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Sample records for pseudocereals amaranth quinoa

  1. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) provide dietary fibres high in pectic substances and xyloglucans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Lisa M; Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Reuhs, Bradley L; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2015-01-15

    Dietary fibre of quinoa and amaranth was analysed for its insoluble and soluble fibre content, composition, and structure. Total dietary fibre content was 10% for quinoa and 11% for amaranth. For both pseudocereals, 78% of its dietary fibre was insoluble. Insoluble fibre (IDF) from quinoa and amaranth was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, galactose, xylose and glucose. Linkage analysis indicated that IDF was composed of homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan-I with arabinan side-chains (∼55-60%), as well as highly branched xyloglucans (∼30%) and cellulose. For both pseudocereals, 22% of total dietary fibre was soluble; a higher proportion than that found in wheat and maize (∼15%). The soluble fibre (SDF) was composed of glucose, galacturonic acid and arabinose; for amaranth, xylose was also a major constituent. Xyloglucans made up ∼40-60% of the SDF and arabinose-rich pectic polysaccharides represented ∼34-55%. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Evaluation of nutritional compounds in new amaranth and quinoa cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio Vicentin Palombini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fatty acid quantification, proximate and amino acid compositions, antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds, vitamin E, and mineral contents of new amaranth (BRS Alegria and quinoa (BRS Piabiru cultivars which were produced in order to adapt these pseudocereals to the climatic conditions of central-western Brazil. They showed superior levels of protein and total lipids in comparison to their native counterparts. The lipid profile of the amaranth BRS Alegria was revealed to be better than those of other native cultivars. Quinoa BRS Piabiru presented a higher antioxidant capacity and phenolic content than the studied amaranth cultivar, but lower contents of tocopherols. All of the obtained results confirm that these new grains possess an overall amount of nutritional compounds that is better than those reported for many native counterparts of the studied samples. The employed analytical methods in this work contributed to a better understanding of the quinoa BRS Piabiru and amaranth BRS Alegria chemical compositions. Therefore, the diversity and quantity of all of the studied compounds in the samples denote the considerable importance of these grains for food science research area.

  3. Phytochemicals in quinoa and amaranth grains and their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and potential health beneficial effects: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Tsao, Rong

    2017-07-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) are pseudocereal grains rich in both macronutrients and micronutrients including vitamins and minerals. The proteins are particularly of high nutritional quality due to the outstanding balance of essential amino acids. However, recent research strongly suggests that nonessential nutrients such as phytochemicals of quinoa and amaranth may also have potential health beneficial effects. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of quinoa and amaranth seeds, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of hydrophilic (e.g. phenolics, betacyanins) and lipophilic (e.g. fatty acids, tocopherols, and carotenoids) nutrients, and how these contribute to the potential health benefits, especially in lowering the risk of the oxidative stress related diseases e.g. cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. The gap between current knowledge and future research needs have also been identified. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Assessment of the prebiotic effect of quinoa and amaranth in the human intestinal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Tavaria, Freni K; Yáñez, Remedios

    2016-09-14

    Quinoa and amaranth belong to the group of the so called "superfoods" and have a nutritional composition that confers multiple benefits. In this work, we explored the possibility of these foods exhibiting a prebiotic effect. These pseudocereals were subjected to an in vitro digestion and used as carbon sources in batch cultures with faecal human inocula. The effects on the microbiota composition and their metabolic products were determined by assessment of variations in pH, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and changes in the dynamic bacterial populations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). After 48 h of incubation, the total SCFAs were 106.5 mM for quinoa and 108.83 mM for amaranth, in line with the decrease in pH. Considerable differences (p < 0.05) were found in certain microbial groups, including Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus-Enterococcus, Atopobium, Bacteroides-Prevotella, Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia intestinalis. Our research suggests that these pseudocereals can have the prebiotic potential and that their intake may improve dysbiosis or maintain the gastrointestinal health through a balanced intestinal microbiota, although additional studies are necessary.

  5. CHEMICAL AND NUTRITIONAL STUDY OF ANDEAN GRAINS GERMINATED OF QUINOA (CHENOPOD/UM QUINOA) ANO AMARANTH (AMARANTUS CAUDATUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, M.; Laboratorio de Química de los Alimentos. Departamento Académico de Química Analítica,Facultad de Química e Ingeniería Química,Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Reyna R., J.; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición. Laboratorio de Química Alimentaria y Laboratorio de Experimentación Animal. INS-MINSA.; Gómez Sánchez, l.; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición. Laboratorio de Química Alimentaria y Laboratorio de Experimentación Animal. INS-MINSA.; Huapaya H., M.; Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición. Laboratorio de Química Alimentaria y Laboratorio de Experimentación Animal. INS-MINSA.

    2014-01-01

    The germination process was applied to Andean grains: quinoa and amaranth, in arder to generate them physical and chemical changes, which are favorable for preparations less viscous and more energy, and increase nutrients. We worked with White quinoa and amaranth variety Junín Osear Blanco from Huancayo. The germination of the grains was higher in quinoa, amaranth not in yielding 98% and 70% germination respectively. The results Andes sprouted grains were: 13,09% protein, 6,10% fa!, 1,50% a...

  6. Effectual comparison of quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets in controlling appetite; a biochemical study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithila, M V; Khanum, Farhath

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p < 0.01) and lesser body weight gain significantly in amaranth (p < 0.05) as compared to control. They seemed to bring down plasma ghrelin levels while meliorating plasma leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels postprandially (p < 0.01). Although both quinoa diet and amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty.

  7. Teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth: Ancient whole grain gluten-free egg-free pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grains, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  8. Ancient whole grain Gluten-free egg-free Teff, Buckwheat, Quinoa and Amaranth pasta (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report demonstrates innovative ancient whole grain, gluten-free, egg-free pasta (no chemicals added) made using a kitchen counter-top appliance. Whole grain, fusilli pasta was prepared with teff, buckwheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. These ancient grains are called “Super Foods” due to thei...

  9. Verkenning haalbaarheid glutenvrije keten : focus op graansoorten amaranth, quinoa en teff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, S.R.M.; Berg, van den I.; Leeuwen, van M.A.E.; Jukema, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    This report covers an exploratory study into the feasibility of gluten%free chains. This study focuses on amaranth, quinoa and teff grains. Besides the possibilities for the cultivation of these ancient grain varieties in the Netherlands, the con% secutive links of the chain are also described in

  10. Nutritive value and chemical composition of pseudocereals as gluten-free ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Jubete, L; Arendt, E K; Gallagher, E

    2009-01-01

    The only treatment available for patients with coeliac disease is a lifelong elimination of food products containing gluten. The gluten-free products currently available in the market are considered of low quality and poor nutritional value. In the present study, the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were studied as potential healthy ingredients for improving the nutritional quality of gluten-free breads. The pseudocereal seeds and pseudocereal-containing gluten-free breads were evaluated in terms of their protein, fat, total starch, dietary fibre, ash and mineral content as well as their fatty acid composition. The pseudocereal containing gluten-free breads showed significantly higher levels of protein, fat, fibre and minerals than the control bread. The attributes of these breads conform to the expert's nutritional recommendations for the gluten-free diet and gluten-free foods. These results suggest that the pseudocereals amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat can represent a healthy alternative to frequently used ingredients in gluten-free products.

  11. Assessing the Fatty Acid, Carotenoid, and Tocopherol Compositions of Amaranth and Quinoa Seeds Grown in Ontario and Their Overall Contribution to Nutritional Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Hernandez, Marta; Draves, Jamie; Marcone, Massimo F; Tsao, Rong

    2016-02-10

    Various fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenoids, and their respective antioxidant contributions in 7 amaranth seed and 11 quinoa seed samples along with a new evaluation method are reported. The lipid yield was 6.98-7.22% in amaranth seeds and 6.03-6.74% in quinoa seeds, with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) being the predominant fatty acids, 71.58-72.44% in amaranth seeds and 81.44-84.49% in quinoa seeds, respectively. Carotenoids, mainly lutein and zeaxanthin, are confirmed for the first time in amaranth seeds, while β-carotene is reported first in quinoa seeds. The predominant tocopherols in amaranth seeds are δ- and α-tocopherol, whereas γ- and α-tocopherol are the primary tocopherols in quinoa seeds. UFAs, carotenoids, and tocopherols showed good correlation with antioxidant activity. All of the amaranth seeds demonstrated lower overall lipophilic quality than quinoa seeds, with the AS1 and QS10 cultivars providing the highest scores for amaranth and quinoa seeds, respectively. Results from this study will contribute to developing quinoa seeds and related functional foods with increased benefits.

  12. Non-destructive evaluation of chlorophyll content in quinoa and amaranth leaves by simple and multiple regression analysis of RGB image components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riccardi, M.; Mele, G.; Pulvento, C.

    2014-01-01

    components analysis of digital images acquired with a standard SLR camera. Digital images of leaves from different genotypes of quinoa and amaranth were acquired directly in the field. Mean values of each RGB component were evaluated via image analysis software and correlated to leaf chlorophyll provided...... of foliar chlorophyll content and had a lower amount of noise in the whole range of chlorophyll studied compared with SPAD and other leaf image processing based models when applied to quinoa and amaranth....... for different genotypes of quinoa and amaranth was also checked. Color data acquisition of the leaves in the field with a digital camera was quick, more effective, and lower cost than SPAD. The proposed RGB models provided better correlation (highest R 2) and prediction (lowest RMSEP) of the true value...

  13. Characterisation of nutrient profile of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus), and purple corn (Zea mays L.) consumed in the North of Argentina: proximates, minerals and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Ana Cláudia; Mota, Carla; Coelho, Inês; Gueifão, Sandra; Santos, Mariana; Matos, Ana Sofia; Gimenez, Alejandra; Lobo, Manuel; Samman, Norma; Castanheira, Isabel

    2014-04-01

    Quinoa, amaranth and purple corn are Andean cereals largely consumed in North of Argentina. Nutrient analysis with the purpose of inclusion in the Argentinean FCDB and e-search EuroFIR has become urgent matter. In this work proximate and mineral profile of Andean cereals cultivated in the North of Argentina were determined and compared with rice. Proximate analysis showed that Andean cereals have similar profile but significantly higher (pquinoa content could contribute up to 55% of consumers DRI. Andean cereals and rice are poor sources of potassium. To guarantee the interchange of data among users and producers of FCDB component values were obtained in compliance with EuroFIR guidelines for compilation process. Present work provides necessary information to FCDB users who wish to have access to food reference analytical parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Degradation parameters of amaranth, barley and quinoa in alpacas fed grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, B; Johnston, N P; Stevens, N; Robinson, T F

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the compartment 1 (C1) characteristics of alpacas (fistulated male, 7 ± 1.5 years old, 61 ± 5 kg BW) fed grass hay (GH) supplemented with amaranth (AM), quinoa (Q) and barley (B) grains. Alpacas were provided water ad libitum while housed in metabolism crates. The GH and GH plus treatments were fed at 0700 every day. Treatment periods were for 14 days in which GH or GH plus one of the grain treatments were randomly allocated. On day 14, volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) were determined at 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. C1 degradation of each feed component was also determined with the alpacas being fed GH only and the samples incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 14, 24, 48 and 72 h. Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were determined and were divided into three categories: a = immediately soluble; b = the non-soluble but degradable; and u = non-degradable/unavailable, potential extent of degradation (PE), degradation rate (c) and effective degradation (ED). C1 passage rate was determined using acid detergent insoluble ash as a marker and was calculated to be 5.5%∙h-1. Total DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for B and resulted in a higher (p < 0.05) CP intake. GH and AM were different in mean pH (6.81 and 6.66, respectively). B NH3 -N was greater (p < 0.05) than the other treatments. Total VFA was greatest (p < 0.05) for AM, with the greatest composition differences being a shift form acetate percentage to butyrate. DM, NDF and CP degradation was different across the treatments, where PE and ED were higher (p < 0.05) for the grain treatments. The pseudo-grains AM and Q had similar C1 degradation characteristics to B. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Non-destructive evaluation of chlorophyll content in quinoa and amaranth leaves by simple and multiple regression analysis of RGB image components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, M; Mele, G; Pulvento, C; Lavini, A; d'Andria, R; Jacobsen, S-E

    2014-06-01

    Leaf chlorophyll content provides valuable information about physiological status of plants; it is directly linked to photosynthetic potential and primary production. In vitro assessment by wet chemical extraction is the standard method for leaf chlorophyll determination. This measurement is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Over the years alternative methods, rapid and non-destructive, have been explored. The aim of this work was to evaluate the applicability of a fast and non-invasive field method for estimation of chlorophyll content in quinoa and amaranth leaves based on RGB components analysis of digital images acquired with a standard SLR camera. Digital images of leaves from different genotypes of quinoa and amaranth were acquired directly in the field. Mean values of each RGB component were evaluated via image analysis software and correlated to leaf chlorophyll provided by standard laboratory procedure. Single and multiple regression models using RGB color components as independent variables have been tested and validated. The performance of the proposed method was compared to that of the widely used non-destructive SPAD method. Sensitivity of the best regression models for different genotypes of quinoa and amaranth was also checked. Color data acquisition of the leaves in the field with a digital camera was quick, more effective, and lower cost than SPAD. The proposed RGB models provided better correlation (highest R (2)) and prediction (lowest RMSEP) of the true value of foliar chlorophyll content and had a lower amount of noise in the whole range of chlorophyll studied compared with SPAD and other leaf image processing based models when applied to quinoa and amaranth.

  16. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole grain sorghums, millet, quinoa and amaranth flours, as affected by starch and non-starch constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Curti, Delphine; Austin, Sean; King, Roberto; Lamothe, Lisa; Gloria-Hernandez, Hugo

    2017-10-15

    Minor grains such as sorghum, millet, quinoa and amaranth can be alternatives to wheat and corn as ingredients for whole grain and gluten-free products. In this study, influences of starch structures and other grain constituents on physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of whole flours made from these grains were investigated. Starches were classified into two groups according to their amylopectin branch chain-length: (i) quinoa, amaranth, wheat (shorter chains); and (ii) sorghum, millet, corn (longer chains). Such amylopectin features and amylose content contributed to the differences in thermal and pasting properties as well as starch digestibility of the flours. Non-starch constituents had additional impacts; proteins delayed starch gelatinization and pasting, especially in sorghum flours, and high levels of soluble fibre retarded starch retrogradation in wheat, quinoa and amaranth flours. Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch was restricted by the presence of associated protein matrix and enzyme inhibitors, but accelerated by endogenous amylolytic enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alandia Robles, Gabriela Renee

    Until 2013, Bolivia has been the first quinoa world exporter. Quinoa for export is produced in a semi-arid region: the Bolivian southern highlands. Bolivians have now to face the challenge to keep competitive producing in a region with low levels of soil fertility and scarce water in a new scenario...... that includes more countries producing this crop. The overall objective of this thesis was to analyze challenges for quinoa production in the Bolivian southern highlands. This analysis was performed from different perspectives. A critical analysis of information presents the context of quinoa production...... and is followed by two experimental studies focused to approach two issues of concern. Wind erosion was assessed for the first time in Bolivia with Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) samplers under different management practices related to quinoa production. A pot experiment under controlled conditions was carried...

  18. Use of sourdough fermentation and pseudo-cereals and leguminous flours for the making of a functional bread enriched of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-02-28

    Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PU1, previously selected for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were used for sourdough fermentation of cereal, pseudo-cereal and leguminous flours. Chickpea, amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were the flours most suitable to be enriched of GABA. The parameters of sourdough fermentation were optimized. Addition of 0.1mM pyridoxal phosphate, dough yield of 160, inoculum of 5 x 10(7)CFU/g of starter bacteria and fermentation for 24h at 30 degrees C were found to be the optimal conditions. A blend of buckwheat, amaranth, chickpea and quinoa flours (ratio 1:1:5.3:1) was selected and fermented with baker's yeast (non-conventional flour bread, NCB) or with Lb. plantarum C48 sourdough (non-conventional flour sourdough bread, NCSB) and compared to baker's yeast started wheat flour bread (WFB). NCSB had the highest concentration of free amino acids and GABA (ca. 4467 and 504 mg/kg, respectively). The concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of NCSB bread was the highest, as well as the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis was the lowest. Texture analysis showed that sourdough fermentation enhances several characteristics of NCSB with respect to NCB, thus approaching the features of WFB. Sensory analysis showed that sourdough fermentation allowed to get good palatability and overall taste appreciation. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.): composition, chemistry, nutritional, and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch James, Lilian E

    2009-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), which is considered a pseudocereal or pseudograin, has been recognized as a complete food due to its protein quality. It has remarkable nutritional properties; not only from its protein content (15%) but also from its great amino acid balance. It is an important source of minerals and vitamins, and has also been found to contain compounds like polyphenols, phytosterols, and flavonoids with possible nutraceutical benefits. It has some functional (technological) properties like solubility, water-holding capacity (WHC), gelation, emulsifying, and foaming that allow diversified uses. Besides, it has been considered an oil crop, with an interesting proportion of omega-6 and a notable vitamin E content. Quinoa starch has physicochemical properties (such as viscosity, freeze stability) which give it functional properties with novel uses. Quinoa has a high nutritional value and has recently been used as a novel functional food because of all these properties; it is a promising alternative cultivar.

  20. EFECTO DE LA GERMINACIÓN SOBRE EL CONTENIDO DE HIERRO Y CALCIO EN AMARANTO, QUINUA, GUANDUL Y SOYA EFEITO DA GERMINAÇÃO SOBRE CONTEUDO DA FERRO E CÁLCIO PRESENTES EM QUINOA, AMARANTO, GUANDU E SOJA GERMINATION EFFECT ON IRON AND CALCIUM CONTENT IN AMARANTH, QUINOA, PIGEON PEA AND SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA C CHAPARRO

    2011-06-01

    timo grau de qualidade e uma taxa de germinação acima de 90%. Inicialmente se fez um método padronizado para a obtenção de sementes germinadas, através da definição de variáveis como o uso ou o não de desinfetante, tipo de substrato, tempo de germinação e temperatura de germinação. Para desenvolver o estudo realizado se aplicou um design em blocos casualizados com três repetições por dia de germinação (dias zero, um, dois e três, para a quantificação de ferro e cálcio, foi usada absorção atômica. Os resultados achados permitem concluir que a germinação induziu mudanças na disponibilidade de ferro e cálcio de uma maneira específica em cada tipo de semente; o ferro disponível em sementes de soja, amaranto e quinoa, diminuíam na medida em que avançava o processo de germinação; embora, a germinação não afetou significativamente o teor de ferro em sementes de amaranto e guandu. O cálcio disponível aumentou significativamente em sementes de amaranto e quino a partir do segundo dia de germinação, a germinação gerou um aumentou paralelo no conteúdo de cálcio de 169,1% em amaranto e de 24,75% em quinoa, enquanto que no guandu e na soja o cálcio disponível diminuiu com a germinação.Changes on iron and calcium quantity were evaluated during the germination process of amaranth (Amaranthus sp., quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan and soybean (Glycine max seeds. Seeds produced by farmers in the department of Cauca were used; the four species were selected being sure about their physical quality and a germination percentage higher than 90%. Initially the germinated seed obtaining method was standardized by variables definition such as the use or not of disinfectant, type of substrate, germination time and germination temperature. During the research development a randomly complete block design with three replicates for germination day (day cero, one, two and three was applied; in order to quantify the iron and calcium

  1. Quinoa seed quality response to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal which has high protein content, but also provides high quality protein. The essential amino acids are balanced; protein efficiency ratio and true protein digestibility are comparable to those of casein, which considered as a good protein resource....

  2. Influence of cooking and malting on content of folates in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa)

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, Carla; Delgado, Inês; Santos, Mariana; Matos, Ana Sofia; Torres, Duarte; Chandra-Hioe, Maria V.; Castanheira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    O folato ou vitamina B9 é essencial ao organismo sendo a alimentação a maior fonte deste nutriente. A deficiência nesta vitamina pode provocar alterações no crescimento e desenvolvimento de doenças como a anemia. A quinoa é um pseudocereal isento de glúten conhecido essencialmente pelo seu elevado valor nutritivo. Neste trabalho avaliou-se o efeito do processamento no teor em folatos naturais das sementes de quinoa. As amostras de quinoa recolhidas foram sujeitas a cozedura ...

  3. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreef G.N. Gabrial

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. AIM: The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast and second meal (standardised lunch in healthy and diabetic subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects and 12 patients with Type 2 DM (not- insulin dependent were recruited in the study. Subjects were provided with quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals. A standardised lunch was provided 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial blood glucose response after breakfast and the second meal effect was measured in healthy and diabetic subjects. Incremental area under the curve (IAUC values for glucose was measured in response to the breakfast and lunch. The glycemic index of the 2 pseudocereals-based test breakfasts was determined. A white wheat bread (WWB was served as a reference breakfast meal. RESULTS: In post-breakfast analyses, healthy subjects showed that buckwheat meal had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P < 0.001 while quinoa meal showed no significance. In diabetic subjects, buckwheat and quinoa meals had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 respectively. Blood glucose concentrations started to decline gradually for the quinoa and buckwheat but not for WWB in all healthy and diabetic subjects and returned to near-fasting baseline levels by 210 min. Post-lunch analyses indicated higher IAUC for the two breakfast types in healthy and diabetic subjects. In addition, the quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals were followed by a significantly flatter blood glucose response to the second meal for the period between 270

  4. Agronomía Del Cultivo De Quinoa (Chenopoium Quinoa) En Dinamarca

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Gómez, Iván; Hernández Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos Gregorio; Jacobsen, Sven

    2011-01-01

    La quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) es un pseudocereal muy utilizado en la cordillera de los Andes con excelentes cualidades nutricionales, como su elevado contenido en proteína. El objetivo de este estudio consiste en conocer su comportamiento agronómico en las condiciones de cultivo del norte de Europa. Para ello, se han analizado y comparado resultados de producción en Copenhaguen (Dinamarca) para distintos tratamientos en los que se varió la dosis de siembra y el control de malas hierbas ...

  5. Molecular structure of quinoa starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-02-20

    Quinoa starch has very small granules with unique properties. However, the molecular structure of quinoa starch remains largely unknown. In this study, composition and amylopectin molecular structure of 9 quinoa starch samples were characterised by chromatographic techniques. In particular, the amylopectin internal molecular structure, represented by φ, β-limit dextrins (LDs), was explored. Great variations in the composition and molecular structures were recorded among samples. Compared with other amylopectins, quinoa amylopectin showed a high ratio of short chain to long chains (mean:14.6) and a high percentage of fingerprint A-chains (Afp) (mean:10.4%). The average chain length, external chain length, and internal chain length of quinoa amylopectin were 16.6, 10.6, and 5.00 glucosyl residues, respectively. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis revealed some inherent correlations among structural parameters and a similarity of different samples. Overall, quinoa amylopectins are structurally similar to that from starches with A-type polymorph such as oat and amaranth starches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quinoa: Nutritional, functional, and antinutritional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Antonio Manoel Maradini; Pirozi, Mônica Ribeiro; Borges, João Tomaz Da Silva; Pinheiro Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Chaves, José Benício Paes; Coimbra, Jane Sélia Dos Reis

    2017-05-24

    We have prepared a review of the physical-chemical composition and the functional and anti-nutritional properties of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). It is a plant of the Chenopodiaceae family, originally from the Andean regions, adaptable to different types of soils and climatic conditions. Its composition has attracted the attention of scientific community for its high nutritional value, being rich in proteins, lipids, fibers, vitamins, and minerals, with an extraordinary balance of essential amino acids. It is also gluten-free, a characteristic that enables its use by celiac patients. In spite of all these attributes, quinoa is not widely used by consumers due to the high cost of imported grain and little knowledge of its benefits. More studies are required to increase knowledge about this "pseudo-cereal" to demonstrate its functional and nutritional benefits and to study its anti-nutritional effects, since it presents high commercial value and excellent nutritional quality.

  7. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrial, Shreef G N; Shakib, Marie-Christine R; Gabrial, Gamal N

    2016-12-15

    Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat) on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast) and second meal (standardised lunch) in healthy and diabetic subjects. Twelve healthy subjects and 12 patients with Type 2 DM (not- insulin dependent) were recruited in the study. Subjects were provided with quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals. A standardised lunch was provided 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial blood glucose response after breakfast and the second meal effect was measured in healthy and diabetic subjects. Incremental area under the curve (IAUC) values for glucose was measured in response to the breakfast and lunch. The glycemic index of the 2 pseudocereals-based test breakfasts was determined. A white wheat bread (WWB) was served as a reference breakfast meal. In post-breakfast analyses, healthy subjects showed that buckwheat meal had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P concentrations started to decline gradually for the quinoa and buckwheat but not for WWB in all healthy and diabetic subjects and returned to near-fasting baseline levels by 210 min. Post-lunch analyses indicated higher IAUC for the two breakfast types in healthy and diabetic subjects. In addition, the quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals were followed by a significantly flatter blood glucose response to the second meal for the period between 270 and 330 min. At the end of the second meal period, values were below or near-fasting baseline levels in the breakfast period. The blood glucose concentration after consuming quinoa meal showed a high peak at 30 min similar to that of WWB reference meal. This peak resulted in a high glycemic

  8. Breeding quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurita-Silva, Andrés; Fuentes, Francisco; Zamora, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) originated in the Andean region of South America; this species is associated with exceptional grain nutritional quality and is highly valued for its ability to tolerate abiotic stresses. However, its introduction outside the Andes has yet to take off on a large...... scale. In the Andes, quinoa has until recently been marginally grown by small-scale Andean farmers, leading to minor interest in the crop from urban consumers and the industry. Quinoa breeding programs were not initiated until the 1960s in the Andes, and elsewhere from the 1970s onwards. New molecular...... tools available for the existing quinoa breeding programs, which are critically examined in this review, will enable us to tackle the limitations of allotetraploidy and genetic specificities. The recent progress, together with the declaration of "The International Year of the Quinoa" by the Food...

  9. Nutrition facts and functional potential of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.), an ancient Andean grain: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Vergara, Judith; Uribe, Elsa; Puente, Luis; Martínez, Enrique A

    2010-12-01

    Quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd., is an Amaranthacean, stress-tolerant plant cultivated along the Andes for the last 7000 years, challenging highly different environmental conditions ranging from Bolivia, up to 4.500 m of altitude, to sea level, in Chile. Its grains have higher nutritive value than traditional cereals and it is a promising worldwide cultivar for human consumption and nutrition. The quinoa has been called a pseudo-cereal for botanical reasons but also because of its unusual composition and exceptional balance between oil, protein and fat. The quinoa is an excellent example of 'functional food' that aims at lowering the risk of various diseases. Functional properties are given also by minerals, vitamins, fatty acids and antioxidants that can make a strong contribution to human nutrition, particularly to protect cell membranes, with proven good results in brain neuronal functions. Its minerals work as cofactors in antioxidant enzymes, adding higher value to its rich proteins. Quinoa also contains phytohormones, which offer an advantage over other plant foods for human nutrition. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. 2-DE PROTEOME MAPS OF AMARANTH AND BUCKWHEAT SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Gálová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our work was focus on amaranth (Amaranthus sp. cv. Plaisman and buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill., cv. Pyra proteome, which was analysed by 2-D electrophoresis. We found similarity between the chemical properties proteins of pseudocereals amaranth and buckwheat. Image analysis showed a higher number of spots on 2-DE map of buckwheat in comparison to amaranth. Some similarities were in protein spots at approximately 21,000 Da, pI 7 and strip of protein spots in range of pI 8-10, 21,000 Da. The buckwheat 2-DE map shows spots of protein with higher intensity in the region ranging from 30-45,000 Da, pI 5-6 as well as highly abundant protein spots from visible at 36-40,000 Da, pI 8-9. Protein maps showed that the pseudocereals do not content storage proteins, which indicates that they are suitable as a replacement for cereals for people with celiac disease.

  11. Characterization of diferuloylated pectic polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa WILLD.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefers, Daniel; Gmeiner, Bianca M; Tyl, Catrin E; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-08-01

    In plants belonging to the order of Caryophyllales, pectic neutral side chains can be substituted with ferulic acid. The ability of ferulic acid to form intra- and/or intermolecular polysaccharide cross-links by dimerization was shown by the isolation and characterization of diferulic acid oligosaccharides from monocotyledonous plants. In this study, two diferulic acid oligosaccharides were isolated from the enzymatic hydrolyzate of seeds of the dicotyledonous pseudocereal quinoa by gel permeation chromatography and preparative HPLC and unambiguously identified by LC-MS(2) and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy. The isolated oligosaccharides are comprised of 5-5- and 8-O-4-diferulic acid linked to the O2-position of the nonreducing residue of two (1→5)-linked arabinobioses. To get insight into the structure and the degree of phenolic acid substitution of the diferuloylated polysaccharides, polymeric sugar composition, glycosidic linkages, and polysaccharide-bound monomeric phenolic acids and diferulic acids were analyzed. This study demonstrates that diferulic acids are involved into intramolecular and/or intermolecular cross-linking of arabinan chains and may have a major impact on cell wall architecture of quinoa and other dicotyledonous plants of the order of Caryophyllales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa samples (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under different saline and nonsaline irrigation regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Iafelice, Giovanna; Lavini, Antonella; Pulvento, Cataldo; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Marconi, Emanuele

    2012-05-09

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal from South America that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in antioxidant compounds. Thus, this study has focused on the effects of different agronomic variables, such as irrigation and salinity, on the phenolic and saponin profiles of quinoa. It was observed that irrigation with 25% of full water restitution, with and without the addition of salt, was associated with increases in free phenolic compounds of 23.16 and 26.27%, respectively. In contrast, bound phenolic compounds were not affected by environmental stresses. Saponins decreased if samples were exposed to drought and saline regimens. In situations of severe water deficit, the saponins content decreased 45%, and 50% when a salt stress was added. The results suggest that irrigation and salinity may regulate the production of bioactive compounds in quinoa, influencing its nutritional and industrial values.

  13. Quinoa Starch Characteristics and Their Correlations with the Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) of Cooked Quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2017-10-01

    Starch characteristics significantly influence the functionality and end-use quality of cereals and pseudo-cereals. This study examined the composition and properties of starch from 11 pure varieties and 2 commercial samples of quinoa in relationship to the texture of cooked quinoa. Nearly all starch properties and characteristics differed among these samples. Results showed that total starch content of seeds ranged from 53.2 to 75.1 g/100 g apparent amylose content ranged from 2.7% to 16.9%; total amylose ranged from 4.7% to 17.3%; and the degree of amylose-lipid complex ranged from 3.4% to 43.3%. Amylose leaching ranged from 31 mg/100 g starch in "Japanese Strain" to 862 mg/100 g starch in "49ALC." "Japanese Strain" starch also exhibited the highest water solubility (4.5%) and the lowest swelling power (17). α-Amylase activity in "1ESP," "Col.#6197," "Japanese Strain," "QQ63," "Yellow Commercial," and "Red Commercial" (0.03 to 0.09 CU) were significantly lower than the levels of the other quinoa samples (0.20 to 1.16 CU). Additionally, gel texture, thermal properties, and pasting properties of quinoa starches were investigated. Lastly, correlation analysis showed that the quinoa samples with higher amylose content tended to yield harder, stickier, more cohesive, more gummy, and more chewy texture after cooking. A higher degree of amylose-lipid complex and amylose leaching were associated with softer and less chewy cooked quinoa TPA texture. Higher starch enthalpy correlated with firmer, more adhesive, more cohesive, and chewier texture. In sum, starch plays a significant role in the texture of cooked quinoa. The research determined starch characteristics among a diverse set of pure quinoa varieties and commercial samples, and identified the relationships between starch properties and cooked quinoa texture. The results can help breeders and food manufacturers to understand better the relationships among quinoa starch characteristics, cooked quinoa texture, and

  14. Use of cereal bars with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. to reduce risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases Consumo de barras de cereais com quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. para reduzir fatores de risco de doenças cardiovasculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi-Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa is considered a pseudocereal with proteins of high biological value, carbohydrates of low glycemic index, phytosteroids, and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that bring benefits to the human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quinoa on the biochemical and anthropometric profile and blood pressure in humans, parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-two 18 to 45-year-old students were treated daily for 30 days with quinoa in the form of a cereal bar. Blood samples were collected before and after 30 days of treatment to determine glycemic and biochemical profile of the group. The results indicated that quinoa had beneficial effects on part of the population studied since the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c showed reduction. It can be concluded that the use of quinoa in diet can be considered beneficial in the prevention and treatment of risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases that are among the leading causes of death in today's globalized world. However, further studies are needed to prove the benefits observed.A quinoa é considerada um pseudocereal com proteínas de alto valor biológico, carboidratos de baixo índice glicêmico, fitosteróis e ácidos graxos ômega 3 e 6. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar os efeitos da quinoa no perfil bioquímico e antropométrico e pressão arterial em humanos, parâmetros dos fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares. Vinte e dois estudantes com 18 a 45 anos de idade foram tratados diariamente, por 30 dias, com quinoa sob a forma de barra de cereal. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas antes e após os 30 dias do tratamento para determinar o perfil glicêmico e bioquímico do grupo. Os resultados mostraram efeitos positivos do uso da quinoa já que se observou redução significativa nos valores de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e LDL-c. Conclui-se que o uso da quinoa na alimentação pode ser considerado

  15. Caracterização térmica e capacidade geleificante de um isolado proteico de grãos de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspchak,Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Orientadora : Profª Drª Luciana Igarashi Mafra Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Tecnologia, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Alimentos. Defesa: Curitiba, 03/02/2015 Inclui referências Resumo: A quinoa é um pseudocereal originário dos Andes, cultivado e consumido há milhares de anos que vem se popularizando em todo o mundo devido ao seu alto valor nutricional. As proteínas da quinoa apresentam grande quantidade de aminoácidos essenciais funda...

  16. Biochemical and immunochemical evidences supporting the inclusion of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a gluten-free ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas, Elena; Uberti, Francesca; di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ballabio, Cinzia; Brandolini, Andrea; Restani, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    To date, the only acceptable therapeutic approach for celiac disease (CD) is a strict elimination from the diet of gluten-containing foods, but this diet does not always guarantee an adequate nutritional intake. Pseudocereals are receiving considerable attention as interesting alternatives for the formulation of gluten-free products, and quinoa grains arise as nutritive substitutes of conventional cereals. The aim of this study was the characterization of different quinoa samples corresponding to 11 quinoa varieties, using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting techniques to assess their suitability for celiac subjects. Some of these varieties were grown in Italy to assess if the reproduction in a new habitat can guarantee the retention of the "safe" protein pattern. None of the quinoa varieties studied presented protein bands with electrophoretic mobility comparable with those of wheat gliadins, the toxic protein for celiac subjects. All the quinoa samples showed a low binding affinity for both specific anti-gliadin antibodies and IgAs from celiac subjects, confirming that quinoa can be considered as a safe ingredient for celiac patients. However, reliable varieties should be previously selected since the immuno cross-reactivity with anti-gliadin antibodies can vary significantly.

  17. The draft genome and transcriptome of Amaranthus hypochondriacus: a C4 dicot producing high-lysine edible pseudo-cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Meeta; Hariharan, Arun K; Nayak, Soumya; Gupta, Saurabh; Nambisan, Suran R; Gupta, Ravi P; Panda, Binay; Choudhary, Bibha; Srinivasan, Subhashini

    2014-12-01

    Grain amaranths, edible C4 dicots, produce pseudo-cereals high in lysine. Lysine being one of the most limiting essential amino acids in cereals and C4 photosynthesis being one of the most sought-after phenotypes in protein-rich legume crops, the genome of one of the grain amaranths is likely to play a critical role in crop research. We have sequenced the genome and transcriptome of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, a diploid (2n = 32) belonging to the order Caryophyllales with an estimated genome size of 466 Mb. Of the 411 linkage single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported for grain amaranths, 355 SNPs (86%) are represented in the scaffolds and 74% of the 8.6 billion bases of the sequenced transcriptome map to the genomic scaffolds. The genome of A. hypochondriacus, codes for at least 24,829 proteins, shares the paleohexaploidy event with species under the superorders Rosids and Asterids, harbours 1 SNP in 1,000 bases, and contains 13.76% of repeat elements. Annotation of all the genes in the lysine biosynthetic pathway using comparative genomics and expression analysis offers insights into the high-lysine phenotype. As the first grain species under Caryophyllales and the first C4 dicot genome reported, the work presented here will be beneficial in improving crops and in expanding our understanding of angiosperm evolution. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  18. Identification and quantification of even and odd chained 5-n alkylresorcinols, branched chain-alkylresorcinols and methylalkylresorcinols in Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Svelander, Cecilia; Karlsson, Göran; Savolainen, Otto I

    2017-04-01

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal grown in the Andean region of South America that is of increasing interest worldwide as an alternative staple food. We have detected a complex mixture of both odd- and even-alkyl chain alkylresorcinols (AR), branched-chain alkylresorcinols (bcAR) and methylalkylresorcinols (mAR) in ethyl acetate extracts of quinoa. We quantified the content of AR in 17 commercial samples of quinoa, and found that the mean±SD content of AR was 58±16μg/g, bcAR was 182±52μg/g, and mAR was 136±40μg/g. AR from quinoa could also be detected in plasma after eating quinoa, indicating that some of these unique AR could be used as biomarkers of quinoa intake in humans. Further work is required to understand the role of these ARs in the quinoa plant and whether any of the novel ARs may be of particular interest in human nutrition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of cereal bars with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W. to reduce risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Maria Vasques Farinazzi-Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa is considered a pseudocereal with proteins of high biological value, carbohydrates of low glycemic index, phytosteroids, and omega-3 and 6 fatty acids that bring benefits to the human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of quinoa on the biochemical and anthropometric profile and blood pressure in humans, parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular diseases. Twenty-two 18 to 45-year-old students were treated daily for 30 days with quinoa in the form of a cereal bar. Blood samples were collected before and after 30 days of treatment to determine glycemic and biochemical profile of the group. The results indicated that quinoa had beneficial effects on part of the population studied since the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c showed reduction. It can be concluded that the use of quinoa in diet can be considered beneficial in the prevention and treatment of risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases that are among the leading causes of death in today's globalized world. However, further studies are needed to prove the benefits observed.

  20. Neutral Pectin side chains of Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) contain long, partially branched Arabinans and short galactans, both with terminal arabinopyranoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wefers, Daniel; Tyl, Catrin E; Bunzel, Mirko

    2015-01-21

    Amaranth is a pseudocereal of high nutritional value, including a high dietary fiber content. Amaranth dietary fiber was suggested to contain large amounts of neutral rhamnogalacturonan I side chains. In this study, endo-arabinanase and endo-galactanase were used to liberate arabinan and galactan oligosaccharides from amaranth fiber. The liberated oligosaccharides were identified by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) and HPLC-MS(n) using standard compounds, which were isolated from amaranth, sugar beet, potato, and red clover sprouts and characterized by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. It was demonstrated that insoluble amaranth arabinans have linear and branched areas, with the O-3 position being the dominant branching point. Minor amounts of branches at position O-2 and double substitution were also found. Amaranth arabinans were also demonstrated to contain terminal α-(1→5)-linked l-arabinopyranose units. In addition, it was evidenced that galactans from amaranth seeds are composed of β-(1→4)-linked d-galactopyranose units, which can also be terminated with l-arabinopyranose units. In direct comparison to structural elucidation of amaranth fiber by using methylation analysis, the advantage of the enzymatic approach over methylation analysis was demonstrated.

  1. [Effect of quinua (Chenopodium quinoa)consumption as a coadjuvant in nutritional intervention in prediabetic subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán Ruiz, María Salud; Barnuevo Espinosa, María Dolores; García Santamaría, Carlos; Contreras Fernández, Carlos Javier; Aldeguer García, Miriam; Soto Méndez, Fulgencio; Guillén Guillén, Isabel; Luque Rubia, Antonio Jesús; Quinde Ràzuri, Francisco Javier; Martínez Garrido, Antonio; López Román, Francisco Javier

    2017-10-24

    Quinoa is a pseudocereal containing low glycemic index carbohydrates, dietary fiber, high biological value protein, phytosterols, and n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, which has generated interest in prediabetes nutritional interventions. This randomized (2:1), placebo-controlled, double-blind study evaluated the effects of processed quinoa on body mass index (BMI), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the satiation and fullness (complete) degree in prediabetic patients. Thirty patients were randomized (2:1) in two study arms: Kuska Active product (processed quinoa) and placebo (maltodextrin), with an intake period of 28 days. BMI, HbA1c and FPG were determined before starting treatment and at 28-day intake. Satiety and fullness sensation were just assessed by visual analog scale (VAS) at the day 28. ANOVA was performed for repeated measures with two factors to study (within-subject factor: time; intersubject factor: product consumed) to demonstrate the effectiveness of processed quinoa on the study variables. Twenty-nine patients (placebo, n = 10; quinoa, n = 19) completed the study, and the quinoa group shows a significant decrease in BMI (p quinoa intake during 28 days decreases BMI and HbA1c levels, maintains FPG levels, and incr eases the satiation and fullness (complete) degree in prediabetic patients.

  2. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of pseudocereals-enriched water biscuits and their in vitro digestates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Ferraretto, Anita; De Noni, Ivano; Bottani, Michela; Cattaneo, Stefano; Galli, Simone; Brandolini, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    Carotenoids, tocols, phenolic acids and antioxidant capacity were studied during in vitro digestion of water biscuits (WB) from bread wheat, einkorn and einkorn-pseudocereals. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of digestates were also measured using a 70% Caco2/30% HT-29 human intestinal co-culture layer. Antioxidant profiles differed among WB formulations. Only hydrophilic molecules were solubilised by gastric digestion. After intestinal digestion, 77% carotenoids and 67% tocols were released. Soluble-conjugated phenolic acids increased (30%) and insoluble-bound forms decreased (17%), suggesting partial conversion from bound to conjugated form. After intestinal digestion, antioxidant capacity increased regardless of type and amount of antioxidants in undigested or digested WB. All WB, especially those with quinoa flour, reduced the AAPH pro-oxidant capacity in co-culture cells. These results highlight the potential health benefits of underutilized crops and the need for in vitro or in vivo models to better address potential bioactivity at intestinal and target organs level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of saponins from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Yang, Xiushi; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-05-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a pseudocereal from South Americas that has received increased interest around the world because it is a good source of different nutrients and rich in saponins. However, the saponins in quinoa seeds planted in China were poorly known. We obtained 4 quinoa saponin fractions, Q30, Q50, Q70, and Q90, and 11 saponins were determined by HPLC-MS. Q50 possessed 8 individual saponins and had the highest content of saponins. We further evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity on RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells of the 4 fractions. The 4 fractions not only dose-dependently decreased the production of inflammatory mediators NO but also inhibited the release of inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that quinoa saponins may be used as functional food components for prevention and treatment of inflammation. Our findings demonstrate that saponins from the quinoa have the potential to anti-inflammation by suppressing the release of inflammatory cytokines. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. [Amaranth bars enriched with fructans: acceptability and nutritional value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Capriles, Vanessa; Gomes Arêas, José Alfredo

    2010-09-01

    There is an increasing appeal for convenience foods with potential health benefits to the consumer. Raw materials with high nutritional value and functional properties must be used on the development of these food products. Amaranth is a gluten-free grain with high nutrition value. Inulin and oligofructose are prebiotic ingredients presenting effects as the enhancement of calcium absorption. Amaranth bars enriched with inulin and oligofructose were developed in the flavors: banana, Brazilian nuts and dried grape, coconut, peach, strawberry and wall nut. The proximate composition were determined and compared to commercial cereal bars, available in traditional (n=59), light (n=60), diet (n=8), with soy (n=10) and quinoa (n=1) categories. Amaranth bars present mean global acceptance values from 6.3 to 7.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale, nutritional advantages as compared to commercial cereal bars (caloric reduction and higher levels of dietary fiber). Although amaranth is an unknown raw material in Brazil, it shows good potential to be used in the manufacturing of ready-to-eat products. As they are gluten free, these amaranth bars are also an alternative product for celiacs, also contributing to the enhancement of calcium absorption, a problem frequently observed in these patients.

  5. Effect of heat processing on selected grain amaranth physicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyonga, John H; Andabati, Brian; Ssepuuya, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Grain amaranth is a pseudocereal with unique agricultural, nutritional, and functional properties. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of different heat-processing methods on physicochemical and nutraceutical properties in two main grain amaranth species, of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. Grains were prepared by roasting and popping, milled and analyzed for changes in in vitro protein digestibility, gruel viscosity, pasting characteristics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids, and total phenolics. In vitro protein digestibility was determined using the pepsin-pancreatin enzyme system. Viscosity and pasting characteristics of samples were determined using a Brookfield Viscometer and a Rapid Visco Analyzer, respectively. The grain methanol extracts were analysed for phenolics using spectrophotometry while antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. Heat treatment led to a reduction in protein digestibility, the effect being higher in popped than in roasted samples. Viscosities for roasted grain amaranth gruels were significantly higher than those obtained from raw and popped grain amaranth gruels. The results for pasting properties were consistent with the results for viscosity. In both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L., the order of the viscosity values was roasted>raw>popped. The viscosities were also generally lower for A. cruentus L. compared to A. hypochondriacus L. Raw samples for both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L. did not significantly differ in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant activity values. Thermal processing led to an increase in TFC and antioxidant activity. However, TPC of heat-processed samples remained unchanged. From the results, it can be concluded that heat treatment enhances antioxidant activity of grain amaranth and causes rheological changes dependent on the nature of heat treatment. PMID

  6. Development of a nutrient-dense complementary food using amaranth-sorghum grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoth, Judith Kanensi; Ochola, Sophie Atieno; Gikonyo, Nicholas K; Makokha, Anselimo

    2017-01-01

    Thin porridge from cereals and starchy tubers is a common complementary food in Sub Saharan Africa. It may be high in antinutrients, low in energy, and nutrient density hence inadequate in providing infants' high energy and nutrients requirements per unit body weight. Consequently, undernourishment levels among children under 5 years are high. Therefore, there is need to avail nutrient-dense complementary foods especially for children in low-resource settings. The study was aimed at developing a nutrient-dense complementary food from amaranth and sorghum grains. Amaranth grain, a pseudocereal, though rarely used as a complementary food in Kenya has a higher nutritional quality than other staples. Plant-based foods are known to have high levels of antinutrients. Steeping and germination were used to reduce the levels of antinutrients and enhance the bioavailability of minerals in the grains. Various steeped and germinated amaranth and sorghum grains formulations were made to find the ratio with the highest nutrient content and lowest antinutrient levels. The 90% amaranth-sorghum grains formulation had significantly (F = 32.133, P Antinutrients could not be detected which could imply enhanced nutrient bioavailability. Therefore, a nutrient-dense complementary food product was developed from steeped and germinated amaranth and sorghum grains with 90% amaranth grain. In ready to eat form, it would give an energy content of 1.7 kcal per g (dilution of 1:2 amaranth-sorghum flour to water) and 1.2 kcal per g (dilution of 1:4 amaranth-sorghum flour to water). It can be used as a nutrient-dense complementary food and for other vulnerable groups.

  7. Saponin determination, expression analysis and functional characterization of saponin biosynthetic genes in Chenopodium quinoa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallos-Jurado, Jennifer; Pollier, Jacob; Moses, Tessa; Arendt, Philipp; Barriga-Medina, Noelia; Morillo, Eduardo; Arahana, Venancio; de Lourdes Torres, Maria; Goossens, Alain; Leon-Reyes, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly nutritious pseudocereal with an outstanding protein, vitamin, mineral and nutraceutical content. The leaves, flowers and seed coat of quinoa contain triterpenoid saponins, which impart bitterness to the grain and make them unpalatable without postharvest removal of the saponins. In this study, we quantified saponin content in quinoa leaves from Ecuadorian sweet and bitter genotypes and assessed the expression of saponin biosynthetic genes in leaf samples elicited with methyl jasmonate. We found saponin accumulation in leaves after MeJA treatment in both ecotypes tested. As no reference genes were available to perform qPCR in quinoa, we mined publicly available RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The quinoa ortholog of At2g28390 (Monensin Sensitivity 1, MON1) was stably expressed and chosen as a suitable reference gene for qPCR analysis. Candidate saponin biosynthesis genes were screened in the quinoa RNA-Seq data and subsequent functional characterization in yeast led to the identification of CqbAS1, CqCYP716A78 and CqCYP716A79. These genes were found to be induced by MeJA, suggesting this phytohormone might also modulate saponin biosynthesis in quinoa leaves. Knowledge of the saponin biosynthesis and its regulation in quinoa may aid the further development of sweet cultivars that do not require postharvest processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Photoperiod Adaptation of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe

    The global interest in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is rapidly increasing, both as a result of its nutritional qualities but also due to its potential as an alternative crop in regions, such as the Mediterranean and Western Australia, where increasing soil salinity and extended periods...... of drought are the major constraints on agricultural productivity. However, quinoa originates from the Andean region and the majority of available cultivars are facultative short day plants and exhibit severely reduced, or completely disrupted, seed production under day lengths longer than 12 hours....... The inherent photoperiod sensitivity poses a challenge to future success of quinoa in regions outside its centre of origin. The existence of day length neutral quinoa cultivars provide an attractive alternative for cultivation in regions outside the tropical zone, as well as a valuable tool to compare adaptive...

  9. Draft genome sequence of an inbred line of Chenopodium quinoa, an allotetraploid crop with great environmental adaptability and outstanding nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yasuo; Hirakawa, Hideki; Oikawa, Tetsuo; Toyoshima, Masami; Matsuzaki, Chiaki; Ueno, Mariko; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Nagatoshi, Yukari; Imamura, Tomohiro; Miyago, Manami; Tanaka, Kojiro; Mise, Kazuyuki; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Mizukoshi, Hiroharu; Mori, Masashi; Fujita, Yasunari

    2016-12-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa) originated from the Andean region of South America, and is a pseudocereal crop of the Amaranthaceae family. Quinoa is emerging as an important crop with the potential to contribute to food security worldwide and is considered to be an optimal food source for astronauts, due to its outstanding nutritional profile and ability to tolerate stressful environments. Furthermore, plant pathologists use quinoa as a representative diagnostic host to identify virus species. However, molecular analysis of quinoa is limited by its genetic heterogeneity due to outcrossing and its genome complexity derived from allotetraploidy. To overcome these obstacles, we established the inbred and standard quinoa accession Kd that enables rigorous molecular analysis, and presented the draft genome sequence of Kd, using an optimized combination of high-throughput next generation sequencing on the Illumina Hiseq 2500 and PacBio RS II sequencers. The de novo genome assembly contained 25 k scaffolds consisting of 1 Gbp with N50 length of 86 kbp. Based on these data, we constructed the free-access Quinoa Genome DataBase (QGDB). Thus, these findings provide insights into the mechanisms underlying agronomically important traits of quinoa and the effect of allotetraploidy on genome evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  10. Optimization of lactic ferment with quinoa flour as bio-preservative alternative for packed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallagnol, Andrea Micaela; Pescuma, Micaela; Rollán, Graciela; Torino, María Inés; de Valdez, Graciela Font

    2015-05-01

    The consumers' demand for food with high nutritional quality and free of chemical additives increases the need to look for new products and preservation strategies. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an Andean pseudocereal highly appreciated because of its nutritional properties. Moreover, it is an optimal substrate for growing and production of improved amounts of antifungal compounds by Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778. The aim of this work was to optimize a lactic ferment for packaged breads with improved nutritional value and prolonged shelf life by applying a statistical experimental design model. The addition of 30 % quinoa to the wheat semiliquid ferment (QWF) could highly improve the amino acids release (4.3 g/L) during fermentation. Moreover, this quinoa proportion was sufficient to obtain the same concentration of the antifungal compounds, phenyllactic and hydroxiphenyllactic acids (PLA and OH-PLA) as with 100 % quinoa (ca. 36 and 51 mg/L, respectively). Statistical model analysis showed that citrate and skimmed milk enhanced significantly all evaluated parameters specially PLA (ca. 71 mg/L), HO-PLA (ca. 75 mg/L), and lactate (27 g/L) with a p value <0.005. The synergic effects of higher antifungal compounds production, acid release, and pH decrease allowed lowering the amount (about 50 %) of the chemical preservative calcium propionate commonly added to bread. Moreover, these breads show increased shelf life.

  11. Ultrastructure of Quinoa Fruit (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    OpenAIRE

    Varriano-Marston, E.; DeFrancisco, Alicia

    1984-01-01

    The structure of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) fruit before and after germination was studied using electron microscopy. Protective coverings include a perianth consisting of loosely adhering cell s which are readily removed by washing, a pericarp and two seed coat layers. Starch granules fill the perispenn cells and are arranged in 18 to 20 oblong aggregates. Limited hydrolysis of the starch occurs after 24 hrs of germination, with amylolytic erosion of large granules occurring at the hilum an...

  12. A high-quality genome assembly of quinoa provides insights into the molecular basis of salt bladder-based salinity tolerance and the exceptional nutritional value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Changsong; Chen, Aojun; Xiao, Lihong; Muller, Heike M; Ache, Peter; Haberer, Georg; Zhang, Meiling; Jia, Wei; Deng, Ping; Huang, Ru; Lang, Daniel; Li, Feng; Zhan, Dongliang; Wu, Xiangyun; Zhang, Hui; Bohm, Jennifer; Liu, Renyi; Shabala, Sergey; Hedrich, Rainer; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhang, Heng

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is a halophytic pseudocereal crop that is being cultivated in an ever-growing number of countries. Because quinoa is highly resistant to multiple abiotic stresses and its seed has a better nutritional value than any other major cereals, it is regarded as a future crop to ensure global food security. We generated a high-quality genome draft using an inbred line of the quinoa cultivar Real. The quinoa genome experienced one recent genome duplication about 4.3 million years ago, likely reflecting the genome fusion of two Chenopodium parents, in addition to the γ paleohexaploidization reported for most eudicots. The genome is highly repetitive (64.5% repeat content) and contains 54 438 protein-coding genes and 192 microRNA genes, with more than 99.3% having orthologous genes from glycophylic species. Stress tolerance in quinoa is associated with the expansion of genes involved in ion and nutrient transport, ABA homeostasis and signaling, and enhanced basal-level ABA responses. Epidermal salt bladder cells exhibit similar characteristics as trichomes, with a significantly higher expression of genes related to energy import and ABA biosynthesis compared with the leaf lamina. The quinoa genome sequence provides insights into its exceptional nutritional value and the evolution of halophytes, enabling the identification of genes involved in salinity tolerance, and providing the basis for molecular breeding in quinoa. PMID:28994416

  13. A high-quality genome assembly of quinoa provides insights into the molecular basis of salt bladder-based salinity tolerance and the exceptional nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Changsong; Chen, Aojun; Xiao, Lihong; Muller, Heike M; Ache, Peter; Haberer, Georg; Zhang, Meiling; Jia, Wei; Deng, Ping; Huang, Ru; Lang, Daniel; Li, Feng; Zhan, Dongliang; Wu, Xiangyun; Zhang, Hui; Bohm, Jennifer; Liu, Renyi; Shabala, Sergey; Hedrich, Rainer; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Zhang, Heng

    2017-11-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is a halophytic pseudocereal crop that is being cultivated in an ever-growing number of countries. Because quinoa is highly resistant to multiple abiotic stresses and its seed has a better nutritional value than any other major cereals, it is regarded as a future crop to ensure global food security. We generated a high-quality genome draft using an inbred line of the quinoa cultivar Real. The quinoa genome experienced one recent genome duplication about 4.3 million years ago, likely reflecting the genome fusion of two Chenopodium parents, in addition to the γ paleohexaploidization reported for most eudicots. The genome is highly repetitive (64.5% repeat content) and contains 54 438 protein-coding genes and 192 microRNA genes, with more than 99.3% having orthologous genes from glycophylic species. Stress tolerance in quinoa is associated with the expansion of genes involved in ion and nutrient transport, ABA homeostasis and signaling, and enhanced basal-level ABA responses. Epidermal salt bladder cells exhibit similar characteristics as trichomes, with a significantly higher expression of genes related to energy import and ABA biosynthesis compared with the leaf lamina. The quinoa genome sequence provides insights into its exceptional nutritional value and the evolution of halophytes, enabling the identification of genes involved in salinity tolerance, and providing the basis for molecular breeding in quinoa.

  14. Healthy food trends -- quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000731.htm Healthy food trends -- quinoa To use the sharing features on ... Nutrition Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  15. Desarrollo de una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de algarrobo, lupino y quinoa para la dieta de preescolares Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers

    OpenAIRE

    P. Cerezal Mezquita; E. Acosta Barrientos; G. Rojas Valdivia; N. Romero Palacios; R. Arcos Zavala

    2012-01-01

    En la presente investigación se desarrolló una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de la mezcla de los extractos líquidos de un pseudocereal, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) y de dos plantas leguminosas: algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) y lupino (Lupinus albus L.), provenientes del altiplano andino de la macrozona norte de Chile, saborizándose con pulpa de frambuesa, para contribuir en la alimentación de niños entre 2 y 5 años de estrato socio-económico bajo con deficienci...

  16. The global expansion of quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bazile, Didier; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Verniau, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was first domesticated in Andean countries over 7000 years ago. Following the Spanish conquest, quinoa was rejected as "Indian food." After centuries of neglect, the potential of quinoa was rediscovered during the second half of the 20th century. Since then......, the number of countries importing quinoa increased, with new producers appearing on the map and quinoa now being cultivated in areas outside the Andean countries. The geographical increase in distribution of quinoa has highlighted the difficulty of access to quality seed, which is a key factor for testing...... the crop outside the Andes. In this context, research partnerships have helped promote the exchange of quinoa germplasm and have allowed trials to be undertaken in non-traditional areas of cultivation. The number of countries growing the crop has increased rapidly from eight in 1980, to 40 in 2010...

  17. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  18. A crossing method for quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Adam; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Bonifacio, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    As sustainable production of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) increases and its geographic range of cultivation expands, quinoa breeding will allow use of the crop’s wide genetic diversity for cultivar improvement and for adaptation to new agroecosystems and climactic regimes. Such breeding work...... will require a reliable technique for crossing quinoa plants using hand emasculation. The technique described herein focuses on the isolation of small flower clusters produced low on the plant, emasculation of male flowers, and subsequent pairing of the emasculated female parent with a male parent undergoing...... to generate crosses between quinoa cultivars, as well as interspecific crosses between quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri. This technology will help pave the way for the introduction and sustainable expansion of quinoa on a global scale across a wide range of target environments and diverse farming systems....

  19. Computational analysis of the amino acid residue sequences of amaranth and some other proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorinstein, S; Zemser, M; Fliess, A; Shnitman, I; Paredes-Lopez, O; Yamamoto, K; Kobayashi, S; Taniguchi, H

    1998-10-01

    Amaranth belongs to a nutritious class of pseudocereals. The well balanced amino acid composition of amaranth compared with those of major cereals would indicate that it deserves a quantitative study of its chemical properties. This work was undertaken to compare Amaranthus (A.) caudatus with a number of other plants on the basis of the sequences of various proteins and the composition of their alcohol-soluble protein mixture and glutelins. Alcohol-soluble proteins were extracted with 55% isopropanol (2-ProOH) + 5% 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) and glutelin fractions were obtained with borate buffer + 3% 2-ME + 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), pH 10. Protein fractions were then electrophoreded on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels (SDS-PAGE). FASTA and TFASTA programmes were used for comparison of amino acid sequences. Dot matrix analysis and secondary structure predictions which were drawn by Plot-structure, were taken from the GCG package. Electrophoretic tests failed to indicate significant correlation between prolamins from cereals and other plants with the alcohol-soluble fractions from amaranth, proving that these proteins cannot represent the main fraction in amaranth. On the other hand, glutelins shared some common electrophoretic bands with other cereals and showed some identity by SDS-PAGE. Amino acid sequences of A. caudatus (100% identity) had degrees of similarity in the range of 71.4 to 52.2% with rice, garden pea, jobs' tears, maize, and yam. Rice glutelin had similarity in the range of 93.3% to 44.8% with oats, soybean, and pea. Secondary structures of A. caudatus (using conservative amino acid replacement), jobs' tears and rice glutelins, oat globulin, and pea legumin sequences were predicted. Some relationship was shown among electrophoretic patterns of alcohol-soluble proteins and glutelins of A. caudatus.

  20. Evaluation of growth and flowering of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The material presented refers to the estimation of growth and the flowering (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under Polish conditions. The species has been a South-American pseudocereal cultivated in the traditional form in the Andean region for over 5 thousand years. Its advantage, apart from low soil and climate requirements, is that it shows high nutritive value. The Chenopodium quinoa protein is especially valuable with its amino acid composition which is better balanced than that of wheat or maize. It shows a better share of egzogenic aminoacids. Field examinations were carried out in 1999-2001 at the Experiment Station of Cultivar Testing at Chrząstowo. The experiment involved two cultivars from two various growing regions: America and Europe. Analyses were made to include development stages, plant growth dynamics, inflorescences development dynamics, inflorescence habit and flowering. Differences were recorded in the growth and development models of the cultivars researched. The European cultivar had a short compact inflorescence with a short flowering period, reaching 120 cm. American cultivar plants were high (160 cm; they showed a slower continuous growth, loose big-in-size inflorescence, and a long period of flowering. The plants ended their growing season over the flowering stage or seed formation. The adequate growth, the course of flowering and, as a result, a stable yielding of the European cultivar make the group suitable for the cultivation under Polish conditions. This breeding group should also be the parent material for the cultivation of the Polish cultivar of Chenopodium quinoa.

  1. QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA WILLD: DIGESTIBILIDADE IN VITRO, DESENVOLVIMENTO E ANÁLISE SENSORIAL DE PREPARAÇÕES DESTINADAS A PACIENTES CELÍACOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. A. CASTRO

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd é um pseudocereal isento de glúten, oriundo dos Andes, onde tem sido cultivado há milhares de anos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e avaliar sensorialmente algumas preparações contendo quinoa em grãos, flocos e farinha, destinadas ao paciente celíaco, e determinar a digestibilidade in vitro de sua proteína, submetida ou não ao tratamento térmico. As amostras foram avaliadas sensorialmente através de um teste de aceitação utilizando a escala hedônica nominal de 9 pontos. O método utilizado na análise da digestibilidade protéica in vitro foi o da queda de pH após 10 minutos, com a adição das enzimas tripsina e pancreatina às amostras de quinoa, tratadas e não tratadas termicamente. Das sete preparações testadas, seis foram bem aceitas, já que apresentaram um Índice de Aceitabilidade maior que 70%. Os flocos e grãos de quinoa, após serem testados termicamente, tiveram sua digestibilidade otimizada. Portanto, a quinoa e seus derivados podem ser considerados uma boa opção para a alimentação dos indivíduos portadores da doença celíaca.

  2. Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quinoa is a regionally important grain crop in the Andean region of South America. Recently ... as a staple crop in the altiplano due to its high protein con- .... Colombia. UNA. 22. G-205-95 coastal. Denmarkc. UNA. 23. Salcedo-INIA. Andes. Peru. UNA. aAltiplano types are subdivided in valley, salares and high Andes.

  3. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, D.E.; Shwen Ho, Yung; Lightfoot, Damien J.; Sandra M. Schmöckel; Li, Bo; Borm, T.J.A.; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Mitchell, Craig T.; Saber, Noha; Kharbatia, Najeh M.; Rupper, Ryan R.; Sharp, Aaron R.; Dally, Nadine; Boughton, Berin A

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral...

  4. Assessment of the nutritional composition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Verena; Du, Juan; Charrondière, U Ruth

    2016-02-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an ancient crop which can play an important role for worldwide food security. The current review aimed at evaluating existing compositional data which were compiled according to international standards. A limited number of data were found that met the dataset quality criteria. In general, high variations in nutrient contents of quinoa were observed per 100g edible portion on fresh weight basis, for example: protein (9.1-15.7g), total fat (4.0-7.6g) and dietary fiber (8.8-14.1g). The variations of nutrient values among different varieties and among different data sources were considerable. The results show the nutritional potential of quinoa but they also demonstrate that more high-quality analytical data of quinoa are needed, especially for minerals and vitamins. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. APROVEITAMENTO, COMPOSIÇÃO NUTRICIONAL E ANTINUTRICIONAL DA FARINHA DE QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Oliveira LOPES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A quinoa é um pseudocereal originário dos Andes, cultivado há milênios e amplamente distribuído ao mundo. No Brasil, foi introduzido na década de 90 e, através de modifi cações genéticas, desenvolveu-se a variedade BRS Piabiru, adaptada para cultivos em solos brasileiros. Nutricionalmente, destaca-se em relação a muitos cereais, como o trigo, o milho e a cevada, por apresentar qualidade protéica comparável à caseína do leite e pela ausência de proteínas formadoras de glúten. Além disso, possui elevado teor de lisina, vitaminas (como tiamina, ribofl avina, niacina e piridoxina e minerais (como magnésio, zinco, cobre, ferro manganês e potássio. É essencial a realização de estudos dos nutrientes e antinutrientes da quinoa, de utilizá-la no preparo e desenvolvimento de receitas isentas de glúten. Diante disso, o presente estudo objetivou elaborar uma farinha de quinoa (FQ, caracterizar a sua composição nutricional e antinutricional, além de aproveitá-la na formulação de bolinhos fritos e avaliar sua aceitabilidade. Para a obtenção da farinha, os grãos de quinoa foram secos em estufa com circulação de ar forçada a 60-65oC, triturados e peneirados. A FQ foi submetida às avaliações da composição centesimal, de alguns minerais (potássio, cálcio, ferro e zinco e antinutricional (nitrato, ácido oxálico e inibidor de tripsina, sendo ainda formuladas e avaliadas a aceitabilidade de três preparações de bolinhos fritos com diferentes adições de FQ em escala hedônica de 5 pontos. Observou-se que a FQ destacou-se em proteínas, fi bras, cinzas, potássio, ferro, cálcio e zinco. Os valores (mg/100g dos antinutrientes encontrados na FQ foram de 63,26 para o nitrato, 380 para o ácido oxálico e 2,11UTI/mg para inibidor de tripsina, sendo considerados teores menores aos de outros alimentos vegetais comumente utilizados na alimentação humana. O bolinho de formulação com 12,61% de FQ

  6. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, David E; Ho, Yung Shwen; Lightfoot, Damien J; Schmöckel, Sandra M; Li, Bo; Borm, Theo J A; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Michell, Craig T; Saber, Noha; Kharbatia, Najeh M; Rupper, Ryan R; Sharp, Aaron R; Dally, Nadine; Boughton, Berin A; Woo, Yong H; Gao, Ge; Schijlen, Elio G W M; Guo, Xiujie; Momin, Afaque A; Negrão, Sónia; Al-Babili, Salim; Gehring, Christoph; Roessner, Ute; Jung, Christian; Murphy, Kevin; Arold, Stefan T; Gojobori, Takashi; Linden, C Gerard van der; van Loo, Eibertus N; Jellen, Eric N; Maughan, Peter J; Tester, Mark

    2017-02-16

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of the transcription factor likely to control the production of anti-nutritional triterpenoid saponins found in quinoa seeds, including a mutation that appears to cause alternative splicing and a premature stop codon in sweet quinoa strains. These genomic resources are an important first step towards the genetic improvement of quinoa.

  7. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa

    KAUST Repository

    Jarvis, David Erwin

    2017-02-08

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of the transcription factor likely to control the production of anti-nutritional triterpenoid saponins found in quinoa seeds, including a mutation that appears to cause alternative splicing and a premature stop codon in sweet quinoa strains. These genomic resources are an important first step towards the genetic improvement of quinoa.

  8. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarvis, D.E.; Shwen Ho, Yung; Lightfoot, Damien J.; Schmöckel, Sandra M.; Li, Bo; Borm, T.J.A.; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Mitchell, Craig T.; Saber, Noha; Kharbatia, Najeh M.; Rupper, Ryan R.; Sharp, Aaron R.; Dally, Nadine; Boughton, Berin A.; Woo, Yong H.; Gao, Ge; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Guo, Xiujie; Momin, Afaque A.; Negräo, Sónia; Al-Babili, Salim; Gehring, Christoph; Roessner, Ute; Jung, Christian; Murphy, Kevin; Arold, Stefan T.; Gojobori, Takashi; Linden, van der C.G.; Loo, van E.N.; Jellen, Eric N.; Maughan, Peter J.; Tester, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for

  9. SNP Discovery via Genomic Reduction, Barcoding, and 454-Pyrosequencing in Amaranth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Maughan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The grain amaranths are important pseudo-cereals native to the New World. During the last decade they have garnered increased international attention for their nutritional quality, tolerance to abiotic stress, and importance as a symbol of indigenous cultures. We report the development of a novel genomic reduction protocol based on restriction-site conservation and multiplex identifiers (MID barcodes to discover single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from a pooled amaranth library of four mapping parents. The incorporation of MID barcodes allowed for DNA sample pooling, sequence deconvolution, and the identification of SNPs for specific mapping populations without additional genotyping. Approximately 1.3 million sequence-reads with an average read length of 440 bp were collected from a single 454-pyrosequencing run. Contigs specific to each of the four mapping populations were assembled. The assembled contigs had an average read-length of 464 bp, and an average read-depth of 16X. A total of 27,658 SNPs were observed across all populations. The average base coverage at all SNPs was 20X. Thirty-four of 35 (97% predicted SNPs were verified via resequencing and the random genomic distribution of the SNPs generated using this approach was shown in . The method does not require a priori sequence information and should be readily adaptable to other species.

  10. [Amaranth flour: characteristics, comparative analysis, application possibilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkov, I M; Miroshnichenko, L A; Zviagin, A A; Bavykina, I A

    2014-01-01

    Amaranth flour--a product of amaranth seeds processing--is a valuable industrial raw material that has an unique chemical composition and may be used for nutrition of people suffering from intolerance to traditional cereals protein, including celiac disease patients. The research aim was to study the composition of amaranth flour of two types compared with semolina which is traditionally used for nutrition by Russian population, as well as to compare the composition of milk amaranth flour porridge with milk semolina porridge. The composition of amaranth whole-ground flour and amaranth flour of premium grade processed from amaranth seeds grown in Voronezh region has been researched. It is to be noted that protein content in amaranth flour was 10.8-24.3% higher than in semolina, and its biological value and NPU-coefficient were higher by 22.65 and 46.51% respectively; lysine score in amaranth flour protein of premium grade came up to 107.54%, and in semolina protein only 40.95%. The level of digestible carbohydrates, including starch, was lower in amaranth flour than in semolina by 2.79-12.85 and 4.76-15.85% respectively, while fiber content was 15.5-30 fold higher. Fat content in amaranth flour of premium grade was 2,4 fold lower than in whole-ground amaranth flour but it was 45% higher than in semolina. The main advantage of amaranth flour protein compared to wheat protein is the predominance of albumins and globulins and a minimal content of prolamines and alpha-gliadin complete absence. The specifics of chemical composition allow the amaranth flour to be recommended for being included into nutrition of both healthy children and adults and also celiac disease patients.

  11. ELABORAÇÃO DE UMA BARRA DE CEREAL DE QUINOA E SUAS PROPRIEDADES SENSORIAIS E NUTRICIONAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Duarte da SILVA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A quinoa é considerada um pseudocereal que tem como principal característica a qualidade de sua proteí- na, sendo reconhecida pela Organização Mundial de Saúde como um alimento ideal, por sua composição nutricional ser superior à maioria dos cereais. A quinoa é importante na alimentação de pessoas com doença celíaca, pois não apresenta as proteínas formadoras do glúten. Produtos preparados com quinoa têm forte apelo como alimento saudável, portanto, a elaboração de uma barra de cereal com quinoa pode constituir-se em excelente alternativa para pessoas que procuram uma dieta equilibrada, como também por portadores de doença celíaca. Este trabalho tem como principal objetivo, a elaboração de uma barra de cereal contendo quinoa e a análise do seu valor nutritivo e sensorial. Foram elaboradas barras de cereal com três diferentes concentrações de quinoa em grãos e utilizado o teste de ordenação para triagem da formulação preferida. A selecionada foi exposta aos provadores para a realização dos testes de aceitação por escala hedônica e teste de inten- ção de compra. Posteriormente, foi elaborada outra barra de cereal com farinha de quinoa e as duas amostras foram submetidas a testes de comparação, aceitação, intenção de compra, análises centesimais e de textura instrumental. As análises tiveram resultados satisfatórios em relação à sua composição nutricional e à análise sensorial, mostrando que a barra de cereal de quinoa pode ser considerada boa opção de produto para o mercado.

  12. A Crossing Method for Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Peterson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As sustainable production of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. increases and its geographic range of cultivation expands, quinoa breeding will allow use of the crop’s wide genetic diversity for cultivar improvement and for adaptation to new agroecosystems and climactic regimes. Such breeding work will require a reliable technique for crossing quinoa plants using hand emasculation. The technique described herein focuses on the isolation of small flower clusters produced low on the plant, emasculation of male flowers, and subsequent pairing of the emasculated female parent with a male parent undergoing anthesis. Various traits, such as plant color, seed color, and axil pigmentation can be used to confirm the successful production of F1 plants. The manual hybridization technology provides a significant advantage over pairing plants and relying on chance cross-pollination, and has been successfully used to generate crosses between quinoa cultivars, as well as interspecific crosses between quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri. This technology will help pave the way for the introduction and sustainable expansion of quinoa on a global scale across a wide range of target environments and diverse farming systems.

  13. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAIN AMARANTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    season. With a toasted flavor similar to popcorn when cooked, amaranth seeds are small in size but a good source of carbohydrate and protein (15-17 percent by weight). It is rich in the amino acids methionine, cycteine and has the highest content of lysine compared with all grains. It also has three times the fiber of wheat.

  14. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAIN AMARANTH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    capable of protecting cellular membranes against oxidative damage. Thus, the nutritional value of amaranth and environmental adaptability creates ... milliliters of digest was introduced in the distillation tube and then 10 ml of 0.5 g of NaOH was gradually added through the same way. Distillation was continued for at least ...

  15. EFECTO DE LA EXTRUSIÓN SOBRE LAS CARACTERÍSTICAS FÍSICO-QUÍMICAS DE HARINA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA LORENA CERÓN FERNANDEZ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa WILLD is a pseudocereal produced for many years in Andean regions and allows different transformations taking advantage of their nutritional qualities becoming it a food agribusiness alternative. Objective of this study was to observe physical and chemical changes from two quinoa flour varieties (Blanca dulce de Jericó and Tunkahuan during extrusion process and determine conditions (flour moisture, temperature and screw speed that allow obtain an extruded similar to precooked functional properties. Water absorption index (IAA, water solubility index (ISA and swelling power (PH was response variables. Two flour extrusion at 105°C degrees, 150 rpm screw speed and 25 to 30% moisture improved functional properties (IAA increased from 1,81 g gel/g D.M to 4,22 g gel/g D.M in Tunkahuan extruded quinoa flour and 2,00 g gel/g to 4,27 g gel MS/MS g flour in Blanca dulce de Jericó but nutriotional properties decreased as digestibility except for a carbohydrate content increase.

  16. Variability of traits quinoa introduced genotypes (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Dražić Slobodan; Živanović Tomislav; Maletić Radojka; Glamočlija Đorđe; Žarković Branka; Dražić Milena

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed variability and influence of investigated factors on grain yield of quinoa during three year period (2009, 2010, 2011). The experiment was conducted at two locations (Nova Pazova and Surduk), using two introduced genotypes of quinoa: KVL 37 and KVL 52. We detected that location and genotype had important impact. Grain yield varied according to years of study (1224 kg/ha to 1671 kg/ha). Results of regression and correlation analysis indicate on variation of the impact of plant heig...

  17. Quinoa, Version 0.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-05-06

    Quinoa is a set of computational tools that enables research and numerical analysis in fluid dynamics. At this time it is a test-bed to experiment with various algorithms using fully asynchronous runtime systems.

  18. Nederlandse quinoa in de winkel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkers, J.; Timmer, R.D.

    2015-01-01

    Dit jaar ligt er voor het eerst quinoa van vaderlandse bodem in de winkel. Wageningen leverde de geschikte rassen, en helpt boeren met de teelt. Interview met onder andere Ruud Timmer van PPO-agv te Lelystad

  19. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing ...

  20. Quinoa ancient whole grain gluten-free snacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of whole grain gluten-free low fat and salt quinoa snacks were evaluated. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. In the Asian cuisines ginger and turmeric are very common. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmer...

  1. Chemical and sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with addition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Andrea B; Brandelli, Adriano; Macedo, Fernanda C; Pieta, Luiza; Klug, Tâmmila V; de Jong, Erna V

    2010-03-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% increase in vitamin E, while the quantity of polyphenols decreased from 23.5 to 18 μmol pirocatechin/g. The amount of essential amino acids was improved in samples containing quinoa. Cysteine, tyrosine and methionine increased by 104, 72, 70%, respectively in chocolate containing 20% quinoa. The amino acid pattern was as per WHO standards, which was adequate to human needs. The chocolate with quinoa was approved by 92% of the sensory panel. All the samples showed an index of acceptance above 70%. Quinoa could be used at the levels evaluated in this study adding its potential health benefit to the dark chocolate.

  2. Nutritional characterization of grain amaranth grown in Nigeria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amaranths cruentus is a flowering plant species that yields the nutritious staple amaranth grain. Zinc in grain amaranth is reported to contribute to boosting the immune system and iron is required by enzymes for oxygen metabolism. This study is to exploit the multi-benefits of amaranth which ranged from improved ...

  3. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graf, Brittany L; Rojas‐Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E; Delatorre‐Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa ( Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain‐like, stress‐tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years...

  4. Simulation of Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.) response to soil salinity using the saltmed model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Plauborg, Finn; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a crop with high tolerance to salinity and drought and its response to varying soil moisture and salinity levels was studied in a field lysimeter experiment. Quinoa (cv. Titicaca) was irrigated with different concentrations of saline water (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40...

  5. Polyphenols in Raw and Cooked Cereals/Pseudocereals/Legume Pasta and Couscous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcea, Marina; Narducci, Valentina; Turfani, Valeria; Giannini, Vittoria

    2017-09-11

    Pasta and couscous are popular foods manufactured (in their traditional form) from durum wheat semolina. In recent years, the consumers' quest for novel, functional, gluten-free, wholegrain foods has prompted the industry to manufacture new pasta and couscous products in which durum wheat has been partially or totally replaced by other vegetable flours. Besides dietary fibre, these raw materials might be an interesting source of phytochemicals. In this work, 16 commercial samples of pasta and four samples of couscous representative of the new products and made of refined and wholegrain flours of different species of cereals, pseudocereals and legumes were analysed for free, hydrolysable bound and total polyphenol content by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Analyses were repeated on cooked samples to assess the quantity of polyphenols ingested by the consumers. The raw legume and pseudocereal products had a total polyphenol content higher than most cereal products (up to 1743.4 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) per 100 g dry weight). Wholegrain products had higher contents than refined products. The free fraction underwent up to 46% loss with cooking, probably because of solubility in water. The water absorption of pasta and couscous during cooking was in a ratio of 2:3, resulting in higher dilution of polyphenols in the cooked couscous.

  6. Polyphenols in Raw and Cooked Cereals/Pseudocereals/Legume Pasta and Couscous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Vittoria

    2017-01-01

    Pasta and couscous are popular foods manufactured (in their traditional form) from durum wheat semolina. In recent years, the consumers’ quest for novel, functional, gluten-free, wholegrain foods has prompted the industry to manufacture new pasta and couscous products in which durum wheat has been partially or totally replaced by other vegetable flours. Besides dietary fibre, these raw materials might be an interesting source of phytochemicals. In this work, 16 commercial samples of pasta and four samples of couscous representative of the new products and made of refined and wholegrain flours of different species of cereals, pseudocereals and legumes were analysed for free, hydrolysable bound and total polyphenol content by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. Analyses were repeated on cooked samples to assess the quantity of polyphenols ingested by the consumers. The raw legume and pseudocereal products had a total polyphenol content higher than most cereal products (up to 1743.4 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) per 100 g dry weight). Wholegrain products had higher contents than refined products. The free fraction underwent up to 46% loss with cooking, probably because of solubility in water. The water absorption of pasta and couscous during cooking was in a ratio of 2:3, resulting in higher dilution of polyphenols in the cooked couscous. PMID:28892013

  7. PROCESAMIENTO POST-COSECHA DE GRANOS DE QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA, CHENOPODIACEAE EN EL PERÍODO PREHISPÁNICO TARDÍO EN EL NORTE DE LÍPEZ (POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laura López

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir del estudio etnoarqueológico del tratamiento post-cosecha de granos de quinoa entre los habitantes del altiplano de Lípez (Potosí, Bolivia, se describen algunos rasgos diagnósticos de cada actividad y forma de procesamiento observables en los granos desecados. El potencial de estas observaciones para investigar las antiguas prácticas de procesamiento y consumo de este pseudocereal es ilustrado mediante el análisis de granos recuperados en cuatro sitios arqueológicos cercanos al Salar de Uyuni. Las quinoas examinadas se encontraban en distintas etapas de procesamiento; algunas no habían sido aún desaponificadas, por lo que inferimos que habían sido almacenadas inmediatamente después de la cosecha, mientras que otras muestras exhibían rastros de desaponificación comparables a los observados en contextos actuales, sugiriendo su preparación para distintos modos de consumo.

  8. Programmed cell death during quinoa perisperm development

    OpenAIRE

    L?pez-Fern?ndez, Mar?a Paula; Maldonado,Sara

    2013-01-01

    At seed maturity, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) perisperm consists of uniform, non-living, thin-walled cells full of starch grains. The objective of the present study was to study quinoa perisperm development and describe the programme of cell death that affects the entire tissue. A number of parameters typically measured during programmed cell death (PCD), such as cellular morphological changes in nuclei and cytoplasm, endoreduplication, DNA fragmentation, and the participation of nucle...

  9. Molecular cytogenetic studies in Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus caudatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Małuszyńska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa Wild. and Amaranthus caudatus L., two plant species from South America, have small and numerous chromosomes. Looking for chromosome markers to distinguish pairs of homologous chromosomes double fluorescence staining, in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA and silver staining were applied. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA has shown two sites of hybridization occurring on one pair of chromosomes in qunion genre (lines PQ-1, PQ-8. The number of RDA loci in Amaranth's caudate L. genre depends on the accession. Kiwicha 3 line has one pair of chromosomes with signals and Kiwicha Molinera cultivar two pairs. All observed rDNA loci were active. After chromomycin/DAPI staining in all cases, except Kiwicha Molinera cultivar, the CMA3 positive bands co-localized with signals of in situ hybridization with rDNA. In Kiwicha Molinera the number of CMA+ bands was higher than the number of 45S rDNA signals after FISH.

  10. Variability of traits quinoa introduced genotypes (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražić Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed variability and influence of investigated factors on grain yield of quinoa during three year period (2009, 2010, 2011. The experiment was conducted at two locations (Nova Pazova and Surduk, using two introduced genotypes of quinoa: KVL 37 and KVL 52. We detected that location and genotype had important impact. Grain yield varied according to years of study (1224 kg/ha to 1671 kg/ha. Results of regression and correlation analysis indicate on variation of the impact of plant height and number of plants per meter on the grain yield. Correlation coefficients were generally low and didn't show as significant. This indicates that these studies included small number of properties that can affect grain yield. In further work with this introduced species, more properties should be included.

  11. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    OpenAIRE

    Talwinder S. Kahlon; Roberto J. Avena-Bustillos; Mei-Chen M. Chiu

    2016-01-01

    Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% c...

  12. Properties of amaranth flour with functional oat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranth flour containing the essential amino acid, lysine, was composited with oat products that contain ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. The pasting and rheological properties of amaranth-oat composites were evaluated. The amaranth-Nutrim composites showe...

  13. Acceptability and nutritional contribution of grain amaranth recipes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain amaranth is a highly nutritious crop. It is high in proteins and its proteins are of high quality. Compared to common starchy staples, grain amaranth also contains higher levels calcium, zinc, iron as well as vitamins A, E and folic acid. Grain amaranth has also been reported to exhibit nutraceutical properties. Despite its ...

  14. Physicochemical properties of quinoa starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Wang, Sunan; Zhu, Fan

    2016-02-10

    Physicochemical properties of quinoa starches isolated from 26 commercial samples from a wide range of collection were studied. Swelling power (SP), water solubility index (WSI), amylose leaching (AML), enzyme susceptibility, pasting, thermal and textural properties were analyzed. Apparent amylose contents (AAM) ranged from 7.7 to 25.7%. Great variations in the diverse physicochemical properties were observed. Correlation analysis showed that AAM was the most significant factor related to AML, WSI, and pasting parameters. Correlations among diverse physicochemical parameters were analyzed. Principal component analysis using twenty three variables were used to visualize the difference among samples. Six principal components were extracted which could explain 88.8% of the total difference. The wide variations in physicochemical properties could contribute to innovative utilization of quinoa starch for food and non-food applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quinoa- opprinnelse, dyrking og anvendelse

    OpenAIRE

    Friis Pedersen, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Quinoa er i mange henseender en spennende vekst. Den har historisk spilt en viktig rolle i fortidens Inka-rike i Sør-Amerika, men kan også i dag være en interessant vekst for matsikkerhet og bærekraftig landbruk. Rapporten omhandler historie, dyrking og anvendelse. Dessuten beskriver rapporten en utprøving av fire sorter på Nordmøre i sesongen 2013.

  16. Introduction to the quinoa dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Friis Pedersen, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa production and consumption have experienced a boom and may be called a great success. The boom affects economy, ecology and social relations, three important aspects of sustainability. These three key points will be discussed in the present introduction and a humble suggestion for sustainable approaches will be made where contradictions are found. The presentation was a short introduction to a panel taking place in Helsinki 12th of June 2015.

  17. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P ... and height and caused delay and reduction in seed emergence, quinoa was shown to be more resistant than chickpea. Dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index and crop water productivity were affected significantly (P ... and seed yield for both quinoa and chickpea while increasing salinity resulted in increase - in the case of quinoa - and decrease - in the case of chickpea - in harvest index and crop water productivity. Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity, while K+ content decreased...

  18. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, Talwinder S; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Chiu, Mei-Chen M

    2016-12-01

    Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt. Snack dough was prepared using 120 mL water for 100 g dry ingredients. About 20 g of snack dough was placed on center of preheated KrumKake Express Baker and cooked for 2 min. Seventy in-house volunteers judged Color/Appearance of Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper and Quinoa-Ginger snacks significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than Quinoa-Turmeric snacks. Odor/Aroma of Quinoa-Ginger snacks was significantly higher than other snacks tested. Texture/Mouth-feel of Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric snacks was similar and significantly higher than Quinoa snacks. Taste/Flavor and Acceptance was similar in four kinds of snacks tested. Water activity of all the snacks tested ranged from 0.41-0.55 suggesting that these snacks were crispy with good antimicrobial stability. These snacks would be quite filling due to their expansion of 2.6-3.1 times due to high porosity. Acceptance of snacks tested was Quinoa 79%, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper 77%, Quinoa-Ginger 73% and Quinoa-Turmeric 70%. These snacks contained only 3-4 ingredients and could be made in any house kitchen or commercial production. Acceptance of 70-79% is very desirable. These healthy nutritious gluten-free quinoa snacks offer choice for all including vegetarians and individuals hypersensitive to gluten.

  19. Sensory evaluation of gluten-free quinoa whole grain snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talwinder S. Kahlon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory evaluation of quinoa gluten-free whole grain low fat and salt snacks was conducted. The snacks were Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric. Cayenne pepper, ginger and turmeric are common spices that contain health promoting nutrients. Cayenne pepper has been associated with enhancing heat production. Ginger has been reported to improve blood flow and prevent joint pains. Turmeric has been observed to have wound healing potential. All the snacks contained 6% corn oil and 2% salt. Snack dough was prepared using 120 mL water for 100 g dry ingredients. About 20 g of snack dough was placed on center of preheated KrumKake Express Baker and cooked for 2 min. Seventy in-house volunteers judged Color/Appearance of Quinoa, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper and Quinoa-Ginger snacks significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher than Quinoa-Turmeric snacks. Odor/Aroma of Quinoa-Ginger snacks was significantly higher than other snacks tested. Texture/Mouth-feel of Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper, Quinoa-Ginger and Quinoa-Turmeric snacks was similar and significantly higher than Quinoa snacks. Taste/Flavor and Acceptance was similar in four kinds of snacks tested. Water activity of all the snacks tested ranged from 0.41–0.55 suggesting that these snacks were crispy with good antimicrobial stability. These snacks would be quite filling due to their expansion of 2.6–3.1 times due to high porosity. Acceptance of snacks tested was Quinoa 79%, Quinoa-Cayenne Pepper 77%, Quinoa-Ginger 73% and Quinoa-Turmeric 70%. These snacks contained only 3–4 ingredients and could be made in any house kitchen or commercial production. Acceptance of 70–79% is very desirable. These healthy nutritious gluten-free quinoa snacks offer choice for all including vegetarians and individuals hypersensitive to gluten.

  20. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-07-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical products and processes have been developed from quinoa. Furthermore, 4 clinical studies have demonstrated that quinoa supplementation exerts significant, positive effects on metabolic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal health in humans. However, vast challenges and opportunities remain within the scientific, agricultural, and development sectors to optimize quinoa's role in the promotion of global human health and nutrition.

  1. Innovations in Health Value and Functional Food Development of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Brittany L.; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Rojo, Leonel E.; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Baldeón, Manuel E.; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., Amaranthaceae) is a grain-like, stress-tolerant food crop that has provided subsistence, nutrition, and medicine for Andean indigenous cultures for thousands of years. Quinoa contains a high content of health-beneficial phytochemicals, including amino acids, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, saponins, phytosterols, phytoecdysteroids, phenolics, betalains, and glycine betaine. Over the past 2 decades, numerous food and nutraceutical prod...

  2. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) reaction to herbicide residue in a Brazilian Savannah soil.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos; Carlos Roberto Spehar; Lucio Vivaldi

    2003-01-01

    ABSTRACT The quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivation, one of the most promising in double cropping with soybeans or maize, depends on weed control. The objective of this work was to evaluate quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a savannah soil. Six herbicide treatments, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin and control, were applied, prior to summer cultivation of soybean, in a Dark-Red Latosol (typic Haplustox). Soybean cultivar BR 9 Savana wa...

  3. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

    OpenAIRE

    Giuditta De Santis; Carmen Maddaluno; Tiziana D’Ambrosio; Agata Rascio; Michele Rinaldi; Jacopo Troisi

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total sap...

  4. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd.) as a source of dietary fiber and other functional components

    OpenAIRE

    Ritva Ann-Mari Repo-Carrasco-Valencia; Lesli Astuhuaman Serna

    2011-01-01

    Four varieties of an Andean indigenous crop, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), were evaluated as a source of dietary fiber, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The crops were processed by extrusion-cooking and the final products were analyzed to determine the dietary fiber, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein. There were no significant differences in the contents of total dietary fiber between varieties of quinoa. In all ...

  5. Development beer technology with amaranth flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Danina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the present time, the urgent problem is the development of product range of beer and the reduction of production costs. We used amaranth flour: "protein" and "carbohydrate", is designed and experimentally obtained from seeds of amaranth and made available for research "Agros" company (Kaliningrad region. The article discusses the effects of different concentrations of flour on the process of mashing, fermentation and the quality of beer. Prepared in the ratio of light barley malt:amaranth flour 90:10 and 80:20, respectively. Experimental were chosen of mashing barley malt with the addition of flour. The mashing process started with a temperature of 40 or 500C. Cytolytic pause was 30 min, protein-25 min, malt pause was increased up to 30 min. Using 20% of flour in the total grain charge leads to the increase of first wort extract content to 12.2%. By increasing the amount of flour in the grist of grain products increases the saccharification of the mash. The time of saccharification when you make 20% of the "protein" flour and the initial temperature of mashing 500C is 26 minutes, and "carbohydrate" flour -18min., therefore, when developing technology of new beer, from the point of view of reducing the cost of production, it is advisable to use "carbohydrate" amaranth flour in the amount of 20% in the total grain products. We estimated the impact of concentrations used flour on organoleptic indicators of finished beer on a 25 point scale. The aroma of the beer was felt citrus and malt undertones. Total score of beer with 10% amaranth flour is 18 points, and 20% amaranth flour is 20 points.

  6. YOGHURT STRUCTURE MODIFICATION WITH AMARANTH EXTRACT AND TRANGLUTAMINASE ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Shleikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain functional dairy products is an important issue to improve the diet of the population. This article is devoted to development of yoghurt with transglutaminase enzyme. Transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13 performs cross-linking of proteins, strengthening the structure of the product. The concentration of transglutaminase used was 4 U/g of protein (0.1 %. Amaranth extract prepared from amaranth flour weighed in 5 % concentration per fermented samples volume was used as a vegetable additive to get yogurt. Yogurt was prepared a thermostately method. Milk was warmed up to 37 °C, amaranth extract and a transglutaminase was added. Study of samples of different compoundings is carried out. 1 – yogurt with amaranth extract (200 ml of milk + 100 ml of amaranth extract, 2 – the yogurt with amaranth extract prepared with adding of a transglutaminase (200 ml of milk + 100 ml of amaranth extract + 0.3 g of a transglutaminase and a control sample (300 ml of milk. Amaranth is composed of a variety of nutrients, valuable proteins, vitamins, squalene with antitumor activity. Influence of used additives on the fermented product structure and organoleptic properties was investigated. Results showed that durability of amaranth yogurt of high strength control for 6%, and durability of amaranth yogurt from the transglutaminase is 18% higher, than durability of the control. It was found consistence, viscosity and organoleptic properties had been improved.

  7. Flavor compounds of popped amaranth seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    Amaranth caudatus seeds were popped and studied for optimal popping conditions and flavor compounds. The optimum popping temperature for the seeds was 180C. At this temperature, the expansion volume, flake size and unpopped kernel proportion were 9.4¿11.3 cm3/g, 0.010¿0.012 cm/g and 10¿2%,

  8. Improving abiotic stress tolerance of quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Aizheng

    other crops, its productivity declines under severe drought, high salt conditions and harsh climate conditions. Different management approaches including water-saving irrigation methods (such as deficit irrigation, DI and alternate root-zone drying irrigation, ARD), inoculating crop seeds with plant......Global food security faces the challenges of rapid population growth and shortage of water resources. Drought, heat waves and soil salinity are becoming more frequent and extreme due to climatic changes in many regions of the world, and resulting in yield reduction of many crops. It is hypothesized...... that quinoa has the potential to grow under a range of abiotic stresses, tolerating levels regarded as stresses in other crop species. Therefore cultivation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) could be an alternative option in such regions. Even though quinoa is more tolerant to abiotic stress than most...

  9. Quinoa starch characteristics and their correlations with the texture profile analysis (TPA) of cooked quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch characteristics exhibited significant influence on the functionality and end-use quality and cereal product. The composition and properties of quinoa starch were studied in this paper. The correlations between starch characteristics and the texture of cooked quinoa were investigated. The corr...

  10. Water Relations and Transpiration of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Salinity and Soil Drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Adolf, Verena Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the two major factors limiting crop growth and production in arid and semi-arid regions. The separate and combined effects of salinity and progressive drought in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied in a greenhouse experiment. Stomatal conductance (gs), leaf...

  11. The effect of drought on water regime and growth of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stikić Radmila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. is a highly nutritious Andean seed crop which shows great potential to grow under a range of different stress environments. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of drought on water regime and the growth of quinoa variety KVL52 in controlled conditions. The results of the present experiment indicate that the reaction of quinoa plants to drought are based on drought avoidance mechanisms: reduced transpiration and sustained water uptake. Transpiration was reduced due to the decrease of stomatal conductance and leaf area development. These results could be of practical importance for testing the possibility of growing quinoa as a new drought resistant crop in Serbia.

  12. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Isabelle L.; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga,Marta Suely; Yamashita,Fábio; Magnani,Marciane

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the m...

  13. Pasting and rheological properties of quinoa-oat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium, quinoa) flour, known for its essential amino acids, was composited with oat products containing ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. Quinoa-oat composites were developed and evaluated for their pasting and rheological properties by a Rapid ...

  14. Hepatotropic, antioxidant and antitoxic action of amaranth oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaevsky V.A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is our opinion that amaranth seed oil’s properties merit further study due to their high quantity of squalene. Squalene has been shown to have antitoxic, antioxidant, and hepatotropic properties. The liver is one of the most important organs in the human body, and as a filtering organ, it is subjected to many toxic compounds and free radicals. Thus, protecting the liver with an antioxidant and antitoxic compound could offer significant benefits. Objective: In the present study we have evaluated the antitoxic, antioxidant, and hepatotropic (hepatoprotective effects of amaranth oil acquired via a patented pressing method. Rats were treated with amaranth oil, a comparative compound, or a control compound and then subjected to various toxic, oxidizing, and other compounds in order to examine amaranth oil’s effects. Results: Amaranth oil was found to have a positive and dose-dependent effect both in vivo and in vitro. Amaranth oil’s hepatoprotective activity was confirmed by both biological and morphological examination. This study suggests that amaranth oil acts to prevent and reduce CT damage in liver tissue. This was especially the case in doses of 300 mg/kg,proved both by normalization of hepatic ferments-markers indexes and morphological examinations. Conclusion: The amaranth oil acquired via a patented pressing method possesses antitoxic and antioxidant activity. In this connection, the amaranth oil can be recommended for prophylaxis of toxic and drug-induced liver lesions and as a component of the functional food and dietetics of various diseases.

  15. Development, characterization and chemometric analysis of gluten-free granolas containing whole flour of pseudo-cereals new cultivars - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v36i1.19195

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Henrique Pereira Souza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was the development, quimiometric analysis, physical-chemical, microbiological, nutritional, and sensory evaluation of gluten-free granolas containing quinoa, amaranth and linseed. Gluten fractions were not detected in the granola formulations prepared. The crude protein and total lipids contents ranged from 86.72 to 97.49 and 97.84 to 134.03 g kg-1 of food, respectively. The polyunsaturated/saturated and n-6: n-3 fatty acid ratios were 3:1. Calcium was the major mineral and the contents of trace minerals copper, iron, magnesium, manganese and zinc were over 10% of the dietary reference intake values. The granola color tended to light brown. The absence of Bacillus cereus, thermotolerant coliforms, coagulase positive staphylococcus, and Salmonella sp. ensured the product safety. All the granola formulations had good sensory acceptance and high purchase intent. The gluten-free granola formulations had good physical-chemical, sensory and nutritional quality. The use of chemometric analysis enabled to distinguish the samples with respect to their fatty acid composition, minerals content and sensory aspects.

  16. Genetic improvement of the quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) by mutagenesis; Mejoramiento genetico de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) por mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez A, M

    1992-02-15

    As a continuation of the obtained advances of the AB173 project, where its had the studies about germination of the quinoa seed in laboratory and in field emergency, of four varieties (Sierra Blanca, Isluga, Barandales and Lipez) treated with 10 gamma radiation doses of Co, in this report the results are presented obtained on the response of the doses in three variables of agronomic importance: 1) height of the plant, 2) population's density and 3) grain yield. At the end one carries out a regression analysis in each one of the varieties, in the emergency variables in field, population's density and grain yield. The obtained results reveal, in general form that the four varieties respond in different form, as much among them as before those different radiation dose. (Author)

  17. Morphological and molecular characterization of the causal agent of downy mildew on Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young-Joon; Danielsen, Solveig; Lübeck, Mette; Hong, Seung-Beom; Delhey, Rolf; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2010-05-01

    Downy mildew is an economically important and widespread disease in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) growing areas. Although in many studies Peronospora farinosa is most commonly regarded as the causal agent of the disease, identification and classification of the pathogen remain still uncertain due to its taxonomic confusion. Thirty-six Peronospora isolates from quinoa with different geographic origins including Argentina, Bolivia, Denmark, Ecuador, and Peru were morphologically and molecularly compared with Peronospora species from other Chenopodium species. The morphology of three herbarium specimens was similar to that of P. variabilis, which originated from C. album, characterized by flexuous to curved ultimate branchlets and pedicellated conidia. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS rDNA sequences also placed the quinoa pathogen within the same clade as P. variabilis. Within the ITS rDNA sequences of the quinoa pathogens, two base substitutions were found, which separated the majority of the Danish isolates from isolates from South America, but no sequence difference was found among the isolates from different cultivars of quinoa. The present results indicate that the pathogen responsible for the quinoa downy mildew is identical to Peronospora variabilis and that it should not be lumped with P. farinosa as claimed previously by most studies.

  18. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Seeds Cultivated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hwa; Lee, Yun Jin; Kim, Yeon Ho; Yoon, Ki Sun

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of quinoa cultivated in Korea and to compare it with imported quinoa from the USA and Peru. The highest amount of total flavonoid contents (TFC) with 20.91 mg quercetin equivalents/100 g was measured in quinoa seed extract cultivated in Korea, while the total phenolic contents (TPC) were significantly higher in quinoa from the USA (16.28 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g). In addition, quinoa extracts cultivated in Korea displayed a superior antioxidant ability in both, ferric reducing antioxidant power and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl values. There was a high correlation between TFC and antioxidant activity and a low correlation between TPC and antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of the quinoa extracts was determined using a disc diffusion assay and optical density method. In both assays, the quinoa seed extracts did not have strong antimicrobial activity against foodborne bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni.

  19. The Global Expansion of Quinoa: Trends and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Verniau, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was first domesticated in Andean countries over 7000 years ago. Following the Spanish conquest, quinoa was rejected as "Indian food." After centuries of neglect, the potential of quinoa was rediscovered during the second half of the 20th century. Since then, the number of countries importing quinoa increased, with new producers appearing on the map and quinoa now being cultivated in areas outside the Andean countries. The geographical increase in distribution of quinoa has highlighted the difficulty of access to quality seed, which is a key factor for testing the crop outside the Andes. In this context, research partnerships have helped promote the exchange of quinoa germplasm and have allowed trials to be undertaken in non-traditional areas of cultivation. The number of countries growing the crop has increased rapidly from eight in 1980, to 40 in 2010, and to 75 in 2014. A further 20 countries have sown quinoa for the first time in 2015. In this paper, we analyze this trend and discuss the limits of quinoa's expansion. As commercial production of quinoa is expected to develop, changes in international regulatory frameworks on genetic resources are needed in order to facilitate plant breeding for the most adaptive varieties for each region.

  20. Programmed cell death during quinoa perisperm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Maldonado, Sara

    2013-08-01

    At seed maturity, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) perisperm consists of uniform, non-living, thin-walled cells full of starch grains. The objective of the present study was to study quinoa perisperm development and describe the programme of cell death that affects the entire tissue. A number of parameters typically measured during programmed cell death (PCD), such as cellular morphological changes in nuclei and cytoplasm, endoreduplication, DNA fragmentation, and the participation of nucleases and caspase-like proteases in nucleus dismantling, were evaluated; morphological changes in cytoplasm included subcellular aspects related to starch accumulation. This study proved that, following fertilization, the perisperm of quinoa simultaneously accumulates storage reserves and degenerates, both processes mediated by a programme of developmentally controlled cell death. The novel findings regarding perisperm development provide a starting point for further research in the Amaranthaceae genera, such as comparing seeds with and without perisperm, and specifying phylogeny and evolution within this taxon. Wherever possible and appropriate, differences between quinoa perisperm and grass starchy endosperm--a morphologically and functionally similar, although genetically different tissue--were highlighted and discussed.

  1. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Juan; Wen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor) are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C), and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa). It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  2. Seed germination in relation to the invasiveness in spiny amaranth and edible amaranth in Xishuangbanna, SW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ye

    Full Text Available Both spiny and edible amaranths (Amaranthus spinosus and A. tricolor are exotic annuals in China that produce numerous small seeds every year. Spiny amaranth has become a successful invader and a troublesome weed in Xishuangbanna, but edible amaranth has not, although it is widely grown as a vegetable there. As seed germination is one of the most important life-stages contributing to the ability of a plant to become invasive, we conducted experiments to compare the effects of high temperature and water stress on seed germination in two varieties each of spiny amaranth and edible amaranth. Overall, the seeds of both amaranth species exhibited adaptation to high temperature and water stress, including tolerance to ground temperatures of 70°C for air-dried seeds, which is consistent with their behavior in their native ranges in the tropics. As expected, the invasive spiny amaranth seeds exhibited higher tolerance to both continuous and daily periodic high-temperature treatment at 45°C, and to imbibition-desiccation treatment, compared to edible amaranth seeds. Unexpectedly, edible amaranth seeds exhibited higher germination at extreme temperatures (10°C, 15°C, and 40°C, and at lower water potential (below -0.6 MPa. It is likely that cultivation of edible amaranth has selected seed traits that include rapid germination and germination under stressful conditions, either of which, under natural conditions, may result in the death of most germinating edible amaranth seeds and prevent them from becoming invasive weeds in Xishuangbanna. This study suggests that rapid germination and high germination under stress conditions-excellent seed traits for crops and for many invasive species-might be a disadvantage under natural conditions if these traits are asynchronous with natural local conditions that support successful germination.

  3. Palmer Amaranth Identification and Documentation of Herbicide Resistance in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth (Amaranthuspalmeri S. Wats.) has greatly disrupted agricultural practices in the US with its rapid growth and rapid evolution of herbicide resistance. This weed species is now suspected in Argentina. To document whether the suspected plant populations are indeed Palmer amaranth, mo...

  4. Redox Modulation by Amaranth Oil in Human Lung Fibroblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Semen, K.O.; den Hartog, G.J.M.; Kaminsky, D.V.; Sirota, T.V.; Maij, N.G.A.A.; Yelisyeyeva, O.P.; Bast, A.

    2013-01-01

    Amaranth oil has several health benefits. It has lipid lowering, anti-diabetic, immune modulatory and cytoprotective properties, activates the function of mitochondria and improves heart rate variability. It has been suggested that the effect of amaranth oil on redox status is involved in this

  5. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) competition for water in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in cotton production. Yield losses of 65% have been reported due to season-long Palmer amaranth competition with cotton. To determine if water is a factor in this system, experiments were conducted in 2011, 2012, and 2013 in Citra, FL and in Tifton, GA. In 2011,...

  6. Nutritional diversity of leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-07-31

    Jul 31, 2014 ... ABSTRACT. Objectives: Despite the availability of many species of amaranth in Kenya, there is inadequate information on their nutritional diversity and how they can be best used in mitigation of malnutrition. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating the nutritional diversity of five leafy amaranth species ...

  7. Herbicide tolerance and seed survival of grain amaranth (Amaranthus sp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per; Taberner, Andreu; de Troiani, Rosa M.

    2012-01-01

    Amaranth is receiving increasing attention as an alternative crop to small grain cereals. From a weed control point of view cultivation of amaranth poses two problems. Firstly, amaranth grows slowly after emergence and hence is very susceptible to competition by weeds and secondly, seed losses...... crop damage applied at the 4-6 leaf stage compared to the 2-4 leaf stage while clopyralid was selective at both growth stages. The seed survival studies revealed differences between the countries with higher viability in Spain (up to 18%) than in Argentina and Denmark (up to 6%). Our results showed...... at harvest are significant due to an uneven maturing and volunteer amaranth plants could potentially become a weed problem in following crops. Nonetheless, no studies are available on the tolerance of amaranth to herbicides or the survival of seeds in the soil. In this study we examined 1) the tolerance...

  8. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. versus soja (Glycine max [L.] Merr. en la nutrición humana: revisión sobre las características agroecológicas, de composición y tecnológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Maria Chito Trujillo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El diseño de alimentos funcionales a partir de productos vegetales muy estudiados como la soja (Glycine max [L.] Merr. y la potencialización de productos ancestrales como la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. son estrategias factibles para contrarrestar la desnutrición mundial. El objetivo de la presente revisión es describir las características agroecológicas, de composición, nutricionales y tecnológicas de estas dos especies vegetales diferentes (leguminosa y pseudocereal, basado en las publicaciones previas. Se realizó una revisión en bases de datos (Scopus, Web of Science, Scielo y se complementó con una búsqueda manual en Google Scholar y páginas web de instituciones acreditadas. Los estudios incluidos (n=117 en esta revisión muestran que la soja se adapta mejor a altitudes bajas (~1.000 m s. n. m., mientras que la quinoa lo hace en un rango de mayores altitudes (500-4.000 m s. n. m. con mayor tolerancia a heladas. Ambas son fuente de una alta calidad proteica por suplir los requerimientos de aminoácidos esenciales sugeridos para niños y adultos sin diferencias significativas (p>0,05, particularmente triptófano y lisina y por los altos porcentajes de digestibilidad (>70%. Sus concentraciones bajas de prolaminas y aceptables de Fe, Zn, Ca, daidzeína y genisteína los convierten en productos de interés para la industria alimentaria.

  9. Responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to salinity and temperature regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, Verena Isabelle

    Water scarcity, soil salinity and high temperatures are the major causes of yield losses worldwide. The halophytic crop quinoa that originates in the South American Andes, provides very nutritious seeds and can tolerate high levels of soil salinity. It is therefore considered an option to sustain...... crop production in other salt affected areas worldwide. The large genetic variability within the species may allow the selection of varieties for cultivation under various climatic conditions. In the study, intra-species differences of quinoa’s tolerance to salinity in terms of biomass production...... and a number of physiological traits were assessed. The Mediterranean region increasingly suffers from soil salinization, and could therefore benefit from quinoa cultivation. However, highly salt tolerant quinoa cultivars originate in the cool Andean highland. Hence, for a successful production of quinoa...

  10. Quinoa's potential in the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavini, A.; Pulvento, C.; d'Andria, R.

    2014-01-01

    The climate of Mediterranean region will become drier and hotter, with increased problems of soil salinity. A possible alternative to minimize the effects of climate change is to introduce species with better tolerance to salt and drought stresses. One of the options is quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa...... and leaf water potential indicated that regulating cellular water deficit and volume is a powerful mechanism for conserving cellular hydration under drought. In all climatic conditions, drought and use of irrigation water with salinity up to 30 dS m-1 caused slightly reduced yield as compared to full...

  11. Gastrointestinal effects of eating quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) in celiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos, Victor F; Herencia, L Irene; Chang, Fuju; Donnelly, Suzanne; Ellis, H Julia; Ciclitira, Paul J

    2014-02-01

    Celiac disease is an enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten found in wheat, rye, and barley. Treatment involves a strict gluten-free diet (GFD). Quinoa is a highly nutritive plant from the Andes that has been recommended as part of a GFD. However, in-vitro data suggested that quinoa prolamins can stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses in celiac patients. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the in-vivo effects of eating quinoa in adult celiac patients. Nineteen treated celiac patients consumed 50 g of quinoa every day for 6 weeks as part of their usual GFD. We evaluated diet, serology, and gastrointestinal parameters. Furthermore, we carried out detail histological assessment of 10 patients before and after eating quinoa. Gastrointestinal parameters were normal. The ratio of villus height to crypt depth improved from slightly below normal values (2.8:1) to normal levels (3:1), surface-enterocyte cell height improved from 28.76 to 29.77 μm and the number of intra-epithelial lymphocytes per 100 enterocytes decreased from 30.3 to 29.7. Median values for all the blood tests remained within normal ranges, although total cholesterol (n=19) decreased from 4.6 to 4.3 mmol/l, low-density lipoprotein decreased from 2.46 to 2.45 mmol/l, high-density lipoprotein decreased from 1.8 to 1.68 mmol/l and triglycerides decreased from 0.80 to 0.79 mmol/l. Addition of quinoa to the GFD of celiac patients was well tolerated and did not exacerbate the condition. There was a positive trend toward improved histological and serological parameters, particularly a mild hypocholesterolemic effect. Overall, this is the first clinical data suggesting that daily 50 g of quinoa for 6 weeks can be safely tolerated by celiac patients. However, further studies are needed to determine the long-term effects of quinoa consumption.

  12. Protective Antioxidant Enzyme Activities are Affected by Drought in Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fghire, Rachid; Ali, Oudou Issa; Anaya, Fatima

    2013-01-01

    of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), polyphenoloxydase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), measured at flowering in quinoa, subjected to varying levels of drought stress. Drought levels were 100, 50 and 33% of evapotranspiration (ETc), and rainfed. Compared to full water supply (100%ETc...... increased in all treatments. These results suggest that antioxidant enzymes play important roles in reducing oxidative stress in quinoa plant exposed to drought stress....

  13. The Global Expansion of Quinoa: Trends and Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Verniau, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was first domesticated in Andean countries over 7000 years ago. Following the Spanish conquest, quinoa was rejected as “Indian food.” After centuries of neglect, the potential of quinoa was rediscovered during the second half of the 20th century. Since then, the number of countries importing quinoa increased, with new producers appearing on the map and quinoa now being cultivated in areas outside the Andean countries. The geographical increase in distribution of quinoa has highlighted the difficulty of access to quality seed, which is a key factor for testing the crop outside the Andes. In this context, research partnerships have helped promote the exchange of quinoa germplasm and have allowed trials to be undertaken in non-traditional areas of cultivation. The number of countries growing the crop has increased rapidly from eight in 1980, to 40 in 2010, and to 75 in 2014. A further 20 countries have sown quinoa for the first time in 2015. In this paper, we analyze this trend and discuss the limits of quinoa’s expansion. As commercial production of quinoa is expected to develop, changes in international regulatory frameworks on genetic resources are needed in order to facilitate plant breeding for the most adaptive varieties for each region. PMID:27242826

  14. [Effect of processing on the antioxidant activity of amaranth grain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, Yara Severino de; Manólio Soares, Rosana Aparecida; Capriles, Vanessa Dias; Torres, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva; Areas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2009-12-01

    Amaranth has attracted increasing interest over recent decades because of its nutritional, functional and agricultural characteristics. Amaranth grain can be cooked, popped, toasted, extruded or milled for consumption. This study investigated the effect of these processes on the antioxidant activity of amaranth grain. Total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity were determined according to two methods: inhibition of lipid oxidation using the beta-carotene/linoleic acid system and the antioxidant activity index using the Rancimat apparatus. The processing reduced the mean total phenolics content in amaranth grain from 31.7 to 22.0 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g of dry residue. It was observed that the ethanol extract from toasted grain was the only one that presented a lower antioxidant activity index compared with the raw grain (1.3 versus 1.7). The extrusion, toasting and popping processes did not change the capacity to inhibit amaranth lipid oxidation (55%). However, cooking increased the inhibition of lipid oxidation (79%), perhaps because of the longer time at high temperatures in this process (100 degrees C/10 min). The most common methods for processing amaranth grain caused reductions in the total phenolics content, although the antioxidant activity of popped and extruded grain, evaluated by the two methods, was similar to that of the raw grain. Both raw and processed amaranth grain presents antioxidant potential. Polyphenols, anthocyanins, flavonoids, tocopherols, vitamin C levels and Maillard reaction products may be related to the antioxidant activity of this grain.

  15. Development of a fermented quinoa-based beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Ludena Urquizo Fanny Emma; García Torres Silvia Melissa; Tolonen Tiina; Jaakkola Mari; Grazzia Pena-Niebuhr Maria; von Wright Atte; Repo-Carrasco-Valencia Ritva; Korhonen Hannu; Plumed-Ferrer Carme

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is a crop that originated from the Andes. It has high nutritional value, outstanding agro-ecological adaptability, and low water requirements. Quinoa is an excellent crop alternative to help overcome food shortages, and it can also have a role in the prevention of developed world lifestyle diseases, such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, etc. In order to expand the traditional uses of quinoa and to provide new, healthier an...

  16. Characterization of Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene homoeologs in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, P J; Turner, T B; Coleman, C E; Elzinga, D B; Jellen, E N; Morales, J A; Udall, J A; Fairbanks, D J; Bonifacio, A

    2009-07-01

    Salt tolerance is an agronomically important trait that affects plant species around the globe. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in germination and growth of plants in saline environments. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a halophytic, allotetraploid grain crop of the family Amaranthaceae with impressive nutritional content and an increasing worldwide market. Many quinoa varieties have considerable salt tolerance, and research suggests quinoa may utilize novel mechanisms to confer salt tolerance. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two homoeologous SOS1 loci (cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B) from C. quinoa, including full-length cDNA sequences, genomic sequences, relative expression levels, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and a phylogenetic analysis of SOS1 genes from 13 plant taxa. The cqSOS1A and cqSOS1B genes each span 23 exons spread over 3477 bp and 3486 bp of coding sequence, respectively. These sequences share a high level of similarity with SOS1 homologs of other species and contain two conserved domains, a Nhap cation-antiporter domain and a cyclic-nucleotide binding domain. Genomic sequence analysis of two BAC clones (98 357 bp and 132 770 bp) containing the homoeologous SOS1 genes suggests possible conservation of synteny across the C. quinoa sub-genomes. This report represents the first molecular characterization of salt-tolerance genes in a halophytic species in the Amaranthaceae as well as the first comparative analysis of coding and non-coding DNA sequences of the two homoeologous genomes of C. quinoa.

  17. The global expansion of quinoa: trends and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier eBAZILE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinua Willd. was first domesticated in Andean countries over 7000 years ago. Following the Spanish conquest, quinoa was rejected as Indian food. After centuries of neglect, the potential of quinoa was rediscovered during the second half of the twentieth century. Since then, the number of countries importing quinoa increased, with new producers appearing on the map and quinoa now being cultivated in areas outside the Andean countries. The geographical increase in distribution of quinoa has highlighted the difficulty of access to quality seed, which is a key factor for testing the crop outside the Andes. In this context, research partnerships have helped promote the exchange of quinoa germplasm and have allowed trials to be undertaken in non-traditional areas of cultivation. The number of countries growing the crop has increased rapidly from eight in 1980, to 40 in 2010 and to 75 in 2014. A further 20 countries have sown quinoa for the first time in 2015. In this paper, we analyze this trend and discuss the limits of quinoa’s expansion. As commercial production of quinoa is expected to develop, changes in international regulatory frameworks on genetic resources are needed in order to facilitate plant breeding for the most adaptive varieties for each region.

  18. THE USE OF PSEUDO-CEREALS FLOURS IN BAKERY / UTILISATION DE FARINES DES PSEUDO-CEREALES DANS LA BOULANGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMULUS MARIAN BURLUC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a special attention should be given to the nutritional properties of foods. In the bakery industry there is a tendency to develop innovative range of bakery products by using the therapeutic role of cereals that are not used at their true potential (buckwheat, millet, rice, oats. Among bioactive components present in the pseudocereal flours, flavones group is highlighted, in particular rutine, the most important ramnoglicosid with multiple beneficial effects on health. The aims of this study were the obtention of different bakery products (bread, biscuits from raw materials with high therapeutic potential (fiber, antioxidant capacity, minerals, the optimization of process parameters and recipes, and the characterization of finished products in terms of sensory and physico-chemical properties. The results confirm that the use of unusual raw materials for the Romanian market led to obtaining high quality finished products with special therapeutic features.

  19. Características de grãos e amido de diferentes cultivares de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yemina Karen Diaz Valencia

    2016-01-01

    Os grãos de quinoa possuem excelente balanço nutricional além das propriedades funcionais, comparativamente superior à dos cereais. A quinoa é cultivada em diversos países e, devido às suas características, têm aumentado o interesse de pesquisadores e consumidores. A quinoa contém pericarpo branco, no entanto, existem grãos com pericarpo vermelho e preto, e todos os tipos são utilizados como alimento em diferentes preparações. Com o objetivo de avaliar as características de grãos de quinoa, a...

  20. Biological effects of hydrolyzed quinoa extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneguetti, Quele Adriana; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Batista, Marcia Regina; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; Silva, Daniel Rodrigues; Garcia Cortez, Diógenes Aparício

    2011-06-01

    An extract from seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (quinoa), termed hydrolyzed quinoa (HQ), was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis from seeds of the quinoa variety BRS-Piabiru. Analysis of the physical and chemical properties of quinoa and HQ showed that the hydrolyzed extract is rich in essential amino acids, particularly those with branched chains (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). In addition, we evaluated the biological effects of HQ, particularly the toxicological potential. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were assigned randomly to four groups: (1) sedentary supplemented group, which received HQ (2,000 mg/kg); (2) sedentary control group, non-supplemented; (3) exercised supplemented group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise that received HQ [2,000 mg/kg]); and (4) exercised control group (i.e., rats subjected to aerobic physical exercise, non-supplemented). After 30 days, all groups were analyzed for levels of serum glucose, cholesterol, triacylglycerol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and urea and activities of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase. Body weight gain, dietary intake, and lipid deposition were also analyzed. The results showed no hepatic and renal toxicity of HQ. Moreover, decreased food intake, body weight, fat deposition, and blood triacylglycerol level were observed in the supplemented groups (sedentary and exercised supplemented groups). These results suggest a potential use of HQ in human nutrition.

  1. Influence of pearling process on phenolic and saponin content in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana Maria; Iafelice, Giovanna; Verardo, Vito; Marconi, Emanuele; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2014-08-15

    The aim of this work was to obtain sweet quinoa seeds by a pearling process. Thus, two different pearling degrees (20% and 30%) were tested. Moreover, the effect of pearling process on saponins and phenolic content in quinoa were evaluated. To this end, GC-MS methodology was used to identify and quantify the saponins and reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to DAD and mass spectrometer detectors was applied to study the phenolic composition. As expected, whole quinoa had the highest saponins and phenolics contents. An abrasion degree of 30% was necessary to obtain sweet quinoa (with a total saponin content lower than 110 mg/100 g). Obviously, this process caused a decrease of 21.5% and 35.2% of free and bound phenolic compounds, respectively. However, this decrease was lower if compared with other cereals. Thus, pearling process is a promising sustainable method to obtain sweet quinoa with a "green" approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Potentially synbiotic fermented beverage with aqueous extracts of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, F; Rossi, E A; Gomes, R G; Sivieri, K

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a potentially synbiotic beverage fermented with Lactobacillus casei LC-1 based on aqueous extracts of soy and quinoa with added fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Five formulations with differing proportions of soy and quinoa extracts were tested. The viability of the microorganism, the pH, and the acidity of all formulations were monitored until the 28th day of storage at 5 ℃. The chemical composition of the extracts and beverages and the rheological and sensory properties of the final products were analyzed. Although an increase in acidity and a decrease in pH were observed during the 28 days of storage, the viability of the probiotic microorganism was maintained at 10(8) CFU·mL(-1) in all formulated beverages throughout the storage period. An increase in viscosity and consistency in the formulations with higher concentrations of quinoa (F1 and F2) was observed. Formulation F4 (70% soy and 30% quinoa extracts) showed the least hysteresis. Formulations F4 and F5 (100% soy extract) had the best sensory acceptance while F4 resulted in the highest intention to purchase from a group of 80 volunteers. For chemical composition, F3 (50% soy and 50% quinoa extracts) and F4 showed the best results compared to similar fermented beverages. The formulation F4 was considered the best beverage overall. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd. as a source of dietary fiber and other functional components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritva Ann-Mari Repo-Carrasco-Valencia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Four varieties of an Andean indigenous crop, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., were evaluated as a source of dietary fiber, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. The crops were processed by extrusion-cooking and the final products were analyzed to determine the dietary fiber, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity, and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein. There were no significant differences in the contents of total dietary fiber between varieties of quinoa. In all cases, the contents of total and insoluble dietary fiber decreased during the extrusion process. At the same time, the content of soluble dietary fiber increased. The content of total phenolic compounds and the radical scavenging activity increased during the extrusion process in the case of all 4 varieties. There were significant differences between the varieties and the content of total polyphenols. The in vitro protein digestibility of quinoa varieties was between 76.3 and 80.5% and the in vitro starch digestibility was between 65.1 and 68.7%. Our study demonstrates that quinoa can be considered a good source of dietary fiber, polyphenols and other antioxidant compounds and that extrusion improves the nutritional value.

  4. Ultrasound Energy Effect on Solvent Extraction of Amaranth Seed Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Il; Chung, Ki Won; Lee, Seung Bum; Hong, In Kwon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Dankook University, Seoul (Korea); Park, Kyung Ai [Seoul Metropolitan Government Institute of Health and Environment, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    Ultrasonic energy has been widely applied to cleaning, medical appliances, extraction, etc. And ultrasonic energy can be applied to solvent extraction of plant oil from amaranth seed. Amaranth seed oil contains small amount of squalene. Squalene is polyunsaturated branched hydrocarbon, which is an essential part of the human body. In this study, the seed oil was extracted from amaranth seed by ultrasonic solvent extraction process. Ultrasonic irradiation time was 1, 3 ,5, 10, 20 and 30 min and extraction temperature was 20, 30, and 40 degree C. And ultrasonic power was 390 W and 520 W. The extracted amounts of amaranth seed oil and squalene were increased with the increase of ultrasonic power and irradiation time. Using ultrasonic energy in solvent extraction, extraction time was very shorten. The optimum extraction temperature was 30 degree C, it was caused that ultrasonic energy effects were increased in the matters of low temperature. The maximum extracted amount of amaranth seed oil was 0.746 g and squalene was 37.54 mg per 10 g amaranth seed at 30 degree C. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Genotoxicity assessment of amaranth and allura red using Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Hafiza Sumara; ur Rahman, Sajjad; Mahmood, Shahid; Anwer, Sadaf

    2013-01-01

    Amaranth (E123) and Allura red (E129), very important food azo dyes used in food, drug, paper, cosmetic and textile industries, were assessed for their genotoxic potential through comet assay in yeast cells. Comet assay was standardized by with different concentration of H(2)O(2). Concentrations of Amaranth and Allura red were maintained in sorbitol buffer starting from 9.76 to 5,000 μg/mL and 1 × 10(4) cells were incubated at two different incubation temperatures 28 and 37°C. Amaranth (E123) and Allura red (E129) were found to exhibit their genotoxic effect directly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. No significant genotoxic activity was observed for Amaranth and Allura red at 28°C but at 37°C direct relation of Amaranth concentration with comet tail was significant and no positive relation was seen with time exposure factor. At 37°C the minimum concentration of Amaranth and Allura red at which significant DNA damage observed through comet assay was 1,250 μg/mL in 2nd h post exposure time. The results indicated that food colors should be carefully used in baking products as heavy concentration of food colors could affect the fermentation process of baking.

  6. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu

    2011-01-01

    or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment......Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0–500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted...

  7. Enhancing the Sustainability of Quinoa Production and Soil Resilience by Using Bioproducts Made with Native Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Gutiérrez; Violeta Angulo; Marlene Angulo; Daniel Barja; Oscar Navia; Mayra Claros; José Antonio Castillo; Noel Ortuño

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are involved in a network of interactions with plants, promoting growth and acting as biocontrol agents against diseases. In this work, we studied native microorganisms associated with quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa) and the application of these organisms to the organic production of quinoa in the Andean Altiplano. Quinoa is a non-cereal grain native to the Andean highlands and is highly nutritious and gluten-free. As such, the international demand for quinoa has increased s...

  8. Eten als de Inca's : Quinoa verovert de wereld

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.; Timmer, R.D.; Loo, van E.N.; Minor, M.

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa is immens populair. Dit van oorsprong Zuid-Amerikaanse voedselgewas is wereldwijd aan een opmars bezig. Mede dankzij Wageningse veredelaars is er nu ook quinoa uit Frankrijk, Engeland en Duitsland. En binnenkort misschien ook uit Nederland. ‘Dit wordt een beslissend jaar.’

  9. Agronomical and nutritional evaluation of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as an ingredient in bread formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stikic, Radmila; Glamoclija, Djordje; Demin, Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    had higher contents of most essential amino acids, especially lysine, than wheat flour. Dehulled quinoa seeds, devoid of saponins, were included into wheat bread formulations, with up to 20%, which resulted in a positive effect on the rheological characteristics of dough. Furthermore, protein content...... in bread was increased by around 2%. Sensory characteristics of breads were excellent also at the 20% supplementation level. The study of bread supplemented with quinoa seeds could enable the development of a range of new baking products with enhanced nutritional value....

  10. Nutritional and sensory characteristics of gluten-free quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)-based cookies development using an experimental mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Isabelle L; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Felex, Suênia Samara Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely; Yamashita, Fábio; Magnani, Marciane

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a gluten-free formulation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)-based cookies using experimental design of mixture to optimize a ternary mixture of quinoa flour, quinoa flakes and corn starch for parameters of colour, specific volume and hardness. Nutritional and sensory aspects of the optimized formulation were also assessed. Corn starch had a positive effect on the lightness of the cookies, but increased amounts of quinoa flour and quinoa flakes in the mixture resulted in darker product. Quinoa flour showed a negative effect on the specific volume, producing less bulky cookies, and quinoa flour and quinoa flakes had a positive synergistic effect on the hardness of the cookies. According the results and considering the desirability profile for colour, hardness and specific volume in gluten-free cookies, the optimized formulation contains 30 % quinoa flour, 25 % quinoa flakes and 45 % corn starch. The quinoa-based cookie obtained was characterized as a product rich in dietary fibre, a good source of essential amino acids, linolenic acid and minerals, with good sensory acceptability. These findings reports for the first time the application of quinoa processed as flour and flakes in mixture with corn starch as an alternative ingredient for formulations of gluten-free cookies-type biscuits.

  11. Improvement of Tagliatelle Quality by Addition of Red Quinoa Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Pop

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to diversification of tagliatelle pasta and increasing segment of consumers it was intended to improvement of tagliatelle pasta quality by addition of red quinoa flour. The products obtained at Bakery Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of original recipe. To optimize the recipe were made four experimental variants, white flour and red quinoa flour is used in different proportions: Variant 1 – plain tagliatelle pasta (control sample who used white flour WF in 100%, Variant 2 consisting of 15% red quinoa flour (15 QF, Variant 3 consisting of 30 % red quinoa flour (30 QF and Variant 4 consisting of 50 % red quinoa flour (50 RQF. The experimental variants was analyzed for physico-chemical: moisture content, protein content and acidity. The sensory attributes, were evaluated by using a 9-point Hedonic scale. Present study indicated that the variant 3 were most accepted by consumers.

  12. The salt tolerance of Quinoa measured under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    Plant growth and economic yield decreases when high salt concentrations build-up in the root zone. Quinoa is a facultative halophyte crop, which can withstand saline conditions. There is no documentation of the threshold soil electrical conductivity that cause yield reduction in quinoa under field...... conditions. In this study the threshold electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract (ECe) and maximum ECe corresponding to no economic yield of quinoa (cv. Titicaca) were determined. The experimental factors were five levels of saline solution (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m-1) imposed during flowering...... and the minimum relative yield was 47% observed at 40 dS m-1 saline solution (FI40). The results showed that quinoa can grow under highly saline conditions although the seed yield decreases with increased ECe. The threshold ECe of quinoa was estimated to be between 3-6 dS m-1. There was 50% reduction in seed...

  13. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a native Andean crop that gained worldwide popularity over the last few decades due to its outstanding nutritional properties. The plant is characterized by an exceptional adaptation and is able to produce decent yields despite harsh environmental conditions...... like drought, frost, or soil salinity. Quinoa is thus an exceptional income opportunity in the arid southern Bolivian Altiplano, an area endemically struck by rural poverty and malnutrition. In the early 1970s, the Bolivian government introduced the first tractors to southern Bolivia’s Salar region...... with the intention to push agricultural development – with obvious success. The cultivation of quinoa is today the most important land use, with a continued increase in production volume and areal extent. We here trace back land-use changes from 1972 to 2013 in one of the most important areas of quinoa production...

  14. A Hybrid Dry and Aqueous Fractionation Method to Obtain Protein-Rich Fractions from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila Ruiz, Geraldine; Arts, Anke; Minor, Marcel; Schutyser, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Combination of dry and aqueous fractionation is investigated to obtain protein-rich fractions from quinoa in a milder and more sustainable way compared to conventional wet fractionation. Dry fractionation of quinoa involved milling and subsequent air classification, generating a protein-enriched

  15. Chemical composition, fermentation characteristics, digestibility, and degradability of silages from two amaranth varieties (Kharkovskiy and Sem), corn, and an amaranth-corn combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahjerdi, N Karimi; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-12-01

    Amaranth ( sp.) is a C plant adapted to poor soils and regions with limited rainfall and high temperatures. The plant is characterized by a yield of up to 85 t/ha, CP concentration of up to 28.5% of DM, and DM digestibility of 59 to 79%, which may vary depending on the species and variety. The potential of this plant as a forage source for ruminants has not been completely considered. This study aimed at assessing the nutritive value of silages from corn (), 2 amaranth () varieties (var. Kharkovskiy and Sem), and an amaranth-corn combination by chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vivo digestibility, and in situ DM degradability. Treatments evaluated were ensiled corn var. hybrid SC 704 (EC), ensiled amaranth var. Kharkovskiy (EK), ensiled amaranth var. Sem (ES), ensiled corn-amaranth var. Kharkovskiy mixture, and ensiled corn-amaranth var. Sem mixture. Five sheep were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design experiment to determine in vivo digestibility. The nylon bag technique was used to determine the in situ DM degradability using 3 ruminally fistulated sheep. Compared with EK, ES had greater ash-free NDF (NDFom) and CP concentrations. In comparison with EC, the ensiled amaranths and corn-amaranth mixtures had a greater ( corn improved concentration of CP and digestibility of the mixed corn-amaranth silages and has the potential of completing corn in ruminant diets.

  16. Development of Betalain Producing Callus Lines from Colored Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henarejos-Escudero, Paula; Guadarrama-Flores, Berenice; Guerrero-Rubio, M Alejandra; Gómez-Pando, Luz Rayda; García-Carmona, Francisco; Gandía-Herrero, Fernando

    2018-01-17

    Betalains are water-soluble plant pigments of hydrophilic nature with promising bioactive potential. Among the scarce edible sources of betalains is the grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), with violet, red, and yellow grains being colored by these pigments. In this work, callus cultures have been developed from differently colored plant varieties. Stable callus lines exhibited color and pigment production when maintained on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with the plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (8.88 μM) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (6.79 μM) with a reduction of the nitrogen source to 5.91 mM. Pigment analysis by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS fully describes the content of individual pigments in the cell lines and allows the first report on the pigments present in quinoa seedlings. Phyllocactin and vulgaxanthin I are described as novel pigments in the species and show the potential of C. quinoa culture lines in the production of compounds of nutritional value.

  17. Characterisation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. accessions for the saponin content in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuditta De Santis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of the Andean seed crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. usually contain saponins in the seed coat. Saponins give a bitter taste sensation and are a serious antinutritional factor, therefore selection of sweet genotypes with a very low saponin content in the seeds is a main breeding goal. The objective of this work was to identify, within germplasm lines of quinoa, previously selected for production and quality traits, superior genotypes low in saponins. For this purpose the total saponin content was determined in seeds of eight lines of quinoa and one variety (cv. Regalona Baer as a control, previously evaluated over a 2-year period in a Southern Italy environment. Significant variation for the saponin content was observed among the evaluated genotypes. The total saponin content ranged from 0.10 to 1.80%, with the Q12 genotype showing the lowest value, suggesting the possibility of selecting genotypes sweet to be used in subsequent genetic improvement programs. Based on these results, in fact, it was possible to identify, among the accessions previously selected, particularly suitable for growing in Mediterranean area, some genotypes with high yields of seed (2.5 tha–1, on average, high protein (17%, on average and fibres (13%, on average and low content in saponins (0.57%, on average.

  18. Ecophysiological Analysis of Drought and Salinity Stress Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosque Sanchez, H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the relative influence of drought and salinity stress, with similar soil water potentials on growth, water relations and photosynthetic rate of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., testing at the same time certain techniques of stress physiology studies. As treatments, we have imposed two levels of salinity stress (S1 = 3852, 8 mg. V-1 NaCI and S2 = 8051.2 mg. V-1 NaCI and two of levels of drought stress with-0.159 MPa (D1 and -0, 279 MPa (D2 of soil water potentials (f^, and the control (c treatment without stress (65 % of volumetric soil water content, i. e. ¥m = -0.059 MPa. Our results of the greenhouse experiment have shown that quinoa has better relative and absolute growth rate in saline conditions, and the plant have developed adaptations mechanisms to drought through higher water use efficiency and high root/shoot ratio. The stomatal resistance and leaf water potential were higher as higher were the stress conditions. The variable chlorophyll fluoresence to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence-ratio (Fv/Fm and the fluorescence quenching analysis (photochemical : qP and non-photochemical : qN have shown the plants under drought stress are less protected against photoinhibition. Finally the use of Dynamic Diffusion Porometer has limitations for studies of plants species with salt bladders as quinoa.

  19. Effect of pre-treatment on in vitro gastric digestion of quinoa protein (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) obtained by wet and dry fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opazo-Navarrete, M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa protein was isolated from quinoa seeds using wet fractionation that resulted in a protein isolate (QPI) with a high protein purity of 87.1% (w/dw) and a protein yield of around 54%, and a dry fractionation method delivered a quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) with a purity of 27.8% (w/dw)

  20. Effect of pre-treatment on in vitro gastric digestion of quinoa protein (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) obtained by wet and dry fractionation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opazo-Navarrete, M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Quinoa protein was isolated from quinoa seeds using wet fractionation that resulted in a protein isolate (QPI) with a high protein purity of 87.1% (w/dw) and a protein yield of around 54%, and a dry fractionation method delivered a quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) with a purity of 27.8% (w/dw)

  1. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; Boekel, van Tiny; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8

  2. Variable activation of immune response by quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) prolamins in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos, Victor F; Ellis, H Julia; Suligoj, Tanja; Herencia, L Irene; Ciclitira, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Celiac disease is an enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten found in wheat, barley, and rye. The current treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. Quinoa is a highly nutritive plant from the Andes, with low concentrations of prolamins, that has been recommended as part of a gluten-free diet; however, few experimental data support this recommendation. We aimed to determine the amount of celiac-toxic prolamin epitopes in quinoa cultivars from different regions of the Andes and the ability of these epitopes to activate immune responses in patients with celiac disease. The concentration of celiac-toxic epitopes was measured by using murine monoclonal antibodies against gliadin and high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Immune response was assessed by proliferation assays of celiac small intestinal T cells/interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and production of IFN-γ/IL-15 after organ culture of celiac duodenal biopsy samples. Fifteen quinoa cultivars were tested: 4 cultivars had quantifiable concentrations of celiac-toxic epitopes, but they were below the maximum permitted for a gluten-free food. Cultivars Ayacuchana and Pasankalla stimulated T cell lines at levels similar to those for gliadin and caused secretion of cytokines from cultured biopsy samples at levels comparable with those for gliadin. Most quinoa cultivars do not possess quantifiable amounts of celiac-toxic epitopes. However, 2 cultivars had celiac-toxic epitopes that could activate the adaptive and innate immune responses in some patients with celiac disease. These findings require further investigation in the form of in vivo studies, because quinoa is an important source of nutrients for patients with celiac disease.

  3. Properties of starch and dietary fibre in raw and processed quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruales, J; Nair, B M

    1994-04-01

    We investigated certain properties of starch in raw and in heat-treated samples of quinoa, properties that are of importance to the nutritional quality of an infant food currently being developed. Scanning electron microscopy of the starch in raw seeds showed polygonal granules (0.6 to 2.0 microns diameter) to be present both singly and as spherical aggregates. Thermograms (DSC) of the flours showed one transition phase for gelatinisation of the starch and another for the amylose-lipid complex. The gelatinisation temperature of the starch was 67 degrees C. Cooked samples manifested the highest degree of gelatinisation (97%), followed by the drum-dried (96%) and autoclaved (27%) samples. Separation of the starch on a SEPHAROSE CL-2B column showed the quinoa starch to be affected by the heat treatment, manifesting changes in the degree and extent of degradation. The amylograph viscosity of the quinoa flour showed no distinct peak for pasting, but the viscosity remained constant after gelatinisation. Cooking and autoclaving modified the viscosity of the paste. The drum-dried sample manifested a higher initial viscosity at 25 degrees C. The in vitro digestibility of raw quinoa starch determined by incubation for 60 min with alpha-amylase was 22%, while that of autoclaved, cooked and drum-dried samples was 32%, 45% and 73%, respectively. Saponins did not affect the digestibility of the starch, though they tended to increase the amylograph viscosity. The total dietary fibre content in the cooked sample (11.0%) was significantly lower than that in the autoclaved (13.2%), drum-dried (13.3%) or raw samples (13.3%), while the insoluble dietary fibre fraction in the samples did not change with heat treatment. However, as compared with that of raw quinoa, the soluble dietary fibre fraction was reduced significantly both by cooking (0.9%) and by autoclaving (1.0%).

  4. Development of a fermented quinoa-based beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludena Urquizo, Fanny Emma; García Torres, Silvia Melissa; Tolonen, Tiina; Jaakkola, Mari; Pena-Niebuhr, Maria Grazzia; von Wright, Atte; Repo-Carrasco-Valencia, Ritva; Korhonen, Hannu; Plumed-Ferrer, Carme

    2017-05-01

    Quinoa is a crop that originated from the Andes. It has high nutritional value, outstanding agro-ecological adaptability, and low water requirements. Quinoa is an excellent crop alternative to help overcome food shortages, and it can also have a role in the prevention of developed world lifestyle diseases, such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, etc. In order to expand the traditional uses of quinoa and to provide new, healthier and more nutritious food products, a fermented quinoa-based beverage was developed. Two quinoa varieties (Rosada de Huancayo and Pasankalla) were studied. The fermentation process, viscosity, acidity, and metabolic activity during the preparation and storage of the drink were monitored, as well as the preliminary organoleptic acceptability of the product. The drink had viable and stable microbiota during the storage time and the fermentation proved to be mostly homolactic. Both quinoa varieties were suitable as base for fermented products; Pasankalla, however, has the advantage due to higher protein content, lower saponin concentration, and lower loss of viscosity during the fermentation process. These results suggest that the differences between quinoa varieties may have substantial effects on food processes and on the properties of final products. This is a factor that should be taken into account when planning novel products based on this grain.

  5. Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, A; Sarojini, G; Nirmala, G; Nirmalamma, N; Satyanarayana, D

    1997-01-01

    Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice preparations was studied in non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects. Diets containing 50 g carbohydrate equivalent were given and post-prandial blood glucose estimated at different intervals. Glycemic index calculated for different experimental diets showed that GI of amaranth-wheat composite flour diet (25:75) was the least (65.6%) followed by wheat diet (65.7%), rice diet (69.2%), amaranth-wheat flour 50:50 (75.5%), and popped amaranth in milk (97.3%). Therefore 25:75 combination of amaranth and wheat, wheat and rice can be considered low GI food, 50:50 grain amaranth and wheat medium GI food and popped amaranth and milk combination high GI food.

  6. Construction of a quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) BAC library and its use in identifying genes encoding seed storage proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M R; Coleman, C E; Parkinson, S E; Maughan, P J; Zhang, H-B; Balzotti, M R; Kooyman, D L; Arumuganathan, K; Bonifacio, A; Fairbanks, D J; Jellen, E N; Stevens, J J

    2006-05-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is adapted to the harsh environments of the Andean Altiplano region. Its seeds have a well-balanced amino acid composition and exceptionally high protein content with respect to human nutrition. Quinoa grain is a staple in the diet of some of the most impoverished people in the world. The plant is an allotetraploid displaying disomic inheritance (2n=4x=36) with a di-haploid genome of 967 Mbp (megabase pair), or 2C=2.01 pg. We constructed two quinoa BAC libraries using BamHI (26,880 clones) and EcoRI (48,000 clones) restriction endonucleases. Cloned inserts in the BamHI library average 113 kb (kilobase) with approximately 2% of the clones lacking inserts, whereas cloned inserts in the EcoRI library average 130 kb and approximately 1% lack inserts. Three plastid genes used as probes of high-density arrayed blots of 73,728 BACs identified approximately 2.8% of the clones as containing plastid DNA inserts. We estimate that the combined quinoa libraries represent at least 9.0 di-haploid nuclear genome equivalents. An average of 12.2 positive clones per probe were identified with 13 quinoa single-copy ESTs as probes of the high-density arrayed blots, suggesting that the estimate of 9.0x coverage of the genome is conservative. Utility of the BAC libraries for gene identification was demonstrated by probing the library with a partial sequence of the 11S globulin seed storage protein gene and identifying multiple positive clones. The presence of the 11S globulin gene in four of the clones was verified by direct comparison with quinoa genomic DNA on a Southern blot. Besides serving as a useful tool for gene identification, the quinoa BAC libraries will be an important resource for physical mapping of the quinoa genome.

  7. Bilberry adulteration using the food dye amaranth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Kerry G; Halstead, Clynton W; Matthias, Anita; De Voss, James J; Stuthe, Julia M U; Bone, Kerry M; Lehmann, Reginald P

    2006-09-20

    Vaccinium myrtillus or bilberry fruit is a commonly used herbal product. The usual method of determining the anthocyanin content is a single-wavelength spectrophotometric assay. Using this method, anthocyanin levels of two extracts were found to be 25% as claimed by the manufacturers. When high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used, however, one extract was found to contain 9% anthocyanins probably not derived from V. myrtillus but from an adulterant. This adulterant was subsequently identified, using HPLC, mass spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance, as amaranth, that is, 3-hydroxy-4-[(4-sulfo-1-naphthalenyl)azo]-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid trisodium salt-a synthetic dark red sulfonic acid based naphthylazo dye. As described in this study, if deliberate adulteration occurs in an extract, a single-wavelength spectrophotometric assay is inadequate to accurately determine the levels of compounds such as anthocyanins. Detection of deliberate adulteration in commercial samples thus requires the use of alternative, more sophisticated, methods of analysis such as HPLC with photodiode array detection as a minimum.

  8. To års erfaringer med quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    De økologiske kornpriser i 2008 og 2009 gjorde det relevant at kigge på andre afgrøder, der har potentiale for at hæve bundlinjen. Sidste år påbegyndte vi derfor i samarbejde med Københavns Universitet et demonstrationsprojekt med afgrøden quinoa. Både i 2009 og 2010 blev afgrøden afprøvet på tre forskellige lokaliteter – lokaliteten på Bornholm blev dog skiftet ud med en lokalitet ved Ballerup.

  9. Quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa, Provides a New Host for Native Herbivores in Northern Europe: Case Studies of the Moth, Scrobipalpa atriplicella, and the Tortoise Beetle, Cassida nebulosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Jacobsen, Sven Erik; Christiansen, Jørgen Lindskrog

    2008-01-01

    The Andean grain, quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Caryophyllales: Amaranthaceae), is gaining increasing attention as a future food and fodder crop in Denmark and other parts of Europe. Prior to 2005, pest problems in the crop were negligible in Denmark, however native insects may become adapted to this new host. Herbivores feeding on the closely related and very common weed in arable crops Chenopodium album L. present a special risk. In 2006 there was a heavy attack of Scrobipalpa atriplicella (Röslerstamm) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) larvae in the maturing inflorescence of C. quinoa. Gelechiidae are the most important pests on C. quinoa in the Andean region. In 2007 another herbivore on C. album, the tortoise beetle Cassida nebulosa L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), was a serious problem on C. quinoa in southern Jutland. This is the first published record of these two pests on C. quinoa. The future pest status of C. quinoa in northern Europe is discussed.

  10. Quinoa Well Tolerated in Patients with Celiac Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Celiac Disease Quinoa Well Tolerated in Patients with Celiac Disease FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Tuesday, January 21, 2014 8: ... to the gluten-free diet of patients with celiac disease is well-tolerated, and does not exacerbate the ...

  11. Development of newly enriched bread with quinoa flour and whey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, D. M.; Naranjo, M.; Pérez, L. V.; Valencia, A. F.; Acurio, L. P.; Gallegos, L. M.; Alvarez, F. C.; Amancha, P. I.; Valencia, M. P.; Rodriguez, C. A.; Arancibia, M. Y.

    2017-07-01

    Ecuador, Bolivia, and Peru are countries with the highest amount of quinoa production in the world due to the proximity to the Andes. Further, Ecuador has a high production of dairy products, particularly fresh cheese of which production gives a high volume of whey, without further use, with the consequent loss of their nutritional value. The present study was performed to develop a new fortified bread through the incorporation of quinoa flour and whey at three different concentrations. The use of quinoa and whey improved the texture, shelf life and sensory characteristics of bread, compared to those prepared with wheat flour. This study shows the potential of quinoa flour and whey as ingredients in the development of baked products.

  12. Invloed oogsttijdstip, stikstofbemesting en ras op kwaliteit Quinoa-GPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schooten, van H.A.; Zom, R.L.G.

    2002-01-01

    De eenvoudige teelt, groeisnelheid, conservering en opname werden als positief ervaren. Om te onderzoeken in hoeverre de kwaliteit kan worden beonvloed door managementfactoren als oogsttijdstip, bemesting en rassenkeuze is in 2001 het onderzoek met quinoa

  13. Nysius cymoides (Spinola on Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivated in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bocchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Family: Amaranthaceae – APG classification is an Andean grain recently introduced on the European market and cultivated in experimental fields. In one of these experimental fields, in San Giorgio Piacentino (Italy, a heavy bug infestation was observed. The species was identified as Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Heteroptera Lygaeidae, a polyphagous species known as a pest of different crops. It occurs in the Mediterranean area from the sea level to the alpine meadows.

  14. Quantitative determinations of chemical compounds with nutritional value from Inca crops: Chenopodium quinoa ('quinoa').

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J A; Roldán, A; Gallardo, M; Escudero, T; Prado, F E

    1989-12-01

    Quantitative determinations of total and soluble proteins, total and free sugars, starch, total lipids, tanins, ash (Ca, Na, K, Fe, and P), and caloric value were carried out on quinoa flour. Results show that the amount of soluble proteins was higher than the standard value for wheat and maize and was very close to that of barley's. The yield of free sugars like glucose (4.55%), fructose (2.41%) and sucrose (2.39%) were also of importance. Iron and calcium levels were higher than the reported values for maize and barley. The same occurred for the caloric value (435.5 Kcal/100 g). The content of saponins was also examined since its effect on red blood cells of group A and O has been related as a potential problem of the Andes population. From the chemical analysis a more complete view about quinoa as human food was presented.

  15. Physicochemical properties of quinoa flour as affected by starch interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-15

    There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed. Correlation analysis showed that thermal properties and enzyme susceptibility of quinoa flour are highly influenced by the starch. Interactions of starch with non-starch components, including lipids, protein, dietary fibre, phenolics, and minerals, greatly impacted the flour properties. For example, peak gelatinization temperature of the flour is positively correlated to that of the starch (r=0.948, pstarch and other components in physicochemical properties of quinoa flour provides a basis for better utilization of this specialty crop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The quinoa boom in Southern Altiplano of Bolivia : Agrarian transformations, discourses and socio-environmental tensions

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Pak, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) production began in the 1980s in the Southern Highlands of Bolivia. It has generated transformations in the agrarian system of the region questioning the production sustainability. The low quinoa yields experienced by quinoa producers within indigenous communities is a major issue for the different actors of the production chain, scientists, development institutions and policy makers. Today, they mainly attribute it to soil degradation. Consens...

  17. Responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds stored under different germination temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Andressa Strenske; Edmar Soares de Vasconcelos; Vanessa Aline Egewarth; Neusa Francisca Michelon Herzog; Marlene de Matos Malavasi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. In this experiment, we assessed the germination and vigor of quinoa seeds packed in paper bags and stored at room temperature for 36, 85, 119, 146, 177 and 270 days. The seeds were harvested under experimental conditions in Marechal Candido Rondon, Paraná, during the 2012/13 growing seasons. Four replicates of 100 seeds each were established for each storage time, and the seeds were evaluated, on paper, based on the BOD under the following experimental temperature conditions: altern...

  18. Characterization of betalains, saponins and antioxidant power in differently colored quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano, Josefa; Cabanes, Juana; Jiménez-Atiénzar, Mercedes; Ibañez-Tremolada, Martha; Gómez-Pando, Luz Rayda; García-Carmona, Francisco; Gandía-Herrero, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Quinoa was the traditional grain crop used by the prehispanic civilizations in America. Grains are white, black, yellow, and red-violet and plants are cultivated in vast areas of Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. The recent description of the betacyanin pigment betanin in red-violet varieties is here further analyzed detecting the presence of amaranthin not previously identified in quinoa grains. Yellow-orange grains are characterized for the first time and up to four different betaxanthins are found to be responsible for this coloration. The native fluorescence of the identified betaxanthins makes the surface of the yellow quinoa grains glow with green fluorescent light. The presence of betalains is correlated with high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities measured under the FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays in grain extracts of 29 Peruvian varieties. TEAC equivalence is as high as 44.1 and 47.4mmol Trolox/kg for the yellow and red-violet varieties analyzed respectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Nutritional diversity of leafy amaranth species grown in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study indicates that the Amaranth species found in Kenya are a good source of key nutrients, which can be used in mitigation of malnutrition. A.dubius is a superior source of calcium and iron and can help curb the micronutrient deficiencies in Kenya, while A.cruentus is a superior source of protein and phytochemicals ...

  20. Susceptibility Of Grain Amaranth Lines To Hemipteran Bug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In trials conducted during the first rainy season of two conscutive years (1999 and 2000) to evaluate the relative susceptibility of 28 grain Amaranth lines to shield bug (Hemiptera) attack, three species namely Aspervia armigera F., Nezara viridula L. and Cletus ochraceus Herich-Schaffer were identified to be most important.

  1. Effect of fortifying amaranth diets with amino acids, casein and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two feeding trials with broilers (1-31 days of age) were carried out to determine the effect of fortifying grain amaranth based diets with lysine, methionine, casein and ethylene diamine tetra acetate (EDTA) on broiler performance, amino acid availability, plasma amino acid concentrations and nitrogen and mineral retention.

  2. Evaluation of heavy metals' health risk index in vegetable amaranth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lack of regular Control of pollution produce from industries affects both air and soil in the environment. Vegetable Amaranth and Sunflower flower were used to study the presence of heavy metals (Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, Cd, Pb, Ni and Cu) produced as pollutants, within five (5) selected areas in Kano state, Nigeria. Atomic ...

  3. Thin layer drying kinetics of amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) grains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experimental solar tent dryer under natural convection was used to study thin layer drying kinetics of amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) grains. Drying of grains in the dryer was carried out on a drying rack having two layers; top and bottom. The ambient temperature and relative humidity ranged from 22.6–30.4oC and ...

  4. Formulation of complementary food using amaranth, chickpea and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    containing water at 32oC for 72 hours resulted in the lowest phytate levels. In sensory testing, all of the formulated porridges with different proportions of amaranth flour were acceptable to mothers and their children, although the red color was ...

  5. Biofortification of maize flour with grain amaranth for improved nutrition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the causes that have led to food and nutrition insecurity in the country is the over reliance on maize as the staple food. Other staples in Kenya are sorghum, rice and millet. This study aimed at providing a better and more sustainable approach by fortifying maize based diets with grain amaranth. Maize was procured ...

  6. Response of Amaranth ( Amaranthus hybridus ) to Different Rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of Amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus) to different rates and times of nitrogen (N) application was studied at Teaching and Research Farm,University of Ado-Ekiti in the late seasons of 2003 and 2004. The N was applied at 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ ha as urea (46%N) at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after sowing.Growth ...

  7. Effect of supplementing grain amaranth diets with amino acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    James Bond

    Effect of fortifying amaranth diets with amino acids, casein and ethylene diamine tetra acetate on broiler performance, amino acid availability and mineral utilisation. L.W. Kabuage1#, P.N. Mbugua1, B.N. Mitaru1, T.A. Ngatia2 and K. Schafer3. 1Department of Animal Production, 2Department of Veterinary Pathology, ...

  8. Microbiological, nutritional and sensory aspects of stored amaranth biscuits and amaranth crackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozová, B; Buchtová, V; Dodok, L; Zemanovic, J

    1997-06-01

    The object of this work was to present some results from the evaluation of microbiological (total bacterial count, coliform bacteria, aerobic sporogenic bacteria, yeasts and moulds), nutritional (lysine) and sensory (shape, surface, colour, consistency, odour, taste, the profiling of tastiness) quality and of the a(w) values of amaranth biscuits and crackers during the four-month storage (January-April, 1996 every 30th day) in laboratory conditions (20 +/- 2 degrees C and RH = 62 +/- 1%). From the aspect of consumers the chosen parameters of quality permitted the storage stability of the indicated non-traditional products to be estimated and on the basis of the favourable evaluation recommended for the rational nutrition.

  9. Quinoa cultivation in western North America: lessons learned and the path forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a relatively new crop to farmers in North America; however recent interest in domestic cultivation of quinoa has skyrocketed due to a rapid, worldwide increase in demand for this nutritious and delicious Andean crop. Researchers at five western U.S. universities ...

  10. Aspects of participatory plant breeding for quinoa in marginal areas of Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McElhinny, E.; Peralta, E.; Mazon, N.; Danial, D.L.; Thiele, G.; Lindhout, P.

    2007-01-01

    Field trials were carried out in Ecuador with two indigenous communities, Ninín Cachipata and La Esperanza, to determine farmers¿ preferences for quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivars and to improve PPB processes. More women than men participated, reflecting that quinoa, a primarily

  11. Development of a Worldwide Consortium on Evolutionary Participatory Breeding in Quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin M; Bazile, Didier; Kellogg, Julianne; Rahmanian, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is gaining global importance due to its excellent protein quality and tolerance of abiotic stresses. The last 60 years have seen major strides in the expansion of quinoa crop production and experimentation. Quinoa's wide genetic diversity has led to its agronomic versatility and adaptation to different soil types, particularly saline soils, and environments with extremely variable conditions in terms of humidity, altitude, and temperature. The potential of quinoa to contribute to global food security was recognized in 2013 in the declaration of the International Year of Quinoa (IYQ). Promoting the use of improved homogeneous quinoa varieties standardized to comply with applicable norms on seeds or suited to intensified conventional agriculture farming systems may not generate the necessary resilience needed to respond to current and future global challenges. Maintaining and increasing quinoa biodiversity is imperative, as the dynamics of the global expansion of quinoa may constitute a threat to farmers if the spread is generated with a narrow genetic base. In this article, we propose that the method of evolutionary participatory breeding could be a useful tool to develop new quinoa genetic material in cooperation with farmers. We introduce preliminary results on quinoa population development with farmers in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. We conclude that a global collaborative network on quinoa (GCN-Quinoa) could be the baseline for participatory plant breeding programs originating in developing or developed countries to meet the needs of farmers across a diversity of agronomic systems and a wide range of physical environments.

  12. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a Brazilian Savannah soil Reação de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa a resíduos de herbicida em um solo de cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivation, one of the most promising in double cropping with soybeans or maize, depends on weed control. The objective of this work was to evaluate quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a savannah soil. Six herbicide treatments, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin and control, were applied, prior to summer cultivation of soybean, in a Dark-Red Latosol (typic Haplustox. Soybean cultivar BR 9 Savana was grown and soil samples were collected at 15, 38, 100, 145 and 206 days after treatment and stored at -5ºC. Bioassays were conducted in greenhouse, using quinoa, cultivar Q18. Imazaquin was the most harmful to quinoa seedlings, up to 206 days after application, followed by clomazone 15-38 days after application; trifluralin and pendimethalin had no residual effect. These results suggest that a broad-base screening should be conducted.O cultivo da quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., um dos mais promissores em sucessão à soja ou ao milho, depende do controle de plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a reação da quinoa a resíduos de herbicidas num solo de cerrado. Seis tratamentos com herbicidas, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin e testemunha, foram aplicados, antes da semeadura de soja, cultivar BR 9 Savana, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro. Amostras de solo foram coletadas aos 15, 38, 100, 145 e 206 dias após a aplicação e armazenadas sob temperatura de -5ºC. Bioensaios foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, usando a quinoa, cultivar Q18. Imazaquin mostrou-se o mais prejudicial à quinoa até os 206 dias, seguido por clomazone entre 15 e 38 dias após a aplicação; trifluralin e pendimethalin não mostraram efeito residual. Estes resultados sugerem ampliar a triagem, com a inclusão de novos produtos.

  13. Steady, dynamic and structural deformation (three interval thixotropy test) characteristics of gluten-free Tarhana soup prepared with different concentrations of quinoa flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, M Kürşat; Kutlu, Gözde; Yilmaz, Mustafa T

    2017-04-01

    Celiac disease is among the most important health problems and the most important feature of this disease is its being the only lifelong food allergy. To overcome this problem, some gluten-free and starch based food products have been generally introduced to the market; however, these products are starch based with low nutritive value. Therefore, it is important to enrich such products for individuals who are obliged to be nourished by gluten-free diet. In this study, wheat flour was replaced with quinoa flour (QF) in the production of tarhana. The objective of this work was to investigate the steady shear, viscoelastic and deformation and recovery properties (applying three interval thixotropy test (3ITT)) of gluten-free tarhana soups prepared with different concentrations of QF (40%, 50%, and 60%). It was found that the soups fitted well (R2  > 0.99) Ostwald de Waele model and exhibited shear thinning behavior. Besides, elastic properties dominated the viscous properties. Although the maximum deformation and recovery were determined at 40% concentration level, minimum deformation and recovery properties were specified at 60% concentration level. The results suggest that QF can be used in gluten-free tarhana formulations to enhance rheological properties. Malnutrition is currently widespread in many areas of the world. Therefore, it must be focused on the cheap, but nutritious plant protein and mineral sources, such as legume and cereals. Several recent studies have showed the successful formulation of pseudocereal containing cereal based products. Tarhana is a traditional fermented food made of mainly a mixture cereal and yoghurt. Tarhana or tarhana-like products have been enriched or replaced with cereal and pseudocereal. In this research, the applicability of QF in traditional tarhana production were investigated. As a result, it is advisable to replace wheat flour with QF in products such as tarhana, couscous, noodle and pasta formulation for nutritional

  14. Use of sourdough made with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour and autochthonous selected lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the nutritional, textural and sensory features of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated and identified from quinoa flour, spontaneously fermented quinoa dough, and type I quinoa sourdough. Strains were further selected based on acidification and proteolytic activities. Selected Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Lactobacillus rossiae T0A16 were used as mixed starter to get quinoa sourdough. Compared to non-fermented flour, organic acids, free amino acids, soluble fibers, total phenols, phytase and antioxidant activities, and in vitro protein digestibility markedly increased during fermentation. A wheat bread was made using 20% (w/w) of quinoa sourdough, and compared to baker's yeast wheat breads manufactured with or without quinoa flour. The use of quinoa sourdough improved the chemical, textural, and sensory features of wheat bread, showing better performances compared to the use of quinoa flour. Protein digestibility and quality, and the rate of starch hydrolysis were also nutritional features that markedly improved using quinoa sourdough as an ingredient. This study exploited the potential of quinoa flour through sourdough fermentation. A number of advantages encouraged the manufacture of novel and healthy leavened baked goods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of amaranth on dielectric, thermal and optical properties of KDP single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandran, Senthilkumar; Paulraj, Rajesh, E-mail: rajeshp@ssn.edu.in; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-01-15

    Bulk single crystals of pure and amaranth doped KDP were grown using point seed technique. Effect of amaranth doping on KDP crystals was analyzed using powder XRD, thermal analysis (TG/DTA), dielectric, photoconductivity and etching studies. The phase purity and crystallinity of pure and dye doped crystals were confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction analysis. It is observed from TG-DTA analysis that the decomposition point decreased while doping with amaranth. Dielectric constant and loss increases with increasing temperatures. The photoconductivity decreases with the increase of amaranth concentration. - Highlights: • Pure and amaranth doped KDP crystals grown from point seed technique. • The addition of amaranth changes the decomposition points of dye doped KDP crystals. • Dielectric constant is increased. • It shows positive photoconductivity.

  16. Antioxidant activity of free and bound compounds in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds in comparison with durum wheat and emmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laus, Maura N; Gagliardi, Anna; Soccio, Mario; Flagella, Zina; Pastore, Donato

    2012-11-01

    Antioxidant activity (AA) of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds, as well as of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum Desf.) and of emmer (T. turgidum L. ssp. dicoccum Schübler) grains, was evaluated by studying hydrophilic (H), lipophilic (L), free-soluble (FSP) and insoluble-bound (IBP) phenolic extracts using the new lipoxygenase/4-nitroso-N,N-dimethylaniline (LOX/RNO) method, able to simultaneously detect different antioxidant mechanisms, as well as using the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assays, which measure the scavenging activity against peroxyl and ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate)] radicals, respectively. The species under study were compared with respect to the sum of AA values of H, L and FSP extracts (AA(H+L+FSP)), containing freely solvent-soluble antioxidants, and AA values of IBP extracts (AA(IBP)), representing the phenolic fraction ester-linked to insoluble cell wall polymers. The LOX/RNO and ORAC methods measured in quinoa flour a remarkable AA(H+L+FSP) higher than durum wheat, although lower than emmer; according to the same assays, the IBP component of quinoa resulted less active than the durum wheat and emmer ones. The TEAC protocol also revealed a high AA(H+L+FSP) for quinoa. Interestingly, the ratio AA(H+L+FSP)/AA(H+L+FSP+IBP), as evaluated by the LOX/RNO and ORAC assays, resulted in quinoa higher than that of both durum wheat and emmer, and much higher than durum wheat, according to the TEAC protocol. This may suggest that antioxidants from quinoa seeds may be more readily accessible with respect to that of both the examined wheat species. Quinoa seeds may represent an excellent source of natural antioxidant compounds and, in particular, of the free-soluble antioxidant fraction. These compounds may improve nutritive and health-beneficial properties of quinoa-based gluten-free products, thus expanding interest for quinoa utilization from

  17. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S.; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I.; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha−1) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  18. Worldwide Evaluations of Quinoa: Preliminary Results from Post International Year of Quinoa FAO Projects in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Didier; Pulvento, Cataldo; Verniau, Alexis; Al-Nusairi, Mohammad S; Ba, Djibi; Breidy, Joelle; Hassan, Layth; Mohammed, Maarouf I; Mambetov, Omurbek; Otambekova, Munira; Sepahvand, Niaz Ali; Shams, Amr; Souici, Djamel; Miri, Khaled; Padulosi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a high quality grain crop, is resistant to abiotic stresses (drought, cold, and salt) and offers an optimal source of protein. Quinoa represents a symbol of crop genetic diversity across the Andean region. In recent years, this crop has undergone a major expansion outside its countries of origin. The activities carried out within the framework of the International Year of Quinoa provided a great contribution to raise awareness on the multiple benefits of quinoa as well as to its wider cultivation at the global level. FAO is actively involved in promoting and evaluating the cultivation of quinoa in 26 countries outside the Andean region with the aim to strengthen food and nutrition security. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the adaptability of selected quinoa genotypes under different environments outside the Andean region. This paper presents the preliminary results from nine countries. Field evaluations were conducted during 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 in Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), and the Near East and North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Lebanon, Mauritania, and Yemen). In each country, the trials were carried out in different locations that globally represent the diversity of 19 agrarian systems under different agro-ecological conditions. Twenty-one genotypes of quinoa were tested using the same experimental protocol in all locations consisting in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates. Some genotypes showed higher yields and the Q18 and Q12 landraces displayed greater adaptation than others to new environmental conditions. The Q21 and Q26 landraces were evaluated with stable and satisfactory levels of yield (>1 t.ha(-1)) in each of the different trial sites. This production stability is of considerable importance especially under climate change uncertainty. While these results suggest that this Andean crop is able to grow in many different environments, social, and cultural

  19. Development of a Worldwide Consortium on Evolutionary Participatory Breeding in Quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin M.; Bazile, Didier; Kellogg, Julianne; Rahmanian, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is gaining global importance due to its excellent protein quality and tolerance of abiotic stresses. The last 60 years have seen major strides in the expansion of quinoa crop production and experimentation. Quinoa’s wide genetic diversity has led to its agronomic versatility and adaptation to different soil types, particularly saline soils, and environments with extremely variable conditions in terms of humidity, altitude, and temperature. The potential of quinoa to contribute to global food security was recognized in 2013 in the declaration of the International Year of Quinoa (IYQ). Promoting the use of improved homogeneous quinoa varieties standardized to comply with applicable norms on seeds or suited to intensified conventional agriculture farming systems may not generate the necessary resilience needed to respond to current and future global challenges. Maintaining and increasing quinoa biodiversity is imperative, as the dynamics of the global expansion of quinoa may constitute a threat to farmers if the spread is generated with a narrow genetic base. In this article, we propose that the method of evolutionary participatory breeding could be a useful tool to develop new quinoa genetic material in cooperation with farmers. We introduce preliminary results on quinoa population development with farmers in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. We conclude that a global collaborative network on quinoa (GCN-Quinoa) could be the baseline for participatory plant breeding programs originating in developing or developed countries to meet the needs of farmers across a diversity of agronomic systems and a wide range of physical environments. PMID:27242815

  20. Growth and ionic content of quinoa under saline irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riccardi, M.; Pulvento, C.; Lavini, A.

    2014-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the most important abiotic stresses that affect plant's growth and productivity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of salt and water deficit on water relations, growth parameters and capacity to accumulate inorganic solutes in quinoa plants. An irriga......Drought and salinity are the most important abiotic stresses that affect plant's growth and productivity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of salt and water deficit on water relations, growth parameters and capacity to accumulate inorganic solutes in quinoa plants....... Actual evapotranspiration (ETa), water productivity (WP), biomass allocation, relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area, leaf area ratio and ions accumulation of quinoa plants were evaluated. WP and plant growth were not influenced by saline irrigation, as quinoa plants...... incorporated salt ions in the tissues (stems, roots, leaves) preserving seed quality. Treatment with a reduction in the irrigation water to 25 % of full irrigated treatment (Q25) caused an increase in WP and a reduced dry matter accumulation in the leaves. Quinoa plants (Q25) were initially negatively affected...

  1. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Identification, Characterization, and Linkage Mapping in Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Maughan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa ( Willd. is an important seed crop throughout the Andean region of South America. It is important as a regional food security crop for millions of impoverished rural inhabitants of the Andean Altiplano (high plains. Efforts to improve the crop have led to an increased focus on genetic research. We report the identification of 14,178 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using a genomic reduction protocol as well as the development of 511 functional SNP assays. The SNP assays are based on KASPar genotyping chemistry and were detected using the Fluidigm dynamic array platform. A diversity screen of 113 quinoa accessions showed that the minor allele frequency (MAF of the SNPs ranged from 0.02 to 0.50, with an average MAF of 0.28. Structure analysis of the quinoa diversity panel uncovered the two major subgroups corresponding to the Andean and coastal quinoa ecotypes. Linkage mapping of the SNPs in two recombinant inbred line populations produced an integrated linkage map consisting of 29 linkage groups with 20 large linkage groups, spanning 1404 cM with a marker density of 3.1 cM per SNP marker. The SNPs identified here represent important genomic tools needed in emerging plant breeding programs for advanced genetic analysis of agronomic traits in quinoa.

  2. Study of some physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa (chenopodium quinoa willd) protein isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugoch, Lilian E; Romero, Nalda; Tapia, Cristián A; Silva, Jorge; Rivera, Mónica

    2008-06-25

    The amino acid composition and the physicochemical and functional properties of quinoa protein isolates were evaluated. Protein isolates were prepared from quinoa seed by alkaline solubilization (at pH 9, called Q9, and at pH 11, called Q11) followed by isoelectric precipitation and spray drying. Q9 and Q11 had high levels of essential amino acids, with high levels of lysine. Both isolates showed similar patterns in native/SDS-PAGE and SEM. The pH effect on fluorescence measurements showed decreasing fluorescence intensity and a shift in the maximum of emission of both isolates. Q9 showed an endotherm with a denaturation temperature of 98.1 degrees C and a denaturation enthalpy of 12.7 J/g, while Q11 showed no endotherm. The protein solubility of Q11 was lower than that of Q9 at pH above 5.0 but similar at the pH range 3.0-4.0. The water holding capacity (WHC) was similar in both isolates and was not affected by pH. The water imbibing capacity (WIC) was double for Q11 (3.5 mL of water/g isolate). Analysis of DSC, fluorescence, and solubility data suggests that there is apparently denaturation due to pH. Some differences were found that could be attributed to the extreme pH treatments in protein isolates and the nature of quinoa proteins. Q9 and Q11 can be used as a valuable source of nutrition for infants and children. Q9 may be used as an ingredient in nutritive beverages, and Q11 may be used as an ingredient in sauces, sausages, and soups.

  3. Antioxidant and Immunoregulatory Activity of Polysaccharides from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yang; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-01-01

    The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results s...

  4. Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants grown at various salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, Yuda; Marandon, Karl; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Shabala, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    Ionic and osmotic relations in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) were studied by exposing plants to six salinity levels (0-500 mM NaCl range) for 70 d. Salt stress was administered either by pre-mixing of the calculated amount of NaCl with the potting mix before seeds were planted or by the gradual increase of NaCl levels in the irrigation water. For both methods, the optimal plant growth and biomass was achieved between 100 mM and 200 mM NaCl, suggesting that quinoa possess a very efficient system to adjust osmotically for abrupt increases in NaCl stress. Up to 95% of osmotic adjustment in old leaves and between 80% and 85% of osmotic adjustment in young leaves was achieved by means of accumulation of inorganic ions (Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-)) at these NaCl levels, whilst the contribution of organic osmolytes was very limited. Consistently higher K(+) and lower Na(+) levels were found in young, as compared with old leaves, for all salinity treatments. The shoot sap K(+) progressively increased with increased salinity in old leaves; this is interpreted as evidence for the important role of free K(+) in leaf osmotic adjustment under saline conditions. A 5-fold increase in salinity level (from 100 mM to 500 mM) resulted in only a 50% increase in the sap Na(+) content, suggesting either a very strict control of xylem Na(+) loading or an efficient Na(+) removal from leaves. A very strong correlation between NaCl-induced K(+) and H(+) fluxes was observed in quinoa root, suggesting that a rapid NaCl-induced activation of H(+)-ATPase is needed to restore otherwise depolarized membrane potential and prevent further K(+) leak from the cytosol. Taken together, this work emphasizes the role of inorganic ions for osmotic adjustment in halophytes and calls for more in-depth studies of the mechanisms of vacuolar Na(+) sequestration, control of Na(+) and K(+) xylem loading, and their transport to the shoot.

  5. The drying of amaranth grain: mathematical modeling and simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calzetta Resio

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A model for isothermal diffusion of bound water was used to simulate the thin-layer drying kinetics of amaranth grain. The model assumes that the driving force for the transport of bound water is the gradient of spreading pressure. The gradient of spreading pressure was related to the moisture gradient using the GAB isotherm. This variation shows a relative maximum moisture content about 8% (d.b, after which the diffusion coefficient falls sharply as the moisture content is further reduced. To verify the model, drying tests of amaranth grain were conducted at 40 to 70ºC in a laboratory drier from 32.5 to 6% moisture (d.b.. Equilibrium moisture contents were also determined using an electronic hygrometer at temperatures and relative humidities corresponding to drying conditions. The applicability of the model to simulation of drying curves was satisfactory in the full range of moisture.

  6. The effect of thermo-mechanical processing on physical properties of processed amaranth and oat bran composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranth-oat composites were developed using gluten free amaranth flour containing essential amino acids and minerals with oat products containing ß-glucan, known for lowering blood cholesterol. Amaranth flour and oat bran concentrate (OBC) composites (1:4) were processed using different technologie...

  7. Amaranth Seeds and Products – The Source of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogrodowska Dorota

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, new products obtained from amaranth seeds have entered the food market including expanded “popping” seeds and flakes. Lipids and biologically-active substances dissolved in these products are susceptible to changes. Additionally, due to the fact that fat quality has high dietary importance, there is a need to conduct detailed quality and quantity studies on the lipid composition of Amaranthus cruentus.

  8. Impacts de l'essor international du quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso, Antonio da Cunha; Joëlle Latina

    2016-01-01

    Le quinoa, ce superaliment ! Tant dans l’assiette que dans les champs, nombreuses sont ses vertus. Cette graine, cultivée de mode artisanal, est devenue une aubaine pour le combat contre la faim, ainsi que pour assurer la souveraineté alimentaire des pays. Ceci amènera, en 2013, la Food and Agriculture Organisation2 (FAO) à faire sa promotion, avec l’Année Internationale du Quinoa. Cependant, le secteur de cette denrée faisait déjà face à un essor international depuis les années 70, avec une ...

  9. Rural Women organized around the Cultivation of Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Paola Oyola Carvajal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Rural women have always participated in the reproductive and productive spheres of family systems. Today they are continuously participating in organizational spaces beyond the household, where they play a determinant role in the welfare of their family members by generating income that increases the possibility of the household’s economic sustainability. The article illustrates this phenomenon through the experience of a group of women from the municipality of Soracá (Boyacá, Colombia, who have started to cultivate quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

  10. Sensory Acceptability and Factors Predicting the Consumption of Grain Amaranth in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macharia-Mutie, C.W.; Wiel, van de A.M.; Moreno-Londono, A.M.; Mwangi, A.M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of adding grain amaranth flour on sensory acceptability of maize porridge in Kenya. Factors influencing the intention of mothers to feed their children on grain amaranth were identified. A significant difference between the various porridge ratios (50:50, 70:30,

  11. Genomic stability of Palmer amaranth plants derived by macro-vegetative propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q-PCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were utilized to investigate genetic stability of Palmer amaranth cloned plants over 10 generations. Q-PCR analysis of DNA from parent Palmer amaranth plants was repeated and confidence levels for determining ...

  12. Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) morphology, growth, and seed production in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth has become the most economically detrimental weed of cotton in the Southeast US. With the continual marginalization of potential herbicide tools, research has expanded to include alternative means of affecting future Palmer amaranth populations by altering safe s...

  13. Factors affecting potential for Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) suppression by winter rye in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth has rapidly become a dominant weed management issue in agronomic crops of the Southeast U. S. The small size of Palmer amaranth seeds, relative to other common weeds, provides an opportunity to use physical weed control through high-biomass, rolled cover crop mul...

  14. [Physicochemical and sensory properties of flours ready to prepare an amaranth "atole"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras López, Elizabeth; Jaimez Ordaz, Judith; Porras Martínez, Griselda; Juárez Santillán, Luis Felipe; Villanueva Rodríguez, Javier Añorve Morga y Socorro

    2010-06-01

    Atole is a Mexican pre-hispanic drink prepared traditionally with corn; however, cereals as wheat, rice and amaranth have also been used. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of an amaranth flour to prepare a drink (atole) mentioned above, in order to determine its nutritive value. Proximate analysis of the amaranth, corn and rice drink flours was determined by means of official techniques of AOAC. Mineral content was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry. Viscosity was measured in a reometer from 25 to 90 degrees C. The quantitative descriptive profile (QDA) of the amaranth drink was studied by a trained panel of 10 judges. Results showed that the amaranth drink flour presented the highest protein and fat content compared to corn and rice drink flours. Sodium and potassium were the most abundant minerals in all flours studied. Corn and rice drink flours showed a constant viscosity from 20 to 84 degrees C, to 85 degrees C an important increase in this parameter was observed. This increase was detected in the amaranth drink flour to 75 degrees C. Descriptors defined by trained judges for the QDA of the amaranth drink flours were: starch, almond/cherry, caramel, vanilla, strawberry, walnut and chocolate. The amaranth drink flour, compared to corn and rice drink flours, presented the best nutritional profile; it is important to emphasize its protein content.

  15. Glysphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) morphology,growth, and seed production in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide resistant Palmer amaranth has become the most economically detrimental weed of cotton in the Southeast US. With the continual marginalization of potential herbicide tools, research has expanded to include alternative means of affecting future Palmer amaranth populations by altering safe s...

  16. Evaluation of gluten-free amaranth and navy bean flour blends on quality of sugar cookies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluten free sugar cookies were made from amaranth (Salvia hispanica L.) and navy bean flours of different ratios. The physical properties of flour blends, dough, and cookies were evaluated. This study found that navy bean and its blends with amaranth had higher water holding capacities (WHC) compare...

  17. Development of active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa W.) starch containing gold nanoparticles and evaluation of antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagno, Carlos H; Costa, Tania M H; de Menezes, Eliana W; Benvenutti, Edilson V; Hertz, Plinho F; Matte, Carla R; Tosati, Juliano V; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Rios, Alessandro O; Flôres, Simone H

    2015-04-15

    Active biofilms of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, W.) starch were prepared by incorporating gold nanoparticles stabilised by an ionic silsesquioxane that contains the 1,4-diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride group. The biofilms were characterised and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Escherichiacoli and Staphylococcusaureus. The presence of gold nanoparticles produces an improvement in the mechanical, optical and morphological properties, maintaining the thermal and barrier properties unchanged when compared to the standard biofilm. The active biofilms exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens with inhibition percentages of 99% against E. coli and 98% against S. aureus. These quinoa starch biofilms containing gold nanoparticles are very promising to be used as active food packaging for the maintenance of food safety and extension of the shelf life of packaged foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The combined effect of deficit irrigation by treated wastewater and organic amendment on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, Abdelaziz; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    to compensate the negative effect of water deficit through the improvement of soil water-holding capacity. This research was conducted in the south of Morocco (IAV-CHA, Agadir) between October 2011 and January 2012. The mean objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of organic matter...... and deficit irrigation with treated wastewater on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) productivity. Three organic matter levels (0, 5, and 10 t ha−1) have been supplied as compost amendment combined with two deficit irrigation levels (50 and 100% of full irrigation). Statistical analysis revealed very highly...... and received 10 t ha−1 of compost; however, the lowest yields were obtained by treatments receiving 50% of full irrigation without organic matter supply. From the findings, it can be concluded that reducing irrigation requirement by half affected negatively quinoa growth and productivity and reduced grain...

  19. Differentiation of photoperiod-induced ABA and soluble sugar responses of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendevis, Mira Arpe; Sun, Yujie; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) to new regions demands acclimation to day-length, in addition to a host of other abiotic factors. To further elucidate the effects of photoperiod on development of quinoa, two differently adapted cultivars, Achachino (short day) from Bolivia...... and Titicaca (day-length neutral), were subjected to continuous long (17.5 h) and short (10 h) photoperiod conditions as well as a shift between the two to trigger possible adaptive mechanisms initiated by changes in leaf soluble sugar and ABA concentration. Our findings show both cultivars responding...... to an increase in photoperiod with significant increases in soluble sugar concentrations and a simultaneous increase in ABA. However, Titicaca exhibited a much stronger ABA response to increase in photoperiod, whereas the increase for Achachino falls within the range of natural diurnal variation. Achachino also...

  20. Responses of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. seeds stored under different germination temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Strenske

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, we assessed the germination and vigor of quinoa seeds packed in paper bags and stored at room temperature for 36, 85, 119, 146, 177 and 270 days. The seeds were harvested under experimental conditions in Marechal Candido Rondon, Paraná, during the 2012/13 growing seasons. Four replicates of 100 seeds each were established for each storage time, and the seeds were evaluated, on paper, based on the BOD under the following experimental temperature conditions: alternating temperatures of 20 and 30°C and a constant temperature of 25°C. The seeds from both treatments were subject to seven-hour photoperiods and 25°C under continuous darkness. The germinated seeds were counted daily for eight days after sowing, and we evaluated the percentages of normal and abnormal seedlings and the germination index. The experimental design was completely randomized using a split-plot design. Increasing the storage time decreased the percentage of germinated seeds and seed vigor due to the increased number of abnormal seedlings. Over the 430-day study period, quinoa seed germination completely declined under the experimental conditions. The final number of germinating seeds should be evaluated 7 days after the beginning of the germination test.

  1. Physicochemical analysis of frankfurter type sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste (Oreochromis sp and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa W.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Igor Hleap Zapata

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In Colombia, the production of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp has shown important development in recent years. It is a hydro-biological resource that generates fish fillet waste that can be used in the manufacture of fish products. The aim of this research was to analyze the influence of quinoa flour on the physicochemical properties, texture and oxidative stability during storage and sale of Frankfurter sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste when adding two concentrations of quinoa flour, 10 g/kg and 20 g/kg, and a control treatment with no quinoa flour. The sausages were vacuum packed and stored under refrigeration (2 °C ± 2 °C. The proximate chemical composition, pH, CIElab coordinates, lipid oxidation, water holding capacity, water binding ability and cooking yield were determined, along with an instrumental texture analysis for each of the sausages prepared. The addition of quinoa flour at a concentration of 10 g/kg presented the best water holding capacity, water binding ability, lighter coloration and cooking yield, as compared to the control sausage. By contrast, the sausages with 20 g/kg were harder and required greater effort to cut than the control (p < 0.05. The addition of quinoa flour increased fat oxidation after 6 days of monitoring. The addition of 10 g/kg of quinoa flour was the best concentration for the production of sausages made with red tilapia fillet waste, which represents a new alternative for hydro-biological-origin foodstuffs.

  2. Electrochemical detection of amaranth in food based on the enhancement effect of carbon nanotube film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Hu, Xiaozhong; Cheng, Qin; Zhao, Xiaoya; Fu, Xiaofang; Wu, Kangbing

    2010-12-08

    Amaranth is widely added to food and can cause many adverse health effects when it is excessively consumed. Therefore, the monitoring of amaranth is quite important. Herein, an electrochemical sensor for the sensitive and rapid detection of amaranth was reported using multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) as the sensing film. Due to the large surface area and high accumulation efficiency, the MWNT sensor showed a strong enhancement effect on the oxidation of amaranth, and greatly increased the current signal. The detection conditions such as pH value, amount of MWNT, accumulation potential and time were optimized. The linear range is from 40 nM to 0.8 μM, and the limit of detection is 35 nM. Finally, the new sensor was successfully employed to detect amaranth in soft drinks, and the results were tested by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  3. Evaluation of herbicide combinations for livid amaranth (Amaranthus blitum) control in tuberous begonia (Begonia x tuberhybrida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, M; van Labeke, M C

    2004-01-01

    In the past years livid amaranth (Amaranthus blitum) is observed increasingly in begonia production fields. Control of weeds in begonia is generally done by a combined application of the soil herbicides isoxaben + simazin followed 10 days later by application of the contact herbicide bentazone. This treatment usually controls the weed population sufficiently with exception of amaranth. In 2003 a field trial was conducted to evaluate control of livid amaranth in tuberous begonia with isoxaben, simazin. S-metolachloor, phenmedipham + desmedipham and bentazone. These herbicides were used as combinations of soil treatment and contact herbicides. The results suggest that a soil treatment of isoxaben + S-metolachloor significantly reduces livid amaranth compared to isoxaben + simazin, without a pronounced negative effect on tuber yield. Application of phenmedipham + desmedipham however did not improve control of livid amaranth compared to bentazone.

  4. Effects of salinity and soil-drying on radiation use efficiency, water productivity, seed set and final yield of field-grown quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, S. H.; Jacobsen, S.-E.

    2012-01-01

    Drought and salinity reduce crop productivity especially in arid and semi-arid regions, and finding a crop which produces yield under these adverse conditions is therefore very important. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is such a crop. Hence, a study was conducted in field lysimeters...

  5. La quinoa en Bolivie : une culture ancestrale devenue culture de rente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkel T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa in Bolivia: an ancestral crop changed to a cash crop with " organic fair-trade " labeling. This paper presents a review of the litterature on the physiology and diversity of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.. Since about 15 years, this Andean crop experiences a great commercial success in the organic and fair-trade food networks. Selected and cultivated for thousands of years in the Andean highlands, quinoa shows a remarkable tolerance to environmental stresses, particularly to drought and cold. The present knowledges on quinoa physiology, though fragmentary, show a high cold resistance of the plants, and the capacity to recover high photosynthetic activity after drought. Under field conditions, the genetic diversity in local landraces and the crop practices also contribute notably to the adaptation of quinoa to climatic hazards.

  6. Characterisation of phenolics, betanins and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is known for its exceptional nutritional value and potential health benefits. The present study identified the composition of different forms of extractable phenolics and betacyanins of quinoa cultivars in white, red and black, and how they contribute to antioxidant activities. Results showed that at least 23 phenolic compounds were found in either free or conjugated forms (liberated by alkaline and/or acid hydrolysis); the majority of which were phenolic acids, mainly vanillic acid, ferulic acid and their derivatives as well as main flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides. Betacyanins, mainly betanin and isobetanin, were confirmed for the first time to be the pigments of the red and black quinoa seeds, instead of anthocyanins. Darker quinoa seeds had higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity. Findings of these phenolics, along with betacyanins in this study add new knowledge to the functional components of quinoa seeds of different cultivar background. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of texture differences among varieties of cooked quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texture is one of the most significant factors for consumers’ experience of foods. Texture difference of cooked quinoa among thirteen different varieties was studied. Correlations between the texture and seed composition, seed characteristics, cooking qualities, flour pasting properties and flour th...

  8. Quinoa Beverages: Formulation, Processing and Potential Health Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Intelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Research on innovative foods and beverages that serve well to the nutritional needs of individuals suffering from metabolic disorders like obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia is an urgent need for today. This study aims to describe a method for preparing gluten free quinoa beverages and to investigate their effects on human health.

  9. Quinoa-geheleplantensilage in het rantsoen van melkkoeien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.; Schooten, van H.; Pinxterhuis, I.

    2002-01-01

    Er kan worden geconcludeerd dat quinoa-GPS goed wordt opgenomen maar dat de voederwaarde laag is, hetgeen zich uit in een lagere melk(eiwit)productie. Toekomstig onderzoek zal gericht moeten zijn op verbetering van het eiwitgehalte en de verteerbaarheid met behoud van de goede eigenschappen zoals

  10. Detection and subcellular localization of dehydrin-like proteins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carjuzaa, P; Castellión, M; Distéfano, A J; del Vas, M; Maldonado, S

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the dehydrin content in mature embryos of two quinoa cultivars, Sajama and Baer La Unión. Cultivar Sajama grows at 3600-4000 m altitude and is adapted to the very arid conditions characteristic of the salty soils of the Bolivian Altiplano, with less than 250 mm of annual rain and a minimum temperature of -1 degrees C. Cultivar Baer La Unión grows at sea-level regions of central Chile and is adapted to more humid conditions (800 to 1500 mm of annual rain), fertile soils, and temperatures above 5 degrees C. Western blot analysis of embryo tissues from plants growing under controlled greenhouse conditions clearly revealed the presence of several dehydrin bands (at molecular masses of approximately 30, 32, 50, and 55 kDa), which were common to both cultivars, although the amount of the 30 and 32 kDa bands differed. Nevertheless, when grains originated from their respective natural environments, three extra bands (at molecular masses of approximately 34, 38, and 40 kDa), which were hardly visible in Sajama, and another weak band (at a molecular mass of approximately 28 kDa) were evident in Baer La Unión. In situ immunolocalization microscopy detected dehydrin-like proteins in all axis and cotyledon tissues. At the subcellular level, dehydrins were detected in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus. In the cytoplasm, dehydrins were found associated with mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae, and proplastid membranes. The presence of dehydrins was also recognized in the matrix of protein bodies. In the nucleus, dehydrins were associated with the euchromatin. Upon examining dehydrin composition and subcellular localization in two quinoa cultivars belonging to highly contrasting environments, we conclude that most dehydrins detected here were constitutive components of the quinoa seed developmental program, but some of them (specially the 34, 38, and 40 kDa bands) may reflect quantitative molecular differences

  11. Physical features, phenolic compounds, betalains and total antioxidant capacity of coloured quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahim, Fatima; Huanatico, Elizabeth; Segura, Roger; Arribas, Silvia; Gonzalez, M Carmen; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2015-09-15

    Physical features, bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of coloured quinoa varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) from Peruvian Altiplano were studied. Quinoa seeds did not show a pure red colour, but a mixture which corresponded to different fractal colour values (51.0-71.8), and they varied from small to large size. Regarding bioactive compounds, total phenolic (1.23-3.24mg gallic acid equivalents/g) and flavonol contents (0.47-2.55mg quercetin equivalents/g) were highly correlated (r=0.910). Betalains content (0.15-6.10mg/100g) was correlated with L colour parameter (r=-0.569), total phenolics (r=0.703) and flavonols content (r=0.718). Ratio of betaxanthins to betacyanins (0.0-1.41) was negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.744). Whereas, high TAC values (119.8-335.9mmol Trolox equivalents/kg) were negatively correlated with L value (r=-0.779), but positively with betalains (r=0.730), as well as with free (r=0.639), bound (r=0.558) and total phenolic compounds (r=0.676). Unexploited coloured quinoa seeds are proposed as a valuable natural source of phenolics and betalains with high antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. GC-MS Profiling of Triterpenoid Saponins from 28 Quinoa Varieties (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Grown in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Meza, Ilce G; Aluwi, Nicole A; Saunders, Steven R; Ganjyal, Girish M

    2016-11-16

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) contains 2 to 5% saponins in the form of oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides or sapogenins found in the external layers of the seeds. These saponins confer an undesirable bitter flavor. This study maps the content and profile of glycoside-free sapogenins from 22 quinoa varieties and 6 original breeding lines grown in North America under similar agronomical conditions. Saponins were recovered using a novel extraction protocol and quantified by GC-MS. Oleanolic acid (OA), hederagenin (HD), serjanic acid (SA), and phytolaccagenic acid (PA) were identified by their mass spectra. Total saponin content ranged from 3.81 to 27.1 mg/g among the varieties studied. The most predominant sapogenin was phytolaccagenic acid with 16.72 mg/g followed by hederagenin at 4.22 mg/g representing the ∼70% and 30% of the total sapogenin content. Phytolaccagenic acid and the total sapogenin content had a positive correlation of r 2 = 0.88 (p < 0.05). Results showed that none of the varieties we studied can be classified as "sweet". Nine varieties were classified as "low-sapogenin". We recommend six of the varieties be subjected to saponin removal process before consumption. A multivariate analysis was conducted to evaluate and cluster the different genotypes according their sapogenin profile as a way of predicting the possible utility of separate quinoa in food products. The multivariate analysis showed no correlations between origin of seeds and saponin profile and/or content.

  13. Quality assessments of untreated and washed quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds based on histlogical and foaming capacity investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.; Ossenkoppele, J.S.; Houben, R.; Lotgering, M.; Groot, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Quinoa seed has a high nutritional value, but has a coating of bitter-tasting saponins, making it unpalatable. Therefore the seeds are usually processed in order to remove the naturally occurring saponins from the seeds. To investigate the impact of processing, untreated and washed seeds of the

  14. Developmental Peculiarities and Seed-Borne Endophytes in Quinoa: Omnipresent, Robust Bacilli Contribute to Plant Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzschke, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent. These peculiarities became in part explainable upon discovery of seed-borne microorganisms. 100% of quinoa seeds, from different sources, are inhabited by diverse members of the genus Bacillus. These endophytes are motile and reside in all seedling organs, indicating vertical transmission. Owing to their high catalase activities and superoxide contents the bacteria potentially manipulate the host's redox status. Superoxide-driven cell expansion enables quinoa to overcome a critical period in development, seedling establishment. Quinoa's immediate confrontation with "foreign" reactive oxygen species and bacterial elicitors likely induces a naturally primed state, enabling plants to withstand extreme situations. The endophytic bacteria, which are cultivable and highly robust themselves, have high potential for application in agriculture, food (amylase) and cosmetics (catalase) industry. This work also discusses the potential of transferring quinoa's microbiome to improve stress resistance in other plant species.

  15. Antioxidant and Immunoregulatory Activity of Polysaccharides from Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The water-extractable (QWP and the alkali-extractable (QAP polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2, were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.

  16. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activity of polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Shi, Zhenxing; Ren, Guixing

    2014-10-23

    The water-extractable (QWP) and the alkali-extractable (QAP) polysaccharides from quinoa (named QWP and QAP, respectively) and their four polysaccharide sub-fractions (QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2), were isolated and purified by anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. QWP-1 and QWP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Gal and GalA. QAP-1 and QAP-2 were composed of Rha, Ara, Man, Gal and GalA. Antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities of the polysaccharides were evaluated. The results showed that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 had significant antioxidant and immunoregulatory activities. The results suggest that QWP-1, QWP-2, QAP-1 and QAP-2 could be used as potential antioxidants and immunomodulators.

  17. Multiple-Herbicide Resistance Is Widespread in Roadside Palmer Amaranth Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar V; Norsworthy, Jason K

    2016-01-01

    Herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth is a widespread issue in row-crop production in the Midsouthern US. Palmer amaranth is commonly found on roadside habitats in this region, but little is known on the degree of herbicide resistance in these populations. Herbicide resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations can represent the spread of an adaptive trait across a selective landscape. A large-scale survey was carried out in the Mississippi Delta region of eastern Arkansas to document the level of resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations to pyrithiobac and glyphosate, two important herbicides with broad history of use in the region. A total of 215 Palmer amaranth populations collected across 500 random survey sites were used in the evaluations. About 89 and 73% of the surveyed populations showed >90% survival to pyrithiobac and glyphosate, respectively. Further, only 3% of the populations were completely susceptible to glyphosate, while none of the populations was completely controlled by pyrithiobac. Among the 215 populations evaluated, 209 populations showed multiple resistance to both pyrithiobac and glyphosate at varying degrees. Dose-response assays confirmed the presence of high levels of herbicide resistance in the five selected populations (≥ 25-fold compared to a susceptible standard). Results demonstrate the prevalence of multiple-herbicide resistance in roadside Palmer amaranth populations in this region. Growers should be vigilant of Palmer amaranth infestation in roadsides adjacent to their fields and implement appropriate control measures to prevent likely spread of herbicide resistance into their fields.

  18. Decolorization and degradation mechanism of Amaranth by Polyporus sp. S133.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadibarata, Tony; Nor, Nurafifah Mohd

    2014-09-01

    Polyporus sp. S133 decolorized the Amaranth in 72 h (30 mg L(-1)) under static and shaking conditions. Liquid medium containing glucose has shown the highest decolorization of Amaranth by Polyporus sp. S133. When the effect of increasing inoculum concentration on decolorization of Amaranth was studied, maximum decolorization was observed with 15 % inoculum concentration. Significant increase in the enzyme production of laccase (102.2 U L(-1)) was observed over the period of Amaranth decolorization compared to lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase. Germination rate of Sorghum vulgare and Triticum aestivum was less with Amaranth treatment as compared to metabolites obtained after its decolorization. Based on the metabolites detected by GC-MS, it was proposed that Amaranth was bio-transformed into two intermediates, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid and 1,4-naphthaquinone. Overall findings suggested the ability of Polyporus sp. S133 for the decolorization of azo dye and ensured the ecofriendly degradation of Amaranth.

  19. Physical, textural, and sensory characteristics of wheat and amaranth flour blend cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Chauhan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of whole amaranth substitutions at various proportions and evaluated the cookies baking behavior. Six types of formulations of cookies were prepared with whole amaranth flour ranging from 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. These cookies were evaluated for physical (thickness, diameter, spread ratio, and bake loss, textural, and organoleptic attributes. The diameter and spread ratios were found to be higher in whole amaranth flour cookies 52.20 mm and 6.46, respectively, as compared to other blends (20–80% of cookies from 51.37 to 51.92 mm and 6.13 to 6.36, respectively. Textural measurement showed that hardness of cookies decreased with the addition of amaranth flour. Whole amaranth flour cookies required least snap force (72.4 N compared to control (whole-wheat flour cookies (145 N. Sensory data indicated that the amaranth cookies with up to 60% were acceptable, while additional amaranth flour resulted in a decreased mean score for overall acceptability.

  20. Binding and Inhibitory Effect of the Dyes Amaranth and Tartrazine on Amyloid Fibrillation in Lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2017-02-16

    Interaction of two food colorant dyes, amaranth and tartrazine, with lysozyme was studied employing multiple biophysical techniques. The dyes exhibited hypochromic changes in the presence of lysozyme. The intrinsic fluorescence of lysozyme was quenched by both dyes; amaranth was a more efficient quencher than tartrazine. The equilibrium constant of amaranth was higher than that of tartarzine. From FRET analysis, the binding distances for amaranth and tartrazine were calculated to be 4.51 and 3.93 nm, respectively. The binding was found to be dominated by non-polyelectrolytic forces. Both dyes induced alterations in the microenvironment surrounding the tryptophan and tyrosine residues of the protein, with the alterations being comparatively higher for the tryptophans than the tyrosines. The interaction caused significant loss in the helicity of lysozyme, the change being higher with amaranth. The binding of both dyes was exothermic. The binding of amaranth was enthalpy driven, while that of tartrazine was predominantly entropy driven. Amaranth delayed lysozyme fibrillation at 25 μM, while tartrazine had no effect even at 100 μM. Nevertheless, both dyes had a significant inhibitory effect on fibrillogenesis. The present study explores the potential antiamyloidogenic property of these azo dyes used as food colorants.

  1. Optimization of antioxidant phenolic compounds extraction from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Manrique, Guillermo Daniel; Dimitrov, Krasimir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction conditions of phenolic and flavonoids compounds from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds using ultrasound assistance technology. A randomized central composite face-centered design was used to evaluate the effect of extraction temperature, ethanol concentration in the solvent, and ultrasound power on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity by response surface analysis. Predicted model equations were obtained to describe the experimental data regarding TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, with significant variation in the linear, quadratic, and interaction effects of the independent variables. Regression analysis showed that more than 88 % of the variability was explained by the models. The best extraction conditions obtained by simultaneous maximization of the responses were: extraction temperature of 60 °C, 80 % ethanol as solvent and non-application of ultrasounds. Under the optimal conditions, the corresponding predicted response values were 103.6 mg GAE/100 g dry weight (dw), 25.0 mg quercetin equiv./100 g dw and 28.6 % DPPH radical scavenging, for TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity, respectively. The experimental values agreed with those predicted within a 95 % confidence level, indicating the suitability of the employed model. HPLC analysis of the obtained extracts confirmed the highest phenolic compound yield in the extract obtained under optimal extraction conditions. Considering the characteristics of the antioxidant-rich extracts obtained, they could be consider for potential application in the food industry, as nutraceutical and functional foods ingredient or well as replacement of synthetic antioxidants.

  2. Oxidative stress protection and stomatal patterning as components of salinity tolerance mechanism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabala, Lana; Mackay, Alex; Tian, Yu; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Zhou, Daowei; Shabala, Sergey

    2012-09-01

    Two components of salinity stress are a reduction in water availability to plants and the formation of reactive oxygen species. In this work, we have used quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a dicotyledonous C3 halophyte species displaying optimal growth at approximately 150 mM NaCl, to study mechanisms by which halophytes cope with the afore-mentioned components of salt stress. The relative contribution of organic and inorganic osmolytes in leaves of different physiological ages (e.g. positions on the stem) was quantified and linked with the osmoprotective function of organic osmolytes. We show that the extent of the oxidative stress (UV-B irradiation) damage to photosynthetic machinery in young leaves is much less when compared with old leaves, and attribute this difference to the difference in the size of the organic osmolyte pool (1.5-fold difference under control conditions; sixfold difference in plants grown at 400 mM NaCl). Consistent with this, salt-grown plants showed higher Fv/Fm values compared with control plants after UV-B exposure. Exogenous application of physiologically relevant concentrations of glycine betaine substantially mitigated oxidative stress damage to PSII, in a dose-dependent manner. We also show that salt-grown plants showed a significant (approximately 30%) reduction in stomatal density observed in all leaves. It is concluded that accumulation of organic osmolytes plays a dual role providing, in addition to osmotic adjustment, protection of photosynthetic machinery against oxidative stress in developing leaves. It is also suggested that salinity-induced reduction in stomatal density represents a fundamental mechanism by which plants optimize water use efficiency under saline conditions. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  3. Antioxidant capacity, phenolic and vitamin C contents of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as affected by sprouting and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura N. Laus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant capacity (AC of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cv. Real seeds and sprouts obtained after 4 days of seed germination at 20°C and 70% humidity was evaluated using trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays, able to highlight reducing activity and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, respectively; phenolic content (PC was also measured. Both TEAC and ORAC assays revealed a significantly higher (about 2- and 2.8-fold, respectively AC of 4-day-old sprouts compared to seeds; consistently, also PC values of sprouts resulted about 2.6 times higher than seeds. In order to investigate the influence of storage on AC and PC, as well as on vitamin C content (VCC, 4-day-old sprouts were subjected for 7 days at 5°C to three different conditions of controlled atmosphere storage (CAS compared with air. Interestingly, whatever the CAS conditions, storage of quinoa sprouts up to 7 days induced an increase of AC evaluated in terms of reducing activity by TEAC assay. Consistently, an increase of PC and VCC was measured during storage, positively correlated to TEAC values. Moreover, a decrease of peroxyl radical scavenging activity, measured by ORAC, was observed after 7 days of storage, in accordance with a shift of AC towards the reducing activity component. Overall, these findings indicate that sprouting approach using quinoa may provide highly antioxidant-enriched seedlings that may improve nutritional quality of diet or of functional foods. Interestingly, antioxidant properties of quinoa sprouts may be deeply influenced by storage, able to increase reducing activity by increasing phenols and vitamin C.

  4. Lexicon Development, Consumer Acceptance, and Drivers of Liking of Quinoa Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Ross, Carolyn F; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2017-04-01

    Quinoa is becoming increasingly popular, with an expanding number of commercially available varieties. To compare the sensory properties of these quinoa varieties, a common sensory lexicon needs to be developed. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a lexicon of cooked quinoa and examine consumer acceptance of diverse varieties. A trained panel (n = 9) developed aroma, taste/flavor, texture, and color descriptors to describe the sensory properties of 21 quinoa varieties. In addition, texture of the cooked quinoa was determined using a texture analyzer. Results indicated that the developed lexicon could distinguish among these quinoa varieties, showing significant differences in aromas, taste/flavors, and texture attributes. Specifically, quinoa variety effects were observed for the aromas of caramel, nutty, buttery, grassy, earthy, and woody; taste/flavor of sweet, bitter, grain-like, nutty, earthy, and toasty; and firm, cohesive, pasty, adhesive, crunchy, chewy, astringent, and moist textures. Three varieties, "QQ74," "Linares," and "CO407D," exhibited an adhesive texture that has not been described in other commercialized quinoa. Subsequent consumer evaluation (n = 100) on 6 selected samples found that the "Commercial Red" sample was the most accepted overall whereas the least accepted was the field variety "QQ74." For all consumers, overall acceptance of quinoa was driven by higher intensities of grassy aroma, and firm and crunchy texture. Segmentation of the consumers into 4 groups was explored and showed that consumers varied in their acceptance of specific attributes, particularly texture. From the present study, the quinoa lexicon and key drivers of consumer acceptance can be utilized in the industry to evaluate quinoa varieties, product quality and processing procedures. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  5. Development of a Worldwide Consortium on Evolutionary Participatory Breeding in Quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Murphy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa is gaining global importance due to its excellent protein quality and tolerance of abiotic stresses. The last 60 years have seen major strides in the expansion of quinoa crop production and experimentation. Quinoa’s wide genetic diversity has led to its agronomic versatility and adaptation to different soil types, particularly saline soils, and environments with extremely variable conditions in terms of humidity, altitude and temperature. The potential of quinoa to contribute to global food security was recognized in the declaration of the International Year of Quinoa (IYQ, 2013. Promoting the use of improved homogeneous quinoa varieties standardized to comply with applicable norms on seeds or suited to intensified conventional agriculture farming systems may not generate the necessary resilience needed to respond to current and future global challenges. Maintaining and increasing quinoa biodiversity is imperative, as the dynamics of the global expansion of quinoa may constitute a threat to farmers if the spread is generated with a narrow genetic base. In this article, we propose that the method of evolutionary participatory breeding (EPB could be a useful tool to develop new quinoa genetic material in cooperation with farmers. We introduce preliminary results on quinoa population development with farmers in the Pacific Northwest region of the USA. We conclude that a global collaborative network for quinoa (GCN-Quinoa could be the baseline for participatory plant breeding programs originating in developing or developed countries to meet the needs of farmers across a diversity of agronomic systems and a wide range of physical environments.

  6. Electrochemical degradation of amaranth aqueous solution on ACF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Zhou, Yanwei; Yang, Weishen; Chen, Guohua; Yang, Fenglin

    2006-09-21

    The degradation of Amaranth, a kind of azo dye, has been studied under galvanostatic model with activated carbon fiber (ACF) electrode in aqueous solution with electrochemical method. The ACF was used as anode and cathode, respectively for the decolorization process. The onset oxidation potential and reduction potential for Amaranth on ACF were respectively ascertained at 0.6 and -0.4 V. During the range of -1.1 to 0.50 mA cm(-2), the decolorization was clarified into three processes as electroreduction, adsorption and electrooxidation. There were little contributions to the color and COD removals for the process of adsorption. The color removal can be up to 99% when the current density was 0.50 mA cm(-2). The maximum COD removal was 52% for the process of electrooxidation. Hundred percent color removal was obtained when the current density of -1.0 mA cm(-2) was applied. The maximum COD removal was 62% for the electroreduction. The COD removal results from the adsorption of products for the decolorization process of electrooxidation or electroreduction.

  7. Using of AFLP to evaluate gamma-irradiated amaranth mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labajová Mária

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine which of several gamma-irradiated mutants of amaranth Ficha cultivar and K-433 hybrid are most genetically similar to their non-irradiated control genotypes, we performed amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP based analysis. A total of 40 selective primer combinations were used in reported analyses. First analyses of gamma-irradiated amaranth mutant lines were done used the AFLP. In the study, primers with the differentiation ability for all analysed mutant lines are reported. The very specific changes in the mutant lines´ non-coding regions based on AFLP length polymorphism were analysed. Mutant lines of the Ficha cultivar (C15, C26, C27, C82, C236 shared a genetic dissimilarity of 0,11 and their ISSR profiles are more similar to the Ficha than those of K-433 hybrid mutant lines. The K-433 mutant lines (D54, D279, D282 shared genetic dissimilarity of 0,534 but are more distinct to their control plant as a whole, as those of the Ficha mutant lines. Different AFLP fingerprints patters of the mutant lines when compared to the Ficha cultivar and K-433 hybrid AFLP profiles may be a consequence of the complex response of the intergenic space of mutant lines to the gamma-radiance. Although a genetic polymorphism was detected within accessions, the AFLP markers successfully identified all the accessions. The AFLP results are discussed by a combination of biochemical characteristics of mutant lines and their control genotypes.

  8. Interference of Selected Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Biotypes in Soybean (Glycine max)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chandi, Aman; Jordan, David L; York, Alan C; Milla-Lewis, Susana R; Burton, James D; Culpepper, A. Stanley; Whitaker, Jared R

    2012-01-01

      Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) has become difficult to control in row crops due to selection for biotypes that are no longer controlled by acetolactate synthase inhibiting herbicides and/or glyphosate...

  9. Preharvest and postharvest factors affecting yield and nutrient contents of vegetable amaranth (Var. Amaranthus hypochondriacus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.

    2010-01-01

    KEYWORDS: Traditional leafy vegetables, Amaranth, diammonium phosphate, manure, yields, nutrients, antinutrients, phenolics, oxalates, small-scale farmers, Kenya Agriculture in developing countries faces a number of pressing challenges including population growth, widespread poverty and food

  10. Development of a nutrient‐dense complementary food using amaranth‐sorghum grains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okoth, Judith Kanensi; Ochola, Sophie Atieno; Gikonyo, Nicholas K; Makokha, Anselimo

    2017-01-01

    ...‐dense complementary food from amaranth and sorghum grains. Amaranth grain, a pseudocereal, though rarely used as a complementary food in Kenya has a higher nutritional quality than other staples. Plant...

  11. Effect of irrigation, intercrop and cultivar on agronomic and nutritional characteristics of quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of three irrigation regimes and three intercrop treatments on emergence, plant height, seed yield, protein and mineral concentration of two quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) varieties. The experiment was carried out using a strip plot, randomized co...

  12. Quinoa in Morocco - effect of sowing dates on development and yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    of sowing date on quinoa performance in a series of experiments conducted for adaptation of quinoa. The experiment took place in Agadir, with a test of 10 sowing dates, each 15 days from 1st November to 15th March. Sowing dates affected the growth and productivity due to differences in temperature...

  13. Physiological Effects Associated with Quinoa Consumption and Implications for Research Involving Humans: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simnadis, Thomas George; Tapsell, Linda C; Beck, Eleanor J

    2015-09-01

    Quinoa is a pseudo-grain consumed as a dietary staple in South America. In recent years, consumer demand for quinoa in the developed world has grown steadily. Its perceived health benefits have been cited as a driving force behind this trend, but there are very few human studies investigating the impact of quinoa consumption. The aim of this review was to identify physiological effects of quinoa consumption with potential for human health. A critical evaluation of animal model studies was conducted. The quality of identified studies was assessed using a methodological quality assessment tool and summative conclusions were drawn to guide the direction of future human research. The majority of studies were of fair quality. Purported physiological effects of quinoa consumption included decreased weight gain, improved lipid profile and improved capacity to respond to oxidative stress. These physiological effects were attributed to the presence of saponins, protein and 20-hydroxyecdysone in the quinoa seed. The implications of these findings are that human studies should investigate the impact of quinoa consumption on weight gain and lipid levels. The role of quinoa as an antioxidant is still unclear and requires further elucidation in animal models.

  14. Heeft de teelt van quinoa een toekomst in België? : Interview met Ruud Timmer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillen, L.; Timmer, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is een gewas dat al eeuwenlang in Zuid-Amerika wordt geteeld en gegeten en tegenwoordig aan populariteit wint bij de Europese consument. Maar is het mogelijk om dit gewas ook in België te telen? We vroegen aan Ruud Timmer, onderzoeker aan de Universiteit van Wageningen,

  15. Variability, heritability and genetic association in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolorL.)

    OpenAIRE

    Umakanta Sarker; Md Tofazzal Islam; Md. Golam Rabbani; Shinya Oba

    2015-01-01

    Forty three vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) genotypes selected from different eco-geographic regions of Bangladesh were evaluated during 3 years (2012-2014) for genetic variability, heritability and genetic association among mineral elements and quality and agronomic traits in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications. The analysis showed that vegetable amaranth is a rich source of K, Ca, Mg, proteins and dietary fibre with average values among the 43 genotype...

  16. Molecular cytogenetic studies in Chenopodium quinoa and Amaranthus caudatus

    OpenAIRE

    Jolanta Małuszyńska; Luz Gomez Pando; Bożena Kolano

    2014-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa Wild. and Amaranthus caudatus L., two plant species from South America, have small and numerous chromosomes. Looking for chromosome markers to distinguish pairs of homologous chromosomes double fluorescence staining, in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA and silver staining were applied. Fluorescent in situ hybridization with 45S rDNA has shown two sites of hybridization occurring on one pair of chromosomes in qunion genre (lines PQ-1, PQ-8). The number of RDA loci in Amarant...

  17. Buckwheat protein extract suppression of the growth depression in rats induced by feeding amaranth (Food Red No. 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayashita, J; Nagai, H; Kato, N

    1996-09-01

    Dietary fiber has an ameliorative effect on the toxicity of amaranth (Food Red No. 2). To test the possibility that a buckwheat protein extract (BWPE) has dietary fiber-like activity by virtue of its low digestibility, we examined the influence of BWPE on amaranth toxicity in rats. The results show that BWPE-containing diet suppressed the growth depression induced by the dietary addition of 5% amaranth.

  18. Quinoa biodiversity and sustainability for food security under climate change. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Karina B.; Biondi, Stefania; Oses, Rómulo

    2014-01-01

    the centuries in the Andean region, from Ecuador to southern Chile, and from sea level to the altiplano. Quinoa can be adapted to diverse agroecological conditions worldwide. Year 2013 has therefore been declared the International Year of Quinoa by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. Here, we...... propose a schematic model integrating the fundamental factors that should determine the future utilization of quinoa, in terms of food security, biodiversity conservation, and cultural identity........ To keep pace with population growth, food production must increase dramatically despite the limited availability of cultivable land and water. Here, we review the benefits of quinoa, Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a seed crop that has endured the harsh bioclimatic conditions of the Andes since ancient times...

  19. Pharmacokinetic study of amaranth extract in healthy humans: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Deepa; Gupta, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the most important signaling molecules produced within the body. Continuous generation of NO is essential for the integrity of the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to assess whether oral intake of a nitrate (NO3-)-rich dietary supplement (amaranth extract) is able to increase NO3- and nitrite (NO2-) levels in blood plasma and saliva of healthy adults. In the present study, bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of NO3- and NO2- from amaranth extract (2 g as single dose) was studied in 16 healthy individuals and compared with placebo in a crossover design. The NO3- and NO2- levels in plasma as well as saliva were measured up to 24 h. After administration of amaranth extract, the NO3- levels in plasma as well as saliva were found to be significantly (P amaranth group (test group) compared with that in the placebo group, whereas the saliva NO2- level was significantly high (P amaranth extract-treated group than the placebo group. These results clearly indicate that a single oral dose of amaranth extract is able to increase the NO3- and NO2- levels in the body for at least 8 h. The increase in NO3- and NO2- levels can help to improve the overall performance of people involved in vigorous physical activities or sports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional and rheological properties of amaranth albumins extracted from two Mexican varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Sánchez, C; González-Castañeda, J; de León-Rodríguez, A; Barba de la Rosa, A P

    2004-01-01

    The functional and rheological properties of amaranth albumins isolates extracted from two new Mexican varieties were determined. Functional properties tested were protein solubility, foaming, water and oil absorption capacities, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability. The maximum solubility values for both amaranth albumins were found above pH 6 and values were compared to the solubility of egg albumins. Albumins from amaranth showed excellent foaming capacity and foaming stability at pH 5, suggesting that this protein could be used as whipping agents as egg albumins, also the water and oil absorption capacities reached their maximum values at acidic pH, suggesting that amaranth albumins could be appropriate in preparation of acidic foods. The rheological test based on farinograms and alveograms showed that wheat flour supplemented with 1% amaranth albumins improves the dough properties due to higher mixing stability and the bread had better crumb characteristics. In addition of the known high nutritional values of amaranth albumins, our results indicate the high potential for use of these proteins as an ingredient in food preparations.

  1. Effects of defatted amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L. snacks on lipid metabolism of patients with moderate hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Nilda Chávez-Jáuregui

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of defatted amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L. snacks on plasma lipids in moderate hypercholesterolemic patients. Twenty-two subjects [30-65 years old, 11 males, with total cholesterol (TC > 240 mg.dL-1, low-density cholesterol (LDL-c 160-190 mg.dL-1 and plasma triglycerides (TG < 400 mg.dL-1] were randomized in a double blind clinical trial to receive an amaranth snack (50 g/day or equivalent corn snack (placebo for 2 months. There were no differences between amaranth and placebo on TC and LDL-c, and TG respectively: -8.4 and -5.7% (p = 0.17; -12.3 and -9.7% (p = 0.41 and -0.6 and -7.3% (p = 0.47. However, amaranth snacks significantly reduced high-density cholesterol (HDL-c: -15.2 vs. -4% (p = 0.03. In conclusion, the intake of 50 g of extruded amaranth daily during 60 days did not significantly reduce LDL-c in moderate hypercholesterolemic subjects; furthermore there was a significant reduction in HDL-c. Studies with greater number of subjects and greater quantity of this food are necessary to test the effects of amaranth on lipid metabolism in humans.

  2. Quinoa: An emerging new crop with potential for CELSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlick, Greg; Bubenheim, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is being considered as a new crop for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) because of its high protein values (12 - 18%) and unique amino acid composition. Lysine, and essential amino acid that is deficient in many grain crops, is found in quinoa approaching Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) standards set for humans. This 'new' crop, rich in protein and with desirable proportions of important amino acids, may provide greater versatility in meeting the needs of humans on long-term space missions. Initially, the cultivars CO407 x ISLUGA, CO407 Heat Tolerant Population 1, and Real' (a Bolivian variety) were examined. The first cultivar showed the most promise in greenhouse studies. When grown hydroponically in the greenhouse, with no attempt to maximize productivity, this cultivar produced 202 g m(exp -2) with a harvest index of 37%. None of the cultivars were greater than 70 cm in height. Initial results indicate that quinoa could be an excellent crop for CELSS because of the high concentration of protein, ease of use, versatility in preparation, and potential for greatly increased yields in controlled environments.

  3. Physiological and photosynthetic response of quinoa to drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Fghire

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a critical problem touching plant growth and yield in semi-arid areas, for instance the Mediterranean región. For this reason was studied the physiological basis of drought tolerance of a new, drought tolerant crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. tested in Morocco in two successive seasons, subject to four irrigation treatments (100, 50, and 33%ETc, and rainfed. The chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were analyzed by the JIP-test to transíate stress-induced damage in these transients to changes in biophysical parameter's allowing quantification of the energy flow through the photosynthetic apparatus. Drought stress induced a significant decrease in the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Φpo = Fv/Fm, and the quantum yield of electron transport (Φeo. The amount of active Photosystem II (PSII reaction centers (RC per excited cross section (RC/CS also decreased when exposed to the highest drought stress. The effective antenna size of active RCs (ABS/RC increased and the effective dissipation per active reaction centers (DIo/RC increased by increasing drought stress during the growth season in comparison to the control. However the performance index (PI, was a very sensitive indicator of the physiological status of plants. Leaf area index, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance decreased as the drought increased. These results indicate that, in quinoa leaf, JIP-test can be used as a sensitive method for measuring drought stress effects.

  4. Impact of use of treated wastewater for irrigation on soil and quinoa crop in South of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Youssfi, Lahcen; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Zaafrani, Mina; Hirich, Aziz; Fahmi, Hasna; Abdelatif, Rami; Laajaj, Khadija; El Omari, Halima

    2015-04-01

    This work was conducted at the experimental station of the IAV Hassan II-CHA-Agadir in southwest Morocco between 2010 and 2012. It aimed the assessment of the effects of use of treated wastewater on soil properties and agronomic parameters by adopting crop rotation introducing quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as a new crop under semi-arid climate. Biomass production, yield, nutrient accumulation in leaves and the level of electrical conductivity and soil nitrate are the evaluated parameters during three growing seasons. Results show that quinoa has a performing behavior when it is preceded by fabae bean in term of water use efficiency; in addition, the recorded level of salt accumulation in the soil was the lowest in comparison with that of the combinations bean>quinoa and fallow>quinoa. Concerning growth and yield, it was found that growing quinoa after chickpea was more beneficial in terms of biomass productivity and yield. Keywords: Quinoa, soil, treated wastewater semi-arid

  5. The development and validation of HPLC method for quantification of DL-α-tocopherol in quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Sanja J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to achieve a precise method with easy application, this study presents the development and validation of a fast method for quantification of vitamin DL-α-tocopherol in quinoa seeds. The methodology was based on an extraction procedure using ultrasonic bath and determination by normal-phase HPLC with UV-VIS detector. Validation parameters showed adequate linearity, relative standard deviations between 0.5 and 0.8% (n=10, limits of detection and quantification were 3.0 ng/mL and 11.0 ng/mL, respectively. Moreover, testing the robustness of the method suggested that it was not changeable with time or condition. The results showed that this method is accurate and simple and thus applicable in laboratories for determination of DL-α-tocopherol in quinoa seeds.

  6. Developmental peculiarities and seed-borne endophytes in quinoa: Omnipresent, robust bacilli contribute to plant fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea ePitzschke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. A seed-borne microbiome was discovered and its potential role in early development and stress resistance investigated.Methods involved germination and drought exposure assays, histochemical detection of reactive oxygen species, and diverse tests with seed(ling material to assess microbial occurrence, release and proliferation. Quinoa´s microbial partners were biochemically, microscopically and taxonomically characterized.Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent. These peculiarities became in part explainable upon discovery of seed-borne microorganisms. 100% of quinoa seeds, from different sources, are inhabited by bacteria of the genus Bacillus. These endophytes are mobile and reside in all seedling organs, indicating vertical transmission. Owing to their strong catalase activity and high superoxide contents they can modify host redox properties. One outcome is cell expansion, enabling quinoa to overcome a critical period in development, seedling establishment.Quinoa´s immediate confrontation with foreign ROS and bacterial elicitors likely induces a naturally primed state, enabling plants to withstand extreme situations. The endophytic bacteria, which are cultivable and highly robust themselves, have high potential for application in agriculture, food (amylase and cosmetics (catalase industry. An exciting question arising from this work is: Can quinoa´s microbiome be transferred to improve stress resistance in other plant species?

  7. Desarrollo de un producto de panadería con harina de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) / Bakery product development with quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Diana Paola

    2011-01-01

    Para este trabajo, se obtuvo harina de quinua de la variedad Nariño como materia prima en grano (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), para esto se adecuó la materia prima extrayendo las saponinas del grano y posterior secado con aire caliente. Se probó su uso en panificación utilizando mezclas de harina de quinua con harina de trigo, para conocer y aprovechar las ventajas a nivel nutricional de este grano tan poco conocido y comercializado, que puede ser fuente de proteína de calidad, utilizándose en p...

  8. Effect of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa) in diet on some biochemical parameters and essential elements in blood of high fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paśko, Paweł; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Bartoń, Henryk; Chłopicka, Joanna; Gorinstein, Shela

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Chenopodium quinoa seeds on lipid profile, glucose level, protein metabolism and selected essential elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg) level was determined in high-fructose fed male Wistar rats. Fructose decreased significantly LDL [42%, pquinoa indicated, that these seeds effectively reduced serum total cholesterol [26%, pQuinoa seeds also significantly reduced the level of glucose [10%, pquinoa seeds were added into the diet the decrease of HDL level was inhibited. Quinoa seeds did not prevent any adverse effect of increasing triglyceride level caused by fructose. It was shown in this study that quinoa seeds can reduce most of the adverse effects exerted by fructose on lipid profile and glucose level.

  9. Characteristics of quinoa as a foodstuff (part 2): Structure and properties of starch granules of quinoa seeds

    OpenAIRE

    唐, 漢軍; 安藤, ひとみ; 渡辺, 克美; 光永, 俊郎

    1999-01-01

    [Synopsis] Quinoa seeds contained two kinds of starch granules, complex and single starch granules. Single granule was a polygonshape, and the particle size was around 1μm. The starch resembled small granule starch of nonwaxy wheat very closely in moisture absorption. The gelatinization temperature of the starch was lower than those of the tested cereals starch. The enthalpy of the starch was a little below that of rice starch and higher than those of barley, wheat, corn starches. Amylose con...

  10. Nutritional improvement of corn pasta-like product with broad bean (Vicia faba) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, M A; Drago, S R; Bassett, M N; Lobo, M O; Sammán, N C

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the nutritional quality of pasta-like product (spaghetti-type), made with corn (Zea mays) flour enriched with 30% broad bean (Vicia faba) flour and 20% of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour, was determined. Proximate chemical composition and iron, zinc and dietary fiber were determined. A biological assay was performed to assess the protein value using net protein utilization (NPU), true digestibility (TD) and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). Iron and zinc availability were estimated by measuring dialyzable mineral fraction (%Da) resulting from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Nutritionally improved, gluten-free spaghetti (NIS) showed significantly increased NPU and decreased TD compared with a non-enriched control sample. One NIS-portion supplied 10-20% of recommended fiber daily intake. Addition of quinoa flour had a positive effect on the FeDa% as did broad bean flour on ZnDa%. EDTA increased Fe- and ZnDa% in all NIS-products, but it also impaired sensorial quality. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Lysine biosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa): study of enzymes and nitrogen-containing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varisi, Vanderlei A; Camargos, Liliane S; Aguiar, Leandro F; Christofoleti, Renata M; Medici, Leonardo O; Azevedo, Ricardo A

    2008-01-01

    Aspartate kinase (AK, EC 2.7.2.4), homoserine dehydrogenase (HSDH, EC 1.1.1.3) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS, EC 4.2.1.52) were isolated and partially purified from immature Chenopodium quinoa Willd seeds. Enzyme activities were studied in the presence of the aspartate-derived amino acids lysine, threonine and methionine and also the lysine analogue S-2-aminoethyl-l-cysteine (AEC), at 1 mM and 5 mM. The results confirmed the existence of, at least, two AK isoenzymes, one inhibited by lysine and the other inhibited by threonine, the latter being predominant in quinoa seeds. HSDH activity was also shown to be partially inhibited by threonine, whereas some of the activity was resistant to the inhibitory effect, indicating the presence of two isoenzymes, one resistant and another sensitive to threonine inhibition. Only one DHDPS isoenzyme highly sensitive to lysine inhibition was detected. The results suggest that the high concentration of lysine observed in quinoa seeds is possibly due to a combined effect of increased lysine synthesis and accumulation in the soluble form and/or as protein lysine. Nitrogen assimilation was also investigated and based on nitrate content, nitrate reductase activity, amino acid distribution and ureide content, the leaves were identified as the predominant site of nitrate reduction in this plant species. The amino acid profile analysis in leaves and roots also indicated an important role of soluble glutamine as a nitrogen transporting compound.

  12. Genetic diversity and comparison of physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of six quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd. genotypes cultivated in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the analysis of agronomical, nutritional, physicochemical, and antioxidant properties of six genetically different quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd genotypes cultivated in three distinctive geographical zones of Chile. Ancovinto and Cancosa genotypes from the northern Altiplano (19 ºS, Cáhuil and Faro from the central region (34 ºS, and Regalona and Villarica from the southern region (39 ºS are representative of high genetic differentiation among the pooled samples, in particular between Altiplano and the central-southern groups. A Common-Garden Assay at 30 ºS showed significant differences among seed origins in all morphometric parameters and also in yields. Altiplano genotypes had larger panicule length but no seed production. A significant influence of the different quinoa genotypes on chemical composition and functional properties was also observed. Protein concentration ranged from 11.13 to 16.18 g.100 g-1 d.m., while total dietary fiber content ranged from 8.07-12.08 g.100 g-1 d.m., and both were the highest in Villarrica ecotype. An adequate balance of essential amino acids was also observed. Sucrose was the predominant sugar in all genotypes. Antioxidant activity was high in all genotypes, and it was highest in Faro genotype (79.58% inhibition.

  13. Immunological aspects of the common food colorants, amaranth and tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsogeorgopoulou, L; Maravelias, C; Methenitou, G; Koutselinis, A

    1998-02-01

    We describe a sensitive and reproducible microassay model using human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) for discrimination between the cytotoxic and immunosuppressive effects of food colorants such as amaranth and tartrazine. The cytotoxic effects of a wide range of concentrations of these substances were studied on human PBL by the colorimetric in vitro cytotoxicity assays, neutral red uptake (NR) and thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The immunotoxic properties of these 2 substances were determined by a [3H]-thymidine DNA incorporation assay on phytohemagglutinin stimulated or non-stimulated lymphocytes, as well as by a Cr51 release Natural Killer assays. The results showed clear immunosuppressive effects from the 2 substances tested, although the concentrations chosen for this study proved to be non-cytotoxic by NR and MTT cytotoxic endpoints.

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of amaranth with hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadupalli, S; Koorbanally, N; Jonnalagadda, S B

    2011-07-14

    The reaction mechanism of the oxidation of Amaranth dye (2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonato-1-naphthylazo) naphthalene-3,6-disulfonate) with hypochlorite under varied pH conditions was elucidated by a kinetic approach. Under excess concentration of oxidant, the reaction followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to Amaranth, and the oxidation was found to occur through two competitive reactions, initiated by hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid. The reaction order with respect to both OCl(-) ion and HOCl was unity. While the latter reaction was fast, the significance of the oxidation paths depended on the relative concentration of the two oxidizing species, which was dictated by the reaction pH. The role of the H(+) ion in the reaction was established. For the hypochlorite ion and hypochlorous acid facilitated reactions, the second-order rate coefficients were 1.9 and 23.2 M(-1) s(-1), respectively. The energy parameters were E(a) = 33.7 kJ mol(-1), ΔH(‡) = 31.2 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(‡) = -190.6 J K(-1) mol(-1) for the OCl(-) ion-driven oxidation, and E(a) = 26.9 kJ mol(-1), ΔH(‡) = 24.3 kJ mol(-1) and ΔS(‡) = -222.8 J K(-1) mol(-1) for the reaction with HOCl-initiated oxidation. The major oxidation products for both the pathways were 3,4-dihydroxy naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic sodium salt (P(1)), dichloro-1,4-naphthoquione (P(2)) and naphtha(2,3)oxirene-2, 3-dione (P(3)). On the basis of the primary salt effect and other kinetic data, the rate law for the overall reaction and probable reaction mechanism was elucidated. The proposed mechanism was validated by simulations using Simkine-2.

  15. Integrated Palmer Amaranth Management in Glufosinate-Resistant Cotton: II. Primary, Secondary and Conservation Tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Patterson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A three year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the role of soil inversion, cover crops and spring tillage methods for Palmer amaranth between-row (BR and within-row (WR management in glufosinate-resistant cotton. Main plots were two soil inversion treatments: fall inversion tillage (IT and non-inversion tillage (NIT. Subplots were three cover treatments: crimson clover, cereal rye or none (i.e., winter fallow; and the sub subplots were four secondary spring tillage methods: disking followed by (fb cultivator (DCU, disking fb chisel plow (DCH, disking fb disking (DD and no tillage (NT. Averaged over years and soil inversion, the crimson clover produced maximum cover biomass (4390 kg ha−1 fb cereal rye (3698 kg ha−1 and winter fallow (777 kg ha−1. Two weeks after planting (WAP and before the postemergence (POST application, Palmer amaranth WR and BR density were two- and four-times less, respectively, in IT than NIT. Further, Palmer amaranth WR and BR density were reduced two-fold following crimson clover and cereal rye than following winter fallow at 2 WAP. Without IT, early season Palmer amaranth densities were 40% less following DCU, DCH and DD, when compared with IT. Following IT, no spring tillage method improved Palmer amaranth control. The timely application of glufosinate + S-metolachlor POST tank mixture greatly improved Palmer amaranth control in both IT and NIT systems. The highest cotton yields were obtained with DD following cereal rye (2251 kg ha−1, DD following crimson clover (2213 kg ha−1 and DD following winter fallow (2153 kg ha−1. On average, IT cotton yields (2133 kg ha−1 were 21% higher than NIT (1766 kg ha−1. Therefore, from an integrated weed management standpoint, an occasional fall IT could greatly reduce Palmer amaranth emergence on farms highly infested with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. In addition, a cereal rye or crimson clover cover crop can effectively reduce early season Palmer

  16. Detection of lunasin in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and the in vitro evaluation of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guixing; Zhu, Yingying; Shi, Zhenxing; Li, Jianhui

    2017-09-01

    Lunasin is a novel cancer-preventive peptide that has been detected in various plants. However, the presence and bioactivity of lunasin in quinoa have not been demonstrated. Lunasin was detected in quinoa using ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography-electrosparay ionization-mass spectrometry. The content in 15 quinoa samples ranged from 1.01 × 10-3 g kg-1 dry seed to 4.89 × 10-3 g kg-1 dry seed. Significant differences (P quinoa (QLP) exhibited a weak DPPH radical scavenging activity (no IC50 value), but a strong ABTS+ radical scavenging activity (IC50 value, 1.45 g L-1 ) and oxygen radical scavenging activity (40.06 µmol L-1 Trolox equivalents/g QLP when the concentration was 3.20 g L-1 ). In addition, QLP inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages by up to 44.77%, 39.81% and 33.50%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.40 g L-1 . Taken together, these findings indicate that lunasin presents in quinoa and is bioactive, which strengthens the recommendations for the development of quinoa-based functional foods. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Morphology-controlled electrochemical sensing amaranth at nanomolar levels using alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gan, Tian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000 (China); Wan, Chidan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Kangbing, E-mail: kbwu@hust.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-02-18

    Highlights: ► A facile way to tune morphology and sensing properties of alumina was developed. ► Oxidation activities of amaranth on alumina surface were morphology-dependent. ► Alumina microfibers were more active and greatly increased the signal of amaranth. ► Sensitive, rapid, selective and accurate method was developed for amaranth detection. -- Abstract: Different-shaped aluminas were readily prepared via hydrothermal reaction. It was found that the morphology and the electrochemical sensing properties of alumina were heavily dependent on the reaction time. When extending the reaction time from 6 h to 24 h, the obtained alumina samples changed from amorphous bumps to regular microfibers in diameter of 200 nm, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that longer reaction time was beneficial for the formation of porous and uniform fiber-like structures. Electrochemical tests proved that alumina microfibers were more active for the oxidation of amaranth and exhibited much higher enhancement effect, compared with alumina bumps. On the surface of alumina microfibers, the oxidation peak currents of amaranth increased remarkably. The influences of pH value, amount of alumina microfibers, and accumulation time on the signal enhancement of amaranth were discussed. As a result, a novel electrochemical method was developed for the detection of amaranth. The linear range was from 1 to 150 nM, and the detection limit was 0.75 nM after 1-min accumulation. The analytical application in drink samples was investigated, and the results consisted with the values that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  18. Developmental Peculiarities and Seed-Borne Endophytes in Quinoa: Omnipresent, Robust Bacilli Contribute to Plant Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzschke, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Among potential climate change-adapted crops for future agriculture, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), a facultative halophyte plant with exceptional nutritional properties, stands out as a prime candidate. This work examined how quinoa deals with extreme situations during seed rehydration. Quinoa distinguishes itself from other plants in multiple ways. It germinates within minutes, even under extremely hostile conditions. Broken seeds/split embryos are able to regenerate. Furthermore, quinoa seedlings are resurrection-competent. These peculiarities became in part explainable upon discovery of seed-borne microorganisms. 100% of quinoa seeds, from different sources, are inhabited by diverse members of the genus Bacillus. These endophytes are motile and reside in all seedling organs, indicating vertical transmission. Owing to their high catalase activities and superoxide contents the bacteria potentially manipulate the host’s redox status. Superoxide-driven cell expansion enables quinoa to overcome a critical period in development, seedling establishment. Quinoa’s immediate confrontation with “foreign” reactive oxygen species and bacterial elicitors likely induces a naturally primed state, enabling plants to withstand extreme situations. The endophytic bacteria, which are cultivable and highly robust themselves, have high potential for application in agriculture, food (amylase) and cosmetics (catalase) industry. This work also discusses the potential of transferring quinoa’s microbiome to improve stress resistance in other plant species. PMID:26834724

  19. Enhancing the Sustainability of Quinoa Production and Soil Resilience by Using Bioproducts Made with Native Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gutiérrez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are involved in a network of interactions with plants, promoting growth and acting as biocontrol agents against diseases. In this work, we studied native microorganisms associated with quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa and the application of these organisms to the organic production of quinoa in the Andean Altiplano. Quinoa is a non-cereal grain native to the Andean highlands and is highly nutritious and gluten-free. As such, the international demand for quinoa has increased substantially in recent years. We isolated native endophytic bacteria that are able to fix nitrogen, solubilize phosphate and synthesize a phytohormone and native strains of Trichoderma, a fungus typically used for increasing plant growth and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Greenhouse assays and field trials allowed for selecting promissory bacterial isolates, mostly belonging to Bacillus and Paenibacillus genera, that increased plant length, panicle weight and grain yield. Selected microbial isolates were large-scale multiplied in simple and inexpensive culture media and then formulated to obtain bioproducts that were distributed among local farmers. Thus, we developed a technology for the exploitation of beneficial microbes, offering promising and environmentally friendly strategies for the organic production of quinoa without perturbing the native microbial diversity of Andean soils and making them more resilient to the adverse effects of climatic change and the over-production of quinoa.

  20. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Giolo Taverna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks were observed. There was a pronounced increase in water solubility index of blends with the extrusion process with significant effects of all process parameters on the WSI. Higher water absorption index (WAI was observed under high temperature, low moisture, and lower quinoa flour amount. Temperature and amount of quinoa flour influenced the color of the snacks. A positive quadratic effect of quinoa flour on hardness of products was observed. Blends of sour cassava starch and quinoa flour have good potential for use as raw material in production of extruded snacks with good physical properties.

  1. Breadmaking performance and textural changes during storage of composite breads made from spelt wheat and different forms of amaranth grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipčev, Bojana; Bodroža-Solarov, Marija; Pestorić, Mladenka; Šimurina, Olivera

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the baking properties of composite spelt wheat-amaranth blends and to study the staling of composite breads during a six-day storage. Different forms of amaranth grains were added to spelt bread formulation: native amaranth flour and flour from popped amaranth, including their scalded and non-scalded variants. Native amaranth flour (both scalded and non-scalded) gave loaves with the highest volume and contributed to significantly softer crumb but not in comparison to the control bread. Crumb resilience did not show significant differences among the breads but there were differences in the crumb stress relaxation parameters which indicated certain influence on the crumb viscoelastic properties. During storage, all samples developed firmer and less elastic crumbs. Drying loss and staling degree significantly increased with increased storage time. The staling rate was the highest in the bread with non-scalded amaranth flours (native and flour from popped amaranth). The changes in the crumb textural and elastic properties caused by staling turned significant after six days of storage. In general, inclusion of different forms of amaranth flour did not alter the staling of breads and they exerted similar behaviour during storage.

  2. Quinoa seed coats as an expanding and sustainable source of bioactive compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Karina B.; Khakimov, Bekzod; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2017-01-01

    . This research aims to characterise saponins of seed coat waste products from six different quinoa varieties for their potential use as a saponin source. Gas chromatography (GC)- and Liquid chromatography (LC)- with mass spectrometry (MS) were applied for qualitative and relative quantitative analysis....... Saponin distribution and relative abundances are discussed in the light of genotype provenance and agronomic features. Improved knowledge on the phytochemicals present in quinoa varieties might help in finding valuable and sustainable uses for quinoa SAPs in agroindustry as biopesticides as well...

  3. Ionic and photosynthetic homeostasis in quinoa challenged by drought and salinity – mechanisms of tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under field conditions was exposed to five irrigation water salinities (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m–1; 4 : 1 NaCl : CaCl2 molar ratio) from flowering, and divided between full irrigation and progressive drought (PD) during seed filling. Quinoa demonstrated...... homeostatic mechanisms which contributed to quinoa’s extraordinary tolerance. Salinity increased K+ and Na+ uptake by 60 and 100 kg ha–1, respectively, resulting in maintenance of cell turgor by osmotic adjustment, and a 50% increase of the leaf’s fresh weight (FW) : dry weight (DW) ratio and non...

  4. Sensory analysis of meat of cockerels and pullets fed with diets containing Amaranth or fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Jůzl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory-evaluation was conducted on 80 chickens (ROSS 308 36 days old. Chickens were divided into groups by course of the diet addition of Amaranth or fishmeal in basic fed diets BR1 and BR2 (addition 2% of fish meal, 10% of no-heat-treated Amaranth, 10% of heat-treated Amaranth – popping, 10% of dry mass of Amaranth. Groups were separated by sex in rearing. Totally were 8 groups of 10 chickens. It was evaluated sensory quality of breast and legs (thigh and drumstick. There were 8 members of evaluation group; evaluation was done by group of 8 members satisfied all conditions in ISO 8586-1 in special room for sensory analysis (according to ISO 8589.It was used five-point scale (1 – at least desirable, 5 – the most desirable in evaluation of five main (descriptors attributes of meat (colour, texture, juiciness, odour and taste.Breast meat texture of group of heat–treated Amaranth was evaluated even with shear-force measuring (W.B..The correlation coefficient was –0,91 for statistical relationship between sensorial measured texture and evaluation of the shear-force. Addition of no-heat-treated and dry mass of Amaranth had positive effect (P < 0,05 on colour (paler meat, taste and odour (more desirable than addition of fishmeal and heat-treated Amaranth. Members of evaluation group detected moderate fish aftertaste and false taste of thighs at meat, when chickens were fed by fishmeal (but without statistical variance. Beyond, variance (P < 0,05 was detected with addition of fishmeal only in compare with dry mass of Amaranth addition. This diet was evaluated as more desirable than others groups in relation to taste and odour of meat. All groups fed by Amaranth were positive evaluated in taste and odour and no group were qualify as unacceptable for consumers. Contrasts between sexes were not indicated in this age of young chickens, but only tendency to better texture and taste of the meat of pullets.

  5. Effect of ball milling energy on rheological and thermal properties of amaranth flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roa, Diego F; Baeza, Rosa I; Tolaba, Marcela P

    2015-12-01

    Pearled amaranth grains obtained by abrasive milling were processed by planetary ball milling to produce amaranth flours. The influence of milling energy on rheological and thermal behavior of amaranth flour dispersions and stability during 24 h storage at 4 °C were investigated based on a factorial design. The rheological behavior of flour dispersions (4 % and 8 % w/v) was determined using a rotational viscometer, while gelatinization degree was determined by differential scanning calorimetry as a measure of structural changes.The power law model was found to be suitable in expressing the relationship between shear stress and shear rate. Flour dispersions showed a pseudoplastic behavior. However this character decreased with the storage being dependent on flour concentration and milling energy. A decrease of the consistency index and an increase of the flow behavior index were observed as a result of the increasing milling energy. Gelatinization enthalpy decrease showed the loss of crystalline structure due to ball milling. Amaranth flour dispersions presented increasing stability during storage. It was observed, that the stability changed with the concentration of amaranth flours.Thus, more stable dispersions were obtained as the flour concentration increased. The highly milled sample was the most stable sample during the storage.

  6. Effect of gamma irradiated sodium alginate on red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) as growth promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollah, M.Z.I. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Khan, Mubarak A. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: makhan.inst@gmail.com; Khan, Ruhul A. [Radiation and Polymer Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, GPO Box 3787, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2009-01-15

    In order to study the growth promotion behavior of sodium alginate (SA) on vegetable (red amaranth, Amaranthus cruentus L.), 3% aqueous solution of SA was irradiated by {gamma}-radiation (Co-60) of various total doses (12.5-50.0 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h. Viscosity of the irradiated SA was found to decrease with increase in the radiation dose. The average molecular weight was also decreased from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 3} orders. Red amaranth was cultivated in 18 different individual plots and SA solution (150 ppm) was applied on red amaranth after 10 days of seedlings at every 6 days interval. The morphological characters of vegetables were studied randomly in different unit plots. The irradiated SA of 37.5 kGy at 150 ppm solution showed the best performance. Dry matter of red amaranth significantly increased at 37.5 kGy of irradiated alginate treatment which was about 50% higher than that of the untreated samples. The effect of SA on red amaranth was found significant increase; i.e. plant height (17.8%), root length (12.7%), number of leaf (5.4%) and maximum leaf area (2%) compared to that of the control vegetative plant production.

  7. Amaranth decoloration by Trametes versicolor in a rotating biological contacting reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Juliana; Shin, Maria; Wong, Sunny; Goode, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Sequential batch and continuous operation of a rotating biological contacting (RBC) reactor and the effects of dissolved oxygen on the decoloration of amaranth by Trametes versicolor were evaluated. Amaranth belongs to the group of azo dyes which are potential carcinogens and/or mutagens that can be transformed into toxic aryl amines under anaerobic conditions. Cultivation of T. versicolor in a stirred tank reactor was found to be unsuitable for amaranth decoloration due to significant biomass fouling and increase in medium viscosity. Assuming that decoloration follows first-order kinetics, amaranth was decolorized more rapidly when T. versicolor was immobilized on jute twine in a RBC reactor operated either in a sequential batch (k=0.25 h(-1)) or in a continuous (0.051 h(-1)) mode compared to a stirred tank reactor (0.015 h(-1)). Oxygen was found to be essential for decoloration with the highest decoloration rates occurring at oxygen saturation. Although longer retention times resulted in more decoloration when the RBC was operated in the continuous mode (about 33% amaranth decoloration), sequential batch operation gave better results (>95%) under similar nutrient conditions. Our data indicate that the fastest decoloration should occur in the RBC using nitrogen-free Kirk's medium with 1 g/l glucose in sequential batch operation at rotational speeds and/or aeration rates which maintain oxygen saturation in the liquid phase.

  8. Reproductive and neurobehavioral effects of amaranth administered to mice in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T

    1993-01-01

    The color additive amaranth was given in the drinking water at levels of 0 (control), 0.025, 0.075, and 0.225% from 5 weeks of age in F0 generation until F1 generation mice were weaned, with selected reproductive, developmental and behavioral parameters being measured. Amaranth had little adverse effect upon litter size, litter weight and sex ratio. Average body weight in both sexes of the F1 mice was significantly increased in the 0.025% group in both sexes. Survival index at postnatal day (PND) 21 was reduced in the 0.025% amaranth group. For the neurobehavioral parameters, surface righting at PND 4 in female offspring and olfactory orientation in both sexes were significantly affected by treatment. Several parameters of movement activity of male offspring at 3 weeks of age were affected in amaranth 0.075% group, but those of female offspring were similar in all groups. The dose levels of amaranth in this study produced a little adverse effect on behavioral development in mice.

  9. Effect of gamma irradiated sodium alginate on red amaranth ( Amaranthus cruentus L.) as growth promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollah, M. Z. I.; Khan, Mubarak A.; Khan, Ruhul A.

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the growth promotion behavior of sodium alginate (SA) on vegetable (red amaranth, Amaranthus cruentus L.), 3% aqueous solution of SA was irradiated by γ-radiation (Co-60) of various total doses (12.5-50.0 kGy) at a dose rate of 3.5 kGy/h. Viscosity of the irradiated SA was found to decrease with increase in the radiation dose. The average molecular weight was also decreased from 10 4 to 10 3 orders. Red amaranth was cultivated in 18 different individual plots and SA solution (150 ppm) was applied on red amaranth after 10 days of seedlings at every 6 days interval. The morphological characters of vegetables were studied randomly in different unit plots. The irradiated SA of 37.5 kGy at 150 ppm solution showed the best performance. Dry matter of red amaranth significantly increased at 37.5 kGy of irradiated alginate treatment which was about 50% higher than that of the untreated samples. The effect of SA on red amaranth was found significant increase; i.e. plant height (17.8%), root length (12.7%), number of leaf (5.4%) and maximum leaf area (2%) compared to that of the control vegetative plant production.

  10. Characterization of Peptides Found in Unprocessed and Extruded Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) Pepsin/Pancreatin Hydrolysates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Rodríguez, Alvaro; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc; González de Mejía, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (UAH) and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (EAH) and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. Amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °C of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. Unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for each enzyme. After 180 min of pepsin hydrolysis, aliquots were taken at each time during pancreatin hydrolysis to characterize the hydrolysates by MALDI-TOF/MS-MS. Molecular masses (MM) (527, 567, 802, 984, 1295, 1545, 2034 and 2064 Da) of peptides appeared consistently during hydrolysis, showing high intensity at 10 min (2064 Da), 120 min (802 Da) and 180 min (567 Da) in UAH. EAH showed high intensity at 10 min (2034 Da) and 120 min (984, 1295 and 1545 Da). Extrusion produced more peptides with MM lower than 1000 Da immediately after 10 min of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis time impacted on the peptide profile, as longer the time lower the MM in both amaranth hydrolysates. Sequences obtained were analyzed for their biological activity at BIOPEP, showing important inhibitory activities related to chronic diseases. These peptides could be used as a food ingredient/supplement in a healthy diet to prevent the risk to develop chronic diseases. PMID:25894223

  11. Photocatalytic performance of graphene/TiO{sub 2}-Ag composites on amaranth dye degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roşu, Marcela-Corina, E-mail: marcela.rosu@itim-cj.ro; Socaci, Crina; Floare-Avram, Veronica; Borodi, Gheorghe; Pogăcean, Florina; Coroş, Maria; Măgeruşan, Lidia; Pruneanu, Stela

    2016-08-15

    Ternary nanocomposites containing TiO{sub 2}, silver and graphene with different reduction levels were prepared and used as photocatalysts for amaranth azo dye degradation, under UV and natural light exposure. The obtained materials were characterized by TEM, XRD, FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy, confirming the successful formation of the nanocomposites. HPLC analysis along with UV-Vis spectroscopy were employed to quantify the concentration of non-degraded dye in solution. The graphene/TiO{sub 2}-Ag nanocomposites proved to have remarkable photocatalytic activities for amaranth degradation under UV and solar irradiation (85.3–98% of dye has disappeared in the first 2 h). Also, significant removal efficiencies (between 40.5 and 71.8%) of photocatalysts, in day light conditions, were demonstrated. The best result for amaranth dye degradation was obtained with the reduced graphene/TiO{sub 2}-Ag catalyst (up to 99.9%). Based on the degradation products analysis, a photodegradation pathway of amaranth dye was also proposed. - Highlights: • Graphene/TiO{sub 2}-Ag composites were prepared by a combined chemical-thermal method. • The composites showed improved light-absorption characteristics. • A significant degradation performance of amaranth was obtained with these composites under UV and natural light exposure. • Graphene/TiO{sub 2}-Ag composites offer a high potential for various photocatalytic applications in pollutant removal processes.

  12. Evaluating role of immobilized periphyton in bioremediation of azo dye amaranth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir, Sadaf; Faheem, Muhammad; Ali, Naeem; Kerr, Philip G; Wu, Yonghong

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioremediation capabilities of three kinds of periphyton (i.e. epiphyton, metaphyton and epilithon) immobilized in bioreactors to decolorize and biodegrade the sulphonated azo dye, amaranth. Results showed that periphyton dominated by phyla including Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Complete removal of dye was shown by all the biofilms periphyton (epiphyton showed highest removal efficacy) over a range of initial concentrations (50-500mgL-1) within 84h at pH 7 and 30°C. Biodegradation of amaranth was confirmed through FTIR and HPLC and the biodegradation pathways were detected by GC-MS/MS analysis. The azo bonds in the amaranth were successfully broken by periphyton and amaranth was converted to non-toxic, aliphatic compounds including isobutene, acetyl acetate and ethyl acetate. The results showed the potential application of immobilized periphyton at industrial scale for the removal of azo dyes from wastewater containing azo dye amaranth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of Insulated Covers over Product Crates to Reduce Losses in Amaranth during Shipping Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizanne Wheeler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Amaranth is a leafy vegetable with high nutrient content which is sensitive to temperature and low relative humidity. Delays in shipment to market may result in significant losses, therefore improved packaging to minimize mechanical damage and reduce moisture loss are desirable. Amaranth was stored in three types of consumer packages, bunches, clamshells and thin plastic bags, within vented plastic crates. Pallet loads were either covered with insulated material or not, while awaiting transportation. Results indicated covering pallets improved the color and overall quality while reducing weight loss and wilting. Covered crates had a “good” (7.6/9.0 overall quality while uncovered averaged 5.5/9.0 or “moderate” quality. There were significant differences in consumer package type, with the bagged amaranth having almost “excellent” quality (8.8/9.0 compared to “good-fair” quality in clamshells (6.2/9.0 and “poor-fair” quality in the control bunches (4.7/9.0. Amaranth stored in thin plastic bags was better in quality and color, with less weight loss and wilting, however, temperatures at the end of six hours of storage were higher and this may lead to microbial growth. Storage of amaranth in thin bags or clamshell packages, within plastic crates covered with insulated pallet covers while awaiting shipping resulted in improved overall quality and color.

  14. Characterization of Peptides Found in Unprocessed and Extruded Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus Pepsin/Pancreatin Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Montoya-Rodríguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (UAH and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (EAH and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. Amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °C of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. Unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for each enzyme. After 180 min of pepsin hydrolysis, aliquots were taken at each time during pancreatin hydrolysis to characterize the hydrolysates by MALDI-TOF/MS-MS. Molecular masses (MM (527, 567, 802, 984, 1295, 1545, 2034 and 2064 Da of peptides appeared consistently during hydrolysis, showing high intensity at 10 min (2064 Da, 120 min (802 Da and 180 min (567 Da in UAH. EAH showed high intensity at 10 min (2034 Da and 120 min (984, 1295 and 1545 Da. Extrusion produced more peptides with MM lower than 1000 Da immediately after 10 min of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis time impacted on the peptide profile, as longer the time lower the MM in both amaranth hydrolysates. Sequences obtained were analyzed for their biological activity at BIOPEP, showing important inhibitory activities related to chronic diseases. These peptides could be used as a food ingredient/supplement in a healthy diet to prevent the risk to develop chronic diseases.

  15. Decolorization and mineralization of Amaranth dye using multiple zoned aerobic and anaerobic baffled constructed wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehl, Harvinder Kaur; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Wong, Yee-Shian; Saad, Farah Naemah Mohd; Oon, Yoong-Ling; Oon, Yoong-Sin; Thung, Wei-Eng; Yong, Chin-Yii

    2017-08-03

    The objective of this study is to determine the reduction efficiency of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) as well as the removal of color and Amaranth dye metabolites by the Aerobic-anaerobic Baffled Constructed Wetland Reactor (ABCW). The ABCW reactor was planted with common reed (Phragmite australis) where the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was set to 1 day and was fed with synthetic wastewater with the addition of Amaranth dye. Supplementary aeration was supplied in designated compartments of the ABCW reactor to control the aerobic and anaerobic zones. After Amaranth dye addition the COD reduction efficiency dropped from 98 to 91% while the color removal efficiency was 100%. Degradation of azo bond in Amaranth dye is shown by the UV-Vis spectrum analysis which demonstrates partial degradation of Amaranth dye metabolites. The performance of the baffled unit is due to the longer pathway as there is the up-flow and down-flow condition sequentially, thus allowing more contact of the wastewater with the rhizomes and micro-aerobic zones.

  16. Effect of incorporation of amaranth on the physical properties and nutritional value of cheese bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa dos Reis Lemos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available At the present celiac disease has no known cure, and its only treatment is a strict lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet. Cheese bread is a traditional Brazilian product and a safe option for celiacs. However, like other gluten-free breads, it has inherent low levels of fibers and minerals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of incorporation of whole amaranth flour on the physical properties and nutritional value of cheese bread. Amaranth flour was incorporated at 10, 15, and 20% proportions in different formulations. The increasing amaranth levels darkened the product, reduced specific volume, and increased compression force. Ten percent amaranth-content cheese breads exhibited slight differences in physical properties compared with the controls. These results demonstrated the possibility of incorporating 10% of whole amaranth flour in the formulation of cheese bread resulting in a product with higher dietary fiber and iron contents and the same level of acceptance as that of the conventional formulation. The aim of this approach is to increase the availability of gluten-free bakery products with added nutritional value contributing to increase the variety of the diet of celiac patients.

  17. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks Mudanças nas propriedades físicas de snacks extrusados de misturas de polvilho azedo e farinha de quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia Giolo Taverna; Magali Leonel; Martha Maria Mischan

    2012-01-01

    Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks...

  18. Evaluation of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Amaranth cultivars in different planting dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir ayeneband

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine optimum planting date and best cultivar of Amaranth, a field experiment was conducted in 2005 on agricultural Faculty of Ahvaz. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with a split plot with three replications. Main plot were assigned to three planting dates (i.e. 4/10, 4/15 & 5/1 and sub-plot were assigned to four amaranth cultivars (i.e. Slovaky, Plaintsent, Mercado & Amonth. Results showed that change in planting date had a significant effect on most quality and quantity components of forage yield. Mercado CV. in second planting date had the highestforage yield. Highest stem weight was a main reason for yield priority. Despite of lowest yield, highest protein content was obtained by Amount cv. in third planting date. Therefore, Mercado cv. and second planting date could be recommended for planting Amaranth crop in Ahvaz.

  19. Functional soy food based on flaxseed and quinoa and enriched with iron and Vitamin B12

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Carolina Braga; Pedro Paulo Andrade Júnior

    2015-01-01

    .... Current assay comprises a sensorial analysis of a product of vegetable origin, a soy product, based on quinoa and flaxseed, considered to be functional food, for its organoleptic characteristics...

  20. Effect of high pressure on rheological and thermal properties of quinoa and maize starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2018-02-15

    Quinoa starch has small granules with relatively low gelatinization temperatures and amylose content. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is a non-thermal technique for food processing. In this study, effects of HHP up to 600MPa on physical properties of quinoa starch were studied and compared with those of a normal maize starch. Both starches gelatinized at 500 and 600MPa. The pressure of 600MPa completely gelatinized quinoa starch as revealed by thermal analysis. Dynamic rheological analysis showed that HHP improved the gel stability of both starches during cooling. HHP had little effects on amylopectin recrystallization and gel textural properties of starch. Overall, quinoa starch was more susceptible to HHP than maize starch. The effects of HHP on some rheological properties such as frequency dependence were different between these two types of starches. The differences could be attributed to the different composition, granular and chemical structures of starch, and the presence of granule remnants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genotype variability in composition of antioxidant vitamins and minerals in vegetable amaranth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Umakanta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty five vegetable amaranth genotypes were evaluated to investigate the antioxidant vitamins and minerals composition and its genetic variability in a RCBD with three replications at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University in Bangladesh during kharif1 season 2012 and 2013, respectively. Significant Mean Sum of Square revealed a wide range of genotypic variability among traits. Vegetable amaranth was rich in iron, zinc, manganese, magnesium and potassium. Ten strains gave the best (more than 5 kg foliage yield with rich in antioxidant minerals and vitamins. Selection of these genotypes would be economically useful for antioxidant vitamins, minerals and yield aspects. On the other hand, eight genotypes had high amounts of antioxidant vitamins and minerals with below average foliage yield and could be utilized as donor parents for introgression of genes in vitamins and minerals deficient lines. Considering genetic parameter six traits i e., Fe, Zn, Mn, ascorbic acid, number of leaves plant and foliage yield would be selected for the improvement of vegetable amaranth genotypes under study. However, correlation study revealed that selection based on Fe, Mn, ascorbic acid and number of leaves per plant could lead to increase the foliage yield of vegetable amaranth strains. Insignificant genotypic correlations between foliage yield with most of the antioxidant vitamins and minerals traits indicating that selection for high vitamins and minerals content might be possible without compromising yield loss. Based on mean, genetic parameters and correlation coefficient values, five vegetable amaranth genotypes i. e., AA19, AA10, AA3, AA24 and AA7 might be selected as high vitamin and minerals containing high yielding vegetable amaranth varieties.

  2. Immunological studies on Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin as food colouring agents in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mohamed M; Atta, Attia H; Arbid, Mahmoud S; Nada, Somaia A; Asaad, Gihan Farag

    2010-06-01

    The use of food dyes is at least controversial because they are only of essential role. Moreover many of them have been related to health problems mainly in children that are considered a very vulnerable group. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin for 4 weeks at doses of 47, 315 and 157.5 mg/kg b. wt. and after 2 weeks all animals were immunostimulated by intra peritoneal injection of sheep RBCs 10% (1 ml/rat). Body weight, relative body weight, total and differential leukocytes count, mononuclear cell count, delayed hypersensitivity, total protein and serum fractions were determined. Results revealed that oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin did not affect the body weight gain or the spleen weight. On the other hand Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the weight of thymus gland of the rats. Total leukocyte count were not affected while Amaranth and Curcumin-treated rats revealed a significant decrease in neutrophiles and monocytes and a compensatory increase in lymphocytes. Moreover, oral administration of Sunset Yellow revealed a significant decrease in monocyte percent. Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the delayed hyper sensitivity. Total serum protein, albumin, total globulin and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio were not affected by administration of the colouring agents. Oral administration of Amaranth increases the density of albumin band. On the other hand oral administration of Curcumin decreases the density of the albumin band. Oral administration of any of the tested colouring agents did not change the density of globulin region as compared to control group. In conclusion we found that both synthetic (Amaranth and Sunset Yellow) and natural (Curcumin) colouring agents used at doses up to 10 times the acceptable daily intake exerted a depressing effect on the cellular but not humoral immune response. Copyright 2010

  3. EVALUACIÓN DEL EFECTO DEL PROCESO DE EXTRUSIÓN EN HARINA DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) NORMAL Y GERMINADA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CRISTHIAN EMILIO TOVAR HERNÁNDEZ; EDGAR ALBERTO PERAFÁN GIL; MARIO GERMAN ENRÍQUEZ COLLAZOS; YAMID PISMAG PORTILLA; LORENA CERON FERNANDEZ

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinua Willd) germinated seeds shows nutritional value and body assimilation differences respect to normal seeds, therefore, sought to identify the extrusion process effect over flour from normal and germinated quinoa...

  4. Sensorial and physicochemical qualities of pasta prepared with amaranth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lopes dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Current assay analyzed the sensorial acceptability of pasta when amaranth flour (AF is added at different percentages. The physical and chemical composition and the acceptance similarities of standard formulation and formulation with a greater level of AF addition were assessed. Five formulations of pasta were used: F1 standard (0% AF; F2 (20% AF; F3 (25% AF; F4 (30% AF; F5 (35% AF. Fifty-six untrained tasters, from both genders and aged between 17 and 27 years, participated in the sensorial analysis. The physicochemical analyses determined moisture content, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, crude fiber, and calories. F4 with the highest AF content obtained acceptance similar to the standard formulation in all attributes. In addition, F4 provided higher levels of dietary fiber, proteins, ash, calories and lipids than standard formulation. Only carbohydrates levels in F4 were lower. Current study demonstrated that pasta with the addition of up to 30% of AF was the most sensory-accepted among the AF-added pastas. Since it provided sensory acceptance similar to the standard product, good marketing expectations are given.

  5. Chlorine dioxide-facilitated oxidation of the azo dye amaranth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadupalli, S; Koorbanally, N; Jonnalagadda, S B

    2011-10-27

    The oxidation reaction of amaranth (trisodium 2-hydroxy-1-(4-sulfonato-1-naphthylazo)naphthalene-3,6-disulfonate or AM(-)) by chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) in aqueous conditions was investigated in detail. The major reaction products immediately after decolorization of AM(-) were 1,2-naphthoquinone disulfonate sodium salt and 1,4-napthalenedione. The reaction had first-order dependence on both AM(-) and ClO(2). The rate-limiting step involved the reaction between AM(-) and OH(-) ions. The role of hydroxide ion as a catalyst was established. The second-order rate constant increased with pH, from (19.8 ± 0.9) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7.0, (97.1 ± 2.3) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 8.0 to (132.5 ± 2.8) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 9.0. In the pH range of 6.0-7.5, the catalytic constant for OH(-) ion was 4.0 × 10(9) M(-2) s(-1). The energy and entropy of activation values for the reaction were 50.0 kJ mol(-1) and -658.7 J K(-1) mol(-1), respectively. A probable reaction mechanism was elucidated and was validated by simulations.

  6. Characterisation of fatty acid, carotenoid, tocopherol/tocotrienol compositions and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Hernandez, Marta; Zhang, Hua; Marcone, Massimo F; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-05-01

    Composition of fatty acids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and carotenoids, and their contribution to antioxidant activities were investigated in seeds of three coloured quinoa cultivars (white, red and black). The major components and individual compounds were significantly different, and their concentrations were higher in darker seeds (p quinoa had the highest vitamin E followed by red and white quinoas. Carotenoids, mainly trans-lutein (84.7-85.6%) and zeaxanthin were confirmed for the first time in quinoa seeds, and the concentration was also the highest in black seeds. The antioxidant activities of lipophilic extracts were positively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acids, total carotenoids and total tocopherols. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Cellular and molecular aspects of quinoa leaf senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Burrieza, Hernán Pablo; Rizzo, Axel Joel; Martínez-Tosar, Leandro Julián; Maldonado, Sara

    2015-09-01

    During leaf senescence, degradation of chloroplasts precede to changes in nuclei and other cytoplasmic organelles, RuBisCO stability is progressively lost, grana lose their structure, plastidial DNA becomes distorted and degraded, the number of plastoglobuli increases and abundant senescence-associated vesicles containing electronically dense particles emerge from chloroplasts pouring their content into the central vacuole. This study examines quinoa leaf tissues during development and senescence using a range of well-established markers of programmed cell death (PCD), including: morphological changes in nuclei and chloroplasts, degradation of RuBisCO, changes in chlorophyll content, DNA degradation, variations in ploidy levels, and changes in nuclease profiles. TUNEL reaction and DNA electrophoresis demonstrated that DNA fragmentation in nuclei occurs at early senescence, which correlates with induction of specific nucleases. During senescence, metabolic activity is high and nuclei endoreduplicate, peaking at 4C. At this time, TEM images showed some healthy nuclei with condensed chromatin and nucleoli. We have found that DNA fragmentation, induction of senescence-associated nucleases and endoreduplication take place during leaf senescence. This provides a starting point for further research aiming to identify key genes involved in the senescence of quinoa leaves. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Acceptability of beehive products as ingredients in quinoa bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Francisco; Lobo, Manuel; Samman, Norma

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a puffed quinoa bar with beehive products of high content of phenolic compounds, based on acceptability and perception of consumers. A rotational central composite design of three variables (honey, pollen and propolis) was used for food product formulation. The responses to optimize were sensorial acceptability and polyphenol content. Next to acceptability a check-all-that-apply (CATA) test was performed with 115 consumers. Preference maps were used to relate acceptability and sensorial attributes of bars that cause rejection or acceptance. The experimental design determined that pollen and propolis significantly increased phenolic content but decreased acceptability of formulations. Preference maps established that attributes like astringency, bitter flavor, pungency and intense yellow color were associated with the low acceptability while attributes of sweetness and weak astringency were related to high acceptance of products. Range of polyphenol content determined in the widely accepted formulations was 2.15-2.91 g kg-1 , significantly higher than commercial products. The incorporation of beehive products, in quinoa bars, increased the total polyphenol content and the functional properties, but at the same time reduced the consumer acceptability. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. [Comparative Study on the Molecular Structures and Spectral Properties of Ponceau 4R and Amaranth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Chen, Guo-qing; Zhu, Chun; Hu, Yang-jun

    2015-11-01

    The Edinburgh FLS920P steady-instantaneous fluorescence spectrometer was applied on the detection of the absorption and the emission spectra of ponceau 4R and amaranth, which are isomers to each other. After that, the spectral parameters of them were compared. Then, the density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) were used on the optimization of ponceau 4R and amaranth under the ground and excited state, respectively, in order to compare the differences in configurations of them under different states. On the base of the results above, the absorption and emission spectra of the two isomers were calculated with TD-DFT, and the polarized continuum model (PCM) was applied on the base of 6-311++G (d, p). The fluorescence mechanism, the relationships between the properties of fluorescence spectra and the molecular geometry were all analyzed. The results shows that, the structures of the two molecules are non-planar, these two naphthalene rings are not co-planar, respectively, and there's hydrogen bond in amaranth. When the two isomers were on the ground state, the planarity of the naphthalene ring which exists the hydrogen bond mentioned above in amaranth is better than the corresponding part of ponceau 4R. The two isomers are nearly co-planar when they're on the excited state. The molecular structures of ponceau 4R and amaranth optimized above are basically reasonable, for the quantum chemistry calculation spectral results are agree with the experiments. The planarity of the naphthalene rings on the right side in ponceau 4R is worse than that in amaranth, the ponceau 4R molecule experienced more vibration and rotation from the excited to the ground state, lost more energy, which lead to the reduction of energy for emitting fluorescent photons. So ponceau 4R has longer fluorescence emission wave- length than amaranth. In this paper, the molecular structure information of ponceau 4R and amaranth were obtained, and the differences

  10. Molecular exploration of fecal microbiome in quinoa-supplemented obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F; Mills, David; Noratto, Giuliana

    2016-07-01

    Diet affects gut microorganisms and dietary interventions can help treat obesity and overweight. Our aim was to investigate the effect of quinoa supplementation on fecal microbial ecology of obese diabetic mice. Obese db/db mice were fed commercial diets with and without quinoa supplementation for eight weeks; non-obese mice consuming non-supplemented diet served as lean-control. Fecal bacterial communities were analyzed using marker gene sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Over 300 000 good-quality sequences were studied and assigned to 5774 different bacterial species (Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity). Significant differences in bacterial abundances were found among the treatment groups, including some associated specifically with quinoa consumption. Analysis of weighted UniFrac distances revealed a distinctive clustering of lean microbial communities independently from obese-control and quinoa-supplemented mice (Analysis of Similarities, P quinoa. Quinoa supplementation was associated with lower butyrate and succinic acid concentrations in cecum that were not necessarily more similar to those concentrations in lean mice. This study provides insight into the complex interactions between nutritional supplements and the gut microbiota thus informing future molecular analysis of the health benefits. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Chemical characteristics and mineral composition of quinoa by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Martín, M Inmaculada; Wells Moncada, Guillermo; Fischer, Susana; Escuredo, Olga

    2014-03-30

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has been traditionally used as a foodstuff in the Andes and it has gained increasing interest in recent years owing to its high nutritional value. The potential of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for estimating chemical compounds in quinoa was studied because of the possibility of conducting direct measurement without prior sample treatment. The use of NIRS technology with a remote reflectance fiber-optic probe for the analysis of major compounds and mineral composition of 48 quinoa samples was studied. The calibration of the NIRS instrument was conducted using modified partial least squares (MPLS) analysis. This allowed the determination of protein (16.0-20.2 g 100g⁻¹), crude fiber (1.8-3.1 g 100g⁻¹), fat (4.4-7.5 g 100g⁻¹), calcium (298.8-1164.5 mg kg⁻¹), iron (0-948.5 mg kg⁻¹) and phosphorus (2735.0-4543.3 mg kg⁻¹). The correlation coefficients (RSQ) were 0.83 for protein, 0.73 for crude fiber, 0.93 for fat; 0.60 for calcium; 0.76 for iron and 0.75 for phosphorus. The robustness of the equations obtained was verified by external validation on unknown quinoa samples. NIRS with fiber-optic probe provides an alternative for the determination of chemical compounds of quinoa, faster and at lower cost, with results comparable with chemical methods. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Diffusive and Metabolic Constraints to Photosynthesis in Quinoa during Drought and Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killi, Dilek; Haworth, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has been proposed as a hardy alternative to traditional grain crops in areas with warm-to-hot climates that are likely to experience increased drought and salt stress in the future. We characterised the diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis in quinoa exposed to drought and salt stress in isolation and combination. Drought-induced pronounced stomatal and mesophyll limitations to CO2 transport, but quinoa retained photosynthetic capacity and photosystem II (PSII) performance. Saline water (300 mmol NaCl-equivalent to 60% of the salinity of sea-water) supplied in identical volumes to the irrigation received by the control and drought treatments induced similar reductions in stomatal and mesophyll conductance, but also reduced carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, increased non-photochemical dissipation of energy as heat and impaired PSII electron transport. This suggests that ion toxicity reduced PN via interference with photosynthetic enzymes and degradation of pigment–protein complexes within the thylakoid membranes. The results of this study demonstrate that the photosynthetic physiology of quinoa is resistant to the effects of drought, but quinoa may not be a suitable crop for areas subject to strong salt stress or irrigation with a concentration of saline water equivalent to a 300 mmol NaCl solution. PMID:29039809

  13. Universally Primed-PCR indicates geographical variation of Peronospora farinosa ex. Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Solveig; Lübeck, Mette

    2010-02-01

    In the Andean region of South America downy mildew, caused by Peronospora farinosa, is the most important disease of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Peronospora farinosa, a highly polyphyletic species, occurs on quinoa and wild relatives on all continents. However, very little is known about the geographic diversity of the pathogen. As the interest in quinoa as a novel crop is increasing worldwide, geographical differences in the population structure of the downy mildew pathogen must be taken into consideration in order to design appropriate control strategies under a variety of circumstances. As a step towards understanding the geographic diversity of P. farinosa from quinoa, 40 downy mildew isolates from the Andean highlands and Denmark were characterized using universally primed PCR (UP-PCR). Eight UP-PCR primers were tested. A combined analysis of markers separated the Danish and Andean isolates in two distinct clusters. This study raises new questions about the origin and spread of P. farinosa on quinoa, its geographic diversity and host specificity.

  14. Water deficit stress-induced changes in carbon and nitrogen partitioning in Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascuñán-Godoy, Luisa; Reguera, Maria; Abdel-Tawab, Yasser M; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2016-03-01

    Water deficit stress followed by re-watering during grain filling resulted in the induction of the ornithine pathway and in changes in Quinoa grain quality. The genetic diversity of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Quinoa) is accompanied by an outstanding environmental adaptability and high nutritional properties of the grains. However, little is known about the biochemical and physiological mechanisms associated with the abiotic stress tolerance of Quinoa. Here, we characterized carbon and nitrogen metabolic changes in Quinoa leaves and grains in response to water deficit stress analyzing their impact on the grain quality of two lowland ecotypes (Faro and BO78). Differences in the stress recovery response were found between genotypes including changes in the activity of nitrogen assimilation-associated enzymes that resulted in differences in grain quality. Both genotypes showed a common strategy to overcome water stress including the stress-induced synthesis of reactive oxygen species scavengers and osmolytes. Particularly, water deficit stress induced the stimulation of the ornithine and raffinose pathways. Our results would suggest that the regulation of C- and N partitioning in Quinoa during grain filling could be used for the improvement of the grain quality without altering grain yields.

  15. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrieza, Hernán P.; López-Fernández, María P.; Maldonado, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous) to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s) of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses. PMID:25360139

  16. Diffusive and Metabolic Constraints to Photosynthesis in Quinoa during Drought and Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killi, Dilek; Haworth, Matthew

    2017-10-17

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has been proposed as a hardy alternative to traditional grain crops in areas with warm-to-hot climates that are likely to experience increased drought and salt stress in the future. We characterised the diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis in quinoa exposed to drought and salt stress in isolation and combination. Drought-induced pronounced stomatal and mesophyll limitations to CO₂ transport, but quinoa retained photosynthetic capacity and photosystem II (PSII) performance. Saline water (300 mmol NaCl-equivalent to 60% of the salinity of sea-water) supplied in identical volumes to the irrigation received by the control and drought treatments induced similar reductions in stomatal and mesophyll conductance, but also reduced carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, increased non-photochemical dissipation of energy as heat and impaired PSII electron transport. This suggests that ion toxicity reduced PN via interference with photosynthetic enzymes and degradation of pigment-protein complexes within the thylakoid membranes. The results of this study demonstrate that the photosynthetic physiology of quinoa is resistant to the effects of drought, but quinoa may not be a suitable crop for areas subject to strong salt stress or irrigation with a concentration of saline water equivalent to a 300 mmol NaCl solution.

  17. Diffusive and Metabolic Constraints to Photosynthesis in Quinoa during Drought and Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Killi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. has been proposed as a hardy alternative to traditional grain crops in areas with warm-to-hot climates that are likely to experience increased drought and salt stress in the future. We characterised the diffusive and metabolic limitations to photosynthesis in quinoa exposed to drought and salt stress in isolation and combination. Drought-induced pronounced stomatal and mesophyll limitations to CO2 transport, but quinoa retained photosynthetic capacity and photosystem II (PSII performance. Saline water (300 mmol NaCl-equivalent to 60% of the salinity of sea-water supplied in identical volumes to the irrigation received by the control and drought treatments induced similar reductions in stomatal and mesophyll conductance, but also reduced carboxylation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, increased non-photochemical dissipation of energy as heat and impaired PSII electron transport. This suggests that ion toxicity reduced PN via interference with photosynthetic enzymes and degradation of pigment–protein complexes within the thylakoid membranes. The results of this study demonstrate that the photosynthetic physiology of quinoa is resistant to the effects of drought, but quinoa may not be a suitable crop for areas subject to strong salt stress or irrigation with a concentration of saline water equivalent to a 300 mmol NaCl solution.

  18. Development of novel quinoa-based yoghurt fermented with dextran producer Weissella cibaria MG1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannini, Emanuele; Jeske, Stephanie; Lynch, Kieran M; Arendt, Elke K

    2018-03-02

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel beverage fermented with Weissella cibaria MG1 based on aqueous extracts of wholemeal quinoa flour. The protein digestibility of quinoa based-milk was improved by applying complex proteolytic enzymes able to increase protein solubility by 54.58%. The growth and fermentation characteristics of Weissella cibaria MG1, including EPS production at the end of fermentation, were investigated. Fermented wholemeal quinoa milk using MG1 showed high viable cell counts (>10 9 cfu/ml), a pH of 5.16, and significantly higher water holding capacity (WHC, 100%), viscosity (0.57mPas) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) amount (40mg/l) than the chemical acidified control. High EPS (dextran) concentration in quinoa milk caused earlier aggregation because more EPS occupy more space, and the chenopodin were forced to interact with each other. Microstructure observation indicated that the network structures of EPS-protein improve the texture of fermented quinoa milk. Overall, Weissella cibaria MG1 showed satisfactory technology properties and great potential for further possible application in the development of high viscosity fermented quinoa milk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. QUINOA AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR SEMOLINA: SOME ASPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF INTRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy BORUK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Semolina is one of the most widely used kinds of finely ground cereals, which is easy to digest and assimilate. However, it consists of significant amount of heavy gluten which is not suited for people suffering from celiac diseases. Besides, the content of proteins, vitamins and microelements in semolina is comparatively poor. Quinoa is a pseudo-grain crop imported mostly from South America. Quinoa can be considered as a substitute for semolina since it is rich in vitamins, proteins, amino acids and microelements, and targeted especially to the customers suffering from celiac disease, allergic to gluten or having special dietary requirements. It is important to investigate and compare some rheological properties of quinoa and semolina in order to ensure safe and effective interchanges in the technology of cereals production. It has been found that swelling of the quinoa mixtures is higher than that of the semolina mixtures. A rise in temperature causes initial increase in volume of the dispersed phase particles followed by fast destruction of the cereal disperse systems. Viscosity of the quinoa mixtures shows a sharp rise when mass percent of the cereal exceeds 13 % while in case of semolina mixtures, the same phenomenon occurs after 16 %. A rise in viscosity is unwanted since it lowers the quality of the material used. It can be avoided to some extent by partial substitution of semolina with quinoa as 1:0.8.

  20. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Pablo Burrieza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses.

  1. Analogous reserve distribution and tissue characteristics in quinoa and grass seeds suggest convergent evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrieza, Hernán P; López-Fernández, María P; Maldonado, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa seeds are highly nutritious due to the quality of their proteins and lipids and the wide range of minerals and vitamins they store. Three compartments can be distinguished within the mature seed: embryo, endosperm, and perisperm. The distribution of main storage reserves is clearly different in those areas: the embryo and endosperm store proteins, lipids, and minerals, and the perisperm stores starch. Tissues equivalent (but not homologous) to those found in grasses can be identified in quinoa, suggesting the effectiveness of this seed reserve distribution strategy; as in cells of grass starchy endosperm, the cells of the quinoa perisperm endoreduplicate, increase in size, synthesize starch, and die during development. In addition, both systems present an extra-embryonic tissue that stores proteins, lipids and minerals: in gramineae, the aleurone layer(s) of the endosperm; in quinoa, the micropylar endosperm; in both cases, the tissues are living. Moreover, the quinoa micropylar endosperm and the coleorhiza in grasses play similar roles, protecting the root in the quiescent seed and controlling dormancy during germination. This investigation is just the beginning of a broader and comparative study of the development of quinoa and grass seeds. Several questions arise from this study, such as: how are synthesis and activation of seed proteins and enzymes regulated during development and germination, what are the genes involved in these processes, and lastly, what is the genetic foundation justifying the analogy to grasses.

  2. Le boom de la quinoa dans l’Altiplano Sud de la Bolivie : bouleversement du système agraire, discours et tensions socio-environnementales

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira Pak, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) production began in the 1980s in the Southern Highlands of Bolivia. It has generated transformations in the agrarian system of the region questioning the production sustainability. The low quinoa yields experienced by quinoa producers within indigenous communities is a major issue for the different actors of the production chain, scientists, development institutions and policy makers. Today, they mainly attribute it to soil degradation. Consens...

  3. Effect of Amaranth addition on the nutritional composition and consumer acceptability of extruded provitamin A-biofortified maize snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniso BESWA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of adding Amaranth leaf powder on the nutrient content and consumer acceptability of extruded provitamin A-biofortified (PVA maize snacks. Flours of four varieties of PVA maize were composited with Amaranth leaf powder at 0, 1 and 3% (w/w substitution of, respectively, and extruded into snacks. The ash content of the snacks increased from 0.53 g/100 g-0.58 g/100 g to 0.650 g/100g-89 g/100 g and protein content increased from 9.12 g/100 g-10.94 g/100 g when Amaranth was increased from 0% to 3%. Similarly, lysine content increased from 0.10 g/100 g to 0.17 g/100 g, whilst methionine increased from 0.14 g/100 g to 0.19 g/100 g. The provitamin A content of the snacks ranged from 1.29 µg/g to 1.40 µg/g at 0% Amaranth and 1.54 µg/g to 1.78 µg/g at 3% Amaranth. The acceptability of the snacks decreased with increasing Amaranth concentration, only a very small proportion (2-8% of the panel liked the snacks extremely. PVA maize with added Amaranth leaf powder has a potential for use in nutritious and healthy extruded snacks, but the consumer acceptability of the snacks should be improved.

  4. Mechanistic and conformational studies on the interaction of food dye amaranth with human serum albumin by multispectroscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowen; Ma, Yadi

    2013-01-15

    The mechanism of interaction between food dye amaranth and human serum albumin (HSA) in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was investigated by fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results obtained from analysis of fluorescence spectra indicated that amaranth had a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA through a static quenching procedure. The negative value of enthalpy change and positive value of entropy change elucidated that the binding of amaranth to HSA was driven mainly by hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions. The surface hydrophobicity of HSA increased after binding with amaranth. The binding distance between HSA and amaranth was estimated to be 3.03 nm and subdomain IIA (Sudlow site I) was the primary binding site for amaranth on HSA. The results of CD and FT-IR spectra showed that binding of amaranth to HSA induced conformational changes of HSA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Amaranth oil increased fecal excretion of bile Acid but had no effect in reducing plasma cholesterol in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Luíla Ivini Andrade; Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Ferrari, Roseli A; Miguel, Ana M R O; Almeida, Claudia A S; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Hamsters were fed for 4 weeks on four different diets: control (C) (balanced diet containing 20 % corn oil as the lipid source), hypercholesterolemic (H) (identical to C but containing 12 % coconut oil, 8 % corn oil and 0.1 % cholesterol as the lipid source), amaranth oil (A) (identical to H without corn oil but with amaranth oil), and squalene (S) (identical to H but admixed with squalene in the ratio found in amaranth oil). There were no significant differences in lipid profile, and in the cholesterol excreted in the animals' feces from amaranth oil (A) and squalene (S) groups. Fecal excretion of bile acids was greater in the amaranth oil (A) and squalene groups (S) as compared to the other groups. The scores of steatosis and parenchymal inflammation observed in the amaranth oil (A) and squalene groups (S) were superior to the ones observed in the other groups. Our findings demonstrated that amaranth oil, and its component squalene, increased the excretion of bile acids but did not have a hypocholesterolemic effect in hamsters fed on a diet containing high amounts of saturated fat and cholesterol.

  6. Determination of heat-set gelation capacity of a quinoa protein isolate (Chenopodium quinoa) by dynamic oscillatory rheological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspchak, Elaine; Oliveira, Marco Aurelio Schüler de; Simas, Fernanda Fogagnoli; Franco, Célia Regina Cavicchiolo; Silveira, Joana Léa Meira; Mafra, Marcos Rogério; Igarashi-Mafra, Luciana

    2017-10-01

    This work aimed to study the influence of pH (3.5 and 7.0) and CaCl2 and MgCl2 addition on heat-set gelation of a quinoa protein isolate at 10% and 15% (w/w). The protein isolate obtained was composed mainly of 11S globulin as was observed by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis. Heat-set gelation occurred at both pH values studied. Nevertheless, the gels formed at pH 3.5 were more viscoelastic and denser than those formed at pH 7.0, that was coarser and presented syneresis. The CaCl2 and MgCl2 addition increased the gel strength during rheological analysis at pH 3.5, possibly due to the formation of fiber-like connections in the gel network. At pH 7.0, the divalent salts resulted in weaker gels formed by agglomerates, suggesting a neutralization of the protein surface charges. The differences in quinoa protein gelation were attributed to solubility, and the flexibility of proteins secondary structure at the pH studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Digestibility of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Protein Concentrate and Its Potential to Inhibit Lipid Peroxidation in the Zebrafish Larvae Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcacundo, R; Barrio, D; Carpio, C; García-Ruiz, A; Rúales, J; Hernández-Ledesma, B; Carrillo, W

    2017-09-01

    Quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) was extracted and digested under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions. The protein content of QPC was in the range between 52.40 and 65.01% depending on the assay used. Quinoa proteins were almost completely hydrolyzed by pepsin at pH of 1.2, 2.0, and 3.2. At high pH, only partial hydrolysis was observed. During the duodenal phase, no intact proteins were visible, indicating their susceptibility to the in vitro simulated digestive conditions. Zebrafish larvae model was used to evaluate the in vivo ability of gastrointestinal digests to inhibit lipid peroxidation. Gastric digestion at pH 1.2 showed the highest lipid peroxidation inhibition percentage (75.15%). The lipid peroxidation activity increased after the duodenal phase. The digest obtained at the end of the digestive process showed an inhibition percentage of 82.10%, comparable to that showed when using BHT as positive control (87.13%).

  8. Agronomic performance of quinoa selected in the Brazilian Savannah Desempenho agronômico de quinoa selecionada no Cerrado brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six breeding lines, selected from individual plant progenies of hybrids among varieties Amarilla de Marangani, Blanca de Junín, Chewecca, Faro 4, Improved Baer, Kancolla, Real, and Salares-Roja, had their agronomic characters evaluated, in Planaltina, DF, Brazil (15º36'S and 47º12'W, 1,000 masl, in randomized complete blocks, on a Ferralsol, previously limed and fertilized. Grain yield was positively associated with plant height, inflorescence length and diameter, and plant cycle. Genetic gain can be attained by selection based in these characters for commercial production of quinoa in tropical regions.Vinte e seis linhagens, selecionadas em progênies de plantas individuais de híbridos entre as variedades Amarilla de Marangani, Blanca de Junín, Chewecca, Faro 4, Improved Baer, Kancolla, Real e Salares-Roja, foram avaliadas quanto ao desempenho agronômico, em Planaltina, DF, Brasil (15º36'S e 47º12'W, 1.000 m de altitude, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, previamente corrigido e adubado. O rendimento foi associado positivamente com altura de plantas, comprimento e diâmetro da inflorescência e ciclo da planta. Ganho genético pode ser obtido na seleção baseada nessas características, para o cultivo comercial da quinoa em regiões tropicais.

  9. Análise de imagem para determinação do teor de saponina em quinoa Image analysis to determinate the saponin content in quinoa

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Augusto Copati Souza; Carlos Roberto Spehar; Roberto Lorena Bastos Santos

    2004-01-01

    Um grupo de sementes lavadas e 35 acessos de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) foram avaliados pelo método de coluna de espuma e sua coloração foi decomposta pelo modelo RGB (R, vermelho; G, verde; B, azul) com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do teor de saponina na cor do grão. Sementes amarelas apresentaram alto teor de saponina. Houve correlação negativa (p£0,05) entre o teste de coluna de espuma e as bandas R (r = -0,751), G (r = -0,660) e B (r = -0,594). Estabeleceram-se quatro grupos ...

  10. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part Two: Yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of Chenopodium quinoa cultivation effects in Poland has been compared with European research results. It was found that the conditions in Europe are favorable to Chenopodium quinoa cultivation. Poland has the mean length of the vegetation period. The maximum value of this trait was found in Sweden. The conditions in Bydgoszcz (Poland are very favorable to the cultivation for green matter and favorable as far as the seed yield is concerned. The most favorable seed yield was recorded in Greece.

  11. Morphology-controlled electrochemical sensing amaranth at nanomolar levels using alumina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Gan, Tian; Wan, Chidan; Wu, Kangbing

    2013-02-18

    Different-shaped aluminas were readily prepared via hydrothermal reaction. It was found that the morphology and the electrochemical sensing properties of alumina were heavily dependent on the reaction time. When extending the reaction time from 6 h to 24 h, the obtained alumina samples changed from amorphous bumps to regular microfibers in diameter of 200 nm, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that longer reaction time was beneficial for the formation of porous and uniform fiber-like structures. Electrochemical tests proved that alumina microfibers were more active for the oxidation of amaranth and exhibited much higher enhancement effect, compared with alumina bumps. On the surface of alumina microfibers, the oxidation peak currents of amaranth increased remarkably. The influences of pH value, amount of alumina microfibers, and accumulation time on the signal enhancement of amaranth were discussed. As a result, a novel electrochemical method was developed for the detection of amaranth. The linear range was from 1 to 150 nM, and the detection limit was 0.75 nM after 1-min accumulation. The analytical application in drink samples was investigated, and the results consisted with the values that obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrocarbon potential of the Lower Amaranth M Pool, Waskada Field, southwest Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasinski, D.R.; Last, W.M. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Geological Science; Martiniuk, C.D. [Manitoba Industry, Economic Development and Mines, Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Petroleum Branch

    2005-07-01

    The major hydrocarbon producer of Manitoba's Waskada Field is the Lower Amaranth Member of the Jurassic Amaranth, the oldest Mesozoic unit in the northeastern portion of the Williston Basin. Reservoir facies occur as sandy intervals on logs, and are complexly interbedded intertidal sandstones and siltstones. Thickness of the Lower Member is controlled by the paleotopography of the underlying Paleozoic erosional surface. Hydrocarbon production in the Waskada Amaranth began in 1980 with the recompletion of a former Mississippian producer. In the mid-1990s, the Waskada Field expanded eastward into the Goodlands area, with the development of the Lower Amaranth M pool. Developed original oil in place (OOIP) is calculated to be 9.8 million bbl, with 6.7 per cent primary recovery. However, net pay data from the M pool shows that the current pool boundaries do not accurately represent the absolute pool limits. Extent of the pool is defined by a diagenetically controlled permeability pinchout, where reduced permeability allows water migration, while simultaneously retarding oil migration. Total potential of the M pool has yet to be reached. Two development targets have been identified adjacent to the current M pool boundaries based on reservoir facies thickness, net pay, and production data. Development of these areas would expand the pool boundaries by 632 ha, increasing M pool total OOIP to 28.5 million bbl, leaving an undeveloped 18.7 million bbl.

  13. Reduction and partial degradation mechanisms of naphthylaminesulfonic azo dye amaranth by Shewanella decolorationis S12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yiguo; Guo, Jun; Xu, Zhicheng; Mo, Cuiyun; Xu, Meiying; Sun, Guoping

    2007-06-01

    Reduction and biodegradation mechanisms of naphthylaminesulfonic azo dye amaranth using a newly isolated Shewanella decolorationis strain S12 were investigated. Under anaerobic conditions, amaranth was reduced by strain S12, and a stoichiometric amount of two reduction products RP-1 and RP-2 were generated. UV/visible spectrophotometric and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that RP-1 and RP-2 were 1-aminenaphthylene -4-sulfonic acid and 1-aminenaphthylene-2-hydroxy-3, 6-disulfonic acid. The result strongly supports a mechanism of azo dye reduction by the process via the reductive cleavage of the azo bond to form corresponding aromatic amines. The result of HPLC analyses revealed that these aromatic amines were not able to be mineralized by strain S12 under anaerobic conditions. But after re-aeration of the decolorized culture, RP-2 was mineralized completely by this microorganism, but the consumption of RP-1 was not observed. Ames test showed that amaranth had mutagenic but no cytotoxic potential. The mutagenic potential was relieved after the anaerobic treatment with strain S12 as the mutagenic effect of the two reduction products from amaranth was not detected by Ames test. Thus, the ability of strain S12 to reduce and partially mineralize the naphthylaminesulfonic azo dye efficiently was demonstrated, which can potentially be used to biodegrade and detoxify wastewater containing azo dyes using an alternating anaerobic/aerobic treatment procedure.

  14. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) damage niche in Illinois soybean is seed-limited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth, a dioecious summer annual forb originating in Sonoran desert washes, compromises crop yields in much of the southern U.S., and is expanding its range northward. Appropriate tactics for proactively managing this weed in the upper Midwest will depend on characterizing its damage niche...

  15. Communal microaerophilic-aerobic biodegradation of Amaranth by novel NAR-2 bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Giek Far; Rashid, Noor Aini Abdul; Chua, Lee Suan; Ab llah, Norzarini; Nasiri, Rozita; Ikubar, Mohamed Roslan Mohamad

    2012-02-01

    A novel bacterial consortium, NAR-2 which consists of Citrobacter freundii A1, Enterococcus casseliflavus C1 and Enterobacter cloacae L17 was investigated for biodegradation of Amaranth azo dye under sequential microaerophilic-aerobic condition. The NAR-2 bacterial consortium with E. casseliflavus C1 as the dominant strain enhanced the decolorization process resulting in reduction of Amaranth in 30 min. Further aerobic biodegradation, which was dominated by C. freundii A1 and E. cloacae L17, allowed biotransformation of azo reduction intermediates and mineralization via metabolic pathways including benzoyl-CoA, protocatechuate, salicylate, gentisate, catechol and cinnamic acid. The presence of autoxidation products which could be metabolized to 2-oxopentenoate was elucidated. The biodegradation mechanism of Amaranth by NAR-2 bacterial consortium was predicted to follow the steps of azo reduction, deamination, desulfonation and aromatic ring cleavage. This is for the first time the comprehensive microaerophilic-aerobic biotransformation pathways of Amaranth dye intermediates by bacterial consortium are being proposed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Kinetics of ozone-initiated oxidation of textile dye, Amaranth in aqueous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachipally, Purnachandar; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2011-01-01

    The ozone facilitated oxidation mechanism of water soluble azo anionic dye, amaranth (Am) was investigated monitoring the depletion kinetics of the dye spectrometrically at 521 nm. The oxidation kinetics of the dye by ozone was studied under semi-batch conditions, by bubbling ozone enriched oxygen through the aqueous reaction mixture of dye, as function of flow rate, ionic strength, [O(3)] and pH variations. With excess concentration of ozone and other reagents and low [amaranth], reaction followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with respect to the dye. Added neutral salts had marginal effect on the reaction rate and the variation of pH from 7 to 2 and 7 to 12 exerted only small increases in the reaction rate suggesting molecular ozone possibly is the principle reactive species in oxidation of dye. The reaction order with respect ozone was near unity and it varied slightly with pH and flow rate variations. The overall second-order rate constant for the reaction was (105 ± 4) M(-1) min(-1). The main oxidation products immediately after amaranth decolorization were identified. The reaction mechanism and overall rate law were proposed. After spiking the seawater, river water and wastewaters with Amaranth dye, the reaction rates and trends in BOD and COD under control and natural conditions were investigated. The rate of depletion of the dye in natural waters was relatively lower, but the ozonation process significantly decreased both the BOD and COD levels.

  17. Does gender affect the quality of soil and vegetable amaranth under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The system is a source of economic sustainability for many women and men. Fertilizer and water use efficiency for vegetable crops is greatly influenced by properties of the soil and knowledge of farmers. Amaranth plants samples were collected randomly from eight vegetable plots from Ile-Ife and Osogbo of Osun State, ...

  18. Radical Scavenging Activities of Tannin Extracted from Amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyeon-Ju; Chung, Kang-Hyun; Yoon, Jin A; Lee, Kwon-Jai; Song, Byeong Chun; An, Jeung Hee

    2015-06-01

    This study investigates the bioactivity of tannin from amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) extracts. The antioxidant activities of the extracts from amaranth leaves, flowers, and seeds were evaluated. Tannin from leaves of amaranth has been evaluated for superoxide scavenging activity by using DPPH and ABTS(+) analysis, reducing power, protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in L-132 and BNL-CL2 cells, and inhibition of superoxide radical effects on HL-60 cells. At a concentration of 100 μg/ml, tannin showed protective effects and restored cell survival to 69.2% and 41.8% for L-132 and BNL-CL2 cells, respectively. Furthermore, at the same concentration, tannin inhibited 41% of the activity of the superoxide radical on HL-60 cells and 43.4% of the increase in nitric oxide levels in RAW 264.7 cells. The expression levels of the antioxidant-associated protein SOD-1 were significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells treated with tannin from amaranth leaves. These results suggest that tannin from the leaves of Amaranthus caudatus L. is a promising source of antioxidant component that can be used as a food preservative or nutraceutical.

  19. The physico-chemical characteristics and some nutritional values of vegetable amaranth sold in Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onyango, C.; Shibairo, S.I.; Imungi, J.K.; Harbinson, J.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty one major supermarkets and ten independent green grocers in the city of Nairobi were surveyed for types of vegetable amaranths sold and their post harvest handling. The nutrient composition of the vegetables was also analyzed. In addition, information on three other traditional leafy

  20. Recombinant amaranth cystatin (AhCPI) inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Rodriguez, Silvia; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto; Aguilar-Hernandez, Victor; Cortes-Onofre, Erick; Blanco-Labra, Alejandro; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando

    2010-06-01

    Phytocystatins are cysteine proteinase inhibitors from plants implicated in defense mechanisms against insects and plant pathogens. We have previously characterized an amaranth cystatin cDNA and analyzed its response to different kinds of abiotic stress [37]. In order to characterize amaranth cystatin, the coding sequence was expressed in Escherichia coli using the pQE-2 vector. Recombinant cystatin was predominantly found in the soluble fraction of the cell extract. Large amounts (266 mgL(-1)) of pure recombinant protein were obtained by affinity chromatography in a single step of purification. The amaranth cystatin with a pI 6.8 and an apparent 28 kDa molecular mass inhibited papain (E.C.3.4.22.2) (Ki 115 nM), ficin (E.C.3.4.22.3) (Ki 325 nM) and cathepsin L (E.C.3.4.22.15) (Ki 12.7 nM) but not stem bromelain (E.C.3.4.22.32), and cathepsin B (E.C.3.4.22.1) activities, in colorimetric assays. Furthermore, it was able to arrest the fungal growth of Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotium cepivorum and Rhyzoctonia solani. It was further demonstrated that recombinant AhCPI is a weak inhibitor of the endogenous cysteine proteinase activities in the fungal mycelium. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the amaranth cystatin activity and encourage further studies of this protein.

  1. Antioxidative activities and phenolic compounds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Meineri, Giorgia; Gai, Francesco; Longato, Erica; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2017-09-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain into 80% (v/v) methanol. The extracts obtained were characterised by the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·) radical. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD method. Pumpkin seeds showed the higher content of TPC than that from amaranth. The TEAC values of both extracts were similar each other. The lower value of FRAP was observed for pumpkin seed. Phenolic compound present in amaranth grain exhibited strongest antiradical properties against DPPH radical. Several peaks were present on the HPLC chromatograms of two extracts. The UV-DAD spectra confirmed the presence of vanillic acid derivatives in the amaranth grain. The three main phenolic compound present in pumpkin seed were characterised by UV-DAD spectra with maximum at 258, 266 and 278 nm.

  2. Employing canopy hyperspectral narrowband data and random forest algorithm to differentiate palmer amaranth from colored cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) invasion negatively impacts cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production systems throughout the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate canopy hyperspectral narrowband data as input into the random forest machine learning algorithm to dis...

  3. Physical properties of gluten-free sugar cookies made from amaranth-oat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranth flour containing the essential amino acid, lysine, was blended with oat products that contain ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. These composites improved nutritional value, water holding capacity and the pasting properties along with their gluten fr...

  4. Functional properties of gluten-free sugar cookies made from amaranth-oat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaranth flour containing the essential amino acid, lysine, was blended with oat products that contain ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. These composites improved nutritional value, water holding capacity and the pasting properties along with their gluten fr...

  5. Diferenças entre Chenopodium quinoa e a planta daninha Chenopodium album Differences between Chenopodium quinoa and the weed Chenopodium album

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.R. Spehar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A experimentação pioneira com Chenopodium quinoa Willd tem demonstrado sua adaptabilidade à produção de grãos no cerrado. Seus frutos, do tipo aquênio, são cilíndricos, achatados e germinam rapidamente na presença de umidade, após a maturação fisiológica. Na fase inicial do seu desenvolvimento, a quinoa pode ser confundida com a planta daninha Chenopodium album, conhecida no Brasil como ançarinha-branca. As diferenças básicas entre as duas espécies se tornam mais visíveis após o florescimento: ramificação profusa, com rácemos axilares e terminais em C. album, em contraste com C. quinoa, na qual as panículas são terminais, à semelhança do sorgo; o pericarpo é claro e contrasta com o preto em C. album. A quinoa BRS Piabiru, primeiro cultivar para o Brasil, apresenta plantas com 190 cm, nas quais a panícula ocupa 45 cm; maturação fisiológica aos 145 dias; resistência ao acamamento; peso de grãos de 2,42 g 1.000-1; rendimento de 2,8 t ha-1; e biomassa total de 6,6 t ha-1. As sementes de C. album são muito pequenas (0,52 g 1.000-1, germinam gradativamente e permanecem no solo por muitos anos, infestando os cultivos. As diferenças no número de cromossomos, impedindo a polinização cruzada entre as duas espécies e as morfológicas, detectadas na experimentação, mostram que estas são distinguíveis e asseguram que a quinoa apresenta características de adaptação ao cultivo comercial, contrapondo-se às características de invasora em C. album.Pioneer experimentation with Chenopodium quinoa Willd has shown its adaptability to grain production in the Brazilian savannah. Its fruits (achene type are cylindrical, flat and germinate quickly in the presence of moisture, after reaching physiological maturity. At its early phase of development, quinoa can be confounded with the weed Chenopodium album, known in Brazil as 'ançarinha- branca'. Their basic differences become more visible after flowering: profuse branching

  6. Changes in physical properties of extruded sour cassava starch and quinoa flour blend snacks Mudanças nas propriedades físicas de snacks extrusados de misturas de polvilho azedo e farinha de quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Giolo Taverna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the broad acceptance of sour cassava starch biscuits in Brazil and the nutritional quality of quinoa flour, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, moisture, and amount of quinoa flour on the physical properties of puffed snacks. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Effects of moisture and amount of quinoa flour on the expansion index and specific volume of snacks were observed. There was a pronounced increase in water solubility index of blends with the extrusion process with significant effects of all process parameters on the WSI. Higher water absorption index (WAI was observed under high temperature, low moisture, and lower quinoa flour amount. Temperature and amount of quinoa flour influenced the color of the snacks. A positive quadratic effect of quinoa flour on hardness of products was observed. Blends of sour cassava starch and quinoa flour have good potential for use as raw material in production of extruded snacks with good physical properties.Dada a ampla aceitação do biscoito de polvilho azedo no Brasil e a qualidade nutricional da farinha de quinoa, este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito da temperatura de extrusão, rotação da rosca, umidade e porcentagem de farinha de quinoa sobre as propriedades físicas de snacks expandidos. O processo foi realizado em extrusor monorrosca, seguindo o delineamento central composto rotacional para quatro fatores. Foi observado o efeito da umidade e da porcentagem de farinha de quinoa sobre o índice de expansão e volume específico. Houve um aumento pronunciado na solubilidade das misturas com o processo de extrusão, com efeitos significativos de todos os parâmetros de processo no ISA. Maior índice de absorção de água (IAA foi observado em alta temperatura, baixa umidade e menor porcentagem de farinha de quinoa. Temperatura e porcentagem de farinha de

  7. Preliminary Studies of the Performance of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Genotypes under Irrigated and Rainfed Conditions of Central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliro, Moses F A; Guwela, Veronica F; Nyaika, Jacinta; Murphy, Kevin M

    2017-01-01

    The goal of sustainable intensification of agriculture in Malawi has led to the evaluation of innovative, regionally novel or under-utilized crop species. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) has the potential to provide a drought tolerant, nutritious alternative to maize. We evaluated 11 diverse varieties of quinoa for their yield and agronomic performance at two locations, Bunda and Bembeke, in Malawi. The varieties originated from Ecuador, Chile and Bolivia in South America; the United States and Canada in North America; and, Denmark in Europe, and were chosen based on their variation in morphological and agronomic traits, and their potential for adaptation to the climate of Malawi. Plant height, panicle length, days to maturity, harvest index, and seed yield were recorded for each variety under irrigation at Bunda and Bembeke, and under rainfed conditions at Bunda. Plant height was significantly influenced by both genotype and environment. There were also significant differences between the two locations for panicle length whereas genotype and genotype × environment (G × E) interaction were not significantly different. Differences were found for genotype and G × E interaction for harvest index. Notably, differences for genotype, environment and G × E were found for grain yield. Seed yield was higher at Bunda (237-3019 kg/ha) than Bembeke (62-692 kg/ha) under irrigated conditions. The highest yielding genotype at Bunda was Titicaca (3019 kg/ha) whereas Multi-Hued was the highest (692 kg/ha) at Bembeke. Strong positive correlations between seed yield and (1) plant height (r = 0.74), (2) days to maturity (r = 0.76), and (3) biomass (r = 0.87) were found under irrigated conditions. The rainfed evaluations at Bunda revealed significant differences in seed yield, plant biomass, and seed size among the genotypes. The highest yielding genotype was Black Seeded (2050 kg/ha) followed by Multi-Hued (1603 kg/ha) and Bio-Bio (1446 kg/ha). Ecuadorian (257 kg/ha) was the

  8. Influence of quinoa roasting on sensory and physiochemical properties of allergen-free, gluten-free cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinoa is a valuable source of quality protein, carbohydrates, essential fatty acids and micronutrients. The objective of this study was to roast quinoa and characterize it with regard to particle size, proximate, fatty acid, starch digestion, and total phenolics analyses, as well as pasting propert...

  9. Denaturation and in Vitro Gastric Digestion of Heat-Treated Quinoa Protein Isolates Obtained at Various Extraction pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Meurs, Marlon; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; Boekel, van Tiny; Stieger, Markus; Janssen, Anja E.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60,

  10. Biodiversity and technological potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from spontaneously fermented amaranth sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Rodríguez, L; Vera Pingitore, E; Rollan, G; Martos, G; Saavedra, L; Fontana, C; Hebert, E M; Vignolo, G

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous fermented sourdoughs prepared from amaranth flour were investigated for the presence of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) predominating microbiota. The doughs were fermented with daily backslopping on a laboratory scale at 30°C for 10 days. LAB counts ranged from 2·60 to 8·54 log CFU g(-1) with a pH declined from 6·2 to 3·8 throughout fermentation. The combined use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA was applied for LAB intraspecies differentiation and taxonomic identification, respectively. Enterococcus, Pediococcus and Lactobacillus species were present in amaranth sourdoughs (AS). After the first refreshment step, Lactobacillus plantarum dominated AS until the end of fermentation. In coincidence, when DGGE analysis was performed, the occurrence of a progressive change in bacterial communities allowed the selection of Lact. plantarum as a dominant species. Moreover, technological, functional and safety characteristics of representative RAPD-biotypes were investigated. Lact. plantarum CRL1898 was selected as a potential candidate for gluten-free amaranth sourdough starter. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in ancient noncereal gluten-free (GF) crops such as amaranth, due to their reported nutritional and health benefits. However, the use of these grains is still limited to traditional foods and bread making processes that are not yet well standardized. Results on the dynamics of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota during laboratory spontaneous amaranth sourdoughs (AS) fermentation will contribute to overcome challenges for GF-fermented products development. In addition, knowledge about LAB diversity involving Enterococcus, Pediococcus and Lactobacillus species, with Lactobacillus plantarum predominating during AS fermentation, and their technological and functional properties provides the basis for the selection of autochthonous strains as starters cultures

  11. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality of noodles produced with partial replacement of wheat semolina by amaranth flour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Víctor Samir Vedia-Quispe; Poliana Deyse Gurak; Sandra Karin Espinoza; Juan Antonio Ruano-Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    .... Pasta is usually made of edible wheat semolina and water. The replacement of wheat semolina by amaranth flour stimulates the development of new products and improves nutritional profile of pasta...

  12. Enhanced accumulation of copper and lead in amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus), Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahman, Motior M; Azirun, Sofian M; Boyce, Amru N

    2013-01-01

    .... In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower...

  13. Molecular characterization of endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Chenopodium quinoa inhabiting the Atacama Desert, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Teuber, M; Vilo, C; Bascuñán-Godoy, L

    2017-03-01

    Plant roots can be highly colonized by fungal endophytes. This seems to be of particular importance for the survival of plants inhabiting stressful habitats. This study focused on the Identification of the fungal endophytic community associated with the roots of quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa) growing near the salt lakes of the Atacama Desert, Chile. One hundred endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy quinoa roots, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. The isolates were classified into eleven genera and 21 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Despite a relatively high diversity of root endophytic fungi associated with quinoa plants, the fungal community was dominated by only the Ascomycota phyla. In addition, the most abundant genera were Penicillium, Phoma and Fusarium, which are common endophytes reported in plant roots. This study shows that roots of C. quinoa harbor a diverse group of endophytic fungi. Potential roles of these fungi in plant host tolerance to stressful conditions are discussed.

  14. Interrelationships among seed yield, total protein and amino acid composition of ten quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) cultivars from two different agroecological regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan A; Konishi, Yotaro; Bruno, Marcela; Valoy, Mariana; Prado, Fernando E

    2012-04-01

    Quinoa is a good source of protein and can be used as a nutritional ingredient in food products. This study analyses how much growing region and/or seasonal climate might affect grain yield and nutritional quality of quinoa seeds. Seeds of ten quinoa cultivars from the Andean highlands (Bolivia/Argentina site) and Argentinean Northwest (Encalilla site) were analysed for seed yield, protein content and amino acid composition. Grain yields of five cultivars growing at Encalilla were higher, and four were lower, compared with data from the Bolivia/Argentina site. Protein contents ranged from 91.5 to 155.3 and from 96.2 to 154.6 g kg(-1) dry mass for Encalilla and Bolivia/Argentina seeds respectively, while essential amino acid concentrations ranged from 179.9 to 357.2 and from 233.7 to 374.5 g kg(-1) protein respectively. Significant positive correlations were found between the content of essential amino acids and protein percentage. It appears that there are clear variations in seed yield, total protein content and amino acid composition among cultivars from the two sites. Essential amino acid composition was more affected than grain yield and protein level. The study revealed that both environmental and climatic factors influence the nutritional composition of quinoa cultivars growing in different agroecological regions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effect of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of protein isolate from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Xiao, Wukai; van Boekel, Martinus; Minor, Marcel; Stieger, Markus

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of extraction pH on heat-induced aggregation, gelation and microstructure of suspensions of protein isolates extracted from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). Quinoa seed protein was extracted by alkaline treatment at various pH values (pH 8 (E8), 9 (E9), 10 (E10) and 11 (E11)), followed by acid precipitation. The obtained protein isolates were freeze dried. The protein isolates E8 and E9 resulted in a lower protein yield as well as less protein denaturation. These isolates also had a higher protein purity, more protein bands at higher molecular weights, and a higher protein solubility in the pH range of 3-4.5, compared to the isolates E10 and E11. Heating the 10%w/w protein isolate suspensions E8 and E9 led to increased aggregation, and semi-solid gels with a dense microstructure were formed. The isolate suspensions E10 and E11, on the other hand, aggregated less, did not form self-supporting gels and had loose particle arrangements. We conclude that extraction pH plays an important role in determining the functionality of quinoa protein isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quinoa and flaxseed: potential ingredients in the production of bread with functional quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Alcântara Santos Calderelli

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the physicochemical characteristics of quinoa and flaxseed bread. Sensory acceptance, color and texture were also appraised. They showed appropriate balances between their content of polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids and low levels of trans fatty acids. Flaxseed bread had larger amounts of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-6 and omega-3, as well as a more balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Quinoa bread, on the other hand, had the advantage of presenting smaller contents of saturated fatty acids. With regard to color and texture, quinoa bread had similar characteristics to the flaxseed bread. The quinoa bread was well accepted by the consumers, who expressed high interest in buying it.Grãos de linhaça e quinoa podem oferecer constituintes com efeitos fisiológicos, como os ácidos graxos (ômega-3 e ômega-6, que são importantes na prevenção de algumas doenças. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar as propriedades físico-químicas dos pães de quinoa e de linhaça. Foram também avaliados a aceitação sensorial, cor e textura. Os dois produtos se destacaram pelo adequado balanço na razão entre concentração de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados pelos saturados e baixos níveis de ácidos graxos trans. O pão de linhaça apresentou maior teor de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados, ômega-6 e ômega3, bem como razão ômega-6/ômega 3 mais balanceada. O pão de quinoa, por sua vez, ofereceu como vantagens quantidades menores de ácidos graxos saturados. Com relação a cor e textura, verificou-se que o pão de quinoa tinha características semelhantes ao de linhaça. O pão de quinoa apresentou ainda boa aceitação sensorial e elevada intenção de compra pelos consumidores.

  17. Chromosomal localization of two novel repetitive sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, B; Gardunia, B W; Michalska, M; Bonifacio, A; Fairbanks, D; Maughan, P J; Coleman, C E; Stevens, M R; Jellen, E N; Maluszynska, J

    2011-09-01

    The chromosomal organization of two novel repetitive DNA sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome was analyzed across the genomes of selected Chenopodium species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with the repetitive DNA clone 18-24J in the closely related allotetraploids C. quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. (2n = 4x = 36) evidenced hybridization signals that were mainly present on 18 chromosomes; however, in the allohexaploid Chenopodium album L. (2n = 6x = 54), cross-hybridization was observed on all of the chromosomes. In situ hybridization with rRNA gene probes indicated that during the evolution of polyploidy, the chenopods lost some of their rDNA loci. Reprobing with rDNA indicated that in the subgenome labeled with 18-24J, one 35S rRNA locus and at least half of the 5S rDNA loci were present. A second analyzed sequence, 12-13P, localized exclusively in pericentromeric regions of each chromosome of C. quinoa and related species. The intensity of the FISH signals differed considerably among chromosomes. The pattern observed on C. quinoa chromosomes after FISH with 12-13P was very similar to GISH results, suggesting that the 12-13P sequence constitutes a major part of the repetitive DNA of C. quinoa.

  18. Quinoa seeds leach phytoecdysteroids and other compounds with anti-diabetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L.; Poulev, Alexander; Kuhn, Peter; Grace, Mary H.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) contains high levels of biologically active phytoecdysteroids, which have been implicated in plant defense from insects, and have shown a range of beneficial pharmacological effects in mammals. We demonstrated that the most prevalent phytoecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE), was secreted (leached) from intact quinoa seeds into water during the initial stages of seed germination. Leaching efficiency was optimized by ethanol concentration (70% ethanol), temperature (80°C), time (4 h), and solvent ratio (5 ml/g seed). When compared to extraction of macerated seeds, the leaching procedure released essentially all the 20HE available in the seeds (491 μg/g seed). The optimized quinoa leachate (QL), containing 0.86% 20HE, 1.00% total phytoecdysteroids, 2.59% flavonoid glycosides, 11.9% oil, and 20.4% protein, significantly lowered fasting blood glucose in obese, hyperglycemic mice. Leaching effectively releases and concentrates bioactive phytochemicals from quinoa seeds, providing an efficient means to produce a food-grade mixture that may be useful for anti-diabetic applications. PMID:24912714

  19. Molecular and cytological characterization of ribosomal RNA genes in Chenopodium quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, P J; Kolano, B A; Maluszynska, J; Coles, N D; Bonifacio, A; Rojas, J; Coleman, C E; Stevens, M R; Fairbanks, D J; Parkinson, S E; Jellen, E N

    2006-07-01

    The nucleolus organizer region (NOR) and 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are valuable as chromosome landmarks and in evolutionary studies. The NOR intergenic spacers (IGS) and 5S rRNA nontranscribed spacers (NTS) were PCR-amplified and sequenced from 5 cultivars of the Andean grain crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., 2n = 4x = 36) and a related wild ancestor (C. berlandieri Moq. subsp. zschackei (Murr) A. Zobel, 2n = 4x = 36). Length heterogeneity observed in the IGS resulted from copy number difference in subrepeat elements, small re arrangements, and species-specific indels, though the general sequence composition of the 2 species was highly similar. Fifteen of the 41 sequence polymorphisms identified among the C. quinoa lines were synapomorphic and clearly differentiated the highland and lowland ecotypes. Analysis of the NTS sequences revealed 2 basic NTS sequence classes that likely originated from the 2 allopolyploid subgenomes of C. quinoa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that C. quinoa possesses an interstitial and a terminal pair of 5S rRNA loci and only 1 pair of NOR, suggesting a reduction in the number of rRNA loci during the evolution of this species. C. berlandieri exhibited variation in both NOR and 5S rRNA loci without changes in ploidy.

  20. The importance of heat against antinutritional factors from Chenopodium quinoa seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa seeds have high protein content. The nutritional value of quinoa is superior compared with traditional cereals. Its essential amino acid composition is considered next to the ideal, and its quality matches that of milk proteins. In this study, the seed storage proteins from Chenopodium quinoa were extracted, fractionated, partially purified, and characterized. The structural characterization was performed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and two-dimensional electrophoresis, and it confirmed the presence of proteins of molecular weight of 30 and 7kDa, probably corresponding to lectins and trypsin inhibitors, respectively. The functional characterization of these proteins evidenced their activity as antinutritional factors due to their in vitro digestibility. Quinoa proteins have an excellent amino acid composition with many essential amino acids. In vitro digestibility evaluation indicated that heat-treated samples showed a more complete digestion than the native state samples. Quinoa seeds can be an important cereal in human diet after adequate heat treatment.

  1. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality of noodles produced with partial replacement of wheat semolina by amaranth flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Samir Vedia-Quispe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pasta is a worldwide high consumption and acceptability food due to its low cost, easy preparation and storage. Pasta is usually made of edible wheat semolina and water. The replacement of wheat semolina by amaranth flour stimulates the development of new products and improves nutritional profile of pasta. The aim of this study was to assess physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties of noodles made with partially replaced wheat semolina by whole grain and raw amaranth flours. Material and Methods: We evaluated the effect of the partial substitution (20% and 30% of wheat semolina using raw amaranth and whole grain amaranth flours in physicochemical, microbiological, quality characteristics and sensory analysis of acceptance. Results: The best treatment was the combination of 70% wheat semolina and 30% raw amaranth, where flavor was the factor in the overall acceptance, and some quality parameters correlated with the sensory responses. All pastas show sanitary quality and food safety. Conclusions: The partial substitution of amaranth flour, either raw or whole grain, improved significantly physicochemical characteristics of fiber with an increase of 60% and 140% in minerals (calcium and iron in the noodles.

  2. Elevated Genetic Diversity in an F2:6 Population of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) Developed through an Inter-ecotype Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J; Jacobsen, Sven E; Jellen, Eric N

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due to its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant-inbred lines and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654) and coastal (NL-6) germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho-phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant), while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively). Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean-based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high-yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to

  3. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouafae Benlhabib

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa is a seed crop of the Andean highlands and Araucanian coastal regions of South America that has recently expanded in use and production beyond its native range. This is largely due its superb nutritional value, consisting of protein that is rich in essential amino acids along with vitamins and minerals. Quinoa also presents a remarkable degree of tolerance to saline conditions, drought, and frost. The present study involved 72 F2:6 recombinant inbred lines (RIL and parents developed through hybridization between highland (0654 and coastal (NL-6 germplasm groups. The purpose was to characterize the quinoa germplasm developed, to assess the discriminating potential of 21 agro-morpho phenological traits, and to evaluate the extent of genetic variability recovered through selfing. A vast amount of genetic variation was detected among the 72 lines evaluated for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant, while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively. Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated positively with panicle length and biomass. UPGMA based cluster analysis identified three groups: one consisting of late, mildew-resistant, high yielding lines; one having semi-late lines with intermediate yield and mildew susceptibility; and a third cluster consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to identify potentially

  4. Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5 were mainly inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucyl amido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Influence of selenium supplementation on fatty acids profile and biological activity of four edible amaranth sprouts as new kind of functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasko, Pawel; Gdula-Argasinska, Joanna; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Quilty, Brid; Wietecha-Posluszny, Renata; Tyszka-Czochara, Malgorzata; Zagrodzki, Pawel

    2015-08-01

    Suitability assessment of amaranth sprouts as a new functional food was carried out. The optimisation of sprouting process and the influence of selenium supplementation, in doses 10, 15, and 30 mg/l of selenium as sodium selenite, on amaranth growth and fatty acid profile were examined. Methods such as FRAP, DPPH, polyphenols content and GPX activity were applied to characterize antioxidant potential of seeds and sprouts of four different edible amaranth genera. E. coli, S. aureus, C. albicans were used to evaluate amaranth sprouts antimicrobial properties. Interaction between amaranth sprouts and biological systems was assessed by analysing antibacterial and antifungal properties with a disc diffusion test. The studies proved amaranth sprouts to be potentially attractive as functional food. As confirmed by all the data amaranth sprouts are suitable as a moderate selenium accumulator and are rich in essential fatty acids, especially linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, which are precursors of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, it opens dietary opportunities for amaranth sprouts. They can also serve as a moderate source of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the experiments revealed neither antibacterial, nor antifungal properties of sprouts. In general, amaranth sprouts biological activity under evaluation has failed to prove to be significantly impacted by selenium fertilization.

  6. Development of nutritious snacks by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Virginia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objectives to find out the sensory acceptability, the nutrient content and cost of prepared products. The products prepared were “Biscuits”, “Mathri” and “Laddoo” by incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour in different proportions (10:10, 20:10, and 30:10 served as treatments T1, T2 and T3 respectively T0, without incorporation of amaranth seeds, watermelon seeds and their flour served as control. The products were organoleptically evaluated by using Nine point Hedonic scale. The data obtained during study were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and C.D techniques. The prepared products were analyzed for nutrient content using the standard method of AOAC (2005.It was concluded that in case of “Biscuits” and “Mathri” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds flour and 10 percent watermelon seeds flour scored highest while in case of “Laddoo” with incorporation level 20 percent amaranth seeds and 10 percent watermelon seeds scored highest, with regard to colour and appearance, body and texture, taste and flavour and over all acceptability, However all the treatments were found to be acceptable. It is therefore concluded that amaranth seeds and watermelon seeds can be suitably incorporated in various developed products. “Laddoo” had maximum carbohydrate (64.49g/100g, protein (13.59g/100g calcium (100.1mg/100g and iron (3.33mg/100g content. The content of Protein (14.46g/100g, carbohydrate (59.90 Calcium (59.90mg/100g, were increased as compared to control in “Biscuits”. “Mathri” was rich in Protein, Fat, carbohydrate and calcium content (11.10g/100g, 38.56g/100g, 38.83g/100g, and 53.95mg/100g. Cost of products on the basis raw ingredients per 100g ranged between Rs 6.33-12.45 for “Biscuits”, Rs 16.06-30.07, Rs 12.27-18.19 for “Mathri” and Rs.6.42-12.26 for “Laddoo”. On the basis of findings it is concluded

  7. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries.

  8. Quinoa for marginal environments: Towards future food and nutritional security in MENA and Central Asia regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouane eChoukr-allah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a means to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries.

  9. Amylopectin molecular structure in relation to physicochemical properties of quinoa starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-05-15

    Structure-function relationships of starch components remain a subject of research interest. Quinoa starch has very small granules (∼2μm) with unique properties. In this study, nine quinoa starches varied greatly in composition, structure, and physicochemical properties were selected for the analysis of structure-function relationships. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the properties related to gelatinization such as swelling power, water solubility index, crystallinity, pasting, and thermal properties are much affected by the amylopectin chain profile and amylose content. The parameters of gel texture and amylose leaching are much related to amylopectin internal structure. Other properties such as enzyme susceptibility and particle size distribution are also strongly correlated with starch composition and amylopectin structure. Interesting findings indicate the importance of amylopectin internal structure and individual unit chain profile in determining the physicochemical properties of starch. This work highlights some relationships among composition, amylopectin structure and physicochemical properties of quinoa starch. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences and Comparative Analysis of Chenopodium quinoa and C. album.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Su-Young; Cheon, Kyeong-Sik; Yoo, Ki-Oug; Lee, Hyun-Oh; Cho, Kwang-Soo; Suh, Jong-Taek; Kim, Su-Jeong; Nam, Jeong-Hwan; Sohn, Hwang-Bae; Kim, Yul-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The Chenopodium genus comprises ~150 species, including Chenopodium quinoa and Chenopodium album, two important crops with high nutritional value. To elucidate the phylogenetic relationship between the two species, the complete chloroplast (cp) genomes of these species were obtained by next generation sequencing. We performed comparative analysis of the sequences and, using InDel markers, inferred phylogeny and genetic diversity of the Chenopodium genus. The cp genome is 152,099 bp (C. quinoa) and 152,167 bp (C. album) long. In total, 119 genes (78 protein-coding, 37 tRNA, and 4 rRNA) were identified. We found 14 (C. quinoa) and 15 (C. album) tandem repeats (TRs); 14 TRs were present in both species and C. album and C. quinoa each had one species-specific TR. The trnI-GAU intron sequences contained one (C. quinoa) or two (C. album) copies of TRs (66 bp); the InDel marker was designed based on the copy number variation in TRs. Using the InDel markers, we detected this variation in the TR copy number in four species, Chenopodium hybridum, Chenopodium pumilio, Chenopodium ficifolium, and Chenopodium koraiense, but not in Chenopodium glaucum. A comparison of coding and non-coding regions between C. quinoa and C. album revealed divergent sites. Nucleotide diversity >0.025 was found in 17 regions-14 were located in the large single copy region (LSC), one in the inverted repeats, and two in the small single copy region (SSC). A phylogenetic analysis based on 59 protein-coding genes from 25 taxa resolved Chenopodioideae monophyletic and sister to Betoideae. The complete plastid genome sequences and molecular markers based on divergence hotspot regions in the two Chenopodium taxa will help to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Chenopodium.

  11. Complete Chloroplast Genome Sequences and Comparative Analysis of Chenopodium quinoa and C. album

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Young Hong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chenopodium genus comprises ~150 species, including Chenopodium quinoa and Chenopodium album, two important crops with high nutritional value. To elucidate the phylogenetic relationship between the two species, the complete chloroplast (cp genomes of these species were obtained by next generation sequencing. We performed comparative analysis of the sequences and, using InDel markers, inferred phylogeny and genetic diversity of the Chenopodium genus. The cp genome is 152,099 bp (C. quinoa and 152,167 bp (C. album long. In total, 119 genes (78 protein-coding, 37 tRNA, and 4 rRNA were identified. We found 14 (C. quinoa and 15 (C. album tandem repeats (TRs; 14 TRs were present in both species and C. album and C. quinoa each had one species-specific TR. The trnI-GAU intron sequences contained one (C. quinoa or two (C. album copies of TRs (66 bp; the InDel marker was designed based on the copy number variation in TRs. Using the InDel markers, we detected this variation in the TR copy number in four species, Chenopodium hybridum, Chenopodium pumilio, Chenopodium ficifolium, and Chenopodium koraiense, but not in Chenopodium glaucum. A comparison of coding and non-coding regions between C. quinoa and C. album revealed divergent sites. Nucleotide diversity >0.025 was found in 17 regions—14 were located in the large single copy region (LSC, one in the inverted repeats, and two in the small single copy region (SSC. A phylogenetic analysis based on 59 protein-coding genes from 25 taxa resolved Chenopodioideae monophyletic and sister to Betoideae. The complete plastid genome sequences and molecular markers based on divergence hotspot regions in the two Chenopodium taxa will help to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Chenopodium.

  12. Compounds leached from quinoa seeds inhibit matrix metalloproteinase activity and intracellular reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, B L; Cheng, D M; Esposito, D; Shertel, T; Poulev, A; Plundrich, N; Itenberg, D; Dayan, N; Lila, M A; Raskin, I

    2015-04-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a seed crop rich in bioactive compounds including phytoecdysones (especially 20-hydroxyecdysone, 20HE), polyphenols, proteins and essential fatty acids. We previously reported a method to leach and concentrate quinoa bioactives into a complex phytochemical mixture termed quinoa leachate (QL). Here, we aimed to determine the effect of QL and its chemically distinct fractions on five biochemical endpoints relevant to skin care applications: (i) cell viability, (ii) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) mRNA expression, (iii) MMP enzymatic activity, (iv) tyrosinase enzymatic activity and (v) intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Quinoa leachate was fractionated and chemically characterized using column chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Cell viability was determined using a MTT assay in four mammalian cell lines. MMP-1 mRNA expression was assessed in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) via qRT-PCR. The enzymatic activity of MMP-9 and tyrosinase was measured using fluorometric and colorimetric in vitro assays, respectively. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ROS production was determined in human dermal fibroblasts by fluorescence intensity of an oxidant-sensitive probe. Quinoa leachate was separated into three fractions: (i) carbohydrate-rich fraction (QL-C; 71.3% w/w of QL); (ii) phytoecdysone, polyphenol and protein-rich fraction (QL-P, 13.3% w/w of QL); (iii) oil-rich fraction (QL-O, 10.8% w/w of QL). QL did not reduce cell viability in any of the four cell lines tested. QL, QL-P and QL-O each significantly inhibited MMP-1 mRNA expression in HDF at a concentration of 5 μg mL(-1) . QL and QL-P also significantly inhibited MMP-9 enzymatic activity, whereas QL-P demonstrated significant tyrosinase enzymatic inhibition. Furthermore, QL, QL-P, QL-O and 20HE significantly inhibited intracellular ROS production. This study is the first to demonstrate the MMP, tyrosinase and ROS inhibiting

  13. Phytoecdysteroids and flavonoid glycosides among Chilean and commercial sources of Chenopodium quinoa: variation and correlation to physico-chemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Rojo, Leonel E; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Poulev, Alexander; Calfio, Camila; Raskin, Ilya

    2016-01-30

    Little is known about varietal differences in the content of bioactive phytoecdysteroids (PE) and flavonoid glycosides (FG) from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in PE and FG content among 17 distinct quinoa sources and identify correlations to genotypic (highland vs. lowland) and physico-chemical characteristics (seed color, 100-seed weight, protein content, oil content). PE and FG concentrations exhibited over four-fold differences across quinoa sources, ranging from 138 ± 11 µg g(-1) to 570 ± 124 µg g(-1) total PE content and 192 ± 24 µg g(-1) to 804 ± 91 µg g(-1) total FG content. Mean FG content was significantly higher in highland Chilean varieties (583.6 ± 148.9 µg g(-1)) versus lowland varieties (228.2 ± 63.1 µg g(-1)) grown under the same environmental conditions (P = 0.0046; t-test). Meanwhile, PE content was positively and significantly correlated with oil content across all quinoa sources (r = 0.707, P = 0.002; Pearson correlation). FG content may be genotypically regulated in quinoa. PE content may be increased via enhancement of oil content. These findings may open new avenues for the improvement and development of quinoa as a functional food. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmöckel, Sandra M; Lightfoot, Damien J; Razali, Rozaimi; Tester, Mark; Jarvis, David E

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa, 5 C. berlandieri, and 2 C. hircinum). We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV) in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  15. Phytoecdysteroids and flavonoid glycosides among Chilean and commercial sources of Chenopodium quinoa: variation and correlation to physicochemical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany; Rojo, Leonel E.; Delatorre-Herrera, Jose; Poulev, Alexander; Calfio, Camila; Raskin, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known about varietal differences in the content of bioactive phytoecdysteroids (PE) and flavonoid glycosides (FG) from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.). The aim of this study was to determine the variation in PE and FG content among seventeen distinct quinoa sources and identify correlations to genotypic (highland vs. lowland) and physicochemical characteristics (seed color, 100-seed weight, protein content, oil content). RESULTS PE and FG concentrations exhibited over 4-fold differences across quinoa sources, ranging from 138 ± 11 μg/g to 570 ± 124 μg/g total PE content and 192 ± 24 μg/g to 804 ± 91 μg/g total FG content. Mean FG content was significantly higher in highland Chilean varieties (583.6 ± 148.9 μg/g) versus lowland varieties (228.2 ± 63.1 μg/g) grown under the same environmental conditions (P = 0.0046; t-test). Meanwhile, PE content was positively and significantly correlated with oil content across all quinoa sources (r = 0.707, P = 0.002; Pearson correlation). CONCLUSION FG content may be genotypically regulated in quinoa. PE content may be increased via enhancement of oil content. These findings may open new avenues for the improvement and development of quinoa as a functional food. PMID:25683633

  16. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses

    KAUST Repository

    Schmöckel, Sandra M.

    2017-06-21

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa, 5 C. berlandieri, and 2 C. hircinum). We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV) in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  17. Identification of Putative Transmembrane Proteins Involved in Salinity Tolerance in Chenopodium quinoa by Integrating Physiological Data, RNAseq, and SNP Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. Schmöckel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa is an emerging crop that produces nutritious grains with the potential to contribute to global food security. Quinoa can also grow on marginal lands, such as soils affected by high salinity. To identify candidate salt tolerance genes in the recently sequenced quinoa genome, we used a multifaceted approach integrating RNAseq analyses with comparative genomics and topology prediction. We identified 219 candidate genes by selecting those that were differentially expressed in response to salinity, were specific to or overrepresented in quinoa relative to other Amaranthaceae species, and had more than one predicted transmembrane domain. To determine whether these genes might underlie variation in salinity tolerance in quinoa and its close relatives, we compared the response to salinity stress in a panel of 21 Chenopodium accessions (14 C. quinoa, 5 C. berlandieri, and 2 C. hircinum. We found large variation in salinity tolerance, with one C. hircinum displaying the highest salinity tolerance. Using genome re-sequencing data from these accessions, we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variation (CNV in the 219 candidate genes in accessions of contrasting salinity tolerance, and identified 15 genes that could contribute to the differences in salinity tolerance of these Chenopodium accessions.

  18. Economic assessment at farm level of the implementation of deficit irrigation for quinoa production in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cusicanqui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Bolivian Altiplano recent research has suggested to introduce deficit irrigation as a strategy to boost quinoa yields and to stabilize it at 2.0 ton ha-1. In this study we carried out an economic assessment of the implementation of deficit irrigation at farm level using a hydro-economic model for simulating profit for quinoa production. As input of the model we worked with previously developed farms typology (livestock, quinoa and subsistence farms, simulated quinoa production with and without irrigation using AquaCrop model, and calculated yield response functions for four different climate scenarios (wet, normal, dry and very dry years. Results from the hydro-economic model demonstrate that maximum profit is achieved with less applied irrigated water than for maximum yield, and irrigated quinoa earned more profit than rainfed production for all farms types and climate scenarios. As expected, the benefits of irrigation under dry and very dry climate conditions were higher than those under normal and wet years, and benefits among farms types were higher for quinoa farms. In fact, profit of irrigated quinoa might be stabilized at around BOB 6500 ha-1 (about USD 920 compared with the huge differences found for rainfed conditions for all climate scenarios. Interestingly, the economic water productivity, expressed in terms of economic return for amount of applied irrigated water (BOB mm-1, reached the highest values with intermediate and low level of water availability schemes of deficit irrigation for all climate scenarios.

  19. Nutritional Aspects of Six Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. Ecotypes from three Geographical Areas of Chile Aspectos Nutricionales de Seis Ecotipos de Quínoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Tres Zonas Geográficas de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the diversity of the quinoa crop in Chile from a nutritional perspective. Nutritional properties, minerals, vitamins, and saponin content were assessed in seeds of six Chilean quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. ecotypes grown in three main production areas with distinctive climatic and edaphic conditions: Ancovinto and Cancosa in the North-Altiplano or High Plateau, Cáhuil and Faro in the central coastal area, and Regalona and Villarrica in the south of the country. There were significant differences (P La diversidad en el cultivo de la quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. de Chile fue explorada desde una perspectiva nutricional. En este contexto las propiedades nutricionales como también los contenidos de minerales, vitaminas y saponina fueron evaluados en las semillas de seis ecotipos chilenos de quínoa, cultivados en las tres principales zonas de producción con condiciones edafoclimáticas distintas: Ancovinto y Cancosa del altiplano del norte, Cáhuil y Faro de la zona costera central y, Regalona y Villarrica en el sur del país. Hubo diferencias significativas (P < 0.05 en todas las propiedades nutricionales de las semillas de todas las zonas. El ecotipo Villarrica tenia el mayor contenido de proteína (16.10 g 100 g-1 MS y de vitamina E y C (4.644 ± 0.240 y 23.065 ± 1.119 mg 100 g-1 MS, respectivamente. El mayor contenido de vitamina B1 (0.648 ± 0.006 mg 100 g-1 MS y B3 (1.569 ± 0.026 mg 100 g-1 MS fue encontrado en el ecotipo Regalona, y el mayor contenido de vitamina B2 (0.081 ± 0.002 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Ancovinto. El K fue el mineral más abundante con un valor de 2325.56 mg 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cancosa. El contenido de saponina fluctuó entre 0.84 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Villarrica y 3.91 g 100 g-1 MS en el ecotipo Cáhuil. Hubo diferencias significativas entre los ecotipos chilenos de quínoa cultivados bajo diferentes condiciones climáticas. No obstante, las semillas de quinoa de cualquier

  20. Quinoa - Adaptive Computational Fluid Dynamics, 0.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-22

    Quinoa is a set of computational tools that enables research and numerical analysis in fluid dynamics. At this time it remains a test-bed to experiment with various algorithms using fully asynchronous runtime systems. Currently, Quinoa consists of the following tools: (1) Walker, a numerical integrator for systems of stochastic differential equations in time. It is a mathematical tool to analyze and design the behavior of stochastic differential equations. It allows the estimation of arbitrary coupled statistics and probability density functions and is currently used for the design of statistical moment approximations for multiple mixing materials in variable-density turbulence. (2) Inciter, an overdecomposition-aware finite element field solver for partial differential equations using 3D unstructured grids. Inciter is used to research asynchronous mesh-based algorithms and to experiment with coupling asynchronous to bulk-synchronous parallel code. Two planned new features of Inciter, compared to the previous release (LA-CC-16-015), to be implemented in 2017, are (a) a simple Navier-Stokes solver for ideal single-material compressible gases, and (b) solution-adaptive mesh refinement (AMR), which enables dynamically concentrating compute resources to regions with interesting physics. Using the NS-AMR problem we plan to explore how to scale such high-load-imbalance simulations, representative of large production multiphysics codes, to very large problems on very large computers using an asynchronous runtime system. (3) RNGTest, a test harness to subject random number generators to stringent statistical tests enabling quantitative ranking with respect to their quality and computational cost. (4) UnitTest, a unit test harness, running hundreds of tests per second, capable of testing serial, synchronous, and asynchronous functions. (5) MeshConv, a mesh file converter that can be used to convert 3D tetrahedron meshes from and to either of the following formats: Gmsh

  1. Genetic interrelationship among nutritional and quantitative traits in the vegetable amaranth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Shukla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to elucidate the interrelationship among various agronomic andquality traits and their direct and indirect effect on foliage yield in 39 distinct cultivars of vegetable amaranth (A. tricolor.Among the agronomic traits, plant height and number of inflorescence exhibited significant positive association with foliageyield, while chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoid, fiber and ascorbic acid were positively correlated with foliage yield.Chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b exhibited significant positive association with carotenoid, fiber and ascorbic acid. Ascorbicacid was positively correlated with fiber and carotenoid. Protein was associated with plant height, branches per plant and 500seed weight. Chlorophyll a, carotenoid and inflorescence length revealed high positive direct effect on foliage yield, whilebranches plant-1, leaf size, seed yield, chlorophyll b, moisture content and ascorbic acid showed negative path coefficient withfoliage yield. Suitable traits have been marked out to enhance foliage yield in vegetable amaranth.

  2. Embutidos fortificados con proteína vegetal a base de quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Wild.)

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Maldonado

    2010-01-01

    Español:El objetivo de esta investigación es substituir la mayor cantidad de proteína animal, por proteína vegetal a base de quinua, sin disminuir la calidad y aceptabilidad del producto, se optó por este pseudocereal ya que posee características nutricionales muy importantes para la alimentación humana. En la actualidad el país atraviesa por una crisis en la disponibilidad de alimentos y por una dependencia crítica de materia prima importada, por lo cual necesita de alternativas propias, que...

  3. Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternativa para diversificar os sistemas de produção de grãos Quinoa BRS Piabiru: alternative for diversification of cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Spehar

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A diversificação da agricultura possibilita implementar a renda, reduzir custos, disponibilizar nutrientes, proteger o solo, reduzir impacto ambiental negativo e ofertar alimentos. A quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., uma Chenopodiaceae originária dos Andes, destaca-se por tolerância à seca, elevada qualidade da proteína, baixo colesterol, ausência de glúten (útil a pacientes celíacos, e uso na alimentação animal. A espécie apresenta diversidade, com ciclo variável entre 80 e 150 dias no Brasil central. Os frutos, do tipo aquênio, são pequenos, achatados e sem dormência. BRS Piabiru, primeira recomendação de quinoa ao cultivo no Brasil, originou-se da linhagem EC 3, selecionada em uma população procedente de Quito, Equador. Após dois anos de ensaios, foi uniformizada em suas características agronômicas a partir de 1998. Em sucessão à soja (safrinha e na entressafra, sob irrigação, apresentou produção média de 2,8 t/ha de grãos, com 145 dias da emergência à maturação. Constitui um potencial componente do sistema plantio direto.Diversification of production systems contributes to improve income, to reduce costs, to improve nutrient availability, to protect the soil, to reduce negative environmental impact, and, to provide raw material. The Andean crop quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a Chenopodiaceae, presents outstanding characteristics of drought tolerance, high quality of kernel protein, low cholesterol content, absence of gluten (suitable to celiac patients, utilisation as animal feed. The species presents variability, with days from emergence to maturity varying between 80 to 150, under savannah conditions. The fruit, achene type, is small and flat in shape, without dormancy. The BRS Piabiru, the first recommended quinoa for cropping system in Brazil, was a selection of breeding line EC 3, originating from a plant population of Quito, Ecuador. After being tested for two years in variety trials, in Central

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal and rheological properties of grain amaranth starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangli; Kasapis, Stefan; Bao, Jinsong; Corke, Harold

    2009-11-01

    Physical properties of starch from two cultivars of gamma-irradiated grain amaranth with different amylose content were investigated. Pasting viscosities decreased continuously with the increase in dosages of irradiation. Furthermore, different irradiation dosages resulted in modification of the thermal properties and crystallinity of starch. Dynamic oscillation on shear was also employed, temperature and frequency sweeps showed that changes in storage modulus and loss modulus were significant, with Tibet Yellow producing more elastic gels as compared to Hy030 at different irradiation dosages.

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thermal and rheological properties of grain amaranth starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong Xiangli [School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China); Kasapis, Stefan [School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, City Campus, Melbourne, Vic 3001 (Australia); Bao Jinsong [Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Zhejiang Province and Chinese Ministry of Agriculture for Nuclear-Agricultural Sciences, Zhejiang University, Huajiachi Campus, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Corke, Harold [School of Biological Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: hcorke@yahoo.com

    2009-11-15

    Physical properties of starch from two cultivars of gamma-irradiated grain amaranth with different amylose content were investigated. Pasting viscosities decreased continuously with the increase in dosages of irradiation. Furthermore, different irradiation dosages resulted in modification of the thermal properties and crystallinity of starch. Dynamic oscillation on shear was also employed, temperature and frequency sweeps showed that changes in storage modulus and loss modulus were significant, with Tibet Yellow producing more elastic gels as compared to Hy030 at different irradiation dosages.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF DRYING AMARANTH SEEDS IN THE MACHINE WITH A BALANCED TWISTED – LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhuravlev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One way to create a new drying technology is the development and adoption by the industry of high-intensity machines with active hydrodynamic regimes, providing in many cases, higher technical and economic indicators. This principle is very successfully implemented in devices with swirling flow and particulate material. Therefore, the use of devices with twisted coolant flow to intensify the process of drying particulate materials is both theoretical interest and practical value. Amaranth seeds contain an average of 17 % protein, 8 % of oil and 4-5% fiber. Because of the significant amino acid content of lysine in the protein which amaranth twice larger than that of wheat, and three times more than corn and sorghum, and compares the number with cow's milk and soy , amaranth protein quality is considered very high . Amaranth seeds are the raw material for the production of oil containing up to 8 % of squalene. On the basis of theoretical analysis of heat and mass transfer process of drying amaranth seeds in the machine with a balanced twisted layer authors developed a mathematical model of it . The structure of the flow of the drying process in the cross sections of the machine. The model is based on the fundamental equations AV Lykov , describes a heat moisture transfer in capillaryporous environments in the linear thermodynamic approximation , given the way the convective heat supply and small size of dried amaranth seeds . The resulting equations describe the dynamic change of temperature fields and the moisture content in a conjugated heat and mass transfer at the boundary of the solid phase coolant. Found macrokinetic regularities of the process. The results of the work will be useful to a wide range of professionals involved in drying amaranth seeds, as well as for the calculation and design of modern dryers.

  7. Antithrombotic and Antioxidant Activity of Amaranth Hydrolysate Obtained by Activation of an Endogenous Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbione, Ana Clara; Ibañez, Sabrina M; Martínez, E Nora; Añón, María Cristina; Scilingo, Adriana A

    2016-06-01

    Ingestion of diets with antithrombotic and antioxidant components offer a convenient and effective way to prevent and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present work was to obtain an amaranth hydrolysate by the activation of an endogenous aspartic protease, to establish adequate experimental conditions, and to evaluate its antithrombotic and antioxidant activity in order to assess its potential application as an ingredient in functional foods. The results obtained not only confirmed the presence of an endogenous protease in the amaranth isolate, but also allowed us to select an adequate incubation conditions (pH 2, 40 °C, 16 h). The hydrolysate obtained (degree of hydrolysis 5.3 ± 0.4 %) showed potential antithrombotic activity (IC50 = 5.9 ± 0.1 mg soluble protein/mL) and had more antioxidant activity than the isolate, indicating that the activation of the protease released bioactive peptides from amaranth proteins. Decreasing the pH is a simple and cheap process and is another way to obtain potential functional ingredients with bioactive compounds.

  8. Major Peptides from Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus Protein Inhibit HMG-CoA Reductase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Aparecida Manólio Soares

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the major peptides generated by the in vitro hydrolysis of Amaranthus cruentus protein and to verify the effect of these peptides on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase, a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. A protein isolate was prepared, and an enzymatic hydrolysis that simulated the in vivo digestion of the protein was performed. After hydrolysis, the peptide mixture was filtered through a 3 kDa membrane. The peptide profile of this mixture was determined by reversed phase high performance chromatography (RP-HPLC, and the peptide identification was performed by LC-ESI MS/MS. Three major peptides under 3 kDa were detected, corresponding to more than 90% of the peptides of similar size produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. The sequences identified were GGV, IVG or LVG and VGVI or VGVL. These peptides had not yet been described for amaranth protein nor are they present in known sequences of amaranth grain protein, except LVG, which can be found in amaranth α‑amylase. Their ability to inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase was determined, and we found that the sequences GGV, IVG, and VGVL, significantly inhibited this enzyme, suggesting a possible hypocholesterolemic effect.

  9. Genetic Diversity Study Among Six Genera of Amaranth Family Found in Malang Based on RAPD Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arik Arubil Fatinah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Genera of amaranth family tend to have phenotypic variation partly caused by environmental factor. Phenotypic variation was the result of interaction between genetic and environmental factors. One of molecular markers that is widely used for detecting genetic variation is RAPD. RAPD is used for polymorphism detections and is now possible for identifiying a large number of loci and ascribes unambiguous taxonomic and genetic relationships among different taxa. Members of amaranth family found in Indonesia are Amaranthus, Celosia, Aerva, Alternanthera, Achyranthes, Gomphrena, Salsola, and Iresine. Six genera of which (Amaranthus, Celosia, Aerva, Alternanthera, Achyranthes, and Gomphrena were observed in this study. DNA was extracted from fresh young leaves using Doyle and Doyle’s method with modification in the extraction buffer used. RAPD analyses were carried out with 20 decamer primers from Kit A of Operon Technology. DNA was amplified using master cycler gradient Eppendorf with 35 cycles. RAPD products were separated on 1,5 % agarose gels and detected by staining with ethidium bromide. There were 374 bands generated in 18 random primers. The number of monomorphic bands, polymorphic bands, and the percentage of polymorphism were 21 bands, 353 bands, and 94,38 % respectively. The high number and percentage of polymorphic bands revealed genomic DNA variation. This variation is in accordance with phenotypic variation detected in this experiment. Therefore, it can be concluded that, based on DNA polymorphism detected by RAPD, Amaranth family can be classified into two sub families namely Amaranthoideae and Gomphrenoideae.

  10. Variability, heritability and genetic association in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolorL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakanta Sarker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty three vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L. genotypes selected from different eco-geographic regions of Bangladesh were evaluated during 3 years (2012-2014 for genetic variability, heritability and genetic association among mineral elements and quality and agronomic traits in randomized complete block design (RCBD with five replications. The analysis showed that vegetable amaranth is a rich source of K, Ca, Mg, proteins and dietary fibre with average values among the 43 genotypes (1.014%, 2.476%, 2.984, 1.258% and 7.81%, respectively. Six genotypes (VA13, VA14, VA16, VA18, VA26, VA27 showed a biological yield >2000 g/m2 and high mineral, protein and dietary fibre contents; eleven genotypes had high amount of minerals, protein and dietary fibre with above average biological yield; nine genotypes had below average biological yield but were rich in minerals, protein and dietary fibre. Biological yield exhibited a strong positive correlation with leaf area, shoot weight, shoot/root weight and stem base diameter. Insignificant genotypic correlation was observed among mineral, quality and agronomic traits, except K vs. Mg, protein vs. dietary fibre and stem base diameter vs. Ca. Some of these genotypes can be used for improvement of vegetable amaranth regarding mineral, protein and dietary fibre content without compromising yield loss.

  11. Amaranth Protein Hydrolysates Efficiently Reduce Systolic Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ramírez-Torres

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcalase is the enzyme of choice to release antihypertensive peptides from amaranth proteins, but the hydrolysis conditions have not been optimized yet. Furthermore, in vivo assays are needed to confirm such a hypotensive effect. Our aim was to optimize the hydrolysis of amaranth protein with alcalase and to test in vivo the hypotensive effect of the hydrolysates. A response surface analysis was carried out to optimize the hydrolysis reaction. The response variable was the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE-I inhibition. The hydrolysis degree was determined (free alpha-amino groups measurement. The optimized hydrolysate bioavailability was assessed in the sera of mice and the hypotensive effect was assessed in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Control groups were administered captopril or water. The optimized hydrolysis conditions were: pH = 7.01, temperature = 52 °C, enzyme concentration 0.04 mU/mg, and time = 6.16 h. The optimized hydrolysate showed a 93.5% of ACE-I inhibition and a hydrolysis degree of 74.77%. After supplementation, the hydrolysate was bioavailable in mice from 5 to 60 min, and the hypotensive effect started at 4 h in spontaneously hypertensive rats (p < 0.05 vs. water group. This effect was similar to the captopril hypotensive effect for the next 3 h (p > 0.05. The use of amaranth-optimized hydrolysates as hypotensive supplements or ingredient for functional foods seems feasible.

  12. Study and Determination of As, Cr, and Pb in Amaranth Seeds

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    Elba Graciela Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of As, Cr, and Pb toxic elements was determined in three species of amaranth seeds: A. hypochondriacus, A. cruentus, and A. dubius. The determinations were carried out by inductively coupled plasma optical atomic spectroscopy (ICP-OES. The result shows that Cr and As were found in minor concentrations than allowed by the World Health Organization (WHO; 120 and 4 mg kg−1 resp.; As (mg kg−1: A. dubius (0.76 A. cruentus (<0.50 and A. hypochondriacus (<0.50; Cr (mg kg−1: A. dubius (8.19 A. cruentus (1.15 and A. hypochondriacus (1.20. However, the concentration of Pb was high: A. dubius (19.04 A. cruentus (30.20 and A. hypochondriacus (35.56 more than the maximum of WHO (10 mg kg−1. To avoid systematic error, recovery and validation studies were performed: recovery test: 102.3%; validation (by standard addition: 96.0–103.1%. Due to the fact that amaranth had been proposed as new food due to its nutraceutical properties, the high concentration of Pb found in this study indicates that Pb should be evaluated in these amaranth species to avoid the intake of toxic element by human beings.

  13. Variability, heritability and genetic association in vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, U.; Islam, Md T.; Rabbani, Md G.; Oba, S.

    2015-07-01

    Forty three vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) genotypes selected from different eco-geographic regions of Bangladesh were evaluated during 3 years (2012-2014) for genetic variability, heritability and genetic association among mineral elements and quality and agronomic traits in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five replications. The analysis showed that vegetable amaranth is a rich source of K, Ca, Mg, proteins and dietary fibre with average values among the 43 genotypes (1.014%, 2.476%, 2.984, 1.258% and 7.81%, respectively). Six genotypes (VA13, VA14, VA16, VA18, VA26, VA27) showed a biological yield >2000 g/m2 and high mineral, protein and dietary fibre contents; eleven genotypes had high amount of minerals, protein and dietary fibre with above average biological yield; nine genotypes had below average biological yield but were rich in minerals, protein and dietary fibre. Biological yield exhibited a strong positive correlation with leaf area, shoot weight, shoot/root weight and stem base diameter. Insignificant genotypic correlation was observed among mineral, quality and agronomic traits, except K vs. Mg, protein vs. dietary fibre and stem base diameter vs. Ca. Some of these genotypes can be used for improvement of vegetable amaranth regarding mineral, protein and dietary fibre content without compromising yield loss. (Author)

  14. First report of the characterization of the threatened plant species Amaranthus pumilus (Seabeach amaranth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcone, M F

    2000-02-01

    This paper reports the first ever investigation of the chemical components/composition of the seeds of Amaranthus pumilus (a threatened amaranth species) and compares the results to those of the more commonly cultivated Amaranthus hypochondriacus (Plainsman). This study clearly revealed that much genetic diversity exists between these species, indicating that potential breeding possibilities for the improvement of more commonly cultivated amaranth lines do exist. A. pumilus offers a much larger and more desirable seed size and weight (2-3-fold higher), permitting greater biomass production, in addition to lower levels (half) of free carbohydrate for improved value/performance in diabetic-type diets. In addition to the higher edible oil content found in A. pumilus, its lower saturated/unsaturated ratio (one of the lowest thus far measured) makes it potentially a better source of nutritional oil. In addition to the 2-fold-higher quantity of vitamin E found in A. pumilus, the higher levels of squalene also found may one day serve as a renewable crop source of this compound and may diminish the world's dependence upon marine animals. Considering the imminent danger posed to the survival of the seabeach amaranth in its native environment, it is hoped this study will raise public awareness of the importance of this species and thereby protect it from reaching extinction.

  15. EFFECT OF FEEDING AMARANTH (AMARANTHUS ON AQUACULTURAL AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AGE-2 CARP

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    R. Palamarchuk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Methodology. The study was conducted at Lviv Experimental Station of the Institute of Fisheries NAAS according to generally accepted aquacultural rules of experiments and repeats. The object of the study were age-2 carp. The weight part of protein was determined acc. to Kjeldahl method, fat content acc. to S. Rushkovsky method. Hemoglobin content in fish blood was determined using hemoglobin-cyanide method (with atsetonninhidryn. The number of red blood cells was counted in a Goryaev chamber. The obtained data were processed statistically using standard statistical package of Microsoft EXCEL. Findings. The use of amaranth in the feeding of age-2 carp has positive effect on their growth and survival, nutritional value of fish flesh, and results in an increase of hemoglobin in blood. It was found that the addition of 10% ground amaranth seeds and 5% amaranth oil during the entire growing season resulted in an increase of mean weight of carp by 4.2 and 5.2% and in an increase of fish productivity by 5.9% and 7.1%, respectively. Feeding of carp with a feed supplemented by amaranth contributed to an increase in protein content in fish muscles by 2.07% (P <0.01 and 1.30% (P <0.05, respectively. The number of red blood cells in the blood of carp fed with ground amaranth seeds increased by 10.2%, while in those fed by amaranth oil - by 3.7% compared to the control group of fish. Hemoglobin content after feeding of fish with amaranth oil increased by 6.79%. Amaranth is added to the fish feed mixture to replace cereal component after heat treatment. Originality. Despite high nutritional, food and medicinal properties, amaranth is not used in fish farming as a feed additive. According to the obtained results, we developed the norms and methods of supplementing the basic diet of age-2 carp with this additive. Practical value. Implementation of the obtained results will provide an opportunity to increase fish productivity in ponds through feeding of fish

  16. The Amaranth Formation of the Williston Basin: Paleomagnetic, Petrologic and Geochemical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, E.; Cioppa, M. T.; Al-Aasm, I.

    2008-12-01

    Major debate continues to exist concerning the time of deposition of the Amaranth Formation in the Williston Basin of North America, with postulated ages of Pennsylvanian, Permian, Triassic, Lower and Middle Jurassic. A multidisciplinary study of the lower member of the Amaranth Formation was conducted in six wells in Manitoba. The lower Amaranth red beds are composed of red carbonate-rich and carbonate-poor interbedded sandstones/siltstones/shales containing dolomite and anhydrite and lacking diagnostic fossils. Preliminary analysis of the oxygen and carbon isotope values measured for replacive and cement dolomite show variations related to particular lithologies that can be correlated to the types of dolomite present in the rocks. The siliciclastic sections are dominated by detrital, zoned dolomite that has recrystallized rims, whereas in the more carbonate-rich and evaporitic samples with little to no clastic content, replacive matrix dolomite is the dominant phase. Dolomite samples from the siliciclastic sections are characterized by relatively depleted carbon and oxygen isotope values, the dolomite matrix samples have relatively enriched oxygen and carbon isotope values and a few samples containing replacement matrix dolomite with minor clastic input have intermediate isotope values. These variations reflect primary and diagenetic overprints. Hematite is the major magnetization carrier, with occasional softer magnetic minerals such as magnetite. Optical microscopy revealed the existence of two types of hematite: detrital specular hematite and very fine red pigment hematite. The paleomagnetic data reveals at least three episodes of magnetization. The most pervasive magnetization, B, was formed during the Permian-Carboniferous Kiaman Reverse Superchron. An isolated magnetization in a couple of wells, C, suggests a remagnetization event that happened sometime between mid-Jurassic and Neogene, possibly resulting from a localized oxidizing fluid flow event. The

  17. PROCESAMIENTO POST-COSECHA DE GRANOS DE QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA, CHENOPODIACEAE) EN EL PERÍODO PREHISPÁNICO TARDÍO EN EL NORTE DE LÍPEZ (POTOSÍ, BOLIVIA)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Laura López; Aylen Capparelli; Axel E. Nielsen

    2012-01-01

    ... contexts, suggesting that they had been prepared for consumption. A partir del estudio etnoarqueológico del tratamiento post-cosecha de granos de quinoa entre los habitantes del altiplano de Lípez (Potosí, Bolivia...

  18. Simultaneous determination of the isomers of Ponceau 4R and Amaranth using an expanded graphite paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Meiling; Shentu, Chao; Wang, Wenchang; Chen, Zhidong

    2014-10-01

    A sensitive and convenient electrochemical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the isomers of Ponceau 4R and Amaranth by an expanded graphite paste electrode (EGPE). The EGPE was prepared by mixing EG with solid paraffin. Compared with flake graphite paste and carbon paste electrodes, the EGPE showed higher electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidization of Ponceau 4R and Amaranth. Under optimal experimental conditions, the EGPE exhibited wide linear responses to Ponceau 4R and Amaranth ranging from 6×10(-8) to 4×10(-6) mol/L and 8×10(-8) to 4×10(-6)mol/L, respectively, and the detection limits for Ponceau 4R and Amaranth were 2 and 36 nmol/L, respectively, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The EGPE showed good reproducibility, stability and reusability. The proposed method was successfully applied in the detection of Ponceau 4R and Amaranth in grape juice samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Análise de imagem para determinação do teor de saponina em quinoa Image analysis to determinate the saponin content in quinoa

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    Luiz Augusto Copati Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Um grupo de sementes lavadas e 35 acessos de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd foram avaliados pelo método de coluna de espuma e sua coloração foi decomposta pelo modelo RGB (R, vermelho; G, verde; B, azul com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do teor de saponina na cor do grão. Sementes amarelas apresentaram alto teor de saponina. Houve correlação negativa (p£0,05 entre o teste de coluna de espuma e as bandas R (r = -0,751, G (r = -0,660 e B (r = -0,594. Estabeleceram-se quatro grupos de similaridade. Foram considerados amargos os acessos do grupo 4 (sementes amarelas e doces os acessos do grupo 1 (sementes brancas. A dispersão observada representa provável diferença na freqüência gênica, refletida pela cor e teor de saponina.A group of washed seeds and thirty five genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa, Willd were screened by soap column method and were classified by RGB Color Model (R, red; G, green; B, blue with the objective to determine the influence of the saponin content in the grain color. Yellow seeds presented high levels of saponin. There was negative correlation (p£0.05 among soap column method and bands R (r = -0.751, G (r = -0.660 and B (r = -0.594. Four groups were fixed. Tests confirmed the access of group 4 as bitter (yellow seeds and the access of group 1 as sweet (white seeds. The dispersion represents probable difference in gene frequency, reflected by the color and rate of saponin.

  20. Heat-denaturation and aggregation of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) globulins as affected by the pH value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Outi E; Zannini, Emanuele; Koehler, Peter; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-04-01

    The influence of heating (100 °C; 0-15 min) on the relative molecular mass, protein unfolding and secondary structure of quinoa globulins was studied at pH 6.5 (low solubility), 8.5 and 10.5 (high solubility). The patterns of denaturation and aggregation varied with pH. Heating triggered the disruption of the disulfide bonds connecting the acidic and basic chains of the chenopodin subunits at pH 8.5 and 10.5, but not at pH 6.5. Large aggregates unable to enter a 4% SDS-PAGE gel were formed at pH 6.5 and 8.5, which became soluble under reducing conditions. Heating at pH 10.5 lead to a rapid dissociation of the native chenopodin and to the disruption of the subunits, but no SDS-insoluble aggregates were formed. No major changes in secondary structure occurred during a 15 min heating, but an increase in hydrophobicity indicated unfolding of the tertiary structure in all samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quinoa from Valley (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.: Valuable source of genetic resistance to powdery mildew(Peronospora farinosa Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify quinoa resistant cultivars to powdery mildew (Peronospora farinosa of high yield and large grain size, 36 cultivars were evaluated under two different fungicide applications and a control in the Valle Bajo from Cochabamba. We determined the realtive Area under Develop Progress Curve of Peronosporafarinosa (AUDPCPF relative, the yield and another eleven quantitative variables. The results showed that cultivars 01Tardía, 08Tardía, 12Tardía, 04Tardía, 11Tardía 10Tardía, 19Tardía y 18Tardía were susceptible and the cultivars H172, A26, A03, A16, A22, A14 and H171 were resistant. The cultivars A40, H177, A26, H172, A25, A1 y H176 showed yields from 3.4 to 6.34 t ha-1. The cultivars 15 Tardía, 03 Tardía, 14 Tardía, H173, H171, A25, H176 and H172 with chemical control strategy and the tricobalreacted favorably against powdery mildew, which was associated with levels of resistance in each cultivar. Finally, there was a high significant negative correlation between the variables AUDPCPF relative and physiological maturity, plant length, panicle length, stem diameter, panicle diameter and weight of 100 seeds. This showed that when the attack of mildewis severe, also affects the grains yield.

  2. [Foods formulation for people with celiac disease based on quinoa (Chenopoduim quinoa), cereal flours and starches mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Valeria; Lescano, Gerardo; Armada, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    Gluten free food for people with celiac disease based on quinoa, rice and corn flours and starches, were formulated. An informatic tool (ALIM V 1.0) developed by the authors, was used for the formulation of these foods. The obtained products were pancakes, scons, precooked pizza and bread which were analyzed in their chemical composition (protein, fat, fiber, moisture, ash and carbohydrates). Water activity (aw), acceptability and texture parameters (hardness, gumminess, chewiness, adhesiveness and cohesiveness) were also determined. Commercial products (C) were taken as reference and were performed the same analysis to formulated products (F). Significant differences were found in protein, fat moisture, ash and fiber content and in most of the texture parameters studied in both food groups (p<0.05). In pancakes and scones (F) was observed an increase of protein of 88 and 198% respectively, while prepizza and bread (F) showed lower contents (8 and 22%) respect to their commercial pairs, however all products (F) have Chemical Scores higher to 100. The aw of products (F) and (C), gave values similar to the data cited on bibliography for analogous products. The formulations more acceptable (values over 80%) were scones and pancakes. Overall, the formulated products provide good quality proteins, have good textural characteristics and adequate percentages of acceptability to be used in the feeding of celiac patients.

  3. Effect of Germination and Fermentation Process on the Antioxidant Compounds of Quinoa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Galván-D'Alessandro, Leandro; Vandendriessche, Pierre; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed has gained a great interest in the last years, mainly due to its nutritional properties and its content of antioxidant substances with health-promoting properties in humans. In this work, the effect of germination time and fermentation on the levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbic acid, tocopherol isomers and phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of quinoa seeds was evaluated. Fermentation was carried out naturally by the microorganisms present in the seeds or by inoculation with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (used for baking and brewing). Ascorbic acid and total tocopherols were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) after 72 h of germination process in comparison with raw quinoa seeds, whilst fermentation caused a decrease in both types of compounds. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were improved using both bioprocesses, being this effect more noticeable for germination process (101 % of increase after three days of germination). Germination and fermentation proved to be desirable procedures for producing enriched ingredients with health-promoting antioxidant compounds in a natural way.

  4. Characterization of the acetohydroxyacid synthase multigene family in the tetraploide plant Chenopodium quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Mestanza

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The presence of multiple copies of the gene AHAS shows that gene duplication is a common feature in polyploid species during evolution. In addition, to our knowledge, this is the first report of the interaction of sub-genomes in quinoa.

  5. Chemical characterization, texture and consumer acceptability of yogurts supplemented with quinoa flour

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    Carolina Antonela CURTI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quinoa can be used as a functional ingredient in food formulations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects on proximate composition, stability during storage, texture and consumer acceptability of yogurts supplemented with quinoa flour at 1, 3 and 5 g 100 mL-1. A product without supplementation was used as control. Products were assessed for moisture, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, total dietary fibre (TDF, ashes and minerals. The pH, acidity and syneresis of yogurts were measured after 1, 7, 14 and 21 days of storage and a Texture Profile Analysis (TPA was carried out. Applying hedonic scale, 102 consumers analyzed the overall acceptability, color, texture, flavor and aroma of yogurts. Supplemented products showed significant higher protein, carbohydrate and fat contents. Hardness and adhesiveness showed a negative association whereas a positive one was found between springiness and cohesiveness. Yogurt is not necessarily the adequate matrix for hauling quinoa compounds since the addition of greater amounts of 1 g 100 mL-1 quinoa flour had undesirable effects on gel stability (syneresis and increases in total acidity and consumer acceptability.

  6. Effect of pre-treatment on in vitro gastric digestion of quinoa protein (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) obtained by wet and dry fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opazo-Navarrete, M; Schutyser, M A I; Boom, R M; Janssen, A E M

    2018-02-01

    Quinoa protein was isolated from quinoa seeds using wet fractionation that resulted in a protein isolate (QPI) with a high protein purity of 87.1% (w/dw) and a protein yield of around 54%, and a dry fractionation method delivered a quinoa protein concentrate (QPC) with a purity of 27.8% (w/dw) and yield of around 47%. The dry fractionation process only involves milling and sieving and keeps the protein in its natural, native state. The aim was to study the in vitro gastric digestibility of both protein. Attention was paid to thermal pre-treatment of QPI and QPC. QPC showed significantly higher (p < .05) digestibility than QPI samples. The results were interpreted with a simple double exponential model. The fraction of easily digested protein in QPC is higher than for QPI. The better digestibility of the QPC was explained by the prevention of the formation of large aggregates during pre-heating of the protein.

  7. Quinoa Seed Quality Response to Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Geyang; Peterson, Adam J; Morris, Craig F; Murphy, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an Andean crop with an edible seed that both contains high protein content and provides high quality protein with a balanced amino acid profile in embryonic tissues. Quinoa is a halophyte adapted to harsh environments with highly saline soil. In this study, four quinoa varieties were grown under six salinity treatments and two levels of fertilization, and then evaluated for quinoa seed quality characteristics, including protein content, seed hardness, and seed density. Concentrations of 8, 16, and 32 dS m(-1) of NaCl and Na2SO4, were applied to the soil medium across low (1 g N, 0.29 g P, 0.29 g K per pot) and high (3 g N, 0.85 g P, 0.86 g K per pot) fertilizer treatments. Seed protein content differed across soil salinity treatments, varieties, and fertilization levels. Protein content of quinoa grown under salinized soil ranged from 13.0 to 16.7%, comparable to that from non-saline conditions. NaCl and Na2SO4 exhibited different impacts on protein content. Whereas the different concentrations of NaCl did not show differential effects on protein content, the seed from 32 dS m(-1) Na2SO4 contained the highest protein content. Seed hardness differed among varieties, and was moderately influenced by salinity level (P = 0.09). Seed density was affected significantly by variety and Na2SO4 concentration, but was unaffected by NaCl concentration. The samples from 8 dS m(-1) Na2SO4 soil had lower density (0.66 g/cm(3)) than those from 16 dS m(-1) and 32 dS m(-1) Na2SO4, 0.74 and 0.72g/cm(3), respectively. This paper identifies changes in critical seed quality traits of quinoa as influenced by soil salinity and fertility, and offers insights into variety response and choice across different abiotic stresses in the field environment.

  8. Quinoa Seed Quality Response to Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geyang eWu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. is an Andean crop with an edible seed that both contains high protein content and provides high quality protein with a balanced amino acid profile in embryonic tissues. Quinoa is a halophyte adapted to harsh environments with highly saline soil. In this study, four quinoa varieties were grown under six salinity treatments and two levels of fertilization, and then evaluated for quinoa seed quality characteristics, including protein content, seed hardness, and seed density. Concentrations of 8, 16, and 32 dS m-1 of NaCl and Na2SO4, were applied to the soil medium across low (1 g N, 0.29 g P, 0.29 g K per pot and high (3 g N, 0.85 g P, 0.86 g K per pot fertilizer treatments. Seed protein content differed across soil salinity treatments, varieties, and fertilization levels. Protein content of quinoa grown under salinized soil ranged from 13.0% to 16.7%, comparable to that from non-saline conditions. NaCl and Na2SO4 exhibited different impacts on protein content. Whereas the different concentrations of NaCl did not show differential effects on protein content, the seed from 32 dS m-1 Na2SO4 contained the highest protein content. Seed hardness differed among varieties, and was moderately influenced by salinity level (P = 0.09. Seed density was affected significantly by variety and Na2SO4 concentration, but was unaffected by NaCl concentration. The samples from 8 dS m-1 Na2SO4 soil had lower density (0.66 g/cm3 than those from 16 dS m-1 and 32 dS m-1 Na2SO4, 0.74 and 0.72g/cm3, respectively. This paper identifies changes in critical seed quality traits of quinoa as influenced by soil salinity and fertility, and offers insights into variety response and choice across different abiotic stresses in the field environment.

  9. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA DE UNA COLECCIÓN DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ANA CRUZ MORILLO CORONADO; MÓNICA ANDREA CASTRO ROBERTO; YACENIA MORILLO CORONADO

    2017-01-01

    Quinua (C. quinoa W.) is considered a cereal with excellent nutritional properties, including high protein contein, because it has all amino acids, trace elements and significant amounts of vitamins...

  10. Evaluation of the effect of supplementing fermented milk with quinoa flour on probiotic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarotti, Sabrina N; Carneiro, Bruno M; Penna, Ana Lúcia B

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we investigated the effect of supplementing fermented milk with quinoa flour as an option to increase probiotic activity during fermented milk production and storage. Fermented milk products were produced with increasing concentrations of quinoa flour (0, 1, 2, or 3g/100g) and submitted to the following analyses at 1, 14, and 28 d of refrigerated storage: postacidification, bacterial viability, resistance of probiotics to simulated gastrointestinal (GI) conditions, and adhesion of probiotics to Caco-2 cells in vitro. The kinetics of acidification were measured during the fermentation process. The time to reach maximum acidification rate, time to reach pH 5.0, and time to reach pH 4.6 (end of fermentation) were similar for all treatments. Adding quinoa flour had no effect on fermentation time; however, it did contribute to postacidification of the fermented milk during storage. Quinoa flour did not affect counts of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 or Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 during storage, it did not protect the probiotic strains during simulated GI transit, and it did not have a positive effect on the adhesion of probiotic bacteria to Caco-2 cells in vitro. Additionally, the adhesion of strains to Caco-2 cells decreased during refrigerated storage of fermented milk. Although the addition of up to 3% quinoa flour had a neutral effect on probiotic activity, its incorporation to fermented milk can be recommended because it is an ingredient with high nutritive value, which may increase the appeal of the product to consumers. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The antioxidant activity and nitric oxide production of extracts obtained from the leaves of Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Lan, Xiang-Zhen; Wu, Yan-Yi; Ou, Yu-Wen; Chen, Tsung Chi; Wu, Wen-Tzu

    2017-12-01

    Most reports have indicated the antioxidant capacity of quinoa seeds. However, the leaves of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) are usually worthless and little known about their biological activities. In this study, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory potential of the quinoa leaf extracts were explored. The crude leaf extracts of quinoa were extracted using water, 50% ethanol or 95% ethanol as solvent, denoted WQL, 50% EQL and 95% EQL, respectively. The antioxidant activities of quinoa leaf extracts were assessed by the ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging and iron chelating. The total phenolic content was determined. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells was examined to gauge the anti-inflammatory activity. The 95% EQL showed a higher level of total phenolic content (569.5 mg GAE/g extract) and better DPPH scavenging activity. The WQL exhibited a better iron chelating capacity (28.9% at 10 mg/ml). The iron chelating activity of the 95% EQL increased in a concentration-dependent manner, which ranged from 10.9% up to 53.9%. The 50% EQL and 95% EQL significantly inhibited NO production in the LPSstimulated RAW 264.7 cells. We demonstrate that the extracts of quinoa leaves possess the biological activities of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Our finding suggests that the leaf extract of quinoa has potential to be utilized for natural health products. © Author(s) 2017. This article is published with open access by China Medical University.

  12. Isolation and characterization of reverse transcriptase fragments of LTR retrotransposons from the genome of Chenopodium quinoa (Amaranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, Bozena; Bednara, Edyta; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2013-10-01

    High heterogeneity was observed among conserved domains of reverse transcriptase ( rt ) isolated from quinoa. Only one Ty1- copia rt was highly amplified. Reverse transcriptase sequences were located predominantly in pericentromeric region of quinoa chromosomes. The heterogeneity, genomic abundance, and chromosomal distribution of reverse transcriptase (rt)-coding fragments of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy long terminal repeat retrotransposons were analyzed in the Chenopodium quinoa genome. Conserved domains of the rt gene were amplified and characterized using degenerate oligonucleotide primer pairs. Sequence analyses indicated that half of Ty1-copia rt (51 %) and 39 % of Ty3-gypsy rt fragments contained intact reading frames. High heterogeneity among rt sequences was observed for both Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy rt amplicons, with Ty1-copia more heterogeneous than Ty3-gypsy. Most of the isolated rt fragments were present in quinoa genome in low copy numbers, with only one highly amplified Ty1-copia rt sequence family. The gypsy-like RNase H fragments co-amplified with Ty1-copia-degenerate primers were shown to be highly amplified in the quinoa genome indicating either higher abundance of some gypsy families of which rt domains could not be amplified, or independent evolution of this gypsy-region in quinoa. Both Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy retrotransposons were preferentially located in pericentromeric heterochromatin of quinoa chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of newly amplified rt fragments together with well-characterized retrotransposon families from other organisms allowed identification of major lineages of retroelements in the genome of quinoa and provided preliminary insight into their evolutionary dynamics.

  13. Decolorization of Textile Dyes and Degradation of Mono-Azo Dye Amaranth by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NCIM 2890.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodake, Gajanan; Jadhav, Umesh; Tamboli, Dhawal; Kagalkar, Anuradha; Govindwar, Sanjay

    2011-10-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NCIM 2890 (A. caloaceticus) was found to decolorize 20 different textile dyes of various classes. Decolorization of an azo dye amaranth was observed effectively (91%) at static anoxic condition, whereas agitated culture grew well but showed less decolorization (68%) within 48 h of incubation. Induction of intracellular and extracellular lignin peroxidase, intracellular laccase, dichlorophenol indophenol (DCIP) reductase and riboflavin reductase represented their involvement in the biodegradation of amaranth. The products obtained after degradation of Amaranth were characterized as naphthalene sulfamide, hydroxyl naphthalene diazonium and naphthalene diazonium. The germination and growth of Sorghum vulgare and Phaseolus mungo seeds, and the growth of E. coli and Bacillus substilis were not inhibited by the metabolic products of the dye.

  14. The p19 protein of Grapevine Algerian latent virus is a determinant of systemic infection of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Semin; Cho, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyeok-Geun; Park, Sang-Ho; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2012-04-01

    A previous study showed that both Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV) and Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) systemically infect Nicotiana benthamiana, but GALV causes systemic infection whereas TBSV causes only local lesions in Chenopodium quinoa (C. quinoa). We recently isolated GALV strain Naju (GALV-N) from Limonium sinense and TBSV strain Sacheon (TBSV-S) from tomato. Both viruses belong to the genus Tombusvirus and have a similar genome organization. To identify determinants of systemic infection of GALV-N in C. quinoa in the current study, we generated infectious clones and capsid protein (CP)-deletion clones for the two viruses and confirmed that CP of GALV-N is required for systemic infection of C. quinoa due to its primary structural role in virus assembly. Through the use of chimeras, we identified a viral factor in addition to CP that contributes to systemic infection by GALV-N. Inactivation of the p19 demonstrated that host-specific activities of p19 are necessary for efficient systemic infection of C. quinoa by GALV-N. Our study is the first report to determine the viral factors required for systemic infection of GALV in C. quinoa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Denaturation and in Vitro Gastric Digestion of Heat-Treated Quinoa Protein Isolates Obtained at Various Extraction pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Geraldine Avila; Opazo-Navarrete, Mauricio; Meurs, Marlon; Minor, Marcel; Sala, Guido; van Boekel, Martinus; Stieger, Markus; Janssen, Anja E M

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of heat processing on denaturation and digestibility properties of protein isolates obtained from sweet quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) at various extraction pH values (8, 9, 10 and 11). Pretreatment of suspensions of protein isolates at 60, 90 and 120 °C for 30 min led to protein denaturation and aggregation, which was enhanced at higher treatment temperatures. The in vitro gastric digestibility measured during 6 h was lower for protein extracts pre-treated at 90 and 120 °C compared to 60 °C. The digestibility decreased with increasing extraction pH, which could be ascribed to protein aggregation. Protein digestibility of the quinoa protein isolates was higher compared to wholemeal quinoa flour. We conclude that an interactive effect of processing temperature and extraction pH on in vitro gastric digestibility of quinoa protein isolates obtained at various extraction pH is observed. This gives a first indication of how the nutritional value of quinoa protein could be influenced by heat processing, protein extraction conditions and other grain components.

  16. The leafy vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus gangeticus) is a potent inhibitor of calcium availability and retention in rice-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Torben; Thilsted, Shakuntala H; Biswas, Sunil K; Tetens, Inge

    2003-09-01

    Improvement in the nutritional quality of Bangladeshi rice-based diets is sought through increasing the amounts of vegetables, fish and legumes consumed. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of rice-based diets on selected parameters of Ca and P availability and retention in young, growing rats. The study was designed as a randomised balance trial with five diets, eight animals per diet, and two balance periods of 1 week each. Apart from diet 1, which was a pure rice diet, the other four diets were composite diets and included the leafy vegetable, amaranth leaves (Amaranthus gangeticus), the small fish, mola (Amblypharyngodon mola), and lentils (Lens culinaris) in different amounts to simulate the average rural rice-based diet, the recommended diet, the recommended diet diluted with starch, and the recommended diet excluding amaranth leaves. The inclusion of amaranth leaves, mola and lentils significantly improved N and growth retention in the rats compared with the pure rice diet. However, a minor addition of amaranth (0.66 g/100 g DM) significantly reduced the fractional Ca absorption and retention. Femur bone mass and Ca and P densities were significantly lower in the rats fed the diets that included amaranth leaves. The observed inhibitory effect of the amaranth leaves on Ca absorption and utilisation was probably due to the oxalate content. It is concluded that the formulation of a recommended diet cannot be based only on nutrient content values of individual food components due to interactions between nutrients and anti-nutrients in the diet.

  17. Transcriptional Responses of Chilean Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) Under Water Deficit Conditions Uncovers ABA-Independent Expression Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Andrea; Zurita-Silva, Andres; Maldonado, Jonathan; Silva, Herman

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS R49 genotype displayed best performance on selected physiological parameters and highest tolerance to drought.R49 drought over-represented transcripts has exhibited 19% of genes (306 contigs) that presented no homology to published databases.Expression pattern for canonical responses to drought such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced in response to drought were assessed by qPCR. Global freshwater shortage is one of the biggest challenges of our time, often associated to misuse, increased consumption demands and the effects of climate change, paralleled with the desertification of vast areas. Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) represents a very promising species, due to both nutritional content and cultivation under water constraint. We characterized drought tolerance of three Chilean genotypes and selected Genotype R49 (Salares ecotype) based upon Relative Water Content (RWC), Electrolyte Leakage (EL) and maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) after drought treatment, when compared to another two genotypes. Exploratory RNA-Seq of R49 was generated by Illumina paired-ends method comparing drought and control irrigation conditions. We obtained 104.8 million reads, with 54 million reads for control condition and 51 million reads for drought condition. Reads were assembled in 150,952 contigs, were 31,523 contigs have a reading frame of at least 300 nucleotides (100 aminoacids). BLAST2GO annotation showed a 15% of genes without homology to NCBI proteins, but increased to 19% (306 contigs) when focused into drought-induced genes. Expression pattern for canonical drought responses such as ABA biosynthesis and other genes induced were assessed by qPCR, suggesting novelty of R49 drought responses.

  18. Preference of Quinoa Moth: Eurysacca Melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae for Two Varieties of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in Olfactometry Assays Preferencia de la Polilla de la Quinua: Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae por dos Variedades de Quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. en Ensayos de Olfatometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan  F Costa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Insects are attracted to plants by visual and olfactory cues. The quinoa moth, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is the main insect pest of the quinoa crop, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, in the southern Peruvian Andes, causing grain yield losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of adult quinoa moths to olfactory stimuli. Specifically, the objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the capacity of E. melanocampta adults of searching for quinoa plants using plant olfactory cues; 2 to determine the preference of E. melanocampta females for the odours derived from two varieties of quinoa: Amarilla de Marangani and Blanca de Junín; and 3 to assess the attraction of male quinoa moths to E. melanocampta females and the host plant in olfactometric bioassays. Adults preferred quinoa plant odour sources in choice tests when distilled water was used as a control (P La atracción de insectos hacia las plantas es causada tanto por estímulos visuales como olfativos. La polilla de la quinua, Eurysacca melanocampta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, es la principal plaga en el cultivo de quinua, Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (Chenopodiales: Chenopodiaceae, en los Andes del sur peruano causando pérdidas en la producción de granos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar las respuestas conductuales frente a estímulos olfativos de adultos de la polilla de la quinua. Específicamente, los objetivos del estudio fueron: 1 estudiar la capacidad de búsqueda de plantas de quinua de los adultos de E. melanocampta utilizando plantas como estímulos olfativos; 2 determinar la preferencia de hembras de E. melanocampta por olores derivados de plantas de dos variedades de quinua: Amarilla de Marangani y Blanca de Junín; y 3 estudiar la atracción de los machos hacia hembras de E. melanocampta y hacia las plantas hospederas en bioensayos de olfatometría. Los adultos eligieron fuentes

  19. Chlorogenic acid versus amaranth's caffeoylisocitric acid - Gut microbial degradation of caffeic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Maren; Schröter, David; Esders, Selma; Neugart, Susanne; Farquharson, Freda M; Duncan, Sylvia H; Schreiner, Monika; Louis, Petra; Maul, Ronald; Rohn, Sascha

    2017-10-01

    The almost forgotten crop amaranth has gained renewed interest in recent years due to its immense nutritive potential. Health beneficial effects of certain plants are often attributed to secondary plant metabolites such as phenolic compounds. As these compounds undergo significant metabolism after consumption and are in most cases not absorbed very well, it is important to gain knowledge about absorption, biotransformation, and further metabolism in the human body. Whilst being hardly found in other edible plants, caffeoylisocitric acid represents the most abundant low molecular weight phenolic compound in many leafy amaranth species. Given that this may be a potentially bioactive compound, gastrointestinal microbial degradation of this substance was investigated in the present study by performing in vitro fermentation tests using three different fecal samples as inocula. The (phenolic) metabolites were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Furthermore, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses were carried out to study the influence on the microbiome and its composition. The in vitro fermentations led to different metabolite profiles depending on the specific donor. For example, the metabolite 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was observed in one fermentation as the main metabolite, whereas 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid was identified in the other fermentations as important. A significant change in selected microorganisms of the gut microbiota however was not detected. In conclusion, caffeoylisocitric acid from amaranth, which is a source of several esterified phenolic acids in addition to chlorogenic acid, can be metabolized by the human gut microbiota, but the metabolites produced vary between individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of novel InDel markers and genetic diversity in Chenopodium quinoa through whole-genome re-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tifu; Gu, Minfeng; Liu, Yuhe; Lv, Yuanda; Zhou, Ling; Lu, Haiyan; Liang, Shuaiqiang; Bao, Huabin; Zhao, Han

    2017-09-05

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a balanced nutritional crop, but its breeding improvement has been limited by the lack of information on its genetics and genomics. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain knowledge on genomic variation, population structure, and genetic diversity and to develop novel Insertion/Deletion (InDel) markers for quinoa by whole-genome re-sequencing. We re-sequenced 11 quinoa accessions and obtained a coverage depth between approximately 7× to 23× the quinoa genome. Based on the 1453-megabase (Mb) assembly from the reference accession Riobamba, 8,441,022 filtered bi-allelic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 842,783 filtered InDels were identified, with an estimated SNP and InDel density of 5.81 and 0.58 per kilobase (kb). From the genomic InDel variations, 85 dimorphic InDel markers were newly developed and validated. Together with the 62 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers reported, a total of 147 markers were used for genotyping the 129 quinoa accessions. Molecular grouping analysis showed classification into two major groups, the Andean highland (composed of the northern and southern highland subgroups) and Chilean coastal, based on combined STRUCTURE, phylogenetic tree and PCA (Principle Component Analysis) analyses. Further analysis of the genetic diversity exhibited a decreasing tendency from the Chilean coast group to the Andean highland group, and the gene flow between subgroups was more frequent than that between the two subgroups and the Chilean coastal group. The majority of the variations (approximately 70%) were found through an analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) due to the diversity between the groups. This was congruent with the observation of a highly significant FST value (0.705) between the groups, demonstrating significant genetic differentiation between the Andean highland type of quinoa and the Chilean coastal type. Moreover, a core set of 16 quinoa germplasms that capture all 362 alleles was

  1. Decoloration of Amaranth by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Part II. Verification study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavril, Mihaela; Hodson, Peter V

    2007-02-01

    The involvement of lignin peroxidase (LiP) in the decoloration of the mono-azo substituted napthalenic dye Amaranth was investigated with pure enzymes and whole cultures of Trametes versicolor. The verification study confirmed that LiP has a direct influence on the initial decoloration rate and showed that another enzyme, which does not need hydrogen peroxide to function and is not a laccase, also plays a role during decoloration. These results confirm the results of a previous statistical analysis. Furthermore, the fungal mycelium affects the performance of the decoloration process.

  2. Protease obtention using Bacillus subtilis 3411 and amaranth seed meal medium at different aeration rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Maria Delia

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the addition of Amaranthus cruenthus seed meal to the medium, as nutrient and growth factor, on protease production by Bacillus subtilis 3411 was studied. Tests were carried out in a rotary shaker and in mechanically stirred fermenters. The influence of aeration was also evaluated. The addition of amaranth in a concentration of 20 g/L resulted in 400% increase in protease production. Aeration up to 750 r.p.m. and 1 L/L.min had a favorable effect.

  3. Influence of contrasting environments on seed composition of two quinoa genotypes: nutritional and functional properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Miranda

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. in Chile represents a source of germplasm with high nutritional value. However, there is little information available related to quinoa seed quality grown under contrasting environments. In this study we evaluated the changes on seed composition of seeds of two lowland/coastal quinoa genotypes grown under arid (Vicuna and cold-temperate (Temuco conditions in Chile. Results showed that in the case of 'Regalona Baer' and 'Villarrica' genotypes the arid location (with irrigation led to a significant increase (P < 0.05 in grain yield (4.2 and 5.1 t ha-1, respectively, soluble dietary fiber (16.8 ± 0.4 and 28.9 ± 2.1 g kg-1 DM, respectively, vitamin B3 (2.44 ± 0.005 and 2.26 ± 0.04 mg 100 g-1 DM, respectively, saponins (3.22 ± 0.38 mg 100 g-1 DM, 'Regalona Baer', phenolic compounds (19.2 ± 5.48 and 31.92 ± 1.14 mg gallic acid 100 g-1 DM, respectively and components of proximate analysis, except protein content. The cold-temperate climate (rainfed affected positively seed size (2.22 ± 0.17 mm 'Villarrica' and 1000 seed weight (3.08 ± 0.08 and 3.29 ± 0.08 g, respectively, as well as insoluble dietary fiber content (112.3 ± 23.8 g kg-1 DM, 'Regalona Baer'. Furthermore, vitamin C was higher in 'Regalona Baer' genotype at arid locality (31.22 ± 4.2 mg 100 g-1 DM, but much higher content was registered in 'Villarrica' genotype at cold-temperate climate (49.3 ± 5.36 mg 100 g-1 DM. The environment-induced relationship among variables and genotypes was consistent with principal component analysis (PCA. The arid region of Vicuna in Chile represents a potential area for quinoa cultivation for lowland/coastal quinoa genotypes, whose nutritional and functional features were affected positively, due to the much more stressing climatic conditions.

  4. Ricinosomes provide an early indicator of suspensor and endosperm cells destined to die during late seed development in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S

    2013-11-01

    In mature quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds, the lasting endosperm forms a micropylar cone covering the radicle. The suspensor cells lie within the centre of the cone. During the final stage of seed development, the cells of the lasting endosperm accumulate protein and lipids while the rest are crushed and disintegrated. Both the suspensor and endosperm die progressively from the innermost layers surrounding the embryo and extending towards the nucellar tissue. Ricinosomes are endoplasmic reticulum-derived organelles that accumulate both the pro-form and the mature form of cysteine endopeptidase (Cys-EP), first identified in castor bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm during germination. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of ricinosomes and programmed cell death (PCD) hallmarks in suspensor and endosperm cells predestined to die during quinoa seed development. A structural study using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was performed. To detect the presence of Cys-EP, both western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays were carried out using anti-R. communis Cys-EP antibody. A TUNEL assay was used to determine DNA fragmentation. Except for the one or two cell layers that constitute the lasting endosperm in the mature seed, ricinosomes were found in suspensor and endosperm cells. These cells were also the site of morphological abnormalities, including misshapen and fragmented nuclei, vesiculation of the cytosol, vacuole collapse and cell wall disorganization. It is proposed that, in suspensor and endosperm cells, the early detection of Cys-EP in ricinosomes predicts the occurrence of PCD during late seed development.

  5. Extraction of Glucuronoarabinoxylan from Quinoa Stalks (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and Evaluation of Xylooligosaccharides Produced by GH10 and GH11 Xylanases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Veizaga, Daniel Martin; Villagomez, Rodrigo; Linares-Pastén, Javier A; Carrasco, Cristhian; Álvarez, María Teresa; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Nordberg Karlsson, Eva

    2017-10-04

    Byproducts from quinoa are not yet well explored sources of hemicellulose or products thereof. In this work, xylan from milled quinoa stalks was retrieved to 66% recovery by akaline extraction using 0.5 M NaOH at 80 °C, followed by ethanol precipitation. The isolated polymer eluted as a single peak in size-exclusion chromatography with a molecular weight of >700 kDa. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) combined with acid hydrolysis to monomers showed that the polymer was built of a backbone of β(1 → 4)-linked xylose residues that were substituted by 4-O-methylglucuronic acids, arabinose, and galactose in an approximate molar ratio of 114:23:5:1. NMR analysis also indicated the presence of α(1 → 5)-linked arabinose substituents in dimeric or oligomeric forms. The main xylooligosaccharides (XOs) produced after hydrolysis of the extracted glucuronoarabinoxylan polymer by thermostable glycoside hydrolases (GHs) from families 10 and 11 were xylobiose and xylotriose, followed by peaks of putative substituted XOs. Quantification of the unsubstituted XOs using standards showed that the highest yield from the soluble glucuronoarabinoxylan fraction was 1.26 g/100 g of xylan fraction, only slightly higher than the yield (1.00 g/100 g of xylan fraction) from the insoluble fraction (p 0.05). This study shows that quinoa stalks represent a novel source of glucuronoarabinoxylan, with a substituent structure that allowed for limited production of XOs by GH10 or GH11 enzymes.

  6. Ricinosomes provide an early indicator of suspensor and endosperm cells destined to die during late seed development in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, M. P.; Maldonado, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims In mature quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seeds, the lasting endosperm forms a micropylar cone covering the radicle. The suspensor cells lie within the centre of the cone. During the final stage of seed development, the cells of the lasting endosperm accumulate protein and lipids while the rest are crushed and disintegrated. Both the suspensor and endosperm die progressively from the innermost layers surrounding the embryo and extending towards the nucellar tissue. Ricinosomes are endoplasmic reticulum-derived organelles that accumulate both the pro-form and the mature form of cysteine endopeptidase (Cys-EP), first identified in castor bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm during germination. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of ricinosomes and programmed cell death (PCD) hallmarks in suspensor and endosperm cells predestined to die during quinoa seed development. Methods A structural study using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was performed. To detect the presence of Cys-EP, both western blot and in situ immunolocalization assays were carried out using anti-R. communis Cys-EP antibody. A TUNEL assay was used to determine DNA fragmentation. Results and Conclusions Except for the one or two cell layers that constitute the lasting endosperm in the mature seed, ricinosomes were found in suspensor and endosperm cells. These cells were also the site of morphological abnormalities, including misshapen and fragmented nuclei, vesiculation of the cytosol, vacuole collapse and cell wall disorganization. It is proposed that, in suspensor and endosperm cells, the early detection of Cys-EP in ricinosomes predicts the occurrence of PCD during late seed development. PMID:24061488

  7. INFLUENCE OF ORGANIC AND MINERAL FERTILIZATION ON GERMINATION, LEAF NITROGEN, NITRATE ACCUMULATION AND YIELD OF VEGETABLE AMARANTH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr Olaf van Kooten

    2012-01-01

    The influence of manure and diammonium phosphate (DAP) mineral fertilizer on germination, leaf nitrogen content, nitrate accumulation and yield of vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was investigated. Field trials were set up at the University of Nairobi Field Station at the Upper Kabete

  8. Influence of organic and mineral fertilization on germination, leaf nitrogen, nitrate accumulation and yield of vegetable amaranth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr Olaf van Kooten; Cecilia M. Onyango

    2012-01-01

    The influence of manure and diammonium phosphate (DAP) mineral fertilizer on germination, leaf nitrogen content, nitrate accumulation and yield of vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was investigated. Field trials were set up at the University of Nairobi Field Station at the Upper Kabete

  9. Effect of seed treatments on the chemical composition and properties of two amaranth species: starch and protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamel, T.H.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Mesallem, A.S.; Damir, A.A.; Shekib, L.A.

    2005-01-01

    The seeds of two Amaranth species were studied. The starch contents were 543 and 623 g kg-1 while crude protein contents were 154 and 169 g kg-1 for Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus seeds, respectively. The effect of several treatments, including cooking, popping and germination and flour

  10. Bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis spores encapsulated with amaranth derivatized starches: studies on the propagation "in vitro".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ana Priscila García; Martínez, Marcela Gaytán; Barrera-Cortés, Josefina; Ibarra, Jorge E; Bustos, Fernando Martínez

    2015-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is one of the bioinsecticides used worldwide due to its specific toxicity against target pests in their larval stage. Despite this advantage, its use is limited because of their short persistence in field when exposed to ultra violet light and changing environmental conditions. In this work, microencapsulation has been evaluated as a promising method to improve Bt activity. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize native and modified amaranth starch granules and evaluate their potential application as wall materials in the microcapsulation of B thuringiensis serovar kurstaki HD-1 (Bt- HD1), produced by spray drying. Native amaranth starch granules were treated by hydrolyzation, high energy milling (HEM) and were chemically modified by phosphorylation and succinylation. The size of the Bt microcapsules varied from 12.99 to 17.14 μm adequate to protect the spores of Bt from ultraviolet radiation. The aw coefficient of the microcapsules produced by the modified starches after drying was low (0.14-1.88), which prevent microbial growth. Microcapsules prepared with phosphorylated amaranth starch presented the highest bacterial count and active material yield. Different concentrations of the encapsulated Bt formulation in phosphorylated amaranth starch showed a high level of insecticidal activity when tested on M. sexta larvae and has great potential to be developed as a bioinsecticide formulation, also, the level of toxicity is much higher than that found in some of the products commercially available.

  11. Inversion tillage, high residue covers, and different herbicide regimes for palmer amaranth control in liberty link systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth is adversely affecting cotton production in the Southeast US. A field experiment was established in fall 2008 at the E.V. Smith Research Center, Field Crops Unit near Shorter, AL, to investigate the role of inversion tillage, high residue cover crops, and differ...

  12. Efficacy of amaranth grain (Amaranthus cruentus) on anaemia and iron deficiency in Kenyan pre-school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macharia-Mutie, C.W.

    2012-01-01

    Background
    Adding iron rich foods such as amaranth grain flour or micronutrient powders (MNP) containing low doses of highly bioavailable iron (e.g. NaFeEDTA) could be options to control iron deficiency (ID) in pre-school children. However, data evaluating the impact of such food-to-food or

  13. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano - linking geomorphology, erosion and spatial production patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-05-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a native Andean crop that gained worldwide popularity over the last few decades due to its outstanding nutritional properties. The plant is characterized by an exceptional adaptation and is able to produce decent yields despite harsh environmental conditions like drought, frost, or soil salinity. Quinoa is thus an exceptional income opportunity in the arid southern Bolivian Altiplano, an area endemically struck by rural poverty and malnutrition. In the early 1970s, the Bolivian government introduced the first tractors to southern Bolivia's Salar region with the intention to push agricultural development - with obvious success. The cultivation of quinoa is today the most important land use, with a continued increase in production volume and areal extent. We here trace back land-use changes from 1972 to 2013 in one of the most important areas of quinoa production. Using Landsat images, SRTM elevations and field survey data, we investigate the relationship of field areas to erosion patterns and large-scale geomorphology. The soils of the southern Bolivian Altiplano are highly susceptible to particle entrainment due to a loose and sandy substrate, strong winds, and rapid drainage during precipitation and snow melt events. It appears that many of the first quinoa fields were established on flood plain deposits, where good yields could be anticipated despite the apparent risk of erosion. The subsequent expansion of production areas was paralleled by an increase in field density. Locally, this implied a reduction of fallowing length and the incorporation of marginal lands. The almost complete removal of natural (i.e. protecting) vegetation over large and continuous areas, results in increased wind erosion and partial crop failure. While production extended by approx. 1,6 % per year between 1985 and 2003, an average annual increase of 8,4 % could be observed for the last decade, when many new fields were established at lower elevations

  14. Structure stabilization in starch-quinoa bran doughs: The role of water availability and gelatinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föste, Maike; Jekle, Mario; Becker, Thomas

    2017-10-15

    Bran is a promising ingredient for nutritional fortification in starch-based dough systems. However its incorporation is a technological challenge favoring a shift in dough functionality. The objective of this study was to elucidate the impact of bran on baking performance independent of dough firmness and start of gelatinization. Therefore, corn starch was replaced by quinoa bran (10% to 50%) and water addition (80-110g/100g flour) was standardized on a fixed complex shear modulus (G*) and start of gelatinization (TOnset) based on a corn starch reference dough. A destabilizing effect by bran particles was counteracted in corn starch dough by adjusting the water content up to 110 g/100g flour. Moreover, a negative correlation between TOnset and loaf volume was determined (r=- 0.9042), thus an early TOnset should be aspired in order to prevent gas release and to stabilize corn starch- quinoa bran dough. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of natural and synthetic vitamin C (ascorbic acid) on primary and secondary metabolites and associated metabolism in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) plants under water deficit regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Aniqa; Akram, Nudrat Aisha; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2017-12-05

    Phytoextracts are being widely used these days as a source of bioactive compounds for mitigating the harmful effects of abiotic stresses including drought stress. In this study, it was assessed how far foliar applied pure synthetic ascorbic acid (AsA) or natural sweet orange juice (OJ) enriched with AsA could mitigate the drought stress induced adverse effects on growth and some key metabolic processes in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.; cultivar V9) plants. Two weeks old quinoa seedlings were subjected to varying irrigation regimes as control [100% field capacity (FC)] and drought stress (60% FC, 40% FC and 20% FC). After one month of water deficit treatments, various levels of ascorbic acid (150 mg L-1 AsA or 25% OJ) besides control [distilled water (DW) and no spray (NS)] were applied as a foliar spray. After 15 days of AsA application, different physio-biochemical attributes were measured. The results showed that water deficit markedly decreased plant growth, relative water content (RWC), photosynthetic rate, total carotenoids (CAR) and total flavonoids, while it increased relative membrane permeability (RMP), intrinsic AsA content, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), glycinebetaine (GB), total phenolics, total soluble proteins (TSP), total free amino acids, activities of key antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD)], total soluble sugars (TSS), reducing (RS) and non-reducing sugars (NRS). Most obvious results of most of these parameters were observed at 40% and 20% FC. Foliar-applied pure 150 mg L-1 AsA and 25% OJ were found to be very effective in improving plant growth, RMP, photosynthetic rate, CAR, proline, AsA, MDA, GB, TSP, free amino acids, SOD, POD, TSS, RS, NRS and total flavonoids. It was noticed that 25% OJ enriched with AsA and other essential nutrients and biomolecules was as efficient as 150 mg L-1 AsA in reducing the adverse effects of drought stress on quinoa plants. So, it was concluded that OJ, a

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Anatomy of Two Populations of Red-Root Amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.

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    Sava Vrbničanin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of stems and leaves of two populations of the weed species Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red-root amaranth (pop. AMARE1 having green stems covered in sparse hairs and pop. AMARE2 with green but notably dense stem hairs was analysed in order better to understand the uptake and translocation of herbicides that could be indicative of the species’ evolving resistance to herbicides. Samples of the two populations (AMARE1 and AMARE2 were collected from arable land of the Institute of Maize Research at Zemun Polje in 2006. Sampling was performed at the stage of full vegetative growth of plants.Permanent microscoping preparations were made to measure and analyze elements of the anatomy of stems (stem epidermis, cortex, collenchyma, central cylinder and diameter and leaves (leaf epidermis upper surface and underside, mesophyll, leaf thickness and bundle sheath thickness.Both analysed populations of A. retroflexus, morphologically characterized by different density of stem hairiness, were found to have a typical structure of herbaceous dicots. The stem had three distinctive zones: epidermis, cortex and central cylinder. Amaranth leaves have dorsoventral structure, i.e. their upper surface and underside can be differentiated. The results indicated high and very high significance of differences found in stem anatomy between the two analysed populations, while leaf anatomy was not found to display significant differences other than in mesophyll thickness.

  17. Modification of activated carbon via grafting polyethyleneimine to remove amaranth from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Likang; Zhang, Gengwei; Wang, Shixing; Zhang, Libo; Peng, Jinhui

    2017-03-01

    A new adsorbent was fabricated via grafting polyethyleneimine (PEI) on activated carbon (AC) to remove anionic amaranth from water. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the grafting process of PEI. The adsorption behavior of the anionic amaranth (AM) on the modified AC is further evaluated by adjusting pH, the modified AC dosage, contact time and the initial AM concentration. AM adsorption was dramatically dependent of solution pH and the optimum pH is 1.08. The adsorption rate was very high within 20 min and equilibrium was achieved at 180 min. The maximum adsorption amount of AM on the modified AC is 72.68 mg/g at pH 1.08. Compared with the unmodified AC, the adsorption efficiency on the modified AC was dramatically increased from 29.9 to 97%. An electrostatic interaction mechanism was proposed in the acidic solution. The adsorption isotherms were consistent with the Langmuir model and the obtained kinetic data were in accordance with a pseudo-second order adsorption behavior for the modified AC.

  18. Evaluation of support materials for the surface immobilization and decoloration of amaranth by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, M; Nguyen, T; Ramsay, J

    2002-10-01

    The ability of Trametes versicolor ATCC 20869 to colonize several natural and synthetic materials (wheat straw, jute, hemp, maple woodchips, and nylon and polyethylene teraphthalate fibers) and to subsequently decolorize amaranth was evaluated. Jute was found to be the best support material as T. versicolor grew well on it without color leaching from the support and without loss of the jute's integrity over a 4 week period. The fungus immobilized on jute, straw and hemp decolorized amaranth (50 mg l(-1)) at a rate of about 5 mg l(-1) h(-1) without glucose being added. When 1 g l(-1) glucose was added, the dye was degraded more quickly (about 8 mg l(-1) h(-1)). Decoloration did not occur in a suspension culture without glucose. As the number of decoloration cycles increased, the rate of decoloration decreased. This rate was restored to its original level after the biomass was incubated in fresh growth medium for 5 days. With all immobilization supports, the toxicity of the medium before and after decoloration was the same or lower.

  19. Commodity Systems Assessment Methodology of Postharvest Losses in Vegetable Amaranths: The Case of Tamale, Ghana

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    Mildred Osei-Kwarteng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A semistructured questionnaire based on the commodity system assessment methodology (CSAM was used to determine postharvest losses in vegetable amaranths (VA. Fifty producers and retailers were randomly selected from five and four major VA producing areas and markets, respectively, and interviewed. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive statistical analyses. The survey revealed that absence of laws, regulation, incentives, and inadequate technical information affected the production of VA. The utmost preproduction challenge was poor quality seeds with poor seed yield (35%, low viability (19%, and nontrueness (46%. It was noted that some cultural practices including planting pattern and density, irrigation, and fertiliser use had effects on postharvest losses. Some postharvest practices used were cleaning with water, trimming, sorting, and grading. Usually the produce was transported to marketing centers by cars and motor cycle trailers. Generally poor temperature management after harvest was a big challenge for the postharvest handling of VA. The potential of vegetable amaranths as a commodity in the study area can be enhanced by providing the necessary institutional support, incentives, and use of good management practices along the value chain. An interdisciplinary approach and quantification of losses along the chain are recommended for any future study.

  20. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE IOGURTE À BASE DE PITAIA (HYLOCEREUS UNDATUS, ENRIQUECIDO COM QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA E SUCRALOSE

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    Antônio Thiago Matos Carvalho Santana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O mercado para alimentos que visam determinado benefício à saúde tem se mostrado promissor, aliado a esse fato é crescente o número de estudos na área de alimentos derivados do leite, como o iogurte, produto de alto valor biológico, com propriedades benéficas a saúde e de fácil comercialização. O iogurte se adicionado de polpa de pitaia (Hylocereus undatus, fruta exótica de potencial sensorial e pouco explorada, tende a ser um produto de fácil aceitação pelos consumidores, adicionalmente é possível aumentar seu valor nutricional adicionando quinoa, cereal de elevado teor protéico e conteúdos significativos em ácidos graxos, e não obstante a utilização da sucralose que é considerado um edulcorante sem restrições de uso, torna o produto ainda mais atrativo. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo objetivou avaliar sensorialmente iogurtes acrescidos de polpa de pitaia em diferentes concentrações e verificar qual foi a de maior aceitação. Foram feitas as análises microbiológicas de coliformes a 30ºC, 45ºC e presença de Salmonella sp. para verificar a qualidade do produto. O modelo adotado para a análise sensorial foi o teste de ordenação de preferência, para comparação do iogurte em suas diferentes concentrações de polpa. As análises microbiológicas encontradas para os iogurtes nas concentrações de 20%, 30% e 40% de polpa foram satisfatórias de acordo com a legislação vigente para esse tipo de produto. Os resultados obtidos para o teste sensorial apontaram à preferência do consumidor a amostra com maior concentração de polpa de pitaia (40%.

  1. Effect of saline water on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuccio, M. R.; Jacobsen, S. E.; Akhtar, S. S.; Muscolo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Salinization is increasing on a global scale, decreasing average yields for most major crop plants. Investigations into salt resistance have, unfortunately, mainly been focused on conventional crops, with few studies screening the potential of available halophytes as new crops. This study has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its development. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which they are present in SW. Our results demonstrated that all salts, at lower concentrations, increased the germination rate but not the germination percentages, compared with control (pure water). Conversely, seedlings were differently affected by treatments in respect to salt type and concentration. Growth parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity was always higher under salt stress than in water. Moreover, osmotic and ionic stress factors had different degrees of influence on germination and development. PMID:25139769

  2. Effect of saline water on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuccio, M R; Jacobsen, S E; Akhtar, S S; Muscolo, A

    2014-08-19

    Salinization is increasing on a global scale, decreasing average yields for most major crop plants. Investigations into salt resistance have, unfortunately, mainly been focused on conventional crops, with few studies screening the potential of available halophytes as new crops. This study has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its development. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germinated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which they are present in SW. Our results demonstrated that all salts, at lower concentrations, increased the germination rate but not the germination percentages, compared with control (pure water). Conversely, seedlings were differently affected by treatments in respect to salt type and concentration. Growth parameters affected were root and shoot length, root morphology, fresh and dry weight, and water content. An efficient antioxidant mechanism was present in quinoa, activated by salts during germination and early seedling growth, as shown by the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Total antioxidant capacity was always higher under salt stress than in water. Moreover, osmotic and ionic stress factors had different degrees of influence on germination and development. Published by Oxford

  3. In vivo antioxidant activity of methanol extract from quinoa fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Masako

    2005-12-01

    Previously, this author reported that the fermentation of quinoa with Rhizopus oligosporeus increased antioxidant activity, and the antioxidant activity of the 80% methanol extract of the fermented quinoa (Q-tempeh) was higher than the other extracts with n-hexane and water in vitro. In this paper, to clarify a beneficial effect of the fermentation of quinoa with R. oligosporus, the antioxidant activity of 80% methanol extract of Q-tempeh was investigated in rats ex vivo and in vivo. In the ex vivo experiment, the 80% methanol extract from Q-tempeh increased both activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the liver, and accelerated the production of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE) in the lung. In rats fed vitamin E-free diets with 80% methanol extract of Q-tempeh, the alpha-tocopherol concentration, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value, and activities of GSH-Px and SOD in serum showed a similar concentration to those of the control rats fed a vitamin E-supplemented diet. However, the hepatic GSH-Px and SOD activities were higher than those in the control rats. On the other hand, in rats fed a vitamin E-free diet with the 80% methanol extract of quinoa, the serum alpha-tocopherol level was lower, and both TBARS values of serum and liver were higher than those in the control rats. From these results, the 80% methanol extract of Q-tempeh was inferred to be an active superoxide scavenger and peroxide reducer in vivo.

  4. Differential activity of Plasma and Vacuolar Membrane Transporters contributes to Genotypic Differences in Salinity Tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Lana

    2013-01-01

    Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow...... (SV) and fast (FV) tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013) Plant Physiology). This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two...... quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa...

  5. Molecular and cytogenetic evidence for an allotetraploid origin of Chenopodium quinoa and C. berlandieri (Amaranthaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolano, Bozena; McCann, Jamie; Orzechowska, Maja; Siwinska, Dorota; Temsch, Eva; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-07-01

    Most of the cultivated chenopods are polyploids, but their origin and evolutionary history are still poorly understood. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences of four plastid regions, nrITS and nuclear 5S rDNA spacer region (NTS) of two tetraploid chenopods (2n=4x=36), Andean C. quinoa and North American C. berlandieri, and their diploid relatives allowed inferences of their origin. The phylogenetic analyses confirmed allotetraploid origin of both tetraploids involving diploids of two different genomic groups (genomes A and B) and suggested that these two might share very similar parentage. The hypotheses on the origin of the two allopolyploid species were further tested using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Several diploid Chenopodium species belonging to the two lineages, genome A and B, suggested by phylogenetic analyses, were tested as putative parental taxa. GISH differentiated two sets of parental chromosomes in both tetraploids and further corroborated their allotetraploid origin. Putative diploid parental taxa have been suggested by GISH for C. quinoa and C. berlandieri. Genome sizes of the analyzed allotetraploids fit nearly perfectly the expected additive values of the putative parental taxa. Directional and uniparental loss of rDNA loci of the maternal A-subgenome was revealed for both C. berlandieri and C. quinoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Improving the antioxidant properties of quinoa flour through fermentation with selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lorusso, Anna; Russo, Vito; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-01-16

    Lactic acid bacteria strains, previously isolated from the same matrix, were used to ferment quinoa flour aiming at exploiting the antioxidant potential. As in vitro determined on DPPH and ABTS radicals, the scavenging activity of water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from fermented doughs was significantly (Pquinoa dough fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum T0A10. The corresponding WSE was subjected to Reverse Phase Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography, and 32 fractions were collected and subjected to in vitro assays. The most active fraction was resistant to further hydrolysis by digestive enzymes. Five peptides, having sizes from 5 to 9 amino acid residues, were identified by nano-Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/Mass Spectra. The sequences shared compositional features which are typical of antioxidant peptides. As shown by determining cell viability and radical scavenging activity (MTT and DCFH-DA assays, respectively), the purified fraction showed antioxidant activity on human keratinocytes NCTC 2544 artificially subjected to oxidative stress. This study demonstrated the capacity of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to release peptides with antioxidant activity through proteolysis of native quinoa proteins. Fermentation of the quinoa flour with a selected starter might be considered suitable for novel applications as functional food ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cytogenetic analysis of quinoa chromosomes using nanoscale imaging and spectroscopy techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yangquanwei, Zhong; Neethirajan, Suresh; Karunakaran, Chithra

    2013-11-01

    Here we present a high-resolution chromosomal spectral map derived from synchrotron-based soft X-ray spectromicroscopy applied to quinoa species. The label-free characterization of quinoa metaphase chromosomes shows that it consists of organized substructures of DNA-protein complex. The analysis of spectra of chromosomes using the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) and its superposition of the pattern with the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images proves that it is possible to precisely locate the gene loci and the DNA packaging inside the chromosomes. STXM has been successfully used to distinguish and quantify the DNA and protein components inside the quinoa chromosomes by visualizing the interphase at up to 30-nm spatial resolution. Our study represents the successful attempt of non-intrusive interrogation and integrating imaging techniques of chromosomes using synchrotron STXM and AFM techniques. The methodology developed for 3-D imaging of chromosomes with chemical specificity and temporal resolution will allow the nanoscale imaging tools to emerge from scientific research and development into broad practical applications such as gene loci tools and biomarker libraries.

  8. Physiological effects of short acute UVB treatments in Chenopodium quinoa Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarancca Reyes, Thais; Scartazza, Andrea; Castagna, Antonella; Cosio, Eric G; Ranieri, Annamaria; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-10

    Increased ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation due to global change can affect plant growth and metabolism. Here, we evaluated the capacity of quinoa to resist under short acute UVB irradiation. Quinoa was daily exposed for 30 or 60 min to 1.69 W m-2 UVB. The results showed that 30 min exposure in 9 d-course did not cause severe alterations on photosynthetic pigments and flavonoids, but a significant increase of antioxidant capacity was observed. Otherwise, 60 min UVB in 5 d-course reduced almost all these parameters except for an increase in the de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle pigments and led to the death of the plants. Further studies of gas exchange and fluorescence measurements showed that 30 min UVB dramatically decrease stomatal conductance, probably associated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport was also observed, which could be a response to reduce ROS. Otherwise, irreversible damage to the photosynthetic apparatus was found with 60 min UVB probably due to severe ROS overproduction that decompensates the redox balance inducing UVB non-specific signaling. Moreover, 60 min UVB compromised Rubisco carboxylase activity and photosynthetic electron transport. Overall, these data suggest that quinoa modulates different response mechanisms depending on the UVB irradiation dosage.

  9. Variation in Yield Responses to Elevated CO₂ and a Brief High Temperature Treatment in Quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, James A

    2017-07-05

    Intraspecific variation in crop responses to global climate change conditions would provide opportunities to adapt crops to future climates. These experiments explored intraspecific variation in response to elevated CO₂ and to high temperature during anthesis in Chenopodium quinoa Wild. Three cultivars of quinoa were grown to maturity at 400 ("ambient") and 600 ("elevated") μmol·mol(-1) CO₂ concentrations at 20/14 °C day/night ("control") temperatures, with or without exposure to day/night temperatures of 35/29 °C ("high" temperatures) for seven days during anthesis. At control temperatures, the elevated CO₂ concentration increased the total aboveground dry mass at maturity similarly in all cultivars, but by only about 10%. A large down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated CO₂ occurred during grain filling. In contrast to shoot mass, the increase in seed dry mass at elevated CO₂ ranged from 12% to 44% among cultivars at the control temperature. At ambient CO₂, the week-long high temperature treatment greatly decreased (0.30 × control) or increased (1.70 × control) seed yield, depending on the cultivar. At elevated CO₂, the high temperature treatment increased seed yield moderately in all cultivars. These quinoa cultivars had a wide range of responses to both elevated CO₂ and to high temperatures during anthesis, and much more variation in harvest index responses to elevated CO₂ than other crops that have been examined.

  10. Antioxidative responses during germination in quinoa grown in vitamin B-rich medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzschke, Andrea; Fraundorfer, Anna; Guggemos, Michael; Fuchs, Norbert

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic vitamin preparations have grown in popularity to combat health risks associated with an imbalanced diet, poor exercise and stress. In terms of bioavailability and diversity, they lack behind vitamins naturally occurring in plants. Solutions to obtain plant-derived vitamins at a larger scale are highly desirable. B vitamins act as precursors of enzymatic cofactors, thereby regulating important metabolic processes both in animals and plants. Because during plant germination, the vitamin content and micronutrient availability increase, sprouts are generally considered a healthier food as compared to dry grains. Germination only occurs if a plant's antioxidant machinery is sufficiently activated to cope with oxidative stress. Seeds of quinoa, an edible gluten-free plant naturally rich in minerals, germinate readily in a solution containing the eight B vitamins. We studied biochemical changes during quinoa germination, with a focus on nutritionally relevant characteristics. The results are considered from a nutritional and plant physiological perspective. Germination of quinoa in vitamin-rich medium is a promising strategy to enhance the nutritional value of this matrix. Additional health-beneficial effects indirectly resulting from the vitamin treatment include elevated levels of the multi-functional amino acid proline and a higher antioxidant capacity. Plant biomolecules can be better protected from oxidative damage in vivo.

  11. Biodiversity and technological-functional potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from spontaneously fermented quinoa sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Rodríguez, L; Vera Pingitore, E; Rollan, G; Cocconcelli, P S; Fontana, C; Saavedra, L; Vignolo, G; Hebert, E M

    2016-05-01

    To analyse lactic acid bacteria (LAB) diversity and technological-functional and safety properties of strains present during spontaneous fermented quinoa sourdoughs. Fermentation was performed by daily backslopping at 30°C for 10 days. Autochthonous LAB microbiota was monitored by a biphasic approach combining random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and rRNA gene sequencing with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Identification and intraspecies differentiation allowed to group isolates within nine LAB species belonging to four genera. A succession of LAB species occurred during 10-days backslopping; Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis were detected as dominant species in the consortium. The characterization of 15 representative LAB strains was performed based on the acidifying capacity, starch and protein hydrolysis, γ-aminobutyric acid and exopolysaccharides production, antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance. Strains characterization led to the selection of Lact. plantarum CRL1905 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides CRL1907 as candidates to be assayed as functional starter culture for the gluten-free (GF) quinoa fermented products. Results on native LAB microbiota present during quinoa sourdough fermentation will allow the selection of strains with appropriate technological properties to be used as a novel functional starter culture for GF-fermented products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. GERMINAÇÃO DE SEMENTES DE QUINOA COM DIFERENTES PERÍODOS DE ARMAZENAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Strenske

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different storage periods and the number of days to the germination of quinoa seeds. The seeds were obtained from plants cultivated under field conditions in the agricultural year of 2012/2013, in the municipality of Marechal Cândido Rondon, PR. The survey was conducted in the Seeds Technology Laboratory, at the State University of West Paraná - UNIOESTE. The treatments consisted of the association between six storage periods (36, 85, 119, 146, 177 and 270 days and eight days of germinated seeds counting, kept at 25 °C without photoperiod in four replicates of 100 seeds each. Germinating boxes (Gerbox were used, containing germination paper on which the seeds were disposed. The quinoa seeds germination decreases with storage time increase, which also slows the germination. The count of the number of germinated seeds has to be performed on the eighth day after the assembly of the Standard Germination Test in quinoa.

  13. Isolation and characterization of the betalain biosynthesis gene involved in hypocotyl pigmentation of the allotetraploid Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Tomohiro; Takagi, Hiroki; Miyazato, Akio; Ohki, Shinya; Mizukoshi, Hiroharu; Mori, Masashi

    2018-01-06

    In quinoa seedlings, the pigment betalain accumulates in the hypocotyl. To isolate the genes involved in betalain biosynthesis in the hypocotyl, we performed ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis on the CQ127 variety of quinoa seedlings. While putative amaranthin and celosianin II primarily accumulate in the hypocotyls, this process produced a green hypocotyl mutant (ghy). This MutMap+ method using the quinoa draft genome revealed that the causative gene of the mutant is CqCYP76AD1-1. Our results indicated that the expression of CqCYP76AD1-1 was light-dependent. In addition, the transient expression of CqCYP76AD1-1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in the accumulation of betanin but not isobetanin, and the presence of a polymorphism in CqCYP76A1-2 in the CQ127 variety was shown to have resulted in its loss of function. These findings suggested that CqCYP76AD1-1 is involved in betalain biosynthesis during the hypocotyl pigmentation process in quinoa. To our knowledge, CqCYP76AD1-1 is the first quinoa gene identified by EMS mutagenesis using a draft gene sequence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Molecular characterization of endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Chenopodium quinoa inhabiting the Atacama Desert, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. González-Teuber

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots can be highly colonized by fungal endophytes. This seems to be of particular importance for the survival of plants inhabiting stressful habitats. This study focused on the Identification of the fungal endophytic community associated with the roots of quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa growing near the salt lakes of the Atacama Desert, Chile. One hundred endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy quinoa roots, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region was sequenced for phylogenetic and taxonomic analysis. The isolates were classified into eleven genera and 21 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs. Despite a relatively high diversity of root endophytic fungi associated with quinoa plants, the fungal community was dominated by only the Ascomycota phyla. In addition, the most abundant genera were Penicillium, Phoma and Fusarium, which are common endophytes reported in plant roots. This study shows that roots of C. quinoa harbor a diverse group of endophytic fungi. Potential roles of these fungi in plant host tolerance to stressful conditions are discussed.

  15. Profundidade de semeadura no desenvolvimento inicial de pseudocereais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Brandstetter Rodrigues

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência da profundidade de semeadura na emergência de plântulas de sementes de  amaranto e quinoa. Foram avaliados os efeitos das profundidades de 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5 e 2,5 cm para amaranto e de 0; 1,5; 2,5; 3,5; e 4,5 cm para quinoa, obtidas por meio de anéis de pvc, com espessura equivalente a estes valores, que foram imersos no substrato para simular as profundidades de semeadura. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias, comparadas pelo teste de Tukey com 5% de probabilidade de erro. Foram realizados os testes de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, emergência de plântulas em bandejas, massa de matéria seca e peso de mil sementes. A profundidade de semeadura para o melhor desenvolvimento inicial indicada para amaranto é de até 1,5 cm, e para quinoa até 2,5 cm.Seeding depth in the initial development of pseudocerealsAbstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of sowing depth on emergence of amaranth and quinoa seeds seedlings. The effects of the depths of 0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 and 2.5 cm and amaranth 0; 1.5; 2.5; 3.5; quinoa and 4.5 cm, obtained from PVC rings with a thickness equivalent to these values, which were immersed in the substrate to simulate the sowing depths. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications. The data were submitted to analysis of variance and the means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability of error. The germination tests were carried out, first count, seedling emergence on trays, dry mass and weight of a thousand seeds. The seeding depth for the initial development best suited for Amaranthus is up to 1.5 cm, and quinoa to 2.5 cm.  

  16. Antifungal sourdough lactic acid bacteria as biopreservation tool in quinoa and rice bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axel, Claudia; Brosnan, Brid; Zannini, Emanuele; Furey, Ambrose; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-12-19

    The use of sourdough fermented with specific strains of antifungal lactic acid bacteria can reduce chemical preservatives in bakery products. The main objective of this study was to investigate the production of antifungal carboxylic acids after sourdough fermentation of quinoa and rice flour using the antifungal strains Lactobacillus reuteri R29 and Lactobacillus brevis R2Δ as bioprotective cultures and the non-antifungal L. brevis L1105 as a negative control strain. The impact of the fermentation substrate was evaluated in terms of metabolic activity, acidification pattern and quantity of antifungal carboxylic acids. These in situ produced compounds (n=20) were extracted from the sourdough using a QuEChERS method and detected by a new UHPLC-MS/MS chromatography. Furthermore, the sourdough was applied in situ using durability tests against environmental moulds to investigate the biopreservative potential to prolong the shelf life of bread. Organic acid production and TTA values were lowest in rice sourdough. The sourdough fermentation of the different flour substrates generated a complex and significantly different profile of carboxylic acids. Extracted quinoa sourdough detected the greatest number of carboxylic acids (n=11) at a much higher concentration than what was detected from rice sourdough (n=9). Comparing the lactic acid bacteria strains, L. reuteri R29 fermented sourdoughs contained generally higher concentrations of acetic and lactic acid but also the carboxylic acids. Among them, 3-phenyllactic acid and 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid were present at a significant concentration. This was correlated with the superior protein content of quinoa flour and its high protease activity. With the addition of L. reuteri R29 inoculated sourdough, the shelf life was extended by 2 days for quinoa (+100%) and rice bread (+67%) when compared to the non-acidified controls. The L. brevis R2Δ fermented sourdough bread reached a shelf life of 4 days for quinoa (+100%) and

  17. Single-molecule sequencing and Hi-C-based proximity-guided assembly of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) chromosomes provide insights into genome evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Lightfoot, D. J.

    2017-08-29

    Background: Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) was a food staple among the ancient civilizations of Central and South America that has recently received increased attention due to the high nutritional value of the seeds, with the potential to help alleviate malnutrition and food security concerns, particularly in arid and semiarid regions of the developing world. Here, we present a reference-quality assembly of the amaranth genome which will assist the agronomic development of the species.

  18. Simulation of the effect of maize porridge fortified with grain amaranth or micronutrient powder containing NaFeEDTA on iron intake and status in Kenyan children

    OpenAIRE

    Macharia-Mutie, C.W.; Omusundi, A.M.; Mwai, J.M.; Mwangi, A.M.; Brouwer, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Simulating the probable impact of grain amaranth and highly absorbable, low-Fe micronutrient powder (MNP) on Fe status in a potential target population is an essential step in choosing and developing an appropriate actual intervention. Design: We simulated the potential effect of fortifying maize porridge with grain amaranth or MNP on the prevalence of inadequate Fe intake and Fe deficiency using data from two cross-sectional surveys. In the first survey (2008), dietary intake data...

  19. Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) by a liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2011-10-26

    A new liquid chromatography methodology coupled to a diode array detector and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer has been developed for the simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd). This method has allowed the simultaneous determination of these two families of compounds with the same analytical method for the first time. A fused-core column C18 has been used, and the analysis has been performed in less than 27 min. Both chromatographic and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry parameters have been optimized to improve the sensitivity and to maximize the number of compounds detected. A validation of the method has also been carried out, and free and bound polar fractions of quinoa have been studied. Twenty-five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the free polar fraction, while five compounds have been tentatively identified and quantified in the bound polar fraction. It is important to highlight that 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucoside, acacetin, protocatechuic acid 4-O-glucoside, penstebioside, ethyl-m-digallate, (epi)-gallocatechin, and canthoside have been tentatively identified for the first time in quinoa. Free phenolic compounds have been found to be in the range of 2.746-3.803 g/kg of quinoa, while bound phenolic compounds were present in a concentration that varies from 0.139 and 0.164 g/kg. Indeed, saponins have been found to be in a concentration that ranged from 5.6 to 7.5% of the total composition of whole quinoa flour.

  20. Determination and Safety Assessment of Residual Spirotetramat and Its Metabolites in Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) and Soil by Liquid Chromatography Triple-Quadrupole Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Jun; Meng, Zhi-Yuan; Ren, Li; Song, Yue-Yi; Ren, Ya-Jun; Chen, Jian-Shu; Guan, Ling-Jun

    2017-10-05

    With the purpose of guaranteeing the safe use of spirotetramat and preventing its potential health threats toconsumers, a QuEChERS extraction method coupled with LC triple-quadrupole tandem MS was applied in this study to determine residual spirotetramat metabolites in different tissues of amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor) and in soil. The results indicate that the spirotetramat degraded into different types of metabolites that were located in different tissues of amaranth and in soil. B-keto, B-glu, and B-enol were the three most representative degradation products in the leaf of amaranth, and B-glu and B-enol were the two major degradation products found in the stem of amaranth; however, only B-enol was detected in the root of amaranth. B-keto and B-mono were the two products detected in the soil in which the amaranth grew. The cytotoxicity results demonstrate that spirotetramat and its metabolite B-enol inhibited cellular growth, and the toxicity of spirotetramat and its metabolite B-enol exceeded than that of the metabolites B-keto, B-mono, and B-glu. This investigation is of great significance to the safe use of spirotetramat in agriculture.

  1. Effect of malting conditions on phenolic content, Maillard reaction products formation, and antioxidant activity of quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Dimitrov, Krasimir; Galván D Alessandro, Leandro

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the effect of malting process on the antioxidant compounds and antioxidant capacity of quinoa seeds was studied. The optimal germination conditions were germination temperature of 23 °C, degree of steeping of 36% and germination time of 3 days. Under these conditions, green quinoa malt was obtained and subsequently roasted at different temperatures (100-190 °C). Results showed maximum increases in phenolic compounds, Maillard reaction products and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power) in samples roasted at 145 °C for 30 min, whereas a more intensive thermal treatment (190 °C) diminished the levels of all evaluated variables. Thus, malting with a moderate thermal treatment could be considered as an effective process to enrich antioxidants in quinoa grains for their further use as functional ingredient in the production of gluten-free foods and beverages.

  2. Characterization of the genome of a phylogenetically distinct tospovirus and its interactions with the local lesion-induced host Chenopodium quinoa by whole-transcriptome analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chen Chou

    Full Text Available Chenopodium quinoa is a natural local lesion host of numerous plant viruses, including tospoviruses (family Bunyaviridae. Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot tospovirus (GCFSV has been shown to consistently induce local lesions on the leaves of C. quinoa 4 days post-inoculation (dpi. To reveal the whole genome of GCFSV and its interactions with C. quinoa, RNA-seq was performed to determine the transcriptome profiles of C. quinoa leaves. The high-throughput reads from infected C. quinoa leaves were used to identify the whole genome sequence of GCFSV and its single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our results indicated that GCFSV is a phylogenetically distinct tospovirus. Moreover, 27,170 coding and 29,563 non-coding sequences of C. quinoa were identified through de novo assembly, mixing reads from mock and infected samples. Several key genes involved in the modulation of hypersensitive response (HR were identified. The expression levels of 4,893 deduced complete genes annotated using the Arabidopsis genome indicated that several HR-related orthologues of pathogenesis-related proteins, transcription factors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and defense proteins were significantly expressed in leaves that formed local lesions. Here, we also provide new insights into the replication progression of a tospovirus and the molecular regulation of the C. quinoa response to virus infection.

  3. Characterization of the genome of a phylogenetically distinct tospovirus and its interactions with the local lesion-induced host Chenopodium quinoa by whole-transcriptome analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wan-Chen; Lin, Shih-Shun; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Li, Siang-Ling; Peng, Ying-Che; Fan, Ya-Hsu; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa is a natural local lesion host of numerous plant viruses, including tospoviruses (family Bunyaviridae). Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot tospovirus (GCFSV) has been shown to consistently induce local lesions on the leaves of C. quinoa 4 days post-inoculation (dpi). To reveal the whole genome of GCFSV and its interactions with C. quinoa, RNA-seq was performed to determine the transcriptome profiles of C. quinoa leaves. The high-throughput reads from infected C. quinoa leaves were used to identify the whole genome sequence of GCFSV and its single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our results indicated that GCFSV is a phylogenetically distinct tospovirus. Moreover, 27,170 coding and 29,563 non-coding sequences of C. quinoa were identified through de novo assembly, mixing reads from mock and infected samples. Several key genes involved in the modulation of hypersensitive response (HR) were identified. The expression levels of 4,893 deduced complete genes annotated using the Arabidopsis genome indicated that several HR-related orthologues of pathogenesis-related proteins, transcription factors, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and defense proteins were significantly expressed in leaves that formed local lesions. Here, we also provide new insights into the replication progression of a tospovirus and the molecular regulation of the C. quinoa response to virus infection.

  4. Decoloration of Amaranth by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Part I. Statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavril, Mihaela; Hodson, Peter V; McLellan, Jim

    2007-02-01

    The white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor decolorized the mono-azo-substituted naphthalenic dye Amaranth. The relationship between the amount of enzymes present in the system and the efficiency of the decoloration process was investigated. The two responses used to quantify the process of decoloration (i.e., initial decoloration rate, v0, and the percent concentration of dye decolorized in 1 h, %c) were correlated with the amount of three enzymes considered for the study (lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and laccase) and analyzed through stepwise regression analysis (forward, backward, and mixed). The results of the correlation analysis and those of the regression analysis indicated that lignin peroxidase is the enzyme having the greatest influence on the two responses.

  5. Efficient Adsorptive Removal of Toxic Amaranth Dye from Water using a Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Lin, Kun-Yi; Wu, Chang-Husan

    2017-06-09

    Adsorbents reported to remove a toxic acidic azo dye, Amaranth (AMR) are very limited, and their typical adsorption capacities are quite low. Recently, a zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) has been proposed as a novel adsorbent as ZIF-67 possesses high surface area, superior chemical stability in water and positive charges, making it a promising adsorbent for AMR. Nevertheless, no studies have been conducted to investigate the adsorption of AMR to ZIF-67. Herein, ZIF-67 is employed for the first time to remove AMR from water via adsorption. Adsorption behaviors are investigated via determining the adsorption kinetics and isotherm. ZIF-67 also exhibits a significant higher maximum adsorption capacity (qmax = 121 mg g-1 at 30 °C) than most of the reported adsorbents. ZIF-67 can be also regenerated by washing it with NaCl solutions and the regeneration efficiency remains effective over multiple cycles, demonstrating that ZIF-67 is a promising adsorbent for AMR.

  6. Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies of amaranth dye biosorption from aqueous solution onto water hyacinth leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Coronilla, Imelda; Morales-Barrera, Liliana; Cristiani-Urbina, Eliseo

    2015-04-01

    The present study explored the kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamics of amaranth (acid red 27) anionic dye (AD) biosorption to water hyacinth leaves (LEC). The effect of LEC particle size, contact time, solution pH, initial AD concentration and temperature on AD biosorption was studied in batch experiments. AD biosorption increased with rising contact time and initial AD concentration, and with decreasing LEC particle size and solution pH. Pseudo-second-order chemical reaction kinetics provided the best correlation for the experimental data. Isotherm studies showed that the biosorption of AD onto LEC closely follows the Langmuir isotherm, with a maximum biosorption capacity of about 70 mg g(-1). The thermodynamic parameters confirm that AD biosorption by LEC is non-spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Results indicate that LEC is a strong biosorbent capable of effective detoxification of AD-laden wastewaters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbial community development of biofilm in Amaranth decolourization technology analysed by FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belouhova, Mihaela; Schneider, Irina; Chakarov, Stoyan; Ivanova, Iliana; Topalova, Yana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the role, the space distribution and the relationships of the bacteria from the genus Pseudomonas in a biofilm community during semi-continuous Amaranth decolourization process in model sand biofilters. The examined parameters of the process were as follows: technological parameters; key enzyme activities (azoreductase, succinate dehydrogenase, catechol-1,2-dioxygenase, catechol-2,3-dioxygenase); the number of azo-degrading bacteria and the bacteria from genus Pseudomonas (plate count technique); the amount and the location of Pseudomonas sp. using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The results showed that the increase of the Amaranth removal rate with 120% was accompanied with increase of the enzyme activities of the biofilm (azoreductase activity – with 25.90% and succinate dehydrogenase – with 10.61%). The enzyme assays showed absence of activity for сatechol-1,2-dioxygenase and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase at the early phase and high activities of the same oxygenases at the late phase (2.76 and 1.74 μmol/min mg protein, respectively). In the beginning of the process (0–191 h), the number of the culturable microorganisms from genus Pseudomonas was increased with 48.76% but at the late phase (191–455 h) they were decreased with 15.25% while the quantity of the non-culturable bacteria from this genus with synergetic relationships was increased with 23.26%. The dominant microbial factors were identified in the structure of the biofilm during the azo-degradation process by using FISH analysis. Furthermore, the inner mechanisms for increase of the rate and the range of the detoxification were revealed during the complex wastewater treatment processes. PMID:26019551

  8. Cytogenetic evaluation and DNA interaction studies of the food colorants amaranth, erythrosine and tartrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpountoukas, Panagiotis; Pantazaki, Anastasia; Kostareli, Efterpi; Christodoulou, Pantelitsa; Kareli, Dimitra; Poliliou, Stamatia; Mourelatos, Costas; Lambropoulou, Vasso; Lialiaris, Theodore

    2010-10-01

    Food coloring agents, amaranth, erythrosine and tartrazine have been tested at 0.02-8mM in human peripheral blood cells in vitro, in order to investigate their genotoxic, cytotoxic and cytostatic potential. Amaranth at the highest concentration (8mM) demonstrates high genotoxicity, cytostaticity and cytotoxicity. The frequency of SCEs/cell was increased 1.7 times over the control level. Additionally, erythrosine at 8, 4 and 2mM shows a high cytotoxicity and cytostaticity. Finally, tartrazine seems to be toxic at 8 and 4mM. No signs of genotoxicity were observed. Reversely, tartrazine showed cytotoxicity at 1 and 2mM. Furthermore, spectroscopic titration studies for the interaction of these food additives with DNA showed that these dyes bind to calf thymus DNA and distinct isosbestic points are observed clearly suggesting binding of the dyes to DNA. Additionally DNA electrophoretic mobility experiments showed that these colorants are obviously capable for strong binding to linear dsDNA causing its degradation. PCR amplification of all DNA fragments (which previously were pre-treated with three different concentrations of the colorants, extracted from agarose gel after separation and then purified), seems to be attenuated with a manner dye concentration-dependent reflecting in a delayed electrophoretic mobility due to the possible binding of some molecules of the dyes. Evaluation of the data and curves were obtained after quantitative and qualitative analysis of the lanes of the gel by an analyzer computer program. Our results indicate that these food colorants had a toxic potential to human lymphocytes in vitro and it seems that they bind directly to DNA. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Semiconductor-mediated photocatalysed degradation of two selected azo dye derivatives, amaranth and bismarck brown in aqueous suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, M Abu; Faisal, M; Muneer, M

    2005-12-09

    Semiconductor-mediated photocatalysed degradation of two selected azo dye derivatives such as amaranth (1) and bismarck brown (2) has been investigated in aqueous suspension by monitoring the change in substrate concentration employing UV spectroscopic analysis technique as a function of irradiation time. The degradation was studied under different conditions such as types of TiO(2), pH, substrate concentration, catalyst concentration, and in the presence of electron acceptors such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), potassium bromate (KBrO(3)) and ammonium persulphate (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8) besides air. The degradation rates were found to be strongly influenced by all the above parameters. The photocatalyst Degussa P25 showed comparatively highest photocatalytic activity. The dye derivative, bismarck brown (2) was found to degrade faster than amaranth dye (1).

  10. Influence of Amaranth dye concentration on the efficiency of hybrid system of photocatalytic fuel cell and Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Noradiba; Ho, Li-Ngee; Ong, Soon-An; Ibrahim, Abdul Haqi; Wong, Yee-Shian; Lee, Sin-Li; Oon, Yoong-Sin; Oon, Yoong-Ling

    2017-10-01

    A novel sustainable hybrid system of photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) and Fenton process is an alternative wastewater treatment technology for energy-saving and efficient treatment of organic pollutants. The electrons generated from PFC photoanode are used to produce H2O2 in the Fenton reactor and react with the in situ generation of Fe2+ from sacrificial iron for hydroxyl radical formation. In this study, the effect of different initial Amaranth dye concentrations on degradation and electricity generation were investigated. ZnO/Zn photoanode was prepared by anodizing method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results revealed that the maximum power density (9.53 mW/m2) and current density (0.0178 mA/m2) were achieved at 10 mg/L of Amaranth. The correlation between dye degradation, voltage output, and kinetic photocatalytic degradation were also investigated and discussed.

  11. Effects of drying temperature and relative humidity on the mechanical properties of amaranth flour films plasticized with glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tapia-Blácido

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are made of biopolymers. In the casting technique, biofilms are obtained by the drying of a polymer suspension in the final stage of processing. The aim of the present paper was to analyze the effect of this drying process on the mechanical properties of films produced with amaranth flour. Variables considered include glycerol content (30, 35 and 40%, g/g dry flour and air-drying conditions (air temperatures of 30, 40 and 50ºC and relative humidities of 40, 55 and 70%. As amaranth flour films constitute a complex mixture of amylopectin and amylose as well as native protein and lipid, certain unexpected results were obtained. The toughest films were obtained at the lowest temperature and the lowest relative humidity (30ºC, 40%.

  12. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Aluminium-Induced Organic Acid Anion Secretion from Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Xu, Jia-Meng; Lou, He-Qiang; Xiao, Chuan; Chen, Wei-Wei; Yang, Jian-Li

    2016-01-01

    Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.) is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (Al) stress. However, the features of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (OA) and potential genes responsible for OA secretion are poorly understood. Here, Al-induced OA secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) together with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to identify up-regulated genes that are potentially involved in OA secretion. The results showed that grain amaranth roots secrete both oxalate and citrate in response to Al stress. The secretion pattern, however, differs between oxalate and citrate. Neither lanthanum chloride (La) nor cadmium chloride (Cd) induced OA secretion. A total of 84 genes were identified as up-regulated by Al, in which six genes were considered as being potentially involved in OA secretion. The expression pattern of a gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, AhMATE1, was in close agreement with that of citrate secretion. The expression of a gene encoding tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter and four genes encoding ATP-binding cassette transporters was differentially regulated by Al stress, but the expression pattern was not correlated well with that of oxalate secretion. Our results not only reveal the secretion pattern of oxalate and citrate from grain amaranth roots under Al stress, but also provide some genetic information that will be useful for further characterization of genes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms. PMID:27144562

  13. Effect of salt stress on growth and physiology in amaranth and lettuce: Implications for bioregenerative life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lifeng; Guo, Shuangsheng; Ai, Weidang; Tang, Yongkang; Cheng, Quanyong; Chen, Guang

    2013-02-01

    Growing plants can be used to clean waste water in bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). However, NaCl contained in the human urine always restricts plant growth and further reduces the degree of mass cycle closure of the system (i.e. salt stress). This work determined the effect of NaCl stress on physiological characteristics of plants for the life support system. Amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L. var. Huahong) and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Luoma) were cultivated at nutrient solutions with different NaCl contents (0, 1000, 5000 and 10,000 ppm, respectively) for 10 to 18 days after planted in the Controlled Ecological Life Support System Experimental Facility in China. Results showed that the two plants have different responses to the salt stress. The amaranth showed higher salt-tolerance with NaCl stress. If NaCl content in the solution is below 5000 ppm, the salt stress effect is insignificant on above-ground biomass output, leaf photosynthesis rate, Fv/Fm, photosynthesis pigment contents, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and inducing lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, the lettuce is sensitive to NaCl which significantly decreases those indices of growth and physiology. Notably, the lettuce remains high productivity of edible biomass in low NaCl stress, although its salt-tolerant limitation is lower than amaranth. Therefore, we recommended that amaranth could be cultivated under a higher NaCl stress condition (<5000 ppm) for NaCl recycle while lettuce should be under a lower NaCl stress (<1000 ppm) for water cleaning in future BLSS.

  14. Enhanced Accumulation of Copper and Lead in Amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea) and Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Motior M.; Azirun, Sofian M.; Boyce, Amru N.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plants were grown in a...

  15. Bioactive Compound From Mangoes Leaves Extract as Potential Soil Bioherbicide to Control Amaranth Weed (Amaranthus Spinosus Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    Syahri, Rifauldin; Widaryanto, Eko; Wicaksono, Karuniawan Puji

    2017-01-01

    Bioherbicide is important approach for sustainable farming practices. One of plant that has potentially as bioherbicide, which is environmentally safe, is mango. Mango leaf extract is useful as bioherbicide because it produces allelochemical compounds, which could inhibit the weed growth. This research was designed to study the effect of several mangoes species leaves extract to control dominant weed (amaranth). Split plot design was implemented using mango species (S) as the main plot; S1 (M...

  16. Bioactive compound from mangoes leaves extract as potential soil bioherbicide to control amaranth weed (Amaranthus spinosus Linn.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rifauldin Syahri; Eko Widaryanto; Karuniawan Puji Wicaksono

    2017-01-01

    Bioherbicide is important approach for sustainable farming practices. One of plant that has potentially as bioherbicide, which is environmentally safe, is mango. Mango leaf extract is useful as bioherbicide because it produces allelochemical compounds, which could inhibit the weed growth. This research was designed to study the effect of several mangoes species leaves extract to control dominant weed (amaranth). Split plot design was implemented using mango species (S) as the main plot; S1 (M...

  17. Physiological and Molecular Analysis of Aluminium-Induced Organic Acid Anion Secretion from Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. is abundant in oxalate and can secrete oxalate under aluminium (Al stress. However, the features of Al-induced secretion of organic acid anions (OA and potential genes responsible for OA secretion are poorly understood. Here, Al-induced OA secretion in grain amaranth roots was characterized by ion charomatography and enzymology methods, and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH together with quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR was used to identify up-regulated genes that are potentially involved in OA secretion. The results showed that grain amaranth roots secrete both oxalate and citrate in response to Al stress. The secretion pattern, however, differs between oxalate and citrate. Neither lanthanum chloride (La nor cadmium chloride (Cd induced OA secretion. A total of 84 genes were identified as up-regulated by Al, in which six genes were considered as being potentially involved in OA secretion. The expression pattern of a gene belonging to multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE family, AhMATE1, was in close agreement with that of citrate secretion. The expression of a gene encoding tonoplast dicarboxylate transporter and four genes encoding ATP-binding cassette transporters was differentially regulated by Al stress, but the expression pattern was not correlated well with that of oxalate secretion. Our results not only reveal the secretion pattern of oxalate and citrate from grain amaranth roots under Al stress, but also provide some genetic information that will be useful for further characterization of genes involved in Al toxicity and tolerance mechanisms.

  18. Micellar aggregates of saponins from Chenopodium quinoa: characterization by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, S G; de Resende, P E; Kaiser, S; Quirici, L; Teixeira, H F; Gosmann, G; Ferreira, F; Ortega, G G

    2012-04-01

    Entire seeds of Chenopodium quinoa Willd are a rich protein source and are also well-known for their high saponin content. Due to their amphiphily quinoa saponins are able to form intricate micellar aggregates in aqueous media. In this paper we study the aggregates formed by self-association of these compounds from two quinoa saponin fractions (FQ70 and FQ90) as well as several distinctive nanostructures obtained after their complexation with different ratios of cholesterol (CHOL) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The FQ70 and FQ90 fractions were obtained by reversed-phase preparative chromatography. The structural features of their resulting aggregates were determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Novel nanosized spherical vesicles formed by self-association with mean diameter about 100-200 nm were observed in FQ70 aqueous solutions whereas worm-like micelles an approximate width of 20 nm were detected in FQ90 aqueous solutions. Under experimental conditions similar to those reported for the preparation of Quillaja saponaria ISCOM matrices, tubular and ring-like micelles arose from FQ70:CHOL:PC and FQ90:CHOL:PC formulations, respectively. However, under these conditions no cage-like ISCOM matrices were observed. The saponin composition of FQ70 and FQ90 seems to determine the nanosized structures viewed by TEM. Phytolaccagenic acid, predominant in FQ70 and FQ90 fractions, is accountable for the formation of the nanosized vesicles and tubular structures observed by TEM in the aqueous solutions of both samples. Conversely, ring-like micelles observed in FQ90:CHOL:PC complexes can be attributed to the presence of less polar saponins present in FQ90, in particular those derived from oleanolic acid.

  19. Variation in Yield Responses to Elevated CO2 and a Brief High Temperature Treatment in Quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, James A.

    2017-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in crop responses to global climate change conditions would provide opportunities to adapt crops to future climates. These experiments explored intraspecific variation in response to elevated CO2 and to high temperature during anthesis in Chenopodium quinoa Wild. Three cultivars of quinoa were grown to maturity at 400 (“ambient”) and 600 (“elevated”) μmol·mol−1 CO2 concentrations at 20/14 °C day/night (“control”) temperatures, with or without exposure to day/night temperatures of 35/29 °C (“high” temperatures) for seven days during anthesis. At control temperatures, the elevated CO2 concentration increased the total aboveground dry mass at maturity similarly in all cultivars, but by only about 10%. A large down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated CO2 occurred during grain filling. In contrast to shoot mass, the increase in seed dry mass at elevated CO2 ranged from 12% to 44% among cultivars at the control temperature. At ambient CO2, the week-long high temperature treatment greatly decreased (0.30 × control) or increased (1.70 × control) seed yield, depending on the cultivar. At elevated CO2, the high temperature treatment increased seed yield moderately in all cultivars. These quinoa cultivars had a wide range of responses to both elevated CO2 and to high temperatures during anthesis, and much more variation in harvest index responses to elevated CO2 than other crops that have been examined. PMID:28678208

  20. Partial Fat Replacement by Boiled Quinoa on the Quality Characteristics of a Dry-Cured Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Diez, Ana; Caro, Irma; Castro, Amaya; Salvá, Bettit K; Ramos, Daphne D; Mateo, Javier

    2016-08-01

    Different approaches have been previously studied in order to reduce the fat content of dry-cured sausages. Among them, the use of polysaccharides, such as fiber, gums, or starch, have been proposed for fat replacing. Although scarcely studied, it is likely that starchy grains and vegetables might also be used as potential fat replacers in those sausages. Quinua is a starchy seed with high nutritive value, which contains substances of technological interest in dry-cured manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of replacing fat by quinoa on the quality characteristics of a small diameter dry-cured sausage. Three types of sausages were prepared: a control (C; no fat replacement; 30% of pork back-fat), a quinoa half-fat (50% of fat replacement; 15% of pork back-fat), and a quinoa low-fat (LF; 85% of fat replacement; 4.5% of pork back-fat) sausage. Sausages were analyzed for proximate and microbial composition, volatile compounds, and instrumental texture and color. Descriptive and hedonic sensory analyses were also performed. Fat reduction resulted in higher aw , protein content, hardness, chewiness and redness values and spice-derived volatile levels, and in lower cohesiveness values (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the descriptive sensory analysis showed a higher pungent flavor and lower juiciness in LF sausages than in C sausages (P < 0.05). In spite of those differences, fat reduction did not result in a decreased overall acceptance of the sausages by consumers. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Utilização de farinha de soja (Glycine max e de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa no preparo de macarrão caseiro sem glúten
    Using of soy bean (Glycine max and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa fl our to make homemade pasta without gluten

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    P. KIRINUS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Sabendo da reduzida disponibilidade de produtos específi cos e indispensáveis para a melhoria da qualidade de vida de pacientes celíacos, este trabalho teve como objetivo elaborar dois tipos de massa para macarrão caseiro como alternativa alimentar para indivíduos que apresentam restrição ao consumo de glúten. Os macarrões foram elaborados por meio das seguintes etapas: homogeneização parcial, hidratação, amassamento e moldagem da massa, seccionamento em macarrão tipo talharim e cozimento em água e sal. Para realização da análise sensorial, participaram 40 provadores não treinados e não portadores de doença celíaca, os quais receberam três amostras de macarrão de farinha de trigo, macarrão de soja e macarrão de quinoa. A massa elaborada com farinha de soja foi mais bem aceita do que a elaborada com farinha de quinoa, podendo então ser sugerida como alternativa para a não privação de alimentos à base de glúten. Com o presente estudo, pôde-se concluir que existe a viabilidade de elaboração de macarrão caseiro do tipo talharim com farinha de soja ou de quinoa. Contudo, a massa elaborada com farinha de soja sugere características sensoriais mais promissoras.

  2. Variation in Yield Responses to Elevated CO2 and a Brief High Temperature Treatment in Quinoa

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    James A. Bunce

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific variation in crop responses to global climate change conditions would provide opportunities to adapt crops to future climates. These experiments explored intraspecific variation in response to elevated CO2 and to high temperature during anthesis in Chenopodium quinoa Wild. Three cultivars of quinoa were grown to maturity at 400 (“ambient” and 600 (“elevated” μmol·mol−1 CO2 concentrations at 20/14 °C day/night (“control” temperatures, with or without exposure to day/night temperatures of 35/29 °C (“high” temperatures for seven days during anthesis. At control temperatures, the elevated CO2 concentration increased the total aboveground dry mass at maturity similarly in all cultivars, but by only about 10%. A large down-regulation of photosynthesis at elevated CO2 occurred during grain filling. In contrast to shoot mass, the increase in seed dry mass at elevated CO2 ranged from 12% to 44% among cultivars at the control temperature. At ambient CO2, the week-long high temperature treatment greatly decreased (0.30 × control or increased (1.70 × control seed yield, depending on the cultivar. At elevated CO2, the high temperature treatment increased seed yield moderately in all cultivars. These quinoa cultivars had a wide range of responses to both elevated CO2 and to high temperatures during anthesis, and much more variation in harvest index responses to elevated CO2 than other crops that have been examined.

  3. EFECTO DE LA GERMINACIÓN SOBRE EL CONTENIDO Y DIGESTIBILIDAD DE PROTEÍNA EN SEMILLAS DE AMARANTO, QUINUA, SOYA Y GUANDUL EFEITO DA GERMINAÇÃO SOBRE O CONTEÚDO E DIGESTIBILIDADE DE PROTEÍNAS EM SEMENTES DE AMARANTO, QUINUA, SOJA E GUANDUL EFFECT OF THE GERMINATION ON THE PROTEIN CONTENT AND DIGESTIBILITY IN AMARANTH, QUINUA, SOY BEAN AND GUANDUL SEEDS

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    D.C. CHAPARRO ROJAS

    2010-06-01

    definição de variáveis como uso ou não de desinfetante, tipo de substrato, tempo de germinação e temperatura. Aplicaramse um desenho de blocos completos ao azar com três réplicas por día de germinação, para os días zero, um, dois e três; para quantificação de proteínas se empregou Kjeldhal e para digestibilidade in-vitro da proteína, empregou-se digestibilidade de pepsina. O achado permitiu concluir que a germinação induz cãmbios na concentração e digestibilidade da proteína dum jeito particular em cada tipo de sementes; no amaranto e na soja, a germinação gerou um acréscimo significativo no conteúdo de proteína a partir do segundo día, sendo estatisticamente igual nos días zero, um e três de germinação. A germinação melhorou a digestibilidade da proteína, em sementes de quinua, guandul e soja, não gerou mudanças ñas sementes de amaranto.The changes in protein concentration and digestibility were evaluated during the germination in seeds of amaranth Amaranthus sp, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa w, soy bean (Glycinemax and guandul (Cajanus cajan. The seeds used were supplied by Cauca department farmers, assuring the degree one quality and germination percentage over 90%. The method for the obtaining of germinated seeds, was standardized by defining variables such as using or not using disinfectant, substratum type, germination time and temperature. There was applied a complete blocks design at random with three replies for germination day, for the zeros, one, two and three days. There was used Kjeldhal for protein quantification and digestibility in pepsin for digestibility in-vitro. The flndings concluded that germination induces changes in protein concentration and digestibility in a particular way in each type of seeds; in amaranth and soy bean germination generated a significant increase in protein content from the second day of germination and in guandul from the first day; In quinua, it generated a decrease in protein content on

  4. Elevated genetic diversity in an F2:6 population of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) developed through an inter-ecotype cross

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, Ouafae; Boujartani, Noura; Maughan, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    for quantitative and qualitative traits. Impressive transgressive segregation was measured for seed yield (22.42 g/plant), while plant height and maturity had higher heritabilities (73 and 89%, respectively). Other notable characters segregating in the population included panicle and stem color, panicle form......, and resistance to downy mildew. In the Principal Component analysis, the first axis explained 74% of the total variation and was correlated to plant height, panicle size, stem diameter, biomass, mildew reaction, maturation, and seed yield; those traits are relevant discriminatory characters. Yield correlated...... consisting of early to semi-late accessions with low yield and mildew susceptibility. This study highlighted the extended diversity regenerated among the 72 accessions and helped to identify potentially adapted quinoa genotypes for production in the Moroccan coastal environment....

  5. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part one: accomodation of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd. to different conditions

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    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evaluation of selected varieties of Chenopodium quinoa, their requirements were identified; it was shown which varieties demonstrated the best effects in what conditions. It was found that the best varieties for Europe's conditions were E-DK-4-PQCIP and RU-5-PQCIP. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety showed the best effects under the conditions of cluster II which included e.g. Bydgoszcz (Poland and cluster IV which included Southern European countries (Greece and Italy, while the best effects found in RU-5-PQCIP variety were identified in cluster I which included Sweden. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety in cluster II showed a very high yield of green matter and a mean seed yield, and in cluster IV - a very high seed yield and a high yield of green matter.

  6. Optimization of the malting process for nutritional improvement of finger millet and amaranth flours in the infant weaning food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najdi Hejazi, Sara; Orsat, Valérie

    2017-06-01

    Malting is a beneficial approach to improve the nutritional value of cereals used in infant preparations. Malted finger millet and amaranth might be considered as potentially appropriate gluten-free alternatives for common wheat-based weaning products, especially in case of those suffering from celiac disease. In this study, the effects of germination temperature and duration on the main nutrients of malted finger millet and amaranth, are evaluated and optimized. Grains were germinated for 24, 36 and 48 h at 22, 26 and 30 °C. In the case of finger millet, germinating for 48 h at 30 °C resulted into 17% increase in protein availability, 10% increase in total energy and 60% reduction in resistant starch (RS). For amaranth, germinating for 48 h at 26 °C was preferable, resulting in 8% increase in protein availability, 11% increase in total energy, 70% reduction in RS and a 10% increase in the linoleic acid.

  7. Influence of Priming Duration on the Performance of Amaranths (Amaranthus cruentus L. in Sokoto Semiarid Zone of Nigeria

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    Mukhtar Musa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two field trials were conducted during the 2012 cropping season at the Fruits and Vegetable Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, Usman Danfodiyo University, Sokoto (located on latitude 14∘N-15∘N and longitude 4∘-5∘, to evaluate the effect of priming duration on the growth and yield of amaranth. Treatments consisted of four priming durations (2, 4, 6, and 8 hours and control (where no priming was applied. The treatments were laid out in a completely randomized design (CRD replicated three times for the germination test and randomized complete block design (RCBD for the field trial. Data were collected on days to 50% germination, percentage germination, days to 50% emergence, and percentage emergence. Results revealed significant effect of priming duration on days to 50% germination, percentage germination, and days to 50% emergence. Soaking seeds for 2 hours reduced the number of days to 50% germination and emergence and also recorded higher germination. Thus, from the findings of this study, it could be concluded that priming amaranth seeds for 2 hours could be applied to enhance amaranth production.

  8. Spinach or amaranth may represent highest residue of thiophanate-methyl with open field application on six leaf vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Sufang; Zhao, Pengyue; Zhang, Fengzu; Yu, Chuanshan; Pan, Canping

    2013-04-01

    To select representative crop among leaf vegetables which may contain the highest residue after fungicide uses, open field applications with thiophanate-methyl on six crops including pakchoi, rape, crown daisy, amaranth, spinach and lettuce were designed and conducted. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry with selected reaction monitoring was used to simultaneously determine thiophanate methyl and its metabolite carbendazim residue in various samples. The limit of quantification for thiophanate methyl and carbendazim were established in the range of 0.005-0.01 mg kg(-1) for all samples. It was shown that recoveries ranged from 67.8 % to 102.3 % for thiophanate methyl, and 72.0 %-112.6 % for carbendazim at spiked levels of 0.01-0.1 mg kg(-1). It's found that thiophanate methyl converts to carbendazim very quickly. In supervised field trials, the half-lives of thiophanate methyl in six leaf vegetables were in the range of 1.26-2.65 days, and the half-lives of carbendazim were in the range of 2.53-4.28 days. It was also found that thiophanate methyl residue in spinach and amaranth was higher than others after application. It's recommended that spinach or amaranth can be selected as representative crop in leaf vegetables in study of systemic fungicides with similarity as thiophanate methyl.

  9. Bioactive compound from mangoes leaves extract as potential soil bioherbicide to control amaranth weed (Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

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    Rifauldin Syahri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioherbicide is important approach for sustainable farming practices. One of plant that has potentially as bioherbicide, which is environmentally safe, is mango. Mango leaf extract is useful as bioherbicide because it produces allelochemical compounds, which could inhibit the weed growth. This research was designed to study the effect of several mangoes species leaves extract to control dominant weed (amaranth. Split plot design was implemented using mango species (S as the main plot; S1 (Mangifera odorata Griff., S2 (Mangifera foetida Lour and S3 (Mangifera indica L.. While the sub plots were concentrations of mango’s leaf extract (K, that included 0, 500, 1000, 1500, and 2000 ppm. Results of the research showed that all parameters of weed growth (amaranth were inhibited along with the increase of concentration of the mango’s leaf extract. The results also showed the significant inhibition of amaranth’s dry weight. Among three species of mangoes, M. indica L. showed the best inhibition mechanism to the amaranth weed, which significantly suppressed the weed growth on just 1000 ppm concentration.

  10. Possibilities in the International Trade of Quinoa: An Analysis from the Perspective of Competitiveness

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    Lucy Andrea Cely Torres

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the role and importance of the production and marketing of quinoa in the international market, due to the immense possibilities of processing it into finished products and the benefits offered by this crop. In the light of theoretical references such as competitiveness and competitive advantages, it was possible to carry out a descriptive study which evidenced the importance of this issue in exports realized mainly by countries like Bolivia and Peru, and imports from the EU and Asia. Thus, Andean countries could play an important role if they take advantage of their traditions and turn them into business and welfare opportunities for the world population.

  11. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro, Isabel [Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, 02800 Antofagasta (Chile); Gómez-Gómez, Milagros [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo [Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, 02800 Antofagasta (Chile); Palacios, M. Antonia, E-mail: palacor@ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017–0.021 μg As person{sup −1} day{sup −1}) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50 μg As person{sup −1} day

  12. AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR QUINOA (BRS SYETETUBA CROP IN THE BRAZILIAN SAVANNAH DESEMPENHO AGRONÔMICO E RECOMENDAÇÕES PARA CULTIVO DE QUINOA (BRS SYETETUBA NO CERRADO

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    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., native to the South American Andes, has been adapted for cultivation in Brazil, via progeny selection. Originating from the Q4 population, from Ecuadorian valleys, Q4.5 has shown outstanding performance. During the trials, it was standardized for agronomic traits and named BRS Syetetuba. In the summer and winter, it reached 2.3 t ha-1 and 7.5 t ha-1, respectively for grain and biomass yield, in 120 days, from emergence to maturity. These results were higher than those reached by the BRS Piabiru and Kancolla check cultivars. The grains are saponin-free and have a mean weight of 2.9 g 1000-1. The results reveal that the BRS Syetetuba meets the desirable characteristics for commercial yield in Brazil.

    KEY-WORDS: Chenopodium quinoa; grain weight; biomass; plant height.A Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., originária dos Andes, tem sido adaptada ao cultivo no Brasil, via seleção de progênies. Entre as progênies avaliadas, tem-se destacado a Q4.5, proveniente da população Q4, originária dos vales equatorianos. O genótipo foi uniformizado em suas características agronômicas, recebendo o nome de BRS Syetetuba. Em experimentos de verão e entressafra, apresentou rendimentos de 2,3 t ha-1 de grãos e 7,5 t ha-1 de biomassa total, em 120 dias, da emergência à maturação. Estes resultados superaram aqueles alcançados pelas cultivares padrões BRS Piabiru e Kancolla. Os grãos são livres de saponina e têm peso médio de 2,9 g 1000-1. Os resultados indicam que a BRS Syetetuba reúne características favoráveis para desencadear a produção comercial de quinoa no Brasil.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Chenopodium quinoa; peso de grãos; biomassa; altura de planta.

  13. Variation in salinity tolerance of four lowland genotypes of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as assessed by growth, physiological traits, and sodium transporter gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Carrasco, Karina; Antognoni, Fabiana; Coulibaly, Amadou Konotie; Lizardi, Susana; Covarrubias, Adriana; Martínez, Enrique A; Molina-Montenegro, Marco A; Biondi, Stefania; Zurita-Silva, Andrés

    2011-11-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (Willd.) is an Andean plant showing a remarkable tolerance to abiotic stresses. In Chile, quinoa populations display a high degree of genetic distancing, and variable tolerance to salinity. To investigate which tolerance mechanisms might account for these differences, four genotypes from coastal central and southern regions were compared for their growth, physiological, and molecular responses to NaCl at seedling stage. Seeds were sown on agar plates supplemented with 0, 150 or 300mM NaCl. Germination was significantly reduced by NaCl only in accession BO78. Shoot length was reduced by 150mM NaCl in three out of four genotypes, and by over 60% at 300mM (except BO78 which remained more similar to controls). Root length was hardly affected or even enhanced at 150mM in all four genotypes, but inhibited, especially in BO78, by 300mM NaCl. Thus, the root/shoot ratio was differentially affected by salt, with the highest values in PRJ, and the lowest in BO78. Biomass was also less affected in PRJ than in the other accessions, the genotype with the highest increment in proline concentration upon salt treatment. Free putrescine declined dramatically in all genotypes under 300mM NaCl; however (spermidine+spermine)/putrescine ratios were higher in PRJ than BO78. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses of two sodium transporter genes, CqSOS1 and CqNHX, revealed that their expression was differentially induced at the shoot and root level, and between genotypes, by 300mM NaCl. Expression data are discussed in relation to the degree of salt tolerance in the different accessions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Low-temperature effect on enzyme activities involved in sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Mariana; Hilal, Mirna; González, Juan A; Prado, Fernando E

    2009-04-01

    The effect of low temperature on growth, sucrose-starch partitioning and related enzymes in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) was studied. The growth of cotyledons and growing axes in seedlings grown at 25/20 degrees C (light/dark) and shifted to 5/5 degrees C was lower than in those only growing at 25/20 degrees C (unstressed). However, there were no significant differences between low-temperature control and salt-treated seedlings. The higher activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS, EC 2.4.1.14) and soluble acid invertase (acid INV, EC 3.2.1.25) were observed in salt-stressed cotyledons; however, the highest acid INV activity was observed in unstressed cotyledons. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-GPPase, EC 2.7.7.27) was higher in unstressed cotyledons than in stressed ones. However, between 0 and 4days the highest value was observed in salt-stressed cotyledons. The lowest value of ADP-GPPase was observed in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Low temperature also affected sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) activity in salt-treated cotyledons. Sucrose and glucose were higher in salt-stressed cotyledons, but fructose was essentially higher in low-temperature control. Starch was higher in low-temperature control; however, the highest content was observed at 0day in salt-acclimated cotyledons. Results demonstrated that low temperature induces different responses on sucrose-starch partitioning in salt-stressed and salt-acclimated cotyledons. Data also suggest that in salt-treated cotyledons source-sink relations (SSR) are changed in order to supply soluble sugars and proline for the osmotic adjustment. Relationships between starch formation and SuSy activity are also discussed.

  15. Amaranth farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Araceli; Kjær, Tyge; Kjærgård, Bente

    2008-01-01

    natural resources that small-scale farmers have to combat the abovementioned problems. The study identified several local and regional barriers for increasing the level of farming, production, processing and consumption. A striking and paradoxical limitation is the monopolization practices developed...

  16. Immunoadjuvant activity, toxicity assays, and determination by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS of triterpenic saponins from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verza, Simone G; Silveira, Fernando; Cibulski, Samuel; Kaiser, Samuel; Ferreira, Fernando; Gosmann, Grace; Roehe, Paulo M; Ortega, George G

    2012-03-28

    The adjuvant activity of Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) saponins on the humoral and cellular immune responses of mice subcutaneously immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) was evaluated. Two quinoa saponin fractions were obtained, FQ70 and FQ90, and 10 saponins were determined by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. Mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA alone or adjuvanted with Quil A (adjuvant control), FQ70, or FQ90. FQ70 and FQ90 significantly enhanced the amount of anti-OVA-specific antibodies in serum (IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b) in immunized mice. The adjuvant effect of FQ70 was significantly greater than that of FQ90. However, delayed type hypersensitivity responses were higher in mice immunized with OVA adjuvanted with FQ90 than mice treated with FQ70. Concanavalin A (Con A)-, lipopolysaccharide-, and OVA-stimulated splenocyte proliferation were measured, and FQ90 significantly enhanced the Con A-induced splenocyte proliferation. The results suggested that the two quinoa saponin fractions enhanced significantly the production of humoral and cellular immune responses to OVA in mice.

  17. Characterization of quinoa seed proteome combining different protein precipitation techniques: Improvement of knowledge of nonmodel plant proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Piovesana, Susy; Stampachiacchiere, Serena; Ventura, Salvatore; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2015-03-01

    A shotgun proteomics approach was used to characterize the quinoa seed proteome. To obtain comprehensive proteomic data from quinoa seeds three different precipitation procedures were employed: MeOH/CHCl3 /double-distilled H2 O, acetone either alone or with trichloroacetic acid; the isolated proteins were then in-solution digested and the resulting peptides were analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. However, since quinoa is a nonmodel plant species, only a few protein sequences are included in the most widely known protein sequence databases. To improve the data reliability a UniProt subdatabase, containing only proteins of Caryophillales order, was used. A total of 352 proteins were identified and evaluated both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. This combined approach is certainly useful to increase the final number of identifications, but no particular class of proteins was extracted and identified in spite of the different chemistries and the different precipitation protocols. However, with respect to the other two procedures, from the relative quantitative analysis, based on the number of spectral counts, the trichloroacetic acid/acetone protocol was the best procedure for sample handling and quantitative protein extraction. This study could pave the way to further high-throughput studies on Chenopodium Quinoa. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Using deficit irrigation with treated wastewater to improve crop water productivity of sweet corn, chickpea, faba bean and quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz HIRICH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several experiments were conducted in the south of Morocco (IAV-CHA, Agadir during two seasons 2010 and 2011 in order to evaluate the effect of deficit irrigation with treated wastewater on several crops (quinoa, sweet corn, faba bean and chickpeas. During the first season (2010 three crops were tested, quinoa, chickpeas and sweet corn applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments during all crop stages alternating 100% of full irrigation as non-stress condition and 50% of full irrigation as water deficit condition applied during vegetative growth, flowering and grain filling stage. For all crops, the highest water productivity and yield were obtained when deficit irrigation was applied during the vegetative growth stage. During the second season (2011 two cultivars of quinoa, faba bean and sweet corn have been cultivated applying 6 deficit irrigation treatments (rainfed, 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of full irrigation only during the vegetative growth stage, while in the rest of crop cycle full irrigation was provided except for rainfed treatment. For quinoa and faba bean, treatment receiving 50% of full irrigation during vegetative growth stage recorded the highest yield and water productivity, while for sweet corn applying 75% of full irrigation was the optimal treatment in terms of yield and water productivity.

  19. Chemical characterization, antioxidant, immune-regulating and anticancer activities of a novel bioactive polysaccharide from Chenopodium quinoa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yichen; Zhang, Jinming; Zou, Liang; Fu, Chaomei; Li, Peng; Zhao, Gang

    2017-06-01

    Chenopodium quinoa, a promising nutraceutical cereal, has attracted increasing research interest, yet its polysaccharides remains to get few systematic studies. In this study, we employed orthogonal experimental design to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction process for highest yield of C. quinoa polysaccharides. A novel C. quinoa polysaccharide (CQP) fraction with high content and low molecular weight (8852Da) was subsequently purified by column chromatography, constituted by galacturonic acid and glucose monosaccharides. The purified CQP exhibited significantly antioxidant effect against DPPH + and ABTS + , with even higher efficiency than some other reported polysaccharides. Moreover, CQP could promote the RAW264.7 macrophage proliferation, while suppress the nitri oxide production on inflammatory RAW264.7 macrophage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In view of the pathological correlation of free radical, inflammation and carcinogenesis, the anticancer effect of CQP was further investigated on human liver cancer SMMC 7721 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, CQP displayed cytotoxicity against cancer cells, while none proliferation inhibition on normal cells. These results suggest that the bioactive polysaccharide from C. quinoa provided the promising potential as a natural antioxidant, immune-regulating and anticancer candidate for food and even drug application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA DIVERSIDAD GENÉTICA DE UNA COLECCIÓN DE QUINUA (Chenopodium quinoa Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA CRUZ MORILLO CORONADO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Quinua (C. quinoa W. is considered a cereal with excellent nutritional properties, including high protein contein, because it has all amino acids, trace elements and significant amounts of vitamins. In Colombia more accurately in the department of Nariño, Cauca, Cundinamarca y Boyacá currently has had a huge boost due to their agronomic potential and different benefits derived from the production, processing and marketing of its products. Therefore, the objective of this research was to characterize the genetic diversity of a collection of 55 materials quinoa with seven microsatellite markers RAMs. The analysis by the coefficient of Nei-Li at the level of similarity of 0,65 divided the population into four groups according the site origin materials. The value of average heterozygosity was 0,34 which is considered low compared to other studied of genetic diversity in Chenopodium. Molecular Analysis of Variance (AMOVA and Fst demonstrate the existence of genetic variability at the intraspecific level. The parameters of genetic diversity found in this study show that the quinoa materials of the Boyacá governance collection are very homogeneous, however the variability that exists must be exploited in the breeding programs of the species leading to the production of new and better quinoa materials.