beetle outbreaks), and projects that by CE 2050 anticipated regional warming will cause mean FDSI values to reach historically unprecedented levels that may exceed thresholds for the survival of current tree species in large portions of their current range in the Southwest. Similar patterns of recent climate-amplified forest disturbance risk are apparent from a variety of relatively dry regions across this planet, and given climate projections for substantially warmer temperatures and greater drought stress

  14. Comparison of Wood Quality of Douglas Fir and Spruce from Afforested Agricultural Land and Permanent Forest Land in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Zeidler


    Full Text Available This study compares the quality of wood from two distinct sites in the Czech Republic—from former afforested agricultural land and forest land. We compared the properties of Norway spruce wood (Picea abies Karst. and Scots pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L., the most important domestic tree species, to Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel Franco, a North American tree species and a potential substitute for the domestic spruce. Wood density, modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR and impact bending strength were the properties tested that were used for comparing tree species. Without taking into consideration the site, the highest density values from the tested tree species were obtained for Douglas fir (0.568 g·cm−3, followed by the pine (0.508 g·cm−3 and the spruce (0.463 g·cm−3. The Douglas fir also dominated in the remaining assessed properties, whilst the influence of site was not confirmed, with the exception of MOE and MOR, and only for the Douglas fir wood, wherein higher values were obtained for forest land. In terms assessed Douglas fir properties, it exceeds the domestic softwoods and represents a possible suitable replacement for them. The site only plays a role in terms of the Douglas fir, and only for certain properties.

  15. Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of 15N-labeled leaf, root, and twig litter in temperate coniferous forests (United States)

    van Huysen, Tiff L.; Harmon, Mark E.; Perakis, Steven S.; Chen, Hua


    Litter nutrient dynamics contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems. We examined how site environment and initial substrate quality influence decomposition and nitrogen (N) dynamics of multiple litter types. A 2.5-year decomposition study was installed in the Oregon Coast Range and West Cascades using 15N-labeled litter from Acer macrophyllum, Picea sitchensis, and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Mass loss for leaf litter was similar between the two sites, while root and twig litter exhibited greater mass loss in the Coast Range. Mass loss was greatest from leaves and roots, and species differences in mass loss were more prominent in the Coast Range. All litter types and species mineralized N early in the decomposition process; only A. macrophyllum leaves exhibited a net N immobilization phase. There were no site differences with respect to litter N dynamics despite differences in site N availability, and litter N mineralization patterns were species-specific. For multiple litter × species combinations, the difference between gross and net N mineralization was significant, and gross mineralization was 7–20 % greater than net mineralization. The mineralization results suggest that initial litter chemistry may be an important driver of litter N dynamics. Our study demonstrates that greater amounts of N are cycling through these systems than may be quantified by only measuring net mineralization and challenges current leaf-based biogeochemical theory regarding patterns of N immobilization and mineralization.

  16. WestProPlus: a stochastic spreadsheet program for the management of all-aged Douglas-fir–hemlock forests in the Pacific Northwest. (United States)

    Jingjing Liang; Joseph Buongiorno; Robert A. Monserud


    WestProPlus is an add-in program developed to work with Microsoft Excel to simulate the growth and management of all-aged Douglas-fir–western hemlock (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco–Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands in Oregon and Washington. Its built-in growth model was calibrated from 2,706 permanent plots in the...

  17. Responses of the lichen Ramalina menziesii Tayl. to ozone fumigations (United States)

    J. Riddell; T.H. Nash; P. Padgett


    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a strong oxidant, and is known to have serious negative effects on forest health. Lichens have bccn used as biomonitors of the effects of air pollution on forest health for sulfur and nitrogen pollutants. However, effects of O3 on lichens are not well understood, as past fumigation studies and...

  18. Carbon storage as affected by different site preparation techniques two years after mixed forest stand installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Fonseca


    Full Text Available Aim of study: This study aims at evaluating the impact of site preparation techniques prior to plantation on carbon storage and distribution in a young mixed stand of Pseudotsuga menziesii (PM and Castanea sativa (CS. Area of study: The experimental field was established near Macedo de Cavaleiros, Northern Portugal, at 700 m elevation, mean annual temperature 12ºC and mean annual rainfall 678 mm. Material and Methods: The experimental layout includes three replicates, where the different treatments corresponding to different tillage intensities were randomly distributed (high, moderate and slight intensity, in plots with an area of 375 m2 each. Twenty six months after forest stand installation, samples of herbaceous vegetation (0.49 m2 quadrat, forest species (8 PM and 8 CS and mineral soil (at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm depth were collected in 15 randomly selected points in each treatment, processed in laboratory and analyzed for carbon by elemental carbon analyzer. Main results: The results obtained showed that: (i more than 90% of the total carbon stored in the system is located in the soil, increasing in depth with tillage intensity; (ii the contribution of herbaceous vegetation and related roots to the carbon storage is very low; (iii the amount of carbon per tree is higher in CS than in PM; (iv the global carbon storage was affected by soil tillage generally decreasing with the increase of tillage intensity. Accordingly, carbon storage capacity as affected by the application of different site preparation techniques should be a decision support tool in afforestation schemes.Keywords: Site preparation; forest species; herbaceous vegetation; carbon storage; mineral soil; Portugal.

  19. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón


    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  20. Carbon storage as affected by different site preparation techniques two years after mixed forest stand installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, F.; Figueiredo, T. de; Martins, A.


    Aim of study: This study aims at evaluating the impact of site preparation techniques prior to plantation on carbon storage and distribution in a young mixed stand of Pseudotsuga menziesii (PM) and Castanea sativa (CS). Area of study: The experimental field was established near Macedo de Cavaleiros, Northern Portugal, at 700 m elevation, mean annual temperature 12 degree centigrade and mean annual rainfall 678 mm. Material and methods: The experimental layout includes three replicates, where the different treatments corresponding to different tillage intensities were randomly distributed (high, moderate and slight intensity), in plots with an area of 375 m{sup 2} each. Twenty six months after forest stand installation, samples of herbaceous vegetation (0.49 m{sup 2} quadrat), forest species (8 PM and 8 CS) and mineral soil (at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm depth) were collected in 15 randomly selected points in each treatment, processed in laboratory and analyzed for carbon by elemental carbon analyzer. Main results: The results obtained showed that: (i) more than 90% of the total carbon stored in the system is located in the soil, increasing in depth with tillage intensity; (ii) the contribution of herbaceous vegetation and related roots to the carbon storage is very low; (iii) the amount of carbon per tree is higher in CS than in PM; (iv) the global carbon storage was affected by soil tillage generally decreasing with the increase of tillage intensity. Accordingly, carbon storage capacity as affected by the application of different site preparation techniques should be a decision support tool in afforestation schemes. (Author)

  1. Using LiDAR Metrics to Characterize Forest Structural Complexity at Multiple Scales (United States)

    Kane, V. R.; McGaughey, R. J.; Gersonde, R.; Franklin, J. F.


    Forest structure - the size and arrangement of trees and foliage - reflects a stand's history of initiation, growth, disturbance, and mortality. Because of this, studying the structure of forests can provide key insights into ecological processes, guides to silvicultural prescriptions to improve habitat, and assessments of forested landscapes. This study tested LiDAR metrics to characterize stands based on canopy structure. The study site was the 34,591 ha of forests in the Cedar River Watershed in western Washington State, USA. Stands ranged in age from 350 years old (including old-growth). Study sites spanned the western hemlock- Douglas fir (Tsuga heterophylla-Pseudotsuga menziesii), Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), and mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertansiana) forest zones. Eighty sample plots were used to ground truth the LiDAR data. A variety of structural indices were used to study canopy structural variations at the plot, stand, and landscape scales. The two most successful indices used the exposed geometry of the canopy surface: (1) the ratio of the canopy surface area to ground surface area (rumple index), and (2) the ratio of the volume beneath the canopy surface to maximum volume beneath the 95th percentile height (modified canopy volume method). These two indices integrated the spatial effects of tree heights, foliage distribution, and tree arrangement within 15m pixels. Variation between pixels revealed structural complexity at larger scales. Results: At the plot scale (~4 pixels), correlations with standard plot metrics (e.g., diameter at breast height) were similar to those reported by other studies. Comparison of structural complexity with age and height revealed a diversity of development pathways. The relationship between height and complexity allowed stands to be classified by the degree to which they have achieved their potential structural complexity, a new way to examine forest development. At the stand scale, the indices allowed spatial

  2. Organo-mineral interactions promote greater soil organic carbon stability under aspen in semi-arid montane forests in Utah (United States)

    Van Miegroet, H.; Roman Dobarco, M.


    Forest species influence soil organic carbon (SOC) storage through litter input, which in interaction with soil microclimate, texture and mineralogy, lead to different SOC stabilization and storage patterns. We sampled mineral soil (0-15 cm) across the ecotone between aspen (Populus tremuloides) and mixed conifers stands (Abies lasiocarpa and Pseudotsuga menziesii) in semi-arid montane forests from Utah, to investigate the influence of vegetation vs. site characteristics on SOC stabilization, storage and chemistry. SOC was divided into light fraction (LF), mineral-associated SOC in the silt and clay fraction (MoM), and a dense subfraction > 53 μm (SMoM) using wet sieving and electrostatic attraction. SOC decomposability and solubility was derived from long term laboratory incubations and hot water extractions (HWE). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to study differences in chemical functional groups in LF and MoM. Vegetation cover did not affect SOC storage (47.0 ± 16.5 Mg C ha-1), SOC decomposability (cumulative CO2-C release of 93.2 ± 65.4 g C g-1 C), or SOC solubility (9.8 ± 7.2 mg C g-1 C), but MoM content increased with presence of aspen [pure aspen (31.2 ± 15.1 Mg C ha-1) > mixed (25.7 ± 8.8 Mg C ha-1) > conifer (22.8 ± 9.0 Mg C ha-1)]. Organo-mineral complexes reduced biological availability of SOC, indicated by the negative correlation between silt+clay (%) and decomposable SOC per gram of C (r = -0.48, p = 0.001) or soluble SOC (r = -0.59, p molecules (e.g., polysaccharides) of plant or microbial origin. FTIR spectra clustered by sites with similar parent material rather than by vegetation cover. This suggests that initial differences in litter chemistry between aspen and conifers converged into similar MoM chemistry within sites.

  3. Forests (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz


    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  4. Current net ecosystem exchange of CO2 in a young mixed forest: any heritage from the previous ecosystem? (United States)

    Violette, Aurélie; Heinesch, Bernard; Erpicum, Michel; Carnol, Monique; Aubinet, Marc; François, Louis


    For 15 years, networks of flux towers have been developed to determine accurate carbon balance with the eddy-covariance method and determine if forests are sink or source of carbon. However, for prediction of the evolution of carbon cycle and climate, major uncertainties remain on the ecosystem respiration (Reco, which includes the respiration of above ground part of trees, roots respiration and mineralization of the soil organic matter), the gross primary productivity (GPP) and their difference, the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of forests. These uncertainties are consequences of spatial and inter-annual variability, driven by previous and current climatic conditions, as well as by the particular history of the site (management, diseases, etc.). In this study we focus on the carbon cycle in two mixed forests in the Belgian Ardennes. The first site, Vielsalm, is a mature stand mostly composed of beeches (Fagus sylvatica) and douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) from 80 to 100 years old. The second site, La Robinette, was covered before 1995 with spruces. After an important windfall and a clear cutting, the site was replanted, between 1995 and 2000, with spruces (Piceas abies) and deciduous species (mostly Betula pendula, Aulnus glutinosa and Salix aurita). The challenge here is to highlight how initial conditions can influence the current behavior of the carbon cycle in a growing stand compared to a mature one, where initial conditions are supposed to be forgotten. A modeling approach suits particularly well for sensitivity tests and estimation of the temporal lag between an event and the ecosystem response. We use the forest ecosystem model ASPECTS (Rasse et al., Ecological Modelling 141, 35-52, 2001). This model predicts long-term forest growth by calculating, over time, hourly NEE. It was developed and already validated on the Vielsalm forest. Modelling results are confronted to eddy-covariance data on both sites from 2006 to 2011. The main difference between both

  5. Simulation of carbon and water budgets of a Douglas-fir forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van M.T.; Dekker, S.C.; Bouten, W.; Kohsiek, W.; Mohren, G.M.J.


    The forest growth/hydrology model FORGRO–SWIF, consisting of a forest growth and a soil water model, was applied to quantify the inter-annual variability of the carbon and water budgets of a Douglas-fir forest (Pseudotsuga menziessii (Mirb.) Franco) in The Netherlands. With these budgets, the water

  6. Ecohydrological and Biophysical Controls on Carbon Cycling in Two Seasonally Snow-covered Forests (United States)

    Chan, A. M.; Brooks, P. D.; Burns, S. P.; Litvak, M. E.; Blanken, P.; Bowling, D. R.


    In many seasonally snow-covered forests, the snowpack is the primary water resource. The snowpack also serves as an insulating layer over the soil, warming soil throughout the winter and preserving moisture conditions from the preceding fall. Therefore, the total amount of water in the snowpack as well as the timing and duration of the snow-covered season are likely to have a strong influence on forest productivity through the regulation of the biophysical environment. We investigated how interannual variation in the amount and timing of seasonal snow cover affect winter carbon efflux and growing season carbon uptake at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site (NWT) in Colorado (3050m a.s.l.; 40˚N) and the Valles Caldera Mixed-Conifer AmeriFlux site (VC) in New Mexico (3003m a.s.l.; 36˚N). The tree species composition at NWT is dominated by Abies lasiocarpa, Picea engelmannii, and Pinus contorta. At VC, the dominant tree species are Pseudotsuga menziesii, Abies concolor, Picea pungens, Pinus strobiformis, Pinus flexilis, Pinus ponderosa, and Populus tremuloides. We used net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and climate data from 1999-2012 at NWT and 2007-2012 at VC to divide each year into the growing season, when NEE is negative, and the winter, when NEE is positive. Snow water equivalent (SWE), precipitation, and duration of snow cover data were obtained from USDA/NRCS SNOTEL sites near each forest. At both sites, the start of the growing season was strongly controlled by air temperature, but growing season NEE was not dependent on the length of the growing season. At NWT, total winter carbon efflux was strongly influenced by both the amount and duration of the snowpack, measured as SWE integrated over time. Years with higher integrated SWE had higher winter carbon efflux and also had warmer soil under the snowpack. These patterns were not seen at VC. However, peak SWE amount was positively correlated with growing season NEE at VC, but not at NWT. These results suggest that

  7. Current seed orchard techniques and innovations (United States)

    Lawrence K. Miller; Jeffrey DeBell


    As applied forest tree improvement programs in the US Northwest move forward into the third cycle, seed orchards remain as the primary source of genetically improved forest tree seed used for reforestation. The vast majority of seed orchards in this region are coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), consistent with the high economic importance of...

  8. The 2002 Hayman Fire - ecological benefit or catastrophe? An understory plant community perspective (United States)

    Paula Fornwalt


    Fire has long been a keystone ecological process in Western forests. In ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)/Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests of the Colorado Front Range, historical fires are believed to have been "mixed severity" in nature. That means that these fires are believed to have typically burned within a range of severities from low severity...

  9. Riparian microclimate and stream temperature: thinning and buffer-width influences (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson


    Th inning of 30- to 70-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands is a common silvicultural activity on federal forest lands in Washington and Oregon west of the Cascade Range crest. Decreases in forest cover lead to alterations of site energy balances resulting in changes to understory and stream channel microclimates. Uncut vegetative...

  10. Stand-Level Gas-Exchange Responses to Seasonal Drought in Very Young Versus Old Douglas-fir Forests of the Pacific Northwest, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S; Schroeder, M; Bible, K; Falk, M; Paw U, K T


    This study examines how stand age affects ecosystem mass and energy exchange response to seasonal drought in three adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests. The sites include two early seral stands (ES) (0-15 years old) and an old-growth (OG) ({approx} 450-500) forest in the Wind River Experiment Forest, Washington, USA. We use eddy covariance flux measurements of carbon dioxide (F{sub NEE}), latent energy ({lambda}E) and sensible heat (H) to derive evapotranspiration rate (E{sub T}), bowen ratio ({beta}), water use efficiency (WUE), canopy conductance (G{sub c}), the Priestley-Taylor coefficient ({alpha}) and a canopy decoupling factor ({Omega}). The canopy and bulk parameters are examined to see how ecophysiological responses to water stress, including changes in available soil water ({theta}{sub r}) and vapor pressure deficit ({delta}e) differ among the two forest successional-stages. Despite very different rainfall patterns in 2006 and 2007, we observed distinct successional-stage relationships between E{sub T}, {alpha}, and G{sub c} to {delta}e and {theta}{sub r} during both years. The largest stand differences were (1) higher morning G{sub c} (> 10 mm s{sup -1}) at the OG forest coinciding with higher CO{sub 2} uptake (F{sub NEE} = -9 to -6 {micro}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) but a strong negative response in G{sub c} to moderate {delta}e later in the day and a subsequent reduction in E{sub T}, and (2) higher E{sub T} at the ES stands because midday canopy conductance did not decrease until very low water availability levels (<30%) were reached at the end of the summer. Our results suggest that early seral stands are more likely than mature forests to experience declines in production if the summer drought becomes longer or intensifies because water conserving ecophysiological responses were only observed at the very end of the seasonal drought period in the youngest stands.

  11. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang


    Full Text Available Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L., Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels in Douglas fir and, particularly, in Scots pine. The ratio between bulk foliar concentrations of NH4+ and H+, which is an indicator of the NH3 emission potential, reflected differences in foliage N concentration, with beech having the highest values followed by Douglas fir and Scots pine. Irrespectively of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech, higher foliage longevity (fir or both (boreal pine forest. In combination with data from a literature review, a general relationship of decreasing N re

  12. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies (United States)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, A.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Arnoud Frumau, K. F.; Wu, J.; Pihlatie, M.; Schjoerring, J. K.


    Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N) parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels in Douglas fir and, particularly, in Scots pine. The ratio between bulk foliar concentrations of NH4+ and H+, which is an indicator of the NH3 emission potential, reflected differences in foliage N concentration, with beech having the highest values followed by Douglas fir and Scots pine. Irrespectively of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech), higher foliage longevity (fir) or both (boreal pine forest). In combination with data from a literature review, a general relationship of decreasing N re-translocation efficiency with the time needed for canopy renewal was deduced, showing that leaves which live longer re

  13. Non-Linear Nitrogen Cycling and Ecosystem Calcium Depletion Along a Temperate Forest Soil Nitrogen Gradient (United States)

    Sinkhorn, E. R.; Perakis, S. S.; Compton, J. E.; Cromack, K.; Bullen, T. D.


    Understanding how N availability influences base cation stores is critical for assessing long-term ecosystem sustainability. Indices of nitrogen (N) availability and the distribution of nutrients in plant biomass, soil, and soil water were examined across ten Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stands spanning a three-fold soil N gradient (0-10 cm: 0.21 - 0.69% N, 0-100 cm: 9.2 - 28.8 Mg N ha-1) in the Oregon Coast Range. This gradient is largely the consequence of historical inputs from N2-fixing red alder stands that can add 100-200 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to the ecosystem for decades. Annual net N mineralization and litterfall N return displayed non-linear relationships with soil N, increasing initially, and then decreasing as N-richness increased. In contrast, nitrate leaching from deep soils increased linearly across the soil N gradient and ranged from 0.074 to 30 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Soil exchangeable Ca, Mg, and K pools to 1 m depth were negatively related to nitrate losses across sites. Ca was the only base cation exhibiting concentration decreases in both plant and soil pools across the soil N gradient, and a greater proportion of total available ecosystem Ca was sequestered in aboveground plant biomass at high N, low Ca sites. Our work supports a hierarchical model of coupled N-Ca cycles across gradients of soil N enrichment, with microbial production of mobile nitrate anions leading to depletion of readily available Ca at the ecosystem scale, and plant sequestration promoting Ca conservation as Ca supply diminishes. The preferential storage of Ca in aboveground biomass at high N and low Ca sites, while critical for sustaining plant productivity, may also predispose forests to Ca depletion in areas managed for intensive biomass removal. Long-term N enrichment of temperate forest soils appears capable of sustaining an open N cycle and key symptoms of N-saturation for multiple decades after the cessation of elevated N inputs.

  14. Effects of partial harvest on the carbon stores in Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests: a simulation study (United States)

    Mark E. Harmon; Adam Moreno; James B. Domingo


    The STANDCARB 2.0 model was used to examine the effects of partial harvest of trees within stands on forest-related carbon (C) stores in a typical Pacific Northwest Pseudotsuga/Tsuga forest. For harvest rotation intervals of 20 to 250 years the effect of completely dispersed (that is, a checkerboard) versus completely aggregated cutting patterns (...

  15. 'Natural background' soil water repellency in conifer forests of the north-western USA: Its prediction and relationship to wildfire occurrence (United States)

    Doerr, S.H.; Woods, S.W.; Martin, D.A.; Casimiro, M.


    Soils under a wide range of vegetation types exhibit water repellency following the passage of a fire. This is viewed by many as one of the main causes for accelerated post-fire runoff and soil erosion and it has often been assumed that strong soil water repellency present after wildfire is fire-induced. However, high levels of repellency have also been reported under vegetation types not affected by fire, and the question arises to what degree the water repellency observed at burnt sites actually results from fire. This study aimed at determining 'natural background' water repellency in common coniferous forest types in the north-western USA. Mature or semi-mature coniferous forest sites (n = 81), which showed no evidence of recent fires and had at least some needle cast cover, were sampled across six states. After careful removal of litter and duff at each site, soil water repellency was examined in situ at the mineral soil surface using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) method for three sub-sites, followed by collecting near-surface mineral soil layer samples (0-3 cm depth). Following air-drying, samples were further analyzed for repellency using WDPT and contact angle (??sl) measurements. Amongst other variables examined were dominant tree type, ground vegetation, litter and duff layer depth, slope angle and aspect, elevation, geology, and soil texture, organic carbon content and pH. 'Natural background' water repellency (WDPT > 5 s) was detected in situ and on air-dry samples at 75% of all sites examined irrespective of dominant tree species (Pinus ponderosa, Pinus contorta, Picea engelmanii and Pseudotsuga menziesii). These findings demonstrate that the soil water repellency commonly observed in these forest types following burning is not necessarily the result of recent fire but can instead be a natural characteristic. The notion of a low background water repellency being typical for long-unburnt conifer forest soils of the north-western USA is

  16. Effect of tree-growth rate on papermaking fibre properties (United States)

    J. Y. Zhu; D. W. Vahey; C. T. Scott; G. C. Myers


    Measurements of wood density and anatomical properties of wood disks were conducted by SilviScan (CSIRO Australia) and a new imaging technique. The disks included red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) obtained from a never-thinned experimental forest with five different plantation densities and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and lodgepole...

  17. The wind stability of different silvicultural systems for Douglas-fir in The Netherlands: a model-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, M.J.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate different silvicultural systems for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Netherlands in terms of timber production and wind stability over a full rotation. This was done using the forest genetics, ecology, management and wind model

  18. Occurrence of shrubs and herbaceous vegetation after clear cutting old-growth Douglas-fir in the Oregon Cascades. (United States)

    Vern P. Yerkes


    Land managers often express a need for more complete information about the vegetative cover that develops on cutover areas between harvest of old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and establishment of a young-growth forest. The composition and density of this cover frequently determines the management techniques that must be used to...


    Global climatic change as expressed by increased CO2 and temperature has the potential for dramatic effects on trees. To determine what its effects may be on Pacific Northwest forests, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings were grown in sun-lit controlled environment cham...

  20. Growing reforestation conifer stock: Utilizing peat/sawdust medium (United States)

    Janice K. Schaefer


    Western Forest Systems, Incorporated (WFS) (Lewiston, ID) has been utilizing a peat/sawdust blended mix as our growing medium for the past 10 years. Our decision to change from a peat/vermiculite blend to a peat/Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) sawdust blend involved worker health and safety issues, seedling culture, seedling production, and...

  1. Height-growth response to climatic changes differs among populations of Douglas-fir: A novel analysis of historic data (United States)

    Laura P. Leites; Andrew P. Robinson; Gerald E. Rehfeldt; John D. Marshall; Nicholas L. Crookston


    Projected climate change will affect existing forests, as substantial changes are predicted to occur during their life spans. Species that have ample intraspecific genetic differentiation, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), are expected to display population-specific growth responses to climate change. Using a mixed-effects modeling approach,...

  2. Disturbance impacts on understory plant communities of the Colorado Front Range (United States)

    Paula J. Fornwalt


    Pinus ponderosa - Pseudotsuga menziesii (ponderosa pine - Douglas-fir) forests of the Colorado Front Range have experienced a range of disturbances since they were settled by European-Americans approximately 150 years ago, including settlement-era logging and domestic grazing, and more recently, wildfire. In this dissertation, I...

  3. Dynamic phenotypic plasticity in photosynthesis and biomass patterns in Douglas-fir seedlings (United States)

    A. C. Koehn; G. I. McDonald; D. L. Turner; D. L. Adams


    As climate changes, understanding the mechanisms long-lived conifers use to adapt becomes more important. Light gradients within a forest stand vary constantly with the changes in climate, and the minimum light required for survival plays a major role in plant community dynamics. This study focuses on the dynamic plasticity of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var....

  4. Large wood recruitment and redistribution in headwater streams in the southern Oregon Coast Range, U.S.A. (United States)

    C. L. May; R. E. Gresswell


    Abstract - Large wood recruitment and redistribution mechanisms were investigated in a 3.9 km 2 basin with an old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. Forest, located in the southern Coast Range of Oregon. Stream size and topographic setting strongly influenced processes that delivered wood to the channel network. In small...

  5. Fire and mice: Seed predation moderates fire's influence on conifer recruitment (United States)

    Rafal Zwolak; Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; Elizabeth E. Crone


    In fire-adapted ecosystems, fire is presumed to be the dominant ecological force, and little is known about how consumer interactions influence forest regeneration. Here, we investigated seed predation by deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) and its effects on recruitment of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings in unburned...

  6. Soil compaction and organic matter affect conifer seedling nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal root tip abundance and diversity. (United States)

    Michael P. Amaranthus; Debbie Page-Dumroese; Al Harvey; Efren Cazares; Larry F. Bednar


    Three levels of organic matter removal (bole only; bole and crowns; and bole, crowns, and forest floor) and three levels of mechanical soil compaction (no compaction, moderate compaction, and severe soil compaction) were studied as they influence Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) and western white...

  7. Discerning responses of down wood and understory vegetation abundance to riparian buffer width and thinning treatments: an equivalence-inequivalence approach (United States)

    Paul D. Anderson; Mark A. Meleason


    We investigated buffer width and thinning effects on the abundance of down wood and understory vegetation in headwater stream catchments of 40- to 65-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) forests in western Oregon, USA. Small-wood cover became more homogeneous among stream reaches within 5 years following thinning, primarily...

  8. Cherry Creek Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 41 (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Jennie Sperling; Tim. Rodenkirk


    This guidebook describes Cherry Creek Research Natural Area, a 239-ha (590-ac) area that supports old-growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock (Pseudotsuga menziesii- Tsuga heterophylla) forest occurring on sedimentary materials in the southern Oregon Coast Range. Major plant associations present within the area include the western hemlock/Oregon oxalis...

  9. Monoterpene emissions from a Pacific Northwest Old-Growth Forest and impact on regional biogenic VOC emission estimates (United States)

    Pressley, Shelley; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Guenther, Alex; Chen, Jack; Allwine, Eugene

    Measurements of natural hydrocarbon emission rates are reported for an old-growth Pacific Northwest coniferous forest. The emission data were collected for the two dominant species Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) during the growing season in 1997 and 1998 using branch enclosure techniques. Samples were collected at different heights from 13 to 51 m within the canopy using the Wind River Canopy Crane facility. The standard emission factor at a temperature of 30°C and the temperature coefficient for Douglas-fir is Es=0.39±0.14 μg C g -1 h -1 and β=0.14±0.05°C -1 and for western hemlock Es=0.95±0.17 μg C g -1 h -1 and β=0.06±0.02°C -1. There was considerable variability among all the emission factors due to seasonal and branch-to-branch variations. Within season emission factors appear to decline from May to September for the Douglas-fir, although there was no corresponding decrease for the western hemlock. There was no significant difference in standard emission factors ( Es) or temperature coefficients as a function of sunlit versus shady growth environment (different heights) for Douglas-fir, but western hemlock emission samples collected low in the canopy showed no exponential correlation with temperature. Applying the standard emission factors from this study to a Pacific Northwest domain and comparing the modified emission inventory to the current regulatory-based emission inventory yielded a net decrease of 19% in the domain wide monoterpene emissions. The relatively small difference in biogenic emissions is slightly misleading, as the difference in standard emission rates between this study and current regulatory rates is quite significant, and they offset each other when combined in this domain. When this inventory was input into a regional photochemical air quality simulation using the MM5/CMAQ system, the reduction in biogenic emissions resulted in an insignificant decrease of O 3 and a significant

  10. Modification of mixed-conifer forests by ruminant herbivores in the Blue Mountains ecological province. (United States)

    Robert A. Riggs; Arthur R. Tiedemann; John G. Cook; et al.


    Secondary plant succession and the accumulation of biomass and nutrients were documented at seven ruminant exclosures in Abies and Pseudotsuga forests variously disturbed by logging, burning, and grass seeding. Long-term (25 or more years) foraging by Rocky Mountain mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus...

  11. Silver fir and Douglas fir are more tolerant to extreme droughts than Norway spruce in south-western Germany

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vitali, V.; Büntgen, Ulf; Bauhus, J.


    Roč. 23, č. 12 (2017), s. 5108-5119 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : temperate forest trees * picea-abies karst. * climate- change * water relations * vosges mountains * growth-patterns * species stands * scots pine * alba * productivity * Abies alba * Central Europe * climate change * dendroecology * drought tolerance * forest management * Picea abies * Pseudotsuga menziesii Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 8.502, year: 2016

  12. Carbon Fluxes in a Managed Landscape: Assessing the Drivers of Temporal and Spatial Variability in Flux Tower, MODIS and Forest Inventory Data of the Pacific Northwest (United States)

    Wharton, S.; Bible, K.; Falk, M.; Paw U, K.


    This research focuses on the Wind Late Successional Reserve of Southern Washington where clear-cut logging over the past 100 years has created a fragmented landscape of coniferous forests that range in age from 0 to 500 years. In this study, we integrate several datasets to examine the environmental drivers of carbon exchange in this region across time and space. These sources include: (1) network of flux towers across a disturbance choronosequence, (2) MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index, (3) aboveground net primary production (ANPP) from forest inventories, (4) and regional precipitation and air temperature measurements from the NOAA network of weather stations and PRISM reanalysis data. Net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) has been measured at the Wind River Canopy Crane AmeriFlux site since 1998. The canopy crane is located in an old-growth forest composed of late seral Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). Two flux towers were erected in early seral stands to study the effects of silviculture on net ecosystem exchange. CO2 uptake at the old-growth stand is highest in the spring before bud break when air and soil temperatures and vapor pressure deficit are relatively low, and soil moisture and light levels are favorable for photosynthesis, while maximum CO2 uptake is observed two to three months later at the early seral stands and coincide with peak leaf area index. This CO2 pattern is driven by different water conserving strategies. A reduction in carbon exchange is observed at the old-growth forest when moisture becomes limiting and canopy conductance rates drop sharply after mid-morning in the summer. In contrast, inhibition in canopy conductance rates and CO2 exchange is not observed at the early seral stands until soil moisture levels become critically low at the very end of the summer. The regional MODIS data (200 km X 200 km area) from 2000-2008 show that annual variability in the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) also

  13. Genecology of Douglas fir in western Oregon and Washington. (United States)

    J. Bradley St Clair; Nancy L. Mandel; Kenneth W. Vance-Borland


    Background and Aims. Genecological knowledge is important for understanding evolutionary processes and for managing genetic resources. Previous studies of coastal Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) have been inconclusive with respect to geographical patterns of variation, due in part to...

  14. Chapter 16 - Impacts of Swiss needle cast in the Cascade mountains of northern Oregon: Monitoring of permanent plots after 10 years (Project WC-EM-B-11-01) (United States)

    Gregory M. Filip; Alan Kanaskie; Will R. Littke; John Browning; Kristen L. Chadwick; David C. Shaw; Robin L. Mulvey


    Swiss needle cast (SNC), caused by the fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, is one of the most damaging diseases of coast Douglasfir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) in the Pacific Northwest (Hansen and others 2000, Mainwaring and others 2005, Shaw and others 2011).

  15. Height-Related Trends in Leaf Xylem Anatomy and Shoot Hydraulic Characteristics in a Tall Conifer: Safety versus Efficiency in Water Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D. R. Woodruff; F. C. Meinzer; B. Lachenbruch


    Hydraulic vulnerability of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) branchlets decreases with height, allowing shoots at greater height to maintain hydraulic conductance at more negative leaf water potentials...

  16. Ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret fertilizers increase volume growth of 57-year-old douglas-fir trees within a gradient of nitrogen deficiency. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.E.; Reukema, D.L.; Hazard, J.W.


    In a nitrogen-deficient plantation in southwest Washington, the authors (1) compared effects of 224 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret on volume growth of dominant and codominant Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco); (2) determined how 8-year response of these trees to fertilization was related to their distance from a strip of the plantation interplanted with nitrogen-fixing red alder (alnus rubra Bong.); and (3) observed effects of biuret on understory vegetation. On both sides of the strip centerline, the authors grouped subject trees into 30 plots of 4 trees each, based on slope position and distance from alder. The authors randomly assigned three fertilizers and a control within each plot. They analyzed separately data from east and west of the mixed stand certerline. Initial volume differed greatly among the 120 trees on each side, so they used covariance analysis to adjust observed treatment means. Adjusted mean volume growth was increased (p equal to or less than 0.10) by 22 to 28 percent on the east side and by 11 to 14 percent on the west side, with no significant difference in response to the three fertilizers.

  17. Role of genetics in adapting forests under climate change: lessons learned from common garden experiments in central Europe (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debojyoti; Schueler, Silvio


    Adaptive management aiming at reducing vulnerability and enhancing the resilience of forested ecosystems is a key to preserving the potential of forests to provide multiple ecosystem services under climate change. Planting alternative or non native tree species adapted to future conditions and also utilizing the genetic variation within tree species has also been suggested as an important adaptive management strategy under climate change. Therefore, knowledge on suitable provenances/populations is a key issue. Provenance trial experiments, where several populations of a species are planted in a particular climate or throughout an appropriate climatic gradient offers a great opportunity to understand adaptive genetic variation within a tree species. These trials were primarily established, for identifying populations with desired growth and fitness characteristics. Due to the increasing interest in climate change, such trials were revisited to understand the relation between growth performance and climate and to recommend suitable populations for future conditions. Here we present the lessons learned from provenance trials of Norway spruce and Douglas -fir in central Europe. With data from provenance trials planted across a wide range of environmental conditions in central Europe we developed multivariate models, Universal Response Functions (URFs). The URFs predict growth performance as a function of climate of planting locations (i.e. environmental factors) and provenance/ population origin (i.e. genetic factors). The flexibility of the URFs as a decision making tool is remarkable. The model can be used as to identify suitable planting material for a give site, and vice versa and also as a species distribution model (SDM) with integrated genetic variation. Under current and climate change scenarios, the URFs were applied to predict populations with higher growth performance in central Europe and also as species distribution models for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga

  18. MCOL, frontalin, and ethanol: A potential operational trap lure for Douglas-fir beetle in British Columbia (United States)

    B. Staffan Lingren; Daniel R. Miller; J.P. LaFontaine


    The Douglas-fir beetle, Dedroctonus pseudotsugae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of Douglas-fire, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) in British Columbia (Humphreys 1995). An operational trap lure for D. pseudotsugae could be useful in an integrated pest management program to minimize mortality of Douglas-...

  19. Density, ages, and growth rates in old-growth and young-growth forests in coastal Oregon (United States)

    Tappeiner, J. C.; Huffman, D.; Spies, T.; Bailey, John D.


    We studied the ages and diameter growth rates of trees in former Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)Franco) old-growth stands on 10 sites and compared them with young-growth stands (50-70 years old, regenerated after timber harvest) in the Coast Range of western Oregon. The diameters and diameter growth rates for the first 100 years of trees in the old-growth stands were significantly greater than those in the young-growth stands. Growth rates in the old stands were comparable with those from long-term studies of young stands in which density is about 100-120 trees/ha; often young-growth stand density is well over 500 trees/ha. Ages of large trees in the old stands ranged from 100 to 420 years; ages in young stands varied by only about 5 to 10 years. Apparently, regeneration of old-growth stands on these sites occurred over a prolonged period, and trees grew at low density with little self-thinning; in contrast, after timber harvest, young stands may develop with high density of trees with similar ages and considerable self-thinning. The results suggest that thinning may be needed in dense young stands where the management objective is to speed development of old-growth characteristics.

  20. Forest Management. (United States)

    Weicherding, Patrick J.; And Others

    This bulletin deals with forest management and provides an overview of forestry for the non-professional. The bulletin is divided into six sections: (1) What Is Forestry Management?; (2) How Is the Forest Measured?; (3) What Is Forest Protection?; (4) How Is the Forest Harvested?; (5) What Is Forest Regeneration?; and (6) What Is Forest…

  1. Urban Forests (United States)

    David Nowak


    Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...

  2. Basal area growth, carbon isotope discrimination, and intrinsic water use efficiency after fertilization of Douglas-fir in the Oregon Coast Range (United States)

    Many hectares of intensively managed Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) stands in western North America are fertilized with nitrogen to increase growth rates. Understanding the mechanisms of response facilitates prioritization of stands for treatment. The objective ...


    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  4. Forest hydrology (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty


    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  5. Forest soils (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher


    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  6. Forest Management (United States)

    S. Hummel; K. L. O' Hara


    Global variation in forests and in human cultures means that a single method for managing forests is not possible. However, forest management everywhere shares some common principles because it is rooted in physical and biological sciences like chemistry and genetics. Ecological forest management is an approach that combines an understanding of universal processes with...

  7. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis


    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because......+ transactions costs. Third, beyond the “conservation islands” represented by forests under decentralized management, processes of deforestation and forest degradation continue. Given these challenges, we argue that REDD+ efforts through decentralized forestry should be redirected from incentivizing further...

  8. Historical fire frequency (1779-2013 in pine-oak forests in the community of Charcos, Mezquital, Durango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván M. Molina-Pérez


    Full Text Available La reconstrucción histórica de los regímenes del fuego, fundamentada en métodos dendrocronológicos, aporta información para el entendimiento de este fenómeno. Con el objetivo de reconstruir la historia de incendios en un bosque de pino-encino en Mezquital, Durango, se colectaron 78 muestras de Pinus durangensis , P. ar i z o n i c a, P. ayacahuite, P. teocote y Pseudotsuga menziesii con cicatrices de incendios; 73 y 27 % de las muestras se tomaron de árboles vivos y muertos, respectivamente. Se fecharon 75 muestras (96 % y 535 cicatrices. Los regímenes se reconstruyeron de 1746 a 2013; el año 1779 representó el primer registro de incendio. Se reconstruy ó un intervalo medio de frecuencia de incendios (MFI de 2.0 años y un intervalo medio de probabilidad de Weibull (WMPI de 1.8 años, cuando todas las cicatrices fueron incluidas; al considerar 25 % o más (incendios extensos se determinaron MFI y WMPI de 7.0 y 5.9 años, respectivamente. En primavera se categorizó 92.2 % de los incendios y solo 7.8 % en el verano. No hubo inf luencia significativa ( P < 0.05 de la lluvia y de El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENSO en la frecuencia; sin embargo, los incendios extensos se asociaron positivamente a la disminución de lluvia y eventos ENSO (fase La Niña.

  9. Early development of matched planted and naturally regenerated Douglas-fir stands after slash burning in the Cascade Range. (United States)

    R.E. Miller; R.E. Bigley; S. Webster


    We compared matched planted and naturally regenerated plots in 35- to 38- year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) stands at seven locations in western Washington and Oregon. Total number of live stems is similar, but stands planted to Douglas fir average 26 more live stemslac of Douglas-fir and 39 fewer...

  10. Is long primary growth associated with stem sinuosity in Douglas-fir? (United States)

    Barbara L. Gartner; G.R. Johnson


    Stem sinuosity is a highly visible stem-form trait in the leaders of fast-growing Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees, yet its cause is unknown. We tested the hypotheses that sinuous stems have longer expanses of primary growth than nonsinuous stems (putting the leader at higher risk for...

  11. A SNP resource for douglas-fir: de novo transcriptome assembly and SNP detection and validation (United States)

    Glenn R. Howe; Jianbin Yu; Brian Knaus; Richard Cronn; Scott Kolpak; Peter Dolan; W. Walter Lorenz; Jeffrey F.D. Dean


    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), one of the most economically and ecologically important tree species in the world, also has one of the largest tree breeding programs. Although the coastal and interior varieties of Douglas-fir (vars. menziesii and glauco) are native to North America, the coastal variety is...

  12. Genetic variation in response to shade in coastal Douglas-fir. (United States)

    J. Bradley St. Clair; Richard A. Sniezko


    Tree improvement programs have generally relied on testing families in open light environments. With increased interest in multiaged silvicultural systems, some people have questioned whether families selected in the open are appropriate for planting in the shade. We grew Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii...

  13. Effect of organic amendments on Douglas-fir transplants grown in fumigated versus non-fumigated soil (United States)

    Nabil Khudduri


    We transplanted one-year old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) seedlings into compost-amended soil that had either been spring-fumigated with a methyl bromide/chloropicrin combination or left unfumigated. Seedling nutrient, pathology, morphology, and packout measurements were significantly better for those transplanted into fumigated rather than non-...

  14. Modeling crown structural responses to competing vegetation control, thinning, fertilization, and Swiss needle cast in coastal Douglas-fir of the Pacific Northwest, USA. (United States)

    A.R. Weiskittel; D.A. Maguire; R.A. Monserud


    Crown structure is a key variable influencing stand productivity, but its reported response to various stand factors has differed. This can be partially attributed to lack of a unified study on crown response to intensive management or stand health. In this analysis of several Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii [...

  15. Belowground competition from overstory trees influences Douglas-fir sapling morphology in thinned stands (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Timothy B. Harrington


    We evaluated effects of belowground competition on morphology of naturally established coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) saplings in 60- to 80-year-old thinned Douglas-fir stands in southwestern Washington. We separately quantified belowground competition from overstory and understory sources...

  16. Financial analysis of early stand treatments in southwest Oregon. (United States)

    Helge Eng; K. Norman Johnson; Roger D. Fight


    Management guidelines for economically efficient early stand treatments were developed by identifying treatments that would maximize financial returns over the rotation for coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) in southwest Oregon. Short rotations and low stand densities (trees per acre) gave...

  17. Genetic maladaptation of coastal Douglas-fir seedlings to future climates (United States)

    Brad St. Clair;  Glenn T. Howe


    Climates are expected to warm considerably over the next century, resulting in expectations that plant populations will not be adapted to future climates.We estimated the risk of maladaptation of current populations of coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) to future climates as the proportion of nonoverlap between two normal...

  18. Relative family performance and variance structure of open-pollinated Douglas-fir seedlings grown in three competitive environments. (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair; W.T. Adams


    Open-pollinated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) families were tested in three contrasting competitive environments to test the hypothesis that relative performance as measured by total seedling dry weight is dependent upon distance or genotype of neighbors. The three competitive environments...

  19. DFSIM with economics: A financial analysis option for the DFSIM Douglas-fir simulator. (United States)

    Roger O. Fight; Judith M. Chittester; Gary W. Clendenen


    A modified version of the DFSIM Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. menziesii) growth and yield simulator, DFSIM WITH ECONOMICS, now has an economics option that allows the user to estimate present net worth at the same time a silvicultural regime is simulated. If desired, the economics option will apply a...

  20. Ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret fertilizers increase volume growth of 57-year-old Douglas-fir trees within a gradient of nitrogen deficiency. (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Donald L. Reukema; John W. Hazard


    In a nitrogen-deficient plantation in southwest Washington, we (1) compared effects of 224 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate, urea, and biuret on volume growth of dominant and codominant Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco); (2) determined how 8-year response of these trees to fertilization was related to...

  1. Growth of Douglas-fir near equipment trails used for commercial thinning in the Oregon Coast Range. (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Jim Smith; Paul W. Adams; Harry W. Anderson


    Soil disturbance is a visually apparent result of using heavy equipment to harvest trees. Subsequent consequences for growth of remaining trees, however, are variable and seldom quantified. We measured tree growth 7 and 11 years after thinning of trees in four stands of coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii(...

  2. Detecting response of Douglas-fir plantations to urea fertilizer at three locations in the Oregon Coast Range. (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Jim Smith; Harry. Anderson


    Fertilizer trials in coast Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Oregon Coast Range usually indicate small and statistically nonsignificant response to nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Inherently weak experimental designs of past trials could make them too insensitive to detect growth differences...

  3. Estimating tree biomass, carbon, and nitrogen in two vegetation control treatments in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir plantation on a highly productive site (United States)

    Warren D. Devine; Paul W. Footen; Robert B. Harrison; Thomas A. Terry; Constance A. Harrington; Scott M. Holub; Peter J. Gould


    We sampled trees grown with and without competing vegetation control in an 11-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) plantation on a highly productive site in southwestern Washington to create diameter based allometric equations for estimating individual-tree bole, branch, foliar, and total...

  4. Genetic variation in tree structure and its relation to size in Douglas-fir: I. Biomass partitioning, foliage efficiency, stem form, and wood density. (United States)

    J.B. St. Clair


    Genetic variation and covariation among traits of tree size and structure were assessed in an 18-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) genetic test in the Coast Range of Oregon. Considerable genetic variation was found in size, biomass partitioning, and wood density, and genetic gains may be...

  5. Realized gains from block-plot coastal Douglas-fir trials in the northern Oregon Cascades (United States)

    Terrence Z. Ye; Keith J.S. Jayawickrama; J. Bradley. St. Clair


    Realized gains for coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) were evaluated using data collected from 15-year-old trees from five field trials planted in large block plots in the northern Oregon Cascades. Three populations with different genetic levels (elite--high predicted gain; intermediate--moderate predicted gain; and an...

  6. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  7. Forest drainage (United States)

    R.W. Skaggs; S. Tian; G.M. Chescheir; Devendra Amatya; M.A. Youssef


    Most of the world's 4030 million ha of forested lands are situated on hilly, mountainous or well-drained upland landscapes where improved drainage is not needed. However, there are millions of hectares of poorly drained forested lands where excessively wet soil conditions limit tree growth and access for harvesting and other management activities. Improved or...

  8. Forest resources of the Gila National Forest (United States)

    John D. Shaw


    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Gila National Forest 1994 inventory including...

  9. Boreal forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L. [Univ. of Umeaa, Dept. of Ecological Botany, Umeaa (Sweden); Ehnstroem, B. [Swedish Univ., of Agricultural Sciences, Swedish Threatened Species Unit, Uppsala (Sweden); Sjoeberg, K. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Ecology, Umeaa (Sweden)


    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man`s past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs.

  10. Georgia's forests, 2004 (United States)

    Richard A. Harper; Nathan D. McClure; Tony G. Johnson; J. Frank Green; James K. Johnson; David B. Dickinson; James L. Chamerlain; KaDonna C. Randolph; Sonja N. Oswalt


    Between 1997 and 2004, the Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis Program conducted the eighth inventory of Georgia forests. Forest land area remained stable at 24.8 million acres, and covered about two-thirds of the land area in Georgia. About 24.2 million acres of forest land was considered timberland and 92 percent of that was privately owned. Family forest...

  11. Steady as a rock: Biogeomorphic influence of nurse rocks and slope processes on kūpaoa (Dubautia menziesii) shrubs in Haleakalā Crater (Maui, Hawai'i) (United States)

    Pérez, Francisco L.


    This study examines biogeomorphic interactions between nurse rocks, slope processes, and 300 kūpaoa (Dubautia menziesii) shrubs in Haleakalā Crater (Maui, Hawai'i). Research objectives were to: assess the association of kūpaoa with substrates upslope and downslope of plants, and proximity to the closest rock uphill; contrast shrub/substrate relationships with site frequency of sediment types; measure surface soil shear-strength and compressibility on 50 paired locations near boulders; and investigate the aggregation characteristics and spatial patterns of kūpaoa in relation to rock and substrate variation. Data analyzed came from three 100-plant surveys at 3 sites: a plant census at 2720-2975 m altitude, and wandering-quarter transects (WQTs) across two areas (2610-2710 m); ground sediment cover was estimated along four phototransects on these sites. Data for the three 100-plant surveys included substrate type-outcrops, blocks, cobbles, pebbles, exposed soil, organic litter-upslope from each plant, and distance to the largest rock upslope. The two surveys examined along WQTs included substrate type found downslope from kūpaoa, plant height, plant diameters across and along the slope, and distance between successively censused plants. Most plants grew downslope of nurse rocks; > 74% were adjacent to blocks or outcrops, and > 17% near cobbles. Plants showed avoidance for finer substrates; only 5.3% and 2.7% grew on/near bare soils and pebbles, respectively. About 92% of kūpaoa were ≤ 10 cm downslope of rocks; > 89% grew ≤ 2 cm away, and 83% in direct contact with a rock. Some seedlings also grew on pukiawe (Leptecophylla tameiameiae) nurse plants. Several stable rock microsites protected plants from disturbance by slope processes causing debris shift. Site sediments were significantly finer than substrates near plants; shrubs grew preferentially adjacent to boulders > 20 cm wide, which were more common near plants than across sites. Soils downslope of 50

  12. Dryland forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bose, Purabi; Dijk, van Han


    This volume provides new insights and conceptual understandings of the human and gender dimension of vulnerability in relation to the dynamics of tenure reforms in the dryland forests of Asia and Africa. The book analyzes the interaction between biophysical factors such as climate variability

  13. Forest Fires

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 11. Forest Fires - Origins and Ecological Paradoxes. K Narendran. General Article Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 34-41. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  14. Forest ownership dynamics of southern forests (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; David N. Wear


    Key FindingsPrivate landowners hold 86 percent of the forest area in the South; two-thirds of this area is owned by families or individuals.Fifty-nine percent of family forest owners own between 1 and 9 acres of forest land, but 60 percent of family-owned forests are in holdings of 100 acres or more.Two-...

  15. Combating Forest Corruption: the Forest Integrity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.


    This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to

  16. Effects of biotic and abiotic factors on resistance versus resilience of Douglas fir to drought. (United States)

    Carnwath, Gunnar; Nelson, Cara


    Significant increases in tree mortality due to drought-induced physiological stress have been documented worldwide. This trend is likely to continue with increased frequency and severity of extreme drought events in the future. Therefore, understanding the factors that influence variability in drought responses among trees will be critical to predicting ecosystem responses to climate change and developing effective management actions. In this study, we used hierarchical mixed-effects models to analyze drought responses of Pseudotsuga menziesii in 20 unmanaged forests stands across a broad range of environmental conditions in northeastern Washington, USA. We aimed to 1) identify the biotic and abiotic attributes most closely associated with the responses of individual trees to drought and 2) quantify the variability in drought responses at different spatial scales. We found that growth rates and competition for resources significantly affected resistance to a severe drought event in 2001: slow-growing trees and trees growing in subordinate canopy positions and/or with more neighbors suffered greater declines in radial growth during the drought event. In contrast, the ability of a tree to return to normal growth when climatic conditions improved (resilience) was unaffected by competition or relative growth rates. Drought responses were significantly influenced by tree age: older trees were more resistant but less resilient than younger trees. Finally, we found differences between resistance and resilience in spatial scale: a significant proportion (approximately 50%) of the variability in drought resistance across the study area was at broad spatial scales (i.e. among different forest types), most likely due to differences in the total amount of precipitation received at different elevations; in contrast, variation in resilience was overwhelmingly (82%) at the level of individual trees within stands and there was no difference in drought resilience among forest types

  17. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast? (paper) ... (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Arceuthobium spp., Armillaria, Phaseolus schweinitzii, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae, Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough) on radial stem growth of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). SNC impacts physiological processes of carbon and water relations by stomatal occlusion and early needle abscission resulting in a reduction of tree growth with a distinct periodicity, whereas phytophagous pests reduce tree growth by defoliation with epidemics following less regular pseudo-periodicities. Outbreaks of the various forest disturbance agents differ in their magnitude, frequency, and duration. In particular, SNC impacts on Douglas-fir growth display a primary periodicity of 6-30 years and a secondary periodicity of 3-5 years which is unique to the causal fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii (Rhode) Petrak. We use frequency domain analysis of tree-ring chronologies of Douglas-fir to identify the SNC disease cycle and separate the confounding effects of climate and SNC. We demonstrate the dendroecological reconstruction of SNC impacts on ancient Douglas-fir trees dated ~65K radioactive years B.P. from Eddyville, OR that were unearthed by the Oregon Department of Transportation. By the end of the 21st century, climate

  18. Forest resources of the Umatilla National Forest. (United States)

    Glenn A. Christensen; Paul Dunham; David C. Powell; Bruce. Hiserote


    Current resource statistics for the Umatilla National Forest, based on two separate inventories conducted in 1993–96 and in 1997–2002, are presented in this report. Currently on the Umatilla National Forest, 89 percent of the land area is classified as forest land. The predominant forest type is grand fir (26 percent of forested acres) followed by the interior Douglas-...

  19. Forest thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corona P


    Full Text Available This note emphasizes the importance of appreciating the conceptual paths and theories that have historically characterized forestry development. A recent monograph on the history of forest thinking presents the theoretical evolution of silvicultural science, with particular attention to epistemological and ethical implications: the main lines of research progress are stressed by analysing the various schools of thought in this field. The reading of the monograph strengthens the evidence that always behind the facts, there are the ideas.

  20. Dispersal of forest insects (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.


    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  1. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.


    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according to the e...

  2. Increased Biomass of Nursery-Grown Douglas-Fir Seedlings upon Inoculation with Diazotrophic Endophytic Consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareen Khan


    Full Text Available Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings are periodically challenged by biotic and abiotic stresses. The ability of endophytes to colonize the interior of plants could confer benefits to host plants that may play an important role in plant adaptation to environmental changes. In this greenhouse study, nursery-grown Douglas-fir seedlings were inoculated with diazotrophic endophytes previously isolated from poplar and willow trees and grown for fifteen months in nutrient-poor conditions. Inoculated seedlings had significant increases in biomass (48%, root length (13% and shoot height (16% compared to the control seedlings. Characterization of these endophytes for symbiotic traits in addition to nitrogen fixation revealed that they can also solubilize phosphate and produce siderophores. Colonization was observed through fluorescent microscopy in seedlings inoculated with gfp- and mkate-tagged strains. Inoculation with beneficial endophytes could prove to be valuable for increasing the production of planting stocks in forest nurseries.

  3. Characterization and possible origins of isolated douglas fir stands on the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, J.R. [National Park Service, Page, AZ (United States)


    The floristic composition of several isolated stands of Pseudotsuga menziesii on the Colorado Plateau is compared. All occurred between 1700-2000 meters, which was about 300-500 meters below typical lower limits for the species. Most stands showed evidence of reproduction and recruitment. A small widespread group of species existed that was common to all stands, but beta diversity was high. A preliminary analysis of possible origins of the stands suggested that they are relictual from the late Wisconsin or early Holocene. Bird-dispersed species were less prevalent than expected compared with existing high elevation conifer forests. These stands represent important resources for Quaternary research, but are extremely vulnerable to human-caused disturbances. It is recommended that they be provided protection from disturbance through appropriate management activities of the various land management agencies.

  4. Wisconsin's Forests 2009 (United States)

    Charles H. Perry; Vern A. Everson; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Sally E. Dahir; Andrea L. Diss-Torrance; Grant M Domke; Dale D. Gormanson; Sarah K. Herrick; Steven S. Hubbard; Terry R. Mace; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Richard B. Rodeout; Luke T. Saunders; Kirk M. Stueve; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall


    The second full annual inventory of Wisconsin's forests reports more than 16.7 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,400 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies slightly more than one quarter of the total forest land area; the maple/beech/birch forest-type group occupies an...

  5. Indiana's Forests 2008 (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Mark N. Webb; Barry T. Wilson; Jeff Settle; Ron J. Piva; Charles H. Perry; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Brett J. Butler; Mark Hansen; Mark Hatfield; Gary Brand; Charles. Barnett


    The second full annual inventory of Indiana's forests reports more than 4.75 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the white oak/red oak/hickory forest type, which occupies nearly a third of the total forest land area. Seventy-six percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 16...

  6. Vermont's Forests 2007 (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Chuck J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Robert De Geus; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ron Piva; Rachel Riemann; Richard Widmann; Sandy Wilmot; Chris W. Woodall


    The first full annual inventory of Vermont's forests reports more than 4.5 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,200 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the maple/beech/birch forest-type group, which occupies 70 percent of total forest land area. Sixty-three percent of forest land consists of large-diameter trees, 27...

  7. New Hampshire's Forests 2007 (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Chuck J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Susan Francher; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ron Piva; Rachel Riemann; Chris W. Woodall


    The first full annual inventory of New Hampshire's forests reports nearly 4.8 million acres of forest land with an average volume of nearly 2,200 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the maple/beech/birch forest-type group, which occupies 53 percent of total forest land area. Fifty-seven percent of forest land consists of large-diameter trees, 32...

  8. Percent Forest Cover (Future) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  9. Percent Forest Cover (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  10. Mondrian Forests: Efficient Online Random Forests


    Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Roy, Daniel M.; Teh, Yee Whye


    Ensembles of randomized decision trees, usually referred to as random forests, are widely used for classification and regression tasks in machine learning and statistics. Random forests achieve competitive predictive performance and are computationally efficient to train and test, making them excellent candidates for real-world prediction tasks. The most popular random forest variants (such as Breiman's random forest and extremely randomized trees) operate on batches of training data. Online ...

  11. COMIFAC Forest Conservation Framework: Towards Better Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protected areas in Central Africa are a panacea as several million people are not schooled on the benefits of sustainably managing forests. Of perennial concern is the land tenure system which could provide incentives for forest management and conservation. Within this context, this article examines COMIFAC's forest ...

  12. Forest tenure and sustainable forest management (United States)

    J.P. Siry; K. McGinley; F.W. Cubbage; P. Bettinger


    We reviewed the principles and key literature related to forest tenure and sustainable forest management, and then examined the status of sustainable forestry and land ownership at the aggregate national level for major forested countries. The institutional design principles suggested by Ostrom are well accepted for applications to public, communal, and private lands....

  13. Returning forests analyzed with the forest identity. (United States)

    Kauppi, Pekka E; Ausubel, Jesse H; Fang, Jingyun; Mather, Alexander S; Sedjo, Roger A; Waggoner, Paul E


    Amid widespread reports of deforestation, some nations have nevertheless experienced transitions from deforestation to reforestation. In a causal relationship, the Forest Identity relates the carbon sequestered in forests to the changing variables of national or regional forest area, growing stock density per area, biomass per growing stock volume, and carbon concentration in the biomass. It quantifies the sources of change of a nation's forests. The Identity also logically relates the quantitative impact on forest expanse of shifting timber harvest to regions and plantations where density grows faster. Among 50 nations with extensive forests reported in the Food and Agriculture Organization's comprehensive Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005, no nation where annual per capita gross domestic product exceeded 4,600 dollars had a negative rate of growing stock change. Using the Forest Identity and national data from the Assessment report, a single synoptic chart arrays the 50 nations with coordinates of the rates of change of basic variables, reveals both clusters of nations and outliers, and suggests trends in returning forests and their attributes. The Forest Identity also could serve as a tool for setting forest goals and illuminating how national policies accelerate or retard the forest transitions that are diffusing among nations.

  14. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James


    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  15. Forest farming practices (United States)

    J.L. Chamberlain; D. Mitchell; T. Brigham; T. Hobby; L. Zabek; J. Davis


    Forest farming in North America is becoming popular as a way for landowners to diversify income opportunities, improve management of forest resources, and increase biological diversity. People have been informally "farming the forests" for generations. However, in recent years, attention has been directed at formalizing forest farming and improving it...

  16. Forest Health Detectives (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.


    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  17. North Dakota's forests 2005 (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot


    The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.

  18. Wisconsin's forests, 2004 (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Vern A. Everson; Ian K. Brown; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Sally E. Dahir; Edward A. Jepsen; Joe Kovach; Michael D. Labissoniere; Terry R. Mace; Eunice A. Padley; Richard B. Rideout; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Greg C. Liknes; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall


    The first full, annualized inventory of Wisconsin's forests was completed in 2004 after 6,478 forested plots were visited. There are more than 16.0 million acres of forest land in the Wisconsin, nearly half of the State's land area; 15.8 million acres meet the definition of timberland. The total area of both forest land and timberland continues an upward...

  19. Restoring Forested Wetland Ecosystems (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Melvin L. Warren


    Forests as natural systems are intrinsically linked to the sustainability of fresh-water systems. Efforts worldwide to restore forest ecosystems seek to counteract centuries of forest conversion to agriculture and other uses. Afforestation, the practice of regenerating forests on land deforested for agriculture or other uses, is occurring at an intense pace in the...

  20. Iowa's forest resources, 1974. (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer; Pamela J. Jakes


    The second inventory of Iowa's forest resources shows big declines in commercial forest area and in growing-stock and sawtimber volumes between 1954 and 1974. Presented are text and statistics on forest area and timber volume, growth, mortality, ownership, stocking, future timber supply, timber use, forest management opportunities, and nontimber resources.

  1. Sustaining Urban Forests (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Mary Heather Noble


    The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...

  2. Oklahoma's forests, 2014 (United States)

    Kerry Dooley; KaDonna. Randolph


    This resource bulletin describes the principal findings of the 2014 forest inventory of Oklahoma (conducted 2009–2014) and examines changes since the previous survey of Oklahoma in 2008. Topics presented include forest area, volume, biomass, number of trees, growth, mortality, removals, forest health, silvicultural treatments, and forest ownership.

  3. Pennsylvania's Forests, 2009 (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Carol A. Alerich; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Doug Griffith; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Paul Roth; Rachel Riemann; James A. Westfall


    The second full annual inventory of Pennsylvania's forests reports a stable base of 16.7 million acres of forest land. Northern hardwoods and mixed-oak forest-type groups account for 54 and 32 percent of the forest land, respectively. The State's forest land averages about 61 dry tons of wood per acre and almost 6,500 board feet (International ¼-inch...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Bıyık


    Full Text Available In Turkey, forest areas are decreasing every day. On the other hand, being a wood product and the source of countless usage areas, the value of forest increases more and more. Delineation of forest areas, known as forest cadastre, are completed in developed countries. In general, with fprest cadastre the geometrical and legal status of forests are determined and registered in Land Title. Forest cadastre are carried out by Forest Cadastre Comissions according to the Forest Low 6831. Until today, only 60% of forest cadastre have been completed in 58 years from the start of forest cadastre work. The organization of Forest Cadastre Comissions have undergone various changes. Forest Cadastre Comissions have long suffered from many organizational and practical problems. In this study, current problems of Forest Cadastre Comissions are identified and examined. In result,, insufficient number of comissions, lack of theoretical and practical background and low motivation ot working personnal, and political and public pressure on the works of Forest Cadastre Comissions were identified as the main problems.

  5. Archives: Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 57 ... Archives: Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science. Journal Home > Archives: Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science: Editorial Policies. Journal Home > About the Journal > Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science: Editorial Policies. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science: About this journal. Journal Home > Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  8. Positive effects of radiation on forest production; Efectos positivos de la radiacion sobre la produccion forestal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez J, J.; De la Cruz O, A.; Aguilar, M. A.; Caxnajoy, P. A.; Salceda S, V. [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail:


    The deforestation is a world problem and due to of increment of seed demand and seedling of good quality, was realized a work about the production improvement on commercial or forest trees for the Mexico State. It was combined the use of two techniques: the plant tissue culture and ionizing application. It was utilized seed of Pinus hartwegii collected and valued previously by ProBosque, with them were formed homogeneous lots that were irradiated to dose of 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 Gy into irradiator Gammacel-220 and later were decontaminated and cultivated in vitro. The seeds-planting were placed in a growth room with temperature and controlled light. After 10 cultivation days was obtained germination among 87-100% without observing the induction of negative changes in none of treatments. After 21 days already developed the embryos completely, modifications were presented in some structures. With these was possible to determine the lethal dose mean that oscillates between 100 and 105 Gy; since to dose bigger than 100 Gy more of 75% of individuals or seedlings present the phenols formation inducing the material lost by oxidation starting from day 32. Also, it is observed that applied doses between the 30 and 90 Gy do not affect or modify the embryogenesis in Pinus hartwegii but if the structures formation and seedling size since after 12 development days it is possible to appreciate to dose of 90, 75 and 45 Gy the presence of a primary radicular system, same that is observed after 22 development days in the witness. Another observation was that to dose of 45 and 90 Gy the leafs presents bigger elongation increasing the seedlings size on 22% in comparison with the witness. We can say that the doses understood between 45 and 90 Gy affect in a positive way the hormonal production of Pinus hartwegii seedlings and that the dose of 90 Gy accelerates the rhizogenes process and it increases the seedling size allowing to diminish the production time of Pinus hartwegii

  9. Forest resources of Mississippi’s national forests, 2006 (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt


    This bulletin describes forest resource characteristics of Mississippi’s national forests, with emphasis on DeSoto National Forest, following the 2006 survey completed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Mississippi’s national forests comprise > 1 million acres of forest land, or about 7 percent of all forest...

  10. Impact of decentralised forest management on forest cover changes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forest inventory techniques were used to estimate tree harvests as major drivers of forest cover changes. The area under closed forest cover decreased substantially ranging from 0.4%.y-1 to 1.3%.y-1 in the montane forests with higher forest loss recorded under exclusive state management. In the semi-arid, the forest under ...

  11. Douglas-fir displays a range of growth responses to ... (United States)

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth in the Pacific Northwest is affected by climatic, edaphic factors and Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease. We examine Douglas-fir growth responses to temperature, dewpoint deficit (DPD), soil moisture, and SNC using time series intervention analysis of intra-annual tree-ring width data collected at nine forest stands in western Oregon, USA. The effects of temperature and SNC were similar in importance on tree growth at all sites. Previous-year DPD during the annual drought period was a key factor limiting growth regionally. Winter temperature was more important at high elevation cool sites, whereas summer temperature was more important at warm and dry sites. Growth rate increased with summer temperature to an optimum (Topt) then decreased at higher temperatures. At drier sites, temperature and water affected growth interactively such that Topt decreased with decreasing summer soil moisture. With climate change, growth rates increased at high elevation sites and declined at mid-elevation inland sites since ~1990. Growth response to climate is masked by SNC regionally. We conclude that as temperature rises and precipitation patterns shift towards wetter winters and drier summers, Douglas-fir will experience greater temperature and water stress and an increase in severity of SNC. By the end of the 21st century, climate models predict hotter, drier summers and warmer, wetter winters in the Pac

  12. National Forest Boundaries (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  13. Forest Stand Age (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Source data for forest stand age were obtained from the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) DataMart and were projected for future scenarios based on selected...

  14. West Virginia's Forests 2008 (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall


    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  15. Tennessee's Forests, 2004 (United States)

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; Tony G. Johnson; James L. Chamberlain; KaDonna C. Randolph; John W. Coulston


    Forest land area in Tennessee amounted to 13.78 million acres. About 125 different species, mostly hardwood, account for an estimated 22.6 billion cubic feet of all growing-stock volume on timberland in the State. Hardwood forest types occupy the vast majority of the State's forest land, and oak-hickory is the dominant forest-type group, accounting for about 10.1...

  16. Maine's forests 2008 (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall


    The second annual inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2008 after more than 3,160 forested plots were measured. Forest land occupies almost 17.7 million acres, which represents 82 percent of the total land area of Maine. The dominant forest-type groups are maple/beech/yellow birch, spruce/fir, white/red/jack pine, and aspen/white birch. Statewide volume...

  17. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temperate forest dynamics and carbon storage: A 26-year case study from Orange Kloof Forest, Cape Peninsula, South Africa · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Anabelle W. Cardoso, Jeremy J. Midgley, M. Timm Hoffman, Coert J. Geldenhuys, 297–303 ...

  18. Dipterocarpaceae: forest fires and forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priadjati, A.


    One of the serious problems Indonesia is facing today is deforestation. Forests have been playing a very important role in Indonesia as the main natural resources for the economic growth of the country. Large areas of tropical forests, worldwide

  19. Integrating silviculture, forest management, and forest policy (United States)

    Chadwick D. Oliver


    Much progress has been made in developing and implementing individual silvicultural operations such as regeneration, thinning, and harvesting by various means. Similarly, foresters have made progress at managing flows of timber and other commodity values. Present concern that forests provide an even greater variety of commodity and non-commodity values can be...

  20. Forest resources of the Kootenai National Forest (United States)

    Andrea M. Wilson; Patrick D. Miles


    THe Interior West Resource Inventory, Monitoring, and Evaluation (IWRIME) Program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (formerly known as the Intermountain Research Station), as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, entered into a cooperative agreement with the Northern Region (Region 1) for the inventory of its...

  1. From forest struggles to forest citizens? Joint Forest Management in the unquiet woods of India's Jharkhand


    S Corbridge; Jewitt, S.


    The government of India has embraced joint forest management as a key strategy for dealing with forest degradation and forest employment issues in the 1990s. This represents a significant movement away from the forest reservation policies that held sway from 1947 to 1988 and which criminalised many local forest users. In this paper we consider the role played by forest struggles and forest intellectuals (notably Guha and Gadgil) in the rewriting of India's forest policies. We also evaluate th...

  2. Forests of Iowa, 2013 (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Matt. Brewer


    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Iowa based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  3. Forests of Indiana, 2013 (United States)

    Dale D. Gormanson


    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Indiana based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized strategic sample design and...

  4. Forests of Iowa, 2014 (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Matt Brewer; Brett J. Butler; Scott A. Pugh


    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Iowa based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  5. Forecasts of forest conditions (United States)

    Robert Huggett; David N. Wear; Ruhong Li; John Coulston; Shan Liu


    Key FindingsAmong the five forest management types, only planted pine is expected to increase in area. In 2010 planted pine comprised 19 percent of southern forests. By 2060, planted pine is forecasted to comprise somewhere between 24 and 36 percent of forest area.Although predicted rates of change vary, all forecasts reveal...

  6. Minnesota's forest resources, 2006 (United States)

    P.D. Miles; D. Heinzen


    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Minnesota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for...

  7. Forest-fire models (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager


    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  8. Forests of Wisconsin, 2016 (United States)

    Cassandra M. Kurtz


    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Wisconsin based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR). Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample...

  9. Forest resources and conditions (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Linda S. Heath; Gordon C. Reese; Thomas L. Schmidt


    The forests of the northern United States support a rich mix of floral and faunal communities that provide inestimable benefits to society. Today's forests face a range of biotic and abiotic stressors, not the least of which may be environmental change. This chapter reviews the compositional traits of presettlement forests and traces the major land use patterns...

  10. Forests of Oklahoma, 2014 (United States)

    S. Lambert; K. Randolph; J. Cooper


    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Oklahoma based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station, in cooperation with Oklahoma Forestry Services. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly,...

  11. Forest resources of the Forest resources of the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest (United States)

    Paul Rogers


    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Apache-Sitgreaves National Forest...

  12. WestPro: a computer program for simulating uneven-aged Douglas-fir stand growth and yield in the Pacific Northwest. (United States)

    Rebecca Ralston; Joseph Buongiorno; Benedict Schulte; Jeremy. Fried


    WestPro is an add-in program designed to work with Microsoft Excel to simulate the growth of uneven-aged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Given the initial stand state, defined as the number of softwood and hardwood trees per acre by diameter class, WestPro predicts the...

  13. Surface fire effects on conifer and hardwood crowns--applications of an integral plume model (United States)

    Matthew Dickinson; Anthony Bova; Kathleen Kavanagh; Antoine Randolph; Lawrence Band


    An integral plume model was applied to the problems of tree death from canopy injury in dormant-season hardwoods and branch embolism in Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) crowns. Our purpose was to generate testable hypotheses. We used the integral plume models to relate crown injury to bole injury and to explore the effects of variation in fire...

  14. Modeling regional and climatic variation of wood density and ring width in intensively managed Douglas-fir (United States)

    Cosmin N. Filipescue; Eini C. Lowell; Ross Koppenaal; Al K. Mitchell


    Characteristics of annual rings are reliable indicators of growth and wood quality in trees. The main objective of our study was to model the variation in annual ring attributes due to intensive silviculture and inherent regional differences in climate and site across a wide geographic range of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco)....

  15. Vegetation control effects on untreated wood, crude cellulose and holocellulose 𗉝C of early and latewood in 3- to 5-year-old rings of Douglas-fir (United States)

    Adrian Ares; Constance A Harrington; Thomas A. Terry; Joseph M. Kraft


    The stable carbon (C) composition of tree rings expressed as 13C, is a measure of intrinsic water-use efficiency and can indicate the occurrence of past water shortages for tree growth. We examined 13C in 3- to 5-year-old rings of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees...

  16. Variance in response of pole-size trees and seedlings of Douglas-fir and western hemlock to nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. (United States)

    M.A. Radwan; J.S. Shumway; D.S. Debell; J.M. Kraft


    Three experiments were conducted to determine effects of N and P fertilizers on growth and levels of plant-tissue nutrients of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.). Both pole-size trees in closed-canopy stands and potted seedlings were use d . Soil series were...

  17. Pityophthorus orarius Bright (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in a northern California Douglas-fir seed orchard: effect of clone, tree vigor, and cone crop on rate of attack (United States)

    Nancy G. Rappaport; David L. Wood


    The geographic range of the Douglas-fir twig beetle, Pityophthorus orarius Bright, was extended beyond the original provenance of southern British Columbia to northern California. A survey of 457 Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] trees in 1985 revealed that those with heavy cone crops were more likely to be...

  18. Resource use and clonal differences in attack rate by the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), in France (United States)

    Nancy Rappaport; Alain Roques


    The within-cone distribution of Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), the Douglas-fir seed chalcid, infesting Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] cones from north-central France was compared with that in samples from California. Results indicate that the mid-region of cones was more intensively...

  19. Bedrock type significantly affects individual tree mortality for various conifers in the inland Northwest, U.S.A (United States)

    James A. Moore; David A Hamilton; Yu Xiao; John Byrne


    Individual tree mortality models for western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), grand fir (Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl.), western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex. D. Don), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), and western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) were developed using data...

  20. Assessing the specific energy consumption and physical properties of comminuted Douglas-fir chips for bioconversion (United States)

    Yalan Liu; Jinwu Wang; Michael P. Wolcott


    Size reduction homogenizes the bulk biomass and facilitates downstream feedstock handling, transportation, and storage. Effects of feeding rate, mill-type (hammer and knife mill), screen size, and moisture content on comminution energy consumption of commercial Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) pulp chips were quantified. The resulting particles...

  1. Respiration , nitrogen fixation, and mineralizable nitrogen spatial and temporal patterns within two Oregon Douglas-fir stands. (United States)

    Sharon M. Hope; Ching-Yan. Li


    Substrate respiration, mineralizable nitrogen, and nitrogen fixation rates, substrate moisture,content, and temperature were measured in trenched and undisturbed plots within two western Oregon Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands. The stands represent two different environments and ages. Woods Creek, the site of the lower...

  2. Examining soil parent material influence over Douglas-fir stem growth response to fertilization: Taking advantage of information from spatiotemporally distributed experiments (United States)

    Kevin P. White; Mark Coleman; Deborah S. Page-Dumroese; Paul E. Gessler; Mark Kimsey; Terry Shaw


    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) in the Inland Northwest region of the USA are nitrogen (N) deficient; however stem growth responses to N fertilizers are unpredictable, which may be due to poor accounting of other limiting nutrients. Screening trial experiments, including potassium (K), sulfur (S), and boron (B) multiple nutrient treatments, have been...

  3. Acoustic Evaluation of Thinning and Biosolid Fertilization Effects on Wood Quality of a Douglas-fir stand (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Robert J. Ross; Steve Verrill; Eini Lowell; Jamie Barbour


    In this study, we examined the potential of using a time-of-flight (TOF) acoustic wave method to evaluate thinning and biosolid fertilization effects on acoustic velocity of trees and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of structural lumber in a 76-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb., Franco)) experimental stand. The stand consisted of four...

  4. Effect of thinning on form of young-growth Douglas-fir trees. (United States)

    Vern P. Yerkes


    With the advent of increased thinning activity in managed stands of young-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), knowledge of growth and form development of released trees becomes necessary for calculations of total volume and growth. Any appreciable change in the rate of radial increment at various points along the stem of a released tree...

  5. Developmental decline in height growth in Douglas-fir. (United States)

    Barbara J. Bond; Nicole M. Czarnomski; Clifton Cooper; Michael E. Day; Michael S. Greenwood


    The characteristic decline in height growth that occurs over a tree's lifespan is often called "age-related decline." But is the reduction in height growth in aging trees a function of age or of size? We grafted shoot tips across different ages and sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees to determine whether...

  6. The New Zealand douglas-fir breeding program: proposed adjustments for a changing climate (United States)

    Heidi Dungey; Charlie Low; Mark Miller; Kane Fleet; Alvin D. Yanchuk


    Genetic improvement of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in New Zealand was initiated in 1955 with large provenance trials established in the late 1950s. These trials showed that material of Oregon and Californian origin was growing faster than other provenances. Additional collections were made to further evaluate provenance...

  7. Douglas-fir growth in mountain ecosystems: water limits tree growth from stand to region (United States)

    Jeremy S. Littell; David L. Peterson; Michael Tjoelker


    The purpose of this work is to understand the nature of growth-climate relationships for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) across the climatic dimensions of its niche. We used a combination of biophysically informed sampling (to identify sample sites) and dendroclimatology (to identify growth-climate relationships) along a climate gradient in...


    Here, we investigate fine-root production, mortality and standing crop of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2 and elevated air temperature. We hypothesized that these treatments would increase fine-root production, but that mortality ...

  9. Modeling effects of overstory density and competing vegetation on tree height growth (United States)

    Christian Salas; Albert R. Stage; Andrew P. Robinson


    We developed and evaluated an individual-tree height growth model for Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] in the Inland Northwest United States. The model predicts growth for all tree sizes continuously, rather than requiring a transition between independent models for juvenile and mature growth phases. The model predicts the effects...

  10. Tall oil precursors of Douglas fir (United States)

    Daniel O. Foster; Duane F. Zinkel; Anthony H. Conner


    The sapwood and heartwood extractives of Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and the tall oil in the kraft black liquor were characterized. On pulping, isomerization and conversion of conjugated resin acids to dehydroabietic acid was observed. Recovery of both fatty and resin acids from pulping was lower than predicted from the extractive composition....

  11. Effects of leader topping and branch pruning on efficiency of Douglas-fir cone harvesting with a tree shaker. (United States)

    D.L. Copes


    In 1983, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of leader topping and branch pruning on the efficiency to tree shaking to remove Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) cones. Removal efficiency for three topping and pruning treatments averaged 69 percent, whereas for the uncut control treatment it was 62 percent. The treatment...

  12. Effect of natural inbreeding on variance structure in tests of wind pollination Douglas-fir progenies. (United States)

    Frank C. Sorensen; T.L. White


    Studies of the mating habits of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) have shown that wind-pollination families contain a small proportion of very slow-growing natural inbreds.The effect of these very small trees on means, variances, and variance ratios was evaluated for height and diameter in a 16-year-old plantation by...

  13. Growth and nutrition of Douglas fir, Scots pine and pedunculate oak in relation to soil acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de P.H.B.


    In a Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and in a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) stand on sandy soil in the Netherlands, inputs of water, nutrients and acid loads were changed for four years. Effects of soil changes on growth and

  14. Does habitat matter in an urbanized landscape? The birds of the Garry oak (Quercus garryana) ecosystem of southeastern Vancouver Island (United States)

    Richard E. Feldman; Pamela G. Krannitz


    Garry oak (Quercus garryana) was once a dominant habitat type on southeastern Vancouver Island, British Columbia but urbanization has severely fragmented and reduced its occurrence. This study tests whether bird abundance in remnant patches of Garry oak and adjacent Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is related to Garry oak volume...

  15. Estimating effect of Megastigmus spermotrophus (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) on Douglas-fir seed production: the new paradigm (United States)

    Nancy Rappaport; Alain Roques; Sylvia Mori


    In a pollen exclusion experiment performed on the cones of five Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco) trees, the number of seeds infested by a seed chalcid, Megastigmus spermotrophus Wachtl, did not differ significantly between pollinated and unpollinated cones from the same tree. This finding led to a revision of the...

  16. Cleaning to favor western white pine - its effects upon composition, growth, and potential values (United States)

    Raymond J. Boyd


    The management of western white pine (Pinus monticola) requires the production of a high proportion of valuable white pine crop trees in order to defray the costs of protection from blister rust. Current average selling prices of lumber give white pine about $50 per m.b.f. advantage over western larch (Larix occidentalis) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), the...

  17. Postplanting sprays of dalapon and atrazine to aid conifer establishment. (United States)

    Edward J. Dimock; Ernest B. Collard


    A mixture of dalapon and atrazine consistently controlled grasses of forbs better than either herbicide used alone. Sprayed over and around newly planted ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco), the mixture doubled tree survival...

  18. Stress Wave E-Rating of Structural Timber—Size and Moisture Content Effects (United States)

    Xiping Wang


    The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of cross sectional size and moisture content on stress wave properties of structural timber in various sizes and evaluate the feasibility of using stress wave method to E-rate timber in green conditions. Four different sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) square timbers were...

  19. Sugar pine seed harvest by Clark's nutcracker: Annual use of a transient resource in Crater Lake National Park, Oregon (United States)

    Taylor J. Turner; Diana F. Tomback; Bradley Van Anderson; Michael Murray


    Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) are well known for using conifer seeds as their principal nutriment source. Seeds are primarily harvested from whitebark (Pinus albicaulis), piñon (P. edulis), limber (P. flexilis), southwestern white (P. strobiformis), Jeffrey (P. jeffreyi), and ponderosa (P. ponderosa) pine as well as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  20. Rehabilitation of monotonous exotic coniferous plantations: A case study of spontaneous establishment of different tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonásová, M.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Prach, K.


    Conversion of plantations of exotic coniferous species, such as Norway spruce (Picea abies), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), into more natural woodland is intended in two national parks in the province of Drenthe, The Netherlands. For that purpose, artificial

  1. Partial DNA sequencing of Douglas-fir cDNAs used in RFLP mapping (United States)

    K.D. Jermstad; D.L. Bassoni; C.S. Kinlaw; D.B. Neale


    DNA sequences from 87 Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) cDNA RFLP probes were determined. Sequences were submitted to the GenBank dbEST database and searched for similarity against nucleotide and protein databases using the BLASTn and BLASTx programs. Twenty-one sequences (24%) were assigned putative functions; 18 of which...

  2. An examination of the genetic control of Douglas-fir vascular tissue phytochemicals: implications for black bear foraging. (United States)

    Bruce A. Kimball; G.R. Johnson; Dale L. Nolte; Doreen L. Griffin


    Silvicultural practices can influence black bear (Ursus americanus) foraging preferences for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) cambial-zone vascular tissues, but little is known about the role of genetics. To study the impact of genetic selection, vascular tissue samples were collected from Douglas-fir trees in six half-sib families from five...

  3. Acoustic sorting models for improved log segregation (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Steve Verrill; Eini Lowell; Robert J. Ross; Vicki L. Herian


    In this study, we examined three individual log measures (acoustic velocity, log diameter, and log vertical position in a tree) for their ability to predict average modulus of elasticity (MOE) and grade yield of structural lumber obtained from Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb. Franco]) logs. We found that log acoustic velocity only had a...

  4. Effects of bear damage on Douglas-fir lumber recovery (United States)

    Eini C. Lowell; Dennis Dykstra; George McFadden


    Bear activily resulting in injury to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) trees has been documented as early as the mid-1850s in the Pacific Northwest. The study reported in this article was designed to help managers decide whether the common practice of removing the damaged but potentially valuable butt section of the bottom log and...

  5. Establishment and growth of native hardwood and conifer seedlings underplanted in thinned Douglas-fir stands. (United States)

    Kathleen G. Maas-Hebner; William H. Emmingham; David L. Larson; Samuel S. Chan


    Five conifers and two hardwoods native to the Pacific Northwest were planted under four overstory densities of 30-year-old plantations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Stand treatments were unthinned (547 trees ha-1), narrow thin (252 trees ha-1),...

  6. Using tree recruitment patterns and fire history to guide restoration of an unlogged ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir landscape in the southern Rocky Mountains after a century of fire suppression (United States)

    Merrill R. Kaufmann; Laurie S. Huckaby; Paula J. Fornwalt; Jason M. Stoker; William H. Romme


    Tree age and fire history were studied in an unlogged ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir (Pinus ponderosa/Pseudotsuga menziesii) landscape in the Colorado Front Range mountains. These data were analysed to understand tree survival during fire and post-fire recruitment patterns after fire, as a basis for understanding the characteristics of, and restoration needs for, an...

  7. Dynamics of water transport and storage in conifers studied with deuterium and heat tracing techniques. (United States)

    F.C. Meinzer; J.R. Brooks; J.-C. Domec; B.L. Gartner; J.M. Warren; D.R. Woodruff; K. Bible; D.C. Shaw


    The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of tong-distance water transport in large trees difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D20) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the coniferous species Pseudotsuga menziesii...

  8. Projected future suitable habitat and productivity of Douglas-fir in western North America (United States)

    Aaron R. Weiskittel; Nicholas L. Crookston; Gerald E. Rehfeldt


    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) is one of the most common and commercially important species in western North America. The species can occupy a range of habitats, is long-lived (up to 500 years), and highly productive. However, the future of Douglas-fir in western North America is highly uncertain due to the expected changes in climate conditions....

  9. Soil disturbance and 10-year growth response of coast Douglas-fir on nontilled and tilled skid trails in the Oregon Cascades. (United States)

    Ronald Heninger; William Scott; Alex Dobkowski; Richard Miller; Harry Anderson; Steve. Duke


    We (i) quantified effects of skidder yarding on soil properties and seedling growth in a portion of western Oregon, (ii) determined if tilling skid trails improved tree growth, and (iii) compared results with those from an earlier investigation in coastal Washington. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were hand planted at...

  10. Symptoms associated with inoculation of stems on living Douglas-fir and Grand Fir Trees with Phytophthora ramorum (United States)

    Gary Chastagner; Kathy Riley; Katie Coats; Marianne Elliott; Annie DeBauw; Norm Dart


    To obtain a better understanding of the potential risk of infection and colonization of living Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and grand fir (Abies grandis) stems, the stems on over 150 trees of each species were inoculated at a Christmas tree farm near Los Gatos, California. This study had the following objectives: 1)...

  11. Hormonal control of second flushing in Douglas-fir shoots. (United States)

    Morris Cline; Mark Yoders; Dipti Desai; Constance Harrington; William. Carlson


    Spring-flushing, over-wintered buds of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) produce new buds that may follow various developmental pathways. These include second flushing in early summer or dormancy before flushing during the following spring. Second flushing usually entails an initial release of apical dominance as some of the...

  12. Levels-of-growing-stock cooperative study in Douglas-fir: report no. 17—The Skykomish Study, 1961–93; The Clemons study, 1963–94. (United States)

    James E. King; David D. Marshall; John F. Bell


    Stand treatments were completed as prescribed with an initial calibration cut and five thinnings resulting in eight new regimes for management of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco). Measurements were continued for an additional 14 years to observe stability and yields of stands in a postthinning holding period. Detailed descriptions...

  13. Physiological responses of planting frozen and thawed Douglas-fir seedlings (United States)

    M. Anisul Islam; Kent G. Apostol; Douglass F. Jacobs; R. Kasten Dumroese


    We studied the short-term (7-day) physiological responses of planting thawed and frozen root plugs of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings in 2 separate experiments under cool-moist and warm-dry growing conditions, respectively. Our results showed that shoot water potential, root hydraulic conductance, net photosynthesis (A), and...

  14. Changes in wood product proportions in the Douglas-fir region with respect to size, age, and time. (United States)

    R.A. Monserud; X. Zhou


    We examine both the variation and the changing proportions of different wood products obtained from trees and logs in the Douglas-fir region of the Northwestern United States. Analyses are based on a large product recovery database covering over 40 years of recovery studies; 13 studies are available for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.)...

  15. Impact of the foliar pathogen Swiss needle cast on wood quality of Douglas-fir. (United States)

    G.R. Johnson; Amy T. Grotta; Barbara L. Gartner; Geoff. Downes


    Many stands of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) near coastal areas of Oregon and Washington are heavily infected with the foliar pathogen causing Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease, and yet there is very little research on the resulting wood quality. Modulus of elasticity(MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), microfibril angle (MFA), wood...

  16. Early genetic evaluation of open-pollinated Douglas-fir families (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; David A. Perry


    In a test of early genetic evaluation of the growth potential of 14 families of open-pollinated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) [Mirb.] Franco), measures of growth and phenology of seedligns grown in a coldframe were correlated with height of saplings in evaluation plantations at 9, 12, and 15 years. fifteen-year height was most strongly...

  17. The forest Gribskov, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Buttenschøn, Rita M.


    Knowledge of forest history is crucial for understanding the processes, structures, functions and current status of forest ecosystems. An enhanced understanding of the long history of disturbance factors affecting forest development and thereby the present state of the forest is particularly...... valuable when working with forest management, conservation and restoration. Integrating the legacies of past disturbances-natural as well as anthropogenic-into conservation and management strategies is likely to favour natural values and ecosystem services. A case-study in Gribskov, Denmark, using...

  18. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian


    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... developmental stage, sharing common resources (light, water, and/or soil nutrients). The presence of each of the component species is normally quantified as a proportion of the number of stems or of basal area, although volume, biomass or canopy cover as well as proportions by occupied stand area may be used...

  19. Estimating forest conversion rates with annual forest inventory data (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis A. Roesch


    The rate of land-use conversion from forest to nonforest or natural forest to forest plantation is of interest for forest certification purposes and also as part of the process of assessing forest sustainability. Conversion rates can be estimated from remeasured inventory plots in general, but the emphasis here is on annual inventory data. A new estimator is proposed...

  20. 78 FR 18307 - Forest Service (United States)


    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting; Correction. SUMMARY: The Forest Service published a document in the Federal Register of January 31, 2013, concering a notice of meeting for the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee. The document...

  1. 78 FR 13621 - Forest Service (United States)


    ... Forest Service San Bernardino National Forest; California; Omya Sentinel and Butterfield Quarry Expansion Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact.... Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, San Bernardino National Forest (SBNF); and A Mining and Land...

  2. Forest report 2016; Waldzustandsbericht 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This forest condition report of Hesse (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, forest in the in the Rhine-Main area, weather and climate, soil water balance and drought stress, insects and fungi, Forestry Environment Monitoring, infiltrated substances, main results of Forest soil survey in Hesse (BZE II), the substrate group red sandstone, heavy metal contamination of forests.

  3. Forest, trees and agroforestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Foli, Samson; Al Pavel, Muha Abdullah


    Scientific community is concerned to address contemporary issues of food production and conserve tropical forests that support the livelihoods of millions of people. A review of the literature on deforestation, forest utilization, and landscape management for ecosystem services was conducted...... to investigate the effect on peoples’ livelihoods and the sustainability of forests in Bangladesh as a case. Results reveal that the current rate of deforestation is at 0.3% per annum meaning that, with current trends, in two decades little or no forest cover will exist in Bangladesh making the livelihoods...... of millions of people who depend on forest resources extremely vulnerable. We ask; can better implementation of forest policies and landscape management contribute to curb the current level of deforestation? Agroforestry systems in particular are a promising strategy to sustainably deliver food, nutritional...

  4. Forests beyond income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena


    Since the last few decades, there is an increasing recognition of the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty. Using data from two rural villages in Mozambique, this study aimed to assess the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty incidence......, depth and severity on the one hand, and the dependency of rural poor and non-poor households on forest and environmental resources on the other. The three variants of the FGT poverty index, with and without forest and environmental income, and the relative shares of each livelihood activities......-poor sample households respectively. With regard to the contribution of forest and environmental resources to rural poverty, dramatic increase in the incidence, depth and severity of poverty were observed when forest and environmental income was excluded from sample households' total income accounting...

  5. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik


    Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability...... of forest utilisation under PFM, using estimates of forest condition and extraction rates based on forest inventories and 480 household surveys from 12 forests; seven under Community Based Forest Management (CBFM), three under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and two under government management (non......-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania...

  6. Kentucky's forests, 2004 (United States)

    Jeffery A. Turner; Christopher M. Oswalt; James L. Chamberlain; Roger C. Conner; Tony G. Johnson; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna C. Randolph


    Forest land area in the Commonwealth of Kentucky amounted to 11.97 million acres, including 11.6 million acres of timberland. Over 110 different species, mostly hardwoods, account for an estimated 21.2 billion cubic feet of all live tree volume. Hardwood forest types occupy 85 percent of Kentucky’s timberland, and oak-hickory is the dominant forest-type group...

  7. Forest water contamination (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell


    Forests play a key role in cleaning water. Precipitation is “'filtered” through the tree canopy and filtered again throuph the organic matter on the forest floor. The water then seeps into the subsurface to replenish the ground water. Approximately 80% of the freshwater in the United States originates in the 650 million acres (265 million hectares) of forest that...

  8. Communicating forest sector sustainability


    Korhonen, E.; Toppinen, Anne; Lähtinen, K.; Ranacher, L.; Werner, Andrea; Stern, Tobias; Kutnar, Andreja


    Communication is an important tool in maintaining legitimacy and acceptability of forest sector operations and activities, and expectations by the general public on the forest sector conduct in Europe are in general very high. Despite this, there is scarce research in crossnational context on how forest sector sustainability is communicated to the general public, and what development areas can be identified in terms of communication content. This study applies a qualitative content analysis i...

  9. Pennsylvania forests 2014 (United States)

    Thomas A. Albright; William H. McWilliams; Richard H. Widmann; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith


    This report summarizes the third cycle of annualized inventory of Pennsylvania with field data collected from 2009 through 2014. Pennsylvania has 16.9 million acres of forest land dominated by sawtimber stands of oak/hickory and maple/beech/birch forest-type groups. Volumes continue to increase as the forests age with an average of 2,244 cubic feet per acre on...

  10. Protecting forests through partnerships


    Widman, Ulrika


    This thesis addresses the potential of private-public partnerships (PPPs) to involve private forest owners in formal forest protection. These partnerships have been widely advocated as means to engage actors from diverse sectors in collaborative new relationships, formed in a step-wise manner, to improve management of resources that combine public and private goods. Nature Conservation Agreements (NCAs) are the first kind of PPPs to be used in Swedish forest protection. NCAs were introduced i...

  11. Francis Marion National Forest forest plan revision - ecosystems & restoration needs (United States)

    Mark Danaher


    The Forest Service is currently revising the previous 1995 Forest Plan for the Francis Marion National Forest in Coastal South Carolina developed in the wake of Hurricane Hugo which devastated the forest in 1989. Since 1995, the human communities surrounding the Francis Marion National Forest have grown and changed significantly. The revised Francis Marion Forest Plan...

  12. Forest structure in low diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests (United States)

    R. Ostertag; F. Inman-Narahari; S. Cordell; C.P. Giardina; L. Sack


    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species...

  13. Wisconsin's fourth forest inventory: area. (United States)

    W. Brad Smith


    In 1983, the fourth Wisconsin forest inventory found 14.8 million acres of commercial forest land, an increase of nearly 2% since 1968. This bulletin analyzes findings from the inventory and presents detailed tables of forest area.

  14. Nebraska's forest resources in 2003 (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Gary J. Brand; Mark H. Hansen; William R. Lovett


    Reports results of the first three yearly panels (2001-2003) of the fourth inventory of Nebraska's forest resources. Includes information on forest area; volume; biomass; growth, removals, and mortality; and forest health.

  15. Managing the world's forests. (United States)

    Sharma, N; Rowe, R


    Forests play a vital role in balancing natural systems: the stabilization of global climate and the management of water and land. 30% of the earth's total land area is forested. 66% of the tropical moist forests are in Latin America and the remainder in Africa and Asia. 75% of tropical dry forests are in Africa. Temperate forests are primarily in developed countries. Deforestation and misuse of forests occurs primarily in developing countries at significant social, economic, and environmental costs. Losses have occurred in fuelwood, fodder, timber, forest products, biological diversity, habitats, genetic materials for food and medicine. The World Bank's evolving role in forestry is briefly described. Agreement has not been reached among people or nations about the most appropriate means to balance conservation and development goals. The challenge is to stabilize existing forests and increase forest planting. The causes of forest degradation must be understood. Direct causes include agricultural encroachment, cattle ranching, fuelwood gathering, commercial logging, and infrastructure development. These direct causes are driven by economic, social, and political forces: market and policy failures, population growth, and poverty. The market failures include: 1) the lack of clearly defined property rights on forest resources for now and the future, 2) the conflict between individual and societal needs, 3) the difficulty in placing a value on nonmarket environmental services and joint products, and 4) the separation between private and social costs. The solution is action at the local, national, and global levels. Countries must establish forest policy. The existing government incentives which promote deforestation must be changed. For example, concession policy and royalty systems must be corrected; explicit and implicit export subsidies on timber and forest products must be stopped. Private incentives must be established to promote planting of trees, practicing

  16. Ghana's high forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.A.


    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised

  17. Why 'a forest conscienceness'? (United States)

    M. Calver; H. Bigler-Cole; G. Bolton; J. Dargavel; A. Gaynor; P. Horwitz; J. Mills; G. Wardell-Johnson


    The phrase 'a forest conscienceness' was used in a major statement made by Charles Lane Poole, Western Australia's Conservator of Forests from 1916-1921, for the 1920 British Empire Forestry Conference. It is both relevant and contemporary at the beginning of the 21st century. We chose it as the conference theme to encourage engagement with both a...

  18. Trees for future forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Albin

    Climate change creates new challenges in forest management. The increase in temperature may in the long run be beneficial for the forests in the northern latitudes, but the high rate at which climate change is predicted to proceed will make adaptation difficult because trees are long living sessi...

  19. Why sustain oak forests? (United States)

    David Wm. Smith


    A brief overview and some personal thoughts are offered that deal with the implications of our social and political systems on the long-term sustainability of our forest resources. The connection of the most recent climatic events, in a geologic-time context, to the development of present day oak dominated forests of the Eastern United States is discussed. The impacts...

  20. Status of Forest Certification (United States)

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Michael Dockry


    Forest certification systems are voluntary, market-based initiatives to promote the sustainable use of forests. These standards assume that consumers prefer products made from materials grown in an environmentally sustainable fashion, and this in turn creates incentives for companies to adopt responsible environmental practices. One of the major reasons for the...

  1. Forests and water (United States)

    Graeme Lockaby; Chelsea Nagy; James M. Vose; Chelcy R. Ford; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Pete Caldwell; Erika Cohen; Jennifer Moore Myers


    Key FindingsForest conversion to agriculture or urban use consistently causes increased discharge, peak flow, and velocity of streams. Subregional differences in hydrologic responses to urbanization are substantial.Sediment, water chemistry indices, pathogens, and other substances often become more concentrated after forest...

  2. Traditional Forest Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 2, 2007 ... conservation programs and projects. Local communities, therefore, are the primary stewards of forest . resources. These resources are usually characterized by the local communities' culture . and management systems, where cultures are materially and spiritually built upon the physical world of the forests.

  3. Modelling in forest management (United States)

    Mark J. Twery


    Forest management has traditionally been considered management of trees for timber. It really includes vegetation management and land management and people management as multiple objectives. As such, forest management is intimately linked with other topics in this volume, most especially those chapters on ecological modelling and human dimensions. The key to...

  4. Northern forests, Chapter 7 (United States)

    L.H. Pardo; C.L. Goodale; E.A. Lilleskov; L.H. Geiser


    The Northern Forests ecological region spans much of Canada, from Saskatchewan to Newfoundland; its southern portion extends into the northern United States (CEC 1997). The U.S. component includes the northern hardwood and spruce-fir forest types and encompasses parts of the Northeast (mountainous regions in Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, Connecticut,...

  5. Forest statistics for Connecticut (United States)

    David R. Dickson; Teresa M. Bowers


    This report contains data from the second inventory of the forest resources of Connecticut. The inventory was completed in 1971 by the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Environmental Resources. The first inventory of Connecticut was completed in 1952. Because of many differences in standards and measurement...

  6. Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory (United States)

    Thomas Malone; Jingjing Liang; Edmond C. Packee


    The Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory (CAFI) is a comprehensive database of boreal forest conditions and dynamics in Alaska. The CAFI consists of field-gathered information from numerous permanent sample plots distributed across interior and south-central Alaska including the Kenai Peninsula. The CAFI currently has 570 permanent sample plots on 190 sites...

  7. Forest fires in Missouri. (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; John S. Crosby


    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires on two of the State of Missouri's Protection Districts and the Clark National Forest. Includes an analysis of fire cause, annual distribution, weather, and activity by day of week; also discusses multiple-fire day.

  8. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de


    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  9. Forest resources of Louisiana (United States)

    James F. Rosson; William H. McWilliams; Paul D. Frey


    This report documents the findings of the fifth forest survey of Louisiana. Trend data on the forest resource are presented along with appropriate tables and figures. The appendix contains definitions of terms, a discussion of data reliability, a tree species list, and 22 standard statistical tables. Data are reported for January 1, 1984. Major highlights are listed...

  10. Forests [Chapter 7 (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; Steven W. Running; David D. Breshears; Virginia H. Dale; Robert W. Malmsheimer; R. Neil Sampson; Brent Sohngen; Christopher W. Woodall


    Forests occur within urban areas, at the interface between urban and rural areas (wildland-urban interface), and in rural areas. Urban forests contribute to clean air, cooling buildings, aesthetics, and recreation in parks. Development in the wildland-urban interface is increasing because of the appeal of owning homes near or in the woods. In rural areas, market...

  11. Forest Tent Caterpillar (United States)

    Harold O. Belzer; Robert C. Morris


    The forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria Hubner)3 may be found throughout the United States and Canada wherever hardwoods grow. It is a native insect that has attracted attention since colonial times. Regionwide outbreaks have occurred at intervals varying from 6 to 16 years in northern areas. Southern gum forests in southwest Alabama and southern Louisiana...

  12. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten


    Forests of northern ecosystems respond slowly to management activities and the possibilities to increase the growth in a short-term perspective and meet swift increases in society's demand for biomass are small. An exception among the silvicultural measures is fertilization which can be applied...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...... fertilization regimens, environmental constraints and possibilities in northern forests on mineral soils. Further on we discuss the implications of both extensive and more intensive fertilization in relation to the developing bioeconomy, which encompasses the production and conversion of renewable biological...

  13. METKA - Forest energy profitably

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M. (FMA Kanta-Hame, Hameenlinna (Finland)); Rieppo, K. (TTS Research, Hameenlinna (Finland)), e-mail:, e-mail:


    The harvesting and profitability of forest energy in Finland is practically entirely dependent on state subsidies. Currently, there is a lot to improve in forest energy knowledge and competence. METKA - Forest energy profitably project (2008-2011) aims at increasing the cost efficiency of the forest energy chain and the volume of the supply chain in Haeme region. The project ia coordinated by Forest Management Association Kanta-Haeme (Kanta-Haemeen Metsanhoitoyhdistys ry). Project partners include FMA Paeijaet-Haeme, TTS Research and the Finnish Forest Research Institute's (METLA) Joensuu unit. METKA -project belongs to the Rural Development Programme for Mainland Finland 2007-2013 and is being funded partly by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD). The final project objective is to develop a new operational forest energy model for FMA Kanta-Haeme and FMA Paeijaet-Haeme. In order to create the operational model, the project has been divided into several sub-tasks, in which TTS Research and Metla are responsible for the research. TTS Research conducts studies that focus on forest energy harvesting and processing. The studies investigate especially small-diameter energy wood harvesting. Majority of the studies investigate the use of time, and they form the basis for cost and profit analyses. Metla is responsible or areas of research that contribute to the development of a forest energy storage's moisture estimation algorithm and a forest energy harvesting yield calculation program. Upon completion, the calculation program and the estimation algorithm are integrated to the logistics control system developed by FMA Kanta-Haeme and FMA Paeijaet-Haeme and taken into use as aids in forestry planning. During 2008 and 2009, several practical tests have been performed. Tests will be executed in autumn 2010 as well. The analysis of the results is likely to be completed in 2010, and the results is likely to be completed in 2010, and the results

  14. Forest inventory: role in accountability for sustainable forest management (United States)

    Lloyd C. Irland


    Forest inventory can play several roles in accountability for sustainable forest management. A first dimension is accountability for national performance. The new field of Criteria and Indicators is an expression of this need. A more familiar role for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program is for assessment and...

  15. Forest resources of the Hoosier National Forest, 2005 (United States)

    Christoper W. Woodall; Judith A. Perez; Thomas R. Thake


    The first annual inventory of the Hoosier National Forest reports more than 200,000 forest land acres dominated by oaks, maples, and hickories with annual growth exceeding annual mortality by a factor of seven. When compared to forests in the rest of Indiana, the Hoosier's forests are on average older, have greater biomass per acre, and possess a greater...

  16. degraded forests are more susceptible to forest fires: some possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Aug 2, 2006 ... There is a strong belief that degraded forests are, more susceptible to forest fires than non~ degraded ... fire as well as the impact that the fire will have on the forest. When a forest is well protected and a close canopy maintained, its susceptibility to accidental ... human interference in the ecosystem. Swaine ...

  17. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests. (United States)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren


    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for

  18. Securing tropical forest carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison


    Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate...... that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation...... in protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200-7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is >1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important...

  19. 78 FR 23903 - Forest Service (United States)


    ... Forest Service Dixie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting... recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with Title II of the Act. The meeting is open to the public. The purpose of the meeting is to review proposals for forest projects and...

  20. Forest Fuels Management in Europe (United States)

    Gavriil Xanthopoulos; David Caballero; Miguel Galante; Daniel Alexandrian; Eric Rigolot; Raffaella Marzano


    Current fuel management practices vary considerably between European countries. Topography, forest and forest fuel characteristics, size and compartmentalization of forests, forest management practices, land uses, land ownership, size of properties, legislation, and, of course, tradition, are reasons for these differences.Firebreak construction,...

  1. The Challenge of Forest Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Nagendra


    Full Text Available Ecologists and practitioners have conventionally used forest plots or transects for monitoring changes in attributes of forest condition over time. However, given the difficulty in collecting such data, conservation practitioners frequently rely on the judgment of foresters and forest users for evaluating changes. These methods are rarely compared. We use a dataset of 53 forests in five countries to compare assessments of forest change from forest plots, and forester and user evaluations of changes in forest density. We find that user assessments of changes in tree density are strongly and significantly related to assessments of change derived from statistical analyses of randomly distributed forest plots. User assessments of change in density at the shrub/sapling level also relate to assessments derived from statistical evaluations of vegetation plots, but this relationship is not as strong and only weakly significant. Evaluations of change by professional foresters are much more difficult to acquire, and less reliable, as foresters are often not familiar with changes in specific local areas. Forester evaluations can instead better provide valid single-time comparisons of a forest with other areas in a similar ecological zone. Thus, in forests where local forest users are present, their evaluations can be used to provide reliable assessments of changes in tree density in the areas they access. However, assessments of spatially heterogeneous patterns of human disturbance and regeneration at the shrub/sapling level are likely to require supplemental vegetation analysis.

  2. Climate change and forest diseases (United States)

    R.N. Sturrock; Susan Frankel; A. V. Brown; Paul Hennon; J. T. Kliejunas; K. J. Lewis; J. J. Worrall; A. J. Woods


    As climate changes, the effects of forest diseases on forest ecosystems will change. We review knowledge of relationships between climate variables and several forest diseases, as well as current evidence of how climate, host and pathogen interactions are responding or might respond to climate change. Many forests can be managed to both adapt to climate change and...

  3. Forests of east Texas, 2015 (United States)

    Kerry J.W. Dooley


    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station (SRS) in cooperation with Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—Southeast (unit 1),...

  4. Forests of East Texas, 2014 (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis


    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas derived from an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. These estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are...

  5. From solid to liquid: Assessing the release of carbon from soil into solution in response to forest management (United States)

    James, J. N.; Gross, C. D.; Butman, D. E.; Harrison, R. B.


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a crucial conduit for internal cycling of carbon within soils as well as for the transfer of organic matter out of soil and into aquatic systems. Little is known about how the quantity, quality, lability and chemical characteristics of DOM changes in response to human management of forest soils. To examine the processes that release soil organic matter (SOM) into solution, we gathered samples from adjacent native and industrially managed Eucalyptus grandis plantation forests across Sao Paulo State, Brazil and from adjacent old-growth and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menzisii) plantation forests in the coastal Pacific Northwest. Samples from each soil horizon were taken from soil profiles excavated to at least 1.5 m at each site. Water extractable organic matter (WEOM) was extracted twice from each sample using 0.5 M K2SO4 and Milli-Q water to quantify both dissolved and exchange phase organic matter. These extracts were measured for total organic carbon (TOC), 13C and 14C, and chemical characteristics were assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy (EEMs and SUVA254). At the same time, solid phase characteristics of the soil samples were quantified, including bulk density, pH, total carbon and nitrogen, microbial biomass, and 13C and 14C. Characterization of bulk SOM was undertaken by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) by subtracting mineral matrix spectra of each sample from the bulk spectra. Organic matter lability was assessed by incubations using difference in TOC for WEOM extracts and repeated measurement of CO2 efflux for bulk SOM. All together, these analyses permit a unique snapshot of the natural separation of organic matter from solid into liquid phase through the entire soil profile. Initial results reveal that small but measureable quantities of WEOM may be released from deep B and C horizons in soil, and that this material is labile to microbial decomposition. By identifying differences in SOM and DOM cycling due to

  6. Restoring forest structure and process stabilizes forest carbon in wildfire-prone southwestern ponderosa pine forests (United States)

    Matthew D. Hurteau; Shuang Liang; Katherine L. Martin; Malcolm P. North; George W. Koch; Bruce A. Hungate


    Changing climate and a legacy of fire-exclusion have increased the probability of high-severity wildfire, leading to an increased risk of forest carbon loss in ponderosa pine forests in the southwestern USA. Efforts to reduce high-severity fire risk through forest thinning and prescribed burning require both the removal and emission of carbon from these forests, and...

  7. Forest Fire Ecology. (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others


    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  8. Forest Biophysical Parameters (SNF) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Biophysical parameters (DBH, NPP, biomass, bark area index, LAI, subcanopy LAI) by study site for Aspen and Spruce in the Superior National Forest, MN (SNF)

  9. Trading forest carbon - OSU (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  10. Forest Biophysical Parameters (SNF) (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biophysical parameters (DBH, NPP, biomass, bark area index, LAI, subcanopy LAI) by study site for Aspen and Spruce in the Superior National Forest, MN (SNF)

  11. Mangrove forest decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Abdul; Mertz, Ole; Fensholt, Rasmus


    Mangrove forests in the tropics and subtropics grow in saline sediments in coastal and estuarine environments. Preservation of mangrove forests is important for many reasons, including the prevention of coastal erosion and seawater intrusion; the provision of spawning, nursery, and feeding grounds...... and severe mangrove loss with serious consequences. The mangrove forests of the Takalar District, South Sulawesi, are studied here as a case area that has suffered from degradation and declining spatial extent during recent decades. On the basis of a post-classification comparison of change detection from...... satellite imagery and a survey of households, we provide an estimate of the mangrove change in the Takalar District during 1979–2011 and the consequences of those changes. Mangrove forest areas were reduced by 66.05 % (3344 hectares) during the 33-year period of analysis, and the biggest annual negative...

  12. Discovering the Forest. (United States)

    Moore, Ross


    Discussing the facilities and uses of North Carolina's Small State Forest System, this article describes a learning activity packet containing 42 outdoor exercises designed for use by school groups or individuals. Journal availability: see RC 503 504. (SB)

  13. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, Dainis


    The relationship between forests and people goes back to the early development of civilisation. However, parallel with technical innovations and an increasing urbanisation of the society, an alienation from nature has taken place...

  14. Disturbing forest disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volney, W.J.A.; Hirsch, K.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    This paper described the role that disturbances play in maintaining the ecological integrity of Canadian boreal forests. Potential adaptation options to address the challenges that these disturbances present were also examined. Many forest ecosystems need fire for regeneration, while other forests rely on a cool, wet disintegration process driven by insects and commensal fungi feeding on trees to effect renewal. While there are characteristic natural, temporal and spatial patterns to these disturbances, recent work has demonstrated that the disturbances are being perturbed by climatic change that has been compounded by anthropogenic disturbances in forests. Fire influences species composition and age structure, regulates forest insects and diseases, affects nutrient cycling and energy fluxes, and maintains the productivity of different habitats. Longer fire seasons as a result of climatic change will lead to higher intensity fires that may more easily evade initial attacks and become problematic. Fire regimes elevated beyond the range of natural variation will have a dramatic effect on the regional distribution and functioning of forest ecosystems and pose a threat to the safety and prosperity of people. While it was acknowledged that if insect outbreaks were to be controlled on the entire forest estate, the productivity represented by dead wood would be lost, it was suggested that insects such as the forest tent caterpillar and the spruce bud worm may also pose a greater threat as the climate gets warmer and drier. Together with fungal associates, saproxylic arthropods are active in nutrient cycling and ultimately determine the fertility of forest sites. It was suggested that the production of an age class structure and forest mosaic would render the forest landscape less vulnerable to the more negative aspects of climate change on vegetation response. It was concluded that novel management design paradigms are needed to successfully reduce the risk from threats

  15. New focus on forests (United States)

    Katherine Unger; Divya Abhat.; Constance Millar; Greg [featured scientists] McPherson


    It would appear that forests are finally having their day—and not a moment too soon. Around the world, trees are dying at an alarming rate, besieged by illegal logging, agricultural conversion, wildfire, and drought. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, 13 million  hectares of the world’s forests are now lost to deforestation every year....

  16. Culturing the forest [Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias


    Reviw of: The Social Lives of Forests Past, Present, and Future of Woodland Resurgence Susanna B. Hecht, Kathleen D. Morrison, and Christine Padoch, Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2014. 507 pp. $50, £35. ISBN 9780226322667.......Reviw of: The Social Lives of Forests Past, Present, and Future of Woodland Resurgence Susanna B. Hecht, Kathleen D. Morrison, and Christine Padoch, Eds. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 2014. 507 pp. $50, £35. ISBN 9780226322667....

  17. The Massabesic Experimental Forest (United States)

    Thomas W. McConkey; Wendell E. Smith


    White pine and fire! These two - the tree and its destroyer, fire - are keys to the history and present make-up of the research program on the Massabesic Experimental Forest at Alfred, Maine. The Forest was established in the late 1930's to study the management of eastern white pine. During World War II, it was shut down, and reopened again in 1946. Then, in 1947...

  18. Family forest owners rule! (United States)

    Brett J. Butler


    The largest issues facing forests in the United States are no longer about public lands. The public still wants the same things envisioned by the Weeks Act—water protection, timber supply, aesthetics, and recreational opportunities (U.S. Forest Service 1913)—but the focus must now be on the lands whose fate is more uncertain. We have entered a new era...

  19. Maryland's Forests 2008 (United States)

    T.W. Lister; J.L Perdue; C.J. Barnett; B.J. Butler; S.J. Crocker; G.M. Domke; D. Griffith; M.A. Hatfield; C.M. Kurtz; A.J. Lister; R.S. Morin; W.K. Moser; M.D. Nelson; C.H. Perry; R.J. Piva; R. Riemann; R. Widmann; C.W. Woodall


    The first full annual inventory of Maryland's forests reports approximately 2.5 million acres of forest land, which covers 40 percent of the State's land area and with a total volume of more than 2,100 cubic feet per acre. Nineteen percent of the growing-stock volume is yellow-poplar, followed by red maple (13 percent) and loblolly pine (10 percent). All...

  20. Delaware's Forests 2008 (United States)

    Tonya W. Lister; Glenn Gladders; Charles J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Andrew J. Lister; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall


    The fifth full inventory of Delaware's forests reports an 8 percent decrease in the area of forest land to 352,000 acres, which cover 28 percent of the State's land area and has a volume of approximately 2,352 cubic feet per acre. Twenty-one percent of the growing-stock volume is red maple, followed by sweetgum (13 percent), and loblolly pine (12 percent)....

  1. Forest fires in Dalmatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šiljković Željka


    Full Text Available Every year the Republic of Croatia, especially in its south part in Dalmatia, faces forest fire risks. The weather is exceptionally conducive to fires, so the main period of fire occurrences is between June and October, characterized by long lasting dry and warm weather with temperatures over 30°C. Research carried out by the authors in 1997 and 2012 have pointed to the fact that human impact is the main cause of ignition. This paper presents an overview of the total number of fires in the period from 1998 to 2012, with the emphasis on forest and woodland fires in the Croatian region of Dalmatia. Data on the situation in Dalmatia refer to the situation in the areas of responsibility of four Dalmatian Police Administrations. Analysis is based on official data of the Croatian Ministry of the Interior and the report of the National councillor for managing and controlling forest fires. The authors have analysed the frequency of forest fires in Dalmatia in a period of fourteen years (1998-2012 comparing it with the previous period, 1989-1996. The results that the authors have obtained reveal how forest fires most commonly (2/3 break out during the warm part of a day, from 09.00 until 18.00 hours in the warm period of the year. Particularly vulnerable are the forests of Aleppo pines and maquis being mostly thermal forests, whilst in the south of the country the forests of Holm oak (Quercus ilex and English oak (Quercus robur are at the highest risk. Reforesting of burned areas is very slow and Croatia has been far behind in reforesting in the continental part of the country.

  2. Missouri's forests 2008 (United States)

    Gus Raeker; W. Keith Moser; Brett J. Butler; John Fleming; Dale D. Gormanson; Mark H. Hansen; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Patrick D. Miles; Mike Morris; Thomas B. Treiman


    The second full annual inventory of Missouri's forests (2004-2008) reports more than 15 million acres of forest land, almost all of which is timberland (98 percent), with an average volume of more than 1,117 cubic feet of growing stock per acre. White oak and black oak are the most abundant in terms of live tree volume. Eighty-three percent of the State's...

  3. Forest Protection Policies


    Démurger, Sylvie; Fournier, Martin; Shen, Guozhen


    This article compares three rural townships in northern Sichuan to assess the challenges and the constraints affecting China’s national forest protection and biodiversity conservation programmes. It highlights the importance of the local economic and institutional environment for the ways in which it affects the implementation of national directives, giving rise to a wide variety of local responses. Our analysis of the natural forest protection programme and the sloping land conservation prog...

  4. National forest inventory contributions to forest biodiversity monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirici, Cherardo; McRoberts, Ronald; Winter, Susanne


    to forest biodiversity. The scope of this article is to review and present possibilities offered by NFIs to harmonize estimation of indicators useful for international forest biodiversity monitoring and reporting. We summarize key findings from Working Group 3 of Action E43 (“Harmonisation of National......Forests are the most biodiverse terrestrial ecosystems. National forest inventories (NFIs) are the main source of information on the status and trends of forests, but they have traditionally been designed to assess land coverage and the production value of forests rather than forest biodiversity....... The primary international processes dealing with biodiversity and sustainable forest management, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), Forest Europe, Streamlining European Biodiversity Indicators 2010 of the European Environmental Agency, and the Montréal Process, all include indicators related...

  5. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson


    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  6. Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks (United States)

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W.; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W.; Zeng, Ren Sen


    Extensive regions of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, IDF) forests in North America are being damaged by drought and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). This damage is resulting from warmer and drier summers associated with climate change. To test whether defoliated IDF can directly transfer resources to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) regenerating nearby, thus aiding in forest recovery, we examined photosynthetic carbon transfer and defense enzyme response. We grew pairs of ectomycorrhizal IDF ‘donor’ and ponderosa pine ‘receiver’ seedlings in pots and isolated transfer pathways by comparing 35 μm, 0.5 μm and no mesh treatments; we then stressed IDF donors either through manual defoliation or infestation by the budworm. We found that manual defoliation of IDF donors led to transfer of photosynthetic carbon to neighboring receivers through mycorrhizal networks, but not through soil or root pathways. Both manual and insect defoliation of donors led to increased activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in the ponderosa pine receivers, via a mechanism primarily dependent on the mycorrhizal network. These findings indicate that IDF can transfer resources and stress signals to interspecific neighbors, suggesting ectomycorrhizal networks can serve as agents of interspecific communication facilitating recovery and succession of forests after disturbance. PMID:25683155

  7. Design of forest rent accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha


    Full Text Available The urgent task for the effective functioning of the national economy is the need to reflect income from the use of forest resources in accounting, which will allow management personnel to prove the effectiveness of environmental protection measures, to assess the amount of expenses taken during restoration and protection of forest resources. The study aims at identifying characteristics of forest rent to determine the amount and its reflection in the accounting for its management. The author understands a forest rent as the income received from the owner of forest resources. The above procedure for determining the amount of forest rent can be used to display it in the accounting. A forest rent is a type of business income, so for its reflection in the accounting it is proposed to open the analytical accounts to account 79 named «Financial results». To determine the amount of forest rent and its reflection in the accounting the author suggests the calculation form of a forest rent. In order to manage the size of a forest rent and expenses incurred to obtain it the author proposes to use the information from the developed report about the forest rent formation. The displaying forest rents in accounting will provide accurate and deep information to the management about the revenue and assets of a company. The rational use of forest resources and accounting reflection of a forest rent will strengthen control over the influence of human activity on natural resources and keep the conception of sustainable development.

  8. Where do forests influence rainfall? (United States)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; van der Ent, Ruud; Fetzer, Ingo; Keys, Patrick; Savenije, Hubert; Gordon, Line


    Forests play a major role in hydrology. Not only by immediate control of soil moisture and streamflow, but also by regulating climate through evaporation (i.e., transpiration, interception, and soil evaporation). The process of evaporation travelling through the atmosphere and returning as precipitation on land is known as moisture recycling. Whether evaporation is recycled depends on wind direction and geography. Moisture recycling and forest change studies have primarily focused on either one region (e.g. the Amazon), or one biome type (e.g. tropical humid forests). We will advance this via a systematic global inter-comparison of forest change impacts on precipitation depending on both biome type and geographic location. The rainfall effects are studied for three contemporary forest changes: afforestation, deforestation, and replacement of mature forest by forest plantations. Furthermore, as there are indications in the literature that moisture recycling in some places intensifies during dry years, we will also compare the rainfall impacts of forest change between wet and dry years. We model forest change effects on evaporation using the global hydrological model STEAM and trace precipitation changes using the atmospheric moisture tracking scheme WAM-2layers. This research elucidates the role of geographical location of forest change driven modifications on rainfall as a function of the type of forest change and climatic conditions. These knowledge gains are important at a time of both rapid forest and climate change. Our conclusions nuance our understanding of how forests regulate climate and pinpoint hotspot regions for forest-rainfall coupling.

  9. Effects of Pinus flexilis on the dynamics and structure of plant communities on the northern Rocky Mountain front, and, Training biologists for emerging niches in non-traditional jobs (United States)

    Baumeister, Dayna Marie

    My research examines the relative importance of interacting mechanisms (amelioration of wind, provision of shade, accumulation of snow pack, and alteration of soil characteristics) governing facilitation between Pinus flexilis and two understory species, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Ribes cereum in Montana. Survival of understory species was greatest beneath P. flexilis at a leeward site (Pseudotsuga, 38% and Ribes, 63%), and lowest in the open at a windward site (2% and 6%, respectively). The effects of wind amelioration, shade provision, and snowdrift accumulation were separated experimentally and after two years, shade was of overwhelming importance for the survival of both species. Once shade was provided, effects of wind amelioration and increased snow pack increased survival, suggesting a hierarchical functioning of mechanisms. High winter mortality of Pseudotsuga suggests P. flexilis canopies may prevent photoinhibition and winter desiccation through reduction of light and insulation from variable temperatures. High summer mortality of Ribes suggests P. flexilis canopies may reduce transpiration through lowering leaf temperatures, thereby decreasing vapor pressure deficits. In this system, several mechanisms governing facilitation operated simultaneously, but in a hierarchical manner of relative importance thereby determining the overall effect of P. flexilis on understory plants. I also studied facilitation and secondary succession by examining understory species composition beneath individual P. flexilis and in P. flexilis stands. As P. flexilis trees and stands aged, understory species richness increased, as did cover of forbs and shrubs, but cover of grasses decreased. Stands currently dominated by P. flexilis are shifting towards dominance by Pseudotsuga primarily in mesic sites, with corresponding increases in litter and shrub cover and decreases in grasses and P. flexilis recruitment. Since the 1860's succession from grasslands to forest on the Front has

  10. Benefits of a strategic national forest inventory to science and society: the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program (United States)

    J. D. Shaw


    Benefits of a strategic national forest inventory to science and society: the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Forest Inventory and Analysis, previously known as Forest Survey, is one of the oldest research and development programs in the USDA Forest Service. Statistically-based inventory efforts that started in Scandinavian countries in the...

  11. Development of forest inventory methods in multifunctional forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borecki Tomasz


    Full Text Available The demand for wide range and precise information on forests promotes continuous development of forest inventory methods, owing to the fact that compilation of reliable data is prerequisite not only for improving forest management schedules but also planning land use and natural environment management. In the reality of contemporary forestry, a requirement to improve forest inventory methods stems from obligation to acquire information on broadly understood issues of forestry as well as the protection of nature and environment.

  12. Potential of the Russian forests and forest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttonen, T.; Petrov, A.P. [eds.


    The publication contains the proceedings of the seminar `Potential of the Russian Forests and Forest Industries` held in Moscow, May 14-16, 1997. The seminar was one step along the road to spread knowledge and become acquainted with forestry and forest industries in northern Europe and Russia. The seminar proceedings contain a lot of fresh information concerning forestry and forest industries in Russia. Both have undergone many changes and reforms during the last few years

  13. Forest degradation and livelihood: a case study of government forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the effect of forest degradation on livelihood returns in Government forest reserves of Ogun State. Primary data used in the study were obtained in a multi-stage random sampling procedure across non-degraded and degraded forests. Both qualitative and quantitative analytical methods were employed ...

  14. Perceptions about Forest Schools: Encouraging and Promoting Archimedes Forest Schools (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Blackwell, Sarah


    The aim of this study was to find out parents' and children's perception of outdoor learning programmes with specific reference to Archimedes Forest Schools, known as Forest Schools. A review of existing research showed that there had been no rigorous evaluation of perception of forest schools. The study was conducted in the UK and mixed method…

  15. Use of LIDAR for forest inventory and forest management application (United States)

    Birgit Peterson; Ralph Dubayah; Peter Hyde; Michelle Hofton; J. Bryan Blair; JoAnn Fites-Kaufman


    A significant impediment to forest managers has been the difficulty in obtaining large-area forest structure and fuel characteristics at useful resolutions and accuracies. This paper demonstrates how LIDAR data were used to predict canopy bulk density (CBD) and canopy base height (CBH) for an area in the Sierra National Forest. The LIDAR data were used to generate maps...

  16. Ecological modeling for forest management in the Shawnee National Forest (United States)

    Richard G. Thurau; J.F. Fralish; S. Hupe; B. Fitch; A.D. Carver


    Land managers of the Shawnee National Forest in southern Illinois are challenged to meet the needs of a diverse populace of stakeholders. By classifying National Forest holdings into management units, U.S. Forest Service personnel can spatially allocate resources and services to meet local management objectives. Ecological Classification Systems predict ecological site...

  17. Forest overstory-understory relationships in Alabama forests (United States)

    L. A. Joyce; R. L. Baker


    This study developed regional overstory-understory models for four forest types in southeastern Alabama and tested the ability of these models to predict understory vegetation using overstory data from southern and southwestern Alabama. Cross-sectional data from the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Unit Multiresource Survey of Alabama was used to...

  18. Global Forest Area Trends Underestimate Threats from Forest Fragmentation (United States)

    Forest loss and fragmentation of the remainder threaten the ecological attributes and functions which depend upon forests1. Forest interior area is particularly valued because it is relatively remote from human influence2, 3, 4, 5. Recent global assessments report declines in t...

  19. Seasonal use of remnant forest fragments by understorey forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proportions of seasonal altitudinal migrants were significantly higher in these lower-altitude forests during the cold season than the hot season. The results suggest that these forests support bird species of conservation concern, most of which are forest dependent and some of which make seasonal movements between ...

  20. Non-timber forest products and forest stewardship plans (United States)

    Becky Barlow; Tanner Filyaw; Sarah W. Workman


    To many woodland owners “harvesting” typically means the removal of timber from forests. In recent years many landowners have become aware of the role non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can play in supplemental management strategies to produce income while preserving other forest qualities. NTFPs are a diverse group of craft, culinary, and medicinal products that have...

  1. California's forest resources: Forest Inventory and Analysis, 2001–2010 (United States)

    Glenn A. Christensen; Karen L. Waddell; Sharon M. Stanton; Olaf Kuegler


    This report highlights key findings from the most recent (2001–2010) data collected by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program across all forest land in California, updating previously published findings from data collected from 2001 through 2005 (Christensen et al. 2008). We summarize and interpret basic resource information such as forest area, ownership, volume,...

  2. Reviewing efforts in global forest conservation for sustainable forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world's forests are in crisis - facing greater threats than ever before; and there is need to document efforts made in protecting them for effective forest resources management. The paper compiled and assessed from 1996-1998 a maiden report of the efforts of a leading world forest conservation Organization - the World ...

  3. Evaluation of sustainable forest management of Iran's Zagros forests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) means management of forest resources that consideration the needs of the current generation without risking ability of future generations to attain their needs. Evaluation of SFM needs to design a feedback information system to monitoring of forest resources. In this research ...

  4. Forest carbon sink: A potential forest investment (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Dongxiang


    A major problem being confronted to our human society currently is that the global temperature is undoubtedly considered to be rising significantly year by year due to abundant human factors releasing carbon dioxide to around atmosphere. The problem of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide can be addressed in a number of ways. One of these is forestry and forest management. Hence, this paper investigates a number of current issues related to mitigating the global warming problem from the point of forestry view previous to discussion on ongoing real-world activities utilizing forestry specifically to sequester carbon.

  5. Global Mangrove Forests Distribution, 2000 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Mangrove Forests Distribution, 2000 data set is a compilation of the extent of mangroves forests from the Global Land Survey and the Landsat archive with...

  6. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez


    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  7. Hydrological modelling in forested systems (United States)

    This chapter provides a brief overview of forest hydrology modelling approaches for answering important global research and management questions. Many hundreds of hydrological models have been applied globally across multiple decades to represent and predict forest hydrological p...

  8. Forest inventories for carbon change assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, G.M.J.; Hasenauer, H.; Köhl, M.; Nabuurs, G.J.


    We give a general overview of forest inventory developments and their potential to estimate forest carbon budgets and GHG emissions. Forest inventories mostly focus on timber resources, but can be extended to cover other forest characteristics, such as forest biomass. From forest biomass, ecosystem

  9. Forest report 2017; Waldzustandsbericht 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This forest condition report of Hesse (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, forest in the in the Rhine-Main area, weather and climate, insects and fungi, forestry environment monitoring, site information for the Federal Forest Inventory in Hesse, infiltrated substances, development of soil acidification on intensive monitoring areas in northwestern Germany, and the substrate group basalt/diabase.

  10. Transgenic Forest Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Filiz


    Full Text Available Biotechnological methods are used in many areas nowadays and one of these areas is applications of biotechnology in forest trees. Biotechnological methods are used frequently on vital issues such as gaining resistance against diseases and herbicide of forest trees, increasing tree growth rates and development of resistance against environmental stresses (drought, salinity, climate change etc.. Also, for improving the quality of wood that reducing lignin content and increasing the amount of cellulose draws attention. This together with applications, positive and negative effects of transgenic trees to the environment is discussed and it was tried to be provided on the auditing legal regulations concerned with these studies.

  11. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ostertag

    Full Text Available The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha. While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species, six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1 and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C. Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological

  12. Forest operations for ecosystem management (United States)

    Robert B. Rummer; John Baumgras; Joe McNeel


    The evolution of modern forest resource management is focusing on ecologically sensitive forest operations. This shift in management strategies is producing a new set of functional requirements for forest operations. Systems to implement ecosystem management prescriptions may need to be economically viable over a wider range of piece sizes, for example. Increasing...

  13. Mapping young forest in Wisconsin (United States)

    Mark Nelson; Kirk Stueve; Charles Perry; Dale Gormanson; Chengquan Huang; Sean. Healey


    Population declines of early successional forest-associated wildlife species have been linked to declines in habitat abundance. Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data can be used to estimate composition and change in 'young' forest, but such information typically lacks spatial specificity for determining landscape patterns that also affect habitat...

  14. Washington's public and private forests. (United States)

    Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil McKay; Donald FL Gedney; Carol. Alerich


    This report summarizes and analyzes 1988-91 timber inventories of western and eastern Washington. These inventories were conducted on all private and public lands except National Forests. Timber resource statistics from National Forest inventories also are presented. Detailed tables provide estimates of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Data...

  15. Forest development leading to disturbances (United States)

    Clinton E. Carlson; Stephen F. Arno; Jimmie Chew; Catherine A. Stewart


    Natural disturbance in western U.S.A. forest ecosystems is related to forest succession, growth, and structural development. Natural disturbance may be biotic (insects and diseases) or abiotic (fire, wind, avalanche, etc.). Natural disturbances are more appropriately thought of as natural processes; disturbance is a social connotation implicating economic loss. Forest...

  16. Michigan's Fourth Forest Inventory: Area. (United States)

    John S. Jr. Spencer


    The fourth inventory of Michigan's forest resources found 17.5 million acres of commercial forest, down 7% from the 18.9 million found in 1966. This bulletin analyzes findings from the inventory and presents detailed tables of forest area.

  17. Western Forests and Air Pollution


    United States Environmental Protection Agency


    This book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The West is defined in this case as the eleven conterminous states of California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana. Approximately one-third of the West is forested, primarily by coniferous forest types.

  18. Ecology of forest insect invasions (United States)

    E.G. Brockerhoff; A.M. Liebhold


    Forests in virtually all regions of the world are being affected by invasions of non-native insects. We conducted an in-depth review of the traits of successful invasive forest insects and the ecological processes involved in insect invasions across the universal invasion phases (transport and arrival, establishment, spread and impacts). Most forest insect invasions...

  19. New technology in forest operations (United States)

    Bob Rummer


    Many forest landowners are looking for forest operations that are low impact or that will work on smaller forest tracts. In general, these objectives lend themselves toward smaller or lowground pressure equipment and systems. Landowners cannot afford to bring a whole high-production mechanized crew onto a 10-acre parcel unless they plan to cut everything. Low impact or...

  20. Southeast Alaska forests: inventory highlights. (United States)

    Sally Campbell; Willem W.S. van Hees; Bert. Mead


    This publication presents highlights of a recent southeast Alaska inventory and analysis conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (USDA Forest Service). Southeast Alaska has about 22.9 million acres, of which two-thirds are vegetated. Almost 11 million acres are forest land and about 4 million acres have nonforest...

  1. Tropical Forest Gain and Interactions amongst Agents of Forest Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Sloan


    Full Text Available The tropical deforestation literature advocates multi-agent enquiry in recognition that key dynamics arise from inter-agent interactions. Studies of tropical forest-cover gain have lagged in this respect. This article explores the roles and key aspects of interactions shaping natural forest regeneration and active reforestation in Eastern Panama since 1990. It employs household surveys of agricultural landholders, interviews with community forest-restoration organisations, archival analysis of plantation reforestation interests, satellite image analysis of forest-cover change, and the consideration of State reforestation policies. Forest-cover gain reflected a convergence of interests and land-use trends amongst agents. Low social and economic costs of sustained interaction and organisation enabled extensive forest-cover gain, but low transaction costs did not. Corporate plantation reforestation rose to the fore of regional forest-cover gain via opportunistic land sales by ranchers and economic subsidies indicative of a State preference for autonomous, self-organising forest-cover gain. This reforestation follows a recent history of neoliberal frontier development in which State-backed loggers and ranchers similarly displaced agriculturalists. Community institutions, long neglected by the State, struggled to coordinate landholders and so effected far less forest-cover gain. National and international commitments to tropical forest restoration risk being similarly characterised as ineffective by a predominance of industrial plantation reforestation without greater State support for community forest management.

  2. Declining snowpack and forest productivity in a montane ecosystem in the Northern Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Hu, J.; Clute, T.; Simpson, T.; Hoylman, Z. H.; Jencso, K. G.


    Across the western U.S., declining snowpacks have increased drought, leading to reduced productivity rates in high elevation forests. As climate projections predict decreases in the ratio of snow/rainfall by the end of the century, this shift in the mode of precipitation could potentially lead to further decreases in forest productivity. However, different tree species across the montane ecosystem might respond differently to these shifts; while some tree species might experience decreased growth rates, other species might capitalize on the extra rainfall and increase growth rates. Furthermore, the landscape topography will also play an important role by modulating the sensitivity of different trees to these changing precipitation regimes. In this study, we examined the long-term patterns of plant water source use across an elevational gradient in western Montana. Because snow and rain have distinct oxygen isotopic values, we analyzed the δ18O of cellulose from tree rings at annual time scales to track changes in source water in two main species: Pseudotsuga menziezii and Pinus Ponderosa at both high and low elevation. We also used the same cores to link growth rate with the dominant source water. We first compared the annual changes in δ18O of cellulose with available SNOTEL and Snow Course data. We found poor agreement between snowpack depth and δ18O of cellulose prior to 1980. However, after 1980, we found a strong negative relationship; small snowpack years resulted in enriched δ18O of cellulose values while large snowpack years resulted in depleted δ18O of cellulose values. We then used the Craig-Gordon model along with our input of δ18O of cellulose to back calculate source water and found strong agreement between modeled versus measured values. Since the δ18O of cellulose also captures the atmospheric conditions, we then tested the sensitivity of the Craig-Gordon model to changes in relative humidity versus source water. These preliminary results a

  3. Trees, forests and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellison, David; Morris, Cindy E.; Locatelli, Bruno; Sheil, Douglas; Cohen, Jane; Murdiyarso, Daniel; Gutierrez, Victoria; Noordwijk, van Meine; Creed, Irena F.; Pokorny, Jan; Gaveau, David; Spracklen, Dominick V.; Tobella, Aida Bargués; Ilstedt, Ulrik; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Gebrehiwot, Solomon Gebreyohannis; Sands, David C.; Muys, Bart; Verbist, Bruno; Springgay, Elaine; Sugandi, Yulia; Sullivan, Caroline A.


    Forest-driven water and energy cycles are poorly integrated into regional, national, continental and global decision-making on climate change adaptation, mitigation, land use and water management. This constrains humanity's ability to protect our planet's climate and life-sustaining functions. The

  4. Forests of Stone. (United States)

    Davidow, Beth


    Presents a geological tour of Arizona's Petrified Forest National Park, cited as containing the greatest record of life in the Triassic Period. Discusses ancient ecosystems, fossil records, geologic formations, petroglyphs, the Anasazi settlements, Painted Desert, and other park features. Includes an illustration of the fossilization process,…

  5. Invasive forest species (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman


    Nonnative organisms that cause a major change to native ecosystems-once called foreign species, biological invasions, alien invasives, exotics, or biohazards–are now generally referred to as invasive species or invasives. invasive species of insects, fungi, plants, fish, and other organisms present a rising threat to natural forest ecosystems worldwide. Invasive...

  6. Rain Forest Murals (United States)

    Kleiner, Cheryl


    The rain forest murals in the author's school began as a request from her principal to have students decorate the cafeteria with their own paintings. She decided to brainstorm ideas with her eighth-grade students. Taking into consideration the architectural space and the environmental concerns they wanted to convey, students chose the rain forest…

  7. Timber and forest birds (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart


    Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (

  8. Fire and forest meteorology (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan


    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  9. Virginia Forest Landowners Update



    A quarterly calendar listing events that promote Virginia forest stewardship through sustainable forestry, wildlife management, timber marketing, outdoor recreation, and soil and water conservation. Calendar sponsors include: Virginia Forestry Association (VFA); VFA Sustainable Forestry Task Force Virginia Department of Forestry; Virginia Forestry Educational Foundation; VA Tech College of Forestry & Wildlife Resources; Virginia Cooperative Extension

  10. Houston's Regional Forest (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Peter D. Smith; Michael Merritt; John Giedraitis; Jeffrey T. Walton; Robert E. Hoehn; Jack C. Stevens; Daniel E. Crane; Mark Estes; Stephen Stetson; Charles Burditt; David Hitchcock; Wendee Holtcamp


    The population in and around Houston has grown rapidly over the past twenty years, now exceeding five million people. Studies of the area have noted that the loss of trees and changes to the forest makeup have generally accompanied this growth. Trees and urban forestry practices can be used effectively to reduce many of the negative effects of urban growth and other...

  11. Illinois forest statistics, 1985. (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn


    The third inventory of the timber resource of Illinois shows a 1% increase in commercial forest area and a 40% gain in growing-stock volume between 1962 and 1985. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  12. Michigan forest statistics, 1980. (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; W. Brad Smith


    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan shows a 7% decline in commercial forest area and a 27% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Highlights and statistics are presented on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  13. Forest-management modelling (United States)

    Mark J. Twery; Aaron R. Weiskittel


    Forests are complex and dynamic ecosystems comprising individual trees that can vary in both size and species. In comparison to other organisms, trees are relatively long lived (40-2000 years), quite plastic in terms of their morphology and ecological niche, and adapted to a wide variety of habitats, which can make predicting their behaviour exceedingly difficult....

  14. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.


    of society and its environment are discussed in the second part of the paper. Finally, it is elaborated how the awareness of the cultural bonds can be strengthened in the population and especially in forest management; a management which should relate to cultural, emotional and aesthetical aspects...

  15. Wildlife and forest communities (United States)

    Margaret Trani Griep; Beverly Collins


    The diversity of plant and animal communities in the South ranges from high elevation forests to coastal wetlands, barrier islands, and arid regions of west Texas. Factors contributing to the diversity of these communities include regional gradients in climate, geologic and edaphic site conditions, topographic variation, and natural disturbance processes (Boyce and...

  16. Florida's forests-2005 update (United States)

    Mark J. Brown


    This bulletin highlights principal findings of an annual inventory of Florida's forests. Data summaries are based on measurements of 60 percent of the plots in the State. Additional data summaries and bulletins will be published as the remaining plots are measured.

  17. Dynamics of secondary forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugel, van M.


    The succession of tropical secondary forests on abandoned agricultural fields has been studied since long, most often by comparing stands of different age since abandonment. These so-called chronosequence studies have yielded much insight in general patterns of succession and the constraints and

  18. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez Correal, Beatriz; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Hegger, Zita; Leemans, Rik


    Mountain areas are characterized by a large heterogeneity in hydrological and meteorological conditions. This heterogeneity is currently poorly represented by gauging networks and by the coarse scale of global and regional climate and hydrological models. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs)

  19. The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project: the effects of forest management on the forest ecosystem (United States)

    Brian Brookshire; Carl Hauser


    The effects of forest management on non-timber resources are of growing concern to forest managers and the public. While many previous studies have reported effects of stand-level treatments (less than 15 ha) on various stand-level attributes, few studies have attempted to document the influence of forest management on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of entire...

  20. Forest Interpreter's Primer on Wildlife. A Reference for Forest Service, USDA Forest Interpreters. (United States)

    Smith, Gail P.

    This guide was prepared for the use of Forest Service field-based interpreters of the management, protection, and use of forest and range resources and the associated human, cultural, and natural history found on these lands. It consists of basic forest and range wildlife information. Sections in the publication include: (1) What is Wildlife; (2)…

  1. Decomposição de folhada de quatro espécies florestais no Norte de Portugal: Taxa de decomposição e evolução da composição estrutural e do teor em nutrientes Decomposition of litterfall from four forest species in Northern Portugal: Decomposition rate, and structural components and nutrient dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Martins


    Full Text Available Estudou-se a decomposição e a dinâmica de nutrientes de folhas e agulhas senescentes de Castanea sativa (CS, Pinus pinaster (PP, Pinus nigra (PN e Pseudotsuga menziesii (PM durante 3,1 a 3,5 anos, bem como a evolução da composição química e estrutural dos mesmos resíduos durante 391 a 518 dias, por intermédio da técnica das saquetas. Os teores de N eram mais elevados nas agulhas de PM (14,5 g kg-1 e nas folhas de CS (12,1 g kg-1 do que nas agulhas de PP (3,8 g kg-1 e PN (4,7 g kg-1 e, implicando que a razão C/N fosse menor nas primeiras (respectivamente 39,0 e 46,8 do que nas segundas (respectivamente 147,7 e 122,2. As agulhas de PM apresentavam o teor mais elevado de Ca (9,1 g kg-1 e de compostos solúveis em álcool e água (384 g kg-1, contra 95 a 160 g kg-1 nas restantes espécies, mas o teor mais baixo em holocelulose (253 g kg-1, contra ±500 g kg-1 nas restantes espécies. A razão lenhina/N era muito maior nas agulhas de PP e PN (respectivamente 71,2 e 58,3 do que nas agulhas de PM e folhas de CS (respectivamente, 20,5 e 20,3, enquanto a razão holocelulose/lenhina se situava entre o mínimo de 0,9, nas agulhas de PM, e 1,9 -2,1 para as outras espécies. A taxa de decomposição anual para todo o período de estudo, seguindo o modelo exponencial negativo, decresceu segundo a ordem CS>PN>PM>PP (0,35, -0,27, -0,19 e -0,16, com valores mais elevados no primeiro ano em CS (-0,60 e PM (-0,31. Os constituintes solúveis e a hemicelulose decresceram em geral acentuadamente com o decorrer da decomposição, enquanto a lenhina e a celulose apresentaram pequena variação, nomeadamente nas agulhas de PP e PM. As quantidades remanescentes de K, Ca e Mg decresceram durante o processo de decomposição, atingindo no final do estudo respectivamente 17 a 65%, 30 a 60 % e 18 a 59% da inicial. As quantidades remanescentes finais de N (41 a 121 % e de P (33 a 104 % tanto foram inferiores como superiores às iniciais. A razão C/N diminuiu

  2. Increased water-use efficiency does not lead to enhanced tree growth under xeric and mesic conditions. (United States)

    Lévesque, Mathieu; Siegwolf, Rolf; Saurer, Matthias; Eilmann, Britta; Rigling, Andreas


    Higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations (c(a)) can under certain conditions increase tree growth by enhancing photosynthesis, resulting in an increase of intrinsic water-use efficiency (i WUE) in trees. However, the magnitude of these effects and their interactions with changing climatic conditions are still poorly understood under xeric and mesic conditions. We combined radial growth analysis with intra- and interannual δ(13)C and δ(18)O measurements to investigate growth and physiological responses of Larix decidua, Picea abies, Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra and Pseudotsuga menziesii in relation to rising c(a) and changing climate at a xeric site in the dry inner Alps and at a mesic site in the Swiss lowlands. (i)WUE increased significantly over the last 50 yr by 8-29% and varied depending on species, site water availability, and seasons. Regardless of species and increased (i)WUE, radial growth has significantly declined under xeric conditions, whereas growth has not increased as expected under mesic conditions. Overall, drought-induced stomatal closure has reduced transpiration at the cost of reduced carbon uptake and growth. Our results indicate that, even under mesic conditions, the temperature-induced drought stress has overridden the potential CO2 'fertilization' on tree growth, hence challenging today's predictions of improved forest productivity of temperate forests. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Extending large-scale forest inventories to assess urban forests. (United States)

    Corona, Piermaria; Agrimi, Mariagrazia; Baffetta, Federica; Barbati, Anna; Chiriacò, Maria Vincenza; Fattorini, Lorenzo; Pompei, Enrico; Valentini, Riccardo; Mattioli, Walter


    Urban areas are continuously expanding today, extending their influence on an increasingly large proportion of woods and trees located in or nearby urban and urbanizing areas, the so-called urban forests. Although these forests have the potential for significantly improving the quality the urban environment and the well-being of the urban population, data to quantify the extent and characteristics of urban forests are still lacking or fragmentary on a large scale. In this regard, an expansion of the domain of multipurpose forest inventories like National Forest Inventories (NFIs) towards urban forests would be required. To this end, it would be convenient to exploit the same sampling scheme applied in NFIs to assess the basic features of urban forests. This paper considers approximately unbiased estimators of abundance and coverage of urban forests, together with estimators of the corresponding variances, which can be achieved from the first phase of most large-scale forest inventories. A simulation study is carried out in order to check the performance of the considered estimators under various situations involving the spatial distribution of the urban forests over the study area. An application is worked out on the data from the Italian NFI.

  4. Integration of forest mapping and inventory to support forest management


    Corona P


    Forest inventory and forest mapping can be considered as monitoring and assessment applications that respond to different demands. However, the integration of mapping and inventory provides an effective framework for the support of forest management from multiple perspectives: (i) use of thematic maps for stratifying the inventory sample for the purpose of improving the precision of inventory estimates; (ii) coupling remotely sensed and sample inventory data for the purpose of constructing ma...

  5. Forest crimes as a threat to sustainable forest management


    S. Özden; Ayan, S.


    From ancient times to the present day, forest public relations has been an issue on the agenda. This relationship’s purpose was initially needed for shelter and nutrition; however today this process has changed with urbanization, overpopulation and understanding the new functions of forests. When land ownership became a tool of production, offenses occurred in order to convert forestlands to agricultural lands. So the vast majority of the world’s forests have been lost for this reason. Today,...

  6. Integrating forest-based industry and forest resource modeling


    Jonsson R; Rinaldi F; Räty M; Sallnäs O


    This paper introduces a modeling approach for the assessment of policy options within the forest-based bioeconomy. The feedback between the forestry dynamics model and the economic model of the global forest-based sector of the proposed framework is essential, not only for response analysis as to the development of forest resources and for a correct assessment of future harvesting potentials, but also for the assessment of the impact of different management regimes on wood-based product marke...

  7. Species differences in evergreen tree transpiration at daily, seasonal, and interannual timescales (United States)

    Link, P.; Simonin, K. A.; Oshun, J.; Dietrich, W.; Dawson, T. E.; Fung, I.


    Mediterranean climates have rainy winter and dry summer seasons, so the season of water availability (winter) is out of phase with the season of light availability and atmospheric demand (summer). In this study, we investigate the seasonality of tree transpiration in a Mediterranean climate, using observations from a small (8000 m2), forested, steep (~35 degree) hillslope at the UC Angelo Reserve, in the northern California Coast Range. The site is instrumented with over 850 sensors transmitting hydrologic and meteorological data at less than 30-minute intervals. Here, we analyze four years of high-frequency measurements from 45 sap flow sensors in 30 trees, six depth profiles of soil moisture measured by TDR, and spatially distributed measurements of air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and other meteorological variables. The sap flow measurements show a difference in transpiration seasonality between common California Coast Range evergreen tree species. Douglas firs (Pseudotsuga menziesii) maintain significant transpiration through the winter rainy season and transpire maximally in the spring, but Douglas fir transpiration declines sharply in the summer dry season. Madrones (Arbutus menziesii), in contrast, transpire maximally in the summer dry season. The seasonal patterns are quantified using principal component analysis. Nonlinear regressions against environmental variables show that the difference in transpiration seasonality arises from different sensitivities to atmospheric demand (VPD) and root-zone moisture. The different sensitivities to VPD and root-zone moisture cause species differences not just in seasonal patterns, but also in high temporal frequency (daily to weekly) variability of transpiration. We also contrast the interannual variability of dry season transpiration among the different species, and show that precipitation above a threshold triggers a Douglas fir response. Finally, we use a simple 1-D model of the atmospheric

  8. Forest crimes as a threat to sustainable forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Özden


    Full Text Available From ancient times to the present day, forest public relations has been an issue on the agenda. This relationship’s purpose was initially needed for shelter and nutrition; however today this process has changed with urbanization, overpopulation and understanding the new functions of forests. When land ownership became a tool of production, offenses occurred in order to convert forestlands to agricultural lands. So the vast majority of the world’s forests have been lost for this reason. Today, deforestation is occurring in tropical countries that are expecting to gain agricultural area. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between urbanization and the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of forest crimes, which are a major obstacle for sustainable forestry. Although forests cover about 27 % of Turkey’s territory, the forests are losing viability; the status of wood raw material per unit area and the total area of the country in the ratio of productive forests are becoming critical in Turkey. Turkey’s rugged terrain and factors such as human interventions, fires, deforestation for agriculture, illegal cuttings, or improper grazing reduce existing forests or cause deterioration of their structure. In the past, deforestation, as a result of human interventions in Turkey, was done by forest villagers who live in rural areas. The forest crimes depend on various socio-economic reasons and have many adverse effects on the sustainability of forest and forest existence. In developed countries, illegal interventions such as opening, grazing, cutting, occupation, use, settlement, or hunting crimes have been largely eliminated because of the absence of cadastral problems, the existence of more responsive people to protect the environment and forests and a rural population, which has a higher standard of living. In the last 20 years, there has been both a dramatic decrease in the population living in rural areas and a

  9. Midcycle survey of Mississippi's forest resources (United States)

    Charles E. Thomas; William H. McWilliams


    To provide current forest resource data, the Forest Inventory and Analysis Unit of the U.S. Forest Service Southern Forest Experiment Station has conducted interim surveys within the regular 10-year survey cycles. This report summarizes the findings of a midcycle survey of Mississippi forest resources. Field work for the survey was completed in 1983....

  10. 76 FR 79151 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (United States)


    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Committee Meeting will meet in Washington, DC on January 20, 2012... closed to the public. The Forest Resource Committee is authorized under the Food, Conservation, and...

  11. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (United States)


    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Cancellation. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service was required to cancel the October 17-18, 2013 meeting of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee due to the Government partial shutdown...

  12. 78 FR 57128 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (United States)


    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Meeting will meet in Rosslyn, Virginia. The... effectively address the national priorities for non-industrial private forest land. The purpose of this...

  13. 78 FR 34035 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (United States)


    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Coordinating Committee will meet via teleconference every month on... conference call will be posted to the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Web site,

  14. 78 FR 6806 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (United States)


    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Forest Resource Committee Meeting will meet in Arlington, Va. The committee is...- industrial private forest land. The purpose of the meeting is discuss operational procedures for the...

  15. H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest. (United States)

    Art McKee; Pamela. Druliner


    The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest is a world renowned center for research and education about the ecology and management of forests and streams. Located about 50 miles (80 km) east of Eugene, Oregon, the Andrews Experimental Forest lies in the Blue River Ranger District of the Willamette National Forest. Established in 1948, the Experimental Forest is administered...

  16. Gainesville's urban forest structure and composition (United States)

    Francisco Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer


    The urban forest provides a community numerous benefits. The urban forest is composed of a mix of native and non-native species introduced by people managing this forest and by residents. Because they usually contain non-native species, many urban forests often have greater species diversity than forests in the surrounding natural...

  17. Globalization and its implications for forest health (United States)

    Andrew Liebhold; Michael. Wingfield


    Consideration of forest health is central to the sustainable management of forests. While many definitions of forest health have been proposed, the most widely adopted concept refers to the sustained functioning of desired forest ecosystem processes (Kolb et al., 1994). Legitimate complaints have been raised about the human-centric usage of the term "Forest Health...

  18. Structural dynamics of tropical moist forest gaps (United States)

    Maria O. Hunter; Michael Keller; Douglas Morton; Bruce Cook; Michael Lefsky; Mark Ducey; Scott Saleska; Raimundo Cosme de Oliveira; Juliana Schietti


    Gap phase dynamics are the dominant mode of forest turnover in tropical forests. However, gap processes are infrequently studied at the landscape scale. Airborne lidar data offer detailed information on three-dimensional forest structure, providing a means to characterize fine-scale (1 m) processes in tropical forests over large areas. Lidar-based estimates of forest...

  19. Geospatial technology applications in forest hydrology (United States)

    S.S. Panda; E. Masson; S. Sen; H.W. Kim; Devendra Amatya


    Two separate disciplines, hydrology and forestry, together constitute forest hydrology. It is obvious that forestry and forest hydrology disciplines are spatial entities. Forestry is the science that seeks to understand the nature of forests throygh their life cycle and interactions with the surrounding environment. Forest hydrology includes forest soil water, streams...

  20. Northeastern Area Forest Legacy Program Yearbook 2008 (United States)

    US Forest Service, Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry


    The purpose of the Forest Legacy Program (FLP) is to protect environmentally important forest areas that are threatened by conversion to nonforest uses. The Forest Legacy Program is a partnership between participating States and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. These two entities work together to identify important forest lands and...

  1. 78 FR 36163 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project (United States)


    ... Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest Service, Bitterroot National Forest will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) to...

  2. 78 FR 38287 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project (United States)


    ... Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District published a document in the Federal Register of June 17...

  3. 78 FR 14072 - Trestle Forest Health Project, Eldorado National Forest, El Dorado County, CA (United States)


    ... Forest Service Trestle Forest Health Project, Eldorado National Forest, El Dorado County, CA AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The USDA Forest Service, Eldorado National Forest will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a...

  4. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change (United States)

    Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira; Stuart J. Davies; Amy C. Bennett; Erika B. Gonzalez-Akre; Helene C. Muller-Landau; S. Joseph Wright; Kamariah Abu Salim; Angélica M. Almeyda Zambrano; Alfonso Alonso; Jennifer L. Baltzer; Yves Basset; Norman A. Bourg; Eben N. Broadbent; Warren Y. Brockelman; Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin; David F. R. P. Burslem; Nathalie Butt; Min Cao; Dairon Cardenas; George B. Chuyong; Keith Clay; Susan Cordell; Handanakere S. Dattaraja; Xiaobao Deng; Matteo Detto; Xiaojun Du; Alvaro Duque; David L. Erikson; Corneille E.N. Ewango; Gunter A. Fischer; Christine Fletcher; Robin B. Foster; Christian P. Giardina; Gregory S. Gilbert; Nimal Gunatilleke; Savitri Gunatilleke; Zhanqing Hao; William W. Hargrove; Terese B. Hart; Billy C.H. Hau; Fangliang He; Forrest M. Hoffman; Robert W. Howe; Stephen P. Hubbell; Faith M. Inman-Narahari; Patrick A. Jansen; Mingxi Jiang; Daniel J. Johnson; Mamoru Kanzaki; Abdul Rahman Kassim; David Kenfack; Staline Kibet; Margaret F. Kinnaird; Lisa Korte; Kamil Kral; Jitendra Kumar; Andrew J. Larson; Yide Li; Xiankun Li; Shirong Liu; Shawn K.Y. Lum; James A. Lutz; Keping Ma; Damian M. Maddalena; Jean-Remy Makana; Yadvinder Malhi; Toby Marthews; Rafizah Mat Serudin; Sean M. McMahon; William J. McShea; Hervé R. Memiaghe; Xiangcheng Mi; Takashi Mizuno; Michael Morecroft; Jonathan A. Myers; Vojtech Novotny; Alexandre A. de Oliveira; Perry S. Ong; David A. Orwig; Rebecca Ostertag; Jan den Ouden; Geoffrey G. Parker; Richard P. Phillips; Lawren Sack; Moses N. Sainge; Weiguo Sang; Kriangsak Sri-ngernyuang; Raman Sukumar; I-Fang Sun; Witchaphart Sungpalee; Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana Suresh; Sylvester Tan; Sean C. Thomas; Duncan W. Thomas; Jill Thompson; Benjamin L. Turner; Maria Uriarte; Renato Valencia; Marta I. Vallejo; Alberto Vicentini; Tomáš Vrška; Xihua Wang; Xugao Wang; George Weiblen; Amy Wolf; Han Xu; Sandra Yap; Jess Zimmerman


    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses...

  5. The soil indicator of forest health in the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (United States)

    Michael C. Amacher; Charles H. Perry


    Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators (MPCI) were established to monitor forest conditions and trends to promote sustainable forest management. The Soil Indicator of forest health was developed and implemented within the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program to assess condition and trends in forest soil quality in U.S. forests regardless of ownership. The...

  6. Forests changed as times changed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitscherlich, G.


    Since the middle ages, our forests had been used excessively and, by 1800, they were completely devoid and exploited. With considerable sacrifices, the people of our country have restored the forests. Our modern ones, we owe to their endeavors. Damage scenarios and causes of the present death of our forests are discussed. The different pollutant emissions will have to be reduced even it this implies our sacrificing a great deal, too.

  7. Forest statistics for Georgia, 1982 (United States)

    John E. Tansey


    Since the fourth inventory of the forest resources of Georgia in 1972, the area of commercial forest land decreased over 4 percent, or by almost 1.1 million acres. Commercial forests now cover approximately 23.7 million acres, 64 percent of the land area in the State. Nearly 5.1 million acres were harvested, while about 2.9 million acres were adequately regenerated...

  8. Future directions in forest hydrology (United States)

    T.M. Williams; Devendra Amatya; L. Bren; C. deJong; J.E. Nettles


    Forest hydrology is a separate and unique branch of hydrology due to the special conditions caused by trees, and the understorey beneath them, comprising a forest. Understanding the forest, with trees that can grow over 100 m tall, may have crowns up to 20-30 m in diameter with roots 5-10 m deep and spread as widely as the crowns, and have lifespans from 50 to 5000...

  9. The ecological consequences of forest elephant declines for Afrotropical forests. (United States)

    Poulsen, John R; Rosin, Cooper; Meier, Amelia; Mills, Emily; Nunez, Chase; Koerner, Sally E; Blanchard, Emily; Callejas, Jennifer; Moore, Sarah; Sowers, Mark


    Poaching is rapidly extirpating African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) from most of their historical range, leaving vast areas of elephant-free tropical forest. Elephants are ecological engineers that create and maintain forest habitat, thus their loss will have strong consequences for the composition and structure of Afrotropical forests. We evaluated the roles of forest elephants in seed dispersal, nutrient recycling, and herbivory and physical damage to predict the cascading ecological effects of their population declines. Loss of seed dispersal by elephants will favor tree species dispersed abiotically and by smaller dispersal agents, with tree species composition depending on the downstream effects of changes in elephant nutrient cycling and browsing. Loss of trampling and herbivory of seedlings and saplings will result in high tree density as they are released from the pressures of browsing. Diminished seed dispersal by elephants and high stem density are likely to reduce the recruitment of large trees, resulting in a more homogeneous forest structure and decreased carbon stocks. In sum, the loss of ecological services by forest elephants will likely transform Central African forests to be more like Neotropical forests, from which megafauna were extirpated thousands of years ago. Without intervention, as much as 96% of Central African forests will have modified species composition and structure as elephants are compressed into remaining protected areas. Stopping elephant poaching is an urgent first step to mitigating these effects, but long-term conservation will require land use planning that incorporates elephant habitat into forested landscapes that are being rapidly transformed by industrial agriculture and logging. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Unearthing Secrets of the Forest (United States)

    Beldin, Sarah I.; Perakis, Steven S.


    Forests are a defining feature for large areas of the Pacific northwestern United States from northern California to Alaska. Coniferous temperate rainforests in the western Cascade and coastal mountain ranges are appreciated for their aesthetic value and abundant natural resources. Few people recognize the riches beneath the forest floor; yet, soil is a key ecosystem component that makes each type of forest unique. Soils harbor immense biological diversity and control the release of water and nutrients that support life above ground. Understanding how carbon and nutrients cycle in forests, known as forest biogeochemistry, is crucial for evaluating forest productivity, composition, diversity, and change. At the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, research in the Terrestrial Ecosystems Laboratory focuses on nutrient cycling in five themes: climate change, nutrition and sustainability, fire effects, restoration, and forest-stream linkages. This research is essential to understand the entire forest ecosystem and to use the best science available to make informed policy and management decisions.

  11. Avalanche modeling in forested terrain (United States)

    Teich, M.; Bartelt, P. A.; Bebi, P.; Grêt-Regamey, A.


    Mountain forests are a valuable defense against snow avalanches. Currently, however, little quantitative information is available to estimate the effect of forest structure on the motion of avalanches. Avalanche flow is strongly influenced by the condition and composition of vegetation in the avalanche path. This potential decelerating effect has, however, not yet been quantified. We apply the numerical avalanche dynamics program RAMMS to simulate several well documented small avalanche events in forests. The two-dimensional model RAMMS predicts avalanche run-out distances, flow velocities and impact pressures in complex three-dimensional terrain by numerically solving a system of partial differential equations governing avalanche flow. Based on detailed data on forest conditions and avalanche characteristics such as release areas, fracture heights and length collected in forested areas, where avalanches were observed, we modify the input parameters of the RAMMS model to match the observations. We compare the model output with observed run-out distances in order to quantify the decelerating effects of different forest structures. Implementing avalanche forest interactions into numerical avalanche simulations will open new fields of application for avalanche models, e.g. for managing mountain forests and by better accounting for mountain forests as an effective biological protection measure against snow avalanches in natural hazard mapping and landscape planning.

  12. Transient physiological responses of planting frozen root plugs of Douglas-fir seedlings (United States)

    M. Anisul Islam; Douglass F. JAcobs; Kent G. Apostol; R. Kasten Dumroese


    Short-term physiological responses of planting frozen (FR) and rapidly thawed (TR) root plugs of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) seedlings were examined through time series (0 h, 6 h, 12 h, 1 day, 3 days, and 7 days) measurements in two separate experiments: 10 C day: 6 C night, RH 75% and 30 C day: 20 C night, RH 50%, respectively...

  13. The fourth Minnesota forest inventory: area. (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes


    In 1977 the fourth Minnesota Forest Inventory found 13.7 million acres of commercial forest land, down 11% from that reported in 1962. This bulletin analyzes finding from the inventory and presents detailed tables of forest area.

  14. Forest Management Plan : Necedah National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Necedah NWR Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management objectives,...

  15. Forest Management Plan Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge Forest Management Plan is a general plan which outlines the Refuge management objectives, forest description, forest management...

  16. Productivity of Western forests: a forest products focus. (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington; Stephen H. Schoenholtz


    In August 20-23, 2004, a conference was held in Kamilche, WA, with the title “Productivity of Western Forests: A Forest Products Focus.” The meeting brought together researchers and practitioners interested in discussing the economic and biological factors influencing wood production and value. One of the underlying assumptions of the meeting organizers was that...

  17. How will the changing industrial forest landscape affect forest sustainability? (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson; Craig Loehle


    Large-scale divestiture of commercial forestlands is occurring in the United States. Furthermore, increasing demand for cellulose for bioenergy may modify forest management practices widely enough to impact the spatial characteristics of forested landscapes. We used the HARVEST timber harvest simulator to investigate the potential consequences of divestiture and...

  18. The fractal forest: fractal geometry and applications in forest science. (United States)

    Nancy D. Lorimer; Robert G. Haight; Rolfe A. Leary


    Fractal geometry is a tool for describing and analyzing irregularity. Because most of what we measure in the forest is discontinuous, jagged, and fragmented, fractal geometry has potential for improving the precision of measurement and description. This study reviews the literature on fractal geometry and its applications to forest measurements.

  19. Forest pathology and entomology at Fort Valley Experimental Forest (United States)

    Brian W. Geils


    Forest pathology and entomology have been researched at Fort Valley Experimental Forest throughout its history. The pathogens and insects of particular interest are mistletoes, decay and canker fungi, rusts, bark beetles, and various defoliators. Studies on life history, biotic interactions, impacts, and control have been published and incorporated into silvicultural...

  20. Exotic Forest Insect Pests and Their Impact on Forest Management (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Robert A. Haack


    More than 4500 exotic organisms are now established in the United States, of which over 400 are insects that feed on trees and shrubs. While most exotic insects cause little or no damage, a few have become serious pests and have greatly altered native forest ecosystems. Three of the most recently introduced exotic forest pests are the pine shoot beetle, the Asian...

  1. Influence of poverty on forest / forest management policies of Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research attempts to investigate and examine the influence of poverty on forest/forest management in the rural areas of Mbarakpa, Igbofia, Uyanga, Oban, Nsan and Obutong in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State. The population of this study comprised the total number of 620 household heads in the ...

  2. Forest ecosystem services: Provisioning of non-timber forest products (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Gregory E. Frey; C. Denise Ingram; Michael G. Jacobson; Cara Meghan Starbuck Downes


    The purpose of this chapter is to describe approaches to calculate a conservative and defensible estimate of the marginal value of forests for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). 'Provisioning" is one of four categories of benefits, or services that ecosystems provide to humans and was described by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment as 'products...

  3. Non-timber forest products in sustainable forest management (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman


    The forests of Southern United States are the source of many non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The collection, trade and use of these products have been important to rural economies since Europeans settled in this country. At the same time the plants from which these products originate are crucial to healthy ecosystems. Over the last decade, the market demand and the...

  4. Degraded forests are more susceptible to forest fires: Some possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a strong belief that degraded forests are more susceptible to forest fires than non-degraded ones, but this is more intuitive than scientifically proven. The present study was conducted to investigate how fuel loading and moisture content of combustible materials; two variables that influence ignition and fire impact ...

  5. Forest vegetation simulation tools and forest health assessment (United States)

    Richard M. Teck; Melody Steele


    A Stand Hazard Rating System for Central ldaho forests has been incorporated into the Central ldaho Prognosis variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator to evaluate how insects, disease and fire hazards within the Deadwood River Drainage change over time. A custom interface, BOISE.COMPUTE.PR, has been developed so hazard ratings can be electronically downloaded...

  6. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science - Vol 198 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reverting urban exotic pine forests to Macchia and indigenous forest vegetation, using cable-yarders on the slopes of Table Mountain, South Africa: management paper · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Pierre Ackerman, Bruce Talbot, 35-44 ...

  7. Estimating forest carbon stocks in tropical dry forests of Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation and mapping of forest dendrometric characteristics such as carbon stocks using remote sensing techniques is fundamental for improved understanding of the role of forests in the carbon cycle and climate change. In this study, we tested whether and to what extent spectral transforms, i.e. vegetation indices ...

  8. Forensic forest ecology : unraveling the stand history of tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlam, M.


    Tropical forests are occasionally hit by intense disturbances like hurricanes or droughts that kill many trees. We found evidence for such intense disturbances in a tree-ring study on tropical forests in Bolivia, Cameroon and Thailand. To reconstruct past disturbances we applied ‘forensic

  9. Forest Dynamics of Peat Swamp Forest in Sebangau, Central Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Forest dynamics were studied from 1999 to 2001 for individuals > 15 cm in girth of 24 most common species in six 0.25-ha plots. The plots were set up in natural peat swamp forest in the upper catchments of Sebangau, Central Kalimantan. Aim of the study is to understand the dynamics and vegetation changes of forest studied during period of study. The peat swamp forest in the study site might be categorized as moderately forest dynamic in term of rate of growth, mortality and recruitment. Annual relative growth rate and mortality rate was comparable to previous study but recruitment rate relatively higher. There was significant effect of diameter class on annual growth rate, but not to mortality rate. Even not too strong two environment factors (peat depth and distance to river were significant correlated with rate of mortality and recruitment. During two-year period study there was no significant changes in vegetation structure.

  10. Organization of private forest sector in Timok forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojislav Milijic


    Full Text Available Today, private forest owners (PFOs in Serbia cooperate in form of private forest owners associations (PFOAs. Currently, there are 20 PFOAs, of which 15 are in Timok region. Initiatives of PFOs from Timok forest area, animated the owners from other parts of the country and led to foundation of Serbian Federation of Forest Owners' Associations. Twelve of PFOAs from Timok forest area are the founders of Serbian private forest owners' umbrella organization. Restructuring of Public Enterprise (PE "Srbijasume", which started in 2001, led to development of private small and medium forest enterprises, engaged as contractors of PE for harvesting, timber transport and construction of forest roads. The objectives of this paper are to elaborate if there are differences between PFOs in Serbia and Timok region and to analyze organization of private forest owners in Timok forest area. In order to reach these objectives, results of PRIFORT project were used. This project focused on four countries of Western Balkans region: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia. The aim of this project was to explore precondition for formation of PFOs in this region. Quantitative survey (n = 350 of randomly selected PFOs was conducted in nine municipalities in Serbia, of which two were in Timok region (n = 100. The results show that there are differences between PFOs in Serbia and Timok region in number of PFOs, size of private property and in additional incentives. These results also indicate that economic interest is a motive for establishment of PFOAs and that state support is very important for their development. Since a number of PFOs are entrepreneurs, it can be assumed that, further development of theirs organizations could lead to development of SMEs clusters. 

  11. Does REDD+ Threaten to Recentralize Forest Governance?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacob Phelps; Edward L. Webb; Arun Agrawal


    ... (-), and has helped protect forests in many regions (, ). A new approach to mitigating terrestrial emissions associated with climate change, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD...

  12. Aspen Delineation - Klamath National Forest [ds370 (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The database represents polygons of aspen stands in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County, California. The Klamath National Forest Region 5 Vegetation aspen...

  13. 78 FR 37781 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee; Meeting (United States)


    ... Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting; Correction. SUMMARY: The Forest Service published a document in the Federal Register... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee Program Coordinator, 202...

  14. Landscape ecology and forest management (United States)

    Thomas R. Crow


    Almost all forest management activities affect landscape pattern to some extent. Among the most obvious impacts are those associated with forest harvesting and road building. These activities profoundly affect the size, shape, and configuration of patches in the landscape matrix. Even-age management such as clearcutting has been applied in blocks of uniform size, shape...

  15. [Madison School Forests Ecology Series. (United States)

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Each of these three booklets is to be used in conjunction with a field trip in the Madison, Wisconsin area, and to serve as a guide for presenting the filmstrips for each excursion. "Madison School Forests" emphasizes plant succession in a natural oak community. "Three Layers of Green in the Madison School Forest" emphasizes…

  16. Forest Statistics for Ohio--1979 (United States)

    Donald F. Dennis; Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch


    A statistical report on the third forest survey of Ohio conducted in 1978 and 1979. Statistical findings are based on data from remeasured and new 10-point variable radius plots. The current status of forest-land area, timber volume, and annual growth and removals is presented. Timber products output by timber industries, based on a 1978 updated canvass of...

  17. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta


    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects it i...

  18. Forest restoration is forward thinking (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Brian J. Palik; John A. Stanturf


    It is not surprising to us that the topic of forest restoration is being discussed in the Journal of Forestry. It is a topic frequently bantered about in the literature; a quick search in Google Scholar for "forest restoration" generates more than 1 million hits. A significant portion of the debate centers on the search for succinct, holistic, universally...

  19. Chapter 13: Water and Forests (United States)

    Graeme Lockaby; Chelsea Nagy; James M. Vose; Chelcy R. Ford; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Pete Caldwell; Erika Cohen; Jennifer Moore Meyers


    Forest conversion to agriculture or urban use consistently causes increased discharge, peak flow, and velocity of streams. Subregional differences in hydrologic responses to urbanization are substantial. Sediment, water chemistry indices, pathogens, and other substances often become more concentrated after forest conversion. If the conversion is to an urban use, the...

  20. Gainesville's urban forest canopy cover (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer


    Ecosystem benefits from trees are linked directly to the amount of healthy urban forest canopy cover. Urban forest cover is dynamic and changes over time due to factors such as urban development, windstorms, tree removals, and growth. The amount of a city's canopy cover depends on its land use, climate, and people's preferences. This fact sheet examines how...

  1. Deciduous Forest Zone of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drainage becomes poorer towards the valley bottom, where soils gener- ally show loamy textures and redoximorphic features, but only Oda shows high base saturation and pH(CaCl). (5.8-5.9) throughout the profile. Key words: Catena, soil series, pedology, forest, soil. Introduction. The semi-deciduous forest Zone of Ghana.

  2. Carbon accumulation in European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Zaehle, S.; Piao, S.L.; Cescatti, A.; Liski, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Le-Maire, G.; Schulze, E.D.; Bouriaud, O.; Freibauer, A.; Valentini, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.


    European forests are intensively exploited for wood products, yet they also form a sink for carbon. European forest inventories, available for the past 50 years, can be combined with timber harvest statistics to assess changes in this carbon sink. Analysis of these data sets between 1950 and 2000

  3. Forest resource trends in Illinois (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson


    Even though forests occupy only 12% of the land area of Illinois, they play a valuable role in the health of the state's environment and that of its citizens. Many of these benefits have been reviewed in Forest Resources of Illinois: An Atlas and Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Trends (Iverson et al. 1989), and summarized in...

  4. Trees of Our National Forests. (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Presented is a description of the creation of the National Forests system, how trees grow, managing the National Forests, types of management systems, and managing for multiple use, including wildlife, water, recreation and other uses. Included are: (1) photographs; (2) line drawings of typical leaves, cones, flowers, and seeds; and (3)…

  5. Fighting forest fires in Brazil (United States)

    José Carlos Mendes de Morais


    Fire has been used in Brazil for many years, but the increased use of this tool, combined with natural events and the presence of large forest and agricultural areas, has led to a significant jump in the number of forest fires, most of them caused by accident. To optimize existing resources and to cope with growing demand, action levels were adopted according to the...

  6. Forest policy reform in Brazil (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage


    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  7. Forest report 2016; Waldzustandsbericht 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: Forestry Environment Monitoring (defoliation results of all tree species), weather and climate, soil water balance and drought stress, insects and fungi, infiltrated substances, substrate group clay-free sand, and heavy metal pollution of forests.

  8. Forest report 2015; Waldzustandsbericht 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: Forestry Environment Monitoring, weather and climate, spring drought, insects and fungi, infiltrated substances, trends in soil solution of forest ecosystems, soil chemistry and root penetration in deeper layers of soil, climate change and sustainable land management in Northern German Plain.

  9. Gender Bias Affects Forests Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Elias


    Full Text Available Gender biases persist in forestry research and practice. These biases result in reduced scientific rigor and inequitable, ineffective, and less efficient policies, programs, and interventions. Drawing from a two-volume collection of current and classic analyses on gender in forests, we outline five persistent and inter-related themes: gendered governance, tree tenure, forest spaces, division of labor, and ecological knowledge. Each emerges across geographic regions in the northern and southern hemisphere and reflects inequities in women’s and men’s ability to make decisions about and benefit from trees, forests, and their products. Women’s ability to participate in community-based forest governance is typically less than men’s, causing concern for social equity and forest stewardship. Women’s access to trees and their products is commonly more limited than men’s, and mediated by their relationship with their male counterparts. Spatial patterns of forest use reflect gender norms and taboos, and men’s greater access to transportation. The division of labor results in gender specialization in the collection of forest products, with variations in gender roles across regions. All these gender differences result in ecological knowledge that is distinct but also complementary and shifting across the genders. The ways gender plays out in relation to each theme may vary across cultures and contexts, but the influence of gender, which intersects with other factors of social differentiation in shaping forest landscapes, is global.

  10. Survival paths through the forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Ulla Brasch

    when the information is high-dimensional e.g. when there are many thousands of genes or markers. In these situations machine learning methods such as the random forest can still be applied and provide reasonable prediction accuracy. The main focus in this talk is the performance of random forest...... in particular when the response is three-dimensional. In a diagnostic study of inflammatory bowel disease three classes of patients have to be diagnosed based on microarray gene-expression data. The performance of random forest is compared on a probability scale and on a classification scale to elastic net....... In survival analysis with competing risks I present an extension of random forest using time-dependent pseudo-values to build event risk prediction models. This approach is evaluated with data from Copenhagen stroke study. Further, I will explain how to use the R-package "pec" to evaluate random forests using...

  11. Decomposition Analysis of Forest Ecosystem Services Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii


    Full Text Available Forest ecosystem services are fundamental for human life. To protect and increase forest ecosystem services, the driving factors underlying changes in forest ecosystem service values must be determined to properly implement forest resource management planning. This study examines the driving factors that affect changes in forest ecosystem service values by focusing on regional forest characteristics using a dataset of 47 prefectures in Japan for 2000, 2007, and 2012. We applied two approaches: a contingent valuation method for estimating the forest ecosystem service value per area and a decomposition analysis for identifying the main driving factors of changes in the value of forest ecosystem services. The results indicate that the value of forest ecosystem services has increased due to the expansion of forest area from 2000 to 2007. However, factors related to forest management and ecosystem service value per area have contributed to a decrease in the value of ecosystem services from 2000 to 2007 and from 2007 to 2012, respectively.

  12. Effects of Deforestation and Forest Degradation on Forest Carbon Stocks in Collaborative Forests, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Asheshwar MANDAL


    Full Text Available There are some key drivers that favor deforestation and forest degradation. Consequently, levels of carbon stock are affected in different parts of same forest types. But the problem lies in exploring the extent of the effects on level of carbon stocking. This paper highlights the variations in levels of carbon stocks in three different collaborative forests of same forest type i.e. tropical sal (Shorea robusta forest in Mahottari district of the central Terai in Nepal. Three collaborative forests namely Gadhanta-Bardibas Collaborative Forest (CFM, Tuteshwarnath CFM and Banke- Maraha CFM were selected for research site. Interview and workshops were organized with the key informants that include staffs, members and representatives of CFMs to collect the socio-economic data and stratified random sampling was applied to collect the bio-physical data to calculate the carbon stocks. Analysis was carried out using statistical tools. It was found five major drivers namely grazing, fire, logging, growth of invasive species and encroachment. It was found highest carbon 269.36 ton per ha in Gadhanta- Bardibash CFM. The findings showed that the levels of carbon stocks in the three studied CFMs are different depending on how the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation influence over them.

  13. Assessments of Population Structure, Diversity, and Phylogeography of the Swiss Needle Cast Fungus (Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bennett


    Full Text Available Swiss needle cast (SNC is a foliar disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii caused by Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii (Rohde Petrak. This fungus is endemic to western North America, where it has historically had little impact in native forests. However, increasing disease severity in western Oregon since the 1990s has prompted renewed interest in P. gaeumannii and SNC. For this study, we analyze multilocus microsatellite genotypes from 482 single-spore isolates from 68 trees across 14 sites in the western Coast Range of Oregon and southwestern Washington. This study assesses genotypic variation and genetic structure at several levels of population hierarchy. Despite the observation that most of the genetic variation occurred within subpopulations, our analyses detected significant differentiation at all hierarchical levels. Clustering among the 482 isolates based on genetic distance clearly supports the existence of two previously described cryptic lineages of P. gaeumannii in the western United States. The two lineages occur in varying proportions along latitudinal and longitudinal gradients in western Oregon and Washington, suggesting a relationship between climate and phylogeography. Sites near Tillamook, Oregon, where SNC is most severe, consist of sympatric subpopulations in which the two lineages comprise roughly equal proportions.

  14. Height-growth response to climatic changes differs among populations of Douglas-fir: a novel analysis of historic data. (United States)

    Leites, Laura P; Robinson, Andrew P; Rehfeldt, Gerald E; Marshall, John D; Crookston, Nicholas L


    Projected climate change will affect existing forests, as substantial changes are predicted to occur during their life spans. Species that have ample intraspecific genetic differentiation, such as Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), are expected to display population-specific growth responses to climate change. Using a mixed-effects modeling approach, we describe three-year height (HT) growth response to changes in climate of interior Douglas-fir populations. We incorporate climate information at the population level, yielding a model that is specific to both species and population. We use data from provenance tests from previous studies that comprised 236 populations from Idaho, Montana, and eastern Washington, USA. The most sensitive indicator of climate was the mean temperature of the coldest month. Population maximum HT and HT growth response to changes in climate were dependent on seed source climate. All populations had optimum HT growth when transferred to climates with warmer winters; those originating in sites with the warmest winters were taller across sites and had highest HT growth at transfer distances closest to zero; those from colder climates were shortest and had optimum HT growth when transferred the farthest. Although this differential response damped the height growth differences among populations, cold-climate populations still achieved their maximum growth at lower temperatures than warm-climate populations. The results highlight the relevance of understanding climate change impacts at the population level, particularly in a species with ample genetic variation among populations.

  15. Evaluating differences in forest fragmentation and restoration between western natural forests and southeastern plantation forests in the United States. (United States)

    Ren, Xinyu; Lv, Yingying; Li, Mingshi


    Changes in forest ecosystem structure and functions are considered some of the research issues in landscape ecology. In this study, advancing Forman's theory, we considered five spatially explicit processes associated with fragmentation, including perforation, dissection, subdivision, shrinkage, and attrition, and two processes associated with restoration, i.e., increment and expansion processes. Following this theory, a forest fragmentation and restoration process model that can detect the spatially explicit processes and ecological consequences of forest landscape change was developed and tested in the current analysis. Using the National Land Cover Databases (2001, 2006 and 2011), the forest fragmentation and restoration process model was applied to US western natural forests and southeastern plantation forests to quantify and classify forest patch losses into one of the four fragmentation processes (the dissection process was merged into the subdivision process) and to classify the newly gained forest patches based on the two restoration processes. At the same time, the spatio-temporal differences in fragmentation and restoration patterns and trends between natural forests and plantations were further compared. Then, through overlaying the forest fragmentation/restoration processes maps with targeting year land cover data and land ownership vectors, the results from forest fragmentation and the contributors to forest restoration in federal and nonfederal lands were identified. Results showed that, in natural forests, the forest change patches concentrated around the urban/forest, cultivated/forest, and shrubland/forest interfaces, while the patterns of plantation change patches were scattered sparsely and irregularly. The shrinkage process was the most common type in forest fragmentation, and the average size was the smallest. Expansion, the most common restoration process, was observed in both natural forests and plantations and often occurred around the

  16. A tale of two "forests": random forest machine learning AIDS tropical forest carbon mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mascaro

    Full Text Available Accurate and spatially-explicit maps of tropical forest carbon stocks are needed to implement carbon offset mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Deforestation and Degradation Plus. The Random Forest machine learning algorithm may aid carbon mapping applications using remotely-sensed data. However, Random Forest has never been compared to traditional and potentially more reliable techniques such as regionally stratified sampling and upscaling, and it has rarely been employed with spatial data. Here, we evaluated the performance of Random Forest in upscaling airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging-based carbon estimates compared to the stratification approach over a 16-million hectare focal area of the Western Amazon. We considered two runs of Random Forest, both with and without spatial contextual modeling by including--in the latter case--x, and y position directly in the model. In each case, we set aside 8 million hectares (i.e., half of the focal area for validation; this rigorous test of Random Forest went above and beyond the internal validation normally compiled by the algorithm (i.e., called "out-of-bag", which proved insufficient for this spatial application. In this heterogeneous region of Northern Peru, the model with spatial context was the best preforming run of Random Forest, and explained 59% of LiDAR-based carbon estimates within the validation area, compared to 37% for stratification or 43% by Random Forest without spatial context. With the 60% improvement in explained variation, RMSE against validation LiDAR samples improved from 33 to 26 Mg C ha(-1 when using Random Forest with spatial context. Our results suggest that spatial context should be considered when using Random Forest, and that doing so may result in substantially improved carbon stock modeling for purposes of climate change mitigation.

  17. A tale of two "forests": random forest machine learning AIDS tropical forest carbon mapping. (United States)

    Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Martin, Roberta E; Anderson, Christopher; Higgins, Mark; Chadwick, K Dana


    Accurate and spatially-explicit maps of tropical forest carbon stocks are needed to implement carbon offset mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Deforestation and Degradation Plus). The Random Forest machine learning algorithm may aid carbon mapping applications using remotely-sensed data. However, Random Forest has never been compared to traditional and potentially more reliable techniques such as regionally stratified sampling and upscaling, and it has rarely been employed with spatial data. Here, we evaluated the performance of Random Forest in upscaling airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-based carbon estimates compared to the stratification approach over a 16-million hectare focal area of the Western Amazon. We considered two runs of Random Forest, both with and without spatial contextual modeling by including--in the latter case--x, and y position directly in the model. In each case, we set aside 8 million hectares (i.e., half of the focal area) for validation; this rigorous test of Random Forest went above and beyond the internal validation normally compiled by the algorithm (i.e., called "out-of-bag"), which proved insufficient for this spatial application. In this heterogeneous region of Northern Peru, the model with spatial context was the best preforming run of Random Forest, and explained 59% of LiDAR-based carbon estimates within the validation area, compared to 37% for stratification or 43% by Random Forest without spatial context. With the 60% improvement in explained variation, RMSE against validation LiDAR samples improved from 33 to 26 Mg C ha(-1) when using Random Forest with spatial context. Our results suggest that spatial context should be considered when using Random Forest, and that doing so may result in substantially improved carbon stock modeling for purposes of climate change mitigation.

  18. The future of tropical forests. (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph


    Five anthropogenic drivers--land use change, wood extraction, hunting, atmospheric change, climate change--will largely determine the future of tropical forests. The geographic scope and intensity of these five drivers are in flux. Contemporary land use change includes deforestation (approximately 64,000 km(2) yr(-1) for the entire tropical forest biome) and natural forests regenerating on abandoned land (approximately 21,500 km(2) yr(-1) with just 29% of the biome evaluated). Commercial logging is shifting rapidly from Southeast Asia to Africa and South America, but local fuelwood consumption continues to constitute 71% of all wood production. Pantropical rates of net deforestation are declining even as secondary and logged forests increasingly replace old-growth forests. Hunters reduce frugivore, granivore and browser abundances in most forests. This alters seed dispersal, seed and seedling survival, and hence the species composition and spatial template of plant regeneration. Tropical governments have responded to these local threats by protecting 7% of all land for the strict conservation of nature--a commitment that is only matched poleward of 40 degrees S and 70 degrees N. Protected status often fails to stop hunters and is impotent against atmospheric and climate change. There are increasing reports of stark changes in the structure and dynamics of protected tropical forests. Four broad classes of mechanisms might contribute to these changes. Predictions are developed to distinguish among these mechanisms.

  19. 78 FR 44519 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (United States)


    ... Office of the Secretary Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Re-establishment of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee and call for nominations. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture re-established the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee (Committee...

  20. Changing Forest Values and Ecosystem Management (United States)

    David N. Bengston


    There is substantial evidence that we are currently in a period of rapid and significant change in forest values. Some have charged that managing forests in ways that are responsive to diverse and changing forest values is the main challenge faced by public forest managers. To tackle this challenge, we need to address the following questions: (1) What is the nature of...

  1. Fetch requirements near a forest edge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugel, van P.B.; Klaassen, W.; Moors, E.J.


    Measurements on forest-atmosphere exchange should be executed some distance from the forest boundaries to be representative for this forest. In this study the minimum fetch at measuring height is estimated by analysing measurements just above a mixed forest stand near the edge. The objective was to

  2. Puerto Rico’s forests, 2009 (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Jeffery A. Turner; NO-VALUE


    This report presents the results of the fourth forest inventory of the islands of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. Forest area on mainland Puerto Rico held steady, or increased slightly, from 2004 to 2009. This change would seem to indicate that the rate of forest cover increase on mainland Puerto Rico has slowed since the forest inventory began in 1980. But the...

  3. Many ways to manage lodgepole pine forests (United States)

    Lucia Solorzano


    Research underway at the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest near White Sulphur Springs will provide insights on how to sustain lodgepole pine forests and water flow patterns over large areas. Lodgepole pine dominates a high percentage of forests in the northern Rocky Mountains. including the Bitterroot National Forest. About half the stands at Tenderfoot are two-aged...

  4. Joint Annual Forest Inventory and Monitoring System (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts


    The Renewable Forest and Rangeland Resources Planning Act of 1978 requires that the USDA Forest Service conduct periodic inventories of forestland in the United States to determine its extent and condition and the volume of standing timber, timber growth, and timber depletions. Five separate Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) programs, located in USDA Forest Service...

  5. Annual Forest Inventory: An Industry Perspective (United States)

    Roger Lord


    The Forest Inventory and Analysis Program serves important public interests by providing credible data for informed public forest policy debates as well as feedback to the forest-based economic market. This feedback, which affects timber price expectations, helps ensure resource sustainability by promoting better investment decision making within the forest products...

  6. Forests of the Northern United States (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield


    Bounded by Maine, Maryland, Missouri, and Minnesota, the 20 Northern States have a larger population and a higher proportion of forest cover than other comparably sized U.S. regions. Forest-associated issues across the North include insect and disease pests, invasive species, forest management capacity, management standards, biodiversity, forest fragmentation, water...

  7. Minnesota's forests 1999-2003 (Part A) (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; Keith Jacobson; Gary J. Brand; Ed Jepsen; Dacia Meneguzzo; Manfred E. Mielke; Cassandra Olson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry Tyler Wilson; Christopher Woodall


    The first completed annual inventory of Minnesota's forests reports more than 16.2 million acres of forest land. Additional forest attribute and forest health information is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and diseases.

  8. 25 CFR 163.32 - Forest development. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forest development. 163.32 Section 163.32 Indians BUREAU... Management and Operations § 163.32 Forest development. Forest development pertains to forest land management... development funds will be used to re-establish, maintain, and/or improve growth of commercial timber species...

  9. South Carolina’s forests, 2006 (United States)

    Roger C. Conner; Tim O. Adams; Tony G. Johnson; Sonja N. Oswalt


    Forest land area in South Carolina amounted to nearly 12.9 million acres, including 12.8 million acres of timberland. Nonindustrial private timberland totaled to 9.9 million acres. Family forest owners dominate the private ownership group with 262,000 landowners who collectively control 7.3 million acres of forest land in the State. Timberland area under forest...

  10. Plantation forests, climate change and biodiversity (United States)

    S.M. Pawson; A. Brin; E.G. Brockerhoff; D. Lamb; T.W. Payn; A. Paquette; J.A. Parrotta


    Nearly 4 % of the world’s forests are plantations, established to provide a variety of ecosystem services, principally timber and other wood products. In addition to such services, plantation forests provide direct and indirect benefits to biodiversity via the provision of forest habitat for a wide range of species, and by reducing negative impacts on natural forests...

  11. Forest statistics of the United States, 1987. (United States)

    Karen L. Waddell; Danlel D. Oswald; Douglas S. Powell


    The Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974 (88 Stat. 476 as amended) directs the U.S. Department of Agriculture to conduct a comprehensive assessment of all forest and range land resources on both public and private lands. Forest resource data collected from periodic surveys in each State and Forest Service Region were entered into a...

  12. Migration, Remittances, and Forest Dependence in Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migration, Remittances, and Forest Dependence in Ethiopia: Implications for Food Security, Gender, and Forest Conservation. This project will provide evidence that offers important insight into the connection between migration, gender, and forest dependence in rural Ethiopia. Need for labour migration, forest resources ...

  13. Southern forest science: past, present, and future (United States)

    H. Michael Rauscher; Kurt Johnsen


    Southern forests provide innumerable benefits. Forest scientists, managers, owners, and users have in common the desire to improve the condition of these forests and the ecosystems they support. A first step is to understand the contributions science has made and continues to make to the care and management of forests. This book represents a celebration of past...

  14. A preview of West Virginia's forest resource (United States)

    Joseph E. Barnard; Teresa M. Bowers


    Forest land occupies 75 percent of the total land area of West Virginia. Sixty percent of the forest land is classified in the oak-hickory forest type and only 6 percent in all the softwood forest types. Since 1961, growing-stock volume increased 24 percent. Yellow-poplar increased 39 percent in volume and is now the prevalent species in the State.

  15. Forest statistics for Arkansas counties - 1995 (United States)

    Jack D. London


    Periodic surveys of forest resources are authorized by the Forest Service and Rangeland Renewable Resources Research Act of 1978. These surveys are a continuing, nationwide undertaking by the Regional Experiment Stations of the USDA Forest Service. In the Southern United States, these surveys are conducted by the two Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Research Work...

  16. Forest statistics for Arkansas' delta counties - 1995 (United States)

    James F. Rosson; Andrew J. Hartsell; Jack D. London


    Periodic surveys of forest resources are authorized by the Forest Service and Rangeland Renewable Resources Research Act of 1978. These surveys are a continuing, nationwide undertaking by the Regional Experiment Stations of the USDA Forest Service. In the Southern United States, these surveys are conducted by the two Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Research Work...

  17. Penobscot Experimental Forest: resources, administration, and mission (United States)

    Alan J. Kimball


    The Penobscot Experimental Forest (PEF) was established more than 60 years ago as a result of private forest landowners' interest in supporting forest research in Maine. In 1950, nine pulp and paper and land-holding companies pooled resources and purchased almost 4,000 acres of land in east-central Maine. The property was named the Penobscot Experimental Forest...

  18. Managing forest products for community benefit (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Jonathan W. Long


    Forest products harvesting and use from national forest lands remain important to local residents and communities in some parts of the Sierra Nevada science synthesis area. Managing national forests for the sustainable production of timber, biomass, nontimber forest products, and forage for livestock can help support forestbased livelihoods in parts of the region where...

  19. South-central Alaska forests: inventory highlights. (United States)

    Sally Campbell; Willem W.S. van Hees; Bert. Mead


    This publication presents highlights of a recent south-central Alaska inventory conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (USDA Forest Service). South-central Alaska has about 18.5 million acres, of which one-fifth (4 million acres) is forested. Species diversity is greatest in closed and open Sitka spruce forests, spruce...

  20. Natural and near natural tropical forest values (United States)

    Daniel H. Henning


    This paper identifies and describes some of the values associated with tropical rain forests in their natural and near-natural conditions. Tropical rain forests are moist forests in the humid tropics where temperature and rainfall are high and the dry season is short. These closed (non-logged) and broad-leaved forests are a global resource. Located almost entirely in...

  1. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston


    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  2. Forest health monitoring: 2009 national technical report (United States)

    Kevin M. Potter; Barbara L. Conkling


    The annual national technical report of the Forest Health Monitoring Program of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, presents forest health status and trends from a national or multi-State regional perspective using a variety of sources, introduces new techniques for analyzing forest health data, and summarizes results of recently completed Evaluation...

  3. Remote Sensing of Forest Health Indicators for Assessing Change in Forest Health (United States)

    Michael K. Crosby; Zhaofei Fan; Martin A. Spetich; Theodor D. Leininger


    Oak decline poses a substantial threat to forest health in the Ozark Highlands of northern Arkansas and southern Missouri, where coupled with diseases and insect infestations, it has damaged large tracts of forest lands. Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) crown health indicators (e.g. crown dieback, etc.), collected by the U.S. Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and...

  4. Non-timber forest products: alternative multiple-uses for sustainable forest management (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Mary Predny


    Forests of the southern United States are the source of a great diversity of flora, much of which is gathered for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). These products are made from resources that grow under the forest canopy as trees, herbs, shrubs, vines, moss and even lichen. They occur naturally in forests or may be cultivated under the forest canopy or in...

  5. 76 FR 70955 - Helena Nation Forest: Dalton Mountain Forest Restoration & Fuels Reduction Project (United States)


    ... Forest Service Helena Nation Forest: Dalton Mountain Forest Restoration & Fuels Reduction Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Helena National Forest (HNF) is proposing on the Lincoln Ranger District both commercial and non...

  6. 75 FR 3442 - Tahoe National Forest, California, Tahoe National Forest Motorized Travel Management Supplemental... (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Tahoe National Forest, California, Tahoe National Forest Motorized Travel Management Supplemental Draft EIS AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare a supplemental draft environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Tahoe National Forest (TNF) will...

  7. 77 FR 13625 - Notice of Inventory Completion: USDA Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest, Winchester, KY (United States)


    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: USDA Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest... Agriculture, Forest Service, Daniel Boone National Forest, has completed an inventory of human remains and... contact the Daniel Boone National Forest, Winchester, KY. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian...

  8. 77 FR 18997 - Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger... (United States)


    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-7527] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Rim Lakes Forest Restoration Project; Apache-Sitgreavese National Forest, Black Mesa Ranger District, Coconino County, AZ AGENCY: Forest.... Forest Service (FS) will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) on a proposed action to conduct...

  9. 75 FR 16719 - Information Collection; Forest Landscape Value and Special Place Mapping for National Forest... (United States)


    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Forest Landscape Value and Special Place Mapping for National Forest Planning AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; request for comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Forest Service is seeking comments...

  10. The relative contributions of forest growth and areal expansion to forest biomass carbon (United States)

    P. Li; J. Zhu; H. Hu; Z. Guo; Y. Pan; R. Birdsey; J. Fang


    Forests play a leading role in regional and global terrestrial carbon (C) cycles. Changes in C sequestration within forests can be attributed to areal expansion (increase in forest area) and forest growth (increase in biomass density). Detailed assessment of the relative contributions of areal expansion and forest growth to C sinks is crucial to reveal the mechanisms...

  11. Survival and rebound of Antillean dry forests: role of forest fragments (United States)

    I.A. Ramjohn; P.G. Murphy; T.M. Burton; A.E. Lugo


    Antillean dry forests have experienced high levels of human impact for almost five centuries. Economic changes in the second half of the 20th century have facilitated forest recovery in Puerto Rico. We quantified the extent of forest cover and the community composition of representative forest fragments in the subtropical dry forest life zone (sensu Holdridge, 1967) in...

  12. Influence of forest degradation on tree diversity in a forest-savannah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that landscape and forest disturbance, characterized by a forest canopy opening up, led to an increase of light-tolerant species and their richness in degraded forests. Thus, if diversity is summarized to species richness, forest ... anthropogenic disturbances. In non-degraded forests, abundance distribution ...

  13. Forest Productivity, Leaf Area, and Terrain in Southern Appalachian Deciduous Forests (United States)

    Paul V. Bolstad; James M. Vose; Steven G. McNulty


    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural characteristic of forest ecosystems which has been shown to be strongly related to forest mass and energy cycles and forest productivity. LAI is more easily measured than forest productivity, and so a strong relationship between LAI and productivity would be a valuable tool in forest management. While a linear...

  14. An economic model of international wood supply, forest stock and forest area change (United States)

    James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu


    Wood supply, the link between roundwood removals and forest resources, is an important component of forest sector models. This paper develops a model of international wood supply within the structure of the spatial equilibrium Global Forest Products Model. The wood supply model determines, for each country, the annual forest harvest, the annual change of forest stock...

  15. Forest fragmentation and avian nest predation in forested landscapes. (United States)

    Small, M F; Hunter, M L


    The size of forest fragments, the use of land bordering fragments, and the distance of nests from an edge all affect the frequency of predation upon bird nests in Maine (USA), an area where the forest has been fragmented by roads, but not significantly reduced in area. We placed artificial nests containing quail eggs in forests of different sizes and at various distances from the edge to test which of these factors was most important in describing predation. Predation was greatest in small tracts surrounded completely by land. Large areas and those bordered on at least one side by a large water body had lower predation rates. This suggests that influx of predators from nearby habitats may be responsible for much of the nest predation in forest fragments.

  16. Increase in forest growth: new evidences from temperate forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingua E


    Full Text Available A paper recently published on PNAS provides a new evidence for an increase in forest growth in temperate forests. The possible causes of this process are discussed. The results show a relation between this change in tree growth with the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature, and length of growth season. A better understanding of the specific mechanisms involved and the assessment of the consequences on the current and future global changes are needed.

  17. Water yield following forest-grass-forest transitions (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; Peter V. Caldwell; Steven T. Brantley; Chelcy F. Miniat; James M. Vose; Wayne Swank


    Many currently forested areas in the southern Appalachians were harvested in the early 1900s and cleared for agriculture or pasture, but have since been abandoned and reverted to forest (old-field succession). Land-use and land-cover changes such as these may have altered the timing and quantity of water yield (Q). We examined 80 years of streamflow and vegetation data...

  18. Complexity of Forest Management: Exploring Perceptions of Dutch Forest Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jilske O. de Bruin


    Full Text Available Challenges of contemporary forest management are frequently referred to as complex. This article empirically studies complexity in forest management decision-making. In contrast to what is often assumed in the literature, this article starts by assuming that complexity does not just consist of an external descriptive element, but also depends on how decision-makers perceive the system at hand. This “perceived complexity” determines decision-making. We used a straightforward interpretation of perceived complexity using two criteria: the number of factors considered and the uncertainty perceived about these factors. The results show that Dutch forest managers generally consider forest management decision-making to be complicated (many factors to consider rather than complex (many uncertain factors to consider. Differences in sources of complexity confirm the individual character of perceived complexity. The factors perceived to be most relevant for decision-making (the forest itself, the organization’s objective, the cost of management, public opinion, national policies and laws, and new scientific insights and ideas are generally seen as rather certain, although “complexity reduction” may play a role that can adversely affect the quality of decision-making. Additional use of more open-ended, forward-looking methods, such as qualitative foresight tools, might enable addressing uncertainty and complexity, and thereby enhance decision-making in forest management to prepare for increasing complexity in the future.

  19. SWFLG Briefing Note 11: Forest Enterprise


    Freeman, Dena; Hesselden, Fiona


    The WCC project is testing an innovative approach to in situ conservation of wild coffee (Coffea arabica) by exploring the potential of Participatory Forest Management (PFM). In this approach the local people are seen as part of the solution, not part of the problem, and are empowered to sustainably manage the forest. This includes devolving forest tenure to community based Forest Management Groups (FMGs) and giving them use rights to non-timber forest products such as coffee, honey and spice...

  20. Dictionary of forest structural terminology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Geldenhuys, CJ


    Full Text Available This report lists and defines attributes (both functional and structural) that have been used in other structural classifications of forest vegetation. Field techniques are summarized. The recommended use of each attribute and technique is presented...