Sample records for pseudoplathystoma corruscans spix

  1. Hybrids between Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and P. reticulatum (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae previously reported in the Upper Paraná River are likely escapes from aquaculture farms: evidence from microsatellite markers

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    Rafael A. Baggio


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The production of hybrids of the 'pintado', Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 and 'cachara', Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum (Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 in captivity has generated many concerns about the possibility of introduction of farmed hybrids into natural environments. In the last decade, hybrids between these species, known as 'pintachara' or 'cachapinta', were reported from different regions of the Upper Paraná River basin. Prospection of these hybrids is important in order to orient conservation programs for the species involved. Knowledge of the presence of these hybrids will direct conservation strategies towards prevention and/or mitigation of the effects of cross breeding in natural populations of P. corruscans (the native species of the genus and farmed hybrids. In this study, surveyed the larval population using molecular tools to detect the presence and assess the origin (natural hybridization or escapes from fish farms of hybrids in natural water bodies. Nine microsatellite markers were used to detect signals of hybridization and introgression of P. reticulatum in larvae and adults of P. corruscans in Upper Paraná River basin, between Itaipu Dam and Porto Primavera Dam. The specimens were sampled in the Upper Paraná channel and in tributaries where hybrids had been detected in the past, during two reproductive seasons. Despite of that, no sign of hybridization and introgression was found in the 171 larvae and 75 adults sampled, suggesting that the specimens detected in previous studies had originated from escapes of aquaculture farms.

  2. Johann Baptist Spix and the "lingula mandibularis". (United States)

    Eramo, Stefano; De Carolis, Carlo; Pagano, Stefano


    Johann Baptist Ritter von Spix (1781-1826), a German zoologist, was famous in his time and highly honored after making one of the first exploration voyages in the wildest part of Brazil. He was almost forgotten in the annals of history for nearly two centuries after his birth, at which time some enlightened biographers brought him back into prominence in both the biological and zoological fields. On the contrary though, he had never been forgotten in the science of odontostomatology thanks to his discovery of the "Lingula Mandibularis" also known as "Spine of Spix". Johannes Baptist Spix was born in Hoechstadt, Germany in 1781. He was the Conservator of the Museum of Natural History in Munich and was a distinguished Comparative Anatomist. He died Munich inl 1826. The purposes of this work are to present some biographical notes on J.B. Ritter von Spix, to explain whythe "Lingula Mandibularis" has been called by the name of Spix and why this eponym has been used as such.

  3. The compensatory growth of skeletal muscle cells in Amazonian catfish (Pseudoplathystoma reticulatum female x Leiarius marmoratus male

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    T. S. Cotrim


    Full Text Available .The growth characteristics and morphological pattern of skeletal muscle tissue of Amazonian catfish (Pseudoplathystoma reticulatum female x Leiarius marmoratus male from fingerlings until juvenile stage submitted to different restriction levels during compensatory growth wereevaluated. There were four groups (G submitted to different levels feed restriction: Group 1 (G1 animals that were fed for 120 days nonfasting (5% of body mass; Group 2 (G2 animals submitted to partial fasting for 30 days (2% of body mass and after 90 days nonfasting; Group 3 (G3 animals submitted the partial fasting for 30 days (0,5% of body mass and after 90 days nonfasting; Group 4 (G4 animals submitted to fasting for 30 days (0.0% of body mass and after 90 days nonfasting. The results showed thata reduction in the diet of 2% and 0.5% of body mass during a period of fasting stimulated In G2 the total compensatory growth with 15 days of nonfasting through the muscle cells hypertrophy, G3 with 60 days and G4 with 90 days, being the last one a partial compensatory growth. Moreover, didn’t affect the hyperplastic growth of muscle cells in nonfasting, although it has stimulated an upward hyperplasia of muscle cells of G4 from the period of 60 days. The strategy of compensatory growth to the Amazonian catfish in the juvenile stage proved to be efficient with 30 days off asting and 90 days of nonfasting inducing the mechanism of muscle hypertrophy of Amazonian catfish. Therefore to evaluate the performance of the muscle cells associated with compensatory growth technique it can be helpful in the production system of fish farms

  4. Survival and growth of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Pisces - Pimelodidae larvae: effect of photoperiod Sobrevivência e crescimento de larvas de surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Pisces, Pimelodidae: efeito do fotoperíodo

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    R. Campagnolo


    Full Text Available The survival and the growth of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans larvae exposed to four photoperiods: light:dark (LD 0:24, LD 10:14, LD 14:10, and LD 24:0, in a brackish water (5‰ culture were analyzed. Larvae were fed with Artemia sp. nauplii at a 500 nauplii/larvae/day ratio. Survival on day 5 was inversely related to the length of photoperiod. From days 5 to 10, intermediate photoperiods resulted in a better survival, although LD 0:24 and LD 14:10 resulted in similar survival on day 10. Larvae presented higher weight at intermediate photoperiods. The results suggested that photoperiod requirements shifted during early development of P. corruscans larvae.A sobrevivência e o crescimento de larvas de surubim, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, submetidas a quatro fotoperíodos: luz:escuro (LE 0:24, LE 10:14, LE 14:10 e LE 24:0 em água salinizada (5‰ foram avaliadas. As larvas foram alimentadas com náuplios de Artemia sp. na proporção de 500 náuplios/larva/dia. Após cinco dias de experimento, a sobrevivência apresentou relação inversa ao aumento do fotoperíodo. Entre o quinto e o 10º dia, houve tendência de maior sobrevivência nos fotoperíodos intermediários, mas foram registradas sobrevivências semelhantes no intervalo entre LE 0:24 e LE 14:10 no 10º dia. As larvas apresentaram maior peso nos fotoperíodos intermediários. Os resultados sugerem que a exigência de fotoperíodo das larvas de P. corruscans sofre mudanças durante o cultivo.

  5. STUDY OF LIMNOLOGICAL VARIABLES IN NURSERIES OF Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier; 1818 AND Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829

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    Katia Santos Bezerra


    Full Text Available Ecosystem's aquatic metabolism comprises three main levels: production, consumption and decomposition. For the aquaculture fundament the knowledge and accompaniment of the biotic and abiotic factors for a sustainable production. The study evaluated the dynamics of variables limnologics in ponds: Colossoma macropomun (CM and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (PC, during a 24hs. The work was accomplished in the Station of Fish farming of Chesf, Paulo Afonso-BA. The variables oxygen (O2, temperature (T°C and pH were measured every two hours, shines and transparency. Samples of water were analysis ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, inorganic and organic phosphate, total phosphors, chlorophyll a, identification of the plankton and phytobenthos were collected at 09:00, 15:00 and 21:00hs. All the variables physical-chemistries were inside of the ideal for culture species. The group phytoplankton most frequent no CM was Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta. while in PC was Xanthophyta. The group phytobentic most frequent no CM was Xanthophyta, while in PC was Bacillariophyta. The group of Copepods was the most evident zooplankton in CM and there was absence of Rotifers in PC.

  6. Infestação de Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae em sapos Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: novo registro de hospedeiro Infestation of Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch (Acari, Ixodidae ticks on Bufo ictericus (Spix (Amphibia, Bufonidae: new host record

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    Germano Woehl Jr.


    Full Text Available Bufo ictericus Spix, 1824 toad population (N = 125 foraging in lighted areas in the Corupá Municipality, Santa Catarina State, was surveyed to evaluate the prevalence (percentage of infestation and the mean infestation intensity of Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 (Acari, Ixodidae ticks. The prevalence was of 19.2% and the mean infestation intensity was 7.4 ticks per infested toad. For the first time B. ictericus as host of A. rotundatum is reported.

  7. Aspectos fisiopatológicos da retenção de ovos em Jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824) Fisiopathological aspects of egg retention in South American Red-footed Tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824)


    Carlos Alexandre Rey Matias; Mário Antônio Pinto Romão; Rogério Tortelly; Sávio Freire Bruno


    Das enfermidades que acometem o sistema genital de répteis, a retenção de ovos tem grande prevalência em quelônios. Neste trabalho, são analisados quatorze casos de retenção de ovos na espécie jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824), mantidos como animais de companhia, os quais foram atendidos na Policlínica Veterinária da Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) entre os anos de 1999 e 2003. Dos fatores que provocam ou favorecem a ocorrência dessa distocia, foram avaliados: em relação ...

  8. Aspectos fisiopatológicos da retenção de ovos em Jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824)


    Matias, Carlos Alexandre Rey; Romão, Mário Antônio Pinto; Tortelly, Rogério; Bruno, Sávio Freire


    Das enfermidades que acometem o sistema genital de répteis, a retenção de ovos tem grande prevalência em quelônios. Neste trabalho, são analisados quatorze casos de retenção de ovos na espécie jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824), mantidos como animais de companhia, os quais foram atendidos na Policlínica Veterinária da Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) entre os anos de 1999 e 2003. Dos fatores que provocam ou favorecem a ocorrência dessa distocia, foram avaliados: em relação ...

  9. Isolation of probiotic bacteria from the hybrid South American catfish Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum × Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae: A haematological approach

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    José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño


    Full Text Available This study investigated bacterial strains with probiotic potential isolated from the middle portion of healthy hybrid surubim catfish foregut (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum female × P. corruscans male. Twenty surubims weighing 1.5 ± 0.3 kg were used for bacterial isolation. In total, 41 strains of bacteria were selected in vitro. Ten strains had inhibition zones >10 mm against Aeromonas hydrophila. Five of those strains presented inhibition zones > 9 mm against other pathogenic bacteria and reached concentrations greater than 105 CFU mL−1 in tubes containing de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS medium. In particular, Weissella cibaria (P36 reached 106 CFU mL−1 in MRS and was able to reduce the pH of the medium to 3.85. In the in vivo intestinal colonization studies, 72 healthy hybrid surubims were fed with a commercial diet supplemented with probiotic W. cibaria for 15 days. Changes in gut community composition were then analyzed, and probiotic profile of W. cibaria was determined molecularly by amplification of rRNA 16S gene was performed using PCR. Compared to control fish, W. cibaria-supplemented fish showed an increase in RBC. These results show the efficacy of our haematological approach to probiotic screening in hybrid sorubim.

  10. Diferenciação genética entre populações de Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae isoladas pelos saltos de Guaíra do rio Paraná Genetic differentiation among populations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae isolated by the Guaíra Falls in the Paraná River

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    Sônia Maria Alves Pinto Prioli


    Full Text Available Os saltos de Guaíra, também denominados Sete Quedas, constituíam até 1982 uma barreira para a dispersão de peixes migradores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar se populações de Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae eram isoladas pelos saltos de Guaíra. Amostras provenientes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná (PL, do reservatório Itaipu (IT e de jusante de Yacyretá (YA, foram comparadas por RAPD. O FST de Lynch foi significativo entre PL e IT (0,090 e PL e YA (0,112. O fluxo gênico estimado (Nm variou de 2,0 entre PL e YA a 8,1 entre IT e YA, e a distância genética de Nei de D = 0,0638 entre PL e YA a D = 0,0174 entre IT e YA. Estes resultados indicam existência de diferenciação genética e que, possivelmente, Sete Quedas isolavam reprodutivamente as populações. Sugerem, também, a possibilidade de áreas diferentes de desova, impedindo parcialmente a homogeneização genética das populações IT e PL.Until 1982, the Guaíra Falls, also named the Seven Falls, constituted a barrier to the dispersion of migratory fish in the Paraná River. The objective of this work was to verify if populations of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae were isolated by the Guaíra Falls. Samples from the Upper Paraná River floodplain (PL, the Itaipu reservoir (IT, and downstream Yacyretá reservoir (YA were compared by RAPD markers. Lynch's FST was significant between PL and IT (0.090, and PL and YA (0.112. Estimated gene flow (Nm varied from 2.0 between PL and YA to 8.1 between IT and YA. Nei's genetic distance varied from D = 0.0638 between PL and YA to D = 0.0174 between IT and YA. These results indicate the existence of genetic differentiation and that, possibly, the Guaíra Falls isolated the populations reproductively. They also suggest the possibility of different spawning areas, partially avoiding the genetic homogenization of the IT and PL populations.

  11. Canibalismo entre larvas de pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, cultivadas sob diferentes densidades de estocagem - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1543 Cannibalism among larvae of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans bred under different stockage densities - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v26i3.1543

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    Claudemir Martins Soares


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o desenvolvimento, sobrevivência e canibalismo entre larvas de pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Pimelodidae confinadas sob diferentes densidades de estocagem em condições de laboratório, foi desenvolvido um experimento no Laboratório de Aqüicultura da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, perfazendo um período de 72 horas, onde foram utilizadas 500 larvas com 96 horas de vida e peso inicial de 2,2 ± 0,3mg. Estas foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições, em recipientes de 700mL, cujas densidades variaram de 14, 28, 42 e 56 larvas/L. As variáveis analisadas foram mortalidade natural, mortalidade por predação intra-específica e peso final. Ao final, verificou-se que o aumento da densidade afetou de forma negativa o desenvolvimento e provocou um aumento linear nas taxas de mortalidade e canibalismo entre os animais. Concluiu-se que, à medida que se aumenta a concentração de larvas de pintado, ocorre redução não apenas no desempenho, mas também na taxa de sobrevivênciaThe development, survival and cannibalism among larvae of the pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Pimelodidae are verified. Larvae were confined at different stockage densities in lab conditions. The experiment was developed at the Aquaculture Lab of the State University of Maringá, during 72 hours, with 500 larvae aged 96 hours, initial weight 2.2 ± 0.3mg. Larvae were distributed in an entirely randomized design with four treatments and five repetitions, in 700mL-containers, at densities varied 14, 28, 42 and 56 larvae per L. Natural mortality, mortality by intraspecies predation and final weight were the variables analyzed. After finished, density increase affected negatively the larvae’s development. It also caused a linear increase in mortality rates and in cannibalism among the animals. Increase in concentration of pintado larvae was proportional to decrease in

  12. Utilização do eugenol como anestésico para o manejo de juvenis de Pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.400 The use of eugenol as an anaesthetic for the handling of Pintado juveniles (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.400

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    Gustavo Rodamilans de Mecêdo


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a eficiência do eugenol como anestésico em juvenis de pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans através de ensaios. No primeiro, os peixes (n=6 foram individualmente expostos a concentrações de 25, 50, 75, 100 mg L-1 de eugenol durante 10 minutos e os parâmetros de observação estabelecidos foram: perda de equilíbrio, efeito calmante e redução do movimento opercular. No segundo ensaio, foram utilizadas as concentrações de 50, 75, 100 mg L-1 de eugenol, em que os animais foram mantidos na água com anestésico até atingirem o estágio IV de anestesia: perda total de equilíbrio, do tônus muscular e redução dos movimentos operculares. A recuperação foi conduzida em um aquário, contendo 10 litros de água livre de anestésico, com aeração constante. Após os dois ensaios, foi constatada a eficiência do eugenol como substância anestésica em juvenis de pintado, sendo a concentração de 50 mg L-1 considerada a mais adequada para procedimentos usuais no manejo desses animais em piscicultura.In this work the efficacy of eugenol as an anaesthetic in Pintado juveniles (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans was evaluated by two experimental assays. In the first one, the animals (n=6 were exposed for 10 minutes to four concentrations of eugenol (25; 50; 75; 100 mg L-1. The observed behavioral patterns were: loss of equilibrium, sedative effect and reduction of opercular movement. In the second assay, the concentrations of 50; 75; 100 mg L-1 of eugenol were tested. The animals were maintained in the anaesthetic bath until they reached the stage of anaesthesia IV: total loss of equilibrium, muscle tonus and reduction of opercular movement. The recovery was conducted in an aquarium containing 10 liters of anaesthetic free water, with constant aeration. The efficacy of clove oil as an anaestetics for Pintado juveniles were demonstrated after the assays and the 50 mg L-1 concentration was defined as the most adequate to

  13. Nesting associations between Chartergus globiventris Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae and Tolmomyias sulphurescens Spix (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae in southeastern Brazil

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    Marcos Souza


    Resumo. O sucesso das espécies de vespas sociais está relacionado tanto a construção quanto a manutenção das colônias. Várias espécies utilizam de diversas estratégias para evitar a predação de seus ninhos, como a associação com outros insetos e vertebrados. O presente estudo descreve o primeiro registro da associação da vespa social Chartergus globiventris Saussure com a ave Tolmomyias sulphurescens Spix em fragmento de Floresta Estacional Decidual no Sudeste do Brasil. Foram registradas oito colônias de C. globiventris ativas em diferentes espécies arbóreas, das quais três estavam associadas a ninhos ativos de T. sulphurescens. A associação entre a ave e a vespa tem sido tratada como comensalismo, pois apenas a ave obtém vantagens aparente, como discutido na literatura. Contudo, é necessário realizar experimentações ou análises mais aprofundadas a fim de se obter afirmações sobre os benefícios dessa relação.

  14. Sound amplification by means of a horn-like roosting structure in Spix's disc-winged bat. (United States)

    Chaverri, Gloriana; Gillam, Erin H


    While sound is a signal modality widely used by many animals, it is very susceptible to attenuation, hampering effective long-distance communication. A strategy to minimize sound attenuation that has been historically used by humans is to use acoustic horns; to date, no other animal is known to use a similar structure to increase sound intensity. Here, we describe how the use of a roosting structure that resembles an acoustic horn (the tapered tubes that form when new leaves of plants such as Heliconia or Calathea species start to unfurl) increases sound amplification of the incoming and outgoing social calls used by Spix's disc-winged bat (Thyroptera tricolor) to locate roosts and group members. Our results indicate that incoming calls are significantly amplified as a result of sound waves being increasingly compressed as they move into the narrow end of the leaf. Outgoing calls were faintly amplified, probably as a result of increased sound directionality. Both types of call, however, experienced significant sound distortion, which might explain the patterns of signal recognition previously observed in behavioural experiments. Our study provides the first evidence of the potential role that a roost can play in facilitating acoustic communication in bats.

  15. Morphological description of larvae of the Mapará Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae in the Itaipu reservoir (Parana River, Brazil

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    Keshiyu Nakatani


    Full Text Available The ontogenetic aspects of larvae of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829 from the ichthyoplankton samples collected in the Itaipu reservoir between March 1988 and April 1990 were analysed. Sample were caught by 0.5 mm mesh conic-cylindrical plankton net. Larvae of H. edentatus were identified and described as Siluriforms from the morphological and morphometric development series. They have a small to medium-sized head, long body, small eyes, little pigmentation, mandibular barbules and 53 to 56 myomeres. High values obtained with correlation coefficient (r > 0.97; p < 0.001 show that growth was proportional in different parts of the body.

  16. Aspectos fisiopatológicos da retenção de ovos em Jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 Fisiopathological aspects of egg retention in South American Red-footed Tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824

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    Carlos Alexandre Rey Matias


    Full Text Available Das enfermidades que acometem o sistema genital de répteis, a retenção de ovos tem grande prevalência em quelônios. Neste trabalho, são analisados quatorze casos de retenção de ovos na espécie jabutipiranga (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824, mantidos como animais de companhia, os quais foram atendidos na Policlínica Veterinária da Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF entre os anos de 1999 e 2003. Dos fatores que provocam ou favorecem a ocorrência dessa distocia, foram avaliados: em relação aos ovos retidos, a presença de ovos com alterações de formato e de tamanho aumentado e hipercalcificação das cascas; em relação aos fatores predisponentes, foram analisados fatores ambientais, sinais nos pacientes relacionados à ocorrência de doença osteometabólica, presença de corpo estranho ou fezes ressecadas no trato gastrintestinal, bem como a associação da retenção de ovos com prolapso de oviduto. A utilização de técnicas radiográficas no diagnóstico definitivo da retenção de ovos e no direcionamento da sua resolução mostrou-se indispensável nos casos estudados. Quanto ao tratamento, duas condutas foram consideradas: a utilização de ocitócinos e a intervenção cirúrgica. Da análise dos fatores que favorecem a ocorrência da distocia, conclui-se que a manutenção dos animais em ambientes com substrato rígido foi decisiva.Egg retention is a disorder that affects the genital system of reptiles, with a great prevalence in chelonians. These work analyses fourteen cases of egg retention in South American Red-footed Tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824 maintained as pets that had been attended in the Veterinary Clinic of Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF between 1999 and 2003. Among the factors that contribute to the occurrence of this dystocia are aspects of the retained eggs such as shape abnormalities, size enlargement and thickened shells were analyzed, as well as poor environmental condition

  17. Comparison of different extenders on the recovery and longevity of epididymal sperm from Spix's yellow-toothed cavies (Galea spixii Wagler, 1831). (United States)

    da Silva, Andréia Maria; Sousa, Patrícia Cunha; Campos, Lívia Batista; Bezerra, José Artur Brilhante; de Araújo Lago, Arthur Emannuel; de Oliveira, Moacir Franco; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of cavy (Galea spixii) epididymal sperm following addition to TES or TRIS extenders and using a thermal resistance test (TRT), as well as fluorescence analysis as a complementary method to predict the viability of these gametes. Nine testicle-epididymis complexes were used for sperm collection using a flotation method. Epididymis tails were sliced and one was immersed in 3 ml of TRIS buffer, and the other in 3 ml of TES, for 5 min. After sperm recovery, the samples were subjected to a TRT which involved incubation in a water bath at 37°C for 3 h. During incubation, sample parameters were assessed at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 or 180 min intervals. Results indicated that the TRIS diluent was more efficient than TES (P sperm parameters in Spix's yellow-toothed cavies over the whole TRT, maintaining sperm longevity for an extended time. In conclusion, we indicate the use of TRIS diluent for recovery and maintenance of longevity of epididymal sperm from cavies (G. spixii).

  18. Adição de ascorbil polifosfato, como fonte de vitamina C, em dietas para alevinos de pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 Addition of ascorbil polyphosphate as source of vitamin C in diets of the pintado Pseudoplatystoma coruscans fingerlings (Agassiz, 1829

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    Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto


    Full Text Available O ascorbil polifosfato (AP foi utilizado como fonte de vitamina C em dietas artificiais para alevinos de pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae durante três meses. Em uma dieta basal (0 mg de AP/kg de ração, foram adicionados 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 e 2500 mg de AP/kg. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os tratamentos (P > 0,01, quanto às variáveis de desempenho (ganho de peso, comprimento total, taxa de crescimento específico e conversão alimentar e hematológicas. Entretanto, o grupo que recebeu a dieta isenta de vitamina obteve os piores resultados (P During three months Ascorbil polyphosphate (AP was used as source of vitamin C in diets of the pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corsuscans (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae fingerlings. 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 mg of AP/kg diet were added to basic diet (0 mg AP/kg diet. No difference in weight gain, total length, specific growth ratio, feed conversion ratio and hematological analyses were reported. Occurrence of deformities and parasite infestation in fishes fed on diet without vitamin C were worse than those on other diets. No polynomial regression effects were observed in diets above 500 mg/kg, albeit results of food intake showed linear regression (P < 0,01. Thus 500 mg AP/kg diet was sufficient to prevent the occurrence of deformities and parasite infestation. Satisfactory development of the pintado fingerlings was ensued.

  19. Abundancia de Melanosuchus niger Spix, 1825, Paleosuchus trigonatus Schneider, 1801 y Caiman crocodilus L., 1758 en el cauce medio del río Mazán (Amazonas, Perú

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    TEJADO, C.


    Full Text Available Se ha analizado la estructura poblacional y la distribución de tres especies de caimanes: Melanosuchus niger Spix, 1825, Paleosuchus trigonatus Schneider, 1801 y Caiman crocodilus L., 1758 en el cauce medio del río Mazán (norte de Perú. Se registró un total de 42 ejemplares a lo largo de un transecto de 62,8 km, en el cauce fluvial y cochas (meandros aislados adyacentes en 1992. La densidad promedio fue de 0,7 ej./km. El mayor número de observaciones correspondió a C. crocodilus, que acogió el 88,1% del total, con una densidad relativa de 0,6 ej./km y una estructura poblacional distribuida en 24,3% para la Clase I de tallas, 54,1% (Clase II, 17,0% (Clase III y 5,4 % (Clase IV. La presencia de M. niger y P. trigonatus en el área fue testimonial, con tasas muy bajas de densidad: 0,03 ej./km y 0,05 ej./km, respectivamente. Los datos obtenidos nos indican la existencia de poblaciones desequilibradas en el caso de C. crocodilus y casi extinguidas en M. niger, debido a la sobreexplotación por caza comercial a la que fueron sometidas en el pasado, y a la presión cinegética orientada a la caza de subsistencia con posterioridad. Se ofrecen pruebas cotejadas sobre la existencia en otras zonas de Perú de ejemplares extraordinariamente grandes de M. niger (3,60 y 3,77 m, que se acercan al récord de tamaño científicamente reconocido para la especie.

  20. A microestrutura e o desenvolvimento dos órgãos genitais masculinos de preás (Galea spixii criados em cativeiro The microstructure and development of male genital organs of Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii bred in captivity

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    Paulo R.S. Santos


    Full Text Available O preá do semiárido nordestino (Galea spixii é um roedor pertencente à família Caviidae. São encontrados nas regiões da Caatinga e do Cerrado Brasileiro e se reproduz ao longo do ano, apresentando um período de gestação de 48 dias e uma ninhada de 2 a 4 crias. O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar histologicamente os componentes estruturais dos órgãos genitais de preás machos relacionando com a evolução cronológica destes órgãos na espécie. Foram utilizados para análise animais ao nascimento e aos 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 e aos 150 dias de idade. Fragmentos do epidídimo, ducto deferente, pênis e glândulas sexuais acessórias foram coletados, fixados e processados para descrição em microscopia de luz. O epidídimo apresentou epitélio colunar simples e em cada fase sexual notou-se diferença quanto ao tamanho do lúmen tubular e à presença de espermatozóides no lúmen aos 45 dias de idade. O epitélio do ducto deferente no preá mostrou-se pseudo-estratificado colunar com crescente presença de estereocilios com o avanço da idade. A glândula vesicular no preá apresentou uma mucosa com pregueamento variado, de acordo com a fase do desenvolvimento sexual. A próstata mostrou-se pouco desenvolvida, com lúmen pequeno nos preás ao nascimento e aos 15 dias de idade; aos 45 dias mostrou-se com um pregueamento do epitélio variável. Os órgãos genitais masculinos do preá passaram por transformações morfológicas no decorrer da idade e com o desenvolvimento sexual, isso colaborou para a determinação do início da fase da puberdade, que na espécie em estudo foi aos 45 dias de idade.The Spix's yellow-toothed cavy (Galea spixii from the Brazilian northeastern semi-arid is a rodent that does belong to the family Caviidae. They are found in regions of the Caatinga and Cerrado, and reproduces throughout the year, with a gestation period of 48 days and a litter of 2 to 4 pups. The aim of this study was to

  1. Embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus (SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829

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    A. C. S. Sampaio Nakauth

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to describe the embryonic and larval development of Brycon amazonicus, featuring the main events up to 50 hours after fertilization (AF. The material was provided by the Aquaculture Training, Technology and Production Center, Presidente Figueiredo (AM. The characterization was based on stereomicroscopic examination of the morphology of eggs, embryos and larvae and comparison with the literature. Matrinxã eggs are free, transparent, and spherical, with a perivitelline space of 0.56 ± 0.3 mm. The successive divisions give rise to cells with 64 blastomeres during the first hour AF. The gastrula stage, beginning 02 h 40 min AF, was characterized by progressive regression cells and the formation of the embryonic axis, leading to differentiation of the head and tail 05 h 30 min AF. From 06 to 09 h AF the somites, notochord, otic and optic vesicles and otoliths were observed, in addition to heart rate and the release of the tail. The larvae hatched at 10 h 30 min AF (29.9 °C, with a total length of 3.56 ± 0.46 mm. Between 19 and 30 h AF, we observed 1 pigmentation and gut formation, 2 branchial arches, 3 pectoral fins, 4 a mouth opening and 5 teeth. Cannibalism was initiated earlier (34 h AF which was associated with rapid yolk absorption (more than 90% until 50 h AF, signaling the need for an exogenous nutritional source. The environmental conditions (especially temperature influenced the time course of some events throughout the embryonic and larval development, suggesting the need for further studies on this subject.

  2. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of the Decoction of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825) and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825) Used by the Traditional Medicine (United States)

    Santos, Israel J. M.; Matias, Edinardo F. F.; Santos, Karla K. A.; Braga, Maria F. B. M.; Andrade, Jacqueline C.; Souza, Teógenes M.; Santos, Francisco A. V.; Sousa, Ana Carla A.; Costa, José G. M.; Menezes, Irwin R. A.; Alves, Rômulo R. N.; Almeida, Waltecio O.; Coutinho, Henrique D. M.


    Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus are two lizard species utilized in traditional medicine in Northeast Brazil. Their medicinal use includes diseases related with bacterial infections such as tonsillitis and pharyngitis. They are used in the form of teas (decoctions) for the treatment of illnesses. In this work, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the decoctions of T. hispidus (DTH) and T. semitaeniatus (DTS) against bacterial strains, namely, standard and multiresistant Escherichia coli, Staphylococus aureus, and Pseudomonas aureuginosa, alone and in combination with aminoglycoside antibiotics. The decoctions were prepared using the whole body of the dried lizards, and the filtrate was frozen and lyophilized. When tested alone, the samples did not demonstrate any substantial inhibition of bacterial growth. However, in combination with antibiotics as aminoglycosides, decoctions reduced the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the assayed antibiotics against multiresistant strains of S. aureus and P. aureuginosa. Chemical prospecting tests revealed the presence of alkaloids in DTS. This is the first study evaluating the medicinal efficacy of T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus and contributes to the list of new sources of medicines from natural products of animal origin. PMID:21754948

  3. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of the Decoction of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 Used by the Traditional Medicine

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    Israel J. M. Santos


    Full Text Available Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus are two lizard species utilized in traditional medicine in Northeast Brazil. Their medicinal use includes diseases related with bacterial infections such as tonsillitis and pharyngitis. They are used in the form of teas (decoctions for the treatment of illnesses. In this work, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of the decoctions of T. hispidus (DTH and T. semitaeniatus (DTS against bacterial strains, namely, standard and multiresistant Escherichia coli, Staphylococus aureus, and Pseudomonas aureuginosa, alone and in combination with aminoglycoside antibiotics. The decoctions were prepared using the whole body of the dried lizards, and the filtrate was frozen and lyophilized. When tested alone, the samples did not demonstrate any substantial inhibition of bacterial growth. However, in combination with antibiotics as aminoglycosides, decoctions reduced the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of the assayed antibiotics against multiresistant strains of S. aureus and P. aureuginosa. Chemical prospecting tests revealed the presence of alkaloids in DTS. This is the first study evaluating the medicinal efficacy of T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus and contributes to the list of new sources of medicines from natural products of animal origin.

  4. Redescription of the advertisement call of Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) (Amphibia, Anura, Leptodactylidae). (United States)

    Pederassi, Jonas; Lima, Mauro Sérgio Cruz Souza; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Souza, Patrícia Dos Santos; Santos, Mayra Caroliny De Oliveira; Silva, Islaíane Costa


    The genus Physalaemus Fitzinger, 1826 is composed by 46 species occurring from north to southern South America, east of the Andes (Frost 2015). Physalaemus albifrons is morphologically differentiated from the other species mainly due to the presence of a second tarsal tubercle located nearly the tibio-tarsal articulation (Bokermann 1966). Physalaemus albifrons occurs in Brazil from north of the State of Maranhão through the states of Piauí, Ceará, Bahia, Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Alagoas, being its more austral occurrence in the State of Minas Gerais (Frost 2015). The advertisement call of P. albifrons was described by Bokermann (1966); however, the description needs improvement by applying new technologies, which we provide herein.

  5. Ecological trap for Cnemidophorus ocellifer Spix 1825 (Squamata: Teiidae during removal of vegetation

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    Lucas Bezerra Brito


    Full Text Available   Animals must anticipate future conditions according to current environmental clues. When habitats are rapidly modified, these signs may not reflect the actual environmental quality, leading to a decreased fitness of an individual and its population. During an activity of faunal rescue and scaring away in the coast of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, evidence of an ecological trap for the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer was observed. We suggest some actions which can minimize the impact of vegetation removal activities on lizards, such as: i better planning before proceeding with deforestation; and ii capture and release of lizards in appropriate locations.

  6. La situación de Podocnemis erythrocephala (spix, 1824 (Testudinata: Pelomedusidae, en Colombia

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    Castaño Mora Olga Victoria


    Full Text Available The presence of Podocnemís erythrocephala in the blackwater strems of the departament of Guainía, Colombia, in the Orinoco basin is confirmed. The dimensions of 179 individuals and the basic statistical data according to the sex is presented. The maximum length of 24,5 cm corresponded to a female and the sex ratio was 1:1.4 in favor of females. The color of cephalic design did not correspond with the description of the species. Information on reproduction and extraction obtained from native people and a warning regarding overexploitation of the species in the area, are given.Se confirma la presencia de Podocnemis erythrocephala en caños de aguas negras en el Departamento del Guainía, en la hoya del río Orinoco. Se presentan las dimensiones de 179 ejemplares y los datos estadísticos básicos según el sexo. La máxima talla correspondió a una hembra con 24,5 cm de longitud y el radio sexual fué de 1:1.4 en favor de las hembras. La coloración del diseño cefálico no coincidió con la descrita para la especie. Se suministra información verbal recopilada entre los indígenas sobre reproducción y extracción. Se advierte la sobreexplotación de la especie en la zona.

  7. On the geographical differentiation of Gymnodactylus geckoides Spix, 1825 (Sauria, Gekkonidae: speciation in the Brasilian caatingas

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    Vanzolini Paulo Emilio


    Full Text Available The specific concept of G. geckoides was initially ascertained based on a topotypical sample from Salvador, Bahia. Geographic differentiation was studied through the analysis of two meristic characters (tubercles in a paramedian row and fourth toe lamellae and color pattern of 327 specimens from 23 localities. It is shown that the population from the southernmost locality, Mucugê, is markedly divergent in all characters studied. A Holocene refuge model is proposed to explain the pattern. A decision about the rank to be attributed to the Mucugê population is deferred until more detailed sampling is effected and molecular methods are applied.

  8. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil from Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825

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    Israel J. M. Santos


    Full Text Available Tropidurus hispidus has been used in traditional medicine in several regions of Northeastern Region of Brazil. Its medicinal use involves the treatment of diseases such as warts, sore throat, tonsillitis, chicken pox, varicella, measles, asthma, alcoholism, and dermatomycosis. The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Tropidurus hispidus fat in treating ear edema in an animal model. Oil from T. hispidus (OTH was evaluated on its effect against experimental inflammation in mice. OTH was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of Tropidurus hispidus using hexane as a solvent. We used the model of mouse ear edema induced by phlogistic agents, croton oil (single and multiple applications, arachidonic acid, phenol, capsaicin, and histamine, applied into the right ears of animals pretreated with acetone (control, dexamethasone, or OTH. OTH inhibited the dermatitis induced by all noxious agents, except capsaicin. This effect may be related to the fatty acids present in OTH.

  9. Abundância natural do isótopo estável de carbono (13C de alguns itens alimentares e sua contribuição no crescimento de juvenis de pintado, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Carbon stable isotope (13C natural abundance of some foods and its contribution to the pintado juvenile growth, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Pimelodidae

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    Carlos Ducatti


    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a abundância natural do isótopo estável de carbono (13C de alguns componentes alimentares e determinar sua contribuição no crescimento de juvenis de pintado, em condições laboratoriais. Foram utilizados 150 peixes com peso vivo médio de 1,39 g, que permaneceram em dois tanques-rede com volume útil unitário de 125L, durante 60 dias. A cada 10 dias foram coletadas amostras de água para análise de fitoplâncton e zooplâncton. Cladocera foi o item dominante na análise de conteúdo estomacal, seguido de Chironomidae e Copepoda. Foi coletada amostra de peixes ao início e final do experimento para determinação do sinal isotópico. Foram obtidos valores médios de -20,94; -15,36 e -18,81 δ 13C‰ para o fitoplâncton, Cladocera e Chironomidae, respectivamente. Cladocera foi a principal fonte de carbono e contribuiu com uma média de 89,24% do carbono na alimentação dessa espécie, enquanto que Chironomidae contribuiu com 10,76%. O δ 13C demonstrou ser efetivo como marcador de carbono (C ao longo da cadeia alimentar, uma vez que o consumidor reflete isotopicamente sua dieta.The aim of this study is to determine the natural abundance of carbon stable isotope (13C of some food components and determine its contribution to the pintado juvenile growth, in laboratory conditions. 150 fishes were used with average weight of 1.39 g, and stocked in two net ponds with 125L each, during 60 days. Every 10 days a water sample was collected to analyse phytoplakton and zooplankton. Clacocera was dominant in the analysis of the stomach contents, following Chironomidae and Copepoda. A fish sample was collected in the beginning, and at the end of the experiment to analyses the isotopic signal. An average value of -20.94; -15.36 and -18.81 δ 13C‰ was obtained for phytoplankton, Cladocera and Chironomidae, respectively. Cladocera was the main carbon source and contribution with carbon average 89.24% in feeding this species, while the Chironomid contribution was 10.76%. The δ 13C was effective as carbon tracer in food chain, because the consumer reflects its diet isotopicly.


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    Cláudio Roberto Braghini


    Full Text Available RESUMO A busca da sustentabilidade em várias dimensões implica olhar para o desenvolvimento local nos territórios em que o turismo ocorre. Este estudo analisou de forma sistêmica a relação entre turismo, gastronomia local e os recursos extraídos do rio São Francisco pela pesca artesanal, na região de Xingó, Nordeste do Brasil. A área de estudo abrangeu três municípios, Poço Redondo/SE, Canindé de São Francisco/SE e Piranhas/AL. Tratou-se de uma pesquisa exploratória, descritiva, intencional e não probabilística, utilizando entrevistas com roteiro estruturado e aberto, junto aos restaurantes, pescadores artesanais e gestores públicos, visitas locais de reconhecimento, construção de mapa coletivo com pescadores e elaboração de diagramas de alças causais, visando selecionar indicadores de sustentabilidade. Os resultados indicaram o Surubim Pseudoplatystoma corruscans (Spix e Agassiz, 1829, Pitu Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Tubarana Salminus hilarii (Valenciennes, 1850, os pescados típicos mais vendidos, no entanto, dependem de distribuidores e de estoques externos. Observou-se que a redução do pescado na região deveu-se à barragem da UHE de Xingó e a sobrepesca. O fluxo turístico crescente tem forte influência sobre o camarão Pitu. Os indicadores ambientais selecionados apontam necessidade de sistematização de informações sobre a produção pesqueira e o consumo nos restaurantes.Palavras-chaves: Sustentabilidade; Turismo; Xingó; Rio São Francisco; CaatingaABSTRACTThe carrying support and the development of the local tourism involve different looks on its dimensions in the area where it occurs. This study examined in a systematic way the sustainability of tourism in the Northeast - Brazil, region of Xingó: the resources tourist and local gastronomy. The study area covers three districts: Poço Redondo and Canindé do São Francisco at Sergipe and in the state of Alagoas at Piranhas. This research

  11. Dieta de Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829 (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae e variações de seu estoque no reservatório de Itaipu Diet of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829, (Osteichthyes, Hypophythalmidae and variations in its stock in Itaipu Reservoir

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    Angelo Antonio Agostinho


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a dieta do mapará Hypophthalmus edentatus (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae no reservatório de Itaipu, durante o período de novembro/94 a outubro/97, e comparar os dados com a dieta dessa espécie nos primeiros anos de formação do reservatório, relacionando-os com a densidade de zooplâncton e fitoplâncton encontrados no ambiente e buscando possíveis relações com a depleção dos estoques que essa espécie vem apresentando nos últimos anos. Os conteúdos estomacais foram analisados pelos métodos de ocorrência e volumétrico, combinados no Índice Alimentar (IAi. A dieta do mapará no período de nov/94 a out/97 (149 estômagos mostrou um número restrito de itens alimentares, sendo composta por cladóceros, copépodos, algas e tecamebas, todos organismos planctônicos. Os resultados deste trabalho evidenciaram que o mapará utiliza, em sua dieta, principalmente zooplâncton, sendo cladóceros o zooplâncton mais ingerido (aproximadamente 63%. Não foram observadas alterações marcantes entre locais, anos e classes de tamanho estudados. Entretanto, comparações entre a dieta da espécie nos primeiros anos da formação do reservatório e aquelas do período deste estudo mostraram diferenças relevantes, com uma maior participação de cladóceros de maior tamanho (Daphnia gessneri e menor de algas cianofícias. A elevada concentração de nutrientes no período que se seguiu o represamento, com o aumento na biomassa fitoplanctônica no ambiente, e seu decréscimo com o passar dos anos, explicam essas variações. Dessa maneira, é esperado que flutuações na abundância do recurso conduzam a flutuações populacionais nesta espécie.The aim of this paper is to assess the diet of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Osteichthyes, Hypophthalmidae, also called mapará, at Itaipú Reservoir from November 1994 to October 1997 and also to compare data to the species’ diet during the first few years of the reservoir formation. The data analysis related to the density of zooplankton and phytoplankton in the environment and searched for possible relationship regarding to stock depletion shown by the species during the last few years. Stomach contents were analysed by the occurrence and volumetric methods, coupled to Food Index. Mapará diet showed an ingestion of a restricted number of feeding items consisting of plankton organisms such as cladocerans, copepods, algae and testacea amoebae in 149 stomachs from November 1994 to October 1997. Results showed that zooplankton is the chief item in mapará diet and the cladocerans are the most ingested (approximately 63.0%. No significant changes were found between sites, years and classes analysed. However, comparisons between the species’ diet in the first years of the reservoir formation and those of this study period showed significant differences, or rather a high prevalence of bigger sized cladocerans (Daphnia gessneri and a smaller amount of Cyanophyceae algae. High concentration of nutrients after impoundment, an increase in phytoplanktinic biomass of the species are expected according to the resource variation.


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    Mary Lorena Moyano Acevedo


    Full Text Available In this research, the pedagogical implications generated from the implementation of educational strategy named Bioclub with respect to practices that have the population of the municipality of Curumaní in the department of Cesar (Colombia are presented regarding the Tortuga Morrocoy. Through the collection of information on the socioeconomic conditions of the community education strategy was designed on the premise of contextualized learning. In a second step Bioclub meetings where the community participated directly represented by students of San José College, to obtain data related practices concerning species and their biological and ecological survey were applied. Lastly, the practices of the community in relation to the turtle, the implications concerning the development of an educational strategy emphasizing the benefits that science club in the teaching-learning process in the construction of knowledge are characterized, and how this may generate a positive change in the attitudes of children in environmental stewardship and conservation of biodiversity in Colombia. Finally we developed a Conservation Primer built as a result of Bioclub involving aspects of their biology and ecology, as well as a guide aimed at sustainable farming, in order to try to minimize the negative impact of the practices of the community to species.

  13. Sound amplification by means of a horn-like roosting structure in Spix's disc-winged bat


    Chaverri, Gloriana; Gillam, Erin H.


    While sound is a signal modality widely used by many animals, it is very susceptible to attenuation, hampering effective long-distance communication. A strategy to minimize sound attenuation that has been historically used by humans is to use acoustic horns; to date, no other animal is known to use a similar structure to increase sound intensity. Here, we describe how the use of a roosting structure that resembles an acoustic horn (the tapered tubes that form when new leaves of plants such as...

  14. Morphology and topographic anatomy of the spinal cord of the red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria Spix, 1824

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    Rafael C Carvalho


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the topography of the spinal cord of the red-footed tortoise to establish a morphological basis for applied research in anesthesiology and morphology. Six tortoises from the state of Maranhão (Brazil that had died of natural causes were used. The common carotid artery was used to perfuse the arterial system with saline solution (heated to 37ºC and to fix the material with a 20% formaldehyde solution. The specimens were then placed in a modified decalcifying solution for 72 hours to allow dorsal opening of the carapace with a chisel and an orthopedic hammer. Dissection of the dorsal musculature and sectioning of the vertebral arches were performed to access the spinal cord. The results revealed the spinal cord of G. carbonaria to be an elongated, whitish mass that reached the articulation between the penultimate and last caudal vertebrae. The cervical intumescence (Intumescentia cervicalis was located between vertebral segments C5 and T1, whereas the lumbosacral intumescence (Intumescentia lumbalis was located between T6 and Ca1.


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    Fabiana Rodrigues da Silbeira, M.V


    Full Text Available Un Jabotí-Piranga adulto (Geochelone carbonaria, hembra, con peso de 3.5 kg ingresó por consulta en la escuela clínica “Dr. Cataldi Luiz de Souza”, del “Centro Universitário Serra dos Órgãos - Teresopolis, Río de Janeiro”, con historia de retención de huevos. En la evaluación clínica y radiológica, se encontró tres huevos en posiciones normales. Teniendo en cuenta la temporada de reproducción, se aconsejó la observación del animal. Después de un año, dicho animal regresó a la clínica por no haber todavía expulsado los huevos. Tras nuevo examen radiográfico se observó que los 3 huevos continuaban en la misma posición. A continuación, se aplicó 0.03 ml de oxitocina por vía subcutanea (10 UI x ml, en el apéndice anterior del animal. Tres horas después de la aplicación de la hormona, el animal expulsó los huevos naturalmente, sin la necesidad de una intervención quirúrgica, con lo que se puede sospechar de la eficacia de la aplicación de oxitocina para este procedimiento en jabotí Piranga.

  16. Translocation and radio-telemetry monitoring of pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea (Spix, 1823, in the Brazilian Amazon

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    CAR. Dias

    Full Text Available Two groups of pygmy marmoset (Cebuella pygmaea were rescued along the left bank of the Madeira River during the formation of Santo Antônio Hydroelectric Dam reservoir in the state of Rondônia, Northern Brazil. Reintroduction of both groups occurred in areas of open Tropical rainforest located within the project´s Permanent Preservation Area. A post-release monitoring was conducted for three months using radio-telemetry. Individuals of each group remained together and settled in stable home ranges near their respective release sites. The mortality rate of translocated animals was about 7%. This seems to be the first report documenting the complete group translocation of C. pygmaea and the first to successfully employ radio-telemetry techniques in monitoring this species. This study demonstrated the feasibility of translocation and the use of radio-telemetry in monitoring C. pygmaea.

  17. Influence of food restriction on the reproduction and larval performance of matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus (Spix and Agassiz, 1829

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    ACS. Camargo

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of food restriction and refeeding of matrinxã females, Brycon amazonicus, on their reproductive performance and on the growth and survival of the progeny. Broodstocks were distributed in 8 earthen tanks (15 fish/tank and fish from 4 tanks were fed daily (G1 while fish from the other 4 tanks were fed for 3 days and not fed for 2 days (G2 during 6 months prior to artificial spawning. Among the induced females, 57% in G1 group and 45% in G2 group spawned and the mean egg weights were 208.1 g (G1 and 131.6 g (G2. Oocytes of G2 fish were smaller (1.017 ± 0.003 mm than oocytes of G1 fish (1.048 ± 0.002 mm. Fertilization (71.91 ± 12.6% and 61.18 ± 13.7% and hatching (61.28 ± 33.9% and 67.50 ± 23.4% rates did not differ between G1 and G2 fish. Larvae were collected at hatching and at 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation and fixed for growth measurement. After incubation, fry were transferred to aquaria and sampled 1, 5, 9 and 15 days later. G1 and G2 larvae had similar weight (1.51 ± 0.15 and 1.46 ± 0.07 mg but the G2 length was significantly higher (6.26 ± 0.13 and 6.74 ± 0.14 mm. By the ninth day of rearing, G2 fry had higher weight (13.6 ± 0.26 and 18.9 ± 0.07 mg and length (11.8 ± 0.09 and 14.5 ± 0.04 mm but by the fifteenth day, G1 fry had higher weight (90.2 ± 1.19 and 68.6 ± 0.77 mg and length (18.8 ± 0.16 and 18.5 ± 0.04 mm than G2 fry. By the ninth day of rearing, when fry are recommended to be transferred to outdoor tanks, G2 fry were larger and after 15 days, fry produced by restricted-fed females showed higher survival. The survival rate of G2 progeny by the fifteenth day was significantly higher (24.7 ± 2.07% than that of G1 progeny (19.2 ± 1.91%. The ration restriction (35% reduction imposed on matrinxã broodstock during 6 months prior to spawning reduced the number of spawned females and the egg amount, but it did not affect fertilization and hatching rates. Otherwise restricted-female larvae were larger and presented higher survival.

  18. Possible interspecific origin of the B chromosome of Hypsiboas albopunctatus (Spix, 1824 (Anura, Hylidae, revealed by microdissection, chromosome painting, and reverse hybridisation

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    Simone Gruber


    Full Text Available The B chromosome in the hylid Hypsiboas albopunctatus (2n = 22 + B is small, almost entirely composed of C-positive heterochromatin, and does not pair with any chromosome of the A complement. B probe, obtained by microdissection and DOP-PCR amplification, was used to search for homology between the B and regular chromosomes of H. albopunctatus and of the related species H. raniceps (Cope, 1862. Reverse hybridisation was also carried out in the investigation. The B probe exclusively painted the supernumerary, not hybridising any other chromosomes in H. albopunctatus, but all H. raniceps chromosomes showed small labelling signals. This result might be an indication that differences exist between the repetitive sequences of A and B chromosomes of H. albopunctatus, and that the chromosomes of H. raniceps and the heterochromatin of the B chromosome of H. albopunctatus are enriched with the same type of repetitive DNA. In meiotic preparations, the B labelled about 30% of scored spermatids, revealing a non-mendelian inheritance, and the painted B in micronucleus suggests that the supernumerary is eliminated from germ line cells. Although our results could suggest an interespecific origin of the B at first sight, further analysis on its repetitive sequences is still necessary. Nevertheless, the accumulation of repetitive sequences, detected in another species, even though closely related, remains an intriguing question.

  19. Feeding habits, sexual dimorphism and size at maturity of the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 (Teiidae in a reforested restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil

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    GG. Santana

    Full Text Available The feeding habits, the sexual dimorphism in size and sexual maturity of the actively foraging lizard Cnemidophorusocellifer were analysed in an area of a reforested Restinga habitat located in the municipality of Mataraca, along the northern-most coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. Seventy-five specimens of C. ocellifer were examined (46 males and 29Â females. Of this total, only 23 specimens had prey in their stomachs. The most frequent prey consumed items were orthopterans (50%, coleopterans (23.9% and arachnids (10.9%; termites and insect larvae were less consumed (both with 2.2%. There were no significant differences observed between the numbers of prey consumed by either males or females. There were significant differences in SVL (snout-vent length between the sexes, with males attaining larger SVL values. When the influence of SVL was removed from the analyses, sexual dimorphism in the form was still reflected in the head size of these lizards. Sexual maturity in females and males was attained with SVL of 42.2 and 49.0 mm respectively. Although no significant difference was observed between the SVL of the females and the number of eggs produced, there was a clear tendency for larger females to produce more eggs. The low structural complexity of the vegetation and the poor soil quality in the reforested restinga area examined does not furnish favourable habitat for insect and termite larvae, contributing to the marked differences in the diet of the population of C. ocellifer observed in the present study in relation to the diet of their conspecifics in undisturbed areas of restinga, cerrado and caatinga.

  20. El Ututo chaqueño Phyllopezus pollicaris (Spix 1825 (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae. Primer registro para la provincia de Jujuy (República Argentina

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    Burgos Gallardo, Freddy


    Full Text Available República Argentina, Jujuy; Departamento Santa Bárbara, Paraje Finca Fachine (23º 35' 55.98" S; 64º 13' 46.09" O 324 m s.n.m. Colector: Freddy Burgos. Depositado en la colección herpetológica del Laboratorio de Genética Evolutiva, Instituto de Biología Subtropical, UNaM-CONICET, Posadas, Misiones, Argentina. Macho adulto (LGE 02633.

  1. Revisión sobre la distribución geográfica de Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824 (Anura: Leptodactylidae

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    Langone, José A.


    Full Text Available Existen con frecuencia en la literatura neotropical, confusiones respecto a la distribución geográfica de las especies de anuros. En el caso de las confusiones del género Physalaemus fueron y son debidas a identificaciones erradas, producto de descripciones originales vagas y del difícil acceso o inexistencia de material tipo. La presente nota trata sobre una de estas confusiones.

  2. Use and knowledge of the razor-billed curassow pauxi tuberosa (spix, 1825 (galliformes, cracidae by a riverine community of the oriental amazonia, brazil

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    Pereira Henrique M


    Full Text Available Abstract In the Amazonian basin, the human populations that traditionally inhabit the forest use its natural resources in various ways. One example is the local fauna which, among several other uses, is an important source of protein. The general aim of our study was to investigate the importance of hunting to the lives of the Amazonian riverine communities and to identify the multiple uses and knowledge about the hunted animals. In this article we focused the study on the razor-billed curassow Pauxi tuberosa, a Cracidae of significant value to the studied community. The investigation was conducted in the "Riozinho do Anfrísio Extractive Reserve", a Brazilian Conservation Unit located at the Altamira municipality, in the state of Pará. We used an ethnoecological approach, which included participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Our results show that the razor-billed curassow is used by the "Riozinho do Anfrísio" local population mainly as food, but it also fulfils secondary functions, with the feathers being used as a domestic tool and as magic-religious symbol, some organs as traditional medicine, and some chicks even being raised as pets. Our study also revealed that the traditional ecological knowledge of the riverines about their environment is considerably large, and that the local biodiversity provides various ecosystem services.

  3. Use and knowledge of the razor-billed curassow pauxi tuberosa (spix, 1825) (galliformes, cracidae) by a riverine community of the oriental amazonia, brazil. (United States)

    Barros, Flávio B; Pereira, Henrique M; Vicente, Luís


    In the Amazonian basin, the human populations that traditionally inhabit the forest use its natural resources in various ways. One example is the local fauna which, among several other uses, is an important source of protein. The general aim of our study was to investigate the importance of hunting to the lives of the Amazonian riverine communities and to identify the multiple uses and knowledge about the hunted animals. In this article we focused the study on the razor-billed curassow Pauxi tuberosa, a Cracidae of significant value to the studied community. The investigation was conducted in the "Riozinho do Anfrísio Extractive Reserve", a Brazilian Conservation Unit located at the Altamira municipality, in the state of Pará. We used an ethnoecological approach, which included participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Our results show that the razor-billed curassow is used by the "Riozinho do Anfrísio" local population mainly as food, but it also fulfils secondary functions, with the feathers being used as a domestic tool and as magic-religious symbol, some organs as traditional medicine, and some chicks even being raised as pets. Our study also revealed that the traditional ecological knowledge of the riverines about their environment is considerably large, and that the local biodiversity provides various ecosystem services.

  4. Site fidelity and movement of Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824) (Testudinidae) in cocoa plantations in southeastern Brazil/Estabelecimento e movimentação de Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix, 1824) (Testudinidae) em áreas de plantação de cacau no sudeste do Brasil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J F Borini; B B Petrucci; W Krohling; J L Rossi; M R D Santos; P D Ferreira


      In this study, the authors evaluated the movement patterns of C. carbonaria originating from triage centres in areas of cocoa plantations and forest remnants to define their home range and dispersion...

  5. Description of behavioral patterns of Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix, 1824 (Testudines: Podocnemididae (Red-headed river turtle in captivity, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil Descrição de padrões comportamentais de Podocnemis erythrocephala (Spix, 1824 (Testudines: Podocnemididae (Irapuca em cativeiro, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil

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    Larissa Schineider


    Full Text Available The biology and ecology of South American turtles is still poorly known, particularly, for the Brazilian species. Laboratory studies are essential to understand the life cycles of aquatic turtles species and to help in formulating management plans for their conservation. As a contribution to the knowledge of Podocnemis erythrocephala species, we give a description of its species-typical behaviors, categorized as: maintenance, locomotion, feeding, agonistic and reproduction, based on captives observations of four pairs of turtles in an aquarium in Manaus, Brazil. Similarities and differences with the repertoires of other turtle species are discussed, concluding that turtles have much more complex adaptative strategies and social life than was believed.A biologia e ecologia dos quelônios da América do Sul é pouco conhecida, particularmente para as espécies brasileiras. Estudos em laboratório são essenciais para entender o ciclo de vida das espécies de tartarugas aquáticas e ajudar na formulação de planos de manejo para sua conservação. Como uma contribuição ao conhecimento da espécie Podocnemis erythrocephala, nós descrevemos os comportamentos típicos nas categorias manutenção, locomoção, alimentação, agonístico e reprodutivo, baseado em observações de quatro pares de tartarugas em um aquário na cidade de Manaus, Brasil. São discutidas similaridades e diferenças com repertórios de outras espécies de quelônios, concluindo que esses animais possuem estratégias adaptativas e vida social muito mais complexas do que tem sido ponderado.

  6. Feeding habits, sexual dimorphism and size at maturity of the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 (Teiidae in a reforested restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil Hábito alimentar, dimorfismo sexual e tamanho na maturidade sexual do lagarto Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 (Teiidae em restinga reflorestada no nordeste do Brasil

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    GG. Santana


    Full Text Available The feeding habits, the sexual dimorphism in size and sexual maturity of the actively foraging lizard Cnemidophorusocellifer were analysed in an area of a reforested Restinga habitat located in the municipality of Mataraca, along the northern-most coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. Seventy-five specimens of C. ocellifer were examined (46 males and 29Â females. Of this total, only 23 specimens had prey in their stomachs. The most frequent prey consumed items were orthopterans (50%, coleopterans (23.9% and arachnids (10.9%; termites and insect larvae were less consumed (both with 2.2%. There were no significant differences observed between the numbers of prey consumed by either males or females. There were significant differences in SVL (snout-vent length between the sexes, with males attaining larger SVL values. When the influence of SVL was removed from the analyses, sexual dimorphism in the form was still reflected in the head size of these lizards. Sexual maturity in females and males was attained with SVL of 42.2 and 49.0 mm respectively. Although no significant difference was observed between the SVL of the females and the number of eggs produced, there was a clear tendency for larger females to produce more eggs. The low structural complexity of the vegetation and the poor soil quality in the reforested restinga area examined does not furnish favourable habitat for insect and termite larvae, contributing to the marked differences in the diet of the population of C. ocellifer observed in the present study in relation to the diet of their conspecifics in undisturbed areas of restinga, cerrado and caatinga.O hábito alimentar, dimorfismo sexual e tamanho na maturidade sexual do lagarto forrageador ativo Cnemidophorus ocellifer foram analisados em um habitat de restinga reflorestada, situado no município de Mataraca, extremo norte do litoral do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Foram examinados 75 espécimes de C. ocellifer, sendo 46 machos e 29 fêmeas. Deste total, apenas 23 espécimes continham presas em seus estômagos. As mais frequentes presas consumidas foram os ortópteros (50%, coleópteros (23,9% e aracnídeos (10,9%; enquanto térmitas e larvas de insetos foram os itens menos consumidos (ambos com 2,2%. Não houve diferença significativa no número de presas consumidas por machos e fêmeas. Houve diferença significativa do SVL (comprimento rostro-cloacal entre os sexos, com machos alcançando valores máximos de SVL. Removido o efeito do SVL das análises, o dimorfismo sexual na forma foi evidenciado pelo tamanho da cabeça dos lagartos. A maturidade sexual das fêmeas e machos foi alcançada com SVL de 42,2 e 49,0 mm, respectivamente. Embora não tenha havido uma diferença significativa entre o SVL da fêmea e o tamanho de sua desova, foi observada uma clara tendência de fêmeas maiores produzirem desovas maiores. Na área de restinga reflorestada, a baixa complexidade da estrutura da vegetação e inadequada qualidade do solo, provavelmente, não propiciam condições favoráveis de habitat para larvas de insetos e térmitas, desse modo, contribuindo para a marcante diferença na dieta da população de C. ocellifer observada no presente estudo em relação a outras áreas de restinga não perturbadas, cerrado e caatinga.

  7. Comparative study on hematological parameters of farmed matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Characidae: Bryconinae with others Bryconinae species Estudo comparativo sobre parâmetros hematológicos de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus Spix e Agassiz, 1892(Characidae: Bryconinae criados em cativeiro, com outras espécies de Bryconinae

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    Marcos Tavares-Dias


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was not only to determine the red blood cells parameters, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts in farmed Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, to compare these parameters among Bryconinae species from literature, and also to investigate the presence of special granulocytic cells in these fish. The results of the blood cells parameters here established for farmed B. amazonicus, a species of great economic importance in Brazilian aquaculture, could help a better understanding of the blood features in natural populations of this Amazon species. Blood parameters varied between Bryconinae species investigated, mainly the red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume (MCV. The presence of the blood granulocytes, neutrophils and heterophils in matrinxã suggest that both leukocytes can be a characteristic for Bryconinae family. Furthermore, it indicates that the existence of special granulocytic cells in the blood of Bryconinae species from literature is an artifact, and this was herein discussed.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os parâmetros eritrocíticos, as contagens de trombócitos e de leucócitos de espécimes de Brycon amazonicus (matrinxã, criados em cativeiro e compará-los com aqueles descritos na literatura para outras espécies de Bryconinae. Além disso, foi ainda investigada a presença de células granulocíticas especiais nestes peixes. Os resultados dos parâmetros sangüíneos apresentados para B. amazonicus podem ajudar a entender melhor as características sangüíneas em população natural desta espécie de grande importância para a aqüicultura brasileira. Os parâmetros sangüíneos das espécies de Bryconinae investigadas apresentaram variação interespecíficas principalmente a contagem de eritrócitos, hemoglobina, hematócrito e volume corpuscular médio (VCM. A presença dos granulócitos sangüíneos, neutrófilos e heterófilos em matrinxã sugere que esta pode ser uma característica das espécies pertencentes à subfamília Bryconinae. Além disso, indica que a existência de células granulocíticas especiais no sangue de espécies de Bryconinae da literatura é um artefato, e isto foi aqui discutido.

  8. [Ecological studies on helminthic taxocenosis of sympatric Chaunus ictericus (Spix, 1824) and Chaunus schneideri (Werner, 1894) (Anura: Bufonidae) captured on São Cristóvão district, Três Barras county, Santa Catarina State, Brazil]. (United States)

    Hoppe, Estevam G Lux; Pedrassani, Daniela; Hoffmann-Inocente, Ana Cecília; Tebaldi, José H; Storti, Luis Fernando; Zanuzzo, Felipe S; Avancini, Neuri; Do Nascimento, Adjair Antonio


    Fifty eight Chaunus ictericus and 42 C. schneideri specimens were collected on São Cristóvão district, Três Barras, SC for helminthological studies. Fourteen helminth species were diagnosed, from which only five species were found on both hosts. Chaunus ictericus showed higher values of species richness (2,8448+/-1,1516) and diversity (H = 1,374), with mild dominance (1-D = 0,642, J = 0,5528), in comparison with C. schneideri (0,6428+/-1,007; H = 1,165; 1-D = 0,5822 e J = 0,5985). Also, descriptors of helminthic infection were superior in the former host. Little number of shared species between the analyzed toad species suggests parasitic host-specificity.

  9. Metabolismo antioxidativo, biotransformação hepática e alterações histológicas de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus, SPIX & AGASSIZ, 1829, CHARACIDAE) exposto ao fenol


    Ive Marchioni Avilez


    A poluição é hoje um problema que afeta todos os ambientes inclusive o de água doce, e conseqüentemente, os organismos que vivem nele. Entre estes, os peixes formam um grupo de grande importância sob a perspectiva ecotoxicológica, pois é o maior dentre os vertebrados. O fenol é uma substância química exógena que está usualmente em concentrações acima da permitida por lei. Este xenobiótico é um composto orgânico e lipofílico e sua presença nos corpos de água se deve principalmente aos despejos...

  10. Description of a new species of the genus Leporinus Spix (Characiformes: Anostomidae from the rio Araguaia, Brazil, with comments on the taxonomy and distribution of L. parae and L. lacustris

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    Heraldo A. Britski

    Full Text Available A new species of the genus Leporinus is described from the rio Araguaia, in Mato Grosso and Goiás states, Brazil. The new species has the dental formula 4/3, a unique feature within the genus; all other species of Leporinus have dental formulae 3/3, 3/4 or 4/4. In addition, the new species can also be distinguished by the following combination of characters: 36 to 37 scales in the lateral line, 4/4.5 or 4/5 series of scales in the transversal line, 16 circumpeduncular scale series, anal fin surpassing base of lower caudal-fin rays and three blotches along the lateral line. The new species shares with L. parae and L. lacustris a rather deep body, terminal mouth, long anal fin, three small dark blotches on the lateral line, the latter two, particularly the last one, usually fading, and preference for lentic habitats. Comments on the taxonomy and distribution of the species L. parae and L. lacustris are provided.

  11. Differences in Ca2+-management between the ventricle of two species of neotropical teleosts: the jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829, and the acara, Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824

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    Monica Jones Costa

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the physiological role of the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR of two neotropical teleosts, the jeju, Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (Erythrinidae, and the acara, Geophagus brasiliensis (Cichlidae. While the in vivo heart frequency (fH - bpm of acara (79.6 ± 6.6 was higher than that of the jeju (50.3 ± 2.7, the opposite was observed for the ventricular inotropism (Fc - mN/mm² at 12 bpm (acara = 28.66 ± 1.86 vs. jeju = 36.09 ± 1.67. A 5 min diastolic pause resulted in a strong potentiation of Fc (≅ 90% of strips from jeju, which was completely abolished by ryanodine. Ryanodine also resulted in a ≅ 20% decrease in the Fc developed by strips from jeju at both subphysiological (12 bpm and physiological (in vivo frequencies. However, this effect of ryanodine reducing the Fc from jeju was completely compensated by adrenaline increments (10-9 and 10-6 M. In contrast, strips from acara were irresponsive to ryanodine, irrespective of the stimulation frequency, and increases in adrenaline concentration (to 10-9 and 10-6 M further increased Fc. These results reinforce the hypothesis of the functionality of the SR as a common trait in neotropical ostariophysian (as jeju, while in acanthopterygians (as acara it seems to be functional mainly in 'athletic' species.

  12. The effects of stocking density, prey concentration and feeding on Rhinelepis aspera (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 (Pisces: Loricariidae larviculture - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.8541

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    Ronald Kennedy Luz


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate three stocking densities (20, 40 and 60 larvae L-1, and two daily prey concentrations (400 and 700 Artemia nauplii larvae-1 during the first seven days of active feeding (first phase. In the second phase was evaluate the effect of the different feeding regimes: fasting, dry diet (55% crude protein, Artemia sp. and mixed feeding (Artemia sp. plus dry diet, after 17 days of active feeding on Rhinelepis aspera larviculture. In the first phase, growth was affected only by prey concentration. In the second phase, the dry diet induced higher growth rates than fasting, but lower growth rates than the other treatments. The acceptance of the dry diet was evidenced by an increase in the growth rate from 4.6% day-1 in the first five days to 10.7% day-1 in the following five days of feeding. Survival was similar among dry diet, mixed feeding and Artemia nauplii treatments. R. aspera larvae can be reared during the first seven days of active feeding at a density of 60 larvae L-1, after which they can be fed with a commercial dry diet.

  13. Lesões pulmonares associadas ao parasitismo por Sebekia oxycephala (Pentastomida em jacarés-açu (Melanosuchus niger Spix, 1825 oriundos de vida livre na Amazônia brasileira

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    Adriana Maciel de C. Cardoso


    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou descrever as lesões pulmonares macro e microscópicas associadas ao parasitismo por Sebekia oxycephala em 100 espécimes de jacarés-açu (Melanosuchusniger, abatidos na Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Mamirauá, situada no Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. Durante a avaliação macroscópica, exemplares dos parasitos encontrados no tecido pulmonar foram coletados individualmente em AFA (Álcool etílico - Formalina - Ácido acético glacial e formol a 5% para avaliação parasitológica e classificação taxonômica. Amostras de tecido pulmonar de todos os animais, independentemente da ocorrência de lesões macroscópicas, foram fixadas em formol 10% e incluídas em parafina. Secções histológicas coradas por Hematoxilina-Eosina destas amostras foram avaliadas por meio de microscopia óptica. Macroscopicamente, 4 dos 100 animais (4% apresentaram espécimes de pentastomídeos no parênquima pulmonar. Os parasitos foram classificados taxonomicamente como pertencentes à espécie Sebekia oxycephala. Nenhuma alteração macroscópicas foi observada, porém, microscopicamente, lesões pulmonares foram encontradas em 37% dos casos, sendo que, lesões inflamatórias associadas ao parasitismo corresponderam a 75,6% dos mesmos (28/37. Nestes, segmentos degenerados e ovos de S. oxycephala encontravam-se envolvidos por cápsula de tecido conjuntivo fibroso e infiltrado inflamatório predominantemente composto por células gigantes do tipo corpo estranho. Três espécimes apresentaram espessamento de septos alveolares e sete exemplares continham infiltrado inflamatório granulocítico multifocal no parênquima pulmonar. As lesões associadas ao parasitismo, de modo geral, apresentaram intensidade discreta e parecem não representar uma causa importante de doença pulmonar entre a população estudada. Esta é a primeira descrição de lesões pulmonares em M. niger associadas ao parasitismo por S. oxycephala na Amazônia brasileira.

  14. Experimental assessment of the effects of a Neotropical nocturnal piscivore on juvenile native and invasive fishes

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    Alejandra F. G. N. Santos

    Full Text Available We experimentally examined the predator-prey relationships between juvenile spotted sorubim Pseudoplastystoma corruscans and young-of-the-year invasive and native fish species of the Paraná River basin, Brazil. Three invasive (peacock bass Cichla piquiti, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and two native (yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae and streaked prochilod Prochilodus lineatus fish species were offered as prey to P. corruscans in 300 L aquaria with three habitat complexity treatments (0%, 50% and 100% structure-covered. Prey survival was variable through time and among species (C. piquiti < O. niloticus < A. altiparanae < P. lineatus < I. punctatus, depending largely on species-specific prey behavior but also on prey size and morphological defenses. Habitat complexity did not directly affect P. corruscans piscivory but some prey species changed their microhabitat use and shoaling behavior among habitat treatments in predator's presence. Pseudoplatystoma corruscans preyed preferentially on smaller individuals of those invasive species with weak morphological defensive features that persisted in a non-shoaling behavior. Overall, our results contrast with those in a companion experiment using a diurnal predator, suggesting that nocturnal piscivores preferentially prey on different (rather diurnal fish species and are less affected by habitat complexity. Our findings suggest that recovering the native populations of P. corruscans might help controling some fish species introduced to the Paraná River basin, particularly C. piquiti and O. niloticus, whose parental care is expected to be weak or null at night.

  15. Estimating migratory fish distribution from altitude and basin area: a case study in a large Neotropical river (United States)

    Jose Ricardo Barradas; Lucas G. Silva; Bret C. Harvey; Nelson F. Fontoura


    1. The objective of this study was to identify longitudinal distribution patterns of large migratory fish species in the Uruguay River basin, southern Brazil, and construct statistical distribution models for Salminus brasiliensis, Prochilodus lineatus, Leporinus obtusidens and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans. 2. The sampling programme resulted in 202 interviews with old...

  16. South American frogs of the Hyla rostrata group (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duellman, W.E.


    INTRODUCTION Few groups of Neotropical anurans are so diverse and taxonomically puzzling as the Hyla rubra group (sensu lato). Within this complex which possibly is generically distinct from Hyla, there are several species groups: Hyla strigilata Spix and related taxa in eastern Brasil; Hyla parkeri

  17. La identidad de Bufo missionum Berg, 1896 (Anura: Bufonidae

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    Faivovich, Julián


    Full Text Available Habiendo individualizado el ejemplar sobre el que Berg realizó la descripción de B. missionum, ahora es posible discutir su identidad. El ejemplar en cuestión está un poco deshidratado y oscurecido, sin embargo, en el mismo son evidentes varias características propias de B. ictericus Spix, 1824 que lo diferencian de B. rufus, como ser la presencia de cresta supratimpanica y la forma de la cabeza, ancha y triangular. Comparado con un lote de jóvenes de B. ictericus, B. missionum resulta muy similar en tamaño, proporciones y disposición de las manchas dorsales. Todas estas observaciones nos llevan a concluir que B. missionum Berg, 1894 es un sinónimo de B. ictericus Spix, 1824.

  18. Genetic structure and evidence of anthropogenic effects on wild populations of two Neotropical catfishes: baselines for conservation. (United States)

    Do Prado, F D; Fernandez-Cebrián, R; Foresti, F; Oliveira, C; Martínez, P; Porto-Foresti, F


    Genetic diversity and structure of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and P. reticulatum, large migratory South America catfishes, where overfishing and the construction of numerous dams in their feeding and reproducing areas are affecting their migratory processes negatively, were studied using microsatellites in samples from Paraguay (that comprises the Pantanal biome), and the upper and lower Paraná Basins. Genetic diversity was in accordance to that observed for other large migratory fishes, but the most geographically isolated populations of P. reticulatum and those P. corruscans subject to anthropogenic effects (stocking and dams) showed lower genetic diversity and evidences of bottlenecks compatible with low effective population size. Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum presented subtle genetic differentiation within the Paraguay area, especially between the edges of its distribution. Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, in this same area, presented a quite homogeneous but significant genetic break between the Paraguay and upper Paraná populations, apparently resulting from natural and historical isolation between the basins until recently. These data demonstrates that, although these Pseudoplatystoma spp. are abundant in the Pantanal area, anthropogenic events are leading to negative effects on their populations, particularly in the upper Paraná Basin. Genetic differentiation observed along each species distribution demands conservation actions to preserve each population's biodiversity. These results represent important genetic information using new microsatellite markers and the first genetic study of P. reticulatum covering this area of its native distribution. Data may also contribute to a better understanding of species migration patterns and to be used as a baseline for proper management. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. New taxa of the subfamily Picobiinae (Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) parasitizing antbirds and gnateaters (Passeriformes: Thamnophilidae, Conopophagidae) in Guyana. (United States)

    Glowska, Eliza; Schmidt, Brian K


    A new genus and three new species of the picobiin quill mites (Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) are described from passeriform birds in Guyana, Phipicobia pygiptilae gen. nov. and sp. nov. parasitizing Pygiptila stellaris (Spix) (Thamnophilidae), Rafapicobia thamnophili sp. nov. from Thamnophilus insignis Salvin et Godman (type host), Myrmoborus leucophrys (Tschudi), Myrmeciza ferruginea (St. Müller), Myrmotherula longipennis Pelzeln, and Hypocnemis cantator (Boddaert) (Thamnophilidae), and Rafapicobia milenskyi sp. nov. from Conopophaga aurita (Gmelin) (Conopophagidae).

  20. New species of the genus Picobia (Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) parasitizing tyrannid birds (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae). (United States)

    Glowska, Eliza; Milensky, Christopher M


    Three new quill mite species of the genus Picobia Haller (Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae) are described from 6 host species of the family Tyrannidae (Passeriformes), P. ochoi sp. nov. from Tolmomyias sulphurescens (Spix) (Guyana), P. schmidti sp. nov. from Lophotriccus pileatus (Tschudi) (type host) (Peru) and Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer (Orbigny & Lafresnaye) (Guyana), and P. myiopagi sp. nov. from Myiopagis gaimardii (Orbigny) (type host) (Guyana), M. subplacens (Sclater) (Peru) and Elaenia ruficeps Pelzeln (Guyana).

  1. Molecular identification of Pseudoplatystoma sp. fish fillets by Multiplex PCR / Identificação molecular de filés de peixe Pseudoplatystoma sp. por PCR-Multiplex

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    Cátia Maria de Oliveira Lobo


    Full Text Available Nuclear and mitochondrial genes were used as molecular markers for verifying the iden-tity of fish fillets marketed as pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans. Based on THE polymorphisms of nuclear DNA (RAG2, globin, and EF1 genes and mitochondrial regions (16S, we examined whether the fillets originated from inbred species of pintado or from hybrids derived from crosses between cachara (P. reticulatum and pintado. Nuclear genes from both species were detected in the analyzed fillets (n = 29. This clearly iden-tified these fish as interspecific hybrids (or F1/first filial generation of the type “cacha-pinta,” resulting from a cross between female cachara and male pintado. These results demonstrate that monitoring fish fillet trading is crucial for detecting discrepancies between the marketed species and related information declared on the label. Species that are frequently hybridized, such as pintado and cachara, require special attention. -------------------------------------------------------------------- Marcadores moleculares (PCR-Multiplex de genes nucleares e mitocondriais foram uti-lizados para verificar a identidade molecular de filés de peixe comercializados como pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans com base em polimorfismos de regiões do DNA nuclear (genes RAG2, globina e EF1 e mitocondriais (16S para verificar se os filés per-tenciam a espécie pura de pintado ou se eram híbridos derivados do cruzamento entre cachara (Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum e pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans. Os filés analisados (n = 29 apresentaram genes nucleares de ambas espécies P. corruscans e P. reticulatum, e desta forma, foram identificados como híbridos interespecíficos ou F1 (primeira geração filial do tipo “cachapinta” resultante do cruzamento entre uma fêmea de cachara e um macho de pintado. Estes resultados mostram que o monitora-mento da comercialização de filés de peixe é fundamental para identificar situações onde

  2. Molecular identification of intergenus crosses involving catfish hybrids: risks for aquaculture production

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    Diogo T. Hashimoto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Monitoring of the interspecific hybrid production and trade is essential for the appropriate management of these animals in fish farms. The identification of catfish hybrids by morphological analysis is unreliable, particularly of juveniles and post-F1 individuals. Therefore, in the present study, we used five molecular markers (four nuclear genes and one mitochondrial gene to detect hybrids in the trade of pimelodid juvenile fish from different stocks purchased of five seed producers in Brazil. Samples commercialized as pintado (pure species Pseudoplatystoma corruscans from three fish farms were genetically identified as hybrid cachapinta (♀ P. reticulatum x ♂ P. corruscans . In the stocks purchased as cachandiá (hybrid between ♀ P. reticulatum x ♂ Leiarius marmoratus and cachapira (hybrid between ♀ P. reticulatum x ♂ Phractocephalus hemioliopterus , we suggested the occurrence of intergenus crosses involving the hybrid cachapinta, which was used instead of the pure species P. reticulatum . The problems involving the hybrid cachapinta production were discussed in the present study, especially because these animals have caused genetic contamination and threatened the genetic integrity of natural and cultivated populations. In order to improve the surveillance of the production and provide criteria for the correct management of catfish hybrids, genetic markers has become an excellent alternative to the morphological identification, including juveniles or post-F1 generations.

  3. Molecular Phylogeny of the Myxobolus and Henneguya Genera with Several New South American Species (United States)

    Carriero, Mateus Maldonado; Adriano, Edson A.; Silva, Márcia R. M.; Ceccarelli, Paulo S.; Maia, Antonio A. M.


    The present study consists of a detailed phylogenetic analysis of myxosporeans of the Myxobolus and Henneguya genera, including sequences from 12 Myxobolus/Henneguya species, parasites of South American pimelodids, bryconids and characids. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses, based on 18 S rDNA gene sequences, showed that the strongest evolutionary signal is the phylogenetic affinity of the fish hosts, with clustering mainly occurring according to the order and/or family of the host. Of the 12 South American species studied here, six are newly described infecting fish from the Brazilian Pantanal wetland. Henneguya maculosus n. sp. and Myxobolus flavus n. sp. were found infecting both Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Pseudoplatystoma reticulatum; Myxobolus aureus n. sp. and Myxobolus pantanalis n. sp. were observed parasitizing Salminus brasiliensis and Myxobolus umidus n. sp. and Myxobolus piraputangae n. sp. were detected infecting Brycon hilarii. PMID:24040037

  4. Hyperparasitism by helminths: new records of cestodes and nematodes in proteocephalid cestodes from South American siluriform fishes Hiperparasitismo por helmintos: novas ocorrências de cestóides e nematóides em cestóides proteocefalídeos de peixes siluriformes da América do Sul

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    Amilcar Arandas Rego


    Full Text Available Proteocephalid cestode hyperparasite are reported from numerous proteocephalids occurring in pimelodid fishes in different regions of Brazil. In addition, three specimens of a nematode hyperparasite are reported from the proteocephalid cestode Choanoscolex abscissus from the pimelodid fish Pseudoplatystoma corruscans in Brazil. Previous records of cestode and nematode hyperparasite of cestode are listed, and the possible identities of the Brazilian records are discussed.Cestóides hiperparasitos são descritos de espécies de proteocefalídeos, que ocorrem em peixes pimelodídeos de diferentes regiões do Brasil. Referimos ainda, a ocorrência de nematóide hiperparasito em espécimes de Choanoscolex abscissus, do peixe pimelodídeo, Pseudoplatystoma carruscans. São citadas as referências anteriores de cestóides e nematóides hiperparasitos, e discutida a possível identificação dos mesmos.

  5. Community structure of helminth parasites of the "Cururu" toad, Rhinella icterica (Anura: Bufonidae) from southern Brazil. (United States)

    Dos Santos, Viviane Gularte Tavares; Amato, Suzana B; Borges-Martins, Márcio


    Sixty specimens of the "cururu" toad, Rhinella icterica (Spix 1824) (Bufonidae), were collected in Campo Belo do Sul, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between May 2009 and January 2011, and were examined for the presence of helminth parasites. Nine species of adult helminths were found: Catadiscus cohni, Rudolphitrema rudolphii, Cylindrotaenia sp., Rhabdias fuelleborni, Strongyloides sp., Cosmocerca rara, Cosmocerca brasiliensis, Aplectana elenae, and Oxyascaris sp., in addition to an unidentified adult nematode species. Females of cosmocercid nematodes, proteocephalan plerocercoid, and acanthocephalan cystacanth were found but not identified for lack absolute of taxonomic characters. The sex of the anurans had no influence on prevalence, abundance, and richness of helminth species. Length and body mass of hosts did not influence the prevalence and richness of helminths, while the abundance of R. fuelleborni was significantly correlated with both parameters.

  6. Dinâmica populacional da matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Characidae na Amazônia Central Population dynamics of matrinxã Brycon amazonicus (Characidae in Central Amazon

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    Leocy C. dos Santos Filho


    Full Text Available The matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 is one of the most important fishery resources of the Amazonas state. Its population dynamics in Central Amazon was analyzed based on total landing and biometry data registered in the main landing port of Manaus, between 1994 and 2002. Growth and mortality rates were estimated separately for the rivers Purus, Madeira and Solimões. Differences in size structure and growth curves suggest that different population units exist among these rivers, requiring individualized evaluation and fisheries management strategies. The analysis of the yield per recruit does not indicate overexploitation. However, the highest relative exploitation rate was observed in the Madeira river. The suggested management strategies are related to restrictions to the fishery in the main fishing grounds during the migratory dispersal period, instead of restrictions during reproductive periods.

  7. Improved functional properties of glycosylated soy protein isolate using D-glucose and xanthan gum. (United States)

    Li, Ruiqi; Hettiarachchy, Navam; Rayaprolu, Srinivas; Davis, Mike; Eswaranandam, Satchithanandam; Jha, Alok; Chen, Pengyin


    Functional properties of the soy protein need to improve to have better applications in food industry. Alkali extracted and acid precipitated soy protein isolate (SPI) was glycosylated using D-glucose (G) and Xanthan gum (X) via Maillard reaction to improve solubility. The effects of SPI to G and SPI to X ratios (SPI:G = 2:1, 1:1, and 1:2; SPI:X = 100:1 and 10:1) and incubation time (0, 6, 12, and 24 h) on the solubility and functional properties of glycosylated SPI were evaluated. The SPI:G ratio of 1:2 yielded a maximum degree of glycosylation of 71.1 %. The solubility of SPI after glycosylation significantly increased (P  0.05), the emulsifying activity improved significantly (P properties has potential to improve the functional quality of the food products.

  8. Advertisement call of Dendropsophus studerae (Carvalho-e-Silva, Carvalho-e-Silva and Izecksohn, 2003) (Anura: Hylidae), with new record and geographic distribution extension. (United States)

    Napoli, Marcelo Felgueiras; De Abreu, Rafael Oliveira; Cruz, Deise; Herrera, Jocilene Brandão; Petersen, Emanuela; Klein, Wilfried


    The treefrog genus Dendropsophus Fitzinger comprises 95 species, with geographic distribution from northern Argentina and Uruguay north through tropical South and Central America to tropical southern Mexico (Frost 2014). Dendropsophus studerae was included in the D. microcephalus clade by Faivovich et al. (2005), which currently consists of 39 species (Frost 2014). The species that most resembles D. studerae is D. bipunctatus (Spix), as already stated in the original description of the former (Carvalho-e-Silva et al. 2003). Thus far, Dendropsophus studerae was only known from its type locality, in the municipality of Quebrangulo (09º19'08"S, 36º28'16"W), State of Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. The original description of the species also included data on its eggs, tadpole (oral disc and external morphology) and some natural history information of adults and larvae, but its advertisement call remains undescribed. 

  9. A new species of pentastomida infecting Tropidurus hispidus (Squamata: Tropiduridae from Caatinga in Northeastern Brazil

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    WO. Almeida

    Full Text Available This article describes a new species of Brazilian Raillietiella Sambon, 1910 from lungs of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825. Between July and October 2005 eighteen specimens of T. hispidus were actively captured with elastic rubber slings in granite outcrops (lajeiros (06° 59’ S and 39° 31’ W from caatinga formations in the municipality of Farias Brito, State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. One female and one male of T. hispidus had lungs infected by Raillietiella mottae sp. nov. (prevalence 11.1% and mean intensity of infection 6.0 ± 1.4, range 5-7. The parasite’s main diagnostic characteristics include the dimensions of sharp hooks and strongly curved or "C-shaped" male copulatory spicules with knob-like posterior projection from the base towards the inner curvature of the spicule.

  10. Reproductive and fat body cycles of Tropidurus hispidus and Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae in a caatinga area of northeastern Brazil Ciclos reproductivos y de grasa corporal de Tropidurus hispidus y Tropidurus semitaeniatus (Squamata, Tropiduridae en una área de caatinga del nordeste de Brasil

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    Full Text Available This study assessed the reproductive and fat body cycles of Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 and T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 in an area of caatinga in the Serido of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, from October 2006 to May 2008. In both species, the females were reproductively active from the middle of the dry season to the beginning of the rainy season. Female reproductive activity was influenced by precipitation, whereas males exhibited spermatozoa in their testes throughout the year, and their reproductive activity was not related to any of the climatic variables analyzed. Mean clutch size (± SD was 8.1 ± 2.0 and 2.1 ± 0.6 eggs in T. hispidus and T. semitaeniatus, respectively, and was significantly related to female body size only in T. hispidus. The fat stock varied inversely with reproductive activity in the two species, and there was no difference in fat body mass between females and males. The effects of precipitation on the length of the breeding season of these two Tropidurus species suggest that their reproductive cycles are related to the microclimatic conditions suitable for embryo development, as well as for the neonates' emergence and survival especially during the rainy season, which may offer greater food availability to the hatchlings.Este estudio evaluó los ciclos reproductivos y de grasa corporal de Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 y T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 en una área de caatinga en el Seridó de Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, de octubre de 2006 a mayo de 2008. En ambas especies, las hembras se encontraron reproductivamente activas a partir de mediados de la estación seca para el inicio de la temporada de lluvias. La actividad reproductiva de las hembras fue influenciada por las precipitaciones, mientras que los machos presentaron espermatozoides en los testículos durante todo el año, y su actividad reproductiva no fue relacionada con ninguna de las variables climáticas analizadas. El tamaño medio (± DE de la nidada

  11. Bioaccumulation of mercury, cadmium, zinc, chromium, and lead in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of a large commercially valuable catfish species from Brazil

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    Fábio P. Arantes


    Full Text Available The increasing amounts of heavy metals entering aquatic environments can result in high accumulation levels of these contaminants in fish and their consumers, which pose a serious risk to ecosystems and human health. We investigated the concentrations of mercury (Hg, cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn, chromium (Cr, and lead (Pb in muscle, liver, and spleen tissues of Pseudoplatystoma corruscans specimens collected from two sites on the Paraopeba River, Brazil. The level of heavy metals concentrations in the tissues was often higher in viscera (i.e. liver and spleen than in muscle, and thus, the viscera should not be considered for human consumption. Correlations between metal concentrations and fish size were not significant. Although the levels of muscle bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cr, and Pb, generally do not exceed the safe levels for human consumption, the constant presence of heavy metals in concentrations near those limits considered safe for human consumption, is a reason for concern, and populations who constantly consume fish from polluted rivers should be warned. Our findings also indicate that in a river network where certain areas are connected to other areas with high rates of environmental pollutants, people should be cautious about the regular consumption of fish, even when the fish consumed are caught in stretches of the basin where contamination levels are considered low, since many of the freshwater fish with high commercial value, such as the catfish surubim, are migratory.

  12. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Siluriformes from the Paraguay River basin, Brazil. (United States)

    de Carvalho Lima, Thalles Policarpo; do Egito, Andréa Alves; Feijó, Gelson Luís Dias; de Arruda Mauro, Rodiney; Ferraz, André Luiz Julien


    The objective of this study was to identify, through the DNA barcode, fishable Siluriformes which were collected from the Paraguay River basin in Pantanal. It was analyzed for genetic distance calculation using the Kimura-two-model parameters and the dendrogram was builtusing the Neighbour-Joining algorithm. The average genetic distance within species, genus and families were 0.2%, 1.6% and 4.2%, respectively. These values were lower than those reported in studies from other continents, probably due to the recent radiation process undergone by Neotropical fish. The dendrogram revealed two possible cases of hybridization, one individual Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, it was not possible to identify whether it was a natural event or commercial production exhaust and other of Pimelodus cf. argenteus leading to the assumption that the aspects of reproductive isolation cannot be clearly defined. Besides, the populations of the species Hemisorubim platyrhynchos and e Platydora armatulus may be undergoing a substructuring process, with genetic differences 3% and 4%, respectively.

  13. Comparative morphology of the gonadal structure related to reproductive strategies in six species of neotropical catfishes (Teleostei: Siluriformes). (United States)

    Melo, Rafael Magno Costa; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Sato, Yoshimi; dos Santos, José Enemir; Rizzo, Elizete; Bazzoli, Nilo


    We studied the relationship between the morphology of the reproductive system and the reproductive strategies of six neotropical catfishes using macroscopic and microscopic analyses. The reproductive system of the examined Siluriformes showed diversified characteristics, but permitted their being grouped according to three reproductive strategies: pelagic spawning, demersal spawning, and internally fertilizing. The pelagic spawners Pseudoplatystoma corruscans and Conorhynchos conirostris have testes that are characterized by filiform lobes, absence of testicular secretion, full-grown oocytes of small diameter, thin zona radiata, and cuboidal follicular cells. Pimelodus maculatus is morphologically distinct from the other two pelagic spawners catfishes due to the presence of testicular secretion. The demersal spawners Lophiosilurus alexandri and Rhinelepis aspera possess homogeneous testicular secretion, large mature oocytes, and columnar follicular cells. The most specialized reproductive system was observed in the internally fertilizing Trachelyopterus galeatus, which possesses a seminal vesicle accessory to the testes, spermatozoa with elongated nuclei that form spermatozeugmata, and a secretory ovarian lamellar epithelium that is associated with sperm storage. The reproductive system observed in Neotropical catfishes showed a relationship associated with the type of fertilization and the reproductive strategies of the six species studied. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Feeding overlap in two sympatric species of Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae of the Atlantic Rain Forest Sobreposição alimentar em duas espécies simpátricas de Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae da Mata Atlântica

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    Leandro T. Sabagh


    Full Text Available A clear understanding of the relationships between overlapping, similarity, and competition is necessary to understand many of the questions about the structure and operation of a community. Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824 and Rhinella crucifer (Wied Neuwied, 1821 are sympatric species of toads occurring in the National Park of Serra dos Órgãos in southeastern Brazil. The aim of the present study was to assess the dietary overlap of these two species. Ninety-four stomachs were analyzed, and 2245 prey items were found. Common prey were Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera larvae, Blattaria, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Opiliones, and Aranaea. Ants were the most important prey in both diets, followed by beetles and cockroaches. The niche breadth of R. icterica was 1.76 and of R. crucifer was 1.28. The dietary overlap between the species was 98.62%. A positive correlation was observed between jaw width and prey size consumed by R. icterica.Um claro entendimento das relações entre sobreposição, similaridade e competição é necessário para entender muitas questões sobre a estrutura e o funcionamento de uma comunidade. Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824 e Rhinella crucifer (Wied Neuwied, 1821 são espécies simpátricas que ocorrem no Parque Nacional da Serra dos Órgãos, região sudeste do Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a sobreposição alimentar dessas duas espécies. Foram analisados 94 estômagos e encontradas 2245 presas. Os grupos comuns foram: Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, larva de Lepidoptera, Blattaria, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Opiliones e Aranaea. Formigas foram as presas mais importantes na dieta, seguidas por besouros e baratas. A amplitude de nicho de R. icterica foi de 1,76 e a de R. cruicifer 1,28. A sobreposição de nicho alimentar entre as espécies foi de 98,62%. Houve relação positiva entre a largura da mandíbula e a dimensão das presas consumidas em R. icterica.

  15. Two new species of Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae from South America Dos especies nuevas de Creptotrema (Digenea: Allocreadiidae de América del Sur

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    Stephen S. Curran


    Full Text Available Two new digenean species belonging in Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 are described from specimens stored in the invertebrate collection at the Museum of Natural History, Geneva, Switzerland. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. is described from Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, and Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae in the Paraguay River, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. is described from Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae in Río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei differs from its congeners by having testes with irregular rather than entire outlines. Creptotrema sucumbiosa differs from its congeners by having a bilobed rather than entire ovary. Both C. lamothei and C. sucumbiosa differ from their other congeners by having relatively longer posttesticular spaces in their bodies, representing 25-30% and 24-28% of body length respectively, compared with approximately 6-19% in other species.Dos especies nuevas de digéneos pertenecientes a Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas y Pereira, 1928 fueron descritas de ejemplares depositados en la colección de invertebrados del Museo de Historia Natural de Ginebra, Suiza. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. fue descrita en Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier y Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix y Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, y Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Paraguay, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. fue descrita de Tetragonopterus argenteus, Cuvier 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei difiere de sus congéneres por tener testículos con contornos irregulares en contraste con los que presentan contornos enteros. Creptotrema sucumbiosa difiere de

  16. Parasitos nas brânquias de Brycon amazonicus (Characidae, Bryconinae cultivados em canais de igarapé do Turumã-Mirim, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil = Parasites in gills of farmed Brycon amazonicus (Characidae, Bryconinae in stream channels of Turumã-Mirim, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Jefferson Raphael Gonzaga Lemos


    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar a prevalência e a intensidade de parasitos nas brânquias, bem como o fator de condição em matrinxã Brycon amazonicus Spix e Agassiz (1829 cultivados em três canais de igarapé da região do Tarumã-Mirim, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas. As condições sanitárias dos canais de igarapé, o manejo dospeixes e os parâmetros físico-químicos da água foram monitorados. De 150 peixes examinados, 25,0% estavam parasitados pelo protozoário Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (18,0% e por sanguessungas Placobdella sp. (7,0%. A prevalência de I. multifiliis, nos três canais deigarapé, foi de 22,0%, 18,0% e 14,0%, respectivamente, e a intensidade média foi maior em um dos canais que mantinha peixes em grande densidade populacional. As sanguessugas Placobdella sp. ocorreram somente em um dos canais de igarapé. Não houve variação sazonal na infecção de I. multifiliis, mas Placobdella sp. ocorreu somente em janeiro e março. O fator de condição dos peixes parasitados foi significativamente (p The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of parasites in the gills as well as the condition factor of farmed Brycon amazonicus (Spix e Agassiz, 1829 from three stream channels in Tarumã-Mirim, Manaus, Amazonas State. Sanitary conditions of stream channels, fish handling, and water physiochemical parameters were monitored. From the 150 examined fish, 25.0% were contaminated by protozoan Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (18,0% and by leeches Placobdella sp. (7.0%. The prevalence of I. multifiliis in the stream channels was of 22.0%, 18.0% and 14.0%, respectively, and the average intensity was high only in the stream channel that maintained fish in high population density. The leeches Placobdella sp. were found only in one stream channel. There was no seasonal variation in the infection by I. multifiliis; however Placobdella sp.infected the hosts only in January and March

  17. Crescimento alométrico, morfologia e uso do habitat em cinco espécies de Mabuya Fitzinger (Reptilia, Scincidae Allometric growth, morphology and habitat use in five species of Mabuya Fitzinger (Reptilia, Scincidae

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    Gabriel Silva Pinto


    Full Text Available Foram analisadas a variação ontogenética da forma do corpo nos lagartos sul-americanos Mabuya agilis, M. bistriata, M. guaporicola, M. macrorhyncha e M. nigropunctata, assim como as diferenças interespecíficas nas proporções do corpo, como resultados de um possível crescimento alométrico. As trajetórias das tendências ontogenéticas foram significativamente diferentes somente entre M. guaporicola e M. nigropunctata; todos os pares de espécies, exceto M. agilis e M. macrorhyncha, M. bistriata e M. nigropunctata, demonstraram diferenças significativas em relação ao intercepto Y. A Análise de Componentes Principais aplicada sobre uma série de caracteres morfométricos demonstrou sinais opostos para as variáveis do corpo e dos membros, corroborando estudos anteriores. Contudo, quando as espécies foram analisadas individualmente, as mãos e dígitos apresentaram alometria negativa, enquanto os demais segmentos apresentaram variação em suas alometrias. Algumas hipóteses levantadas nesse estudo, relacionadas à forma do corpo e ao uso do hábitat nessas espécies, necessitam ser testadas.The ontogenetic variation of body shape in the South American skinks Mabuya agilis Boulenger, 1887, M. bistriata (Spix, 1825, M. guaporicola Dunn, 1936, M. macrorhyncha Hoge, 1946, and M. nigropunctata (Spix, 1825 were analyzed. Interspecific differences in body proportions as a possible result of allometric growth in these species are also examined. Ontogenetic trend lines were significantly different only between M. guaporicola and M. nigropunctata; all other species pairs, except M. agilis and M. macrorhyncha, M. bistriata and M. nigropunctata, showed significantly different Y intercepts. A PCA analysis on a series of morphometric characters showed opposite signals for body and limb variables, corroborating previous studies. However, when the species were analyzed separately, hand and digits were the most likely segments to present negative

  18. Homology of the Fifth Epibranchial and Accessory Elements of the Ceratobranchials among Gnathostomes: Insights from the Development of Ostariophysans (United States)

    Carvalho, Murilo; Bockmann, Flávio Alicino; de Carvalho, Marcelo Rodrigues


    Epibranchials are among the main dorsal elements of the gill basket in jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Among extant fishes, chondrichthyans most resemble the putative ancestral condition as all branchial arches possess every serially homologous piece. In osteichthyans, a primitive rod-like epibranchial 5, articulated to ceratobranchial 5, is absent. Instead, epibranchial 5 of many actinopterygians is here identified as an accessory element attached to ceratobranchial 4. Differences in shape and attachment of epibranchial 5 in chondrichthyans and actinopterygians raised suspicions about their homology, prompting us to conduct a detailed study of the morphology and development of the branchial basket of three ostariophysans (Prochilodus argenteus, Characiformes; Lophiosilurus alexandri and Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Siluriformes). Results were interpreted within a phylogenetic context of major gnathostome lineages. Developmental series strongly suggest that the so-called epibranchial 5 of actinopterygians does not belong to the epal series because it shares the same chondroblastic layer with ceratobranchial 4 and its ontogenetic emergence is considerably late. This neomorphic structure is called accessory element of ceratobranchial 4. Its distribution among gnathostomes indicates it is a teleost synapomorphy, occurring homoplastically in Polypteriformes, whereas the loss of the true epibranchial 5 is an osteichthyan synapomorphy. The origin of the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 appears to have occurred twice in osteichthyans, but it may have a single origin; in this case, the accessory element of ceratobranchial 4 would represent a remnant of a series of elements distally attached to ceratobranchials 1–4, a condition totally or partially retained in basal actinopterygians. Situations wherein a structure is lost while a similar neomorphic element is present may lead to erroneous homology assessments; these can be avoided by detailed morphological and

  19. Fauna parasitária dos híbridos siluriformes cachapinta e jundiara nos primeiros estágios de desenvolvimento

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    Arlene Sobrinho Ventura


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a fauna parasitária dos peixes híbridos cachapinta (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans macho x P. reticulatum fêmea e jundiara (Leiarius marmoratus macho x P. reticulatum fêmea no período de larvicultura. Um total de 315 animais, 126 híbridos jundiara e 189 híbridos cachapinta, foram examinados de acordo com o estágio de desenvolvimento: larvas, pós-larvas e alevinos. Larvas e pós-larvas foram prensadas entre lâmina e lamínula e observadas sob microscopia óptica. Os alevinos foram observados externamente em estereomicroscópio e necropsiados para avaliação interna dos órgãos. Foram aferidos os parâmetros de qualidade de água em todas as fases de cultivo. O exame parasitológico revelou a presença dos protozoários Epistylis sp. e Trichodina sp., no tegumento e nas brânquias, Ichthyophthirius multifiliis no tegumento, dos helmintos Monogenea nas brânquias, e das metacercárias de digenéticos em brânquias, baço, rins, fígado e intestino, em ambos os híbridos analisados. Os parasitos Epystilis sp., Trichodina sp. e metacercária de digenéticos ocorrem com maior frequência nos dois híbridos, nas fases de pós-larvas e alevinos. Há maior prevalência e diversidade de parasitos na fase de alevinagem dos híbridos estudados.

  20. Importance of dam-free stretches for fish reproduction: the last remnant in the Upper Paraná River

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    Jislaine Cristina Silva


    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This study uses the abundance of fish eggs and larvae to evaluate the importance of the main channel of the Paraná River and the adjacent areas of the floodplain, in the last dam-free stretch in the Brazilian territory, for the spawning and development of fish of different reproductive guilds, in order to obtain subsidies to assist in the management and conservation policies of this area, focusing on the maintenance of dam-free areas. Methods Data were taken quarterly from August 2013 to May 2015, in 25 sites, grouped into three biotopes: main channel, tributaries and lagoons. Possible spatial variations in fish spawning and development as well as composition and structure of larvae were evaluated. Results Higher densities of eggs were found in tributaries (Paracaí and Amambai rivers and greater densities of larvae were observed in lagoons (Saraiva. Significant differences in composition and structure of larvae were detected only between sampling stations. As for taxonomic composition, 29 taxa were recorded, mostly non-migratory. However, long-distance migratory were also widely distributed, such as Brycon orbignyanus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Prochilodus lineatus, Piaractus mesopotamicus and Rhaphiodon vulpinus, as well as invasive species Platanichthys platana and Hemiodus orthonops. In turn, Salminus brasiliensis presented low occurrence. Conclusions This study evidenced that different species spawn in the region, mainly in tributaries, and their eggs and larvae are transported to the main channel of the Paraná River and adjacent lagoons, to complete their early development. The capture of larvae of important migratory species suggests that this environment still exhibits suitable conditions for their reproduction, mainly due to the presence of dam-free tributaries. Also, they emphasize the importance of the integrity of these environments for the maintenance of the regional fish fauna, and it is extremely important the

  1. Spawning and nursery habitats of neotropical fish species in the tributaries of a regulated river (United States)

    Makrakis, Maristela Cavicchioli; da Silva, Patrícia S.; Makrakis, Sergio; de Lima, Ariane F.; de Assumpção, Lucileine; de Paula, Salete; Miranda, Leandro E.; Dias, João Henrique Pinheiro


    This chapter provides information on ontogenetic patterns of neotropical fish species distribution in tributaries (Verde, Pardo, Anhanduí, and Aguapeí rivers) of the Porto Primavera Reservoir, in the heavily dammed Paraná River, Brazil, identifying key spawning and nursery habitats. Samplings were conducted monthly in the main channel of rivers and in marginal lagoons from October through March during three consecutive spawning seasons in 2007-2010. Most species spawn in December especially in Verde River. Main river channels are spawning habitats and marginal lagoons are nursery areas for most fish, mainly for migratory species. The tributaries have high diversity of larvae species: a total of 56 taxa representing 21 families, dominated by Characidae. Sedentary species without parental care are more abundant (45.7%), and many long-distance migratory fish species are present (17.4%). Migrators included Prochilodus lineatus, Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hemisorubim platyrhynchos, Pimelodus maculatus, Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Sorubim lima, two threatened migratory species: Salminus brasiliensis and Zungaro jahu, and one endangered migratory species: Brycon orbignyanus. Most of these migratory species are vital to commercial and recreational fishing, and their stocks have decreased drastically in the last decades, attributed to habitat alteration, especially impoundments. The fish ladder at Porto Primavera Dam appears to be playing an important role in re-establishing longitudinal connectivity among critical habitats, allowing ascent to migratory fish species, and thus access to upstream reaches and tributaries. Establishment of Permanent Conservation Units in tributaries can help preserve habitats identified as essential spawning and nursery areas, and can be key to the maintenance and conservation of the fish species in the Paraná River basin.

  2. Ecological parameters of the endohelminths in relation to size and sex of Prochilodus argenteus (Actinopterygii: Prochilodontidae from the Upper São Francisco River, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Cassandra M. Monteiro


    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the ecological indexes of the helminths of the digestive system and coelom of Prochilodus argenteus Spix & Agassiz, 1829. A total of 150 specimens (53 males and 97 females taken from the upper reaches of the São Francisco River in the municipality of Três Marias (18º12'32"S, 45º15'41"W, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were examined. The specimens were collected in July, 2003 and January, 2004. Ninety-eight fish (65.3% were infected by at least one species of helminth. Five helminth species were found: one digenean, Saccocoelioides nanii Szidat, 1954; two Eucestoda, Valipora sp., and one undetermined metacestode; one nematode, Spinitectus asperus Travassos, Artigas & Pereira, 1928; and one acanthocephalan, Neoechinorhynchus prochilodorum Nickol & Thatcher, 1971. The sex of the host did not influence parasite indexes. The total length of the hosts influenced the abundance of S. nanii (r s = -0.21, p = 0.01 and the prevalence of the metacestode (r = -0.91, p = 0.01. Saccocoelioides nanii was the dominant species in the parasite fauna of P. argenteus. Saccocoelioides nanii, Valipora sp., S. asperus and N. prochilodorum are reported here for the first time in P. argenteus and their known distribution is expanded to the São Francisco River.

  3. Chromosomal similarity between the Scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani, the Short-tailed parrot (Graydidascalus brachyurus and the Yellow-faced parrot (Salvatoria xanthops (Psittaciformes: Aves: a cytotaxonomic analysis

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    Renato Caparroz


    Full Text Available Behavior, morphology, allozyme studies and DNA hybridization and sequencing data all suggest the independent evolution of the Old and New World parrots and support tribe status for the American species, although the phylogenetic relationships within this tribe are still poorly understood. A previous study has shown that the Yellow-faced parrot (Amazona xanthops Spix 1824 exhibits large karyotypic differences compared to the other Amazona species and suggested that this species should be renamed Salvatoria xanthops, although the relationships between S. xanthops and the other New World parrots remain unclear. In the present work, we describe the karyotype of the Scaly-headed parrot (Pionus maximiliani, Kuhl 1820 and the karyotype and C-banding pattern of the Short-tailed parrot (Graydidascalus brachyurus, Kuhl 1820 and compare them to the karyotype and C-banding pattern of S. xanthops, as well as to the karyotypes of other New World parrots. The chromosomal similarity between these three species and the karyotypic differences between them and other New World parrots suggest that G. brachyurus and S. xanthops are sister species and are most closely related to members of the genus Pionus.

  4. Relacionamento entre anfíbios anuros e bromélias da restinga de Regência, Linhares, Espírito Santo, Brasil Relationship between anuran amphibians and bromeliads of the sandy coastal plain of Regência, linhares, Espírito Santo, Brazil

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    José Alberto P. Schineider

    Full Text Available Some anuran amphibians use the bromeliads during the entire life cycle and others only as diurnal shelter. At the sandy coastal plain of Linhares, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, 676 bromeliads were examined, of which 303 of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker L. B. Smith., 1955, 287 of Aechmea nudicaulis (L. Griseb., 1864, and 86 of Vrisea procera (Mart. Ex Schult. f. Wittm, 1891. The morphometric and physical-chemical analysis of different bromeliads evidenced variations among plants. During the period sampled, six anuran species were found inside the plant axils. The hylid frog Phyllodytes luteolus (Wied, 1824 was the most abundant species (260 specimens. Its abundance was higher in the epiphyte bromeliad Vrisea procera. Phyllodytes luteolus had higher occurrences in bromeliads located at a transitional area between open and under the shrub vegetation. Specimens of Scinax alterus (Lutz, B., 1973 and Aparasphenodon brunoi Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920, were more frequent mainly in transitional areas; Bufo granulosus Spix, 1824 occurred in open and transitional areas, whereas Gastrotheca fissipis (Boulenger, 1888 and Leptodactylus fuscus (Schneider, 1799 were found only in bromeliads located in open areas.

  5. Structural aspects of the Eberth-Katschenko layer of Bufo ictericus integument: histochemical characterization and biochemical analysis of the cutaneous calcium (Amphibian, Bufonidae). (United States)

    Azevedo, Rodrigo Alves; Pelli, Adriana Alves; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio; de Jesus Santana, Andréa Souza; Felsemburgh, Flávia; de Brito-Gitirana, Lycia


    Anuran, such as Brazilian toad Bufo ictericus Spix, 1824, possess a calcified dermal layer called the Eberth-Katschenko (EK) layer located between the stratum spongiosum and the stratum compactum. It has been regarded as a protective barrier against desiccation or involved in storage and mobilization of calcium, or a barrier for the interchange of substances between the animal's internal and external environment. The B. ictericus integument was removed from the ventral and dorsal regions and examined by light microscopy, using histochemical techniques, and also submitted to biochemical calcium analysis. The intermediate layer is strongly basophilic and metachromatic. In the EK layer Alcian blue at different critical electrolytic concentration revealed hyaluronic acid, which coexists with the dermal calcium. We conclude that the EK layer of B. ictericus is a discontinuous layer and is formed of hyaluronic acid and a sulfated GAG different from chondroitin sulfate, heparin and heparan sulfate or keratan sulfate. The amount of cutaneous calcium is independent of region and sex. GAGs may play an important role in dermal hydric balance, protecting the animal against desiccation, and hyaluronic acid is probably able to anchor dermal calcium. Thus, all compounds of the EK layer are essential for integument integrity and functionality.

  6. Infracommunities of Streblidae and Nycteribiidae (Diptera on bats in an ecotone area between Cerrado and Atlantic Forest in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul

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    Guilherme D. P. Dornelles


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We described infracommunities, prevalence and mean intensity of infestation of ecotoparasite flies (Nycteribiidae and Streblidae on bats in an ecotone area of Cerrado as predominant vegetation, with influence of Atlantic Forest, in the southeast of Mato Grosso do Sul. In 36 sampling nights between April 2015 and August 2016 (23,328 m².h, we captured 17 bat species, of which ten were infested, and 14 species of fly. The most abundant bats were the phyllostomids Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1776 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 and the most abundant flies were the streblids Trichobius longipes (Rudow, 1871, T. joblingi Wenzel, 1966 and Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett, 1899. Phyllostomus hastatus (Pallas, 1767 was the bat species that presented the highest infestation rate. Platyrrhinus lineatus (É. Geoffroy, 1810 and Desmodus rotundus (É. Geoffroy, 1810 were not infested. Besides that, the frequency of bats that were infested by a single species of fly was higher than the frequency of bats infested for two or more, and it may be a pattern.

  7. Ticks on captive and free-living wild animals in northeastern Brazil. (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Débora R A; de Melo, Louise M; Lima, Polly-Ana C P; Siqueira, Daniel B; Rameh-de-Albuquerque, Luciana C; de Melo, Adriana V; Ramos, Janaina A C


    From 2005 to 2009, 147 ticks found on 32 wild animals from or referred to two zoobotanical parks (Parque Zoobotânico Arruda Câmara and Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos) located in northeastern Brazil were identified. Ticks found on two veterinarians working in one of the parks (i.e., Parque Estadual Dois Irmãos), after return from forested areas within the park's territory, were also identified. The following tick-host associations were recorded: Amblyomma fuscum Neumann on Boa constrictor L.; Amblyomma longirostre Koch on Ramphastos vitellinus ariel Vigors and Coendou prehensilis (L.); Amblyomma varium Koch on Bradypus variegates Schinz; Amblyomma rotundatum Koch on Chelonoidis carbonaria (Spix), Chelonoidis denticulata (L.), Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem), Python molurus bivittatus Kuhl, Iguana iguana (L.) and B. variegatus; Amblyomma nodosum Neumann on Myrmecophaga tridactyla L. and Tamandua tetradactyla (L.); and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) on Nasua nasua (L.). The ticks found on the veterinarians were identified as nine Amblyomma larvae. The presence of Am. nodosum in Pernambuco and Am. rotundatum and Am. varium in Paraíba is recorded for the first time and the occurrence of Am. longirostre in Pernambuco is confirmed. Ramphastos vitellinus ariel is a new host record for Am. longirostre whereas M. ibiboboca and B. variegatus are new host records for Am. rotundatum. Finally, the human parasitism by Amblyomma ticks is reported for the first time in Pernambuco, highlighting the potential of tick-borne pathogen transmission in this state.

  8. Fish farming of native species in Colombia: current situation and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, P. E.; Medina-Robles, V. M.; Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.


    In Colombia and the rest of the world, the decrease in capture fisheries production has turned the aquaculture into an alternative source of protein for the populations food security as well as an important productive activity, generating employment and income for the rural communities. The Colom......In Colombia and the rest of the world, the decrease in capture fisheries production has turned the aquaculture into an alternative source of protein for the populations food security as well as an important productive activity, generating employment and income for the rural communities...... Prochilodus magdalenae (Steindachner), carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) and yamu Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz). From the three main fish species, cachama blanca is the only native species, which has shown excellent performance in pond farming due to its rusticity, omnivorous habits, docility, meat quality......, food conversion and disease resistance. The limited offer of Colombian fish farmed species determines its currently low competitiveness and restricted impact on the international markets; thus making necessary to explore the potential of new fish species in order to introduce them to the pisciculture...

  9. [The effect of antihypertensive drugs on the anaesthetic effect of lidocaine in hypertensive patients who need dental treatment]. (United States)

    Grădinaru, Irina; Grădinaru, Marilena; Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Nechifor, M; Tatarciuc, Monica; Dimitriu, G; Doloca, A


    The study evaluated the influence of atenolol/nifedipine on the local anaesthesia with lidocaine in 64 patients with essential arterial hypertension following dietetic regimen and divided in: control group (21 patients), atenolol-treated group (21 patients with atenolol therapy) and nifedipine-treated group (22 patients with nifedipine therapy). Atenolol/nifedipine was administrated three hours before anaesthesia (1.5 mg lidocaine/kg body weight) applied on Spix Spina. The atenolol/nifedipine influence on the anaesthetic intensity was evaluated both by the patient and dentist using scales for the appreciation of pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale, Numerical Rating Scale) at 0 minutes (before anaesthesia), 5, 10, 20, 30, 60 minutes (moments for the determination of lidocaine plasmatic concentrations). There were no statistically significant differences between the values appreciated by the patient and dentist. Our data demonstrated a significant decrease of pain intensity in patients treated with atenolol/nifedipine. Very good inverse correlation was found between lidocaine concentrations and pain intensity.

  10. First gonadal maturation of Pinirampus pirinampu (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae in the Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    J. Peixer

    Full Text Available Information regarding the reproductive cycle of commercially exploited fish species is extremely important for their appropriate management. The reproductive size of Pinirampus pirinampu (Spix, 1829 was determined for a population studied in the Pantanal wetlands of western Brazil. Samples were taken in September, October, and December 1997, and in February and March 1998. Gonadal stages were macroscopically determined and a monthly gonadossomatic index (GSI was used to determine the breeding period. The length of the first gonadal maturation was determined by classifying male and female adults and immature fish into length classes. The data on the adult individuals were plotted on graphs and the median values estimated to find the length at which 50% of the individuals reached maturity (L50. L100 was also determined. Males and females in the gonadal maturation process were recorded from October on, and the highest frequency was found to occur in February. Individuals with empty gonads occurred from February onwards. The GSI showed that gonadal development began in September and reached its peak in February. The L50 was 574 mm for females and 536 mm for males, while the L100 was 590 mm for females and 580 mm for males.

  11. On Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822 (Mollusca; Pilidae: Ampullariidae

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    Silvana C. Thiengo


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the morphology of Pomacea caniculata (Lamarck, 1822 collected at Corrientes, Argentina. Comparison is made with Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. The shell is globose, heavy, with greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spiral bands; apex subelevated, 5-6 whorls increasing rather rapidly and separated by very deep suture. Aperture large, rounded to subelongated; lip sometimes reddish; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.78-0.96 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.68-0.77 (mean 0.72. Radula similar to other congeneric species. Testis and spermiduct as in P. lineata and P. sordida; prostate cylindric and short, cream in color as the testis. Penial sheath straight bearing a central outer gland deeply embedded in the tissue of its basal portion and a large wrinkled gland occupying 2/3 of the distal tip of its inner surface; the rigth margin of the sheath overlaps the left one until 2/3 of its proximal end. Female reproductive apparatus similar to that P. lineata; vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.

  12. Combate ao Desmodus rotundus rotundus (E. Geoffroy,1810 na região cárstica de Cordisburgo e Curvelo, Minas Gerais Combat of Desmodus rotundus rotundus (E. Geofroy, 1810 in the Cordisburgo and Curvelo carstic region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    E.O. Almeida


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar em uma região cárstica o tipo de refúgio, as espécies de morcegos, a população de animais domésticos, as associações interespecíficas nas coabitações com outros mamíferos silvestres suscetíveis à raiva e a eficácia da warfarina aplicada no dorso do Desmodus rotundus rotundus foi realizada uma pesquisa de maio de 1998 a março de 2000, nos municípios de Cordisburgo e Curvelo, Minas Gerais. Em 49 refúgios vistoriados, 29 naturais e 20 artificiais, localizados em 14 propriedades, encontrou-se o Desmodus rotundus rotundus em 18 abrigos naturais. Destes, 17 eram cavernas formadas pela dissolução ou abatimento de rocha calcária, típica do carste, e um era túnel escavado na terra pela ação das águas de um rio. As características geomorfológicas e de localização espacial foram registradas com base nas coordenadas geográficas, obtidas com auxílio de um sensor geográfico de posição. Nesses abrigos foram capturados e identificados 1457 morcegos de 14 espécies, sendo 640 Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, 566 Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, 73 Anoura geoffroyi (Gray 1838, 58 Trachops cirrhosus (Spix, 1823, 38 Diphylla ecaudata ecaudata (Spix, 1823, 23 Platyhrrinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, 16 Lasiurus ega (Gervais, 1856, 14 Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, 13 Phyllostomus hastatus hastatus (Pallas, 1767, 9 Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, 3 Mimmon bennettii (Gray, 1838, 2 Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821, 1 Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819 e 1 Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843. Não se conseguiu isolar ou detectar o vírus rábico no cérebro de 25 hematófagos selecionados e em 52 de outras espécies. A maioria desses abrigos também era usada por pacas (Agouti paca Linnaues, 1766, capivaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris, Linnaues, 1766, guaxinins (Procyon cancrivorus, G. Cuvier, 1798 e raposas (Lycalopex vetulus, Lund, 1842 que são suscetíveis à raiva. Em 546 Desmodus

  13. Estado de conservación de Crax globulosa en la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria, Loreto

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    Antonio Yahuarcani


    Full Text Available Entre los meses de mayo a julio de 2006 se determinó el estado de conservación del piurí Crax globulosa Spix, 1825 en la Zona de Amortiguamiento de la Reserva Nacional Pacaya Samiria. En las comunidades de Vista Alegre y San Pedro de Maypuco se recopilo información mediante talleres, encuestas, entrevistas y charlas que permitieron obtener información referente a la percepción y el conocimiento de los pobladores locales sobre la especie. En la comunidad de Vista Alegre se realizaron censos y observaciones. Crax globulosa en los periodos de creciente del río, prefiere el estrato superior del bosque, así como pequeños espacios de tierra de las restingas más altas; en vaciante ocupa todo el espacio de las restingas, prefiriendo los bosques cerrados de cochas y caños. Se observaron 22 grupos con 50 individuos, estimando su densidad entre 3 y 4 individuos/km2. El presente trabajo confirma la presencia de C. globulosa y su distribución en el bajo Ucayali.

  14. Comparative analysis of the integument of different tree frog species from Ololygon and Scinax genera (Anura: Hylidae

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    Henrique Alencar Meira da Silva


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The integuments of ten treefrog species of two genera from Scinaxnae - O. angrensis (Lutz, 1973, O. flavoguttata (Lutz & Lutz, 1939, O. humilis (Lutz & Lutz, 1954, O. perpusilla (Lutz & Lutz, 1939, O. v-signata (Lutz, 1968, Scinax hayii (Barbour, 1909, S. similis (Cochran, 1952, O. trapicheroi (Lutz & Lutz, 1954 and S. x-signatus (Spix, 1824 - were investigated using conventional and histochemical techniques of light microscopy, and polarized light microscopy. All integuments showed the basic structure of the anuran integument. Moreover, the secretory portions of exocrine glands, such as serous merocrine and apocrine glands, were found to be restricted to the spongious dermis. Lipid content occurred together with the heterogeneous secretory material of the glands with an apocrine secretion mechanism. In addition, clusters of these apocrine glands were present in the ventrolateral integument of some species. Melanophores were also visualized in all examined hylids. However, the occurrence of iridophores, detected through polarized light microscopy, varied according to the species. The Eberth-Katschenko layer occurred in the dorsal integument from both genera, but it was only present in the ventral integument of O. albicans, O. angrensis, O. flavoguttata, O. perpusilla and O. v-signata. Although the integument of all treefrogs showed the same basic structure, some characteristics were genus-specific; however, these features alone may not be used to distinguish both genera.

  15. New species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986 (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) infecting the gills of catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Peruvian Amazonia. (United States)

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Scholz, Tomáš


    During a research on gill ectoparasites of siluriform fishes from the Peruvian Amazonia, the following monogeneans were found: Ameloblastella edentensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus edentatus Spix & Agassiz; Ameloblastella peruensis n. sp. from Hypophthalmus sp.; Ameloblastella formatrium n. sp. from Pimelodidae gen. sp. (type-host) and Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen; Ameloblastella unapioides n. sp. from Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider) (type-host) and Pimelodus sp; Cosmetocleithrum tortum n. sp. from Nemadoras hemipeltis (Eigenmann); and Cosmetocleithrum bifurcum n. sp. from Hassar orestis (Steindachner) (both Doradidae). All new species described herein are mainly differentiated from their congeners based on the morphology of the copulatory complex. The pimelodids H. edentatus and S. lima, and the doradids N. hemipeltis and H. orestis represent new hosts species for species of Ameloblastella Kritsky, Mendoza-Franco & Scholz, 2000 and Cosmetocleithrum Kritsky, Thatcher & Boeger, 1986, respectively. The morphological diagnosis of the present species of Ameloblastella and Cosmetocleithrum also supported by a previous molecular analysis of these species is briefly discusssed herein.

  16. A taxonomic review of the Dark-winged Trumpeter Psophia viridis (Aves: Gruiformes: Psophiidae

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    Marina Oppenheimer


    Full Text Available The Dark-winged Trumpeter, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae is a Brazilian endemic species and includes three subspecies: Psophia viridis viridis Spix, 1825; Psophia v. dextralis Conover, 1934, and Psophia v. obscura Pelzeln, 1857, as well as P. v. interjecta Griscom & Greenway, 1937, whose validity has been questioned by several authors. These taxa are allopatric in distribution along the south of the Amazon River, although the precise limits of their distribution still remain unknown. This complex has never been taxonomically reviewed and this work aims to test the validity of its taxa based on the Phylogenetic Species Concept. Morphometrical characters and plumage colour patterns were analyzed, and the distribution of the taxa was also revised. In this study, 108 specimens from 41 localities were examined (all types included, with each reliable literature-based locality being included in order to delimit the geographical distribution of the complex. Morphometrical data did not point out significant differences between the taxa, also showing no sexual dimorphism among them. Meanwhile, plumage characters showed consistent and distinct patterns for each of the taxa, except for P. v. interjecta, whose features indicated by authors as diagnosable are the result of individual variation. No clinal variation or intergradation were observed, even at regions close to the rivers headwaters, where supposedly populations could be in contact. It is suggested that the currently accepted subspecies be elevated to the species level, such as: Psophia viridis Spix, 1825, distributed in the Madeira-Tapajós interfluvium, P. dextralis, found in the Tapajós-Tocantins interfluvium, and P. obscura, which occurs from the right bank of the Tocantins River to the west of the State of Maranhão.Os jacamins-de-costas-verdes, Psophia viridis (Gruiformes, Psophiidae são endêmicos da Amazônia brasileira e contam, atualmente, com três subespécies reconhecidas

  17. Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: I - metropolitan mesoregion

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    Thiengo Silvana C


    Full Text Available In order to elaborate a planorbid chart of the State of Rio de Janeiro a survey of freshwater gastropods in the Metropolitan Mesoregion of this State was performed and revealed the occurrence of 20 species: Antillorbis nordestensis (Lucena, 1954; Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818; Biomphalaria schrammi (Crosse, 1864; Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848; Biomphalaria tenagophila (Orbigny, 1835; Burnupia sp.; Drepanotrema anatinum (Orbigny, 1835; Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839; Drepanotrema lucidum (Pfeiffer, 1839; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga (Marcus & Marcus, 1962; Heleobia davisi Silva & Thomé, 1985; Lymnaea columella Say, 1817; Melanoides tuberculatus (Müller, 1774; Physa cubensis Pfeiffer, 1839; Physa marmorata Guilding, 1828; Pomacea sp.; Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822; Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827 and Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823. Among the planorbid species B. tenagophila was the most frequent, occurring in all municipalities surveyed. The present study extends the distribution of B. straminea in the State of Rio de Janeiro and reports new records for A. nordestensis, B. schrammi, G. ticaga, H. davisi and the genera Burnupia and Ferrissia. An account about the current transmission areas of schistosomiasis mansoni in this Mesoregion is presented as well.

  18. Nova espécie de Hyla Laurenti do grupo de H. microcephala Cope (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae do nordeste do Brasil

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    Carvalho-e-Silva Sergio Potsch


    Full Text Available A new species, attributed to the group of Hyla microcephala Cope, 1886, is described. The new species is close to H. bipunctata Spix, 1824, and it is found in Quebrangulo, State of Alagoas, in Northeastern Brazil. The eggs and larvae are also described and some ecological information is added. The new species is compared with other species of the same group, and with species of closely related groups that occur in syntopy. With H. bipunctata, it shares the general form of the body, the yellow ventral coloration and the orange color of the thighs, but it is distinguished by the dorsal Paris-green coloration (beige in H. bipunctata, absence of a dorsal pattern, light red thighs, and ornamentation of the upper lip with two or three yellow stains instead of the characteristic aureolate of H. bipunctata. With H. elegans Wied-Neuwied, 1824, it also shares the general form of the body and the ventral and the thighs coloration, but it is distinguished by the smaller size, absence of a dorsal pattern and light red thighs. From H. oliveirai Bokermann, 1963, the new species is distinguished by the dorsal coloration, the ornamentation of the upper lip and larger size. From H. branneri Cochran, 1948, it differs by the presence of the stains in the upper lip (just one in H. branneri, absence of the dorsal pattern and green dorsal coloration, which is more intense. The tadpole of the new species is provided.

  19. Biologia reprodutiva e reprodução induzida de duas espécies de Characidae (Osteichthyes, Characiformes da bacia do São Francisco, Minas Gerais, Brasil Reproductive biology and induced breeding of two Characidae species (Osteichthyes, Characiformes from the São Francisco River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Yoshimi Sato


    Full Text Available Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Tetragonopterus chalceus Spix & Agassiz, 1829 são duas importantes espécies de peixes forrageiros da bacia do São Francisco. Espécimes destas duas espécies foram submetidos à indução da desova através de hipofisação, para observação de aspectos reprodutivos e obtenção de subsídios para definição de protocolo de reprodução artificial. Machos e fêmeas receberam dose única de extrato bruto de hipófise de carpa comum (6 mg/kg de peixe. A extrusão de ovócitos foi realizada cerca de 12,8 e 11 h após a aplicação da injeção de hipófise, respectivamente para A. bimaculatus e T. chalceus, com a temperatura da água a 26ºC. Mais de 70% das fêmeas das duas espécies responderam positivamente ao tratamento e as taxas médias de fertilização dos ovos foram acima de 70%. Os ovócitos de A. bimaculatus e T. chalceus são esféricos, opacos, demersais, levemente adesivos, de coloração amarela ou parda, e contendo em média respectivamente 4774 e 2563 ovos por grama de ova. O desenvolvimento embrionário nas duas espécies foi rápido, com duração de menos de um dia, estando a temperatura da água entre 24 e 25ºC.Astyanax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Tetragonopterus chalceus Spix & Agassiz, 1829 are two important foraging species occurring at the São Francisco River basin. Specimens from both species were submitted to spawning induction through hypophysation, to study some reproductive features and to obtain subsidiary information for the definition of the artificial reproduction protocol. Males and females were treated with a single dose of crude carp pituitary extract (6 mg/kg. In water at 26ºC, the extrusion of the oocytes was made 12,8 and 11 hours after the hypophisis injection, for A. bimaculatus and T. chalceus respectively. More than 70% of the females of both species showed a positive response to the treatment and mean egg fertilization rates were above 70%. The eggs of A

  20. Estrutura de comunidade da quiropterofauna (Mammalia, Chiroptera do Parque Estadual de Campinhos, Paraná, Brasil Community structure of chiropterofauna (Mammalia, Chiroptera of Campinhos State Park, Paraná, Brazil

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    Ives S. Arnone


    Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta informações sobre a quiropterofauna do Parque Estadual de Campinhos (PEC (25º02’S, 49º05’W, 890 m altitude, Paraná. Esta Unidade de Conservação possui 336,97 ha. Seu maior atrativo turístico são as cavernas Jesuítas/Fada. O PEC situa-se a 63 km ao norte de Curitiba. A vegetação é marcada por diferentes estágios sucessionais da Floresta Ombrófila Mista. Doze saídas mensais foram realizadas entre setembro de 2003 e agosto de 2004, utilizando-se 10 redes-de-neblina. Nesse período, 423 morcegos foram capturados, dos quais 274 foram Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (64,8% e 50 foram Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (11,8% ambos representando 76,6% da amostragem. Além dessas espécies, outras 12 foram identificadas como Anoura caudifer (E. Geoffroy, 1818; Anoura geoffroyi Gray, 1838; Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758; Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856; Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823; Eptesicus furinalis (d’Orbigny, 1847; Eptesicus taddeii (Miranda etal., 2006; Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766; Lasiurus blossevillii (Lesson & Garnot, 1826; Mimon bennettii (Gray, 1838; Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843 e Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. Algumas das espécies consideradas vulneráveis no Estado do Paraná como C. auritus, D. ecaudatae M. bennettii foram capturadas nas grutas.This study presents information about a survey of bats made in Campinhos State Park (PEC (25º02’S, 49º05’W, 890 m altitude, Paraná, Brazil. This Conservation Unit encompasses 336.97 ha. The main tourist attractions are the caves known as Jesuítas/Fada. PEC is located at 63 km north of Curitiba. Different stages of Araucaria Pine Forest characterize the park vegetation. Twelve field trips had been carried monthly from September 2003 to August 2004 using 10 mist nets. In this period, 423 bats were captured, 274 Desmodus rotundus (E. Geoffroy, 1810 (64.8% and 50 Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821 (11.8%, both representing 76


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    Oriana Aparecida FÁVERO


    Full Text Available Visando contribuir para o Plano de Gestão (Manejo da Floresta Nacional de Ipanema (FLONA, o presente trabalho objetivou espacializar sua vegetação natural potencial e realizar o mapeamento da vegetação e usos atuais das terras, oferecendo subsídios básicos para seu planejamento ambiental. Para tanto, foi elaborado um croqui, espacializando a vegetação potencial da FLONA, utilizando: as descrições da paisagem de viagens de naturalistas (Saint-Hilaire, Spix e Martius ao Brasil, no século XIX; estudos mais recentes sobre a vegetação da FLONA e a caracterização edáfica da área apresentada pela Carta de Solos da Fazenda Ipanema (escala 1:10.000. Com base na interpretação de fotos aéreas (escala 1:25.000 – Terrafoto, 1972 e verificações de campo, organizou-se o mapa de Vegetação e Usos Atuais das Terras (na escala 1:35.000. Considerando-se os conceitos de clímax climático e clímaces edáficos concluiuse que a vegetação potencial da FLONA seria de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual com manchas das diversas fisionomias de cerrado, limitadas em seu desenvolvimento pela ação do fogo, que no passado teria causas naturais. The potential natural vegetation and current land use mapping of Ipanema National Forest, Iperó/SP: conservation and environmental management Abstract Aiming at contributing to the management plan of the Ipanema National Forest, the present research set out to make a map of the potential natural vegetation and land current usage, offering basic aid to environmental planning. Moreover, a sketch-map was prepared, the potential FLONA vegetation, by means of: details of naturalist’s trekking routes (Saint- Hilaire, Spix and Martius in Brazil, in the nineteenth century; more recent studies of the FLONA vegetation; and the edaphic characterization of the area presented by the Soil Chart of Ipanema Farm (scale 1:10.000. Data were collected based on the interpretation of aerial photos (scale 1:25.000 – Terrafoto

  2. On Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae Sobre Pomacea sordida (Swaison, 1823 (Prosobranchia, Ampullariidae

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    Silvana Carvalho Thiengo


    Full Text Available A description of Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823 collected in Caxias and Nova Iguaçu, state of Rio de Janeiro, is presented. The shell is globose, heavy, whith greenish or horn-colored periostracum and dark spinal bands; apex subelevated, 4-5 moderately shoudered whorls, increasing rather rapidly and separated by deep suture. Aperture large, moderately round, yellowish or violaceous; lip thick and sometimes dark brown; umbilicus large and deep; operculum corneous and heavy, entirely closing the aperture. Ratios: shell width/shell length = 0.81-0.91 (mean 0.86; aperture length/shell length = 0.66-0.75 (mean 0.70. Testis, spermiduct and penis pouch as in Pomacea lineata (Spix, 1827. Seminal vesicle whitish and bean-shaped. Prostate cylindric and narrow, cream in coloar as the testis. Penis whiplike whith a closed circular spermiduct. Penial sheath elongated and tapered, with its distal tip turned to the right; outer basal gland situated on the left; inner median gland rounded; apical gland elongated and wrinkled. Ovary composed of branched whitish tubules lying superficially on the digestive gland; oviduct and seminal receptacle as in P. lineata; albumen gland yellowish - orange. Vestigial male copulatory apparatus (penis and its sheath present in all females examined.Nesse trabalho é apresentada a descrição de Pomacea sordida (Swainson, 1823, coletada em Caxias e Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Concha globosa, espessa, com perióstraco esverdeado ou castanho e com faixas espirais escuras; ápice pouco elevado, 4-5 giros moderadamente arredondados, crescendo relativamente rápido, separados por suturas profundas. Abertura grande, moderadamente arredondada, amarelada ou violácea; lábio espesso e algumas vezes marrom escuro; umbílico grande e profundo; opérculo córneo e espesso, fechando completamente a abertura. Razões: largura da concha/comprimento da concha=0.81-0.91 (média 0.86; comprimento da abertura/comprimento da concha=0

  3. Artisanal fisheries in a Brazilian hypereutrophic reservoir: Barra Bonita reservoir, middle Tietê river

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    JLC. Novaes

    Full Text Available This study examines the qualitative and quantitative aspects of fishery landings at the hypereutrophic Barra Bonita reservoir, Brazil. Data were collected each month (July/2004-June/2006 at three localities and the reported catch, fishing effort and fishing techniques were recorded from 745 landings, comprising a total fish catch of 86,691.9 kg. The most caught species were exotic tilapias, especially the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L., which represented 82.5% of the total biomass. The reservoir's fishery productivity was 11.1 kg/ha-1/day-1 with a Catch Per Unit Effort of 62.4 kg/fisher-1/day-1. Five fishing techniques were identified: cast net, gill net, trawl net, beating gill net, and beating gill net + gill net. The analysis of DCA related the active strategies for the tilapia catch, to the passive strategies for the Pimelodus maculatus (Lacepède and Triportheus angulatus catches (Spix & Agassiz, and the mixed strategies for the tilapia, catfish and Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes catches. ANCOVA results were significant for all the variables analysed (season, fishing location and fishing technique. The results showed that fishing for "corvina" Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, predominant in the 1990s, had been replaced by fishing focused on the Nile tilapia. This substitution appears to be due to the increasing levels of eutrophication in the reservoir, combined with changes in fishing techniques. The pattern of the fisheries in Barra Bonita Reservoir follow those in other eutrophic Brazilian reservoirs, with catches of the exotic Nile tilapia predominating.

  4. Redescription of Temnocephala iheringi (Platyhelminthes: Temnocephalida based on specimens from Pomacea canaliculata (Mollusca: Ampullariidae of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: the possible type host and type locality

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    Samantha A. Seixas


    Full Text Available The original description of Temnocephala iheringi Haswell, 1893 was based on specimens collected by Hermann von Ihering from undetermined ampullariid apple snails, which at that time were identified as Ampullaria sp., and sent to William H. Haswell, with the type locality simply indicated as Brazil. The type specimens studied by Haswell were not found in the scientific collections of Brazil, Europe or Australia, and should be considered lost. In 1941, Pereira & Cuocolo collected specimens from apple snails, identified as Pomacea lineata (Spix in Wagner, 1827, at two localities (Guaicurús and Salobra in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, central Brazil. These specimens could not be located either and should, thus, be considered lost as well. Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck, 1822, the main host of T. iheringi in southern Brazil, is known to have a geographical distribution that reaches Uruguay and 400 km beyond the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Three hundred and one mollusks were collected from 1999 to 2007. Temnocephalans found in the pallial cavity presented a greenish body pigmentation (adults and lacked eye pigment of any color, including the red-eye pigment, typical of Neotropical species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849; straight cirrus, with a thick band at base of the introvert' swelling; and a single, circular, asymmetric vaginal sphincter, wider in diameter in the posterior portion. As the species occurs concurrently with two other species, at least in P. canaliculata from Rio Grande do Sul, the eggs of T. iheringi could not be reliably distinguished. A redescription of the species is provided. A comparison of data from the present work with those of earlier papers published on T. iheringi from Argentina showed that the Argentinean specimens had the smallest measurements.

  5. Living in a caatinga-rocky field transitional habitat: ecological aspects of the whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae in northeastern Brazil

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    Vanderlaine A Menezes


    Full Text Available The ecology of the active forager lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 was studied to analyze food habits, thermal ecology and habitat use, in the Morro do Chapéu municipality (11º29'S, 41º07'W, state of Bahia, Brazil. Lizards (N = 34 were collected with rubber bands or with an air rifle and, for each individual, we recorded cloacal temperature (Tc, air temperature (Ta (1 cm above the substrate and substrate temperature (Ts (to nearest 0.2ºC. We registered the microhabitat used by each animal at the moment of first sight and measured its morphological variables (nearest 0.1 mm. In the laboratory, we registered the number of items of each prey category to the taxonomic level of Order, its dimensions and frequencies. Data showed that, numerically, the category most consumed was Isoptera (84.4%. Volumetrically, the diet was composed predominantly by Orthoptera (27.5% and Isoptera (21.5%. Prey items that occur aggregated in the environment (termites were important in the diet of C. ocellifer, a characteristic of active foragers. Males and females did not differ in the types of prey consumed. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a mean Tc in activity of 37.6 ± 1.6ºC and the relationship between Tc and ambient temperatures (Ts and Ta was positive and significant (F2,28 = 4.814; R² = 0.256; p < 0.05. Most lizards were first sighted on leaf litter inside shrubs (45.5% and on leaf litter at shrub edge (42.4%. Cnemidophorus ocellifer had a relatively high mean Tc during activity, with Ts explaining most of the variation in lizard Tc.

  6. Potenciais efeitos das mudanças climáticas futuras sobre a distribuiçãode um anuro da Caatinga Rhinella granulosa (Anura, Bufonidae

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    Hauanny Rodrigues Oliveira


    Full Text Available Neste estudo, usamos dois tipos de modelagem de distribuição de espécies (correlativo e mecanístico, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito das mudanças climáticas sob a distribuição geográfica de Rhinella granulosa (Spix, 1824, espécie inserida principalmente no bioma Caatinga. Avaliamos a predição, levantada por outros autores, de que espécies de anfíbios distribuídos em climas quentes terão suas distribuições espaciais restringidas por aumento da temperatura considerando cenários futuros. Na abordagem correlativa, os resultados mostraram que as distribuições espaciais geradas pelo modelo de distância Euclidiana foram mais conservativas, ou seja, as áreas que apresentaram menor distância do nicho ótimo se restringiram às áreas de distribuição real da espécie (Caatinga e às pequenas regiões que abrangem o bioma Cerrado. A abordagem mecanística apresentou resultados menos conservativos, onde o habitat indicado como adequado para R. granulosa está contido em grande parte da América do Sul, formando uma extensa área contínua. No geral, verificou-se que R. granulosa não sofrerá forte influência climática sobre sua distribuição geográfica no futuro, pelo menos até 2080, provavelmente por apresentar uma fisiologia extremamente tolerante às altas temperaturas e por possuir adaptações para suportar clima quente e seco.

  7. Factors determining the structure of fish assemblages in an Amazonian river near to oil and gas exploration areas in the Amazon basin (Brazil: establishing the baseline for environmental evaluation

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    Igor David Costa


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Determining the significance of biotic and abiotic factors in the structuring of fish assemblages in freshwater environments is an important question in ecology, particularly in view of environmental changes caused by man. In this paper we sought to identify the factors responsible for the composition and abundance of fish species collected with gill nets in six locations near ports in forest clearance areas opened up for oil and natural gas exploration (Petrobras Pedro Moura Base in the Urucu River, during drought and flood cycles. In all, 923 individuals from 23 families and 82 species were collected, totalling a biomass of 182,244 g. The most abundant species during the flood season were Bryconops alburnoides (Kner, 1858 and Dianema urostriatum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912; in the drought season, the predominant species were Osteoglossum bicirrhosum (Cuvier, 1829 and Serrasalmus rhombeus (Linnaeus, 1766. The species with the greatest biomass during the flood season were Pellona castelnaeana (Valenciennes, 1847, S. rhombeus and Pellona flavipinis (Valenciennes, 1847. During the drought season, the predominant species was O. bicirrhosum. When both periods were analysed together, electrical conductivity, water transparency and dissolved oxygen were the most important factors. The species Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840, O. bicirrhosum, Chaetobranchus flavenscens Heckel, 1840, Geophagus proximus (Castelnau, 1855 were strongly related to high values of conductivity, pH and water current velocity during the drought season, as well as Serrasalmus altispinis Merckx, Jégu & Santos, 2000, Triportheus albus Cope, 1872, Triportheus angulatus (Spix & Agassiz, 1829 and Brycon melanopterus (Cope, 1872 that were associated with less depth and width in the drought season whereas P. castelnaeana, D. urostriatum, Rhytiodus argenteofuscus Kner, 1858 and Sorubim lima (Bloch & Schneider, 1801 were mainly associated with high transparency and

  8. Diel vertical migration of predators (planktivorous fish larvae and prey (zooplankton in a tropical lagoon

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    Marcos Marques Mendonça


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Based on the hypothesis that diel vertical migration (DVM is a mechanism of predator avoidance, the objective of the present study was to test for the occurrence of DVM in planktivorous fish larvae of Hypophthalmus edentatus (Spix, 1829 (Siluriformes, Pimelodidae and Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840 (Perciformes, Sciaenidae, and zooplankton (rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in an isolated tropical lagoon in the floodplain of the Upper Paraná River, Brazil (region of Parque Nacional de Ilha Grande. We investigated spatial overlap between predators (planktivorous fish larvae and prey (zooplankton, and tested which physical and chemical variables of the water are related to the DVM of the studied communities. We performed nocturnal (8:00 pm and 4:00 am and diurnal sampling (8:00 am and 4:00 pm in the limnetic region of the lagoon for six consecutive months, from October 2010 to March 2011, which comprises the reproductive period of the fish species analyzed. During the day the larvae tried to remain aggregated in the bottom of the lagoon, whereas at night they tried to disperse in the water column. Especially for cladocerans, the diel vertical migration is an important behavior to avoid predation larvae of H. edentatus and P. squamosissimus once decreased spatial overlap between secured and its potential predators, which corroborates the hypothesis that DVM is a mechanism of predator avoidance. Although significant correlations were observed between the abiotic factors and WMD of microcrustaceans at certain times of day, the effect of predation of fish larvae on zooplankton showed more important in this environment, because the small depth and isolation not allow great variation of abiotic factors seasonally and between strata the lagoon.

  9. Evaluación y valorización económica de la fauna silvestre en el río Algodón, Amazonía peruana

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    Rolando Aquino


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo informa sobre los hábitats, abundancia cuantitativa y valorización económica de la fauna silvestre que habitan en la cuenca del río Algodón. El estudio está basado en la diferenciación de hábitats, entrevistas a cazadores y censos por transecto. En 7 de los 10 tipos de hábitats diferenciados fueron realizados censos, donde ocurrieron en total 327 avistamientos directos de mamíferos, aves y reptiles. Entre los mamíferos, el pecarí labiado (Tayassu pecari Link y el choro (Lagothrix lagotricha Humboldt fueron los más abundantes con 9,8 individuos/km2, equivalente a 323,4 kg/km2 de biomasa, y 18,4 individuos/km2 equivalente a 202,4 kg/km2 de biomasa, respectivamente. En aves, la mayor densidad correspondió a la pucacunga (Penelope jacquacu Spix con 5,4 individuos/km2, equivalente a 6,9 kg/km2 de biomasa. Sin considerar las especies nocturnas y algunas diurnas, en el área de estudio se estiman alrededor de 31891 animales de caza entre mamíferos y aves, cuyo valor económico fue estimado en US$ 349374. De ellos, 3479 individuos tienen el valor de comercial y pertenecen a cuatro especies de ungulados y uno de aves, el resto tienen el valor de subsistencia.

  10. O que é melhor para manter a riqueza de espécies de morcegos (Mammalia, Chiroptera: um fragmento florestal grande ou vários fragmentos de pequeno tamanho?

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    Reis Nelio Roberto dos


    Full Text Available This study was carried out with the objective of evaluating if the size of forest fragments affects the diversity of bat species. In order to do that, seven fragments were studied in Londrina, Paraná: five small fragments, whose areas varied between 1 and 10 ha; a fragment which is considered medium-sized (Parque Municipal Arthur Thomas - 85,47 ha.; and a large fragment (Parque Estadual Mata dos Godoy - 680 ha.. Thirty three species were collected. Ten species were common to all three types of fragments: Chrotopterus auritus (Peters, 1856, Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758, Artibeus fimbriatus Gray, 1838, Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Platyrrhinus lineatus (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843, Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810, Vampyressa pusilla (Wagner, 1843, Eptesicus brasiliensis (Desmarest, 1819, and Myotis nigricans (Schinz, 1821. Eight species were only found in the large fragment: Noctilio albiventris Desmarest, 1818, Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766, Uroderma bilobatum Peters, 1866, Diaemus youngi (Jentink,1893, Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823, Eptesicus furinalis (d'Orbigny, 1847, Histiotus velatus (I. Geoffroy, 1824 and Myotis levis (I. Geoffroy, 1824. Five were only found in the small fragments: Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843, Chiroderma villosum Peters, 1860, Eptesicus sp. e Rogheessa tumida H. Allen, 1866. Chiroderma doriae, which is threatened by extinction, was captured in the large fragment and in one of the small fragments; M. ruber, also threatened by extinction, was captured in the medium-sized and large fragments. We believe that the major cause for the loss of organic diversity is not rational exploitation, but the destruction of habitats, a result of the expansion of irrational human activities.


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    Ramon Cleomar de Jesus Freitas


    Full Text Available Os naturalistas viajantes podem ser definidos como pessoas que durante os séculos XVIII e XIX dedicavam seu tempo ao estudo da história natural. Partindo deste pressuposto, o presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar as contribuições do naturalista alemão Carl Friederich Philipp von Martius para a flora arbórea do Cerrado. Martius veio ao Brasil no ano de 1817 acompanhado do zoólogo Johann Baptiste von Spix. Os dois cientistas passaram três anos viajando pelo Brasil e percorreram territórios dos futuros estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Bahia, Pernambuco, Piauí, Maranhão, Pará e Amazonas. Nesse contexto, Martius teve contato com várias fisionomias naturais presentes nos diversos ecossistemas brasileiros, percorreu e estudou territórios do Cerrado e suas contribuições foram importantes para a flora deste Bioma. O trabalho de Martius é diverso e de acordo com a APG III 161 espécies arbóreas foram descritas por ele ou contou com a sua colaboração, distribuídas em 39 famílias e 92 gêneros. Martius, ao longo de sua viagem, descreveu várias espécies arbóreas típicas do cerrado, a saber: Araticum (Annona crassiflora, Guatambu (Aspidosperma macrocarpon, A. tomentosum, Ingá (Inga edulis e Pau Terra (Qualea grandiflora, Q. multiflora, Q. parviflora, além de tantas outras ainda pouco conhecidas pela população, mas que do ponto de vista ecológico são extremamente importantes para o funcionamento dos ecossistemas.

  12. Snake assemblages of Marajó Island, Pará state, Brazil

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    Gerson Moreira Rodrigues


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We describe the diversity, natural history and structure of snake assemblages from Marajó Island, state of Pará, Brazil, after analyzing 439 specimens deposited in herpetological collections. We tested the hypothesis that snake assemblages from forest and open areas of Marajó Island are distinct with regard to their structure, composition and functional groups. To compare the snake composition of the forest and open areas of Marajó with other comparable assemblages in Brazil, Principal Coordinate Analysis and Clustering tests were performed. A total of 61 species of snakes was recorded for Marajó, with ten species cited for the first time for the study area (Atractus natans Hoogmoed & Prudente, 2003, A. schach (Boie, 1827, Dendrophidion dendrophis (Schlegel, 1837, Helicops hagmanni Roux, 1910, Hydrops martii (Wagler in Spix, 1824, Lygophis meridionalis (Schenkel, 1901, Erythrolamprus typhlus (Linnaeus, 1758, Philodryas argentea (Daudin, 1803, Siphlophis cervinus (Laurenti, 1768, and Thamnodynastes sp.. The composition and structure of snake assemblages between forested and open were different, with five functional groups of snakes in forest areas, and three groups in open areas, based on habit and habitat. In all, 19 species were exclusive to forest areas, 10 were exclusive to open areas and 26 species were recorded in both areas. Our results revealed greater richness for forested areas, probably due to greater habitat heterogeneity. The species composition for forested area in Marajó was similar to that found in other Amazonian assemblages, while that for open areas was more similar to the Pantanal region than other open area assemblages. The general structure of the snake assemblage of Marajó was dominated by anurophagous, terrestrial and diurnal species. Terrestrial, arboreal and semi-arboreal snakes showed a seasonal offspring production pattern, while the pattern for aquatic and semi-aquatic species was aseasonal. The

  13. The sustainability of subsistence hunting by Matsigenka native communities in Manu National Park, Peru. (United States)

    Ohl-Schacherer, Julia; Shepard, Glenn H; Kaplan, Hillard; Peres, Carlos A; Levi, Taal; Yu, Douglas W


    The presence of indigenous people in tropical parks has fueled a debate over whether people in parks are conservation allies or direct threats to biodiversity. A well-known example is the Matsigenka (or Machiguenga) population residing in Manu National Park in Peruvian Amazonia. Because the exploitation of wild meat (or bushmeat), especially large vertebrates, represents the most significant internal threat to biodiversity in Manu, we analyzed 1 year of participatory monitoring of game offtake in two Matsigenka native communities within Manu Park (102,397 consumer days and 2,089 prey items). We used the Robinson and Redford (1991) index to identify five prey species hunted at or above maximum sustainable yield within the approximately 150-km(2) core hunting zones of the two communities: woolly monkey (Lagothrix lagotricha), spider monkey (Ateles chamek), white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari), Razor-billed Currasow (Mitu tuberosa), and Spix's Guan (Penelope jacquacu). There was little or no evidence that any of these five species has become depleted, other than locally, despite a near doubling of the human population since 1988. Hunter-prey profiles have not changed since 1988, and there has been little change in per capita consumption rates or mean prey weights. The current offtake by the Matsigenka appears to be sustainable, apparently due to source-sink dynamics. Source-sink dynamics imply that even with continued human population growth within a settlement, offtake for each hunted species will eventually reach an asymptote. Thus, stabilizing the Matsigenka population around existing settlements should be a primary policy goal for Manu Park.

  14. The lumbosacral plexus of the red-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta leporina Linnaeus, 1758 (Rodentia: Caviidae

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    Gleidson Benevides de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The red-rumped agouti is a small-sized wild rodent, belonging to the Dasyproctidae family, with great zootechnical potential, and it adapts well to captivity. In order to contribute to the species biology, this study describes the origin of the nerves forming the lumbosacral plexus. Twelve animals (six males and six females were used, from previous experiments. The animals were fixed in a 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution and eviscerated after 72 hours. Then, the major and minor psoas muscles were retracted, exposing the nerves forming the plexus. Cotton soaked with 20-volume hydrogen peroxide was placed on these nerves, remaining for 12 hours straight for bleaching and subsequent dissection. The topographical relations of the lumbosacral plexus were grouped into tables and arranged in terms of simple percentage. In 7 cases (58.34%, the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti stemmed from the ventral roots of the last 4 lumbar nerves and the first 3 sacral nerves (Type I – L4-S3, in 4 animals (33.33% it stemmed from L5-S3 (Type II, and in 1 case (8.33% it stemmed from L5-S4 (Type III. The nerves participating of the lumbosacral plexus in the red-rumped agouti were: lateral femoral cutaneous, genitofemoral, femoral, obturator, sciatic, cranial gluteal, caudal gluteal, and pudendal nerve. The origin of the lumbosacral plexus and the spinal nerves making up this plexus in red-rumped agoutis were similar to that described in other rodents, such as rock cavy, lowland paca and spix's yellow-toothed cavy.

  15. Avaliação de risco e plasticidade comportamental limitada em girinos de Rhinella ornata (Anura, Bufonidae

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    Renan N. Costa


    Full Text Available Os girinos de anuros são elementos importantes das redes tróficas de ambientes aquáticos, sendo recurso alimentar de diversos tipos de predadores. Desta maneira, os girinos apresentam uma grande variedade de mecanismos de defesa que podem ser morfológicos, comportamentais e/ou fisiológicos. A impalatabilidade, produzida pelo acúmulo de substâncias tóxicas na pele, é um mecanismo comum em muitas linhagens de anfíbios. No entanto, alguns predadores não são afetados por estas substâncias tóxicas, o que pode favorecer o desenvolvimento de mecanismos alternativos de defesa contra predação. Neste contexto, nosso objetivo foi avaliar se girinos impalatáveis de Rhinella ornata (Spix, 1824, podem apresentar mecanismos comportamentais de defesa contra predação na presença de predadores que não são afetados pelas substâncias tóxicas em sua pele. Para testar nossa hipótese, utilizamos dois tipos de predadores aquáticos: um heteróptero aquático do gênero Belostoma e uma larva de libélula do gênero Aeshna. Os girinos foram colocados em aquários com pistas visuais e químicas dos predadores (experimento de risco direto, somente pistas químicas (experimento de risco indireto e ausência completa de sinais de predadores (controle. Em ambos os casos, o comportamento de natação foi observado durante 5 minutos. Durante os experimentos não houve alteração no comportamento de natação dos girinos.

  16. Temporal dynamics of a fish community in the lower portion of a tidal creek, Pando sub-estuarine system, Uruguay

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    Rodrigo Gurdek

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Estuaries are highly dynamic ecosystems subjected to variability of their fish communities over different time scales. The nearshore fish community of the lower Pando estuary, a temperate sub-system of the Río de la Plata estuary, was sampled from May 2002 to June 2003. A total of 2,165 fishes, represented by 16 species were caught by seine netting. Captures were dominated by juveniles (>90%, as well as by the sciaenid Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (82.8%. The fish community showed high seasonal variability, with the greatest diversity and biomass in summer and spring and the highest species richness during summer. Lowest values of all community parameters occurred in winter and autumn, seasons that presented the highest similarity in fish composition. Number of species was correlated with water temperature and salinity. The ichthyofaunal composition showed significant diel differences in summer and spring. Diel changes were observed in the density of M. furnieri and Odontesthes argentinensis (Valenciennes, 1835, occurring mainly during the day, and of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836, Parapimelodus valenciennis (Lütken, 1874 and Brevoortia aurea (Spix & Agassiz, 1829, caught mostly during the night. Temporal variability was attributed to environmental fluctuations, life cycle of species as well as to feeding patterns and small-scale displacements. Presented findings in the Pando sub-estuary denote similar juvenile use and seasonal patterns to those found in estuaries. Further studies in the nursery function and juvenile dynamics over the year are recommended in order to better understand the ecological role of sub-estuaries.

  17. Comparative cytogenetics of Physalaemus albifrons and Physalaemus cuvieri species groups (Anura, Leptodactylidae) (United States)

    Vittorazzi, Stenio Eder; Quinderé*, Yeda Rumi Serra Douglas; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei Maria; Tomatis, Cristian; Baldo, Diego; Lima, Janaina Reis Ferreira; Ferro, Juan Martín; Lima, Jucivaldo Dias; Lourenço, Luciana Bolsoni


    Abstract Recently, Physalaemus albifrons (Spix, 1824) was relocated from the Physalaemus cuvieri group to the same group as Physalaemus biligonigerus (Cope, 1861), Physalaemus marmoratus (Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862) and Physalaemus santafecinus Barrio, 1965. To contribute to the analysis of this proposition, we studied the karyotypes of Physalaemus albifrons, Physalaemus santafecinus and three species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus was found to be very similar to those of Physalaemus biligonigerus and Physalaemus marmoratus, which were previously described. A remarkable characteristic that these three species share is a conspicuous C-band that extends from the pericentromeric region almost to the telomere in the short arm of chromosome 3. This characteristic is not present in the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype and could be a synapomorphy of Physalaemus biligonigerus, Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus santafecinus. The karyotype of Physalaemus santafecinus is also similar to those of Physalaemus marmoratus and Physalaemus biligonigerus owing to the presence of several terminal C-bands and the distal localization of the NOR in a small metacentric chromosome. In contrast, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has no terminal C-bands and its NOR is located interstitially in the long arm of submetacentric chromosome 8. The NOR-bearing chromosome of Physalaemus albifrons very closely resembles those found in Physalaemus albonotatus (Steindachner, 1864), Physalaemus cuqui Lobo, 1993 and some populations of Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826. Additionally, the Physalaemus albifrons karyotype has an interstitial C-band in chromosome 5 that has been exclusively observed in species of the Physalaemus cuvieri group. Therefore, we were not able to identify any chromosomal feature that supports the reallocation of Physalaemus albifrons. PMID:25147623

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    Full Text Available Vitamin C is essential for fish diets because many species cannot syntethize it. This vitamin is needed for bone and cartilage formation. Moreover, it acts as antioxidant and improve the immunological system. The present work investigated the effects of vitamin C diet supplementation to spotted sorubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans fingerlings by frequency of bone and cartilage deformation. Ascorbyl poliphosphate (AP was used as source of vitamin C in the diets for spotted sorubim fingerlings during three months. Six diets were formulated: one diet control (0 mg/kg of vitamin C and 500, 1,000, 1,500, 2,000 and 2,500 mg AP/kg diets. Fishes fed without vitamin C supplementation presented bone deformation in head and jaws, and fin fragilities. Thus, 500 mg AP/kg diet was enough to prevent deformation and the lack of vitamin C supplementation worsening the development of fingerlings.A vitamina C é essencial para dietas de peixe porque muitas espécies não conseguem sintetizá-la. Esta vitamina é necessária par a formação de cartilagem e matriz óssea. Além disso, age como antioxidante e melhora as resposta do sistema imunológico. O presente trabalho investigou os efeitos da suplementação de vitamina C em dietas para alevinos de pintado (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans pela incidência de deformidades na estrutura óssea e cartilaginosa. O ascorbil polifosfato (AP foi utilizado como fonte de vitamina C em dietas para alevinos de pintado durante o período de três meses. Seis dietas foram formuladas: uma dieta controle (0 mg de vitamina C / kg e cinco dietas 500, 1.000, 1.500, 2.000 e 2.500 mg de AP / kg. Os peixes alimentados sem suplementação de vitamina C apresentaram deformidades óssea na cabeça e mandíbula e fragilidade de nadadeiras. Assim, a dieta de 500 mg de AP/kg foi suficiente para prevenir a ocorrência de deformidades, e a ausência desta vitamina prejudica o desenvolvimento ósseo de juvenis de pintados.

  19. Obtención de secuencias microsatelitales especie especificas para Plagioscion magdalenae (Pisces:Sciaenidae

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    Natalia Juliana Bayona-Vásquez


    en la parte baja de la cuenca del río Magdalena y en la cuenca del río San Jorge, Colombia, en donde cada vez su comercialización cobra fuerza debido al desplazamiento y disminución en los volúmenes de captura de otras especies como el bagre rayado y bocachico. Lo cual ha llevado a la comúnmente llamada pacora a catalogarse en estado de vulnerabilidad en las cuencas colombianas. Lo anterior, hace necesario la generación de información que sirva de sustento a programas de conservación y uso sostenible de la especie. Una primera aproximación a las poblaciones de P. magdalenae puede ser hecha a través de marcadores moleculares microsatelitales, útiles en trabajos de genética de poblaciones, conservación y manejo de recursos biológicos. Sin embargo, la principal dificultad de los microsatélites es que deben ser aislados de novo para aquellas especies que van a ser evaluadas por primera vez, lo que lleva a la necesidad de obtener primers para la especie. En este trabajo, inicialmente se obtuvo un ADN de buena calidad útil para amplificaciones a partir de muestras de músculo colectadas en cuatro puntos de la cuenca del río San Jorge; posteriormente, se aislaron primers microsatelitales especie-específicos para P. magdalenae mediante amplificación cruzada con primers de otras especies de peces lejanas, entre las cuales se encuentra: Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodella chagressi, Prochilodus argenteus y Prochilodus costatus. Para lo anterior, fue necesario modificar y estandarizar protocolos de amplificación mediante cambios en temperatura de alineamiento y concentración de reactivos; y por último se realizó el secuenciamiento de regiones flanqueantes y motivos de repetición en aquellos sistemas que presentaron resultados positivos, de esta forma, se diseñaron primers de regiones microsatélite para la especie. De los trece sistemas evaluados, de las cuatro especies, se obtuvo amplificación positiva de seis. Por medio de la t

  20. Obtención de secuencias microsatelitales especie especificas para Plagioscion magdalenae (Pisces:Sciaenidae

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    Bayona-Vásquez Natalia Juliana


    Full Text Available Plagioscion magdalenae pertenece a los sciaenidae, ésta familia es ampliamente reconocida por ser un recurso
    pesquero importante a nivel mundial, principalmente de especies marinas o estuarinas. P. magdalenae es una
    especie de importancia económica, dada su frecuencia de captura y comestibilidad de su carne, que se encuentra
    en la parte baja de la cuenca del río Magdalena y en la cuenca del río San Jorge, Colombia, en donde cada vez su comercialización cobra fuerza debido al desplazamiento y disminución en los volúmenes de captura de otras especies como el bagre rayado y bocachico. Lo cual ha llevado a la comúnmente llamada pacora a catalogarse en estado de vulnerabilidad en las cuencas colombianas. Lo anterior, hace necesario la generación de información que sirva de sustento a programas de conservación y uso sostenible de la especie. Una primera aproximación a las poblaciones de P. magdalenae puede ser hecha a través de marcadores moleculares microsatelitales, útiles en trabajos de genética de poblaciones, conservación y manejo de recursos biológicos. Sin embargo, la principal dificultad de los microsatélites es que deben ser aislados de novo para aquellas especies que van a ser evaluadas por primera vez, lo que lleva a la necesidad de obtener primers para la especie. En este trabajo, inicialmente se obtuvo un ADN de buena calidad útil para amplificaciones a partir de muestras de músculo colectadas en cuatro puntos de la cuenca del río San Jorge; posteriormente, se aislaron primers microsatelitales especie-específicos para P. magdalenae mediante amplificación cruzada con primers de otras especies de peces lejanas, entre las cuales se encuentra: Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodella chagressi, Prochilodus argenteus y Prochilodus costatus. Para lo anterior, fue necesario modificar y estandarizar protocolos de amplificación mediante cambios en temperatura de alineamiento y concentración de reactivos; y

  1. Natureza ou Deus: afinidades panteístas entre Goethe e o "brasileiro" Martius Nature or God: pantheistic affinities between Goethe and Martius, "the Brazilian"

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    Marcus V. Mazzari


    Full Text Available Na segunda parte do romance As afinidades eletivas, a jovem Ottilie registra em seu diário as seguintes palavras: "Digno de veneração é apenas o naturalista que sabe descrever e expor o mais estranho, o mais insólito, com sua cor local, com todo o seu entorno e sempre em seu elemento mais próprio. Como eu gostaria de ver-me um dia na presença de Humboldt, ouvindo suas narrações!". A passagem revela, ao lado da admiração de Goethe por Humboldt, o seu interesse pelas ciências naturais, o qual experimenta significativa intensificação em setembro de 1824, quando estabelece contato pessoal com o botânico Carl F. P. von Martius. Em seu jovem interlocutor Goethe logo reconhece as qualidades de naturalista que no romance são atribuídas a Humboldt. Passa então a acompanhar com máximo interesse as publicações em que Martius elabora as pesquisas, observações e experiências realizadas ao longo dos três anos e meio em que percorreu, junto com o zoólogo Spix, mais de dez mil quilômetros de território brasileiro. Nasce assim um intercâmbio científico e cultural dos mais fecundos, o qual se enraíza especialmente nas concepções panteístas de que partilhavam o velho poeta de Weimar e o jovem botânico. Além de enfocar alguns aspectos das viagens brasileiras de Martius, este ensaio tem por objetivo expor a sua recepção por Goethe e discutir ainda eventuais influxos sobre sua produção literária. A reelaboração, em 1825, de uma das canções que Goethe, 43 anos antes, havia redigido com o subtítulo Brasilianisch deve-se seguramente a esse intercâmbio. Pretende-se discutir também a hipótese de que determinados textos e concepções de Martius tenham deixado vestígios em passagens da segunda parte do Fausto.In the second part of the novel Elective Affinities, young Ottilie registered the following words in her diary: "The only inquirers into nature whom we care to respect, are such as know how to describe and to represent

  2. Densidade, tamanho populacional e conservação de primatas em fragmento de Mata Atlântica no sul do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    Maurício Djalles Costa


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo estimar a densidade e o tamanho populacional de quatro espécies de primatas [Alouatta clamitans Cabrera, 1940; Callicebus nigrifrons (Spix, 1823; Callithrix aurita (É. Geoffroy, 1812; Cebus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809] que ocorrem em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica de aproximadamente 350 ha, localizado no município de Pouso Alegre, estado de Minas Gerais e reunir subsídios para a conservação dessas espécies na região. O levantamento populacional foi realizado através do método de amostragem de distâncias em transecções lineares (Distance Sampling. Os dados foram coletados entre os meses de abril e agosto de 2008 a partir de quatro transecções implantadas na área de estudo. Os cálculos de densidade e tamanho populacional foram realizados empregando-se o programa Distance 5.0. As densidades foram estimadas em 23,83 ± 9,78 ind./km² para Callicebus nigrifrons, 14,76 ± 5,92 ind./km² para Callithrix aurita e 7,71 ± 2,13 ind./km² para Cebus nigritus. O tamanho populacional foi estimado em 83,0 ± 34,0 indivíduos para C. nigrifrons, 52,0 ± 20,8 indivíduos para Callithrix aurita e 27,0 ± 7,4 indivíduos para Cebus nigritus. Com relação ao bugio (A. guariba clamitans, constatou-se que apenas um grupo com seis indivíduos sobrevive na área. Conclui-se que, no caso de continuarem isoladas, essas populações têm poucas chances de sobrevivência no futuro frente aos riscos de eventos estocásticos. A criação de corredores ecológicos conectando a área de estudo aos outros fragmentos em seu entorno e a translocação de indivíduos de outras áreas da Mata Atlântica para esta região poderão constituir alternativas para garantir a viabilidade dessas populações em longo prazo. Para tanto, é necessário que se consolide uma política pública no município de Pouso Alegre voltada à criação, ampliação e gestão de Unidades de Conservação, e ao incentivo para a adoção de pr

  3. Anurofauna de um remanescente alterado de floresta estacional semidecidual as margens do Rio Paranapanema

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    Edi M. Nazaretti


    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o declínio evidente de populações de anfíbios causadas pela alteração do hábitat, muitas áreas que estão inseridas em hotspots do Brasil ainda precisam ser estudadas, a fim de aumentar o conhecimento sobre a anurofauna e fornecer melhores perspectivas de conservação. Um dos ecossistemas criticamente ameaçados é a Floresta Estacional Semidecidual (FES, cuja extensão foi reduzida a aproximadamente 7% da cobertura original, dispersos em pequenos fragmentos. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a anurofauna de uma localidade inserida em paisagem de FES na região da Bacia Hidrográfica do Rio Paranapanema, considerada uma lacuna geográfica no conhecimento de anfíbios. Além disso, foi avaliada a eficiência de métodos de amostragem de anuros e verificada a similaridade com taxocenoses inseridas em FES e/ou Cerrado de diferentes regiões da mesma bacia hidrográfica. O estudo foi conduzido nas margens do Rio Paranapanema, divisa dos estados de São Paulo e Paraná. Foram realizadas nove fases de campo trimestrais, entre novembro de 2005 a novembro de 2007 que resultou em um esforço de 45 dias de amostragem. Foram registradas 25 espécies de anfíbios anuros distribuídas em seis famílias. Pelo método de amostragem em sítio de reprodução obteve-se o maior registro de espécies (88,5%. O método de armadilhas de interceptação e queda também foi eficiente, proporcionando o registro de cerca de 45% das espécies, além de possibilitar o registro exclusivo de Physalaemus nattereri (Steindachner, 1863 eRhinella ornata (Spix, 1824. Além disso, 90% das espécies terrícolas registradas, que são tipicamente categorizadas como espécies de área aberta, foram registradas no interior dos remanescentes florestais por este método. Através da comparação com as outras taxocenoses, verificou-se uma alta dissimilaridade de espécies mesmo em áreas mais próximas e que a composição de espécies entre as localidades n

  4. Estudos sobre a Esquistosomose em Pernambuco, Brasil

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    Aggeu Magalhães


    Full Text Available Os autores referem os resultados dos estudos sobre esquistosomose realisados, em Pernambuco, de Novembro de 1938 a Dezembro de 1939. Não se extendem em discussão, nem comentarios, tampouco, relacionam suas verificações com o que já foi relatado sobre o assunto em trabalhos nacionais e estrangeiros, pelo fato de que, não se trata de um resultado definitivo e sim de atividades que irão proseguir. Os estudos sistematicos em torno da endemia esquistosomica foram executados em duas localidades diversas pela população e pela situação geografica e ecologica. Pontezinha é uma povoação de 1200 habitantes localizada proximo a um conjunto de charcos e lagõas de agua dôce onde pululam caramujos do tipo olivaceus de Spix, e apresenta uma taxa de infestação de 21,4% para individuos do sexo masculino, e de 14,7% para os do sexo feminino. A distribuição por grupos de idade mostra que a incidencia cresce até o grupo de 16 a 20 anos de idade, quando atinge a percentagem de 37,8%, para decrescer em seguida. Em Vitoria a incidencia foi maior nos indivíduos do sexo feminino, atingindo a taxa de 41,4%, dando o sexo masculino a taxa de 36,9%. Por idade a percentagem maxima é atingida pelo grupo de 11 a 15 anos. Vitoria é uma cidade de 1500 habitantes, construida á margem do rio Tapacurá, onde se encontram numerosos caramujos do tipo centimetralis Lutz. A divergencia de incidencia corre por conta dos habitos da população e pela utilização que ela faz do rio, sendo maior em Vitoria porque a proximidade do rio facilita o uso de suas aguas para banho e serviços domesticos, condicionando este ultimo fato, a maior infestação das mulheres. O estudo da frequencia da infestação dos caramujos por cercarias de diversos trematodios, permite suspeitar uma relação inversa entre a taxa de infestação e o diametro maximo atingido pelos caramujos, parecendo este fato confirmar os trabalhos de Vianna Martins sobre a identidade dos hospedeiros