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Sample records for pseudo-substorm onset events

  1. Detection of Epileptic Seizure Event and Onset Using EEG

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    Ahammad, Nabeel; Fathima, Thasneem; Joseph, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes a method of automatic detection of epileptic seizure event and onset using wavelet based features and certain statistical features without wavelet decomposition. Normal and epileptic EEG signals were classified using linear classifier. For seizure event detection, Bonn University EEG database has been used. Three types of EEG signals (EEG signal recorded from healthy volunteer with eye open, epilepsy patients in the epileptogenic zone during a seizure-free interval, and epilepsy patients during epileptic seizures) were classified. Important features such as energy, entropy, standard deviation, maximum, minimum, and mean at different subbands were computed and classification was done using linear classifier. The performance of classifier was determined in terms of specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy. The overall accuracy was 84.2%. In the case of seizure onset detection, the database used is CHB-MIT scalp EEG database. Along with wavelet based features, interquartile range (IQR) and mean absolute deviation (MAD) without wavelet decomposition were extracted. Latency was used to study the performance of seizure onset detection. Classifier gave a sensitivity of 98.5% with an average latency of 1.76 seconds. PMID:24616892

  2. Detection of Epileptic Seizure Event and Onset Using EEG

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    Nabeel Ahammad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method of automatic detection of epileptic seizure event and onset using wavelet based features and certain statistical features without wavelet decomposition. Normal and epileptic EEG signals were classified using linear classifier. For seizure event detection, Bonn University EEG database has been used. Three types of EEG signals (EEG signal recorded from healthy volunteer with eye open, epilepsy patients in the epileptogenic zone during a seizure-free interval, and epilepsy patients during epileptic seizures were classified. Important features such as energy, entropy, standard deviation, maximum, minimum, and mean at different subbands were computed and classification was done using linear classifier. The performance of classifier was determined in terms of specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy. The overall accuracy was 84.2%. In the case of seizure onset detection, the database used is CHB-MIT scalp EEG database. Along with wavelet based features, interquartile range (IQR and mean absolute deviation (MAD without wavelet decomposition were extracted. Latency was used to study the performance of seizure onset detection. Classifier gave a sensitivity of 98.5% with an average latency of 1.76 seconds.

  3. Brightening of onset arc precedes the dipolarization onset: THEMIS observations of two events on 1 March 2008

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    J. R. Kan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a new M-I coupling model of substorm during southward IMF based on the THEMIS observations of two events on 1 March 2008. The first event (E-1 was classified as a pseudo-breakup: brightening of the onset arc preceded the first dipolarization onset by ∼71 ± 3 s, but the breakup arcs faded within ∼5 min without substantial poleward expansion and the dipolarization stopped and reversed to thinning. The second event (E-2 was identified as a substorm: brightening of the second onset arc preceded the second dipolarization onset by ∼80 ± 3 s, leading to a full-scale expanding auroral bulge during the substorm expansion phase for ∼20 min. The Alfvén travel time from the ionosphere to the dipolarization onset region is estimated at ∼69.3 s in E-1; at ∼80.3 s in E-2, which matched well with the observed time delay of the dipolarization onset after the brightening of the onset arc, respectively in E-1 and E-2. Brightening of the onset arc precedes the dipolarization onset suggest that the onset arc brightening is caused by the intense upward field-aligned currents originating from the divergence of the Cowling electrojet in the ionosphere. The Cowling electrojet current loop (CECL is formed to close the field-aligned currents at all times. The closure current in the Alfvén wavefront is anti-parallel to the cross-tail current. Dipolarization onset occurs when the Alfvén wavefront incident on the near-Earth plasma sheet to disrupt the cross-tail current in the dipolarization region. Slow MHD waves dominate the disruption of the cross-tail current in the dipolarization region.

  4. Predicting First Onset of Depression in Young Girls: Interaction of Diurnal Cortisol and Negative Life Events

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    LeMoult, Joelle; Ordaz, Sarah J.; Kircanski, Katharina; Singh, Manpreet K.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between biological vulnerability and environmental adversity are central to the pathophysiology of depression. Given evidence that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences biological responses to environmental events, in the current longitudinal study we examined HPA-axis functioning, negative life events, and their interaction as predictors of the first onset of depression. At baseline, girls ages 9 to 14 years provided saliva samples to assess levels of diurnal cortisol production, quantified by total cortisol production (area under the curve with respect to ground; AUCg) and the cortisol awakening response (CAR). We then followed these participants until they reached age 18 in order to assess their subsequent experience of negative life events and the onset of a depressive episode. We found that the influence of negative life events on the subsequent onset of depression depended on HPA-axis functioning at baseline. Specifically, negative life events predicted the onset of depression in girls with higher levels AUCg, but not in girls with lower levels of AUCg. In contrast, CAR did not predict the onset of depression either alone or in interaction with negative life events. These findings suggest that elevated total cortisol production in daily life potentiates susceptibility to environmental adversity and signals the need for early intervention. PMID:26595472

  5. Stressful life events preceding the onset of depression in Asian patients with major depressive disorder.

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    Park, Subin; Hatim, Ahmad; Si, Tian-Mei; Jeon, Hong Jin; Srisurapanont, Manit; Bautista, Dianne; Liu, Shen-ing; Chua, Hong Choon; Hong, Jin Pyo

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have identified the significant role of stressful life events in the onset of depressive episodes. However, there is a paucity of cross-national studies on stressful life events that precede depression. We aimed to compare types of stressful life events associated with the onset of depressive episodes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in five Asian countries. A total of 507 outpatients with MDD were recruited in China (n = 114), South Korea (n = 101), Malaysia (n = 90), Thailand (n = 103) and Taiwan (n = 99). All patients were assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the List of Threatening Experiences. The prevalence of each type of stressful life events was calculated and compared between each country. The type of stressful life event that preceded the onset of a depressive episode differed between patients in China and Taiwan and those in South Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Patients in China and Taiwan were less likely to report interpersonal relationship problems and occupational/financial problems than patients in South Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Understanding the nature and basis of culturally determined susceptibilities to specific stressful life events is critical for establishing a policy of depression prevention and providing effective counseling services for depressed patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Events and the onset of eating disorders: correcting an "age old" myth.

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    Schmidt, U H; Troop, N A; Treasure, J L

    1999-01-01

    Previous reports have suggested differences between early and late onset cases both in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. In anorexia nervosa, women with late onset are thought to be more likely to develop symptoms in response to life events than early onset cases. Women developing anorexia in response to life events are also considered to show different background features. In bulimia nervosa, it is not known whether rates of life events before onset differ in bulimics who develop their disorder at different stages in life. Previously published data were reanalyzed to examine differences between women whose eating disorder did or did not develop in response to stress. Seventy-two women with anorexia nervosa (48 with a severe provoking agent) and 29 women with bulimia nervosa (22 with a severe provoking agent) were administered semistructured interviews to assess life events and difficulties in the year before onset, childhood adversity, and other clinical features. In both anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, subjects with or without a severe provoking agent did not differ from each other on age or childhood variables. The only significant difference found was that, in women developing anorexia nervosa, those who later developed bulimic symptoms alongside their anorexia reported a lower rate of provoking agents (31%) than those anorexic women who either maintained their restriction (76%) or went on to develop normal weight bulimia nervosa (69%). There are no differences between women whose eating disorder develops in response to stress and those who do not. Women presenting for treatment with anorexia nervosa of the binge-purge subtype are unlikely to have developed their illness in response to a severe provoking agent.

  7. Life events and the onset of celiac disease from a patient's perspective.

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    Ciacci, Carolina; Siniscalchi, Monica; Bucci, Cristina; Zingone, Fabiana; Morra, Ivonne; Iovino, Paola

    2013-08-28

    Stressful events have been investigated in various immune-mediated diseases but not in celiac disease. Our aim was to examine the relationship of stressful events assessed by the standardized interview of Paykel with the diagnosis of celiac disease in comparison to patients, with a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease used as the control group. Adults with celiac disease (n = 186) reported more frequent and more severe life events in the years prior to the diagnosis than control patients (n = 96) (67.2% vs. 37.5%, p celiac disease and control patients for the time lapse between the event and the diagnosis (mean 5.5 vs. 5.7 months). Pregnancy was defined as a negative event by 20.3% of celiac women, but never by control women. Findings were confirmed when analyses were repeated in the subgroup of patients of both groups with diagnosis made within one year of onset of symptoms. Data indicate that, before diagnosis, the number of stressful events in celiac disease was more frequent although less severe than in the control group suggesting that life events may favor the clinical appearance of celiac disease or accelerate its diagnosis.

  8. Life Events and the Onset of Celiac Disease from a Patient’s Perspective

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    Paola Iovino

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Stressful events have been investigated in various immune-mediated diseases but not in celiac disease. Our aim was to examine the relationship of stressful events assessed by the standardized interview of Paykel with the diagnosis of celiac disease in comparison to patients, with a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease used as the control group. Adults with celiac disease (n = 186 reported more frequent and more severe life events in the years prior to the diagnosis than control patients (n = 96 (67.2% vs. 37.5%, p < 0.001, mean Paykel score 11.5 vs. 13.4, p = 0.001, respectively. Findings were not significantly different between celiac disease and control patients for the time lapse between the event and the diagnosis (mean 5.5 vs. 5.7 months. Pregnancy was defined as a negative event by 20.3% of celiac women, but never by control women. Findings were confirmed when analyses were repeated in the subgroup of patients of both groups with diagnosis made within one year of onset of symptoms. Data indicate that, before diagnosis, the number of stressful events in celiac disease was more frequent although less severe than in the control group suggesting that life events may favor the clinical appearance of celiac disease or accelerate its diagnosis.

  9. The Specific Role of Relationship Life Events in the Onset of Depression during Pregnancy and the Postpartum.

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    Nicola Wright

    Full Text Available The precipitating role of life events in the onset of depression is well-established. The present study sought to examine whether life events hypothesised to be personally salient would be more strongly associated with depression than other life events. In a sample of women making the first transition to parenthood, we hypothesised that negative events related to the partner relationship would be particularly salient and thus more strongly predictive of depression than other events.A community-based sample of 316 first-time mothers stratified by psychosocial risk completed interviews at 32 weeks gestation and 29 weeks postpartum to assess dated occurrence of life events and depression onsets from conception to 29 weeks postpartum. Complete data was available from 273 (86.4%. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine risk for onset of depression in the 6 months following a relationship event versus other events, after accounting for past history of depression and other potential confounders.52 women (19.0% experienced an onset of depression between conception and 6 months postpartum. Both relationship events (Hazard Ratio = 2.1, p = .001 and other life events (Hazard Ratio = 1.3, p = .020 were associated with increased risk for depression onset; however, relationship events showed a significantly greater risk for depression than did other life events (p = .044.The results are consistent with the hypothesis that personally salient events are more predictive of depression onset than other events. Further, they indicate the clinical significance of events related to the partner relationship during pregnancy and the postpartum.

  10. Gradual onset and recovery of the Younger Dryas abrupt climate event in the tropics.

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    Partin, J W; Quinn, T M; Shen, C-C; Okumura, Y; Cardenas, M B; Siringan, F P; Banner, J L; Lin, K; Hu, H-M; Taylor, F W

    2015-09-02

    Proxy records of temperature from the Atlantic clearly show that the Younger Dryas was an abrupt climate change event during the last deglaciation, but records of hydroclimate are underutilized in defining the event. Here we combine a new hydroclimate record from Palawan, Philippines, in the tropical Pacific, with previously published records to highlight a difference between hydroclimate and temperature responses to the Younger Dryas. Although the onset and termination are synchronous across the records, tropical hydroclimate changes are more gradual (>100 years) than the abrupt (10-100 years) temperature changes in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The abrupt recovery of Greenland temperatures likely reflects changes in regional sea ice extent. Proxy data and transient climate model simulations support the hypothesis that freshwater forced a reduction in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, thereby causing the Younger Dryas. However, changes in ocean overturning may not produce the same effects globally as in Greenland.

  11. Vision-based Detection of Acoustic Timed Events: a Case Study on Clarinet Note Onsets

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    Bazzica, A.; van Gemert, J. C.; Liem, C. C. S.; Hanjalic, A.

    2017-05-01

    Acoustic events often have a visual counterpart. Knowledge of visual information can aid the understanding of complex auditory scenes, even when only a stereo mixdown is available in the audio domain, \\eg identifying which musicians are playing in large musical ensembles. In this paper, we consider a vision-based approach to note onset detection. As a case study we focus on challenging, real-world clarinetist videos and carry out preliminary experiments on a 3D convolutional neural network based on multiple streams and purposely avoiding temporal pooling. We release an audiovisual dataset with 4.5 hours of clarinetist videos together with cleaned annotations which include about 36,000 onsets and the coordinates for a number of salient points and regions of interest. By performing several training trials on our dataset, we learned that the problem is challenging. We found that the CNN model is highly sensitive to the optimization algorithm and hyper-parameters, and that treating the problem as binary classification may prevent the joint optimization of precision and recall. To encourage further research, we publicly share our dataset, annotations and all models and detail which issues we came across during our preliminary experiments.

  12. Transient teleconnection event at the onset of a planet-encircling dust storm on Mars

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    O. Martínez-Alvarado

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We use proper orthogonal decomposition (POD to study a transient teleconnection event at the onset of the 2001 planet-encircling dust storm on Mars, in terms of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. There are several differences between this and previous studies of atmospheric events using EOFs. First, instead of using a single variable such as surface pressure or geopotential height on a given pressure surface, we use a dataset describing the evolution in time of global and fully three-dimensional atmospheric fields such as horizontal velocity and temperature. These fields are produced by assimilating Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft into a Mars general circulation model. We use total atmospheric energy (TE as a physically meaningful quantity which weights the state variables. Second, instead of adopting the EOFs to define teleconnection patterns as planetary-scale correlations that explain a large portion of long time-scale variability, we use EOFs to understand transient processes due to localised heating perturbations that have implications for the atmospheric circulation over distant regions. The localised perturbation is given by anomalous heating due to the enhanced presence of dust around the northern edge of the Hellas Planitia basin on Mars. We show that the localised disturbance is seemingly restricted to a small number (a few tens of EOFs. These can be classified as low-order, transitional, or high-order EOFs according to the TE amount they explain throughout the event. Despite the global character of the EOFs, they show the capability of accounting for the localised effects of the perturbation via the presence of specific centres of action. We finally discuss possible applications for the study of terrestrial phenomena with similar characteristics.

  13. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis onset: evaluation based on vaccine adverse events reporting systems.

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    Paolo Pellegrino

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate epidemiological features of post vaccine acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM by considering data from different pharmacovigilance surveillance systems. METHODS: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS database and the EudraVigilance post-authorisation module (EVPM were searched to identify post vaccine ADEM cases. Epidemiological features including sex and related vaccines were analysed. RESULTS: We retrieved 205 and 236 ADEM cases from the EVPM and VAERS databases, respectively, of which 404 were considered for epidemiological analysis following verification and causality assessment. Half of the patients had less than 18 years and with a slight male predominance. The time interval from vaccination to ADEM onset was 2-30 days in 61% of the cases. Vaccine against seasonal flu and human papilloma virus vaccine were those most frequently associated with ADEM, accounting for almost 30% of the total cases. Mean number of reports per year between 2005 and 2012 in VAERS database was 40±21.7, decreasing after 2010 mainly because of a reduction of reports associated with human papilloma virus and Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio and Haemophilus Influentiae type B vaccines. CONCLUSIONS: This study has a high epidemiological power as it is based on information on adverse events having occurred in over one billion people. It suffers from lack of rigorous case verification due to the weakness intrinsic to the surveillance databases used. At variance with previous reports on a prevalence of ADEM in childhood we demonstrate that it may occur at any age when post vaccination. This study also shows that the diminishing trend in post vaccine ADEM reporting related to Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio and Haemophilus Influentiae type B and human papilloma virus vaccine groups is most likely not [corrected] due to a decline in vaccine coverage indicative of a reduced attention to this adverse drug reaction.

  14. The Influence of Various Morphologic and Hemodynamic Carotid Plaque Characteristics on Neurological Events Onset and Deaths

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    Milan D. Brajovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A group of 72 patients with 111 asymptomatic carotid stenoses (ACS, mean age 65.42 ± 9.21, and a group of 36 patients with 58 symptomatic carotid stenoses (SCS, mean age 67.63 ± 8.79, were analyzed prospectively during a 3-year follow-up period. All patients underwent color duplex scan sonography (CDS, carotid arteriography, computed tomography (CT scan, and neurological examination. The aim of the study was to analyze the correlation between echo plaque morphology (degree and plaque quality, local hemodynamic plaque characteristics, ischemic CT findings, and onset of new neurological events and deaths. The results analysis showed significantly more ACS in the group of 30–49% stenosis (p < 0.001, but significantly more SCS in the group of 70–89% (p < 0.0001 and ≥90% stenosis (p < 0.05. Fibrous plaque was more frequent in the ACS group (p < 0.001, while ulcerated and mixed plaques were more frequent in the SCS group (both p < 0.0001. In the SCS group, a significantly higher frequency of increased peak systolic and end diastolic velocities was noted at the beginning and end of the study (both p < 0.01, as well as for contralateral common (CCA or internal carotid artery (ICA occlusion (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively, but reduced carotid blood flow volume (p < 0.05 only at the end of the study. In the ACS group, the best correlation with new neurological events and deaths was shown with positive CT findings, peak systolic flow velocity over 210 cm/sec, end diastolic flow velocity over 110 cm/sec, plaque stenosis ≥70%, plaque ulceration, mixed plaque (all p < 0.0001; stenosis ≥50% (p < 0.001; and reduced carotid blood flow volume (p < 0.05.

  15. Onset of the aerobic nitrogen cycle during the Great Oxidation Event.

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    Zerkle, Aubrey L; Poulton, Simon W; Newton, Robert J; Mettam, Colin; Claire, Mark W; Bekker, Andrey; Junium, Christopher K

    2017-02-23

    The rise of oxygen on the early Earth (about 2.4 billion years ago) caused a reorganization of marine nutrient cycles, including that of nitrogen, which is important for controlling global primary productivity. However, current geochemical records lack the temporal resolution to address the nature and timing of the biogeochemical response to oxygenation directly. Here we couple records of ocean redox chemistry with nitrogen isotope (15N/14N) values from approximately 2.31-billion-year-old shales of the Rooihoogte and Timeball Hill formations in South Africa, deposited during the early stages of the first rise in atmospheric oxygen on the Earth (the Great Oxidation Event). Our data fill a gap of about 400 million years in the temporal 15N/14N record and provide evidence for the emergence of a pervasive aerobic marine nitrogen cycle. The interpretation of our nitrogen isotope data in the context of iron speciation and carbon isotope data suggests biogeochemical cycling across a dynamic redox boundary, with primary productivity fuelled by chemoautotrophic production and a nitrogen cycle dominated by nitrogen loss processes using newly available marine oxidants. This chemostratigraphic trend constrains the onset of widespread nitrate availability associated with ocean oxygenation. The rise of marine nitrate could have allowed for the rapid diversification and proliferation of nitrate-using cyanobacteria and, potentially, eukaryotic phytoplankton.

  16. Onset of the aerobic nitrogen cycle during the Great Oxidation Event

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    Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Poulton, Simon W.; Newton, Robert J.; Mettam, Colin; Claire, Mark W.; Bekker, Andrey; Junium, Christopher K.

    2017-02-01

    The rise of oxygen on the early Earth (about 2.4 billion years ago) caused a reorganization of marine nutrient cycles, including that of nitrogen, which is important for controlling global primary productivity. However, current geochemical records lack the temporal resolution to address the nature and timing of the biogeochemical response to oxygenation directly. Here we couple records of ocean redox chemistry with nitrogen isotope (15N/14N) values from approximately 2.31-billion-year-old shales of the Rooihoogte and Timeball Hill formations in South Africa, deposited during the early stages of the first rise in atmospheric oxygen on the Earth (the Great Oxidation Event). Our data fill a gap of about 400 million years in the temporal 15N/14N record and provide evidence for the emergence of a pervasive aerobic marine nitrogen cycle. The interpretation of our nitrogen isotope data in the context of iron speciation and carbon isotope data suggests biogeochemical cycling across a dynamic redox boundary, with primary productivity fuelled by chemoautotrophic production and a nitrogen cycle dominated by nitrogen loss processes using newly available marine oxidants. This chemostratigraphic trend constrains the onset of widespread nitrate availability associated with ocean oxygenation. The rise of marine nitrate could have allowed for the rapid diversification and proliferation of nitrate-using cyanobacteria and, potentially, eukaryotic phytoplankton.

  17. Time perception of simultaneous and sequential events in early-onset schizophrenia.

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    de Montalembert, M; Coulon, N; Cohen, D; Bonnot, O; Tordjman, S

    2016-08-01

    Timing disorders in schizophrenia are a well-known phenomenon. However, no studies have yet assessed the role of temporal distortions in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS), despite evidence that distorted time perception may share genetic risk factors with schizophrenia and may be a useful indicator in identifying individuals at risk for schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the ability of 10 patients with EOS (mean age = 21.5 years, SD = 6) matched with 20 healthy control participants (mean age = 25.3 years, SD = 4.6) in order to compare the durations of two visual events, presented either sequentially or overlapping in time, along with neuropsychological assessments of attention, working memory, and executive functions. Each participant had to judge a total of 336 stimuli. We found that temporal overlap had a greater negative effect on ability to judge the duration of a pair of stimuli in EOS patients than in healthy control participants. In addition, EOS patients showed impairments in attention and executive functions. Furthermore, in EOS patients, the scores for executive and attentional functions were significantly correlated with accuracy of temporal estimation in the overlap condition (r = 0.31, p time estimation observed in patients with EOS. These conclusions highlight the importance of testing time perception in patients with EOS and could contribute to the development of cognitive remediation-based therapy for these patients.

  18. Impact of Childhood Life Events and Childhood Trauma on the Onset and Recurrence of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Giltay, Erik J.; Spinhoven, Philip; van Hemert, Albert M.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Objective: To investigate the effect of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the onset and recurrence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders over a 2-year period in participants without current psychopathology at baseline. Method: Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants without

  19. Impact of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the onset and recurrence of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J.G.; Giltay, E.J.; Spinhoven, P.; van Hemert, A.M.; Penninx, B.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the onset and recurrence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders over a 2-year period in participants without current psychopathology at baseline. Method: Longitudinal data in a large sample of participants without

  20. Stressful life events and the onset of chronic diseases among Australian adults: findings from a longitudinal survey.

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    Renzaho, Andre M N; Houng, Brendan; Oldroyd, John; Nicholson, Jan M; D'Esposito, Fabrizio; Oldenburg, Brian

    2014-02-01

    This article examines the link between stressful life events and illness by considering both onset and reoccurrence of chronic illnesses. Using longitudinal data, we estimate the extent to which life events increase the likelihood of depression or anxiety, type 2 diabetes, cancer, coronary heart disease, circulatory disease, asthma and emphysema among Australian adults aged ≥21 years. Longitudinal data were obtained from the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia panel survey collected at waves 3 (2003), 7 (2007) and 9 (2009). Participants (N = 9222) answered life events questions relating to the preceding 12 months and chronic illnesses lasting (or expected to last for) 6 months. Weighted pooled and random effects logistic regressions were performed, controlling for confounders and previous illness, and also performed on subsamples delineated by reported illnesses in wave 3. Work-related stress [odds ratio (OR) = 1.54, P depression or anxiety. Personal stress increased the likelihood of the onset of depression or anxiety (OR = 1.70, P diabetes (OR = 1.47, P related stress increased the likelihood of the onset of heart (OR = 1.32, P related, personal and family-related stressful life events contribute to the development and/or course of chronic diseases.

  1. Gender differences in life events prior to onset of major depressive disorder: the moderating effect of age.

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    Harkness, Kate L; Alavi, Nazanin; Monroe, Scott M; Slavich, George M; Gotlib, Ian H; Bagby, R Michael

    2010-11-01

    Theoretical models attempting to explain why approximately twice as many women as men suffer from depression often involve the role of stressful life events. However, detailed empirical evidence regarding gender differences in rates of life events that precede onset of depression is lacking, due in part to the common use of checklist assessments of stress that have been shown to possess poor validity. The present study reports on a combined sample of 375 individuals drawn from 4 studies in which all participants were diagnosed with major depressive disorder and assessed with the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (Bifulco et al., 1989), a state-of-the-art contextual interview and life stress rating system. Women reported significantly more severe and nonsevere, independent and dependent, and other-focused and subject-focused life events prior to onset of depression than did men. Further, these relations were significantly moderated by age, such that gender differences in rates of most types of events were found primarily in young adulthood. These results are discussed in term of their implications for understanding the etiological role of stressful life events in depression. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Incidence of stressful life events and influence of sociodemographic and clinical variables on the onset of first-episode psychosis.

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    Butjosa, Anna; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Del Cacho, Núria; Barajas, Ana; Baños, Iris; Usall, Judith; Dolz, Montserrat; Sánchez, Bernardo; Carlson, Janina; Maria Haro, Josep; Ochoa, Susana

    2016-11-30

    This study presents a quantitative analysis of the incidence of stressful life events (SLEs) and the variables gender, age at onset, family history and psychotic symptoms in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). A descriptive, cross-sectional methodology was used to interview 68 patients with FEP between 13 and 47 years of age. The Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Life Events Scale collected one-year period prior to onset of FEP - used to analyse the subcategories academic, work, love and marriage, children, residence, legal affairs, finances and social activities-, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Clinical Global Impression-Schizophrenia scale were used to assess the relevance of certain SLEs during adolescence. Age at onset showed a significant negative correlation with the categories academic and social activities. By contrast, it showed a positive correlation with work and children. A significant relationship was found between paternal family history and social activities and between maternal family history and academic and love and marriage. Finally, an inverse relationship was observed between negative symptoms and the categories children and finance. Depressive symptoms were significantly correlated with the category academic. Our results show the importance of SLEs during adolescence and suggest that there is a clear need to develop preventive actions that promote effective strategies for dealing with the accumulation of psychosocial stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Early life events predispose the onset of childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders

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    S. Bonilla

    2013-04-01

    Conclusions: Early events may play an important role in the complex pathogenesis of functional gastrointestinal conditions. Timely intervention may have a critical impact on the prevention of this group of chronic incapacitating conditions.

  4. Adolescent Life Events and Their Association with the Onset of Sexual Intercourse.

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    Dorius, Guy L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examines the timing of several events marking the transition from adolescence to young adulthood and their correlation with the age at first sexual intercourse. Findings are reported showing tobacco use, marijuana use, dating, and parental divorce during the child's adolescent years and the contribution of these variables to first early-age…

  5. The role of life events and psychological factors in the onset of first and recurrent mood episodes in bipolar offspring : results from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemner, S. M.; Mesman, E.; Nolen, W. A.; Eijckemans, M. J. C.; Hillegers, M. H. J.

    Background Life events are an established risk factor for the onset and recurrence of unipolar and bipolar mood episodes, especially in the presence of genetic vulnerability. The dynamic interplay between life events and psychological context, however, is less studied. In this study, we investigated

  6. The role of life events and psychological factors in the onset of first and recurrent mood episodes in bipolar offspring: results from the Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study.

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    Kemner, S M; Mesman, E; Nolen, W A; Eijckemans, M J C; Hillegers, M H J

    2015-01-01

    Life events are an established risk factor for the onset and recurrence of unipolar and bipolar mood episodes, especially in the presence of genetic vulnerability. The dynamic interplay between life events and psychological context, however, is less studied. In this study, we investigated the impact of life events on the onset and recurrence of mood episodes in bipolar offspring, as well as the effects of temperament, coping and parenting style on this association. Bipolar offspring (n = 108) were followed longitudinally from adolescence to adulthood. Mood disorders were assessed with: the Kiddie Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia - Present and Lifetime Version or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders; life events with the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule; and psychological measures using the Utrecht Coping List, Temperament and Character Inventory and short-EMBU (memories of upbringing instrument). Anderson-Gill models (an extension of the Cox proportional hazard model) were utilized. Life events were associated with an increased risk for first and, although less pronounced, subsequent mood episodes. There was a large confounding effect for the number of previous mood episodes; findings suggest a possible kindling effect. Passive coping style increased the risk of mood episode onset and recurrent episodes, but also altered the effect of life events on mood disorders. Harm avoidance temperament was associated with mood episode recurrence. Life events are especially a risk factor in the onset of mood disorders, though less so in recurrent episodes. Psychological features (passive coping and harm-avoidant temperament) contribute to the risk of an episode occurring, and also have a moderating effect on the association between life events and mood episodes. These findings create potential early intervention strategies for bipolar offspring.

  7. ESTIMATING THE HEIGHT OF CMEs ASSOCIATED WITH A MAJOR SEP EVENT AT THE ONSET OF THE METRIC TYPE II RADIO BURST DURING SOLAR CYCLES 23 AND 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mäkelä, P.; Akiyama, S.; Xie, H.; Yashiro, S. [The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Gopalswamy, N., E-mail: pertti.makela@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    We studied the coronal mass ejection (CME) height at the onset of 59 metric type II radio bursts associated with major solar energetic particle (SEP) events, excluding ground level enhancements (GLEs), during solar cycles 23 and 24. We calculated CME heights using a simple flare-onset method used by Gopalswamy et al. to estimate CME heights at the metric type II onset for cycle 23 GLEs. We found the mean CME height for non-GLE events (1.72 R{sub ☉}) to be ∼12% greater than that (1.53 R{sub ☉}) for cycle 23 GLEs. The difference could be caused by more impulsive acceleration of the GLE-associated CMEs. For cycle 24 non-GLE events, we compared the CME heights obtained using the flare-onset method and the three-dimensional spherical-shock fitting method and found the correlation to be good (CC = 0.68). We found the mean CME height for cycle 23 non-GLE events (1.79 R{sub ☉}) to be greater than that for cycle 24 non-GLE events (1.58 R{sub ☉}), but statistical tests do not definitely reject the possibility of coincidence. We suggest that the lower formation height of the shocks during cycle 24 indicates a change in the Alfvén speed profile because solar magnetic fields are weaker and plasma density levels are closer to the surface than usual during cycle 24. We also found that complex type III bursts showing diminution of type III emission in the 7–14 MHz frequency range are more likely associated with events with a CME height at the type II onset above 2 R{sub ☉}, supporting suggestions that the CME/shock structure causes the feature.

  8. Diastolic dysfunction predicts new-onset atrial fibrillation and cardiovascular events in patients with acute myocardial infarction and depressed left ventricular systolic function: a CARISMA substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jons, Christian; Joergensen, Rikke Moerch; Hassager, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between diastolic dysfunction and long-term occurrence of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) and cardiac events in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction....

  9. Immune restoration and onset of new AIDS-defining events with combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV type-1-infected immigrants in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesselring, Anouk M.; Gras, Luuk; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Smit, Colette; Geerlings, Suzanne E.; Mulder, Jan W.; Schreij, Gerrit; Sprenger, Herman G.; Reiss, Peter; de Wolf, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Background: We investigated differences in immune restoration and onset of new AIDS-defining events on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) among HIV type-1 (HIV-1)-infected patients of different regional origin now living in the Netherlands. Methods: Treatment-naive adults reaching plasma

  10. The onset of childhood amnesia in childhood: a prospective investigation of the course and determinants of forgetting of early-life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The present research was an examination of the onset of childhood amnesia and how it relates to maternal narrative style, an important determinant of autobiographical memory development. Children and their mothers discussed unique events when the children were 3 years of age. Different subgroups of children were tested for recall of the events at ages 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 years. At the later session they were interviewed by an experimenter about the events discussed 2 to 6 years previously with their mothers (early-life events). Children aged 5, 6, and 7 remembered 60% or more of the early-life events. In contrast, children aged 8 and 9 years remembered fewer than 40% of the early-life events. Overall maternal narrative style predicted children's contributions to mother-child conversations at age 3 years; it did not have cross-lagged relations to memory for early-life events at ages 5 to 9 years. Maternal deflections of the conversational turn to the child predicted the amount of information children later reported about the early-life events. The findings have implications for our understanding of the onset of childhood amnesia and the achievement of an adult-like distribution of memories in the school years. They highlight the importance of forgetting processes in explanations of the amnesia.

  11. On the relative roles of El Nino and Indian Ocean Dipole events on the monsoon onset over Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sankar, S.; RameshKumar, M.R.; Reason, C.

    Interannual variations of the monsoon onset over Kerala (MOK) have been studied using data from over 60 years (1948-2009) of NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and outgoing long-wave radiation. The sea surface temperature fields over the North Indian Ocean...

  12. Unraveling the onset of Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 in an extended sediment archive from the Tarfaya-Laayoune Basin, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Holbourn, Ann E.; Beil, Sebastian; Aquit, Mohamed; Krawczyk, Tim; Flögel, Sascha; Chellai, El Hassane; Jabour, Haddou

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the onset and development of Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) in a newly drilled core (SN°4) from the Tarfaya Basin (southern Morocco), where this interval is unusually expanded. High-resolution (centimeter-scale equivalent to centennial) analysis of bulk organic and carbonate stable isotopes and of carbonate and organic carbon content in combination with XRF scanner derived elemental distribution reveal that the ocean-climate system behaved in a highly dynamic manner prior to and during the onset of OAE2. Correlation with the latest orbital solution indicates that the main carbon isotope shift occurred during an extended minimum in orbital eccentricity ( 400 kyr cycle). Shorter-term fluctuations in carbonate and organic carbon accumulation and in sea level related terrigenous discharge were predominantly driven by variations in orbital obliquity. Negative excursions in organic and carbonate δ13C preceded the global positive δ13C shift marking the onset of OAE2, suggesting injection of isotopically depleted carbon into the atmosphere. The main δ13C increase during the early phase of OAE2 in the late Cenomanian was punctuated by a transient plateau. Maximum organic carbon accumulation occurred during the later part of the main δ13C increase and was associated with climate cooling events, expressed as three consecutive maxima in bulk carbonate δ18O. The extinctions of the thermocline dwelling keeled planktonic foraminifers Rotalipora greenhornensis and Rotalipora cushmani occurred during the first and last of these cooling events and were likely associated with obliquity paced, ocean-wide expansions, and intensifications of the oxygen minimum zone, affecting their habitat space on a global scale.

  13. Methane and Environmental Change during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM): Modeling the PETM Onset as a Two-stage Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozza, David A.; Mysak, Lawrence A.; Schmidt, Gavin A.

    2011-01-01

    An atmospheric CH4 box model coupled to a global carbon cycle box model is used to constrain the carbon emission associated with the PETM and assess the role of CH4 during this event. A range of atmospheric and oceanic emission scenarios representing different amounts, rates, and isotopic signatures of emitted carbon are used to model the PETM onset. The first 3 kyr of the onset, a pre-isotope excursion stage, is simulated by the atmospheric release of 900 to 1100 Pg C CH4 with a delta C-13 of -22 to - 30 %. For a global average warming of 3 deg C, a release of CO2 to the ocean and CH4 to the atmosphere totalling 900 to 1400 Pg C, with a delta C-13 of -50 to -60%, simulates the subsequent 1 -kyr isotope excursion stage. To explain the observations, the carbon must have been released over at most 500 years. The first stage results cannot be associated with any known PETM hypothesis. However, the second stage results are consistent with a methane hydrate source. More than a single source of carbon is required to explain the PETM onset.

  14. IMP8 Observations of the Relative Onset Times of Relativistic Electrons and Protons in the January 20, 2005 Ground Level Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, W. F.; Tylka, A. J.

    2006-05-01

    Although the IMP8 mission officially ended in October 2001, IMP8 telemetry was fortuitously recovered during the onset of the January 20, 2005 ground level event (GLE). The University of Chicago's Cosmic Ray Nuclear Experiment (CRNE) on IMP8 showed a >4-sigma increase in the rate of relativistic (>2 MeV) electrons at 06:50 UT. This time was one minute later than the onset of relativistic protons, as reported at the South Pole Neutron Monitor Station. This modest delay, which is probably attributable to limited instrumental sensitivity, suggests a common acceleration mechanism for relativistic electrons and protons in this event. Our results differ from a recent report (G.M. Simnett, A&A 445, 715, 2006) using ACE/EPAM electron data, which inferred a ~6 minute delay between the emission of relativistic protons and near-relativistic (~260 keV) electrons, after correction for differences in particle speeds. The first arriving particles in IMP8/CRNE were also highly anisotropic and registered in the azimuthal spin-sector containing the nominal Parker spiral direction. This result also differs from the ACE/EPAM report, in which the first-arriving electrons were observed in a detector viewing the anti-Sunward direction. We discuss possible causes of the discrepancies with ACE/EPAM and potential implications of our observations.

  15. Cytokine Signatures Associated With Early Onset, Active Lesions and Late Cicatricial Events of Retinochoroidal Commitment in Infants With Congenital Toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Ana Carolina Aguiar Vasconcelos; Machado, Anderson Silva; Béla, Samantha Ribeiro; Costa, Julia Gatti Ladeia; Andrade, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz; Vasconcelos-Santos, Daniel Vitor; Januário, José Nélio; Coelho-Dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela; Ferro, Eloisa Amália Vieira; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Vitor, Ricardo Wagner Almeida; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2016-06-15

    Ocular toxoplasmosis is a prominent and severe condition of high incidence in Brazil. The current study provides new insights into the immunological events that can be associated with retinochoroiditis in the setting of congenital toxoplasmosis in human infants. Flow cytometry of intracytoplasmic cytokines in leukocyte subsets following in vitro short-term antigenic recall in infants with congenital T. gondii infection. Our data demonstrates that whereas neutrophils and monocytes from T. gondii-infected infants display a combination of proinflammatory and regulatory cytokine profiles, natural killer cells showed a predominantly proinflammatory profile upon in vitro T. gondii stimulation. The proinflammatory response of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, characterized by the production of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 17 in patients with an active retinochoroidal lesion, revealed the presence of IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor α during early and late immunological events. This specific proinflammatory pattern is associated with early events and active retinochoroidal lesion, whereas a robust monocyte-derived interleukin 10-mediated profile is observed in children with cicatricial ocular lesions. These findings support the existence of a progressive immunological environment concomitant with the initial, apical, and cicatricial phases in the process of retinochoroidal lesion formation in infants with congenital toxoplasmosis that may be relevant in the establishment of stage-specific clinical management. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Time-to-Onset Analysis of Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome Based on a Spontaneous Reporting System for Adverse Drug Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Sasaoka

    Full Text Available Long QT syndrome (LQTS is a disorder of the heart's electrical activity that infrequently causes severe ventricular arrhythmias such as a type of ventricular tachycardia called torsade de pointes (TdP and ventricular fibrillation, which can be fatal. There have been no previous reports on the time-to-onset for LQTS based on data from spontaneous reporting systems. The aim of this study was to assess the time-to-onset of LQTS according to drug treatment. We analyzed the association between 113 drugs in 37 therapeutic categories and LQTS including TdP using data obtained from the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report database. For signal detection, we used the reporting odds ratio (ROR. Furthermore, we analyzed the time-to-onset data and assessed the hazard type using the Weibull shape parameter. The RORs (95% confidence interval for bepridil, amiodarone, pilsicainide, nilotinib, disopyramide, arsenic trioxide, clarithromycin, cibenzoline, donepezil, famotidine, sulpiride, and nifekalant were 174.4 (148.6-204.6, 17.3 (14.7-20.4, 52.0 (43.4-62.4, 13.9 (11.5-16.7, 69.3 (55.3-86.8, 54.2 (43.2-68.0, 4.7 (3.8-5.8, 19.9 (15.9-25.0, 8.1 (6.5-10.1, 3.2 (2.5-4.1, 7.1 (5.5-9.2, and 254.8 (168.5-385.4, respectively. The medians and quartiles of time-to-onset for aprindine (oral and bepridil were 20.0 (11.0-35.8 and 18.0 (6.0-43.0 days, respectively. The lower 95% confidence interval of the shape parameter β of bepridil was over 1 and the hazard was considered to increase over time.Our study indicated that the pattern of LQTS onset might differ among drugs. Based on these results, careful long-term observation is recommended, especially for specific drugs such as bepridil and aprindine. This information may be useful for the prevention of sudden death following LQTS and for efficient therapeutic planning.

  17. Valvular calcifications at the start of dialysis predict the onset of cardiovascular events in the course of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Perales, Carmen; Vázquez Ruiz de Castroviejo, Eduardo; García-Cortés, Ma José; Biechy, Ma del Mar; Gil-Cunquero, Jose Manuel; Borrego-Hinojosa, Josefa; del Barrio, Pilar Pérez; Borrego-Utiel, Francisco; Liébana, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    To analyse the presence of VC at the start of dialysis and its relationship with events and/or death from cardiovascular causes in the course of follow-up. In the study, we included patients who started dialysis between November 2003 and September 2007. In the first month of treatment, we assessed the presence of VC by Doppler echocardiography, along with demographic factors and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease, stroke, atrial fibrillation (AF), and cardiac dimensional and functional electrocardiographic and echocardiographic parameters. The biochemistry values assessed were: haemoglobin, calcium/phosphorous/iPTH metabolism, cholesterol and fractions, triglycerides, troponin I, albumin, CRP and glycosylated haemoglobin. We analysed the association between VC and the presence of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and/or death from cardiovascular causes up to transplantation, death or the end of the study (December 2012). Of 256 enrolled patients (83% haemodialysis, 17% peritoneal dialysis), 128 (50%) had VC (mitral: 39, aortic: 20, both: 69). In the multivariate analysis, VC was associated with older age (OR: 1.110; 95% CI: 1.073-1.148; p = 0.000) and lower albumin levels (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.14-0.61; p = 0.001). In a follow-up lasting 42.1 ± 30.2 months (898.1 patient-years), 68 patients suffered MI, stroke and/or died from cardiovascular causes. In the Cox regression analysis, older age (HR: 1.028; 95% CI: 1.002-1.055; p = 0.037), coronary artery disease and/or stroke (HR: 1.979; 95% CI: 1.111-3.527; p = 0.021), AF (HR: 2.474; 95% CI: 1.331-4.602; p = 0.004), and the presence of VC at the start of dialysis (HR: 1.996; 95% CI: 1.077-3.700; p = 0.028) were the predictor variables for the occurrence of the analysed events. The prevalence of VC at the start of dialysis is high and its presence predicts the occurrence of events and/or cardiovascular death in the course of follow-up. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  18. Negative Cognitive Style Interacts With Negative Life Events to Predict First Onset of a Major Depressive Episode in Adolescence via Hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Giollabhui, Naoise; Hamilton, Jessica L; Nielsen, Johanna; Connolly, Samantha L; Stange, Jonathan P; Varga, Sean; Burdette, Evan; Olino, Thomas M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-11-27

    The hopelessness theory of depression is a prominent account of depression that posits that individuals with a negative inferential style are more likely to become hopeless when they experience negative life events (NLEs) and that hopelessness is a proximal cause of depression. There is strong evidence supporting the role of a negative inferential style in the pathogenesis of major depression; however, substantially less is known about the proposed role played by hopelessness. The cornerstone hypothesis of hopelessness theory, that hopelessness is a proximal cause of major depression, is largely untested. A small number of studies have generated inconclusive evidence that hopelessness mediates the relationship between a negative inferential style, NLEs, and depressive symptoms. The current study tested whether hopelessness mediates the relationship between a Negative Inferential Style × NLEs interaction and (a) 1st onset of a major depressive episode (MDE) and (b) depressive symptoms in a fully prospective design. A diverse sample of 249 adolescents, ages 12-13 years, were assessed at baseline and at 2 or more follow-ups over approximately 2.5 years. Self-report as well as life event and diagnostic interviews assessed inferential style, NLEs, hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and depression diagnosis. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that hopelessness mediated the relationship between a Negative Inferential Style × NLEs interaction and (a) 1st onset of an MDE as well as (b) depressive symptoms at higher levels of multiple types of NLEs. The current study demonstrates the validity of the hopelessness theory of depression and its continued clinical relevance in predicting depression in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Onset of the spring bloom in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea: influence of environmental pulse events on the in situ hourly-scale dynamics of the phytoplankton community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, Melilotus; Grégori, Gerald J; Grisoni, Jean-Michel; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Mousseau, Laure; Artigas, Luis F; Marro, Sophie; Garcia, Nicole; Passafiume, Ornella; Denis, Michel J

    2014-01-01

    Most of phytoplankton influence is barely understood at the sub meso scale and daily scale because of the lack of means to simultaneously assess phytoplankton functionality, dynamics and community structure. For a few years now, it has been possible to address this objective with an automated in situ high frequency sampling strategy. In order to study the influence of environmental short-term events (nutrients, wind speed, precipitation, solar radiation, temperature, and salinity) on the onset of the phytoplankton bloom in the oligotrophic Bay of Villefranche-sur-Mer (NW Mediterranean Sea), a fully remotely controlled automated flow cytometer (CytoSense) was deployed on a solar-powered platform (EOL buoy, CNRS-Mobilis). The CytoSense carried out single-cell analyses on particles (1-800 μm in width, up to several mm in length), recording optical pulse shapes when analyzing several cm(3). Samples were taken every 2 h in the surface waters during 2 months. Up to 6 phytoplankton clusters were resolved based on their optical properties (PicoFLO, Picoeukaryotes, Nanophytoplankton, Microphytoplankton, HighSWS, HighFLO). Three main abundance pulses involving the 6 phytoplankton groups monitored indicated that the spring bloom not only depends on light and water column stability, but also on short-term events such as wind events and precipitation followed by nutrient pulses. Wind and precipitation were also determinant in the collapse of the clusters' abundances. These events occurred within a couple of days, and phytoplankton abundance reacted within days. The third abundance pulse could be considered as the spring bloom commonly observed in the area. The high frequency data-set made it possible to study the phytoplankton cell cycle based on daily cycles of forward scatter and abundance. The combination of daily cell cycle, abundance trends and environmental pulses will open the way to the study of phytoplankton short-term reactivity to environmental conditions.

  20. Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 9th ARRCN Symposium 2015 was held during 21st–25th October 2015 at the Novotel Hotel, Chumphon, Thailand, one of the most favored travel destinations in Asia. The 10th ARRCN Symposium 2017 will be held during October 2017 in the Davao, Philippines. International Symposium on the Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus «The Montagu's Harrier in Europe. Status. Threats. Protection», organized by the environmental organization «Landesbund für Vogelschutz in Bayern e.V.» (LBV was held on November 20-22, 2015 in Germany. The location of this event was the city of Wurzburg in Bavaria.

  1. Combining local lithofacies and global geochemical signals to test the acidification hypothesis for the onset of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 in the U.S. Western Interior Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. M.; Sageman, B. B.; Selby, D. S.; Oakes, R. L.; Bralower, T. J.; Parker, A. L.; Leckie, R. M.; Sepulveda, J.

    2015-12-01

    Strata preserving Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2), which span the Cenomanian-Turonian (C/T; Late Cretaceous), exhibit evidence of widespread anoxia, a major perturbation to the global carbon cycle, and increased biotic turnover rates. It has been hypothesized that a major volcanic (LIP) eruption, increased CO2 levels, and significant climate warming triggered the event. Recently, OAE2 has also been cited as a potential example of ocean acidification in Earth history and therefore has potential to offer predictive insights on impacts of increasing modern pCO2 levels. As part of an effort to test this hypothesis, the 131-m Smoky Hollow #1 (SH-1) core was drilled near Big Water, Utah during the summer of 2014. The core recovered an expanded stratigraphic record of OAE2 from the mud-rich western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. A high-resolution stable carbon isotope record from bulk organic carbon (δ13Corg) indicates near-continuous preservation of OAE2 with a sustained +2.5‰ excursion that is over 5 times the thickness of the same excursion at the C/T GSSP in Pueblo, Colorado. Notably, this record is characterized by a 1-m thick carbonate-barren interval at the δ13C excursion's onset. This may indicate an episode of ocean acidification driving suppressed carbonate sedimentation or carbonate dissolution. An alternative interpretation is that variations in carbonate concentrations are unrelated to changes in ocean chemistry and are instead driven by changes in local sedimentation patterns (e.g. transgressive-regressive parasequences). To test these hypotheses, a regional lithostratigraphic correlation to the nearshore Cottonwood Canyon section is constructed to assess whether prograding sandy parasequences may have altered carbonate sedimentation rates at the SH-1 locality. Initial osmium and δ13C chemostratigraphies are also developed to constrain the timing of perturbations in global geochemical cycles at the initiation of OAE2, including the onset of large

  2. Time-to-Onset Analysis of Drug-Induced Long QT Syndrome Based on a Spontaneous Reporting System for Adverse Drug Events

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaoka, Sayaka; Matsui, Toshinobu; Hane, Yuuki; Abe, Junko; Ueda, Natsumi; Motooka, Yumi; Hatahira, Haruna; Fukuda, Akiho; Naganuma, Misa; HASEGAWA, Shiori; KINOSADA, Yasutomi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a disorder of the heart?s electrical activity that infrequently causes severe ventricular arrhythmias such as a type of ventricular tachycardia called torsade de pointes (TdP) and ventricular fibrillation, which can be fatal. There have been no previous reports on the time-to-onset for LQTS based on data from spontaneous reporting systems. The aim of this study was to assess the time-to-onset of LQTS according to drug treatment. We analyzed the association between 1...

  3. Aphanitic buildup from the onset of the Mulde Event (Homerian, middle Silurian at Whitman's Hill, Herefordshire, UK: ultrastructural insights into proposed microbial fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Filip Päßler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A microbial origin has been proposed for matrix-supported, low-diversity buildups reported from different palaeocontinents during the onset of the Mulde positive carbon isotope excursion. We have investigated a small aphanitic buildup from the Lower Quarried Limestone Member of the Much Wenlock Limestone Formation, exposed at Whitman's Hill (Herefordshire, corresponding to the central part of the Midland Platform (UK. Up to 50% of the rock volume in this buildup consists of mottled micrite. The SEM studies revealed that the micrite is largely detrital and does not show features characteristic of calcareous cyanobacteria or leiolites. The aphanitic character of the buildup is suggested to be controlled by the depositional rate, and the widespread occurrence of matrix-supported reefs in this interval to be driven by a mid-Homerian rapid eustatic transgression.

  4. Serotonin Transporter-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Genotype and Stressful Life Events Interact to Predict Preschool-Onset Depression: A Replication and Developmental Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Tillman, Rebecca; Luby, Joan L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Scientific enthusiasm about gene × environment interactions, spurred by the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region) × SLEs (stressful life events) interaction predicting depression, have recently been tempered by sober realizations of small effects and meta-analyses reaching opposing conclusions. These mixed findings…

  5. Time Trends of Aspirin and Warfarin Use on Stroke and Bleeding Events in Chinese Patients With New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yutao; Wang, Hao; Tian, Yingchun; Wang, Yutang; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2015-07-01

    Much of the clinical epidemiology and treatment patterns for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are derived from Western populations. Limited data are available on antithrombotic therapy use over time and its impact on the stroke or bleeding events in newly diagnosed Chinese patients with AF. The present study investigates time trends in warfarin and aspirin use in China in relation to stroke and bleeding events in a Chinese population. We used a medical insurance database involving > 10 million individuals for the years 2001 to 2012 in Yunnan, a southwestern province of China, and performed time-trend analysis on those with newly diagnosed AF. Cox proportional hazards time-varying exposures were used to determine the risk of stroke or bleeding events associated with antithrombotic therapy among patients with AF. Among the randomly sampled 471,446 participants, there were 1,237 patients with AF, including 921 newly diagnosed with AF, thus providing 4,859 person-years of experience (62% men; mean attained age, 70 years). The overall rate of antithrombotic therapy was 37.7% (347 of 921 patients), with 4.1% (38 of 921) on warfarin and 32.3% (298 of 921) on aspirin. Antithrombotic therapy was not related to stroke/bleeding risk scores (CHADS2 [congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75 years, diabetes, stroke (doubled)] score, P = .522; CHA2DS2-VASc [congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥ 75 years (doubled), diabetes mellitus, stroke or transient ischemic attack (doubled), vascular disease, age 65 to 74 years, and female sex] score, P = .957; HAS-BLED [hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile international normalized ratio, elderly (> 65 years), drugs/alcohol concomitantly] score, P = .095). The use of antithrombotic drugs (mainly aspirin) increased in both women and men over time, with the rate of aspirin increasing from 4.0% in 2007 to 46.1% in 2012 in the former, and from 7.7% in 2007 to 61

  6. Young-Onset Parkinson's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Parkinson's? › Young Onset Parkinson's Young-Onset Parkinson's 1. Symptoms 2. How Is Young-Onset PD ... of the foot Why Is Distinguishing Young-Onset Parkinson's Important? Socially, people who are affected by PD ...

  7. Incidence and risk factors for new-onset diabetes in HIV-infected patients: the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Wit, Stephane; Sabin, Caroline A; Weber, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of diabetes among HIV-infected patients in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) cohort, to identify demographic, HIV-related, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-related factors associated...... with the onset of diabetes, and to identify possible mechanisms for any relationships found. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: D:A:D is a prospective observational study of 33,389 HIV-infected patients; diabetes is a study end point. Poisson regression models were used to assess the relation between diabetes...... and exposure to cART after adjusting for known risk factors for diabetes, CD4 count, lipids, and lipodystrophy. RESULTS: Over 130,151 person-years of follow-up (PYFU), diabetes was diagnosed in 744 patients (incidence rate of 5.72 per 1,000 PYFU [95% CI 5.31-6.13]). The incidence of diabetes increased...

  8. Onset detection in polyphonic music

    OpenAIRE

    Efraimsson, Nils

    2017-01-01

    In music analysis, the beginning of events in a music signal (i.e. sound onset detection) is important for such tasks as sound segmentation, beat recognition and automatic music transcription. The aim of the present work was to make an algorithm for sound onset detection with better performance than other state-of-the-art1 algorithms. Necessary theoretical background for spectral analysis on a sound signal is given with special focus on the Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and the effects ...

  9. Departure from the onset-onset rule

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Siu

    1994-01-01

    Using a signal-detection task, the generality of Turvey's (1973) onset-onset rule was tested in four experiments. After seeing, in succession, (1) one or two letters (target display), (2) a multiletter detection display, and (3) a mask display, subjects decided whether or not the letter or letters in the target display reappeared in the succeeding detection display at different levels of detection-display duration in various situations. The subjects' sensitivity was inconsistent with the onse...

  10. New‐Onset Atrial Fibrillation is Associated With Cardiovascular Events Leading to Death in a First Time Myocardial Infarction Population of 89 703 Patients With Long‐Term Follow‐Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper N; Gislason, Gunnar H; Greve, Anders M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: New-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) is reported to increase the risk of death in myocardial infarction (MI) patients. However, previous studies have reported conflicting results and no data exist to explain the underlying cause of higher death rates in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS...

  11. [Childhood-onset mastocytosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebenhaar, F; Weller, K; Blume-Peytavi, U; Maurer, M

    2012-02-01

    Mastocytoses are a group of rare diseases characterized, in most cases, by a benign proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in different tissues. In children, mastocytosis affects usually exclusively the skin and differs in many aspects from adult-onset mastocytosis. Except for diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis, which is an uncommon subtype of childhood-onset mastocytosis, involvement of the bone marrow or additional extracutaneous organs is rarely seen in children. The prognosis of childhood-onset mastocytosis is usually very good. Compared to adult patients who most commonly experience chronic-stable or slowly progressive disease, mastocytosis in children is mostly transient and self-limiting. In this review, we present and discuss the subtypes of childhood-onset mastocytosis, recent advances in the understanding of their pathogenesis as well as similarities and differences between adult- and childhood-onset mastocytosis.

  12. Cavitation onset caused by acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Kiyama, Akihito; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Daily, David J; Thomson, Scott L; Hurd, Randy; Truscott, Tadd T

    2017-07-24

    Striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom. An intuitive interpretation of this event might label an impulsive force as the culprit in this fracturing phenomenon. However, high-speed photography reveals the formation and collapse of tiny bubbles near the bottom before fracture. This observation indicates that the damaging phenomenon of cavitation is at fault. Cavitation is well known for causing damage in various applications including pipes and ship propellers, making accurate prediction of cavitation onset vital in several industries. However, the conventional cavitation number as a function of velocity incorrectly predicts the cavitation onset caused by acceleration. This unexplained discrepancy leads to the derivation of an alternative dimensionless term from the equation of motion, predicting cavitation as a function of acceleration and fluid depth rather than velocity. Two independent research groups in different countries have tested this theory; separate series of experiments confirm that an alternative cavitation number, presented in this paper, defines the universal criteria for the onset of acceleration-induced cavitation.

  13. Cavitation onset caused by acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Kiyama, Akihito; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Daily, David J.; Thomson, Scott L.; Hurd, Randy; Truscott, Tadd T.

    2017-08-01

    Striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom. An intuitive interpretation of this event might label an impulsive force as the culprit in this fracturing phenomenon. However, high-speed photography reveals the formation and collapse of tiny bubbles near the bottom before fracture. This observation indicates that the damaging phenomenon of cavitation is at fault. Cavitation is well known for causing damage in various applications including pipes and ship propellers, making accurate prediction of cavitation onset vital in several industries. However, the conventional cavitation number as a function of velocity incorrectly predicts the cavitation onset caused by acceleration. This unexplained discrepancy leads to the derivation of an alternative dimensionless term from the equation of motion, predicting cavitation as a function of acceleration and fluid depth rather than velocity. Two independent research groups in different countries have tested this theory; separate series of experiments confirm that an alternative cavitation number, presented in this paper, defines the universal criteria for the onset of acceleration-induced cavitation.

  14. Onset symptoms in paediatric multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Magnus Spangsberg; Sellebjerg, Finn; Blinkenberg, Morten

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Paediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) carries a relatively higher mortality and morbidity than adult MS. Paediatric MS symptoms and paraclinical findings at the first demyelinating event have never before been characterised in a Danish setting. The aim of this study was to compare...... symptoms and paraclinical findings at the first demyelinating event in paediatric MS with those of an adult MS population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 18 subjects with onset of MS relapse before 16 years of age were retrospectively included in the study. Case records were reviewed for symptoms...... at disease onset, cerebrospinal fluid findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evoked potentials at the first demyelinating event. These data were compared with similar nationwide data from adults in Denmark. RESULTS: The median age was 14 (range 10-15) years at the first demyelinating event...

  15. Young-onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruppu, Dulanji K; Matthews, Brandy R

    2013-09-01

    Young-onset dementia is a neurologic syndrome that affects behavior and cognition of patients younger than 65 years of age. Although frequently misdiagnosed, a systematic approach, reliant upon attainment of a detailed medical history, a collateral history, neuropsychological testing, laboratory studies, and neuroimaging, may facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis with subsequent intervention. The differential diagnosis of young-onset dementia is extensive and includes early-onset forms of adult neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, Lewy body dementias, Huntington's disease, and prion disease. Late-onset forms of childhood neurodegenerative conditions may also present as young-onset dementia and include mitochondrial disorders, lysosomal storage disorders, and leukodystrophies. Potentially reversible etiologies including inflammatory disorders, infectious diseases, toxic/metabolic abnormalities, transient epileptic amnesia, obstructive sleep apnea, and normal pressure hydrocephalus also represent important differential diagnostic considerations in young-onset dementia. This review will present etiologies, diagnostic strategies, and options for management of young-onset dementia with comprehensive summary tables for clinical reference. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Early-onset schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hojka Gregorič Kumperščak

    2013-01-01

    Early-onset schizophrenia is defined as schizophrenia with onset before the age of 18 years. While schizophrenia is a very rare disorder in childhood, it becomes increasingly common during adolescence and peaks in early adulthood. Even though childhood and adolescent schizophrenia lie on a continuum with adult schizophrenia and show roughly the same clinical picture, they both have some developmental specifics. They display greater symptom variability making the ...

  17. Onset dominance in lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyman, R L; Zurek, P M; Balakrishnan, U; Chiang, Y C

    1997-03-01

    Saberi and Perrott [Acustica 81, 272-275 (1995)] found that the in-head lateralization of a relatively long-duration pulse train could be controlled by the interaural delay of the single pulse pair that occurs at onset. The present study examined this further, using an acoustic pointer measure of lateralization, with stimulus manipulations designed to determine conditions under which lateralization was consistent with the interaural onset delay. The present stimuli were wideband pulse trains, noise-burst trains, and inharmonic complexes, 250 ms in duration, chosen for the ease with which interaural delays and correlations of select temporal segments of the stimulus could be manipulated. The stimulus factors studied were the periodicity of the ongoing part of the signal as well as the multiplicity and ambiguity of interaural delays. The results, in general, showed that the interaural onset delay controlled lateralization when the steady state binaural cues were relatively weak, either because the spectral components were only sparsely distributed across frequency or because the interaural time delays were ambiguous. Onset dominance can be disrupted by sudden stimulus changes within the train, and several examples of such changes are described. Individual subjects showed strong left-right asymmetries in onset effectiveness. The results have implications for understanding how onset and ongoing interaural delay cues contribute to the location estimates formed by the binaural auditory system.

  18. Studying overt word reading and speech production with event-related fMRI: a method for detecting, assessing, and correcting articulation-induced signal changes and for measuring onset time and duration of articulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Francis, Andrea P; Carr, Thomas H

    2008-01-01

    A quantitative method is introduced for detecting and correcting artifactual signal changes in BOLD time series data arising from the magnetic field warping caused by motion of the articulatory apparatus when speaking aloud, with extensions to detection of subvocal articulatory activity during silent reading. Whole-head images allow the large, spike-like signal changes from the moving tongue and other components of the articulatory apparatus to be detected and localized in time, providing a measure of the time of vocalization onset, the vocalization duration, and also an estimate of the magnitude and shape of the signal change resulting from motion. Data from brain voxels are then examined during the vocalization period, and statistical outliers corresponding to contamination from articulatory motion are removed and replaced by linear interpolation from adjacent, uncontaminated data points. This quantitative approach to cleansing brain time series data of articulatory-motion-induced artifact is combined with a pre-scanning training regimen that reduces gross head movement during reading aloud to the levels observed during reading silently, which can be corrected with available image registration techniques. The combination of quantitative analysis of articulatory motion artifacts and pre-scanning training makes possible a much wider range of tasks involving overt speech than are currently being used in fMRI studies of language and cognition, as well as characterization of subvocal movements of the articulatory apparatus that are relevant to theories of reading skill, verbal rehearsal in working memory, and problem solving.

  19. Onset symptoms in paediatric multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Magnus Spangsberg; Sellebjerg, Finn; Blinkenberg, Morten

    2014-01-01

    at disease onset, cerebrospinal fluid findings, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evoked potentials at the first demyelinating event. These data were compared with similar nationwide data from adults in Denmark. RESULTS: The median age was 14 (range 10-15) years at the first demyelinating event......: 66-100%) of paediatric MS subjects, 77% (CI: 46-95%) had an elevated IgG index and 85% (CI: 55-98%) had oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid. MRI showed characteristic white matter lesions in all children (CI: 80-100%). CONCLUSION: MS symptoms at the first demyelinating event and diagnostic...

  20. Causes for Late onset Alcohol Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard; Andersen, Kjeld

    a full read and quality assessment, only eight studies were included in the final review. Results Inherent differences in measurements, methodologies and outcome measures in the studies, made it impossible to do a meta-analysis. Instead, we performed a descriptive assessment of the results from...... not increase the risk for late-onset AUD. However, the data was insufficient to give a reliable quantification of these associations. Discussion A common problem for the studies included (and the ones excluded as well) was the lack of common definitions of late-onset, “stress” and “traumatic life events...

  1. Late-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    , to objectively confirm asthma. If necessary, a trial of oral or inhaled corticosteroid might be necessary. Asthma can be diagnosed when increased airflow variability is identified in a symptomatic patient, and if the patient does not have a history of exposure, primarily smoking, known to cause chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnosis is asthma even if the patient does not have fully reversible airflow obstruction. Pharmacological therapy in patients with late-onset asthma follows international guidelines, including treatment with the lowest effective dose of inhaled corticosteroid to minimize...... the risk of systemic effects. However, most recommendations are based on extrapolation from findings in younger patients. Comorbidities are very common in patients with late-onset asthma and need to be taken into account in the management of the disease. In conclusion, late-onset asthma is poorly...

  2. Cerebellar pathology in childhood-onset vs. adult-onset essential tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Elan D; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Tate, William J; Kelly, Geoffrey C; Faust, Phyllis L

    2017-10-17

    Although the incidence of ET increases with advancing age, the disease may begin at any age, including childhood. The question arises as to whether childhood-onset ET cases manifest the same sets of pathological changes in the cerebellum as those whose onset is during adult life. We quantified a broad range of postmortem features (Purkinje cell [PC] counts, PC axonal torpedoes, a host of associated axonal changes [PC axonal recurrent collateral count, PC thickened axonal profile count, PC axonal branching count], heterotopic PCs, and basket cell rating) in 60 ET cases (11 childhood-onset and 49 adult-onset) and 30 controls. Compared to controls, childhood-onset ET cases had lower PC counts, higher torpedo counts, higher heterotopic PC counts, higher basket cell plexus rating, and marginally higher PC axonal recurrent collateral counts. The median PC thickened axonal profile count and median PC axonal branching count were two to five times higher in childhood-onset ET than controls, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Childhood-onset and adult-onset ET had similar PC counts, torpedo counts, heterotopic PC counts, basket cell plexus rating, PC axonal recurrent collateral counts, PC thickened axonal profile count and PC axonal branching count. In conclusion, we found that childhood-onset and adult-onset ET shared similar pathological changes in the cerebellum. The data suggest that pathological changes we have observed in the cerebellum in ET are a part of the pathophysiological cascade of events in both forms of the disease and that both groups seem to reach the same pathological endpoints at a similar age of death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Young-Onset Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Kuruppu, Dulanji K; Matthews, Brandy R.

    2013-01-01

    Young-onset dementia (YOD) is an neurological syndrome that affects behavior and cognition of patients younger than 65 years of age. Although frequently misdiagnosed, a systematic approach, reliant upon attainment of detailed medical history, collateral history from an informant, neuropsychological testing, laboratory studies, and neuroimaging, may facilitate earlier and more accurate diagnosis with subsequent intervention. The differential diagnosis of YOD is extensive and includes early-ons...

  4. Parental Age of Onset of Cardiovascular Disease as a Predictor for Offspring Age of Onset of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Anjelica Allport

    Full Text Available The risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD is higher for individuals with a first-degree relative who developed premature CVD (with a threshold at age 55 years for a male or 65 years for a female. However, little is known about the effect that each unit increase or decrease of maternal or paternal age of onset of CVD has on offspring age of onset of CVD. We hypothesized that there is an association between maternal and paternal age of onset of CVD and offspring age of onset of CVD.We used the Framingham Heart Study database and performed conditional imputation for CVD-censored parental age (i.e. parents that didn't experience onset of CVD and Cox proportional regression analysis, with offspring's age of onset of CVD as the dependent variable and parental age of onset of CVD as the primary predictor. Modifiable risk factors in offspring, such as cigarette smoking, body mass index (BMI, diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure (SBP, high-density lipoprotein (HDL level, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL level, were controlled for. Separate analyses were performed for the association between maternal age of onset of CVD and offspring age of onset of CVD and the association between paternal age of onset of CVD and offspring age of onset of CVD.Parental age of onset of CVD was predictive of offspring age of onset of CVD for maternal age of onset of CVD (P < .0001; N = 1401 and for paternal age of onset of CVD (P = 0.0134; N = 1221. A negative estimate of the coefficient of interest signifies that late onset of cardiovascular events in parents is protective of onset of CVD in offspring. Cigarette smoking and HDL level were important associated confounders.Offspring age of onset of cardiovascular disease is significantly associated with both maternal and paternal age of onset CVD. The incorporation of the parameters, maternal or paternal age of onset of CVD, into risk estimate calculators may improve accuracy of identification of high-risk patients in

  5. Early onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadil, Halim; Borazanci, Aimee; Ait Ben Haddou, Elhachmia; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Korniychuk, Elena; Jaffe, Stephen L; Minagar, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Dementia is characterized by a decline in cognitive faculties and occurrence of behavioral abnormalities which interfere with an individual's activities of daily living. Dementing disorders usually affect elderly individuals but may occur in individuals younger than 65 years (early-onset dementia or EOD). EOD is often misdiagnosed or its diagnosis is delayed due to the fact that it has a more varied differential diagnosis than late-onset dementia. EOD affects individuals at the height of their career and productivity and produces devastating consequences and financial loss for the patient's family as well as society. EOD is not uncommon and is diagnosed in up to a third of patients presenting with dementia. Most importantly, some of the causes of EOD are curable which makes the need for a specific and timely diagnosis crucial. The present chapter presents a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of EOD and provides readers with the clinical and neuroimaging features of these disorders as well as important considerations for their diagnostic evaluation. Specifically, the nuances of assessing the history and examination are discussed with careful attention to the various methods of cognitive and behavioral evaluation. A step-wise approach to diagnostic testing is followed by a discussion of anatomical localization, which often aids in identifying specific etiologies. Finally, in order to organize the subject for the reader, the various etiologies are grouped under the general categories of vascular, infectious, toxic-metabolic, immune-mediated, neoplastic/metastatic, and neurodegenerative.

  6. Early onset type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, A; Thomsen, R W; Nielsen, J S

    2017-01-01

    was more frequent and meeting physical activity recommendations less likely in persons with early-onset type 2 DM. CONCLUSIONS: We found a clear age-gradient, with increasing prevalence of clinical and behavioural risk factors the younger the onset age of type 2 DM. Younger persons with early-onset type 2......AIM: To examine the association between early onset of type 2 diabetes (DM) and clinical and behavioural risk factors for later diabetes complications. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 5115 persons with incident type 2 DM enrolled during 2010-2015 in the Danish Centre for Strategic...... Research in Type 2 Diabetes-cohort. We compared risk factors at time of diagnosis among those diagnosed at ≤45 years (early-onset) with diagnosis age 46-55, 56-65 (average-onset = reference), 66-75, and >75 years (late-onset). Prevalence ratios (PRs) were computed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Poor...

  7. Soil Temperature Triggers the Onset of Photosynthesis in Korean Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiabing; Guan, Dexin; Yuan, Fenhui; Wang, Anzhi; Jin, Changjie

    2013-01-01

    In forest ecosystems, the onset of spring photosynthesis may have an important influence on the annual carbon balance. However, triggers for the onset of photosynthesis have yet to be clearly identified, especially for temperate evergreen conifers. The effects of climatic factors on recovery of photosynthetic capacity in a Korean pine forest were investigated in the field. No photosynthesis was detectable when the soil temperature was below 0°C even if the air temperature was far beyond 15°C. The onset of photosynthesis and sap flow was coincident with the time of soil thawing. The rates of recovery of photosynthetic capacity highly fluctuated with air temperature after onset of photosynthesis, and intermittent frost events remarkably inhibited the photosynthetic capacity of the needles. The results suggest that earlier soil thawing is more important than air temperature increases in triggering the onset of photosynthesis in Korean pine in temperate zones under global warming scenarios. PMID:23755227

  8. Effects of negative life experiences on phobia onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, W J

    1999-07-01

    Conditioning theories, stress theories and social psychological theories each suggest that negative life experiences should influence phobia onset, though the patterns of effects suggested by each type of theory are different. Few previous studies have estimated the effects of a broad enough range of life experiences on onset of multiple types of phobia to evaluate patterns of effects. Retrospective data on life experiences and history of phobia from a representative sample of persons 15-54 years old from the US population (the National Comorbidity Survey) are analyzed using discrete-time event history methods. The effects of 12 negative life events and ten chronic childhood adversities on onset of agoraphobia, specific phobia, and social phobia are presented. Three discrete events have unique effects on agoraphobia onset: life threatening accidents, combat in war (for men), and a fire/flood or other natural disaster. Two chronic experiences during childhood have unique effects on specific phobia onset: violence at the hands of one or more adults, and verbal aggression between parents. Sexual assault by a relative and verbal aggression between parents have unique effects on social phobia onset. The effect of sexual assault by a relative on social phobia is confined to women, and to phobias beginning before age 12. Unpredictable and uncontrollable events that threaten or result in physical harm influence agoraphobia onset. Potentially predictable but difficult to control childhood experiences (e.g., chronic parental violence) influence specific phobia onset. Blame is a likely mediator of the effect of sexual abuse on social phobia. No data on perceptions of predictability and controllability of life experiences, or of blame, were available for analysis. These conclusions are therefore based on speculations about social psychological processes that have been supported by previous research and theory.

  9. Early-Onset Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, Elles; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Kate, Mara Ten

    2017-01-01

    of this study was to investigate quality-of-care indicators in subjects with EOD from 3 tertiary memory clinics in 3 European countries. METHODS: We included 1325 newly diagnosed EOD patients, ages 65 years or younger, between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2013, from the Danish Dementia Registry......BACKGROUND: Early-onset dementia (EOD) is a rare condition, with an often atypical clinical presentation, and it may therefore be challenging to diagnose. Specialized memory clinics vary in the type of patients seen, diagnostic procedures applied, and the pharmacological treatment given. The aim...... (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen), the Swedish Dementia Registry ("SveDem", Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm), and the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort (VU University Medical Center). RESULTS: The frequency of EOD among all dementia patients was significantly lower in Copenhagen (410, 20%) and Stockholm (284, 21...

  10. Younger Onset Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansoni, Janet; Duncan, Cathy; Grootemaat, Pamela; Capell, Jacquelin; Samsa, Peter; Westera, Anita

    2016-12-01

    This literature review focused on the experience, care, and service requirements of people with younger onset dementia. Systematic searches of 10 relevant bibliographic databases and a rigorous examination of the literature from nonacademic sources were undertaken. Searches identified 304 articles assessed for relevance and level of evidence, of which 74% were academic literature. The review identified the need for (1) more timely and accurate diagnosis and increased support immediately following diagnosis; (2) more individually tailored services addressing life cycle issues; (3) examination of the service needs of those living alone; (4) more systematic evaluation of services and programs; (5) further examination of service utilization, costs of illness, and cost effectiveness; and (6) current Australian clinical surveys to estimate prevalence, incidence, and survival rates. Although previous research has identified important service issues, there is a need for further studies with stronger research designs and consideration of the control of potentially confounding factors.

  11. Using AMPERE to Identify and Characterize Onsets of Birkeland Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C.; Anderson, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Data from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) was used to study the development of the global Birkeland currents. The integrated total current was used to identify onsets of Birkeland currents preceded by periods of quiescence. Onset events were identified automatically by requiring quiescence for three hours preceding onset, an increase of a specified total current within 40 minutes, and sustained enhanced total current for 30 minutes. Three ranges of total current increase were chosen representing equal numbers of events: 1 to 1.2 MA; 1.2 to 1.5 MA, and greater than 1.5 MA. A Fermi function fit to the total current was used to identify an objective onset time used in superposed epoch analysis. The current onsets are closely correlated with enhancements of magnetospheric forcing as indicated by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) BZ and the solar wind electric field. The dayside current quiescent baseline is seasonally dependent but the time profile preceding and through onset is consistent for all seasons. The average nightside total current baseline and onset profile are independent of season. The nightside onset is delayed relative to the increase of the dayside current and is 2.8 times more rapid than the dayside current increase. The fit AMPERE magnetic perturbations and radial currents were averaged to determine the average spatial development of the currents. While the dayside patterns of Birkeland currents depend on the IMF as expected for convection dependence on IMF BY, the nightside current distributions develop consistently regardless of the sign of the IMF BY and display a persistent Harang discontinuity signature. The analyses reveal that the development and intensification of nightside currents corresponds to strengthening of the currents at all local times. Unexpectedly, the strongest nightside onset occurs first in the post-midnight sector and not near the average sub-storm onset local time.

  12. Early Onset Werner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna İmge Aydoğan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a rare autosomal recessive adult-onset progeroid disorder characterized by the early onset of aged-appearance and age-related metabolic disorders. Symptoms of premature aging usually first develop in the second-third decades of life. We report a 27-year-old female who was admitted to our clinic at the age of eighteen with hyperglycemia. She was diagnosed with diabetes and type 4 dyslipidemia at the age of seven. In her family history, her parents were first cousins and she had three healthy brothers. On her first physical examination; she had bird-like face appearance, global hair loss, beaked nose, short stature and she was overweight. She had global hair loss with gray and thin hair. Hoarseness of voice and hyperkeratosis of skin were observed. She had bilateral cataracts and moderate sensorineural hearing loss. On psychiatric examination, borderline mental retardation was detected. She had severe insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia despite levothyroxine, gemfibrozil, omega-3 and intensive insulin treatment. Routine lipid apheresis was performed to lower the triglyceride levels reaching 5256 mg/dL. She also had focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, hepatosteatosis, osteoporosis and epilepsy. Disease was accompanied by several congenital deformities, such as Rathke’s cleft cyst, angiomyolipoma and femoral neck hypoplasia. WS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by multiple endocrine manifestations as well as soft tissue changes. We present a case of early disturbances that were diagnosed before typical clinical signs and symptoms. We propose that WS should be kept in mind when type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia are diagnosed early in childhood. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 99-104

  13. Depression in young adult psychiatric outpatients: delimiting early onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adriana; Ekselius, Lisa; Ramklint, Mia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in childhood, adolescent and adult onset of depression. Young psychiatric outpatients (n = 156) diagnosed with a lifetime depressive episode were divided into three groups according to age of onset of their first depressive episode: childhood (≤12 years, n = 21), adolescent (13-17 years, n = 58) and early adult onset (18-25 years, n = 77). Participants were assessed by diagnostic interviews and by questionnaires measuring previous life events and childhood developmental delays. Clinical characteristics and various risk factors were compared between groups. This clinical sample was dominated by women, with onset of their first depressive episode occurring during adolescence. Childhood onset was related to an increased number of depressive episodes, higher prevalence of personality disorders, more current social problems and more reported development delays during childhood regarding literacy learning, social skills and memory. They also reported more separation anxiety symptoms and neglect during childhood and more experiences of teenage pregnancies and abortions. Childhood onset of depression is associated with more severe symptoms, more psychosocial risk factors and childhood developmental delays. Because all onset groups shared many features, the results are inconclusive if there are distinct subgroups according to age of onset. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. LATE ONSET ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODAL TACHYCARDIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PENTINGA, ML; MEEDER, JG; CRIJNS, HJGM; DEMUINCK, ED; WIESFELD, ACP; LIE, KI

    AV nodal tachycardia may present at any age, but onset in late adulthood is considered uncommon. To evaluate whether onset of AV nodal tachycardias at older age is related to organic heart disease (possibly setting the stage for re-entry due to degenerative structural changes) 32 consecutive

  15. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics. We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can......The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... be characterized by their occurrence times and the participating books and borrowers. When we characterize events as information objects we focus on concepts like information structures. When viewed as change agents events are phenomena that trigger change. For example, when borrow event occurs books are moved...

  16. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  17. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Serrà

    Full Text Available A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  18. SENTINEL EVENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Robida

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Objective of the article is a two year statistics on sentinel events in hospitals. Results of a survey on sentinel events and the attitude of hospital leaders and staff are also included. Some recommendations regarding patient safety and the handling of sentinel events are given.Methods. In March 2002 the Ministry of Health introduce a voluntary reporting system on sentinel events in Slovenian hospitals. Sentinel events were analyzed according to the place the event, its content, and root causes. To show results of the first year, a conference for hospital directors and medical directors was organized. A survey was conducted among the participants with the purpose of gathering information about their view on sentinel events. One hundred questionnaires were distributed.Results. Sentinel events. There were 14 reports of sentinel events in the first year and 7 in the second. In 4 cases reports were received only after written reminders were sent to the responsible persons, in one case no reports were obtained. There were 14 deaths, 5 of these were in-hospital suicides, 6 were due to an adverse event, 3 were unexplained. Events not leading to death were a suicide attempt, a wrong side surgery, a paraplegia after spinal anaesthesia, a fall with a femoral neck fracture, a damage of the spleen in the event of pleural space drainage, inadvertent embolization with absolute alcohol into a femoral artery and a physical attack on a physician by a patient. Analysis of root causes of sentinel events showed that in most cases processes were inadequate.Survey. One quarter of those surveyed did not know about the sentinel events reporting system. 16% were having actual problems when reporting events and 47% beleived that there was an attempt to blame individuals. Obstacles in reporting events openly were fear of consequences, moral shame, fear of public disclosure of names of participants in the event and exposure in mass media. The majority of

  19. The dawn and dusk electrojet response to substorm onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borälv

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the time delay between substorm onset and related reactions in the dawn and dusk ionospheric electrojets, clearly separated from the nightside located substorm current wedge by several hours in MLT. We looked for substorm onsets occurring over Greenland, where the onset was identified by a LANL satellite and DMI magnetometers located on Greenland. With this setup the MARIA magnetometer network was located at dusk, monitoring the eastward electrojet, and the IMAGE chain at dawn, for the westward jet. In the first few minutes following substorm onset, sudden enhancements of the electrojets were identified by looking for rapid changes in magnetograms. These results show that the speed of information transfer between the region of onset and the dawn and dusk ionosphere is very high. A number of events where the reaction seemed to preceed the onset were explained by either unfavorable instrument locations, preventing proper onset timing, or by the inner magnetosphere's reaction to the Earthward fast flows from the near-Earth neutral line model. Case studies with ionospheric coherent (SuperDARN and incoherent (EISCAT radars have been performed to see whether a convection-induced electric field or enhanced conductivity is the main agent for the reactions in the electrojets. The results indicate an imposed electric field enhancement.Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; electric fields and currents - Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  20. The dawn and dusk electrojet response to substorm onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borälv

    Full Text Available We have investigated the time delay between substorm onset and related reactions in the dawn and dusk ionospheric electrojets, clearly separated from the nightside located substorm current wedge by several hours in MLT. We looked for substorm onsets occurring over Greenland, where the onset was identified by a LANL satellite and DMI magnetometers located on Greenland. With this setup the MARIA magnetometer network was located at dusk, monitoring the eastward electrojet, and the IMAGE chain at dawn, for the westward jet. In the first few minutes following substorm onset, sudden enhancements of the electrojets were identified by looking for rapid changes in magnetograms. These results show that the speed of information transfer between the region of onset and the dawn and dusk ionosphere is very high. A number of events where the reaction seemed to preceed the onset were explained by either unfavorable instrument locations, preventing proper onset timing, or by the inner magnetosphere's reaction to the Earthward fast flows from the near-Earth neutral line model. Case studies with ionospheric coherent (SuperDARN and incoherent (EISCAT radars have been performed to see whether a convection-induced electric field or enhanced conductivity is the main agent for the reactions in the electrojets. The results indicate an imposed electric field enhancement.

    Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; electric fields and currents - Magnetospheric physics (storms and substorms

  1. Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Separation Anxiety Disorder Across Countries in the World Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Gruber, Mike; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; Caldas de Almeida, Jose Miguel; De Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fiestas, Fabian; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Karam, Elie; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Sam; Villa-Posada, Jose; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C

    2015-07-01

    The age-at-onset criterion for separation anxiety disorder was removed in DSM-5, making it timely to examine the epidemiology of separation anxiety disorder as a disorder with onsets spanning the life course, using cross-country data. The sample included 38,993 adults in 18 countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health Surveys. The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to assess a range of DSM-IV disorders that included an expanded definition of separation anxiety disorder allowing onsets in adulthood. Analyses focused on prevalence, age at onset, comorbidity, predictors of onset and persistence, and separation anxiety-related role impairment. Lifetime separation anxiety disorder prevalence averaged 4.8% across countries (interquartile range [25th-75th percentiles]=1.4%-6.4%), with 43.1% of lifetime onsets occurring after age 18. Significant time-lagged associations were found between earlier separation anxiety disorder and subsequent onset of internalizing and externalizing DSM-IV disorders and conversely between these disorders and subsequent onset of separation anxiety disorder. Other consistently significant predictors of lifetime separation anxiety disorder included female gender, retrospectively reported childhood adversities, and lifetime traumatic events. These predictors were largely comparable for separation anxiety disorder onsets in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood and across country income groups. Twelve-month separation anxiety disorder prevalence was considerably lower than lifetime prevalence (1.0% of the total sample; interquartile range=0.2%-1.2%). Severe separation anxiety-related 12-month role impairment was significantly more common in the presence (42.4%) than absence (18.3%) of 12-month comorbidity. Separation anxiety disorder is a common and highly comorbid disorder that can have onset across the lifespan. Childhood adversity and lifetime trauma are important antecedents, and adverse effects on

  2. Event Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to discuss conceptual event modeling within a context of information modeling. Traditionally, information modeling has been concerned with the modeling of a universe of discourse in terms of information structures. However, most interesting universes of discourse...... are dynamic and we present a modeling approach that can be used to model such dynamics.We characterize events as both information objects and change agents (Bækgaard 1997). When viewed as information objects events are phenomena that can be observed and described. For example, borrow events in a library can...

  3. Occurrence of delayed-onset post-traumatic stress disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzon-Frank, Nicolai; Breinegaard, Nina; Bertelsen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops according to consensus criteria within the first 1-6 months after a horrifying traumatic event, but it is alleged that PTSD may develop later. The objective was to review the evidence addressing occurrence of PTSD with onset >6 months after a traumatic...

  4. What is 'early onset dementia'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Koho

    2009-06-01

    There are two types of dementia with early onset: (i) presenile dementias; and (ii) senile dementias with early onset. Most patients who develop dementia before 65 years of age have Alzheimer's disease (AD). The remainder are likely to have vascular dementia (VaD), frontotemporal dementia, head injury, alcohol intoxication, or metabolic disorder. Presenile dementias, caused by frontotemporal lobar degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, and corticobasal degeneration, usually occur in patients of presenile and are rarely seen in patients of senile age. Although the factors responsible for the accelerated onset of the illness are not fully known, genetic abnormalities appear to be important in some types of presenile dementia, such as frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17. Conversely, senile dementias such as sporadic AD and VaD commonly occur in patients of senile age. These disorders may also occur in patients of presenile age, although less frequently. Alzheimer's disease was originally classified as a 'presenile dementia'. Since the 1980s, 'senile dementia of Alzheimer type' (SDAT) and 'Alzheimer's disease' have been considered to belong to the same pathological entity and both are now known as 'dementia of Alzheimer's type (DAT)' or merely 'Alzheimer's disease'. Rapid progression of cognitive impairment with neuropsychological syndromes and neurological symptoms has been considered a characteristic of early onset AD. However, recently, neurological symptoms such as spastic paraparesis, seizures, and myoclonic convulsions have been reported to occur infrequently in early onset AD, although language problems and visuospatial dysfunctions are common. There are at least three dominant genes that have been identified in cases of familial Alzheimer's disease with early onset, namely the amyloid precursor gene (APP), and the genes encoding presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PSEN2). Therefore, genetic abnormalities are important

  5. New-onset diabetes and antihypertensive treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rychlik, Reinhard

    2010-03-01

    publications focused on ACE inhibitors alone or in combination with calcium-channel-blockers, ten publications on ARB and/or ACE inhibitors with respect to their effects on new-onset diabetes or their preventive aspects. Furthermore, five publications investigate the role of calcium-channel-antagonists in the development of diabetes, and five publications indicate the development of new-onset diabetes with different antihypertensive agents amongst each other or in comparison to no antihypertensive treatment. The clinical trials show a significant difference in the development of new-onset diabetes. Therapies with diuretics and/or beta-blockers result in a higher incidence of new-onset diabetes. ARB as well as ACE inhibitors have a preventive effect and calcium-channel-blockers show a neutral position regarding the development of new-onset diabetes. Two publications report on economic results. The first one evaluates the cost-effectiveness of ARB alone or in combination with calcium-channel-blockers in comparison to diuretics alone or in combination with beta-blockers. The second publication compares economic outcomes of calcium-channel-blockers and beta-blockers considering the development of new-onset diabetes. Treatment with the ARB candesartan lead to savings in total costs of 549 US-Dollar per patient and in incremental costs of 30,000 US-Dollar per diabetes mellitus avoided. In the second publication, costs to the amount of 18,965 Euro in Great Britain and 13,210 Euro in Sweden are quoted for an avoided event. The treatment with calcium-channel-blockers compared to beta-blockers is proven to be more cost-effective. No publications were identified regarding ethical, social and legal aspects. Discussion: The available meta-analyses allow for a high clinical evidence level. A few studies vary in terms of diabetes definition and study duration. In most of the trials, the incidence of new-onset diabetes is not an endpoint. The evaluation of treatment-induced diabetes mellitus

  6. Examining determinants of early and late age at onset in panic disorder: an admixture analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibi, Lee; van Oppen, Patricia; Aderka, Idan M; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W; Anholt, Gideon E

    2013-12-01

    Past research demonstrated that age at onset might account for different clinical and etiological characteristics in panic disorder (PD). However, prior research relied on arbitrary choices of age cut-offs. Using a data-driven validated method, this study aimed to examine differences between early and late onset PD in various determinants. Admixture analysis was used to determine the best fitting model of age at onset distribution in PD. Data was collected from 511 individuals (ages 18-65) with PD diagnoses, who participated in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). DSM-IV comorbidities and various measures of childhood adversities, suicidal behavior, anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed. The best fitting cut-off score between early and late age at onset groups was 27 years (early age at onset ≤ 27 years). Univariate tests showed that participants with early onset PD were younger and more likely to be female. Early onset PD was associated with agoraphobia, higher frequency of childhood trauma and life events, and higher rates of suicide attempts as compared to late onset PD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that only current age, childhood trauma and agoraphobia remained significantly associated with early onset PD. Findings suggest that 27 years marks two onset groups in PD, which are slightly distinct. Early onset PD is independently associated with exposure to childhood trauma and increased avoidance. This highlights the importance of subtyping age of onset in PD. Clinical implications are further discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Motion onset does not capture attention when subsequent motion is "smooth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Meera Mary; von Mühlenen, Adrian

    2011-12-01

    Previous research on the attentional effects of moving objects has shown that motion per se does not capture attention. However, in later studies it was argued that the onset of motion does capture attention. Here, we show that this motion-onset effect critically depends on motion jerkiness--that is, the rate at which the moving stimulus is refreshed. Experiment 1 used search displays with a static, a motion-onset, and an abrupt-onset stimulus, while systematically varying the refresh rate of the moving stimulus. The results showed that motion onset only captures attention when subsequent motion is jerky (8 and 17 Hz), not when it is smooth (33 and 100 Hz). Experiment 2 replaced motion onset with continuous motion, showing that motion jerkiness does not affect how continuous motion is processed. These findings do not support accounts that assume a special role for motion onset, but they are in line with the more general unique-event account.

  8. Cutaneous warming promotes sleep onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymann, Roy J E M; Swaab, Dick F; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2005-06-01

    Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin warming and heat loss. We have proposed that these intrinsically occurring changes in core and skin temperatures could modulate neuronal activity in sleep-regulating brain areas (Van Someren EJW, Chronobiol Int 17: 313-54, 2000). We here provide results compatible with this hypothesis. We obtained 144 sleep-onset latencies while directly manipulating core and skin temperatures within the comfortable range in eight healthy subjects under controlled conditions. The induction of a proximal skin temperature difference of only 0.78 +/- 0.03 degrees C (mean +/- SE) around a mean of 35.13 +/- 0.11 degrees C changed sleep-onset latency by 26%, i.e., by 3.09 minutes [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91 to 4.28] around a mean of 11.85 min (CI, 9.74 to 14.41), with faster sleep onsets when the proximal skin was warmed. The reduction in sleep-onset latency occurred despite a small but significant decrease in subjective comfort during proximal skin warming. The induction of changes in core temperature (delta = 0.20 +/- 0.02 degrees C) and distal skin temperature (delta = 0.74 +/- 0.05 degrees C) were ineffective. Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between skin temperature and sleep-onset latency. Also, sleep disruption by ambient temperatures that activate thermoregulatory defense mechanisms has been shown. The present study is the first to experimentally demonstrate a causal contribution to sleep-onset latency of skin temperature manipulations within the normal nocturnal fluctuation range. Circadian and sleep-appetitive behavior-induced variations in skin temperature might act as an input signal to sleep-regulating systems.

  9. Is an onset vortex important for monsoon onset over Kerala?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sankar, S.; Reason, C.

    Inter-annual variability in the formation of the mini warm pool [sea-surface temperature (SST) more than 30 degrees C] over the south eastern Arabian Sea (SEAS) and its role in the formation of the monsoon onset vortex (MOV) has been examined using...

  10. Glacial onset predated Late Ordovician climate cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Alexandre; Donnadieu, Yannick; Le Hir, Guillaume; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Dumas, Christophe; Alvarez-Solas, Jorge; Vandenbroucke, Thijs R. A.

    2016-06-01

    The Ordovician glaciation represents the acme of one of only three major icehouse periods in Earth's Phanerozoic history and is notorious for setting the scene for one of the "big five" mass extinction events. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that drove ice sheet growth remain poorly understood and the final extent of the ice sheet crudely constrained. Here using an Earth system model with an innovative coupling method between ocean, atmosphere, and land ice accounting for climate and ice sheet feedback processes, we report simulations portraying for the first time the detailed evolution of the Ordovician ice sheet. We show that the emergence of the ice sheet happened in two discrete phases. In a counterintuitive sequence of events, the continental ice sheet appeared suddenly in a warm climate. Only during the second act, and set against a background of decreasing atmospheric CO2, followed steeply dropping temperatures and extending sea ice. The comparison with abundant sedimentological, geochemical, and micropaleontological data suggests that glacial onset may have occurred as early as the Middle Ordovician Darriwilian, in agreement with recent studies reporting third-order glacioeustatic cycles during the same period. The second step in ice sheet growth, typified by a sudden drop in tropical sea surface temperatures by ˜8°C and the further extension of a single, continental-scale ice sheet over Gondwana, marked the onset of the Hirnantian glacial maximum. By suggesting the presence of an ice sheet over Gondwana throughout most of the Middle and Late Ordovician, our models embrace the emerging paradigm of an "early Paleozoic Ice Age."

  11. Psychiatric onset of multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, P.J.H.

    2006-01-01

    We present a patient with psychotic disorder as onset of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). In this patient, a 26-year-old female, neurological examination revealed only minor abnormalities. As cranial CT scan was normal, her psychosis was diagnosed as psychogenic. Literature on

  12. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Brown, P; Morris, HR; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor ties were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The ties developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex ties may occur in

  13. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, M. A.; Brown, P.; Morris, H. R.; Lees, A.

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor tics were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The tics developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex tics may occur in

  14. Topography's event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    measure is not there alone since you measure it in something both visual, physical and shaped by views and ideas of society; something thought and abstract. Such knowledge point out the need for being able to measure other factors that visual and physical. Metrical and proportional view of the world seems...... - to stimulate and elaborate the event of conception and topological thinking....

  15. Topography's event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    The aim of the paper is first to discuss how horizon and scale can be understood, secondly how they differ and what they might have in common? If topography can be seen as a way of working with these relations experiences, creations and latencies? Thirdly if diagrams and diagrammatology can bring...... - to stimulate and elaborate the event of conception and topological thinking....

  16. A probabilistic assessment of the rapidity of PETM onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtland Turner, Sandra; Hull, Pincelli M; Kump, Lee R; Ridgwell, Andy

    2017-08-25

    Knowledge of the onset duration of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum-the largest known greenhouse-gas-driven global warming event of the Cenozoic-is central to drawing inferences for future climate change. Single-foraminifera measurements of the associated carbon isotope excursion from Maud Rise (South Atlantic Ocean) are controversial, as they seem to indicate geologically instantaneous carbon release and anomalously long ocean mixing. Here, we fundamentally reinterpret this record and extract the likely PETM onset duration. First, we employ an Earth system model to illustrate how the response of ocean circulation to warming does not support the interpretation of instantaneous carbon release. Instead, we use a novel sediment-mixing model to show how changes in the relative population sizes of calcareous plankton, combined with sediment mixing, can explain the observations. Furthermore, for any plausible PETM onset duration and sampling methodology, we place a probability on not sampling an intermediate, syn-excursion isotopic value. Assuming mixed-layer carbonate production continued at Maud Rise, we deduce the PETM onset was likely <5 kyr.Single-foraminifera measurements of the PETM carbon isotope excursion from Maud Rise have been interpreted as indicating geologically instantaneous carbon release. Here, the authors explain these records using an Earth system model and a sediment-mixing model and extract the likely PETM onset duration.

  17. Mid-Latitude Snowmelt Onset Detection Via Microwave Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuyovich, C.; Jacobs, J. M.; Osborne, D.; Hunsaker, A. G.; Tuttle, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    The timing and magnitude of spring snowmelt events are critical for understanding the winter-to-spring transition of the hydrologic cycle and ecosystem processes. Melt timing determination is challenging because snowpack ripening observations are seldom available. Remotely sensed passive microwave observations show promise for determining snowpack wetting and melt onset at global scales. Studies performed in northern latitude regions verify the theoretical concept of microwave snowmelt detection methods under ideal conditions. However, early winter snowmelt events within mid-latitude regions introduce large regional climate differences that add considerable amounts of noise to the microwave observations. Diurnal Amplitude Variation (DAV), Frequency Difference (FD) and Polarization Ratio (PR) are three methods that use remotely sensed passive microwave observations to determine snowpack wetting and melt onset. This study evaluates the performance of these approaches to determine spring melt onset and early winter flood events in mid-latitudes. The suitability of microwave remote sensing techniques to detect snowmelt was found to vary regionally. Physical characteristics including basin latitude, regional air temperatures, snow depth, snow covered area, forest density, and rain intensity were examined to understand how and why the observed microwave signatures associated with snow cover vary over contrasting regions.

  18. Event Index - a LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00392208; Kazeev, Nikita; Redkin, Artem

    2015-12-23

    LHC experiments generate up to $10^{12}$ events per year. This paper describes Event Index - an event search system. Event Index's primary function is quickly selecting subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or stripping lines output. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Early-onset glaucoma Early-onset glaucoma Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders in which ...

  20. Decadal Variation of the Number of El Nino Onsets and El Nino-Related Months and Estimating the Likelihood of El Nino Onset in a Warming World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Examination of the decadal variation of the number of El Nino onsets and El Nino-related months for the interval 1950-2008 clearly shows that the variation is better explained as one expressing normal fluctuation and not one related to global warming. Comparison of the recurrence periods for El Nino onsets against event durations for moderate/strong El Nino events results in a statistically important relationship that allows for the possible prediction of the onset for the next anticipated El Nino event. Because the last known El Nino was a moderate event of short duration (6 months), having onset in August 2006, unless it is a statistical outlier, one expects the next onset of El Nino probably in the latter half of 2009, with peak following in November 2009-January 2010. If true, then initial early extended forecasts of frequencies of tropical cyclones for the 2009 North Atlantic basin hurricane season probably should be revised slightly downward from near average-to-above average numbers to near average-to-below average numbers of tropical cyclones in 2009, especially as compared to averages since 1995, the beginning of the current high-activity interval for tropical cyclone activity.

  1. Interpersonal problem areas and onset of panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scocco, P; Barbieri, I; Frank, E

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that stressful life events are key precipitants of psychological disturbances. Severe stress often precedes the onset or exacerbation of illness in vulnerable individuals and may be of primary importance in the genesis of some mental disorders. Several authors have suggested that major life events play a role in the development of panic-related symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the presence of stressful life events, in particular events focused in the interpersonal psychotherapy problem areas (grief, role disputes, role transitions, interpersonal deficits), in patients suffering from panic disorder. We interviewed 55 patients suffering from panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, in accordance with the diagnostic criteria specified in MINI PLUS. The panic attack profile was evaluated with the Panic Attack and Anticipatory Anxiety Scale. We assessed the ability to adapt to and derive satisfaction from the social environment with the Social Adjustment Scale Self Report and interpersonal problems with Interpersonal Questionnaire. Using the Interpersonal Questionnaire we found that all subjects had had relevant interpersonal problems in the year preceding the onset of PD: 92.7% had experienced a role transition, 85.5% interpersonal deficits, 74.5% a role dispute and 38.2% had suffered the loss of a relative or significant other. These results were confirmed by Paykel's scale, on which the whole sample reported a high frequency of life events in the 6 months before onset of illness. These preliminary data suggest a rationale for the therapeutic strategies of interpersonal psychotherapy in individuals with panic disorder.

  2. Events diary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    as Imperial College, the Royal Albert Hall, the Royal College of Art, the Natural History and Science Museums and the Royal Geographical Society. Under the heading `Shaping the future together' BA2000 will explore science, engineering and technology in their wider cultural context. Further information about this event on 6 - 12 September may be obtained from Sandra Koura, BA2000 Festival Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science, 23 Savile Row, London W1X 2NB (tel: 0171 973 3075, e-mail: sandra.koura@britassoc.org.uk ). Details of the creating SPARKS events may be obtained from creating.sparks@britassoc.org.uk or from the website www.britassoc.org.uk . Other events 3 - 7 July, Porto Alegre, Brazil VII Interamerican conference on physics education: The preparation of physicists and physics teachers in contemporary society. Info: IACPE7@if.ufrgs.br or cabbat1.cnea.gov.ar/iacpe/iacpei.htm 27 August - 1 September, Barcelona, Spain GIREP conference: Physics teacher education beyond 2000. Info: www.blues.uab.es/phyteb/index.html

  3. Asynchronous Detection of Trials Onset from Raw EEG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Gordo, M A; Grima Murcia, M D; Padilla, Pablo; Pelayo, F; Fernandez, E

    2016-11-01

    Clinical processing of event-related potentials (ERPs) requires a precise synchrony between the stimulation and the acquisition units that are guaranteed by means of a physical link between them. This precise synchrony is needed since temporal misalignments during trial averaging can lead to high deviations of peak times, thus causing error in diagnosis or inefficiency in classification in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Out of the laboratory, mobile EEG systems and BCI headsets are not provided with the physical link, thus being inadequate for acquisition of ERPs. In this study, we propose a method for the asynchronous detection of trials onset from raw EEG without physical links. We validate it with a BCI application based on the dichotic listening task. The user goal was to attend the cued auditory message and to report three keywords contained in it while ignoring the other message. The BCI goal was to detect the attended message from the analysis of auditory ERPs. The rate of successful onset detection in both synchronous (using the real onset) and asynchronous (blind detection of trial onset from raw EEG) was 73% with a synchronization error of less than 1[Formula: see text]ms. The level of synchronization provided by this proposal would allow home-based acquisition of ERPs with low cost BCI headsets and any media player unit without physical links between them.

  4. Symptom onset in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Baena, Natalia; Aisen, Paul S.; Bird, Thomas; Danek, Adrian; Fox, Nick C.; Goate, Alison; Frommelt, Peter; Ghetti, Bernardino; Langbaum, Jessica B.S.; Lopera, Francisco; Martins, Ralph; Masters, Colin L.; Mayeux, Richard P.; McDade, Eric; Moreno, Sonia; Reiman, Eric M.; Ringman, John M.; Salloway, Steve; Schofield, Peter R.; Sperling, Reisa; Tariot, Pierre N.; Xiong, Chengjie; Morris, John C.; Bateman, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors influencing age at symptom onset and disease course in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD), and develop evidence-based criteria for predicting symptom onset in ADAD. Methods: We have collected individual-level data on ages at symptom onset and death from 387 ADAD pedigrees, compiled from 137 peer-reviewed publications, the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) database, and 2 large kindreds of Colombian (PSEN1 E280A) and Volga German (PSEN2 N141I) ancestry. Our combined dataset includes 3,275 individuals, of whom 1,307 were affected by ADAD with known age at symptom onset. We assessed the relative contributions of several factors in influencing age at onset, including parental age at onset, age at onset by mutation type and family, and APOE genotype and sex. We additionally performed survival analysis using data on symptom onset collected from 183 ADAD mutation carriers followed longitudinally in the DIAN Study. Results: We report summary statistics on age at onset and disease course for 174 ADAD mutations, and discover strong and highly significant (p 0.38) correlations between individual age at symptom onset and predicted values based on parental age at onset and mean ages at onset by mutation type and family, which persist after controlling for APOE genotype and sex. Conclusions: Significant proportions of the observed variance in age at symptom onset in ADAD can be explained by family history and mutation type, providing empirical support for use of these data to estimate onset in clinical research. PMID:24928124

  5. The Indian Summer Monsoon onset revisited: new approach based on the analysis of historical wind observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoñez, Paulina; Gallego, David; Ribera, Pedro; Peña-Ortiz, Cristina; Garcia-Herrera, Ricardo; Vega, Inmaculada; Gómez, Francisco de Paula

    2016-04-01

    The Indian Summer Monsoon onset is one of the meteorological events most anticipated in the world. Due to its relevance for the population, the India Meteorological Department has dated the onset over the southern tip of the Indian Peninsula (Kerala) since 1901. The traditional method to date the onset was based in the judgment of skilled meteorologist and because of this, the method was considered subjective and not adequate for the study of long-term changes in the onset. A new method for determining the monsoon onset based solely on objective criteria has been in use since 2006. Unfortunately, the new method relies -among other variables- on OLR measurements. This requirement impedes the construction of an objective onset series before the satellite era. An alternative approach to establish the onset by objective methods is the use of the wind field. During the last decade, some works have demonstrated that the changes in the wind direction in some areas of the Indian Ocean can be used to determine the monsoon onset rather precisely. However, this method requires precise wind observations over a large oceanic area which has limited the periods covered for such kind of indices to those of the reanalysis products. In this work we present a new approach to track the Indian monsoon onset based solely on historical wind direction measurements taken onboard ships. Our new series provides an objective record of the onset since the last decade of the 19th century and perhaps more importantly, it can incorporate any new historical wind record not yet known in order to extend the series length. The new series captures quite precisely the rapid precipitation increase associated to the monsoon onset, correlates well with previous approaches and it is robust against anomalous (bogus) onsets. Although no significant trends in the onset date were detected, a tendency to later than average onsets during the 1900-1925 and 1970-1990 periods and earlier than average onsets between

  6. Spring bloom onset in the Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot, Alexandre; Ferrari, Raffaele; Mork, Kjell Arne

    2016-06-01

    The North Atlantic spring bloom is a massive annual growth event of marine phytoplankton, tiny free-floating algae that form the base of the ocean's food web and generates a large fraction of the global primary production of organic matter. The conditions that trigger the onset of the spring bloom in the Nordic Seas, at the northern edge of the North Atlantic, are studied using in situ data from six bio-optical floats released north of the Arctic Circle. It is often assumed that spring blooms start as soon as phytoplankton cells daily irradiance is sufficiently abundant that division rates exceed losses. The bio-optical float data instead suggest the tantalizing hypothesis that Nordic Seas blooms start when the photoperiod, the number of daily light hours experienced by phytoplankton, exceeds a critical value, independently of division rates. The photoperiod trigger may have developed at high latitudes where photosynthesis is impossible during polar nights and phytoplankton enters into a dormant stage in winter. While the first accumulation of biomass recorded by the bio-optical floats is consistent with the photoperiod hypothesis, it is possible that some biomass accumulation started before the critical photoperiod but at levels too low to be detected by the fluorometers. More precise observations are needed to test the photoperiod hypothesis.

  7. Post-Traumatic Late Onset Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gencer Genc

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artery-to-artery emboli or occlusion of craniocervical arteries mostly due to dissection are the most common causes of ischemia after trauma. A 29 year-old male had been admitted to another hospital with loss of consciousness lasting for about 45 minutes after a hard parachute landing without head trauma three days ago. As his neurological examination and brain CT were normal, he had been discharged after 24 hours of observation. Two days after his discharge, he was admitted to our department with epileptic seizure. His neurological examination revealed left hemianopia. After observing occipital subacute ischemia at right side in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, we performed cerebral angiography and no dissection was observed. Excluding the rheumatologic, cardiologic and vascular events, our final diagnosis was late onset cerebral ischemia. Anti-edema and antiepileptic treatment was initiated. He was discharged with left hemianopia and mild cognitive deficit. We suggest that it will be wise to hospitalize patients for at least 72 hours who has a history of unconsciousness following trauma.

  8. Factor analysis of symptom profile in early onset and late onset OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sandeep; Sarkar, Siddharth; Gupta, Gourav; Kate, Natasha; Ghosh, Abhishek; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2017-10-02

    This study aimed to assess the factor structure of early and late onset OCD. Additionally, cluster analysis was conducted in the same sample to assess the applicability of the factors. 345 participants were assessed with Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. Patients were classified as early onset (onset of symptoms at age ≤ 18 years) and late onset (onset at age > 18 years) OCD depending upon the age of onset of the symptoms. Factor analysis and cluster analysis of early-onset and late-onset OCD was conducted. The study sample comprised of 91 early onset and 245 late onset OCD subjects. Males were more common in the early onset group. Differences in the frequency of phenomenology related to contamination related, checking, repeating, counting and ordering/arranging compulsions were present across the early and late onset groups. Factor analysis of YBOCS revealed a 3 factor solution for both the groups, which largely concurred with each other. These factors were named as hoarding and symmetry (factor-1), contamination (factor-2) and aggressive, sexual and religious factor (factor-3). To conclude this study shows that factor structure of symptoms of OCD seems to be similar between early-onset and late-onset OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Observational evidence for an inside-out substorm onset scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Michael G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We present observations which provide strong support for a substorm onset scenario in which a localized inner magnetospheric instability developed first and was later followed by the development of a Near Earth Neutral Line (NENL) farther down-tail. Specifically, we find that the onset began as a localized brightening of an intensified growth phase arc which developed as a periodic series of arc-aligned (i.e. azimuthally arrayed) bright spots. As the disturbance grew, it evolved into vortical structures that propagated poleward and eventually morphed into an east-west aligned arc system at the poleward edge of the auroral substorm bulge. The auroral intensification shows an exponential growth with an estimated e-folding time of around 188 seconds (linear growth rate, {gamma} of 5.33 x 10{sup -3} s{sup -1}). During the initial breakup, no obvious distortions of auroral forms to the north were observed. However, during the expansion phase, intensifications of the poleward boundary of the expanding bulge were observed together with the equatorward ejection of auroral streamers into the bulge. A strong particle injection was observed at geosynchronous orbit, but was delayed by several minutes relative to onsel. Ground magnetometer data also shows a two phase development of mid-latitude positive H-bays, with a quasi-linear increase in H between the onset and the injection. We conclude that this event provides strong evidence in favor of the so-called 'inside-out' substorm onset scenario in which the near Earth region activates first followed at a later time by the formation of a near-to-mid tail substorm X-line. The ballooning instability is discussed as a likely mechanism for the initial onset.

  10. Assessing the level of spatial homogeneity of the agronomic Indian monsoon onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Rory G. J.; Parker, Douglas J.; Willetts, Peter D.

    2016-11-01

    Over monsoon regions, such as the Indian subcontinent, the local onset of persistent rainfall is a crucial event in the annual climate for agricultural planning. Recent work suggested that local onset dates are spatially coherent to a practical level over West Africa; a similar assessment is undertaken here for the Indian subcontinent. Areas of coherent onset, defined as local onset regions or LORs, exist over the studied region. These LORs are significant up to the 95% confidence interval and are primarily clustered around the Arabian Sea (adjacent to and extending over the Western Ghats), the Monsoon Trough (north central India), and the Bay of Bengal. These LORs capture regions where synoptic scale controls of onset may be present and identifiable. In other regions, the absence of LORs is indicative of regions where local and stochastic factors may dominate onset. A potential link between sea surface temperature anomalies and LOR variability is presented. Finally, Kerala, which is often used as a representative onset location, is not contained within an LOR suggesting that variability here may not be representative of wider onset variability.

  11. Event dependent sampling of recurrent events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Per Kragh; Angst, Jules

    2010-01-01

    The effect of event-dependent sampling of processes consisting of recurrent events is investigated when analyzing whether the risk of recurrence increases with event count. We study the situation where processes are selected for study if an event occurs in a certain selection interval. Motivation...

  12. Future Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adli Tıp Uzmanları Derneği ATUD

    2010-04-01

    ://www.amc.edu/Academic/CME/ Upcoming_ Events.html QCLG-meeting 2011 26 November 2011, 29 November 2011 Brussels, Belgium URL: http://www.enfsi.eu/page.php?uid=2 ENFSI Joint Meeting 01 December 2011, 02 December 2011 The Hague (NFI, The Netherlands URL: http://www.enfsi.eu/page.php?uid=2 Bloodstain Pattern Recognition - Basic course 05 December 2011, 09 December 2011 The Hague, The Netherlands URL: http://www.enfsi.eu/page.php?uid= Expert Witness Intensive Training Course - 2 Day December 8th to 9th 2011 United Kingdom /London URL: http://www.healthcareconferencesuk.co.uk/ expert_witness 6th USA Pacific Medical & Legal Conference December 13th to 20th 2011 New York /USA URL: http://www.conferences21 .com/index.php? menu=home 12th Annual Multispecialty Conference on Medical Negligence & Risk Management in Medicine, Surgery, Emergency Medicine, Radiology & Family Medicine January 5th to 8th 2012 Costa Rica / URL http://www.bumc.bu.edu/cme/educational-opportunities/live-meetings/oblawl2/ 16th Annual Europe Pacific Medical & Legal Conference January 8th to 15th 2012 Italy /Cortina D’Ampezzo URL: http://www.conferences21.com/index.php? menu = home 3rd International Workshop on Medical Image Analysis and Description for Diagnosis Systems(MIAD 2012 1- 4 February 2012 Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal URL: http://www.biostec.org/MIAD.asp 3rd International Conference on Current Trends in Forensic Sciences, Forensic Medicine & Toxicology February 3rd to 5th 2012 India /Jaipur URL: http://www.iamleconf.in/home 3rd International Conference on Legal Medicine, Medical Negligence & Litigation in Medical Practice February 3rd to 5th 2012 India /Jaipur URL http://www.iamleconf.in/ 12th Annual Pan Europe Pacific Medical & Legal Conference February 5th to 12th 2012 France /Paris URL: http://www.conferences21.com/index.php? menu=home American College of Legal Medicine 2012 Annual Conference February 23rd to 26th 2012 Louisiana /New Orleans USA URL: http://www.aclm.org/

  13. Event Index - an LHCb Event Search System

    CERN Document Server

    Ustyuzhanin, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    During LHC Run 1, the LHCb experiment recorded around 1011 collision events. This paper describes Event Index | an event search system. Its primary function is to quickly select subsets of events from a combination of conditions, such as the estimated decay channel or number of hits in a subdetector. Event Index is essentially Apache Lucene [1] optimized for read-only indexes distributed over independent shards on independent nodes.

  14. Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Kari A.; Anderson-Berry, Ann L.; Delair, Shirley F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Early-onset sepsis remains a common and serious problem for neonates, especially preterm infants. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common etiologic agent, while Escherichia coli is the most common cause of mortality. Current efforts toward maternal intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis have significantly reduced the rates of GBS disease but have been associated with increased rates of Gram-negative infections, especially among very-low-birth-weight infants. The diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is based on a combination of clinical presentation; the use of nonspecific markers, including C-reactive protein and procalcitonin (where available); blood cultures; and the use of molecular methods, including PCR. Cytokines, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and cell surface antigens, including soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and CD64, are also being increasingly examined for use as nonspecific screening measures for neonatal sepsis. Viruses, in particular enteroviruses, parechoviruses, and herpes simplex virus (HSV), should be considered in the differential diagnosis. Empirical treatment should be based on local patterns of antimicrobial resistance but typically consists of the use of ampicillin and gentamicin, or ampicillin and cefotaxime if meningitis is suspected, until the etiologic agent has been identified. Current research is focused primarily on development of vaccines against GBS. PMID:24396135

  15. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA (800) ...

  16. Gastrointestinal events with clopidogrel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Würtz, Morten; Schwarz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events.......Clopidogrel prevents cardiovascular events, but has been linked with adverse gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly bleeding events....

  17. Phenobarbitone versus phenytoin monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephen; Smith, Catrin Tudur; Williamson, Paula R; Marson, Anthony G

    2014-01-01

    Background This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 4, 2001. Worldwide, phenytoin and phenobarbitone are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. They are more likely to be used in the developing world than the developed world, primarily because they are inexpensive. The aim of this review is to summarize data from existing trials comparing phenytoin and phenobarbitone. Objectives To review the effects of phenobarbitone compared to phenytoin when used as monotherapy in patients with partial onset seizures or generalized tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalized seizure types. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group trials register (20 October 2009), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2009) and MEDLINE (1950 to October week 2, 2009). In addition, we handsearched relevant journals, and contacted pharmaceutical companies and researchers in the field to seek any ongoing or unpublished studies. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials in children or adults with partial onset seizures or generalized onset tonic-clonic seizures. Trials must have included a comparison of phenobarbitone monotherapy with phenytoin monotherapy. Data collection and analysis This was an individual patient data review. Outcomes were time to (a) withdrawal of allocated treatment, (b) 12-month remission and (c) first seizure post randomization. Data were analyzed using a stratified logrank analysis with results expressed as hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), where a HR > 1 indicates an event is more likely to occur earlier on phenobarbitone than phenytoin. Main results To date, data have been obtained for four of ten studies meeting the inclusion criteria, amounting to 599 individuals, or approximately 65% of the potential data. The main overall results (HR) were (a) time to treatment withdrawal 1.62 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 2.14); (b) time to 12-month

  18. Creating Special Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    deLisle, Lee

    2009-01-01

    "Creating Special Events" is organized as a systematic approach to festivals and events for students who seek a career in event management. This book looks at the evolution and history of festivals and events and proceeds to the nuts and bolts of event management. The book presents event management as the means of planning, organizing, directing,…

  19. Substorm onset location and dipole tilt angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wanliss

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From an initial data set of over 200 substorms we have studied a subset of 30 magnetospheric substorms close to magnetic midnight to investigate, in a statistical fashion, the source region of the auroral arc that brightens at the onset of expansive phase. This arc is usually identified as the ionospheric signature of the expansive phase onset that occurs in the magnetotail. All the substorm onsets were identified via ground-based magnetometer and photometer data from the CANOPUS array. Various Tsyganenko global magnetic field models were used to map magnetic field lines from the location of the onset arc out to its greatest radial distance in the magnetotail. The results appear to favour the current disruption model of substorms since the average onset location has an average of 14.1 Earth radii (RE and is therefore more consistent with theories that place the onset location in the inner magnetotail. For the narrow range of tilts available our modeling indicates the parameter that appears to strongly influence the location of the substorm onset is the dipole tilt angle; as tilt becomes less negative onsets occur further downtail.

  20. Substorm onset location and dipole tilt angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wanliss

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available From an initial data set of over 200 substorms we have studied a subset of 30 magnetospheric substorms close to magnetic midnight to investigate, in a statistical fashion, the source region of the auroral arc that brightens at the onset of expansive phase. This arc is usually identified as the ionospheric signature of the expansive phase onset that occurs in the magnetotail. All the substorm onsets were identified via ground-based magnetometer and photometer data from the CANOPUS array. Various Tsyganenko global magnetic field models were used to map magnetic field lines from the location of the onset arc out to its greatest radial distance in the magnetotail. The results appear to favour the current disruption model of substorms since the average onset location has an average of 14.1 Earth radii (RE and is therefore more consistent with theories that place the onset location in the inner magnetotail. For the narrow range of tilts available our modeling indicates the parameter that appears to strongly influence the location of the substorm onset is the dipole tilt angle; as tilt becomes less negative onsets occur further downtail.

  1. Late-onset offending: fact or fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiecko, Filip M

    2014-01-01

    This research focuses on a detailed exploration of late-onset offending. Using the National Youth Survey, this work seeks to answer three questions. First, is late-onset offending a real phenomenon? Second, if late onset does exist, is the evidence for it conditioned by how we define crime and delinquency? Finally, is late-onset offending an artifact of measurement methodology? Most literature evidencing late onset relies on official police contact and arrest data. Propensity or control theories in general posit that late onset should not exist. Propensity, namely self-control, should be instilled early in life and if absent, results in early initiation into crime and delinquency. Research in developmental psychology seems to support this notion. The findings from this study indicate that late-onset offending is almost nonexistent when self-reported measures are used leading one to conclude that contemporary evidence for late-onset is heavily conditioned by how we measure crime and delinquency. A comprehensive discussion includes future directions for research, and implications for theory development and methodology.

  2. The diagnosis of young-onset dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossor, Martin N; Fox, Nick C; Mummery, Catherine J; Schott, Jonathan M; Warren, Jason D

    2010-01-01

    A diagnosis of dementia is devastating at any age but diagnosis in younger patients presents a particular challenge. The differential diagnosis is broad as late presentation of metabolic disease is common and the burden of inherited dementia is higher in these patients than in patients with late-onset dementia. The presentation of the common degenerative diseases of late life, such as Alzheimer's disease, can be different when presenting in the fifth or sixth decade. Moreover, many of the young-onset dementias are treatable. The identification of causative genes for many of the inherited degenerative dementias has led to an understanding of the molecular pathology, which is also applicable to later-onset sporadic disease. This understanding offers the potential for future treatments to be tailored to a specific diagnosis of both young-onset and late-onset dementia. PMID:20650401

  3. Extreme events in Faraday waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzmann, Horst; Shats, Michael; Xia, Hua

    2014-05-01

    Observations of extreme wave events in the ocean are rare due to their low statistical probability. In the laboratory however, the evolution of extreme wave events can be studied in great detail with high spatial and temporal resolution. The reported surface wave experiments in the short wavelength gravity-capillary range aim to contribute to the understanding of some of the underlying mechanisms for rogue wave generation. In this talk, we report on extreme wave events in parametrically excited Faraday waves. Faraday waves appear if a fluid is accelerated (normal to the fluid surface) above a critical threshold. A variety of novel tools have been deployed to characterize the 2D surface elevation. The results presented show spatio-temporal and statistical data on the surface wave conditions leading up to extreme wave events. The peak in wave amplitude during such an event is shown to exceed six times the standard deviation of the average wave field with significantly increased statistical probability compared to the background wave field [1]. The experiments also show that parametrically excited waves can be viewed as assembles of oscillons [2] (or oscillating solitons) where modulation instability seems to play a crucial role in their formation. More detailed studies on the oscillon dynamics reveal that the onset of an increased probability of extreme wave events correlates with the increase in the oscillons mobility and merger [3]. Reference: 1. Xia H., Maimbourg T., Punzmann H., and Shats M., Oscillon dynamics and rogue wave generation in Faraday surface ripples, Physical Review Letters 109, 114502 (2012) 2. Shats M., Xia H., and Punzmann H., Parametrically excited water surface ripples as ensembles of oscillons, Physical Review Letters 108, 034502 (2012) 3. Shats M., Punzmann H., Xia H., Capillary rogue waves, Physical Review Letters, 104, 104503 (2010)

  4. Previous Mental Disorders and Subsequent Onset of Chronic Back or Neck Pain: Findings From 19 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Maria Carmen; Lim, Carmen C W; Garcia Pereira, Flavia; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Benjet, Corina; Cardoso, Graça; Florescu, Silvia; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, José; Rabczenko, Daniel; Kessler, Ronald C; Scott, Kate M

    2018-01-01

    Associations between depression/anxiety and pain are well established, but its directionality is not clear. We examined the associations between temporally previous mental disorders and subsequent self-reported chronic back/neck pain onset, and investigated the variation in the strength of associations according to timing of events during the life course, and according to gender. Data were from population-based household surveys conducted in 19 countries (N = 52,095). Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of 16 mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and the occurrence and age of onset of back/neck pain were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Survival analyses estimated the associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent back/neck pain onset. All mental disorders were positively associated with back/neck pain in bivariate analyses; most (12 of 16) remained so after adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Early-onset disorders were stronger predictors of pain; when adjusting for psychiatric comorbidity, this remained the case for depression/dysthymia. No gender differences were observed. In conclusion, individuals with mental disorder, beyond depression and anxiety, are at higher risk of developing subsequent back/neck pain, stressing the importance of early detection of mental disorders, and highlight the need of assessing back/neck pain in mental health clinical settings. Previous mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition are positively associated with subsequent back/neck pain onset, with a clear dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and subsequent pain. Earlier-onset mental disorders are stronger predictors of subsequent pain onset, compared with later-onset disorders

  5. Acute and chronic onset of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS): are they different entities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher H; Sharples, Linda D; McNeil, Keith; Stewart, Susan; Wallwork, John

    2002-06-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), defined as an irreversible, staged decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)), is an established marker of obliterative bronchiolitis. Potential causes of BOS include sub-clinical chronic rejection and/or exaggerated healing response following acute injury. BOS may thus result from two or more distinct processes, both acute and chronic. A total of 5,916 measurements of FEV(1) from 204 lung transplant recipients surviving at least 6 months after transplantation were analyzed. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 13 years. By adjusting for the acute effects of rejection, pulmonary infection and measurement variation on FEV(1) trace, patients either had a linear decline characterized by a single acute drop in FEV(1) of >15% at BOS onset, or a chronic linear decline in FEV(1). The fraction having acute onset was estimated. Acute events occurring within the first 6 months were assessed as risk factors for acute onset BOS. Of the 204 patients, 8% died before BOS onset and 18% were BOS-free at analysis. For 18% of patients, BOS onset followed a chronic linear decline in FEV(1) of 3.7% per year, with a median time of BOS onset >99 months. For 56% of patients, BOS onset followed an acute drop in FEV(1) of median 33.8% (95% CI 19.1% to 39.7%), with median onset time of 52 months. During the first 6 months, acute rejection was significantly and independently associated with acute onset of BOS (relative risk = 1.15 per episode, 95% CI [1.03 to 1.29], p = 0.01), whereas pulmonary infection and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection were not. Acute BOS onset followed a documented acute event in the previous 6 months in 38 of 114 (33%) of cases. BOS likely reflects more than one process. Compared with those who had a slow linear decline in lung function, acute BOS onset was associated with acute rejection in the first 6 months, was often triggered by an acute event and had poor prognosis, with obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) the main

  6. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Regens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur.

  7. Eslicarbazepine Acetate Monotherapy: A Review in Partial-Onset Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Matt; Dhillon, Sohita

    2016-04-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®)) is a once-daily, orally administered antiepileptic drug (AED) approved previously in the EU, USA and several other countries for use as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Based on the findings of two randomized, dose-blinded, conversion-to-monotherapy phase III trials in patients with uncontrolled partial epilepsy, the US license for eslicarbazepine acetate has recently been expanded to include use as monotherapy for partial-onset seizures. The pivotal trials demonstrated that seizure control following conversion from other AEDs was superior for eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy (1200 or 1600 mg once daily) compared with a pseudo-placebo historical control. Other efficacy outcomes appeared to support the benefit of treatment, with up to 10 % of patients remaining seizure free and up to 46 % of patients experiencing a ≥50 % reduction from baseline in standardized seizure frequency during the monotherapy periods of the trials. Eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy was generally well tolerated, with most treatment-emergent adverse events being mild to moderate in severity. Its tolerability profile was generally consistent with the established profile of the drug based on its use as adjunctive therapy. Thus, once-daily eslicarbazepine acetate, either as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy, represents a useful option for the treatment of patients with partial-onset seizures. The recent licensing of the drug in the USA as monotherapy expands the range of treatment options for patients with partial-onset seizures and increases the opportunity to tailor therapy to the individual patient.

  8. Delay in solar energetic particle onsets at high heliographic latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dalla

    Full Text Available Ulysses observations have shown that solar energetic particles (SEPs can easily reach high heliographic latitudes. To obtain information on the release and propagation of SEPs prior to their arrival at Ulysses, we analyse the onsets of nine large high-latitude particle events. We measure the onset times in several energy channels, and plot them versus inverse particle speed. This allows us to derive an experimental path length and time of release from the solar atmosphere. We repeat the procedure for near-Earth observations by Wind and SOHO. We find that the derived path lengths at Ulysses are 1.06 to 2.45 times the length of a Parker spiral magnetic field line connecting the spacecraft to the Sun. The time of particle release from the Sun is between 100 and 350 min later than the release time derived from in-ecliptic measurements. We find no evidence of correlation between the delay in release and the inverse of the speed of the CME associated with the event, or the inverse of the speed of the corresponding interplanetary shock. The main parameter determining the magnitude of the delay appears to be the difference in latitude between the flare and the footpoint of the spacecraft.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (energetic particles, flares and mass ejections

  9. Delay in solar energetic particle onsets at high heliographic latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dalla

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Ulysses observations have shown that solar energetic particles (SEPs can easily reach high heliographic latitudes. To obtain information on the release and propagation of SEPs prior to their arrival at Ulysses, we analyse the onsets of nine large high-latitude particle events. We measure the onset times in several energy channels, and plot them versus inverse particle speed. This allows us to derive an experimental path length and time of release from the solar atmosphere. We repeat the procedure for near-Earth observations by Wind and SOHO. We find that the derived path lengths at Ulysses are 1.06 to 2.45 times the length of a Parker spiral magnetic field line connecting the spacecraft to the Sun. The time of particle release from the Sun is between 100 and 350 min later than the release time derived from in-ecliptic measurements. We find no evidence of correlation between the delay in release and the inverse of the speed of the CME associated with the event, or the inverse of the speed of the corresponding interplanetary shock. The main parameter determining the magnitude of the delay appears to be the difference in latitude between the flare and the footpoint of the spacecraft.Key words. Interplanetary physics (energetic particles – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (energetic particles, flares and mass ejections

  10. Eslicarbazepine acetate as adjunctive treatment in partial-onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, S; Cagnetti, C; Foschi, N; Lorusso, A; Provinciali, L; Silvestrini, M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the clinical response to eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) as add-on therapy in adult patients with partial-onset epilepsy by means of the time-to-baseline seizure count method. We retrospectively identified consecutive patients with partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization, prescribed to ESL add-on therapy. The primary endpoint was the time-to-baseline monthly seizure count. Subgroup analysis was performed according to carbamazepine (CBZ)/oxcarbazepine (OXC) status (prior vs never use). Secondary outcomes were the rate of treatment-related adverse events (AEs) and the AEs affecting ≥5% of patients. One-hundred and eighteen patients were included. The median time-to-baseline monthly seizure count was 46 (35-101) days in the overall study cohort. The number of concomitant anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) was associated with the time-to-endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio [adj HR]=2.22, 95% CI 1.18-4.14, P=.013 for two AEDs vs one; adj HR=3.65, 95% CI 1.66-8.06, P=.001 for three or more AEDs vs one). Groupwise, the median times-to-baseline seizure count were 47 (35-97) and 43 (34-103) in patients with prior and never exposure to CBZ/OXC, respectively (P for log-rank test=.807). Adverse events occurred in 53.4% (63 of 118) of patients; the most frequently reported were dizziness (13.6%), somnolence (11.9%), nausea (6.8%), and fatigue (5.1%). Add-on ESL improved seizure control and was overall well-tolerated in adult patients with partial-onset epilepsy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    consecutive patients admitted to hospital with first onset AF from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2009. The patients were divided into two groups, recent onset AF defined as AF defined as AF > 48 hours. Spontaneous conversion occurred in 54%, (n = 203; 95% CI: 49 - 59......%). In the group with first onset AF 48 hours. Logistic regression analysis identified duration of AF as a highly significant predictor of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm (OR 5.9; 95% CI; 4.0 - 8.6, P

  12. National Special Security Events

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reese, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    ...) as National Special Security Events (NSSE) Beginning in September 1998 through February 2007, there have been 27 events designated as NSSEs Some of these events have included presidential inaugurations, presidential nominating conventions...

  13. Onset in-river conductivity sonde data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Onset HOBO Model U24-01 in-river sondes were deployed to measure water temperature and electrical conductivity at each of the ISCO sampling sites at 5 min intervals....

  14. Adult-onset unilateral disabling pansclerotic morphea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarshlata Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disabling pansclerotic morphea (DPM is a rare, severe, and mutilating form of morphea, involving the dermis, subcutaneous tissue, fat, muscle, and even bone. It is usually seen before the age of 14 years, with the patient complaining of arthralgia and stiffness at the time of onset. We report a case of unilateral adult-onset DPM with sparing of the face. Within a few months of onset, painful contracture deformities of the hand, elbow, and shoulder joints developed, impairing the patient′s normal daily activities. We are reporting this case because of the unusual presentation: DPM in an adult, with history of trauma in childhood and rapid onset of complications, is rare.

  15. Acute onset of adult Alexander disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Holger; Kretzschmar, Benedikt; Lingor, Paul; Pauli, Silke; Schramm, Peter; Otto, Markus; Ohlenbusch, Andreas; Brockmann, Knut

    2013-08-15

    Adult-onset Alexander disease (AOAD) is a rare leukoencephalopathy affecting predominantly the brainstem and cervical cord with insidious onset of clinical features. Acute onset is very rare and has yet been described only twice, to our knowledge. We report a 32-year-old hitherto healthy male who, after excessive consumption of alcohol, presented with stroke-like onset of symptoms including rigidospasticity, loss of consciousness, and bulbar dysfunction. MRI features comprised bilateral T2-hyperintensities of frontal white matter and basal ganglia as well as atrophy of medulla oblongata with a peculiar "tadpole" appearance, a pattern characteristic of AOAD. Mutation analysis of the GFAP gene revealed a heterozygous de novo 9-bp microduplication in exon 1. Adult Alexander disease may present with stroke-like features. MRI patterns of chronic neurodegenerative conditions may be recognizable even in acute neurological emergencies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liyong; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Masellis, Mario; Black, Sandra E; Jia, Jianping; Gauthier, Serge

    2012-07-01

    Early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD) is a condition characterized by early onset dementia (age at onset family history for dementia. To date, 230 mutations in presenilin (PS1, PS2) and amyloid precursor protein (APP) genes have been identified in EOFAD. The mutations within these three genes (PS1/PS2/APP) affect a common pathogenic pathway in APP synthesis and proteolysis, which lead to excessive production of amyloid β. Compared with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), EOFAD has some distinctive features including early age at onset, positive familial history, a variety of non-cognitive neurological symptoms and signs, and a more aggressive course. There is marked phenotypic heterogeneity among different mutations of EOFAD. Studies in presymptomatic mutation carriers reveal biomarkers abnormalities. EOFAD diagnosis is based on clinical and family history, neurological symptoms and examination, biomarker features, as well as genotyping in some cases. New therapeutic agents targeting amyloid formation may benefit EOFAD individuals.

  17. ADEM: Age at Onset and Neuropsychological Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of age at onset of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM on cognitive, educational, and social functioning was evaluated in 19 children (10 < 5 years of age admitted to the Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

  18. Late onset depression: A recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mahapatra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset depression has recently emerged as a serious mental health issue in the geriatric population with significant public health implications. It is often challenging to diagnose and treat this entity. Various theories have been postulated to elucidate the etiology of late onset depression, but a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Although the vascular hypothesis is most researched; a complex interaction of multiple vulnerability factors is the current focus of attention. Numerous psychosocial variables have been implicated to play a significant role in predicting the onset and severity of late-life depression. Phenomenological differences have been delineated from depression occurring at a younger age, but the findings are equivocal. A better understanding of the natural trajectory of depression in the elderly is required for early diagnosis and effective treatment. This review attempts to summarize the current status of evidence regarding epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and treatment options available for late-onset depression.

  19. Clinical features of late-onset ankylosing spondylitis: comparison with early-onset disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montilla, Carlos; Del Pino-Montes, Javier; Collantes-Estevez, Eduardo; Font, Pilar; Zarco, Pedro; Mulero, Juan; Gratacós, Jordi; Rodríguez, Carlos; Juanola, Xavier; Fernández-Sueiro, Jose Luis; Almodovar, Raquel

    2012-05-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is generally observed in young patients but can occur later in life or in persons ≥ 50 years of age. Our objective was to characterize the clinical features of late-onset AS in a large multicenter national cohort. We studied late-onset AS in the National Registry of Spondyloarthritis of the Spanish Society of Rheumatology (REGISPONSER database) cohort (n = 1257), of whom 3.5% had onset at age ≥ 50 years versus a control group with onset at < 50 years. There were no differences between late-onset and early-onset AS according to sex and family history of spondyloarthropathies. Patients in the late-onset group more often showed involvement of the cervical spine (22.7% vs 9.7%; p = 0.03) and arthritis of the upper (13.6% vs 3.0%; p = 0.002) and lower limbs (27.3% vs 15.2%; p = 0.03) as first manifestations than did patients in the early-onset group. A higher percentage of mixed forms (axial and peripheral joint disease) during the course of the disease was also recorded in the late-onset group (50% vs 24%; p = 0.0001). Our study suggests that age at onset of AS affects the patients' presenting clinical form. Arthritis of the upper limbs requires a differential diagnosis with other conditions frequent in patients over 50 years of age, such as rheumatoid arthritis or crystal-induced arthropathy.

  20. Comparative findings in childhood-onset versus adult-onset optic disc pit maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rii, Tosho; Hirakata, Akito; Inoue, Makoto

    2013-08-01

    To compare the clinical characteristics of eyes with childhood-onset to those with adult-onset optic disc pit maculopathy. Twenty-seven eyes of 25 patients with optic disc pit maculopathy were reviewed. The clinical characteristics, clinical history including a history of blunt trauma, ophthalmoscopic evaluations and intraoperative findings in the childhood-onset (age maculopathy. The strength of the vitreous adhesions was graded by what was required to create a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD); grade 1 = with vitreous cutter, grade 2 = by microhook or forceps and grade 3 = by forceps with removal of remnants of Cloquet's canal. The incidence of visual impairments following blunt trauma was significantly higher in childhood-onset (three of four eyes) than that of adult-onset (0 of 23 eyes, p = 0.0014). Vitreous surgery with creation of a PVD was performed in the four childhood-onset eyes and 18 adult-onset eyes after an absence of a spontaneous resolution. The grade of the vitreous adhesions was significantly higher in childhood-onset than in adult-onset eyes (p = 0.0096). An ocular trauma may provide an opportunity to detect optic disc pits. However, childhood-onset optic disc pit maculopathy was noted most commonly following blunt ocular trauma in eyes with a strong vitreous adhesion to the optic disc margin. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  1. Cockayne syndrome with early onset of manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, D B; Marquis, P; Shertzer, M E; Burton, B K

    1982-10-01

    The Cockayne syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndrome of growth failure and characteristic physical and pathological changes. Typically the disorder becomes manifest in the second year of life; growth and development are normal during the first year. We report presumably monozygotic twins with otherwise classic Cockayne syndrome but with a prenatal onset. Several previously described cases seem to represent a similar form of Cockayne syndrome with early onset of growth failure and development delay.

  2. Tonic-clonic activity at subarachnoid hemorrhage onset: impact on complications and outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Marco De Marchis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Tonic-clonic activity (TCA at onset complicates 3% to 21% of cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. The impact of onset TCA on in-hospital complications, including seizures, remains unclear. One study associated onset TCA with poor clinical outcome at 6 weeks after SAH, but to our knowledge no other studies have confirmed this relationship. This study aims to assess the impact of onset TCA on in-hospital complications, poor functional outcome, mortality, and epilepsy at 3 months. METHODS: Analysis of a prospective study cohort of 1479 SAH patients admitted to Columbia University Medical Center between 1996 and 2012. TCA within 6 hours of hemorrhage onset was identified based on accounts of emergency care providers or family witnesses. RESULTS: TCA at onset was described in 170 patients (11%. Patients with onset TCA were younger (P = 0.002, presented more often with poor clinical grade (55% vs. 26%, P<0.001 and had larger amounts of cisternal, intraventricular, and intracerebral blood than those without onset TCA (all, P<0.001. After adjusting for known confounders, onset TCA was significantly associated with in-hospital seizures (OR 3.80, 95%-CI: 2.43-5.96, P<0.001, in-hospital pneumonia (OR 1.56, 95%-CI: 1.06-2.31, p = 0.02, and delayed cerebral ischemia (OR 1.77, 95%-CI: 1.21-2.58, P = 0.003. At 3 months, however, onset TCA was not associated with poor functional outcome, mortality, and epilepsy after adjusting for age, admission clinical grade, and cisternal blood volume. CONCLUSIONS: Onset TCA is not a rare event as it complicates 11% of cases of SAH. New and clinically relevant findings are the association of onset TCA with in-hospital seizures, pneumonia and delayed cerebral ischemia. Despite the increased risk of in-hospital complications, onset TCA is not associated with disability, mortality, and epilepsy at 3 months.

  3. Bilateral rib-to-pelvis technique for managing early-onset scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John T

    2011-05-01

    Early-onset scoliosis describes progressive spinal deformity of varying etiologies in the growing child. The management of early-onset scoliosis is challenging, with many treatment options but no conclusive evidence for the best treatment method. We describe a bilateral percutaneous rib-to-pelvis technique, present our early experience with this technique in patients with early-onset scoliosis, identify adverse events, and determine whether these are comparable to those for other current techniques. The VEPTR(®) device is placed through three small incisions that allow for attachment of rib hooks bilaterally at the upper end and through pelvic hooks at the distal end, providing distraction forces to correct the deformity while allowing for growth. We retrospectively reviewed all 37 patients with early-onset scoliosis treated with the bilateral rib-to-pelvis VEPTR(®) technique from 2003 and 2009. Patients were evaluated for demographics, diagnosis, curve correction, and adverse events and divided into two groups: ambulatory and nonambulatory. The 18 ambulatory patients underwent 139 procedures and the 19 nonambulatory patients underwent 100 procedures. Average followups were 84 and 64 months in the ambulatory and nonambulatory groups, respectively. The rate of adverse events per procedure was 13%. Thirty-nine percent of ambulatory patients developed a marked crouched gait over time. The rate of adverse events in the nonambulatory group was 15%. This technique appears a reasonable alternative to growing rods for the management of early-onset scoliosis in nonambulatory children due to the low rate of adverse events. Due to the increased incidence of crouched gait, we have abandoned this technique in ambulatory children unless there is no option to attach the distal fixation to the spine.

  4. Late Onset Streptococcus agalactiae Meningitis following Early Onset Septicemia: A Preventable Disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Hon, Kam Lun; Chan, King Hang; Ko, Pak Long; So, King Woon; Leung, Alexander K. C.

    2017-01-01

    We report a neonate who presented with early onset Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) septicemia within 24 hours of birth. After discharge at day 14, she went on to develop late onset GBS meningitis at 36 days of age. The infant was treated with intravenous antibiotics on both occasions and eventually discharged home with no apparent sequelae. We address issues associated with GBS infection in infancy including the demographics, risk factors, and the risk of late onset GB...

  5. New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation Is a Predictor of Subsequent Hyperthyroidism: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmer, Christian; Hansen, Morten Lock; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Mérie, Charlotte; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Madsen, Jesper Clausager; Schmidt, Ulla; Faber, Jens; Hansen, Peter Riis; Pedersen, Ole Dyg; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine the long-term risk of hyperthyroidism in patients admitted to hospital with new-onset AF. Hyperthyroidism is a well-known risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF), but it is unknown whether new-onset AF predicts later-occurring hyperthyroidism. Methods and Results All patients admitted with new-onset AF in Denmark from 1997–2009, and their present and subsequent use of anti-thyroid medication was identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries. Patients with previous thyroid diagnosis or thyroid medication use were excluded. Development of hyperthyroidism was assessed as initiation of methimazole or propylthiouracil up to a 13-year period. Risk of hyperthyroidism was analysed by Poisson regression models adjusted for important confounders such as amiodarone treatment. Non-AF individuals from the general population served as reference. A total of 145,623 patients with new-onset AF were included (mean age 66.4 years [SD ±13.2] and 55.3% males) of whom 3% (4,620 events; 62.2% women) developed hyperthyroidism in the post-hospitalization period compared to 1% (48,609 events; 82% women) in the general population (n = 3,866,889). In both women and men we found a significantly increased risk of hyperthyroidism associated with new-onset AF compared to individuals in the general population. The highest risk was found in middle-aged men and was consistently increased throughout the 13-year period of observation. The results were confirmed in a substudy analysis of 527,352 patients who had thyroid screening done. Conclusion New-onset AF seems to be a predictor of hyperthyroidism. Increased focus on subsequent risk of hyperthyroidism in patients with new-onset AF is warranted. PMID:23469097

  6. Predictors of children's sleep onset and maintenance problems after road traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Wittmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep onset and maintenance problems are a frequent complaint after traumatic events in children. However, the association of traumatic experiences and disturbed sleep remains to be explained. Objective: To examine the incidence of sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after road traffic accidents and identify potential predictors of sleep onset and maintenance problems, including putative psychopathological mechanisms as well as stressors affecting the family system. Method: In 33 children treated for injuries after road traffic accidents, sleep and measures of psychopathology were assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after hospital admission. The predictive value of four clusters of predictor variables for children's sleep onset and maintenance problems was prospectively tested by multiple regression analyses. These clusters included socio-demographic, injury- and accident-related, and psychopathological variable clusters as well as factors reflecting stressors concerning mothers and family. Results: Children suffering from posttraumatic stress reported a prolonged subjective sleep latency. The severity of sleep onset and maintenance problems was predicted by female sex and the child's as well as mothers’ posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD severity. Conclusions: Sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after trauma appear to result from a complex interaction of multiple factors. Our findings support the transactional model of sleep-wake regulation that bears implications for the development of adequate intervention strategies.

  7. The burden of new-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard; Ravindran, Vinod; Baboolal, Kesh

    2006-01-01

    The clinical impact of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) is frequently underestimated by clinicians. NODM occurs in approximately 15-20% of renal transplant patients and 15% of liver transplant recipients. Diabetes after transplantation is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular events, with a higher prognostic value than in the non-transplant population. NODM also appears to have a negative influence on graft function, and graft survival rates after renal transplantation are significantly lower in patients who develop diabetes than in controls. Patient mortality following renal transplantation is generally found to be higher in patients with NODM, due to increased cardiovascular and peripheral vascular disease, accelerated graft deterioration and diabetes-related complications, notably infection. A renal registry analysis has reported an increase of 87% in risk of death following onset of NODM. There is also limited evidence that NODM is associated with increased risk of death in liver transplant patients. The relative incidence and severity of diabetic complications in transplant recipients have not been assessed rigorously in a clinical trial but registry data indicate that 20% of renal transplant patients with NODM experience at least one clinically significant diabetic complication within three years. Financially, the additional healthcare costs incurred over the first two years following onset of NODM amount to 21,500 dollars. Routine pre-transplant assessment of diabetic risk, with requisite modification of lifestyle, glycaemic monitoring and immunosuppressive regimens, and coupled with standardized, aggressive hypoglycaemic management as necessary, offers an important opportunity to alleviate the burden of NODM for transplant patients.

  8. Localizing epileptic seizure onsets with Granger causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhim M.; Epstein, Charles M.; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2013-09-01

    Accurate localization of the epileptic seizure onset zones (SOZs) is crucial for successful surgery, which usually depends on the information obtained from intracranial electroencephalography (IEEG) recordings. The visual criteria and univariate methods of analyzing IEEG recordings have not always produced clarity on the SOZs for resection and ultimate seizure freedom for patients. Here, to contribute to improving the localization of the SOZs and to understanding the mechanism of seizure propagation over the brain, we applied spectral interdependency methods to IEEG time series recorded from patients during seizures. We found that the high-frequency (>80 Hz) Granger causality (GC) occurs before the onset of any visible ictal activity and causal relationships involve the recording electrodes where clinically identifiable seizures later develop. These results suggest that high-frequency oscillatory network activities precede and underlie epileptic seizures, and that GC spectral measures derived from IEEG can assist in precise delineation of seizure onset times and SOZs.

  9. Co-Occurring Problems of Early Onset Persistent, Childhood Limited, and Adolescent Onset Conduct Problem Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Edward D.; Oliver, Bonamy R.; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems…

  10. Onset and stability of melatonin treatment effect in childhood sleep onset insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijlswijk, I.M. van; Didden, H.C.M.; Heijden, K.B. van der; Smits, M.G.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2010-01-01

    Backgroud and objective: To evaluate onset and stability of therapeutic effect of 4-week melatonin treatment for chronic sleep onset insomnia in elementary school-aged children. Methods: Retrospective analysis of unpublished data obtained from two previously published randomized, double-blind and

  11. Late Onset Streptococcus agalactiae Meningitis following Early Onset Septicemia: A Preventable Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun Hon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a neonate who presented with early onset Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS septicemia within 24 hours of birth. After discharge at day 14, she went on to develop late onset GBS meningitis at 36 days of age. The infant was treated with intravenous antibiotics on both occasions and eventually discharged home with no apparent sequelae. We address issues associated with GBS infection in infancy including the demographics, risk factors, and the risk of late onset GBS meningitis following an early onset GBS infection. The major source of GBS in early onset GBS disease is maternal birth canal GBS colonization. On the other hand, nosocomial cross-infection is an important source of GBS in late onset disease. Penicillin remains the current treatment of choice for GBS infection. Given the rapid onset and progression within hours of birth and lack of an effective solution for preventing late onset GBS, administration of an effective GBS vaccine in pregnancy could provide a sensible and cost-effective solution in all settings.

  12. Late Onset Streptococcus agalactiae Meningitis following Early Onset Septicemia: A Preventable Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun; Chan, King Hang; Ko, Pak Long; So, King Woon; Leung, Alexander K C

    2017-01-01

    We report a neonate who presented with early onset Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) septicemia within 24 hours of birth. After discharge at day 14, she went on to develop late onset GBS meningitis at 36 days of age. The infant was treated with intravenous antibiotics on both occasions and eventually discharged home with no apparent sequelae. We address issues associated with GBS infection in infancy including the demographics, risk factors, and the risk of late onset GBS meningitis following an early onset GBS infection. The major source of GBS in early onset GBS disease is maternal birth canal GBS colonization. On the other hand, nosocomial cross-infection is an important source of GBS in late onset disease. Penicillin remains the current treatment of choice for GBS infection. Given the rapid onset and progression within hours of birth and lack of an effective solution for preventing late onset GBS, administration of an effective GBS vaccine in pregnancy could provide a sensible and cost-effective solution in all settings.

  13. Temporal relationship between onset of Graves' ophthalmopathy and onset of thyroidal Graves' disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. M.; Smit, T.; van der Gaag, R.; Koornneef, L.

    1988-01-01

    The temporal relationship between the onset of Graves' ophthalmopathy and the onset of thyroidal Graves' disease was evaluated in 125 consecutive patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Thyroidal Graves' disease--past or present--was clinically evident in 99 patients (79%): hyperthyroidism in 3 cases.

  14. Late-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder: risk factors and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydman, Ilana; do Brasil, Pedro E; Torres, Albina R; Shavitt, Roseli G; Ferrão, Ygor A; Rosário, Maria C; Miguel, Euripedes C; Fontenelle, Leonardo F

    2014-02-01

    While a great amount of attention has been paid to early-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), there is a dearth of studies on patients showing OCD for the first time at later stages of life. In this study, we aimed at determining possible risk factors/correlates for OCD onset at or after age 40, here termed late-onset OCD. A series of models including several potential variables associated with late onset OCD were tested using a monolayer neural network. To this regard, data from the Brazilian Research Consortium of Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders (CTOC) (n = 1001) was employed. For the purposes of this study, we considered a diagnosis of late onset OCD to be present whenever distress and interference associated with OCD symptoms emerged at or after age 40. Different nested models were compared through the Akaike Criteria keeping the variables with p value ≤0.05. Late-onset OCD occurred in 8.6% of the sample. A model including female sex, a history of chronic (>10 years) subclinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms, the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after age 40, and a history of recent pregnancy in self or significant others was able to explain a sizeable proportion of late-onset OCD. The general performance of this model, represented by the Maximum Likelihood R2, was 29.4%. Our results suggest that late-onset OCD is more likely to occur in females, in individuals with long periods of subclinical obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and in association with a major traumatic event occurring after age 40 and a history of recent pregnancy in self or in significant others. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Episodes, events, and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeet eKhemlani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a novel computational theory of how individuals segment perceptual information into representations of events. The theory is inspired by recent findings in the cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience of event segmentation. In line with recent theories, it holds that online event segmentation is automatic, and that event segmentation yields mental simulations of events. But it posits two novel principles as well: first, discrete episodic markers track perceptual and conceptual changes, and can be retrieved to construct event models. Second, the process of retrieving and reconstructing those episodic markers is constrained and prioritized. We describe a computational implementation of the theory, as well as a robotic extension of the theory that demonstrates the processes of online event segmentation and event model construction. The theory is the first unified computational account of event segmentation and temporal inference. We conclude by demonstrating now neuroimaging data can constrain and inspire the construction of process-level theories of human reasoning.

  16. Respiratory infections precede adult-onset asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aino Rantala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Respiratory infections in early life are associated with an increased risk of developing asthma but there is little evidence on the role of infections for onset of asthma in adults. The objective of this study was to assess the relation of the occurrence of respiratory infections in the past 12 months to adult-onset asthma in a population-based incident case-control study of adults 21-63 years of age. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited all new clinically diagnosed cases of asthma (n = 521 during a 2.5-year study period and randomly selected controls (n = 932 in a geographically defined area in South Finland. Information on respiratory infections was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The diagnosis of asthma was based on symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction in lung function measurements. The risk of asthma onset was strongly increased in subjects who had experienced in the preceding 12 months lower respiratory tract infections (including acute bronchitis and pneumonia with an adjusted odds ratio (OR 7.18 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.16-9.99, or upper respiratory tract infections (including common cold, sinusitis, tonsillitis, and otitis media with an adjusted OR 2.26 (95% CI 1.72-2.97. Individuals with personal atopy and/or parental atopy were more susceptible to the effects of respiratory infections on asthma onset than non-atopic persons. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides new evidence that recently experienced respiratory infections are a strong determinant for adult-onset asthma. Reducing such infections might prevent onset of asthma in adulthood, especially in individuals with atopy or hereditary propensity to it.

  17. Update on differences between childhood-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease and occurs worldwide in both children and adults. The estimated annual incidence among children is 2.22/100,000 and among adults is 23.2/100,000 in the United States. There is increasing understanding about differences in disease manifestations, medication use, and disease severity between those with childhood-onset SLE as compared with adult-onset SLE. Children have a more fulminant disease onset and course than adults with SLE, resulting in two to three times higher mortality. In future years, we anticipate more insight into the genetics between childhood-onset SLE and adult-onset SLE to help delineate the best therapies for both subsets of patients. PMID:23998441

  18. Investigating Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young

    OpenAIRE

    Nyunt, Ohn; Wu, Joyce Y; McGown, Ivan N; Harris, Mark; Huynh, Tony; Leong, Gary M; Cowley, David M; Cotterill, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Maturity Onset Diabetes of Young (MODY) is a monogenic and autosomal dominant form of diabetes mellitus with onset of the disease often before 25 years of age. It is due to dysfunction of pancreatic ß cells characterised by non-ketotic diabetes and absence of pancreatic auto-antibodies. It is frequently mistaken for type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diagnosis of MODY is important as the GCK subtype has better prognosis and may not require any treatment. Subtypes HNF1A and HNF4A are sensitiv...

  19. Adult onset sporadic ataxias: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with adult onset non-familial progressive ataxia are classified in sporadic ataxia group. There are several disease categories that may manifest with sporadic ataxia: toxic causes, immune-mediated ataxias, vitamin deficiency, infectious diseases, degenerative disorders and even genetic conditions. Considering heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of sporadic ataxias, the correct diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. In this review, the different disease categories that lead to sporadic ataxia with adult onset are discussed with special emphasis on their clinical and neuroimaging features, and diagnostic criteria.

  20. Onset of chaos in rapidly rotating nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aberg, S. (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, Oak Ridge, TN (USA) Department of Mathematical Physics, Lund Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden))

    1990-06-25

    The onset of chaos is investigated for excited, rapidly rotating nuclei, utilizing a schematic two-body residual interaction added to the cranked Nilsson Hamiltonian. Dynamical effects at various degrees of mixing between regularity and chaos are studied in terms of fragmentation of the collective rotational strength. It is found that the onset of chaos is connected to a saturation of the average standard deviation of the rotational strength function. Still, the rotational-damping width may exhibit motional narrowing in the chaotic regime.

  1. Late Onset Bipolar Disorder: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Araújo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bipolar disorder affects approximately 1% of the population, with diagnosis often being made during late adolescence and early adulthood, and only rarely (0.1% in the elderly. Late onset bipolar disorder in the elderly has a impact on the nature and course of bipolar disorder. Aims: The authors report a case of bipolar disorder emerging in late life  (76years old with no cleary identified organic cause. Conclusion: This case highlights the importance of a broad differential diagnosis and pharmacologic management when approaching new-onset manic/depressive symptoms among geriatric patients.

  2. [Early-onset eating disorders: a review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, I; Simons, A; Glazemakers, I; Van West, D

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN) in adolescents has increased significantly in recent years. In several studies and in the media it has been suggested that AN has recently become more prevalent in the pre-adolescence. In view of the impact that an eating disorder can have on a child, it is important to diagnose and start treating the illness as early as possible. To review the literature on the characteristics and susceptibilities of patients with eating disorders because this information can be important for early diagnosis, prevention and identification of susceptibilities to early-onset eating disorders. We searched the literature for articles relating to early-onset eating disorders. We based our search on PubMed and on related relevant articles listed in the references. We selected 34 relevant articles published between 1987 and 2014. The literature lists characteristics and susceptibilities at various levels. Many types of factors are involved; examples of 'biological' factors are prior streptococcal infection, previous consultations with GP and a patients medical history; psychological factors include comorbidity, temperament, a particular personality profile, maturation-anxiety; environmental factors such as family history, family functioning and/or stressful events can play a role in the development of eating disorders. CONCLUSION The literature indicates that the early development of AN in children is related to a complex combination of etiological factors. However, there is a need for more research into this group of patients.

  3. Suprathermal electron acceleration during reconnection onset in the magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vaivads

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We study one event of reconnection onset associated to a small substorm on 27 September 2006 by using Cluster observations at inter-spacecraft separation of about 10 000 km. We focus on the acceleration of suprathermal electrons during different stages of reconnection. We show that several distinct stages of acceleration occur: (1 moderate acceleration during reconnection of pre-existing plasma sheet flux tubes, (2 stronger acceleration during reconnection of lobe flux tubes, (3 production of the most energetic electrons within dipolarization fronts (magnetic pile-up regions. The strongest acceleration is reached at the location of Bz maxima inside the magnetic pile-up region where the reconnection jet stops. Very strong localized dawn-dusk electric field are observed within the magnetic pile-up regions and are associated to most of the magnetic flux transport.

  4. Breast cancer onset in twins and women with bilateral disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartman, Mikael; Hall, Per; Edgren, Gustaf

    2008-01-01

    .68% per year, respectively. Contrary to the risk of unilateral disease, the risk of cancer in the nonaffected twin and the opposite breast was not affected by age or time since first event. The relative risk of familial bilateral cancer was 52% higher (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.52; 95% CI, 1.42 to 1......PURPOSE: Little is known of the onset of breast cancer in high-risk populations. We investigated the risk of breast cancer in twin sisters and in the contralateral breast taking family history into consideration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed a Scandinavian population-based cohort of 2......,499 female twin pairs, in which at least one had a diagnosis of breast cancer and estimated the risk of breast cancer in the sister. Using a total of 11 million individuals in Sweden with complete family links, we identified 93,448 women with breast cancer and estimated the risk of a bilateral breast cancer...

  5. Age-at-Onset in Late Onset Alzheimer Disease is Modified by Multiple Genetic Loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naj, Adam C.; Jun, Gyungah; Reitz, Christiane; Kunkle, Brian W.; Perry, William; Park, YoSon; Beecham, Gary W.; Rajbhandary, Ruchita A.; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L.; Wang, Li-San; Kauwe, John S.K.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Myers, Amanda J.; Bird, Thomas D.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Crane, Paul K.; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Barmada, Michael M.; Demirci, F. Yesim; Cruchaga, Carlos; Kramer, Patricia; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Hardy, John; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Green, Robert C.; Larson, Eric B.; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Evans, Denis; Schneider, Julie A.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Saykin, Andrew J.; Reiman, Eric M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Bennett, David A.; Morris, John C.; Montine, Thomas J.; Goate, Alison M.; Blacker, Deborah; Tsuang, Debby W.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Kukull, Walter A.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Martin, Eden R.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Mayeux, Richard; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance As APOE locus variants contribute to both risk of late-onset Alzheimer disease and differences in age-at-onset, it is important to know if other established late-onset Alzheimer disease risk loci also affect age-at-onset in cases. Objectives To investigate the effects of known Alzheimer disease risk loci in modifying age-at-onset, and to estimate their cumulative effect on age-at-onset variation, using data from genome-wide association studies in the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC). Design, Setting and Participants The ADGC comprises 14 case-control, prospective, and family-based datasets with data on 9,162 Caucasian participants with Alzheimer’s occurring after age 60 who also had complete age-at-onset information, gathered between 1989 and 2011 at multiple sites by participating studies. Data on genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) most significantly associated with risk at ten confirmed LOAD loci were examined in linear modeling of AAO, and individual dataset results were combined using a random effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis approach to determine if they contribute to variation in age-at-onset. Aggregate effects of all risk loci on AAO were examined in a burden analysis using genotype scores weighted by risk effect sizes. Main Outcomes and Measures Age at disease onset abstracted from medical records among participants with late-onset Alzheimer disease diagnosed per standard criteria. Results Analysis confirmed association of APOE with age-at-onset (rs6857, P=3.30×10−96), with associations in CR1 (rs6701713, P=7.17×10−4), BIN1 (rs7561528, P=4.78×10−4), and PICALM (rs561655, P=2.23×10−3) reaching statistical significance (P<0.005). Risk alleles individually reduced age-at-onset by 3-6 months. Burden analyses demonstrated that APOE contributes to 3.9% of variation in age-at-onset (R2=0.220) over baseline (R2=0.189) whereas the other nine loci together contribute to 1.1% of

  6. Is liability to recurrent major depressive disorder present before first episode onset in adolescence or acquired after the initial episode?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Jeremy W; Hartley, Chelsey; Lewinsohn, Peter M; Seeley, John R; Klein, Daniel N

    2013-05-01

    Many individuals who experience a major depressive episode will subsequently develop recurrent episodes. Although numerous studies have investigated predictors of recurrent episodes, methodological limitations have made it difficult to determine the extent to which liability to recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) exists prior to first onset or develops after first onset. This study used a prospective design in a community sample of adolescents to examine variables before and after first onset MDD as predictors of rMDD over a 12-year follow-up. Among 59 adolescents who experienced first onset MDD, 72.88% developed rMDD during the follow-up period. Parental history of rMDD and lifetime history of minor depression prior to MDD onset significantly predicted rMDD. These two effects replicated in ancillary analyses in an expanded sample of N = 205. Following MDD onset, a higher number of major life events significantly predicted rMDD. Liability to rMDD exists prior to MDD onset in the form of familial risk and less severe mood disturbances, whereas liability to rMDD in the form of elevated stress may develop following a first onset in adolescence. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  7. Stress and Disease Onset in Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina V. Golemati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the potential contribution of stress as a trigger for disease onset in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA associated vasculitis (AAV.Methods53 AAV and 85 rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients as well as 53 healthy controls (HC were thoroughly asked for the number and impact of stressful life events, coping strategies, and available social support 12 months prior to disease onset. Anxiety, depression, personality dimensions, insomnia, and fatigue were also determined.ResultsAAV patients reported higher scoring of the impact of stressful life events compared to the RA and HC group prior to disease onset (2.8 ± 3.1 vs 1.8 ± 2.1 vs 1.7 ± 2.3, p-values: 0.047 and 0.053, respectively. While the number of reported stressful events was found to be significantly higher in AAV vs RA patients but not HC, certain coping strategies and social support features were more commonly implemented by AAV patients compared to HC, but not RA patients. As far as personality and other psychosocial characteristics, AAV patients displayed significantly higher psychoticism traits compared to RA, with no other differences being detected between AAV patients and both RA and HC. After adjusting for potential cofounders, scoring of the impact of stressful life events >3 was independently associated with AAV development compared to both RA and HC [ORs (95% CI: 4.6 (1.6–13.4 and 4.4 (1.0–19.0, respectively].ConclusionThe perceived impact of stressful life events prior to disease onset emerged as a contributing factor for AAV development.

  8. Voice Onset Time in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Emily; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    Research has found that speaking rate has an effect on voice onset time (VOT). Given that Parkinson disease (PD) affects speaking rate, the purpose of this study was to examine VOT with the effect of rate removed (VOT ratio), along with the traditional VOT measure, in individuals with PD. VOT and VOT ratio were examined in 9 individuals with PD…

  9. Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Misty; Lyon, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), particularly when diagnosed prior to the age of 13, is considered to be especially rare and severe. This article provides an in-depth look into its symptomatology, general course, long-term functioning, diagnostic criteria, and methods of assessing the disorder. It also includes discussions of the various…

  10. Cannabinoids in late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, A.; Marck, M.A. van der; Elsen, G. van den; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Given the lack of effective treatments for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and the substantial burden on patients, families, health care systems, and economies, finding an effective therapy is one of the highest medical priorities. The past few years have seen a growing interest in the

  11. Age at pubertal onset and educational outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essen, Emma von; Dreber, Anna; Ranehill, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Education has important short and long run implications for individual outcomes. In this paper we explore the association between age at pubertal onset and educational outcomes in a sample of Swedish girls. Previous research suggests that girls that mature earlier perform worse in school compared...

  12. Progression of Late-Onset Stargardt Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambertus, S.; Lindner, M.; Bax, N.M.; Mauschitz, M.M.; Nadal, J.; Schmid, M.; Schmitz-Valckenberg, S.; Hollander, A.I. den; Weber, B.H.; Holz, F.G.; Wilt, G.J. van der; Fleckenstein, M.; Hoyng, C.B.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Identification of sensitive biomarkers is essential to determine potential effects of emerging therapeutic trials for Stargardt disease. This study aimed to describe the natural history of late-onset Stargardt, and demonstrates the accuracy of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy

  13. Topiramate monotherapy for partial onset seizures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sachdeo, R C; Reife, R A; Lim, P; Pledger, G

    1997-01-01

    .... A total of 48 patients were evaluated in a double-blind, parallel-group trial. During a 56-day baseline period, patients had at least eight partial onset seizures while being treated with one or two standard antiepileptic drugs (AEDs...

  14. Co-design Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Eva; Eriksen, Mette Agger

    2010-01-01

    One powerful co-design event is worth a thousand hours of individual work! Driving Innovation as a series of co-design events helps mobilize and involve all stakeholders to explore present everyday practices and to sketch new possible futures. But what makes a co-design event powerful? And why...... are series of events better than a sequence of deliverables and milestones in keeping innovation on track?...

  15. Event Modelling in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Gunnellini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Latest tests of double parton scattering, underlying event tunes, minimum bias, and diffraction made by comparing CMS Run I and Run II data to the state-of-the-art theoretical predictions interfaced with up-to-date parton shower codes are presented. Studies to derive and to test the new CMS event tune obtained through jet kinematics in top quark pair events and global event variables are described.

  16. Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2016-06-14

    Jun 14, 2016 ... Events include business meetings; corporate, branch or divisional management meetings; employee ... are responsible for demonstrating the highest standard of ethical conduct as outlined in the IDRC ... All other events such as social events, the Government of Canada Workplace Charitable. Campaign ...

  17. Traumatic events and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for in your child and how to take care of your child after a traumatic event. Get professional help if your child is not recovering. Kinds of Traumatic Events Your child could experience a one-time traumatic event or a repeated trauma that happens over and over again. Examples of ...

  18. Semantic Congruence Accelerates the Onset of the Neural Signals of Successful Memory Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Pau A; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Bunzeck, Nico; Nicolás, Berta; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Fuentemilla, Lluís

    2017-01-11

    As the stream of experience unfolds, our memory system rapidly transforms current inputs into long-lasting meaningful memories. A putative neural mechanism that strongly influences how input elements are transformed into meaningful memory codes relies on the ability to integrate them with existing structures of knowledge or schemas. However, it is not yet clear whether schema-related integration neural mechanisms occur during online encoding. In the current investigation, we examined the encoding-dependent nature of this phenomenon in humans. We showed that actively integrating words with congruent semantic information provided by a category cue enhances memory for words and increases false recall. The memory effect of such active integration with congruent information was robust, even with an interference task occurring right after each encoding word list. In addition, via electroencephalography, we show in 2 separate studies that the onset of the neural signals of successful encoding appeared early (∼400 ms) during the encoding of congruent words. That the neural signals of successful encoding of congruent and incongruent information followed similarly ∼200 ms later suggests that this earlier neural response contributed to memory formation. We propose that the encoding of events that are congruent with readily available contextual semantics can trigger an accelerated onset of the neural mechanisms, supporting the integration of semantic information with the event input. This faster onset would result in a long-lasting and meaningful memory trace for the event but, at the same time, make it difficult to distinguish it from plausible but never encoded events (i.e., related false memories). Conceptual or schema congruence has a strong influence on long-term memory. However, the question of whether schema-related integration neural mechanisms occur during online encoding has yet to be clarified. We investigated the neural mechanisms reflecting how the active

  19. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF MATERNAL AND PERINATAL OUTCOME IN EARLY ONSET AND LATE ONSET PREECLAMPSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi Atluri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Preeclampsia is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, the exact aetiology of which is still unknown. The concept of early and late pre-eclampsia depending on gestational age at onset is more modern and is widely accepted that these two entities have different aetiologies and should be considered as different forms of the disease. Even though the presenting features overlap, these two entities of preeclampsia differ by biochemical markers, maternal and foetal outcomes. Aim of the Study- This study compares early-onset preeclampsia and late-onset preeclampsia with respect to their clinical presentation, laboratory parameters, management options, maternal and foetal outcomes which gives us an idea that these two preeclampsia subtypes have different pathological processes and a need for varied clinical approach to prevent adverse outcomes. METHODS This is a prospective comparative study conducted in JSS Hospital, Mysore from November, 2014 to June, 2016. All Antenatal cases (both booked and unbooked with gestational age ≥20 weeks between 18 yrs. and 40 yrs. of age diagnosed as preeclampsia as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria attending the outpatient department or admitted were selected and divided in to two groups, early onset preeclampsia (EOP group if gestational age at onset of preeclampsia is before 34 weeks and late onset preeclampsia if gestational age at onset is at 34 weeks or later were observed until delivery and early postpartum period and babies till early neonatal period. RESULTS A total of 158 patients at >20 weeks of gestation with preeclampsia were enrolled for this study. Early-onset Preeclampsia (EOP and Late-onset Preeclampsia (LOP had 75 and 83 pre eclamptic women respectively. Early onset group had severe clinical picture with deranged laboratory findings (Thrombocytopenia, altered liver enzymes, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH levels, urea and creatinine levels compared to

  20. Disruptions in adaptation of sudden-onset and slow-onset risks: insights from a local case in the Andes of Peru for global policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Carey, Mark; Frey, Holger; Jurt, Christine; Mechler, Reinhard; Motschmann, Alina; Vicuña, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Climatic changes involve emergence and changes of both sudden-onset and slow-onset risks. In the field of disaster risk reduction a solid range of strategies and measures has been developed to address sudden-onset risks such as floods, mass movements or storms. Comparably less experience is available for management of slow-onset risks. While, for instance, drought prone regions do have important knowledge how to cope with such conditions in other regions where climatic changes have induced new challenges and risks there is limited experience about how to adapt to slow-onset processes and risks. Examples are impacts of sea level rise in coastal regions or glacier shrinkage in mountain regions. The lack of understanding of how to address impacts from slow-onset processes has recently also been highlighted by the Executive Committee of the Warsaw International Mechanism on Loss and Damage (WIM) acting under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). In climate change science, practice and policy it is often assumed that risk management and climate change adaptation would see a seamless continuum when addressing both sudden-onset and slow-onset risks. Here we draw on recent experiences from the Andes of Peru showing that management of, and adaptation to combined sudden-onset and slow-onset impacts of climate change may involve serious social disruption. Carhuaz, a city in the Cordillera Blanca of Peru with a number of local communities pertaining to it, is affected by multiple effects of climate change and glacier shrinkage. After a flood event from glacier lake 513 a flood early warning system has been developed and installed. Multiple use and demand of glacier melt water makes water resource management a challenge and conflicts arise especially during the dry season when water is scarce. The drought at the end of 2016 over much of the tropical Andes has resulted in a situation where local communities started to vigorously and violently turn

  1. Event studies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulkem Basdas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to review the event studies conducted for Turkey to in order to identify the common components in their designs. This paper contributes to the existing literature by reviewing all event studies for Turkey for the first time, but more importantly; this review leads to the upcoming event studies on Turkey by highlighting main components of a proper design. Based on the review of 75 studies, it is observed that event studies generally choose BIST-100 (formerly, ISE-100 market index and market adjusted returns with the parametric tests. In general, the studies prefer to rely on one type of model to calculate abnormal returns without discussing the selection of the underlying model. Especially for the event studies focusing on the impact of political events or macroeconomic announcements in Turkey, there is a risk of clustering due to the application of same event date for all observations.

  2. MINOR NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION AFTER THE ONSET OF PUBERTY - ASSOCIATION WITH PERINATAL EVENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SOORANILUNSING, RJ; HADDERSALGRA, M; HUISJES, HJ; TOUWEN, BCL

    In order to study the hypotheses that puberty is related to a decrease of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and that persisting MND is associated with perinatal factors, two groups (174 normal, 172 MND) of the Groningen Perinatal Project were followed from 12 to 14 years. At 14 years almost all

  3. Eslicarbazepine acetate: a review of its use as adjunctive therapy in refractory partial-onset seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gillian M

    2014-07-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®), Zebinix(®)) is approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults aged ≥18 years. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate 800 or 1,200 mg once daily was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint) than placebo in patients aged ≥18 years with refractory partial-onset seizures in three, randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trials. In a fourth randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trial in patients aged ≥16 years with refractory partial-onset seizures, adjunctive eslicarbazepine acetate 1,200 mg once daily, but not 800 mg once daily, was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint). Responder rates were significantly higher with eslicarbazepine acetate 1,200 mg once daily than with placebo in these four trials, and with eslicarbazepine acetate 800 mg once daily than with placebo in two trials. The efficacy of eslicarbazepine acetate was maintained in the longer term, according to the results of 1-year extension studies. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate was generally well tolerated in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate severity. In conclusion, eslicarbazepine acetate is a useful option for the adjunctive treatment of patients with refractory partial-onset seizures.

  4. Strategies for reliable automatic onset time picking of acoustic emissions and of ultrasound signals in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Jochen H; Grosse, Christian U; Reinhardt, Hans-Wolf

    2005-06-01

    Determining the onset of transient signals like seismograms, acoustic emissions or ultrasound signals is very time consuming if the onset is picked manually. Therefore, different approaches exist, especially in seismology. The concepts of the most popular approaches are summarized. An own approach adapted to ultrasound signals and acoustic emissions, based on the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), is presented. The AIC-picker is compared to an automatic onset detection algorithm based on the Hinkley criterion and also adapted to acoustic emissions. Manual picks performed by an analyst are used as reference values. Both automatic onset detection algorithms are applied to ultrasound signals which are used to monitor the setting and hardening of concrete. They are also applied to acoustic emissions recorded during a pull-out test. The AIC-picker produces sufficient reliable results for ultrasound signals where the deviation from the manual picks varies between 2% and 4%. Concerning acoustic emissions, only 10% of the events result in a mislocation vector greater than 5mm. It can be shown that our AIC-picker is a reliable tool for automatic onset detection for ultrasound signals and acoustic emissions of varying signal to noise ratio.

  5. Catastrophizing, rumination, and reappraisal prospectively predict adolescent PTSD symptom onset following a terrorist attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Jessica L; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Heleniak, Charlotte; Beck, Aaron T; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-08-24

    Disruptions in emotion regulation are a transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology. However, scant research has examined whether emotion regulation strategies are related to the onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among youths exposed to trauma. We investigated whether pretrauma emotion regulation strategies prospectively predicted PTSD symptom onset after the 2013 Boston Marathon terrorist attack among adolescents and whether these associations were moderated by the degree of exposure to media coverage of the attack. A sample of 78 Boston-area adolescents (mean age = 16.72 years, 65% female) who previously participated in studies assessing emotion regulation and psychopathology were recruited following the terrorist attack. Within 4 weeks of the attack, we assessed self-reported PTSD symptoms and attack-related media exposure via an online survey. We examined the association of pretrauma emotion regulation strategies with PTSD symptom onset after adjustment for pretrauma internalizing symptoms and violence exposure. Greater pretrauma engagement in rumination predicted onset of PTSD symptoms following the attack. Adolescents who engaged in catastrophizing also had greater PTSD symptoms postattack, but only when exposed to high levels of media coverage of the attacks; the same pattern was observed for adolescents who engaged in low levels of cognitive reappraisal. Engagement in specific emotion regulation strategies prior to a traumatic event predicts the onset of PTSD symptoms among youths exposed to trauma, extending transdiagnostic models of emotion regulation to encompass trauma-related psychopathology in children and adolescents. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Early onset preeclampsia in subsequent pregnancies correlates with early onset preeclampsia in first pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X L; Chen, T T; Dong, X; Gou, W L; Lau, S; Stone, P; Chen, Q

    2014-06-01

    Preeclampsia is a major complication of pregnancy and its occurrence in a first pregnancy is a major risk factor for recurrence in subsequent pregnancies. Whether the time of onset or the severity of preeclampsia in a first pregnancy is associated with the incidence of recurrent preeclampsia is not clear. We performed a retrospective study to analyse the incidence of recurrent preeclampsia and associations of the time of onset and the severity of preeclampsia between first preeclampsia and recurrent preeclampsia. Ninety-two women with previous preeclampsia who had a second pregnancy in a 4 year period were included. Data on the first and second pregnancies were obtained and included maternal age, maternal height and weight, gestation week at onset of preeclampsia and at delivery, blood pressure, proteinuria, interval between pregnancies and birth weights. Fifty-five women with previous preeclampsia developed recurrent preeclampsia (59.8%). The difference in the incidence of recurrent early and late onset preeclampsia was not significant different (65.3% versus 53.4%, p>0.05). The difference in the incidence of mild or severe disease in those who experienced recurrent preeclampsia was also not significant (59.6% versus 60%, p>0.05). The severity of preeclampsia in second pregnancy was not associated with the severity of preeclampsia in first pregnancy. However 93.7% women with previous early onset preeclampsia developed early onset preeclampsia in second pregnancy and 56.5% women with previous late onset preeclampsia developed early onset preeclampsia in second pregnancy. In addition, 76.2% women with previous mild preeclampsia developed severe preeclampsia in second pregnancy. The baby weight in recurrent preeclampsia was significantly decreased compared to that in first pregnancy with preeclampsia. Our data demonstrate that there was no association between the incidence of recurrent preeclampsia and the time of onset or severity of preeclampsia in first pregnancy

  7. A cluster analysis of early onset in common anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schat, A; van Noorden, M S; Noom, M J; Giltay, E J; van der Wee, N J A; de Graaf, R; Ten Have, M; Vermeiren, R R J M M; Zitman, F G

    2016-12-01

    Early onset is regarded as an important characteristic of anxiety disorders, associated with higher severity. However, previous findings diverge, as definitions of early onset vary and are often unsubstantiated. We objectively defined early onset in social phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and generalised anxiety disorder, using cluster analysis with data gathered in the general population. Resulting cut-off ages for early onset were ≤22 (social phobia), ≤31 (panic disorder), ≤21 (agoraphobia), and ≤27 (generalised anxiety disorder). Comparison of psychiatric comorbidity and general wellbeing between subjects with early and late onset in the general population and an outpatient cohort, demonstrated that among outpatients anxiety comorbidity was more common in early onset agoraphobia, but also that anxiety- as well as mood comorbidity were more common in late onset social phobia. A major limitation was the retrospective assessment of onset. Our results encourage future studies into correlates of early onset of psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting Indian Summer Monsoon onset through variations of surface air temperature and relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbova, Veronika; Surovyatkina, Elena; Kurths, Jurgen

    2015-04-01

    Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall has an enormous effect on Indian agriculture, economy, and, as a consequence, life and prosperity of more than one billion people. Variability of the monsoonal rainfall and its onset have a huge influence on food production, agricultural planning and GDP of the country, which on 22% is determined by agriculture. Consequently, successful forecasting of the ISM onset is a big challenge and large efforts are being put into it. Here, we propose a novel approach for predictability of the ISM onset, based on critical transition theory. The ISM onset is defined as an abrupt transition from sporadious rainfall to spatially organized and temporally sustained rainfall. Taking this into account, we consider the ISM onset as is a critical transition from pre-monsoon to monsoon, which take place in time and also in space. It allows us to suggest that before the onset of ISM on the Indian subcontinent should be areas of critical behavior where indicators of the critical transitions can be detected through an analysis of observational data. First, we identify areas with such critical behavior. Second, we use detected areas as reference points for observation locations for the ISM onset prediction. Third, we derive a precursor for the ISM onset based on the analysis of surface air temperature and relative humidity variations in these reference points. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of this precursor on two observational data sets. The proposed approach allows to determine ISM onset in advance in 67% of all considered years. Our proposed approach is less effective during the anomalous years, which are associated with weak/strong monsoons, e.g. El-Nino, La-Nina or positive Indian Ocean Dipole events. The ISM onset is predicted for 23 out of 27 normal monsoon years (85%) during the past 6 decades. In the anomalous years, we show that time series analysis in both areas during the pre-monsoon period reveals indicators whether the

  9. Familial pathways to early-onset suicidal behavior: familial and individual antecedents of suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, Nadine M; Brent, David A; Ziegler, Melissa; Iyengar, Satish; Kolko, David; Oquendo, Maria; Birmaher, Boris; Burke, Ainsley; Zelazny, Jamie; Stanley, Barbara; Mann, J John

    2007-09-01

    The authors sought to identify clinical predictors of new-onset suicidal behavior in children of parents with a history of mood disorder and suicidal behavior. In a prospective study of offspring of parents with mood disorders, 365 offspring (average age, 20 years) of 203 parents were followed for up to 6 years. Offspring with incident suicide attempts or emergency referrals for suicidal ideation or behavior ("incident events") were compared with offspring without such events on demographic and clinical characteristics. Multivariate analyses were conducted to examine predictors of incident events and predictors of time to incident event. Offspring of probands who had made suicide attempts, compared with offspring of parents with mood disorders who had not made attempts, had a higher rate of incident suicide attempts (4.1% versus 0.6%, relative risk=6.5) as well as overall suicidal events (8.3% versus 1.9%, relative risk=4.4). Mood disorder and self-reported impulsive aggression in offspring and a history of sexual abuse and self-reported depression in parents predicted earlier time to, and greater hazard of, an incident suicidal event. In offspring of parents with mood disorders, precursors of early-onset suicidal behavior include mood disorder and impulsive aggression as well as parental history of suicide attempt, sexual abuse, and self-reported depression. These results suggest that efforts to prevent the familial transmission of early-onset suicidal behavior by targeting these domains could reduce the morbidity of suicidal behavior in high-risk youths.

  10. The link between early onset drinking and early onset alcohol-impaired driving in young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F; Welte, John W

    2014-05-01

    Young drivers represent a disproportionate number of the individuals involved in alcohol-impaired driving. Although there is a known association between drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in young drivers, the link between early onset drinking and early onset alcohol-impaired driving has not been explored. The present study aimed to assess this link along with potentially confounding factors. The assessment used a proportional hazards model with data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Study of Young Men, a population-based sample of 625 males at aged 16-19. Controlling for the effects of potentially relevant confounds, the early onset of drinking was the most influential factor in predicting the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Race and the early onset of other forms of delinquency also played a significant role in the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Preventing an early start of drinking among adolescents may be the most critical factor to address in preventing an early start of alcohol-impaired driving.

  11. Onset of Crohn’s Disease by Symptoms of Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya.I. Lomei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of current views on Crohn’s disease (CD has been carried out. A case report of the sudden onset of CD by symptoms of acute appendicitis in young patient is described. The events took place as follows: cumulative negative impact of risk factors — acute CD with primary lesion of vermiform appendix — clinical manifestations of acute appendicitis — appendectomy — recovery, possibly deceptive.

  12. New-Onset Diabetes Mellitus With Exposure to Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir

    OpenAIRE

    Premji, Resmi; Roopnarinesingh, Nira; Qazi, Nazia; Nylen, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    The combination therapy of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Although hyperglycemia is not well known to occur with its use, we present 2 cases of new-onset diabetes mellitus and a review of the literature suggesting an adverse event association. In the first patient with HIV, we postulate that ledipasvir/sofosbuvir increased the levels of tenofovir and thereby potentiated hyperglycemia. In the second case ...

  13. Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimić, Jadranka Ivandić; Jukić, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy.

  14. Psoriasis and New-onset Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Ahlehoff, Ole; Egeberg, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of depression, but results are inconsistent. This study examined the risk of new-onset depression in patients with psoriasis in a nationwide Danish cohort including some 5 million people in the period 2001-2011. A total of 35,001 patients with mild...... psoriasis and 7,510 with severe psoriasis were identified. Incidence rates per 1,000 person-years and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. Incidence rates for depression were 20.0 (95% confidence interval 19.9-20.0), 23.9 (23.1-24.7) and 31.6 (29.5-33.8) for the reference population, mild......, the risk of new-onset depression in psoriasis is mediated primarily by comorbidities, except in younger individuals with severe psoriasis, in whom psoriasis itself may be a risk factor....

  15. Risk assessment in neonatal early onset sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sagori; Puopolo, Karen M

    2012-12-01

    The incidence of neonatal early onset sepsis has declined with the widespread use of intrapartum antibiotic therapies, yet early onset sepsis remains a potentially fatal condition, particularly among very low birth-weight infants. Clinical signs of neonatal infection are nonspecific and may be absent in the immediate postnatal period. Maternal and infant clinical characteristics, as well as infant laboratory values, have been used to identify newborns at risk and to administer empiric antibiotic therapy to prevent progression to more severe illness. Such approaches result in the evaluation of approximately 15% of asymptomatic term and late preterm infants and of nearly all preterm infants. The development of multivariate predictive models may provide more accurate methods of identifying newborns at highest risk and allow for more limited newborn antibiotic exposures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Delayed onset muscle soreness: is massage effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nicole

    2013-10-01

    Despite the widespread occurrence of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), there is little consensus as to the exact cause or which treatments may be most effective at alleviating symptoms. Greater understanding of DOMS can give sports medicine and fitness professionals an opportunity to help prevent or speed recovery of this performance limiting condition. This article will review the DOMS literature, including the potential role of psychosocial factors and explore studies which involve massage therapy as a treatment modality. Articles from PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and references from articles are included in this review. Search words and phrases included delayed onset muscle soreness, repeated bout effect, massage effectiveness, exercise induced muscle damage, and eccentric exercise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Onset of incommensurability in quantum spin chains

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Kiyohide

    2002-01-01

    In quantum spin chains, it has been observed that the incommensurability occurs near valence-bond-solid (VBS)-type solvable points, and the correlation length becomes shortest at VBS-type points. Besides, the correlation function decays purely exponentially at VBS-type points, in contrast with the two-dimensional (2D) Ornstein-Zernicke type behavior in the other region with an excitation gap. We propose a mechanism to explain the onset of the incommensurability and the shortest correlation le...

  18. Childhood-onset bullous systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, D M R; Gomes, R Cunha; Aikawa, N E; Campos, L M A; Romiti, R; Silva, C A

    2014-11-01

    Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus has rarely been described in pediatric lupus population and the real prevalence of childhood-onset bullous systemic lupus erythematosus has not been reported. From January 1983 to November 2013, 303 childhood-onset SLE (c-SLE) patients were followed at the Pediatric Rheumatology Unit of the Childreńs Institute of Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina Universidade da Universidade de São Paulo, three of them (1%) diagnosed as childhood-onset bullous systemic lupus erythematosus. All three cases presented tense vesiculobullous lesions unassociated with lupus erythematosus lesions, with the median duration of 60 days (30-60). All patients fulfilled bullous systemic lupus erythematosus criteria. Two had nephritis and serositis and presented specific autoantibodies. The histological pattern demonstrated subepidermal blisters with neutrophils-predominant infiltrates within the upper dermis. Direct immunofluorescence (DIF) showed deposits of IgG and complement along the epidermal basement membrane, in the presence or absence of IgA and/or IgM. A positive indirect immunofluorescence on salt-split skin demonstrating dermal binding was observed in two cases. All of them had moderate/severe disease activity at diagnosis with median Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) of 18 (14-24). Two patients received dapsone and one with severe nephritis received immunosuppressive drugs. In conclusion, in the last 30 years the prevalence of bullous lupus in childhood-onset lupus population was low (1%) in our tertiary University Hospital. A diagnosis of SLE should always be considered in children with recurrent tense vesiculobullous lesions with or without systemic manifestations. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Violence in Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Randal G.; Maximon, Julia; Kusumi, Jonathan; Lurie, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Violence is elevated in older adolescents and adults with schizophrenia; however, little is known about younger children. This report focuses on rates of violence in younger children with schizophrenic-spectrum illnesses. A retrospective review of structured diagnostic interviews from a case series of 81 children, ages 4-15 years of age, with childhood onset of schizophrenic-spectrum illness is reported. Seventy-two percent of children had a history of violent behavior, including 25 children ...

  20. Sensory deprivation leading to late onset psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnajeet Sahoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory deprivation is understood as diminution or absence of perceptual experiences to the usual external stimuli. Sensory deprivation in elderly is reported to be associated with depression, anxiety, psychosis, dementia, etc. In this report, we present the case of an 84-year- elderly man who developed auditory hallucination and after 1 year of onset of hearing difficulties. He was managed with quetiapine, with which he showed significant improvement.

  1. Oceanic Anoxic Events: 30 Years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkyns, H. C.

    2006-12-01

    1. Oceanic Anoxic Events are regional black-shale events Of course they are - because that is the nature of the definition! The recognition of Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events in 1976 stemmed from the finding, by the Deep Sea Drilling Project, of black organic-rich shales from the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans that were of equal age to similar facies exposed in northern and southern Europe and recognized as early as 1891. However, when calibrated against high-resolution carbon-isotope curves, based on carbonate and organic matter, the most organic-rich and/or carbonate-poor sediments can be slightly diachronous, as a result of local depositional and diagenetic conditions. For this reason, the onset and the termination of an Oceanic Anoxic Event may be less ambiguously defined using characteristic peaks and inflections in the associated carbon- isotope curve. As well as the two major Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events (early Aptian Selli Event; Cenomanian Turonian Bonarelli Event) that were clearly global in their effect, other events that apparently left a spatially more limited record include: Valanginian Weissert Event, Hauterivian Faraoni Event, Early Albian Paquier Event, Late Albian Breistroffer Event and a possible Santonian Coniacian Event. These events produced significant black-shale deposits primarily in the Atlantic Tethyan region. The only Jurassic OAE recognized to date is that of the early Toarcian. 2. Oceanic Anoxic Events were characterized by the widespread distribution of anoxic watermasses Indeed they were! The presence of delicate millimetre-scale laminations in the black shales deposited during Oceanic Anoxic Events implies a lack of bottom-dwelling fauna, generally attributed to anoxia. Furthermore, the presence, in Toarcian, Aptian and Cenomanian Turonian black shales, of molecular fossils derived from green sulphur bacteria, indicates that free hydrogen sulphide existed in the relatively shallow illuminated levels of the ocean during OAEs. An

  2. Executive dysfunction in late-onset depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisljar, Marko; Pirtosek, Z; Repovs, G; Grgic, M

    2008-06-01

    Depression in the elderly is frequently accompanied by cognitive impairment. Executive dysfunction, including disturbances in planning, sequencing, organizing and abstracting has been reported in late-onset depression. They were found to be associated with relapse and recurrence of geriatric major depression and with residual depressive symptoms. A group of patients with late-onset depression, compared with age matched healthy volunteers, were assessed for deficits in executive functioning. We used the computer version of Stroop Color-Word test enabling more detailed reaction time analysis. Severity of depression was evaluated with Hamilton depression rating scale and Geriatric depression scale. The preliminary results of a study show that patients with late-onset depression have increased absolute reaction times in Stroop colour-word test. Significant differences in the magnitude of individual interference effects pointing towards a characteristic change in attentional processes in depressed patients. The preliminary results of a study comparing a group of elderly depressed patients with a control group of older healthy volunteers confirm changes in executive functions.

  3. [Acute-Onset Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbayashi, Takamichi; Sonoo, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is characterized by an insidious onset showing progression over two months. However, up to 16% of CIDP patients may show acute presentation similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Such cases are termed acute-onset CIDP (A-CIDP). Distinguishing A-CIDP from GBS, especially the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) subtype, is critical because therapeutic strategies and outcomes may differ between the two syndromes. Regarding clinical features, A-CIDP is less likely to have autonomic nervous system involvement, facial weakness, a preceding infectious illness, or the need for mechanical ventilation, in comparison with AIDP. Electrophysiological features are usually quite similar between the two, although follow-up studies may elucidate key differences. Around 8%-16% of GBS patients may show clinical deterioration shortly after improvement or stabilization following initial immunological therapy. Such a situation is termed treatment-related fluctuation (TRF; GBS-TRF). The distinction between GBS-TRF and A-CIDP is an important clinical issue because maintenance treatment is often required in CIDP. The diagnosis of A-CIDP should be considered when the condition of a patient with GBS deteriorates after nine weeks from onset, or when deterioration occurs three times or more.

  4. Fusionless surgery in early-onset scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odent, T; Ilharreborde, B; Miladi, L; Khouri, N; Violas, P; Ouellet, J; Cunin, V; Kieffer, J; Kharrat, K; Accadbled, F

    2015-10-01

    Surgical treatment of early-onset scoliosis has greatly developed in recent years. Early-onset scoliosis covers a variety of etiologies (idiopathic, neurologic, dystrophic, malformative, etc.) with onset before the age of 5 years. Progression and severity threaten respiratory development and may result in respiratory failure in adulthood. Many surgical techniques have been developed in recent years, aiming to protect spinal and thoracic development. Present techniques are based on one of two main principles. The first consists in posterior distraction of the spine in its concavity (single growing rod, or vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib [VEPTR]), or on either side (dual rod); this requires iterative surgery, for lengthening, unless motorized using energy provided by a magnetic system. The second option is to use spinal growth force to lengthen the assembly; these techniques (Luque Trolley, Shilla), using a sliding assembly, are known as growth guidance. These techniques are effective in controlling early scoliotic deformity, and to some extent restore spinal growth. However, they show a high rate of complications: infection, rod breakage, spinal fixation pull out and, above all, progressive spinal stiffness, reducing long-term efficacy. Respiratory gain is harder to assess, as thoracic expansion does not systematically improve respiratory function, particularly due to impaired compliance of the thoracic cage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Rapidly progressive young-onset dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Brendan J; Boeve, Bradley F; Josephs, Keith A

    2009-03-01

    To characterize a cohort of individuals who have experienced rapidly progressive dementia with onset before age 45. Very little data regarding the clinical features or clinical spectrum of rapidly progressive young-onset dementia (RP-YOD) is available, primarily consisting of case reports or small series. A search of the Mayo Clinic medical record was employed to identify patients who had onset before age 45 of rapidly progressive dementia. All available medical records, laboratory data, neuroimaging studies, and pathologic data were reviewed. Twenty-two patients met the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Behavioral and affective disorders, cerebellar dysfunction, and visual and/or oculomotor dysfunction were common early clinical features within the cohort, as were clinical features often associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Diagnostic testing identified an etiology in most patients. Presentations of RP-YOD result from a variety of etiologies and significant overlap in clinical features is observed. Clinical features often associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease seem to be common within the entire cohort of RP-YOD patients. Diagnostic studies aided in establishing a diagnosis in most patients, however 5 had uncertain diagnoses despite exhaustive evaluation.

  6. Phase analysis method for burst onset prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellino, Flavio; Mazzoni, Alberto; Storace, Marco

    2017-02-01

    The response of bursting neurons to fluctuating inputs is usually hard to predict, due to their strong nonlinearity. For the same reason, decoding the injected stimulus from the activity of a bursting neuron is generally difficult. In this paper we propose a method describing (for neuron models) a mechanism of phase coding relating the burst onsets with the phase profile of the input current. This relation suggests that burst onset may provide a way for postsynaptic neurons to track the input phase. Moreover, we define a method of phase decoding to solve the inverse problem and estimate the likelihood of burst onset given the input state. Both methods are presented here in a unified framework, describing a complete coding-decoding procedure. This procedure is tested by using different neuron models, stimulated with different inputs (stochastic, sinusoidal, up, and down states). The results obtained show the efficacy and broad range of application of the proposed methods. Possible applications range from the study of sensory information processing, in which phase-of-firing codes are known to play a crucial role, to clinical applications such as deep brain stimulation, helping to design stimuli in order to trigger or prevent neural bursting.

  7. Soundscapes, events, resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Put it bluntly, a soundscape is the sonic counterpart, or component, of landscape. From such minimal assumption, some interesting consequences follow: just as landscape is far from being a simple stage-set upon which events take place, soundscape, too, is itself evental, i.e., it consists of events. Not only because its nature, far from being acoustics is always ‘psychoacoustics’, as Murray Schafer (1977/1994 first argued. Processes of environmental perception are of course there.

  8. Progressive and accelerated disability onset by race/ethnicity and education among late midlife and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Kenzie

    2012-12-01

    This study explores the pace of severe disability onset with an emphasis on the role of race/ethnicity and education. More specifically, this research examines whether race/ethnicity and educational attainment are independent predictors of progressive and accelerated disability onset. Using the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) Waves 2 to 10 (1994-2010), a series of discrete-time Cox proportional hazards models with multiple competing events were created to ascertain whether respondents developed progressive or accelerated disability in subsequent waves. Black and Hispanic respondents were at an increased risk of developing progressive disability. Respondents without a high school degree were more likely to experience progressive or accelerated disability. Low educational attainment was a particularly strong predictor of accelerated disability onset and may represent an acute lack of resources over the life course. Race and ethnicity were important predictors of progressive disability onset, which may reflect racial/ethnic variations in the disabling process.

  9. In-situ observation of ULF wave activities associated with substorm expansion phase onset and current disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present two substorm events with coordinated ground-based and in-situ THEMIS observations, and focus our interest on the wave activities in Pi1 and Pi2 bands from minutes before the substorm expansion phase (EP onset to minutes after the local current disruption (CD. We find that Pi2 band (40–100 s wave appears 1–2 min before the substorm onset and last over the entire EP interval, while higher-frequency wave within Pi1 band (10–30 s emerges within few tens of seconds after the EP onset, intensifies during the local CD, and fades afterwards. The pre-onset Pi2 waves are attributed to a ballooning mode which acts as the seed perturbation to the substorm EP onset process. The azimuthal wavenumber estimated from the Doppler shift nature of the ballooning mode is consistent with the longitudinal "wavelength" inferred from the onset auroral structures. The Pi1 waves appearing within few tens of seconds after the EP onset are interpreted as supportive of a two-fluid instability mode of thin current sheet investigated in an accompanying paper (Liu and Liang, 2009. During the local CD, broadband wave activities from Pi2 band to well above the ion gyrofrequency are observed, suggesting the coexistence of various plasma instabilities featuring different frequency ranges.

  10. Thermospheric wind variations observed by a Fabry-Perot interferometer at Tromsoe, Norway, at substorm onsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Shiokawa, K.; Oyama, S. I.; Otsuka, Y.

    2016-12-01

    In this research, we investigated the thermospheric wind variations before and after isolated substorm onset by using a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) at Tromsoe, Norway. We used wind variations measured from the Doppler shift of both red line (630.0 nm, altitudes: 200-300 km) and green line (557.7 nm, altitudes: 90-100 km) with a time resolution of 13 min. The wind data were obtained for 7 years from 2009 to 2015. We first identified isolated local substorm onsets by using IMAGE magnetometer data, and checked the wind variations before and after these onset times. In total, we obtained 8 events from red line data and 10 events from green line data at different local times. Most wind observations were made at equatorward of substorm onset arcs which are identified by auroral images obtained at Tromsoe. We calculated differences of wind velocities at the onset time and 30-min (1-hour) after the onset time using winds averaged over ±15 min (±30 min) of the epoch time. For red line, except for few notable decreases at dawnside, eastward wind tends to increase from the onset time to both 30-min and 1-hour after the onset time at all nightside local times. This result is opposite to the tendency expected from thermospheric tidal wind variations, and suggests a particular eastward drive of thermospheric wind during substorms. With some exceptions, northward wind tends to decrease at local times before 0200 LT and increase after that, which is consistent with the expectation from thermospheric tides. For green line, eastward components have similar tendency of increase at all local times with some notable decreases at duskside. Northward components show some increases at pre-midnight sector, and significant decreases at duskside, post-midnight sector and dawnside. These results are obtained by using wind vectors obtained by the sky scanning of the FPI with assuming uniform winds in the field-of-view of the sky scanning. In the presentation we will also report results

  11. Hippocampal morphology and distinguishing late-onset from early-onset elderly depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmaier, Martina; Narr, Katherine L; Toga, Arthur W; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Thompson, Paul M; Hamilton, Liberty; Haroon, Ebrahim; Pham, Daniel; Heinz, Andreas; Kumar, Anand

    2008-02-01

    Despite evidence for hippocampal abnormalities in elderly depression, it is unknown whether these changes are regionally specific. This study used three-dimensional mapping techniques to identify regional hippocampal abnormalities in early- and late-onset depression. Neuropsychological correlates of hippocampal morphology were also investigated. With high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, hippocampal morphology was compared among elderly patients with early- (N=24) and late-onset (N=22) depression and comparison subjects (N=34). Regional structural abnormalities were identified by comparing distances, measured from homologous hippocampal surface points to the central core of each individual's hippocampal surface model, between groups. Hippocampal volumes differed between depressed patients and comparison subjects but not between patients with early- and late-onset depression. However, statistical mapping results showed that regional surface contractions were significantly pronounced in late- compared to early-onset depression in the anterior of the subiculum and lateral posterior of the CA1 subfield in the left hemisphere. Significant shape differences were observed bilaterally in anterior CA1-CA3 subfields and the subiculum in patients in relation to comparison subjects. These results were similar when each disease group was separately compared to comparison subjects. Hippocampal surface contractions significantly correlated with memory measures among late- but not early-onset depressed patients or comparison subjects. More pronounced regional volume deficits and their associations with memory in late-onset depression may suggest that these patients are more likely to develop cognitive impairment over time than individuals with early-onset depression. Mapping regional hippocampal abnormalities and their cognitive correlates may help guide research in defining risk profiles and treatment strategies.

  12. Discrimination of acute lymphoblastic leukemia from systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis at disease onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamashiro, Mirian S; Aikawa, Nádia Emi; Campos, Lucia Maria A; Cristofani, Lílian Maria; Odone-Filho, Vicente; Silva, Clovis A

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and laboratory features that differentiate acute lymphoblastic leukemia from systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis at disease onset. METHODS: Fifty-seven leukemia patients with musculoskeletal involvement, without blasts on peripheral blood and without glucocorticoid therapy at disease onset and 102 systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients (International League of Associations for Rheumatology criteria) were retrospectively evaluated. The following features were examined: fever, rheumatoid rash, arthritis, limb pain, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, pericarditis, myocarditis, pleuritis, weight loss, bleeding, anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and lactic dehydrogenase levels. RESULTS: The median age at disease onset was significantly higher in leukemia patients than in those with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (5.8 vs. 3.8 years). In addition, the frequencies of limb pain, hepatomegaly, weight loss and hemorrhagic manifestations were significantly higher in leukemia patients than in systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients (70% vs. 1%, 54% vs. 32%, 30% vs. 8%, and 9% vs. 0%, respectively). Likewise, the frequencies of anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and high lactic dehydrogenase levels were statistically higher in leukemia patients than in patients with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (88% vs. 57%, 39% vs. 1%, 60% vs. 1%, 77% vs. 1%, and 56% vs. 14%, respectively). Remarkably, multivariate analysis revealed that limb pain (OR = 553; 95% CI = 46.48-6580.42) and thrombocytopenia (OR = 754.13; 95% CI = 64.57-8806.72) were significant independent variables that differentiated leukemia from systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The R2 of the Nagelkerke test was 0.91, and the Kaplan-Meier survival curves were similar for acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with and without limb pain. CONCLUSION: Our study

  13. Discrimination of acute lymphoblastic leukemia from systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis at disease onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian S. Tamashiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical and laboratory features that differentiate acute lymphoblastic leukemia from systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis at disease onset. METHODS: Fifty-seven leukemia patients with musculoskeletal involvement, without blasts on peripheral blood and without glucocorticoid therapy at disease onset and 102 systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients (International League of Associations for Rheumatology criteria were retrospectively evaluated. The following features were examined: fever, rheumatoid rash, arthritis, limb pain, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, pericarditis, myocarditis, pleuritis, weight loss, bleeding, anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and lactic dehydrogenase levels. RESULTS: The median age at disease onset was significantly higher in leukemia patients than in those with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (5.8 vs. 3.8 years. In addition, the frequencies of limb pain, hepatomegaly, weight loss and hemorrhagic manifestations were significantly higher in leukemia patients than in systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients (70% vs. 1%, 54% vs. 32%, 30% vs. 8%, and 9% vs. 0%, respectively. Likewise, the frequencies of anemia, leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and high lactic dehydrogenase levels were statistically higher in leukemia patients than in patients with systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (88% vs. 57%, 39% vs. 1%, 60% vs. 1%, 77% vs. 1%, and 56% vs. 14%, respectively. Remarkably, multivariate analysis revealed that limb pain (OR = 553; 95% CI =46.48-6580.42 and thrombocytopenia (OR = 754.13; 95% CI =64.57-8806.72 were significant independent variables that differentiated leukemia from systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The R2 of the Nagelkerke test was 0.91, and the Kaplan-Meier survival curves were similar for acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with and without limb pain. CONCLUSION: Our study

  14. Life events in schizoaffective disorder: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardaxi, Chrysoula Ch; Gonda, Xenia; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N

    2018-02-01

    Life events play a central role in the development of psychiatric disorders and impact course and outcome. We present a systematic review of the literature on the relationship of life events with the onset and long-term course of schizoaffective disorder. MEDLINE was searched with the combination of the key words: 'life events' plus 'schizoaffective'. The PRISMA method was followed in the review process. From the identified 66 papers only 12 were considered to be of relevance to the current study and 6 more papers were identified by inspecting the reference lists of the identified papers. There are very few studies focusing on the role of life events in schizoaffective disorder indicating insufficient data concerning the relationship of life events with onset and long-term course of schizoaffective disorder. Reported effects are not generic but concern specific events like the loss of mother, and females seem to be more vulnerable. Patients with schizoaffective disorder manifest high rates of PTSD. The literature on life events with the development and course of schizoaffective disorder is limited and precludes solid conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. King

    2004-03-31

    The primary purpose of this analysis is to evaluate seismic- and igneous-related features, events, and processes (FEPs). These FEPs represent areas of natural system processes that have the potential to produce disruptive events (DE) that could impact repository performance and are related to the geologic processes of tectonism, structural deformation, seismicity, and igneous activity. Collectively, they are referred to as the DE FEPs. This evaluation determines which of the DE FEPs are excluded from modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). The evaluation is based on the data and results presented in supporting analysis reports, model reports, technical information, or corroborative documents that are cited in the individual FEP discussions in Section 6.2 of this analysis report.

  16. A frailty model for (interval) censored family survival data, applied to the age at onset of non-physical problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.A.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2010-01-01

    Family survival data can be used to estimate the degree of genetic and environmental contributions to the age at onset of a disease or of a specific event in life. The data can be modeled with a correlated frailty model in which the frailty variable accounts for the degree of kinship within the

  17. Update on treatment of partial onset epilepsy: role of eslicarbazepine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenzauner, Markus; Luef, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Partial epilepsy comprises simple partial seizures, complex partial seizures, and secondarily generalized seizures, and covers more than 60% of patients with epilepsy. Antiepileptic drugs are generally considered to be the major therapeutic intervention for epilepsy but, despite a broad range of commonly used antiepileptic drugs, approximately 30% of adult patients and approximately 25% of children with epilepsy have inadequate seizure control. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a novel voltage-gated sodium channel-blocking agent with presumed good safety and efficacy for adjunctive treatment of patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy. ESL is a prodrug of eslicarbazepine (the active entity responsible for pharmacologic effects), and is rapidly and extensively hydrolyzed during first pass by liver esterases after oral administration. The half-life of eslicarbazepine at steady-state plasma concentrations is 20–24 hours, compatible with once-daily administration. ESL 800 mg and 1200 mg significantly reduces seizure frequency and shows a favorable safety profile in adult patients with drug-resistant partial-onset seizures, as demonstrated in previous Phase II and III trials. In children, ESL showed a clear dose-dependent decrease in seizure frequency with good tolerability. The most commonly reported adverse events associated with ESL are dizziness, somnolence, nausea, diplopia, headache, vomiting, blurred vision, vertigo, and fatigue. In conclusion, these characteristics suggest that ESL might be a valid and well tolerated treatment option for patients with drug-resistant partial-onset epilepsy. The convenience of once-daily dosing and a short, simple titration regimen would be of special interest for children, although conclusive published data are lacking to date. Hence, there is an urgent need to establish the therapeutic value of ESL in this special population in the near future. PMID:21127691

  18. Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sanchez

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this analysis report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of the disruptive events features, events, and processes (FEPs) with respect to modeling used to support the total system performance assessment for license application (TSPA-LA). A screening decision, either ''Included'' or ''Excluded,'' is given for each FEP, along with the technical basis for screening decisions. This information is required by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at 10 CFR 63.114 (d), (e), and (f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs addressed in this report deal with both seismic and igneous disruptive events, such as fault displacements through the repository and an igneous intrusion into the repository. For included FEPs, this analysis summarizes the implementation of the FEP in TSPA-LA (i.e., how the FEP is included). For excluded FEPs, this analysis provides the technical basis for exclusion from TSPA-LA (i.e., why the FEP is excluded). Previous versions of this report were developed to support the total system performance assessments (TSPA) for various prior repository designs. This revision addresses the repository design for the license application (LA).

  19. Early-onset Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes: Neuropsychology and Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-11

    Alzheimer Disease, Early Onset; Alzheimer Disease; Alzheimer Disease, Late Onset; Dementia, Alzheimer Type; Logopenic Progressive Aphasia; Primary Progressive Aphasia; Visuospatial/Perceptual Abilities; Posterior Cortical Atrophy; Executive Dysfunction; Corticobasal Degeneration; Ideomotor Apraxia

  20. Optic neuritis as onset manifestation of multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T L; Frederiksen, J L; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    To determine the predictive value on survival of optic neuritis (ON) as onset manifestation of MS.......To determine the predictive value on survival of optic neuritis (ON) as onset manifestation of MS....

  1. Phenotypic differences between pregnancy-onset and postpartum-onset major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemus, Margaret; Neeb, Christine C; Davis, Alida; Occhiogrosso, Mallay; Nguyen, Theresa; Bleiberg, Kathryn L

    2012-12-01

    To compare clinical features of major depression that begins during pregnancy to clinical features of postpartum-onset depression. The hormonal environments of pregnancy and postpartum periods are quite different and therefore may promote distinct subtypes of major depression. Data were collected from medical records of 229 women who were evaluated in an academic medical center reproductive psychiatry clinic. All patients evaluated between 2005 and 2010 who were pregnant or in the first year postpartum and received a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder were included. Comparisons between the pregnancy-onset and postpartum-onset subjects included demographics, psychiatric diagnostic history, psychosocial stressors, reproductive history, and current episode symptoms. Time of onset within trimesters of pregnancy and within the postpartum year as well as the effects of discontinuation of antidepressant medication were also examined. Women with major depressive episodes that began during pregnancy had higher rates of prior episodes of postpartum and nonperinatal major depression (both P values depression that began during pregnancy was also more commonly associated with psychosocial stressors. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and psychotic symptoms were more common in postpartum-onset depression. These findings were also evident in the subgroup of 176 subjects who did not discontinue antidepressant medication during the year prior to development of perinatal depression. The onset of 94% of postpartum major depressive episodes occured within the first 4 months postpartum. Episodes of major depression during pregnancy were more likely to develop in the first trimester for women who discontinued antidepressant medication within the past year; otherwise, depression onset was more evenly distributed across trimesters. Women with a history of perinatal and nonperinatal major depression are more likely to relapse during pregnancy than postpartum, a finding that points to

  2. Committed Sport Event Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Keunsu; Quarterman, Jerome; Strigas, Ethan; Ha, Jaehyun; Lee, Seungbum

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among selected demographic characteristics (income, education and age), motivation and commitment of volunteers at a sporting event. Three-hundred and five questionnaires were collected from volunteers in a marathon event and analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Based on…

  3. The ATLAS Event Builder

    CERN Document Server

    Vandelli, W; Battaglia, A; Beck, H P; Blair, R; Bogaerts, A; Bosman, M; Ciobotaru, M; Cranfield, R; Crone, G; Dawson, J; Dobinson, Robert W; Dobson, M; Dos Anjos, A; Drake, G; Ermoline, Y; Ferrari, R; Ferrer, M L; Francis, D; Gadomski, S; Gameiro, S; Gorini, B; Green, B; Haberichter, W; Haberli, C; Hauser, R; Hinkelbein, C; Hughes-Jones, R; Joos, M; Kieft, G; Klous, S; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Kugel, A; Leahu, L; Lehmann, G; Martin, B; Mapelli, L; Meessen, C; Meirosu, C; Misiejuk, A; Mornacchi, G; Müller, M; Nagasaka, Y; Negri, A; Pasqualucci, E; Pauly, T; Petersen, J; Pope, B; Schlereth, J L; Spiwoks, R; Stancu, S; Strong, J; Sushkov, S; Szymocha, T; Tremblet, L; Ünel, G; Vermeulen, J; Werner, P; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Wickens, F; Wiedenmann, W; Yu, M; Yasu, Y; Zhang, J; Zobernig, H; 2007 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference

    2008-01-01

    Event data from proton-proton collisions at the LHC will be selected by the ATLAS experiment in a three-level trigger system, which, at its first two trigger levels (LVL1+LVL2), reduces the initial bunch crossing rate of 40~MHz to $sim$3~kHz. At this rate, the Event Builder collects the data from the readout system PCs (ROSs) and provides fully assembled events to the Event Filter (EF). The EF is the third trigger level and its aim is to achieve a further rate reduction to $sim$200~Hz on the permanent storage. The Event Builder is based on a farm of O(100) PCs, interconnected via a Gigabit Ethernet to O(150) ROSs. These PCs run Linux and multi-threaded software applications implemented in C++. All the ROSs, and substantial fractions of the Event Builder and Event Filter PCs have been installed and commissioned. We report on performance tests on this initial system, which is capable of going beyond the required data rates and bandwidths for Event Building for the ATLAS experiment.

  4. The Agency of Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Riiber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the notion of agency within event-based models. We present an event-based modeling approach that links interdependent generative, analytic and decision making sub-models within a system of exchange. Two case study projects demonstrate the underlying modeling concepts and metho...

  5. Practices Surrounding Event Photos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Kotzé, P.; Marsden, G.; Lindgaard, G.; Wesson, J.; Winckler, M.

    Sharing photos through mobile devices has a great potential for creating shared experiences of social events between co-located as well as remote participants. In order to design novel event sharing tools, we need to develop indepth understanding of current practices surrounding these so called

  6. Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2016-01-18

    Jan 18, 2016 ... Evening meal events for Governors, held in connection with Board meetings, must not cost more per person than 2.625 times the applicable meal allowance. The Chair of the Board must authorize any exception to the provision of this paragraph. Overnight stays related to events (other than conferences and ...

  7. Similarities and differences in adolescence-onset versus adulthood-onset sexual abuse incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, Nadine; Brown, Sarah; Smallbone, Stephen; Pritchard, Karlyn

    2015-08-01

    A sample of males who had first committed sexual offences against children in either adolescence (n=230; M=14.0 years, SD=1.5) or adulthood (n=280; M=34.4 years, SD=11.7) were compared on measures relating to the circumstances of their first known sexual abuse incident. Considerable diversity in the circumstances of these first incidents was observed for both groups. However, adulthood-onset sexual abuse most often occurred following a long-standing familial relationship with a female victim, and in a home setting. The first incident for adolescence-onset offenders also tended to occur in the context of a long-term relationship and against a female child in a home setting, but more commonly against a nonfamilial victim. Adulthood-onset offenders abused older children, were more likely to engage in penetrative sexual behaviors, and went on to abuse over a longer duration than adolescence-onset offenders. Adolescence-onset offences were more likely to be witnessed by a third party. Findings and their implications for prevention are considered from a situational crime prevention perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enzyme replacement therapy for infantile-onset Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Zhang, Lingli; Quan, Shuyan

    2017-11-20

    no robust evidence for which dosing schedule of alglucosidase alfa was more effective to treat infantile-onset Pompe disease. It is not deemed ethical to proceed with new placebo-controlled trials, therefore a randomized controlled trial with a large sample size comparing different dosing schedules of enzyme replacement therapy is needed. The main clinical outcomes (i.e. cardiac function, invasive ventilation, survival, motor development, adverse events (e.g. the development of antibodies)) should be standardized when evaluated and reported.

  9. Family Life Cycle Transitions and the Onset of Eating Disorders: A Retrospective Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Loth, Katie; Hanson, Carrie; Croll, Jillian; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Aims and Objective The aim of this retrospective qualitative study is to understand how transitions in the family life cycle and responses to these events may relate to the onset of eating disorders in an attempt to generate new theoretical insights and inform future research in the area of eating disorder prevention. Background Little is known about the contextual factors that occur throughout the family life cycle that may be risk factors for the development of eating disorders. Design and Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 individuals of varied ages (age range =17–64; Median = 27; SD 13.7) currently receiving treatment for eating disorders in an outpatient clinic specialising in eating disorder treatment. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods. Results Six themes were identified as family life cycle transitional events that preceded the onset of participants’ eating disorders: (a) School Transitions, (b) Death of a Family Member, (c) Relationship Changes, (d) Home and Job Transitions (e) Illness/Hospitalisation and (f) Abuse, Sexual Assault, or Incest. Conclusions Results indicated that transitional events in the family life cycle followed by a lack of needed support during these transitions may precipitate the onset of eating disorders. Thus, future research should use these findings to inform the creation of interventions that reduce the intensity of the stress brought about by these transitional periods and increase the adaptability and coping skills of individuals and family members to prevent eating disorders. Relevance to Clinical Practice Nurses and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the importance of transitional events occurring in the family life cycle of adolescents and young adults. Helping parents to be aware and supportive of difficult transitional events may be more important than trying to solve or fix the problem. PMID:21749510

  10. Psoriasis and New-Onset Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Usman; Hansen, Peter Riis; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Psoriasis is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality that may be associated with psoriasis, but conflicting results have been...

  11. Intelligent post processing of seismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ringdal

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The Intelligent Monitoring Systern (IMS currently provides for joint processing of data from six arrays located in Northern and Central Europe. From experience with analyst review of events automatically defined by the IMS, we bave realized that the quality of the automatic event locations can be significantly improved if the event intervals are reprocessed with signal processing pararneters tuned to phases from events in the given region. The tuned processing parameters are obtained from off line analysis of events located in the region of interest. The primary goal of such intelligent post processing is to provide event definitions of a quality that minimizes the need for subsequent manual analysis. The first step in this post processing is to subdivide the arca to be monitored in order to identify sites of interest. Clearly, calibration will be the easiest and potential savings in manpower are the largest for areas of high, recurring seismicity. We bave identified 8 mining sites in Fennoscandia/NW Russia and noted that 65.6% of the events of ML > 2.0 in this region can be associated with one of these sites. This result is based on 1 year and a half of data. The second step is to refine the phase arrival and azimuth estimates using frequency filters and processing parameters that are tuned to the initial event location provided by the IMS. In this study, we have analyzed a set of 52 mining explosions from the Khibiny Massif mining area in the Kola peninsula of Russia. Very accurate locations of these events bave been provided by the seismologists from the Kola Regional Seismology Centre. Using an autoregressive likelihood technique we have been able to estimate onset times to an accuracy (standard deviation of about 0.05 s for P phases and 0.15 0.20 s for S phases. Using fixed frequency bands, azimuth can be estimated to an accuracy (one standard deviation of 0.9 degrees for the ARCESS array and 3 4 degrees for the small array recently

  12. Early-onset stargardt disease: phenotypic and genotypic characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambertus, S.; Huet, R.A.C. van; Bax, N.M.; Hoefsloot, L.H.; Cremers, F.P.M.; Boon, C.J.F.; Klevering, B.J.; Hoyng, C.B.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the phenotype and genotype of patients with early-onset Stargardt disease. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-one Stargardt patients with age at onset onset, medical history, initial

  13. Onset Age of Obesity and Variables of Personality and Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Carol

    Three hypotheses derived from Hilde Bruch's formulations regarding onset differences among the obese were tested. In Bruch's theory, adult-onset, or reactive, obesity is a result of psychological trauma; the individual uses eating as a defense against anxiety and depression. Child-onset, or developmental, obesity results from a mixture of…

  14. Annotation: Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia--Clinical and Treatment Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Tompson, Martha C.; McGrath, Emily P.

    2004-01-01

    Background: In the past 10 years, there has been increased research on childhood-onset schizophrenia and clear advances have been achieved. Method: This annotation reviews the recent clinical and treatment literature on childhood-onset schizophrenia. Results: There is now strong evidence that the syndrome of childhood-onset schizophrenia exists…

  15. The nosological status of early onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, P J; Watkins, B; Bryant-Waugh, R; Lask, B

    2002-07-01

    Although cases of early onset anorexia nervosa have been described, there has been no systematic comparison of early onset cases with classic cases of later onset, or with other forms of early onset eating disturbance. A consecutive series of patients referred to two specialist child and adolescent eating disorder services with a clinical diagnosis of eating disorder (N = 126) was systematically assessed using a child version of the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and the K-SADS interview. Of 86 patients with a diagnosis of eating disorder of early onset, 38 received a clinical diagnosis of anorexia nervosa (AN). The remainder were mainly diagnosed as having food avoidance emotional disorder (25 patients) and selective eating (17 patients). Six received other diagnoses (bulimia nervosa, or functional dysphasia). These 48 patients were combined to form a group of early onset non-AN eating disturbance. In terms of specific eating disorder psychopathology and general psychopathology, the early onset AN group was very similar to the late onset AN sample. When the two early onset groups were compared, there was a marked difference between them in terms of eating disorder psychopathology. A discriminant function analysis using the EDE information produced a clear discrimination, with the EDE restraint and shape concern subscales doing most of the discrimination work. The specific psychopathology of AN of early onset is very similar to that of classic adolescent onset AN. Other forms of early onset eating disorder do not evidence this specific psychopathology.

  16. A cluster analysis of early onset in common anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schat, A.; van Noorden, M.S.; Noom, M. J.; Giltay, E.J.; van der Wee, N.J.A.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2016-01-01

    Early onset is regarded as an important characteristic of anxiety disorders, associated with higher severity. However, previous findings diverge, as definitions of early onset vary and are often unsubstantiated. We objectively defined early onset in social phobia, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and

  17. Childhood-onset Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majander, Anna; Bowman, Richard; Poulton, Joanna; Antcliff, Richard J; Reddy, M Ashwin; Michaelides, Michel; Webster, Andrew R; Chinnery, Patrick F; Votruba, Marcela; Moore, Anthony T; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    The onset of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is relatively rare in childhood. This study describes the clinical and molecular genetic features observed in this specific LHON subgroup. Our retrospective study consisted of a UK paediatric LHON cohort of 27 patients and 69 additional cases identified from a systematic review of the literature. Patients were included if visual loss occurred at the age of 12 years or younger with a confirmed pathogenic mitochondrial DNA mutation: m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A or m.14484T>C. In the UK paediatric LHON cohort, three patterns of visual loss and progression were observed: (1) classical acute (17/27, 63%); (2) slowly progressive (4/27, 15%); and (3) insidious or subclinical (6/27, 22%). Diagnostic delays of 3-15 years occurred in children with an insidious mode of onset. Spontaneous visual recovery was more common in patients carrying the m.3460G>A and m.14484T>C mutations compared with the m.11778G>A mutation. Based a meta-analysis of 67 patients with available visual acuity data, 26 (39%) patients achieved a final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≥0.5 Snellen decimal in at least one eye, whereas 13 (19%) patients had a final BCVA <0.05 in their better seeing eye. Although childhood-onset LHON carries a relatively better visual prognosis, approximately 1 in 5 patients will remain within the visual acuity criteria for legal blindness in the UK. The clinical presentation can be insidious and LHON should be considered in the differential diagnosis when faced with a child with unexplained subnormal vision and optic disc pallor. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. The Age of Onset of Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lijster, Jasmijn M.; Dierckx, Bram; Utens, Elisabeth M.W.J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Zieldorff, Carola; Dieleman, Gwen C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to estimate the age of onset (AOO) for all anxiety disorders and for specific subtypes. Gender differences in the AOO of anxiety disorders were examined, as were the influence of study characteristics on reported AOOs. Methods: Seven electronic databases were searched up to October 2014, with keywords representing anxiety disorder subtypes, AOO, and study design. The inclusion criteria were studies using a general population sample that provided data on the AOO for all anxiety disorders, or specific anxiety disorders, according to DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, or ICD-10 criteria. Results: There were 1028 titles examined, which yielded 24 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight studies reported the AOO and gender. Meta-analysis found a mean AOO of all anxiety disorders of 21.3 years (95% CI 17.46 to 25.07). Separation anxiety disorder, specific phobia, and social phobia had their mean onset before the age of 15 years, whereas the AOO of agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder began, on average, between 21.1 and 34.9 years. Meta-analysis revealed no difference in the AOO between genders. A prospective study design and higher developmental level of the study country were associated with an earlier AOO. Conclusions: Results from this meta-analysis indicate that anxiety disorder subtypes differ in the mean AOO, with onsets ranging from early adolescence to young adulthood. These findings suggest that prevention strategies of anxiety disorders should be directed towards factors associated with the development of anxiety disorder subtypes in the age groups with the greatest vulnerability for developing those disorders. PMID:27310233

  19. Genomes of early onset prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischenfeldt, Joachim; Korbel, Jan O.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Prostate cancer is a disease of the elderly but a clinically relevant subset occurs early in life. In the current review, we discuss recent findings and the current understanding of the molecular underpinnings associated with early-onset prostate cancer (PCa) and the evidence...... supporting age-specific differences in the cancer genomes. Recent findings Recent surveys of PCa patient cohorts have provided novel age-dependent links between germline and somatic aberrations which points to differences in the molecular cause and treatment options. Summary Identifying the earliest...

  20. Late-onset endometrial ablation failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Wortman

    2017-07-01

    While the short term safety and efficacy of these devices has been reported in numerous clinical trials we only recently are becoming aware of the high incidence of late-onset endometrial ablation failures (LOEAFs associated with these procedures. Currently, about a quarter of women who undergo a GEA procedure will eventually require a hysterectomy while an unknown number have less than satisfactory results. In order to reduce these suboptimal outcomes physicians must better understand the etiology and risk factors that predispose a patient toward the development of LOEAF as well as current knowledge of patient and procedure selection for EA as well as treatment options for these delayed complications.

  1. Conduction at the onset of chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldovin, Fulvio

    2017-02-01

    After a general discussion of the thermodynamics of conductive processes, we introduce specific observables enabling the connection of the diffusive transport properties with the microscopic dynamics. We solve the case of Brownian particles, both analytically and numerically, and address then whether aspects of the classic Onsager's picture generalize to the non-local non-reversible dynamics described by logistic map iterates. While in the chaotic case numerical evidence of a monotonic relaxation is found, at the onset of chaos complex relaxation patterns emerge.

  2. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in Lebanon: first onset, treatment, and exposure to war.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie G Karam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There are no published data on national lifetime prevalence and treatment of mental disorders in the Arab region. Furthermore, the effect of war on first onset of disorders has not been addressed previously on a national level, especially in the Arab region. Thus, the current study aims at investigating the lifetime prevalence, treatment, age of onset of mental disorders, and their relationship to war in Lebanon.The Lebanese Evaluation of the Burden of Ailments and Needs Of the Nation study was carried out on a nationally representative sample of the Lebanese population (n = 2,857 adults. Respondents were interviewed using the fully structured WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Lifetime prevalence of any Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV disorder was 25.8%. Anxiety (16.7% and mood (12.6% were more common than impulse control (4.4% and substance (2.2% disorders. Only a minority of people with any mental disorder ever received professional treatment, with substantial delays (6 to 28 y between the onset of disorders and onset of treatment. War exposure increased the risk of first onset of anxiety (odds ratio [OR] 5.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-14.1, mood (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.0-5.6, and impulse control disorders (OR 12.72, 95% CI 4.5-35.7.About one-fourth of the sample (25.8% met criteria for at least one of the DSM-IV disorders at some point in their lives. There is a substantial unmet need for early identification and treatment. Exposure to war events increases the odds of first onset of mental disorders.

  3. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in Lebanon: first onset, treatment, and exposure to war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Elie G; Mneimneh, Zeina N; Dimassi, Hani; Fayyad, John A; Karam, Aimee N; Nasser, Soumana C; Chatterji, Somnath; Kessler, Ronald C

    2008-04-01

    There are no published data on national lifetime prevalence and treatment of mental disorders in the Arab region. Furthermore, the effect of war on first onset of disorders has not been addressed previously on a national level, especially in the Arab region. Thus, the current study aims at investigating the lifetime prevalence, treatment, age of onset of mental disorders, and their relationship to war in Lebanon. The Lebanese Evaluation of the Burden of Ailments and Needs Of the Nation study was carried out on a nationally representative sample of the Lebanese population (n = 2,857 adults). Respondents were interviewed using the fully structured WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Lifetime prevalence of any Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) disorder was 25.8%. Anxiety (16.7%) and mood (12.6%) were more common than impulse control (4.4%) and substance (2.2%) disorders. Only a minority of people with any mental disorder ever received professional treatment, with substantial delays (6 to 28 y) between the onset of disorders and onset of treatment. War exposure increased the risk of first onset of anxiety (odds ratio [OR] 5.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-14.1), mood (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.0-5.6), and impulse control disorders (OR 12.72, 95% CI 4.5-35.7). About one-fourth of the sample (25.8%) met criteria for at least one of the DSM-IV disorders at some point in their lives. There is a substantial unmet need for early identification and treatment. Exposure to war events increases the odds of first onset of mental disorders.

  4. Different alterations of cerebral regional homogeneity in early-onset and late-onset Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: Early-onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD is distinct from late-onset PD (LOPD as it relates to the clinical profile and response to medication. The objective is to investigate whether characteristics of spontaneous brain activity in the resting state are associated with the age of disease onset. Methods: We assessed the correlation between neural activity and age-at-onset in a sample of 39 PD patients (18 EOPD and 21 LOPD and 37 age-matched normal control subjects. Regional homogeneity (ReHo approaches were employed using ANOVA with two factors: PD and age.Results: In the comparisons between LOPD and EOPD, EOPD revealed lower ReHo values in the right putamen gyrus and higher ReHo values in the left superior frontal gyrus. Compared with age-matched control subjects, EOPD exhibited lower ReHo values in the right putamen and higher ReHo values in the left inferior temporal gyrus; however, LOPD showed lower ReHo values in the right putamen and left insula. The ReHo values were negatively correlated with the UPDRS total scores in the right putamen in LOPD, but a correlation between the ReHo value and UPDRS score was not detected in EOPD. Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that age at onset is associated with the distribution of cerebral regional homogeneity in the resting state and suggest that disproportionate putamen alterations are more prominent in patients with a younger age of onset.

  5. Comparison of serum soluble edoglin (sEng) level in eary onset preeclampsia, late onset preeclampsia and normal pregnant woman

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar, Muhammad Ilham Aldika; Herdiyantini, Mita; Aditiawarman, Aditiawarman

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to compare the serum levels of soluble Endoglin (s-Eng) between early onset preeclampsia, late onset preeclampsia and normal pregnant women.Materials and Methods: This was an analytic observational study (Cross-Sectional) performed on 39 pregnant women with early-onset preeclampsia (EO-PE), late-onset preeclampsia (LO-PE), and normal pregnancy. The patients were consecutively chosen in Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Airlangga University Hospital and Dr. M. Soewandhi Hospit...

  6. Anticipatory cortical activation precedes auditory events in sleeping infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamami Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral studies have shown that infants can form associations between environmental events and produce anticipatory actions for the predictable event, but the neural mechanisms for the learning and anticipation of events in infants are not known. Recent neuroimaging studies revealed that the association cortices of infants show activation related to auditory-stimulus discrimination and novelty detection during sleep. In the present study, we expected that when an auditory cue (beeps predicted an auditory event (a female voice, specific regions of the infant cortex would show anticipatory activation before the event onset even while sleeping. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined the cortical activation of 3-month-old infants during delays between the cue and the event by using multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy. To investigate spatiotemporal changes in cortical activation over the experimental session, we divided the session into two phases (early and late phase and analyzed each phase separately. In the early phase, the frontal regions showed activation in response to the cue that was followed by the event compared with another cue that was not followed by any event. In the late phase, the temporoparietal region, in addition to the frontal region, showed prominent activation in response to the cue followed by the event. In contrast, when the cue was followed by an event and no-event in equal proportions, cortical activation in response to the cue was not observed in any phase. CONCLUSIONS: Sleeping 3-month-old infants showed anticipatory cortical activation in the temporoparietal and frontal regions only in response to the cue predicting the event, suggesting that infants can implicitly form associations between temporally separated events and generate the anticipatory activation before the predictable event. Furthermore, the different time evolution of activation in the temporoparietal and frontal regions suggests

  7. Awareness and Its Association With Affective Symptoms in Young-onset and Late-onset Alzheimer Disease: A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, D.; de Vugt, M.E.; Kohler, S.; Aalten, P.; Bakker, C.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.L.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Verhey, F. R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether there are differences between young-onset dementia and late-onset dementia in awareness levels and whether awareness is differentially associated with affective symptoms in both groups. The present study assesses possible differences between young-onset (YO-AD) and

  8. Awareness and Its Association With Affective Symptoms in Young-onset and Late-onset Alzheimer Disease: A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, D. van; Vugt, M.E. de; Kohler, S.; Aalten, P.; Bakker, C.; Pijnenburg, Y.A.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Verhey, F.R.J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: It is unknown whether there are differences between young-onset dementia and late-onset dementia in awareness levels and whether awareness is differentially associated with affective symptoms in both groups. The present study assesses possible differences between young-onset (YO-AD) and

  9. Age at Onset and Clinical Correlates in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Andri S.; Didie, Elizabeth R.; Grant, Jon E.; Menard, William; Stalker, Emily; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Age at onset is an important clinical feature of all disorders. However, no prior studies have focused on this important construct in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). In addition, across a number of psychiatric disorders, early age at disorder onset is associated with greater illness severity and greater comorbidity with other disorders. However, clinical correlates of age at onset have not been previously studied in BDD. METHODS Age at onset and other variables of interest were assessed in two samples of adults with DSM-IV BDD; sample 1 consisted of 184 adult participants in a study of the course of BDD, and sample 2 consisted of 244 adults seeking consultation or treatment for BDD. Reliable and valid measures were used. Subjects with early-onset BDD (age 17 or younger) were compared to those with late-onset BDD. RESULTS BDD had a mean age at onset of 16.7 (SD=7.3) in sample 1 and 16.7 (SD=7.2) in sample 2. 66.3% of subjects in sample 1 and 67.2% in sample 2 had BDD onset before age 18. A higher proportion of females had early-onset BDD in sample 1 but not in sample 2. On one of three measures in sample 1, those with early-onset BDD currently had more severe BDD symptoms. Individuals with early-onset BDD were more likely to have attempted suicide in both samples and to have attempted suicide due to BDD in sample 2. Early age at BDD onset was associated with a history of physical violence due to BDD and psychiatric hospitalization in sample 2. Those with early-onset BDD were more likely to report a gradual onset of BDD than those with late-onset in both samples. Participants with early-onset BDD had a greater number of lifetime comorbid disorders on both Axis I and Axis II in sample 1 but not in sample 2. More specifically, those with early-onset BDD were more likely to have a lifetime eating disorder (anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa) in both samples, a lifetime substance use disorder (both alcohol and non-alcohol) and borderline personality disorder

  10. Age at onset and clinical correlates in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Andri S; Didie, Elizabeth R; Grant, Jon E; Menard, William; Stalker, Emily; Phillips, Katharine A

    2013-10-01

    Age at onset is an important clinical feature of all disorders. However, no prior studies have focused on this important construct in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). In addition, across a number of psychiatric disorders, early age at disorder onset is associated with greater illness severity and greater comorbidity with other disorders. However, clinical correlates of age at onset have not been previously studied in BDD. Age at onset and other variables of interest were assessed in two samples of adults with DSM-IV BDD; sample 1 consisted of 184 adult participants in a study of the course of BDD, and sample 2 consisted of 244 adults seeking consultation or treatment for BDD. Reliable and valid measures were used. Subjects with early-onset BDD (age 17 or younger) were compared to those with late-onset BDD. BDD had a mean age at onset of 16.7 (SD=7.3) in sample 1 and 16.7 (SD=7.2) in sample 2. 66.3% of subjects in sample 1 and 67.2% in sample 2 had BDD onset before age 18. A higher proportion of females had early-onset BDD in sample 1 but not in sample 2. On one of three measures in sample 1, those with early-onset BDD currently had more severe BDD symptoms. Individuals with early-onset BDD were more likely to have attempted suicide in both samples and to have attempted suicide due to BDD in sample 2. Early age at BDD onset was associated with a history of physical violence due to BDD and psychiatric hospitalization in sample 2. Those with early-onset BDD were more likely to report a gradual onset of BDD than those with late-onset in both samples. Participants with early-onset BDD had a greater number of lifetime comorbid disorders on both Axis I and Axis II in sample 1 but not in sample 2. More specifically, those with early-onset BDD were more likely to have a lifetime eating disorder (anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa) in both samples, a lifetime substance use disorder (both alcohol and non-alcohol) and borderline personality disorder in sample 1, and a lifetime

  11. Late-onset toxic anterior segment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Goichiro; Ota, Ichiro; Miyake, Kensaku; Zako, Masahiro; Iwaki, Masayoshi; Shibuya, Akihiko

    2015-03-01

    We describe 6 cases that developed intraocular inflammation between 42 days and 137 days after implantation of an acrylic foldable intraocular lens (IOL) (ISert model 251) and failed to respond to antibiotic treatment. One eye required a vitrectomy and IOL removal, 2 eyes required irrigation of the capsule, and 5 eyes required systemic administration of steroids. The healing process took 30 to 108 days after onset. Simultaneous with our cases was an epidemic outbreak of sterile anterior segment inflammation with the same characteristics associated with the same IOL. The clinical features indicated late-onset toxic anterior segment syndrome. Analysis of the outbreak strongly suggested that toxicity of the aluminum used in the IOL production process was the cause. This contamination risk exists even with modern manufacturing technology. Mr. Shibuya is an employee of Hoya Corporation Medical Division. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Can Mustard Gas Induce Late Onset Polyneuropathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJ. Mousavi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background:Mustard gas, lethal in high doses, affects multiple organs such as skin, eye and respiratory system. We studied the development of late onset mustardinduced polyneuropathy among chemically wounded Iranian veterans.Methods:In this descriptive study,100 chemically wounded Iranian veterans with severe eye involvement were examined for any signs and symptoms of polyneuropathy by an internist.20 patients were suspected to have neurological symptoms or signs.These patients were examined by a neurologist again. 13 showed abnormal neurological symptoms. Electrodiagnostic exams were performed for this group by another physician.Results:13 veterans had abnormal neurological exam results with prominent sensory signs and symptoms in almost all of them. Brisk deep tendon reflexes were found in 3 cases. Electrodiagnostic studies were compatible with axonal type distal sensory polyneuropathy in 6 subjects. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of late onset polyneuropathy among chemically-wounded victims who were exposed to mustard gas. The pathophysiology of this form of neuropathy is still unknown. Unlike most toxic neuropathies,obvious clinical signs and symptoms appeared several years after exposure. No specific treatment for.polyneuropathy due to chemical weapons exposure has been described to date.

  13. Hippocampal volume in early onset depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacMaster Frank P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormalities in limbic structures have been implicated in major depressive disorder (MDD. Although MDD is as common in adolescence as in adulthood, few studies have examined youth near illness onset in order to determine the possible influence of atypical development on the pathophysiology of this disorder. Methods Hippocampal volumes were measured in 17 MDD subjects (age = 16.67 ± 1.83 years [mean ± SD]; range = 13 – 18 years and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (16.23 ± 1.61 years [mean ± SD]; 13 – 18 years using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Results An analysis of covariance revealed a significant difference between MDD and control subjects (F = 8.66, df = 1, 29, P = 0.006. This was more strongly localized to the left hippocampus (P = 0.001 than the right hippocampus (P = 0.047. Conclusions Our findings provide new evidence of abnormalities in the hippocampus in early onset depression. However, our results should be considered preliminary given the small sample size studied.

  14. Snowmelt onset hinders bromine monoxide heterogeneous recycling in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Justine A.; Peterson, Peter K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Perovich, Don K.; Simpson, William R.

    2017-08-01

    Reactive bromine radicals (bromine atoms, Br, and bromine monoxide, BrO) deplete ozone and alter tropospheric oxidation chemistry during the Arctic springtime (February-June). As spring transitions to summer (May-June) and snow begins to melt, reactive bromine events cease and BrO becomes low in summer. In this study, we explore the relationship between the end of the reactive bromine season and snowmelt timing. BrO was measured by Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer at Utqiaġvik (Barrow), AK, from 2012 to 2016 and on drifting buoys deployed in Arctic sea ice from 2011 to 2016, a total of 13 site and year combinations. The BrO seasonal end date (SED) was objectively determined and was compared to surface-air-temperature-derived melt onset date (MOD). The SED was highly correlated with the MOD (N = 13, R2 = 0.983, RMS = 1.9 days), and BrO is only observed at subfreezing temperatures. In subsets of these sites and years where ancillary data were available, we observed that snowpack depth reduced and rain precipitation occurred within a few days of the SED. These data are consistent with snowpack melting hindering BrO recycling, which is necessary to maintain enhanced BrO concentrations. With a projected warmer Arctic, a shift to earlier snowmelt seasons could alter the timing and role of halogen chemical reactions in the Arctic with impacts on ozone depletion and mercury deposition.Plain Language SummaryReactive bromine events in the Arctic are common in spring and deplete ozone and cause mercury deposition. These events are affected by snow and ice, which are changing in the Arctic; therefore, we need to understand how environmental conditions affect reactive bromine chemistry. We find that the reactive bromine season ends when snowpack begins to melt. Through these full seasonal observations, we find that reactive bromine events occur to warmer temperatures than previously reported, with 0°C being the observed threshold above which reactive

  15. A practical algorithm to estimate soil thawing onset with the soil moisture active passive (SMAP) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Liu, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite simultaneously collected active and passive microwave data at L-band from April to July, 2015. The L-band radiometer brightness temperature (TB) data are strongly sensitive to the change of soil moisture, therefore, can be used to estimate freeze/thaw state of soil. We applied an edge detection method to detect the onset of thawing based on the SMAP level-1C TB data. This method convolves the first derivative of the Gaussian function as a kernel with the TB time series. When thawing occurs, soil moisture increases abruptly and leads to a decrease in TB. Therefore, a primary thaw event can be identified when the convolved signal reaches a local minimum. Considering the noise of the radiometer data, not all local minimums correspond to a thaw event. Therefore, we further applied a filter based on a priori or in situ soil temperature observation to eliminate false events. We compared the TB-based estimates with in situ measurements of soil temperature, moisture, and snow depth from April to June from 5 SNOTEL sites in Alaska. Our results show that at 4 out of the 5 sites the estimated thawing onsets and in-situ data agree within 5 to 10 days. However, we found a distinct inconsistency of 41 days at the fifth site. One possible reason is the mismatch in spatial coverage: one pixel of SMAP radiometer data has a size of 36 km, within which different areas may have different freeze/thaw states. The SMAP radar backscatter coefficient (σ0) data are also very sensitive to soil moisture, and has finer spatial resolution of 1 km, making it more directly comparable with the in situ measurements. We applied a seasonal threshold method to estimate thawing onset based on this data. Firstly, we set a thaw onset based on the in situ soil temperature and moisture measurements at 5 cm depth. Then we averaged σ0 observations from April 14th to 7 days before the thaw onset to represent the frozen soil, and used the mean value from 7

  16. RAS Initiative - Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI RAS Initiative has organized multiple events with outside experts to discuss how the latest scientific and technological breakthroughs can be applied to discover vulnerabilities in RAS-driven cancers.

  17. News and Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    The latest news from the Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research and the Alliance, as well as upcoming and past events attended by the Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research staff, and relevant upcoming scientific meetings.

  18. "Universe" event at AIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Report of event of 11 May 2008 held at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Muizenberg, Cape), with speakers Michael Griffin (Administrator of NASA), Stephen Hawking (Cambridge), David Gross (Kavli Institute, Santa Barbara) and George Smoot (Berkeley).

  19. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  20. Event visualization in ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, R. M.; Boudreau, J.; Konstantinidis, N.; Martyniuk, A. C.; Moyse, E.; Thomas, J.; Waugh, B. M.; Yallup, D. P.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  1. Event visualization in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00211497; The ATLAS collaboration; Boudreau, Joseph; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Martyniuk, Alex; Moyse, Edward; Thomas, Juergen; Waugh, Ben; Yallup, David

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning, HEP experiments made use of photographical images both to record and store experimental data and to illustrate their findings. Then the experiments evolved and needed to find ways to visualize their data. With the availability of computer graphics, software packages to display event data and the detector geometry started to be developed. Here, an overview of the usage of event display tools in HEP is presented. Then the case of the ATLAS experiment is considered in more detail and two widely used event display packages are presented, Atlantis and VP1, focusing on the software technologies they employ, as well as their strengths, differences and their usage in the experiment: from physics analysis to detector development, and from online monitoring to outreach and communication. Towards the end, the other ATLAS visualization tools will be briefly presented as well. Future development plans and improvements in the ATLAS event display packages will also be discussed.

  2. CCG - News & Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI's Center for Cancer Genomics (CCG) has been widely recognized for its research efforts to facilitiate advances in cancer genomic research and improve patient outcomes. Find the latest news about and events featuring CCG.

  3. Discrete Event Simulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 1. Discrete Event Simulation. Matthew Jacob ... Keywords. Simulation; modelling; computer programming. Author Affiliations. Matthew Jacob1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012.

  4. Gargamelle: neutral current event

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This event shows real tracks of particles from the 1200 litre Gargamelle bubble chamber that ran on the PS from 1970 to 1976 and on the SPS from 1976 to 1979. In this image a neutrino passes close to a nucleon and reemerges as a neutrino. Such events are called neutral curent, as they are mediated by the Z0 boson which has no electric charge.

  5. QCD (&) event generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skands, Peter Z.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in QCD phenomenology have spurred on several improved approaches to Monte Carlo event generation, relative to the post-LEP state of the art. In this brief review, the emphasis is placed on approaches for (1) consistently merging fixed-order matrix element calculations with parton shower descriptions of QCD radiation, (2) improving the parton shower algorithms themselves, and (3) improving the description of the underlying event in hadron collisions.

  6. Seismic event classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  7. Early-onset vs. Late-onset Parkinson's disease: A Clinical-pathological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Leslie Wayne; Rajput, Ali H; Rajput, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have compared early-onset Parkinson disease (EOPD) and late-onset Parkinson disease (LOPD) but most are not based on autopsy confirmed cases. We compared clinical and pharmacological profiles, time to reach irreversible Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) Stage 3 and levodopa motor complications in autopsy confirmed EOPD and LOPD cases. At first clinic visit EOPD cases were younger but had longer disease duration and they died at a younger age (all pamantadine (p<0.05) and dopamine agonists (p<0.01) were higher in EOPD. While lifetime use of levodopa was similar in the two groups, levodopa was used for a significantly longer period by EOPD (p< 0.0001). EOPD had a higher cumulative incidence of dyskinesias (p<0.01), wearing-off (p<0.01), and on-off (p<0.01). However, the time to dyskinesia onset was similar in the two groups. The threshold to wearing-off was much longer in EOPD (p<0.01). H&Y stage profile at first visit was similar in the two groups. The duration from disease onset to reach irreversible H&Y stage 3 was significantly longer in EOPD. Our observations indicate that progression of PD is slower in EOPD and suggest that the pre-clinical interval in this group is longer. These findings can be used for case selection for drug trials and studies of the pathogenesis of PD.

  8. Neonatal Septicemia in Nepal: Early-Onset versus Late-Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamshul Ansari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Neonatal septicemia is defined as infection in the first 28 days of life. Early-onset neonatal septicemia and late-onset neonatal septicemia are defined as illnesses appearing from birth to three days and from four to twenty-eight days postnatally, respectively. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, blood samples from the suspected infants were collected and processed in the bacteriology laboratory. The growth was identified by standard microbiological protocol and the antibiotic sensitivity testing was carried out by modified Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Results. Among total suspected cases, the septicemia was confirmed in 116 (12.6% neonates. Early-onset septicemia (EOS was observed in 82 infants and late-onset septicemia (LOS in 34 infants. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS (46.6% was the predominant Gram-positive organism isolated from EOS as well as from LOS cases followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.6%. Acinetobacter species (9.5% was the predominant Gram-negative organism followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (7.7%. Conclusions. The result of our study reveals that the CoNS, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae are the most common etiological agents of neonatal septicemia. In particular, since rate of CoNS causing sepsis is alarming, prompting concern to curb the excess burden of CoNS infection is necessary.

  9. Prevalence of non-motor symptoms in young-onset versus late-onset Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spica, Vladana; Pekmezović, Tatjana; Svetel, Marina; Kostić, Vladimir S

    2013-01-01

    Non-motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD) have only recently been increasingly recognized for their impact on a patient's quality of life. In this study, we applied the validated, comprehensive self-completed NMS questionnaire for PD (NMS Quest) to 101 patients with young-onset PD (onset between 21 and 45 years, YOPD) and 107 patients with late-onset PD (onset of PD ≥ 55 years, LOPD). The mean total NMS (NMSQ-T) was 11.9 ± 6.0 (range: 0 to of a maximum of 26) in LOPD and 7.7 ± 5.8 (range: 0 to of a maximum of 26) in YOPD (p LOPD. The only NMS more prevalent in YOPD were restless legs and sweating, although such findings might be associated with drug effects. Among the nine NMS Quest domains, in both LOPD and YOPD patients the three most prevalent domains were depression/anxiety, urinary and sexual. Also, in both groups, hallucinations/delusions had the lowest frequency. In the multivariate linear regression model, the Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stage of the disease and activities of daily living scores in YOPD patients, while only the HY stage in LOPD patients appeared to be statistically significant predictors of increasing number of NMS. In contrast to a previous suggestion that YOPD patients might have an increased risk for NMS, we found a higher prevalence of NMS in LOPD patients than in those with YOPD.

  10. The Onset of Pileup in Nanometer-Scale Contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JARAUSCH,K.F.; KIELY,J.D.; HOUSTON,JACK E.; RUSSELL,P.E.

    2000-01-18

    The interfacial force microscope (IFM) was used to indent and image defect free Au(111) surfaces, providing atomic-scale observations of the onset of pileup and the excursion of material above the initial surface plane. Images and load-displacement measurements demonstrate that elastic accommodation of an indenter is followed by two stages of plasticity. The initial stage is identified by slight deviations of the load-displacement relationship from the predicted elastic response. Images acquired after indentations showing only this first stage indicate that these slight load relaxation events result in residual indentations 0.5 to 4 nm deep with no evidence of pileup or surface orientation dependence. The second stage of plasticity is marked by a series of dramatic load relaxation events and residual indentations tens of nanometers deep. Images acquired following this second stage document 0.25 nm pileup terraces which reflect the crystallography of the surface as well as the indenter geometry. Attempts to plastically displace the indenter 4-10 nanometers deep into the Au(111) surface were unsuccessful, demonstrating that the transition from stage I to stage H plasticity is associated with overcoming some sort of barrier. Stage I is consistent with previously reported models of dislocation nucleation. The dramatic load relaxations of stage II plasticity, and the pileup of material above the surface, require cross-slip and appear to reflect a dynamic process leading to dislocation intersection with the surface. The IFM measurements reported here offer new insights into the mechanisms underlying the very early stages of plasticity and the formation of pileup.

  11. Modification of sudden onset auditory ERP by involuntary attention to visual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oray, Serkan; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Dawson, Michael E

    2002-03-01

    To investigate the cross-modal nature of the exogenous attention system, we studied how involuntary attention in the visual modality affects ERPs elicited by sudden onset of events in the auditory modality. Relatively loud auditory white noise bursts were presented to subjects with random and long inter-trial intervals. The noise bursts were either presented alone, or paired with a visual stimulus with a visual to auditory onset asynchrony of 120 ms. In a third condition, the visual stimuli were shown alone. All three conditions, auditory alone, visual alone, and paired visual/auditory, were randomly inter-mixed and presented with equal probabilities. Subjects were instructed to fixate on a point in front of them without task instructions concerning either the auditory or visual stimuli. ERPs were recorded from 28 scalp sites throughout every experimental session. Compared to ERPs in the auditory alone condition, pairing the auditory noise bursts with the visual stimulus reduced the amplitude of the auditory N100 component at Cz by 40% and the auditory P200/P300 component at Cz by 25%. No significant topographical change was observed in the scalp distributions of the N100 and P200/P300. Our results suggest that involuntary attention to visual stimuli suppresses early sensory (N100) as well as late cognitive (P200/P300) processing of sudden auditory events. The activation of the exogenous attention system by sudden auditory onset can be modified by involuntary visual attention in a cross-model, passive prepulse inhibition paradigm.

  12. Congruence of the Medical Record and Subject Interview on Time of Symptom Onset in Patients Diagnosed With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Leslie L; McCoy, Thomas P; Riegel, Barbara; McKinley, Sharon; Doering, Lynn V; Dracup, Kathleen; Moser, Debra K

    Past research has shown discrepancies between the time of symptom onset for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as documented in the medical record (MR) and patients' recall of the time assessed through subject interviews done later by researchers. The aim of this study is to determine if there were differences between the time of symptom onset documented in the MR and subject interview taking into consideration sex, age group, and recall period for patients admitted to the emergency department for symptoms suggestive of ACS. A secondary analysis was conducted on data from the PROMOTION (Patient Response to Myocardial Infarction Following a Teaching Intervention Offered by Nurses) trial, a multicenter randomized clinical trial to reduce patient prehospital delay to treatment in ACS. Of the 3522 subjects with CAD enrolled into the trial, 3087 subjects completed 2-year follow-up. Of these, 331 subjects sought treatment in the emergency department for ACS symptoms and 276 patients (83%) had complete information on the time of symptom onset from both sources. Of the 276 patients, 25 (9%) had differing times more than 48 hours and were thus excluded. The median difference between the 2 sources was 45.0 minutes. When both times were examined, there were no significant differences in time by sex (P = .720) or by age group (P = .188). The median number of days between the interview and the date of symptom onset was 29.5 days. There was a significant correlation between differences in the time of symptom onset and the length of recall period (rs = 0.148, P = .023). In multivariable modeling, a longer recall period was associated with greater median differences in the symptom onset time (b = 13.2, P = .023). These results suggest that the time of symptom onset obtained at the time of the index event and documented in the MR is not interchangeable with data obtained later by research staff, especially if the interview is not conducted near the time of the index event.

  13. Remittances as aid following major sudden-onset natural disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Catherine; Gibson, Glenn; King, Haleigh; Lefler, Ashley A; Ntoubandi, Faustin

    2017-04-25

    There is a general assumption, based on macroeconomic studies, that remittances will rise following major sudden-onset natural disasters. This is confirmed by a few assessments involving country-specific research, and usually short-term data. This study, questioning conventional wisdom, reviewed and graphed annual and quarterly remittance flows using International Monetary Fund and World Bank data from 2000-14 for 12 countries that confronted 18 major natural disasters. It found that, regardless of event type, annual remittances rose steadily from 2000-14 except for after the 2008-09 financial crisis. Post disaster, there was a quarterly increase in the majority of cases (confirming previous research) but there was seldom an annual increase in the year of the disaster greater than the average annual increase in 2000-14. It appears that remittance senders rush to provide assistance after a natural disaster, but since their own financial situation has not changed, the immediate increase is compensated by a later decrease. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  14. TPIT mutations are associated with early-onset, but not late-onset isolated ACTH deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherell, L A; Savage, M O; Dattani, M; Walker, J; Clayton, P E; Farooqi, I S; Clark, A J L

    2004-10-01

    Congenital isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD) is a rare inherited disorder that is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Patients are characterised by low or absent cortisol production secondary to low plasma ACTH despite normal secretion of other pituitary hormones and the absence of structural pituitary defects. Onset may occur in the neonatal period, but may first be observed in later childhood. Recently, mutations in the TPIT gene, a T-box factor selectively expressed in developing corticotroph cells, have been found in cases of early-onset IAD. Here we report the screening of the TPIT gene in seven patients with IAD, four of whom had neonatal onset. Genomic DNA was extracted and the sequences of the 8 TPIT exons and their intron/exon junctions were determined by automated sequencing. Two siblings with early-onset IAD were both compound heterozygotes for mutations in exons 2 and 6. The missense mutation (Met86Arg) in exon 2 within the T-box (or DNA binding domain) is predicted to disrupt DNA binding. A frameshift mutation in exon 6 (782delA) introduces a premature stop codon and is likely to lead to a non-functional truncated protein. No nucleotide changes were observed in exonic sequences in the other two early- or the three later-onset cases. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms that were not predicted to change the TPIT transcript were also detected. These findings provide a further illustration of the genetic heterogeneity of IAD and are highly suggestive of one or more other genes being implicated in this disorder.

  15. Determining pre-onset field magnetotail topology from multi-point magnetospheric and ground-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, J.; Murphy, K. R.; Forsyth, C.; Walsh, A. P.; Waters, C. L.; Mann, I. R.; Taylor, M. G.; Angelopoulos, V.; Carr, C.; Singer, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    The temporal sequence of events at substorm onset requires the generation and propagation of electromagnetic waves as the system evolves from its pre- to post-onset state. Such waves offer a unique diagnostic for the dynamics of this system, and the important coupling between the equatorial magnetosphere and auroral onset dynamics in the ionosphere. ULF waves have been shown to be a pivotal aspect of the substorm onset process, their arrival denoting the epicentre of the magnetic and auroral displays in the ionosphere, however the magnetotail region to which this ULF wave epicentre maps is unknown. Equally, what hinders progress in finding the ionospheric counterpart to magnetospheric features is the uncertainty in mapping high-precision but sparse magnetotail measurements of substorm-related phenomena into the ionosphere. We use ULF waves to diagnose pre-onset magnetic field topology by studying the in-situ eigenfrequencies in the magnetotail using cross-phase techniques. We utilise the new multi-point multi-instrument conjunctions in 2013 from THEMIS, Cluster and GOES and the CARISMA and THEMIS ground-based magnetometer arrays to determine field line eigenfrequencies both on the ground and in at least two separate regions in the near- and mid-tail. The field line eigenfrequencies provide a new way to constrain the location of magnetospheric substorm onset, and provide reliable field line mapping estimates.

  16. Age at onset of DSM-IV pathological gambling in a non-treatment sample: Early- versus later-onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald W; Shaw, Martha; Coryell, William; Crowe, Raymond; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is a prevalent and impairing public health problem. In this study we assessed age at onset in men and women with PG and compared the demographic and clinical picture of early- vs. later-onset individuals. We also compared age at onset in PG subjects and their first-degree relatives with PG. Subjects with DSM-IV PG were recruited during the conduct of two non-treatment clinical studies. Subjects were evaluated with structured interviews and validated questionnaires. Early-onset was defined as PG starting prior to age 33years. Age at onset of PG in the 255 subjects ranged from 8 to 80years with a mean (SD) of 34.0 (15.3) years. Men had an earlier onset than women. 84% of all subjects with PG had developed the disorder by age 50years. Early-onset subjects were more likely to be male, to prefer action games, and to have substance use disorders, antisocial personality disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, trait impulsiveness, and social anxiety disorder. Later-onset was more common in women and was associated with a preference for slots and a history of sexual abuse. Age at onset of PG is bimodal and differs for men and women. Early-onset PG and later-onset PG have important demographic and clinical differences. The implications of the findings are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Considerations about late-onset epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Fustes, O J; López-Vizcarra, H; Enríquez-Cáceres, M; Hernández-Cossio, O

    To make a revision of the general point of view on late-onset epilepsy, known as epilepsy that starts in the mature age after 25 years old; around 25% of the patients with epilepsy had their first crisis after that age, with an increase in the incidence in the course of the age. The main ethiologies are discussed, standing out: alcoholism (22%), stroke (18%), tumors (10%), metabolic imbalances (10%), infections of the CNS, trauma, atrophies and cisticercosis. For the diagnosis is required a complete clinical evaluation, cardiovascular examination, metabolic tests, EEG and neuroimage studies. Monotherapy with phenobarbital, carbamazepine and valproate, control 80% of cases and failure related to patients with wide spread cerebral damage.

  18. Pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sravanthi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pachyonychia congenita is a rare type of ectodermal dysplasia further classified into 4 types. Cutaneous manifestations seen in most of the cases of Pachyonychia congenita include palmoplantar keratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, wedge shaped nails, oral leukokeratosis and woolly hair. A 25-year-old male presented to us with thickened nails and scanty scalp hair. On examination, we noticed hyperkeratotic plaques over both the soles, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and yellowish discoloration, wedging with subungual hyperkeratosis of all the nails. Follicular hyperkeratotic papules and steatocystoma multiplex were also observed over the scalp and face. The patient had history of natal teeth and on dental examination, lower central incisors were absent. All cutaneous changes in our case had manifested first in the 2nd decade except for natal teeth. All the above features suggested the diagnosis of pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda, which is an infrequently reported rare variant.

  19. Hospital arrival time after onset of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, R; Woo, J; Poon, W S

    1992-01-01

    To estimate the proportion of patients with stroke likely to be eligible for a trial of anticoagulant treatment for acute ischaemic stroke, the interval between onset of symptoms and arrival at hospital was analysed prospectively. Of 773 patients with stroke admitted in one year, 63% arrived at hospital within 12 hours, 76% within 24 hours, and 85% within 48 hours of ictus. The arrival time varied significantly with stroke subtype. Patients with intracerebral haemorrhage tended to arrive earlier than those with cerebral infarct, who arrived sooner than those with lacunar infarct. The results suggest that about half of all patients with ischaemic stroke in Hong Kong would present within 12 hours of ictus, in time for inclusion in a therapeutic trial. PMID:1431964

  20. Multiple application delayed onset contact urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1984-01-01

    An unusual type of contact urticaria to formalin is described, based on 4 patients and experiments in 14 volunteers. The contact urticaria appeared on healthy skin only following repeated open applications or after a single application on slightly diseased skin. The possible relation of this phen...... of this phenomenon for patients claiming textile intolerance is discussed. Further tests are required to reveal the mechanism of this delayed onset contact urticaria to formalin.......An unusual type of contact urticaria to formalin is described, based on 4 patients and experiments in 14 volunteers. The contact urticaria appeared on healthy skin only following repeated open applications or after a single application on slightly diseased skin. The possible relation...

  1. Extracting the Neural Representation of Tone Onsets for Separate Voices of Ensemble Music Using Multivariate EEG Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Irene; Treder, Matthias S.; Miklody, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    When listening to ensemble music even non-musicians can follow single instruments effortlessly. Electrophysiological indices for neural sensory encoding of separate streams have been described using oddball paradigms which utilize brain reactions to sound events that deviate from a repeating...... that optimizes the 106 correlation between EEG and a target function which represents the sequence of note onsets in the audio signal of the respective solo voice. This filter extracts an EEG projection that reflects the brain’s reaction to note onsets with enhanced sensitivity. We apply these instrument...

  2. Myopia onset and role of peripheral refraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotolo M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Maurilia Rotolo,1,2 Giancarlo Montani,2 Raul Martin1,3 1Optometry Research Group, IOBA Eye Institute, School of Optometry, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain; 2Optics and Optometry, Corso di Ottica e Optometria, Universita del Salento, Lecce, Italy; 3Faculty of Health and Human Sciences, School of Health Professions, Plymouth University, Peninsula Allied Health Centre, Plymouth, UK Background: To determine the peripheral refraction characteristics related to 18-month changes in refraction in Caucasian (Mediterranean children.Methods: Non-cycloplegic peripheral refraction at 10° intervals over the central ±30° of horizontal visual field over 18 months (baseline, 12 months, and 18 months of follow-up was conducted in 50 healthy children who were 8 years old. Axial length (AL was also recorded. Relative peripheral refraction (RPR was calculated and eyes were divided into three study groups: non-myopic eyes, myopic eyes, and eyes that develop myopia.Results: Myopic eyes showed hyperopic RPR and emetropic and hyperopic eyes showed myopic RPR. Univariate analysis of variance did not find any statistically significant effect of peripheral refraction (F36=0.13; P=1.00 and RPR (F36=0.79; P=0.80 on myopia onset (eyes that developed myopia along the study. All the studied groups showed an increase of AL, without statistically significant differences between the studied groups (F6=0.09; P=0.99.Conclusion: Hyperopic relative peripheral shift change in eyes that develop myopia has been found with differences in RPR between myopic (hyperopic RPR and hyperopic or emmetropic eyes (with myopic RPR. The results suggest that RPR cannot predict development or progression of myopia in Caucasian (Mediterranean children and the efficacy in slowing myopia progression obtained with treatments that manipulate the peripheral refraction is not just driven with RPR. Keywords: myopia, refractive errors, myopia onset, peripheral refraction, relative peripheral

  3. Dementia syndrome and the onset of mind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju; Meguro, Kenichi; Ueda, Masamichi; Matsui, Hiroshige

    1988-12-01

    The present report is designed to make clear the mechanism of dementia syndrome and the onset area of the mind. The plan of the statistic studies with X-CT, MRI and PET to find out the focus of dementia in the cortex was an absolute failure. A large number of patients having infarction of varying numbers and sizes in the cortex was neuropsychologically normal. With MRI, quantitative changes of atrophy and destruction were observed in the amygdaloid and hippocampal system bilaterally in both multiinfarct dementia (MID) and Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. With PET, the activity or excitability of the cortices was estimated by measuring the glucose utilization with /sup 18/F-2-fluorodeoxyglucose in response to musical stimulation (a Japanese popular song entitled Sakura, Sakura=cherry blossoms, cherry blossoms) while having the eyes closed, (1) Not only normal volunteers but also with cases of MID and AD, the primary sensory and motor areas were stimulated. (2) In cases of MID and AD, the glucose utilization, was reduced drastically in the bilateral temporal and parietal association cortices. The impulses from all the primary sensory areas drain into the amygdala. Furthermore the impulses from the amygdala drain directly or indirectly into the hippocampus, and the impulses flow into the temporal cortex. Recognition may take place in this temporal cortex. Then, the impulses come to the parietal cortex. Conception may be completed there. Any damage to the amygdaloid and hippocampal system would result in abnormalities in memory, recognition, conception and various emotions. This is a possible mechanism of dementia syndrome. In view of this data the system also can be said to be the onset area of the mind. (author).

  4. Onset symptoms in paediatric multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Magnus Spangsberg; Sellebjerg, Finn; Blinkenberg, Morten

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Paediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) carries a relatively higher mortality and morbidity than adult MS. Paediatric MS symptoms and paraclinical findings at the first demyelinating event have never before been characterised in a Danish setting. The aim of this study was to compare...

  5. An admixture analysis of age of onset in agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibi, Lee; van Oppen, Patricia; Aderka, Idan M; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W; Anholt, Gideon E

    2015-07-15

    Age of onset is an important epidemiological indicator in characterizing disorders׳ subtypes according to demographic, clinical and psychosocial determinants. While investigated in various psychiatric conditions, age of onset and related characteristics in agoraphobia have yet to be examined. In light of the new diagnostic status in the DSM-5 edition of agoraphobia as independent from panic disorder, research on agoraphobia as a stand-alone disorder is needed. Admixture analysis was used to determine the best-fitting model for the observed ages at onset of 507 agoraphobia patients participating in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (age range 18-65). Associations between agoraphobia age of onset and different demographic, clinical and psychosocial determinants were examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Admixture analyses identified two distributions of age of onset, with 27 as the cutoff age (≤27; early onset, >27; late onset). Early onset agoraphobia was only independently associated with family history of anxiety disorders (pagoraphobia was found to be 27. Early onset agoraphobia might constitute of a familial subtype. As opposed to other psychiatric disorders, early onset in agoraphobia does not indicate for increased clinical severity and/or disability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adult-onset offenders: Is a tailored theory warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Amber L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate M.; Mcgee, Tara Renae; Morgan, Nick; Schroeder, Felix; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe official adult-onset offenders, investigate their antisocial histories and test hypotheses about their origins. Methods We defined adult-onset offenders among 931 Dunedin Study members followed to age 38, using criminal-court conviction records. Results Official adult-onset offenders were 14% of men, and 32% of convicted men, but accounted for only 15% of convictions. As anticipated by developmental theories emphasizing early-life influences on crime, adult-onset offenders’ histories of antisocial behavior spanned back to childhood. Relative to juvenile-offenders, during adolescence they had fewer delinquent peers and were more socially inhibited, which may have protected them from conviction. As anticipated by theories emphasizing the importance of situational influences on offending, adult-onset offenders, relative to non-offenders, during adulthood more often had schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol-dependence, had weaker social bonds, anticipated fewer informal sanctions, and self-reported more offenses. Contrary to some expectations, adult-onset offenders did not have high IQ or high socioeconomic-status families protecting them from juvenile conviction. Conclusions A tailored theory for adult-onset offenders is unwarranted because few people begin crime de novo as adults. Official adult-onset offenders fall on a continuum of crime and its correlates, between official non-offenders and official juvenile-onset offenders. Existing theories can accommodate adult-onset offenders. PMID:27134318

  7. Clinical characteristics of early- and late-onset gout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bingqing; Fang, Weigang; Zeng, Xuejun; Zhang, Yun; Ma, Ya; Sheng, Feng; Zhang, Xinlei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A retrospective cross-sectional study using data from an outpatient clinic in China was conducted to investigate the clinical features of early-onset gout patients. All patients diagnosed with gout were asked about clinical characteristics of their gout and comorbid diseases. Patients presenting with acute flares were asked about common triggers before the flare. “Early-onset” gout was defined as onset of gout before 40 years and “late-onset” as onset ≥40 years. Major joint involvement, flare frequency before presentation, the cumulative number of involved joints, proportions of tophi complications at presentation, flare triggers, as well as any metabolic, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal comorbidities, were compared between the 2 groups. A total of 778 gout patients were enrolled in this study, including 449 (57.7%) in the early-onset group and 329 (42.3%) in the late-onset group. Compared with the late-onset gout patients, the early-onset gout patients had a higher proportion of ankle/mid-foot involvement (62.8% vs 48.2%, P gout patients had fewer metabolic, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, or renal complications. Early- and late-onset gout patients had different clinical features. Early-onset seems to be influenced more by lifestyle, while late-onset patients have more complications because of comorbidities. PMID:27893683

  8. Adult-onset offenders: Is a tailored theory warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Amber L; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate M; Mcgee, Tara Renae; Morgan, Nick; Schroeder, Felix; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2016-09-01

    To describe official adult-onset offenders, investigate their antisocial histories and test hypotheses about their origins. We defined adult-onset offenders among 931 Dunedin Study members followed to age 38, using criminal-court conviction records. Official adult-onset offenders were 14% of men, and 32% of convicted men, but accounted for only 15% of convictions. As anticipated by developmental theories emphasizing early-life influences on crime, adult-onset offenders' histories of antisocial behavior spanned back to childhood. Relative to juvenile-offenders, during adolescence they had fewer delinquent peers and were more socially inhibited, which may have protected them from conviction. As anticipated by theories emphasizing the importance of situational influences on offending, adult-onset offenders, relative to non-offenders, during adulthood more often had schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol-dependence, had weaker social bonds, anticipated fewer informal sanctions, and self-reported more offenses. Contrary to some expectations, adult-onset offenders did not have high IQ or high socioeconomic-status families protecting them from juvenile conviction. A tailored theory for adult-onset offenders is unwarranted because few people begin crime de novo as adults. Official adult-onset offenders fall on a continuum of crime and its correlates, between official non-offenders and official juvenile-onset offenders. Existing theories can accommodate adult-onset offenders.

  9. Visual Activity before and after the Onset of Juvenile Myopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Jordan, Lisa A.; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Mutti, Donald O.; Twelker, J. Daniel; Sims, Janene R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate visual activities before and after the onset of juvenile myopia. Methods. The subjects were 731 incident myopes (−0.75 D or more myopia on cycloplegic autorefraction in both meridians) and 587 emmetropes (between −0.25 and +1.00 D) in the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Parents supplied visual activity data annually. Data from myopic children 5 years before through 5 years after myopia onset were compared to data from age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched models of children who remained emmetropic. Results. Hours per week spent reading or using a computer/playing video games did not differ between the groups before myopia onset; however, hours per week for both activities were significantly greater in myopes than in emmetropes at onset and in 4 of the 5 years after onset by 0.7 to 1.6 hours per week. Hours per week spent in outdoor/sports activities were significantly fewer for children who became myopic 3 years before onset through 4 years after onset by 1.1 to 1.8 hours per week. Studying and TV watching were not significantly different before myopia onset. Conclusions. Before myopia onset, near work activities of future myopic children did not differ from those of emmetropes. Those who became myopic had fewer outdoor/sports activity hours than the emmetropes before, at, and after myopia onset. Myopia onset may influence children's near work behavior, but the lack of difference before onset argues against a major causative role for near work. Less outdoor/sports activity before myopia onset may exert a stronger influence on development than near work. PMID:20926821

  10. OnSet: A Visualization Technique for Large-scale Binary Set Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadana, Ramik; Major, Timothy; Dove, Alistair; Stasko, John

    2014-12-01

    Visualizing sets to reveal relationships between constituent elements is a complex representational problem. Recent research presents several automated placement and grouping techniques to highlight connections between set elements. However, these techniques do not scale well for sets with cardinality greater than one hundred elements. We present OnSet, an interactive, scalable visualization technique for representing large-scale binary set data. The visualization technique defines a single, combined domain of elements for all sets, and models each set by the elements that it both contains and does not contain. OnSet employs direct manipulation interaction and visual highlighting to support easy identification of commonalities and differences as well as membership patterns across different sets of elements. We present case studies to illustrate how the technique can be successfully applied across different domains such as bio-chemical metabolomics and task and event scheduling.

  11. Late onset cervical myelopathy secondary to fibrous scar tissue formation around the spinal cord stimulation electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, E; Kawai, H

    2010-08-01

    Case report. To report the late onset of cervical myelopathy secondary to fibrous scar tissue formation around an epidural electrode implanted for spinal cord stimulation (SCS). Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hoshigaoka Koseinenkin Hospital, Osaka, Japan. A 49-year-old man who had an electrode implanted for SCS 5 years ago was referred to our department on 2 March 2005, complaining of difficulty using chopsticks and walking. A computed tomography scan with myelography revealed severe spinal cord compression around the epidural electrode. Surgical removal of the electrode was not effective. Removal of fibrous scar tissue during a second surgery significantly improved his neurological symptoms. Late onset cervical myelopathy secondary to fibrous scar tissue formation around the epidural electrode should be considered a possible event associated with SCS therapy.

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences Are Linked to Age of Onset and Reading Recognition in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Michael T; Pawlak, Natalie O; Frontario, Ariana; Sherman, Kathleen; Krupp, Lauren B; Charvet, Leigh E

    2017-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) exert a psychological and physiological toll that increases risk of chronic conditions, poorer social functioning, and cognitive impairment in adulthood. To investigate the relationship between childhood adversity and clinical disease features in multiple sclerosis (MS). Sixty-seven participants with MS completed the ACE assessment and neuropsychological assessments as part of a larger clinical trial of cognitive remediation. Adverse childhood experience scores, a measure of exposure to adverse events in childhood, significantly predicted age of MS onset (r = -0.30, p = 0.04). ACEs were also linked to reading recognition (a proxy for premorbid IQ) (r = -0.25, p = 0.04). ACE scores were not related to age, current disability, or current level of cognitive impairment measured by the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Childhood adversity may increase the likelihood of earlier age of onset and poorer estimated premorbid IQ in MS.

  13. First Indico Virtual Event

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The first Indico virtual event will take place on February 4th 15:00 and will focus on two main topics The release of Indico v1.2 The migration of the OO Indico backend database (ZODB) to a more standard DBMS It will be fully virtual using the CERN Vidyo service and will foster discussions between developers and administrators of Indico servers worldwide. Connections to the virtual room will be open, but attendees are encouraged to register to the event, in order to be informed of any changes in the organisation if any. If you would like to add a topic of discussion or propose yourself a contribution, please let us know at indico-team@cern.ch. Connection to Vidyo Vidyo connection details are available here CERN Vidyo service documentation can be found here First-time users are encouraged to try the service before connecting to the real event

  14. Discrete-Event Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateek Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simulation can be regarded as the emulation of the behavior of a real-world system over an interval of time. The process of simulation relies upon the generation of the history of a system and then analyzing that history to predict the outcome and improve the working of real systems. Simulations can be of various kinds but the topic of interest here is one of the most important kind of simulation which is Discrete-Event Simulation which models the system as a discrete sequence of events in time. So this paper aims at introducing about Discrete-Event Simulation and analyzing how it is beneficial to the real world systems.

  15. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...... accumulations, which have not been seen in observations. In addition to the model evaluation we were able to investigate the potential occurrence of ice induced power loss at two wind parks in Europe using observed data. We found that the potential loss during an icing event is large even when the turbine...

  16. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...... accumulations, which have not been seen in observations. In addition to the model evaluation we were able to investigate the potential occurrence of ice induced power loss at two wind parks in Europe using observed data. We found that the potential loss during an icing event is large even when the turbine...

  17. Update on the role of eslicarbazepine acetate in the treatment of partial-onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambucci, Renato; Basti, Claudia; Maresca, Maria; Coppola, Giangennaro; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a once daily new third generation antiepileptic drug that shares the basic chemical structure of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine - a dibenzazepine nucleus with the 5-carboxamide substituent, but is structurally different at the 10,11-position. ESL is a pro-drug metabolized to its major active metabolite eslicarbazepine. Despite the fact that the exact mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated, it is thought to involve inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC). ESL inhibits sodium currents in a voltage-dependent way by an interaction predominantly with the inactivated state of the VGSC, thus selectively reducing the activity of rapidly firing (epileptic) neurons. ESL reduces VGSC availability through enhancement of slow inactivation. In Phase III studies, adjunctive therapy with ESL 800 or 1,200 mg/day leads to a significant decrease in the seizure frequency in adults with refractory partial onset epilepsy. Based on these results, ESL has been approved in Europe (by the European Medicines Agency) and in the United States (by the US Food and Drug Administration) as add-on therapy. Data on efficacy and safety have been confirmed by 1-year extension and real life observational studies. Recently, based on results from two randomized, double-blind, historical control Phase III trials, ESL received US Food and Drug Administration approval also as a monotherapy for patients with partial onset epilepsy. In the pediatric setting, encouraging results have been obtained suggesting its potential role in the management of epileptic children. Overall ESL was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events were dizziness, somnolence, headache, nausea, diplopia, and vomiting. Adverse events can be minimized by appropriate titration. In conclusion, ESL seems to overcome some drawbacks of the previous antiepileptic drugs, suggesting a major role of ESL in the management of focal onset epilepsy for both new onset and

  18. Major life events and risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Johnni; Schernhammer, Eva

    2010-01-01

    major life events are risk factors for Parkinson's disease. Between 1986 and 2006, we identified 13,695 patients with a (PD) primary diagnosis of PD in the Danish National Hospital Register. Each case was frequency matched by age and gender to five population controls. Information on major life events...... before onset of PD was ascertained from national registries. Among men, number of life events was associated with risk of Parkinson's disease in an inverse dose-response manner (P ....34-0.99). Life events were not associated with PD in women. In contrast, a higher risk of PD was observed among women who had never been married (1.16; 1.04-1.29) and among men (1.47; 1.18-1.82) and women (1.30; 1.05-1.61) who have never been employees. The lower risk of Parkinson's disease among men who had...

  19. Onset of Impaired Sleep and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis; Jennum, Poul; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Vahtera, Jussi

    2016-09-01

    Impaired sleep has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the underlying mechanisms are still unsettled. We sought to determine how onset of impaired sleep affects the risk of established physiological CVD risk factors (i.e., hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia). In a longitudinal cohort study with 3 survey waves (2000, 2004, 2008) from the Finnish Public Sector study we used repeated information on sleep duration and disturbances to determine onset of impaired sleep. Information on development of CVD risk factors, as indicated by initiation of medication for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia was derived from electronic medical records within 8 years of follow-up. Data on 45,647 participants was structured as two data-cycles to examine the effect of change in sleep (between two waves) on incident CVD events. We applied strict inclusion and exclusion criteria to determine temporality between changes in sleep and the outcomes. While we did not find consistent effects of onset of short or long sleep, we found onset of disturbed sleep to predict subsequent risk of hypertension (hazard ratio = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.04-1.44) and dyslipidemia (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.29) in fully adjusted analyses. Results suggest that onset of sleep disturbances rather than short or long sleep mark an increase in physiological risk factors, which may partly explain the higher risk of CVD observed among impaired sleepers. A commentary on this paper appears in this issue on page 1629. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Notch1 is pan-endothelial at the onset of flow and regulated by flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen D Jahnsen

    Full Text Available Arteriovenous differentiation is a key event during vascular development and hemodynamic forces play an important role. Arteriovenous gene expression is present before the onset of flow, however it remains plastic and flow can alter arteriovenous identity. Notch signaling is especially important in the genetic determination of arteriovenous identity. Nevertheless, the effect of the onset of circulation on Notch expression and signaling has not been studied. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the interaction of Notch1 signaling and hemodynamic forces during early vascular development. We find that the onset of Notch1 expression coincides with the onset of flow, and that expression is pan-endothelial at the onset of circulation in mouse embryos and only becomes arterial-specific after remodeling has occurred. When we ablate flow in the early embryo, endothelial cells fail to express Notch1. We show that low and disturbed flow patterns upregulate Notch1 expression in endothelial cells in vitro, but that higher shear stress levels do not (≥10 dynes/cm2. Using siRNA, we knocked down Notch1 to investigate the role of Notch1 in mechanotransduction. When we applied shear stress levels similar to those found in embryonic arteries, we found an upregulation of Klf2, Dll1, Dll4, Jag1, Hey1, Nrp1 and CoupTFII but that only Dll4, Hey1, Nrp1 and EphB4 required Notch1 for flow-induced expression. Our results therefore indicate that Notch1 can modulate mechanotransduction but is not a critical mediator of the process since many genes mechanotransduce normally in the absence of Notch1, including genes involved in arteriovenous differentiation.

  1. Update on treatment of partial onset epilepsy: role of eslicarbazepine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rauchenzauner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Markus Rauchenzauner1,2, Gerhard Luef31Department of Pediatrics IV, Medical University Innsbruck, Austria; 2Neuropediatric Department, Schön Klinik Vogtareuth, Vogtareuth, Germany; 3Department of Neurology, Medical University Innsbruck, AustriaAbstract: Partial epilepsy comprises simple partial seizures, complex partial seizures, and secondarily generalized seizures, and covers more than 60% of patients with epilepsy. Antiepileptic drugs are generally considered to be the major therapeutic intervention for epilepsy but, despite a broad range of commonly used antiepileptic drugs, approximately 30% of adult patients and approximately 25% of children with epilepsy have inadequate seizure control. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL is a novel voltage-gated sodium channel-blocking agent with presumed good safety and efficacy for adjunctive treatment of patients with drug-resistant partial epilepsy. ESL is a prodrug of eslicarbazepine (the active entity responsible for pharmacologic effects, and is rapidly and extensively hydrolyzed during first pass by liver esterases after oral administration. The half-life of eslicarbazepine at steady-state plasma concentrations is 20–24 hours, compatible with once-daily administration. ESL 800 mg and 1200 mg significantly reduces seizure frequency and shows a favorable safety profile in adult patients with drug-resistant partial-onset seizures, as demonstrated in previous Phase II and III trials. In children, ESL showed a clear dose-dependent decrease in seizure frequency with good tolerability. The most commonly reported adverse events associated with ESL are dizziness, somnolence, nausea, diplopia, headache, vomiting, blurred vision, vertigo, and fatigue. In conclusion, these characteristics suggest that ESL might be a valid and well tolerated treatment option for patients with drug-resistant partial-onset epilepsy. The convenience of once-daily dosing and a short, simple titration regimen would be of special

  2. Late-Onset Bipolar Disorder: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Pantea; Sinha, Shirshendu; Patel, Sagar; Zdanys, Kristina

    2015-05-01

    Treating refractory late-onset bipolar disorder has not been sufficiently presented in the literature. In this case report, we present a 54-year-old male with late-onset bipolar disorder, who did notimprove despite multiple medication and dosage changes. This case outlines the challenges in treatment of these patients as well as identifies areas of further study regarding late-onset bipolar disorder management.

  3. Characteristics of Late-onset Asthma in Elderly Asthmatic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Yasuba

    2005-01-01

    Conclusions: Asthma in elderly patients may be divided into early-onset persistent asthma and late-onset asthma with short duration. Late-onset asthma is less IgE-mediated, less severe, and has a better prognosis after appropriate treatment with inhaled fluticasone, and patients are more likely to drop out. For elderly patients with asthma, early detection, repetitive patient education and early intervention with inhaled corticosteroid therapy are important.

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized controlled intervention trial, we examined whether intervention-induced reductions in ADHD symptoms at age 9 mediated the reduced risk of tobacco use onset among these children at age 10...

  5. A statistical study of solar type III bursts and auroral kilometric radiation onsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrences of type III solar radio bursts and auroral kilometric radiation were observed by Calvert (1981) using ISEE 1 spectrograms. Calvert presented evidence suggesting that the incoming type III burst stimulates the onset of auroral kilometric radiation (AKR). This paper presents a statistical study of the correlation between type III bursts and auroral kilometric radiation. A superposed epoch analysis was performed on as many as 186 type III events. The type III bursts were detected by the ISEE 3 spacecraft on the sunward side of the earth. At the same time the IMP 8 spacecraft was used to detect onsets of kilometric radiation on the nightside of the earth. For each event the intensities measured by ISEE 3 (type III intensities) were subtracted from the intensities measured by IMP 8 (type III and possible AKR intensities). The resulting intensities for each event were then added to determine if kilometric radiation was preferentially observed following a type III burst. This analysis was performed at frequencies of 100, 178, and 500 kHz. The results of this study show that a statistically significant correlation exists between incoming type III bursts from the sun and kilometric radiation from the earth.

  6. Sex differences in athletic performance emerge coinciding with the onset of male puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, David J

    2017-07-01

    Male performance in athletic events begins to exceed that of age-matched females during early adolescence, but the timing of this divergence relative to the onset of male puberty and the rise in circulating testosterone remains poorly defined. This study is a secondary quantitative analysis of four published sources which aimed to define the timing of the gender divergence in athletic performance and relating it to the rise in circulating testosterone due to male puberty. Four data sources reflecting elite swimming and running and jumping track and field events as well as hand-grip strength in nonathletes were analysed to define the age-specific gender differences through adolescence and their relationship to the rising circulating testosterone during male puberty. The onset and tempo of gender divergence were very similar for swimming, running and jumping events as well as the hand-grip strength in nonathletes, and all closely paralleled the rise in circulating testosterone in adolescent boys. The gender divergence in athletic performance begins at the age of 12-13 years and reaches adult plateau in the late teenage years with the timing and tempo closely parallel to the rise in circulating testosterone in boys during puberty. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2017-06-28

    Jun 28, 2017 ... Training events that relate to ensuring that employees are qualified to perform their assigned duties – for instance, acquiring or maintaining professional accreditations of recognized professional bodies as required by the employees to practice their profession; and membership to such professional bodies;.

  8. Events and Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the period of ‘intensive transnationalism’ among Pakistani migrants in Denmark precipitated by the 2005 earthquake in Kashmir, this article explores the relationship between events and effects on a global scale. One significant initiative after the disaster was the founding of an ad hoc...

  9. The ATLAS event filter

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, H P; Boissat, C; Davis, R; Duval, P Y; Etienne, F; Fede, E; Francis, D; Green, P; Hemmer, F; Jones, R; MacKinnon, J; Mapelli, Livio P; Meessen, C; Mommsen, R K; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Nacasch, R; Negri, A; Pinfold, James L; Polesello, G; Qian, Z; Rafflin, C; Scannicchio, D A; Stanescu, C; Touchard, F; Vercesi, V

    1999-01-01

    An overview of the studies for the ATLAS Event Filter is given. The architecture and the high level design of the DAQ-1 prototype is presented. The current status if the prototypes is briefly given. Finally, future plans and milestones are given. (11 refs).

  10. Print Centre Event 2

    OpenAIRE

    Hadbavny, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    During Institutions by Artists, Fillip was pleased to present a series of free, parallel events in the lobby of SFU Woodward’s that investigated the material culture produced by the institutional practices of artists. The Print Centre featured talks, launches, and screenings by conference presenters and attendees. Presented in collaboration with a temporary book store hosted by Motto Books (Berlin).

  11. Print Centre Event 3

    OpenAIRE

    Hadbavny, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    During Institutions by Artists, Fillip was pleased to present a series of free, parallel events in the lobby of SFU Woodward’s that investigated the material culture produced by the institutional practices of artists. The Print Centre featured talks, launches, and screenings by conference presenters and attendees. Presented in collaboration with a temporary book store hosted by Motto Books (Berlin).

  12. Language As Social Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harste, Jerome C.

    A taxonomy developed for the study of the growth and development of written language from the perspective of social event was tested with a group of 68 children, aged three to six years. The subjects were presented with a wide variety of environmental print messages (road signs, toys, fast food signs, and household products) and were questioned…

  13. Business Event Notification Service (BENS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — BENS provides a notification of pre-defined business events to applications, portals, and automated business processes. Such events are defined in the Event Catalog,...

  14. Cumulative Impact of Stressful Life Events on the Development of Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Lindsey; Dunsiger, Shira; Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena

    2017-12-01

    The role of stressful life events in the onset of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) is unclear. This study sought to examine associations between type, timing, and number of stressful life events and onset of TC. A case-control study conducted among consecutive incident female TC cases and myocardial infarction (MI) controls admitted to two emergency departments in New England. Healthy female controls (HC) were recruited from a volunteers' registry. Information about the timing, type, and number of triggers during the 6 months preceding hospitalization was systematically collected using the PERI Life Events Scale about 1 month post-discharge. Group differences were evaluated using ANOVA, chi-square, and Kruskal-Wallis statistics. Generalized linear models were used to adjust for confounding variables. Between March 2013 and October 2015, 107 women were enrolled (45 TC, 32 MI, and 30 HC). Specific stressful events (death of a relative or close friend (p = 0.006); illness or injury to a relative or close friend (p = 0.001) were more prevalent in TC cases than MI and HC controls. The onset of TC was associated with exposure to multiple stressful life events during the 6 months preceding the index hospitalization (p < 0.001) but not with exposure to an acute, recent event (p = 0.96). TC onset was associated with specific life events (death or illness to close relative or friend) and with the number of stressful life events occurring in the 6 months preceding hospitalization. These findings suggest that grief and cumulative stress could play a major role in the onset of TC.

  15. Treatment Outcome of Adolescent Inpatients With Early-Onset and Adolescent-Onset Disruptive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Sjoukje Berdina Beike; Boon, Albert Eduard; Verheij, Fop; Donker, Marianne Catharina Henriëtte; Vermeiren, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Unlike adolescents with adolescent-onset (AO) disruptive behavior, adolescents with early-onset (EO) disruptive behavior may not benefit from treatment. Using Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) ratings at admission and discharge of adolescent inpatients with EO (n = 85) and AO (n = 60) disruptive behavior treatment outcome was determined by (a) a change in mean scores and (b) the Reliable Change Index. For a subgroup, ratings on the Satisfaction Questionnaire Residential Youth Care for Parents (n = 83) were used to verify the treatment outcome. Inpatients with EO disruptive behavior had a higher risk of dropout (44.4%) from treatment than the AO group (24.7%). Among the treatment completers, both onset groups reported improvements on the SCL-90-R, with 26.9% recovering and 31.7% improving. Inpatients who reported improvement were mostly rated as improved by their parents (r = .33). As EO inpatients are more likely to drop out, interventions should aim at motivating youngsters to continue treatment, particularly given the poor outcome in this group. Treatment may benefit both groups because those EO youths who stayed in treatment improved to the same extent as AO inpatients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. An onset is an onset: Evidence from abstraction of newly-learned phonotactic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Amélie

    2014-01-01

    Phonotactic constraints are language-specific patterns in the sequencing of speech sounds. Are these constraints represented at the syllable level (ng cannot begin syllables in English) or at the word level (ng cannot begin words)? In a continuous recognition-memory task, participants more often falsely recognized novel test items that followed than violated the training constraints, whether training and test items matched in word structure (one or two syllables) or position of restricted consonants (word-edge or word-medial position). E.g., learning that ps are onsets and fs codas, participants generalized from pef (one syllable) to putvif (two syllables), and from putvif (word-edge positions) to bufpak (word-medial positions). These results suggest that newly-learned phonotactic constraints are represented at the syllable level. The syllable is a representational unit available and spontaneously used when learning speech-sound constraints. In the current experiments, an onset is an onset and a coda a coda, regardless of word structure or word position. PMID:25378800

  17. Cataract in early onset and classic Cockayne syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R C; Roeder, E R; Bateman, J B

    1997-12-01

    To describe cataracts in classic and early onset Cockayne syndrome (CS). Classic CS typically has an onset after the first year of life; intrauterine growth failure and severe neurologic dysfunction from birth distinguishes the less common early onset CS from the classic form. A complete ophthalmic evaluation was performed in four affected patients, one with the early onset and three with classic CS. We report cataract in all patients and glaucoma in one, the latter never previously reported in CS. CS should be considered in babies with low birth weight and congenital cataract.

  18. Onset of Reconnection in the near Magnetotail: PIC Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hsin; Birn, Joachim; Daughton, William; Hesse, Michael; Schindler, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Using 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of magnetotail dynamics, we investigate the onset of reconnection in two-dimensional tail configurations with finite Bz. Reconnection onset is preceded by a driven phase, during which magnetic flux is added to the tail at the high-latitude boundaries, followed by a relaxation phase, during which the configuration continues to respond to the driving. We found a clear distinction between stable and unstable cases, dependent on deformation amplitude and ion/electron mass ratio. The threshold appears consistent with electron tearing. The evolution prior to onset, as well as the evolution of stable cases, are largely independent of the mass ratio, governed by integral flux tube entropy conservation as imposed in MHD (magnetohydrodynamics). This suggests that ballooning instability in the tail should not be expected prior to the onset of tearing and reconnection. The onset time and other onset properties depend on the mass ratio, consistent with expectations for electron tearing. At onset,we found electron anisotropies T?/ T? (bottom tail divided by parallel tail) equals 1.1-1.3, raising growth rates and wavenumbers. Our simulations have provided a quantitative onset criterion that is easily evaluated in MHD simulations, provided the spatial resolution is sufficient. The evolution prior to onset and after the formation of a neutral line does not depend on the electron physics, which should permit an approximation by MHD simulations with appropriate dissipation terms.

  19. An admixture analysis of age of onset in agoraphobia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tibi, Lee; van Oppen, Patricia; Aderka, Idan M; van Balkom, Anton J L M; Batelaan, Neeltje M; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W; Anholt, Gideon E

    2015-01-01

    ...׳ subtypes according to demographic, clinical and psychosocial determinants. While investigated in various psychiatric conditions, age of onset and related characteristics in agoraphobia have yet to be examined...

  20. Differences between early and late onset adult depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachmann Bukh, Jens; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is unclear, whether age-of-onset identifies subgroups of depression. Aim: To assess the clinical presentation of depression with onset in the early adult age (18-30 years) as compared to depression with later onset (31-70 years). Method: A total number of 301 patients with first......, t-tests for continuous parametric data and Mann-Whitney U-test for continuous nonparametric data. Logistic and multiple regression analyses were used to adjust the analyses for potentially confounding variables. Results: Patients with early onset of depression were characterised by a higher...

  1. Measurement of Voice Onset Time in Maxillectomy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Hattori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients for objective speech evaluation. We examined voice onset time for /ka/ and /ta/ in 13 maxillectomy patients by calculating the number of valid measurements of voice onset time out of three trials for each syllable. Wilcoxon’s signed rank test showed that voice onset time measurements were more successful for /ka/ and /ta/ when a prosthesis was used (Z=−2.232, P=0.026 and Z=−2.401, P=0.016, resp. than when a prosthesis was not used. These results indicate a prosthesis affected voice onset measurement in these patients. Although more research in this area is needed, measurement of voice onset time has the potential to be used to evaluate consonant production in maxillectomy patients wearing a prosthesis.

  2. Event-Based Activity Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2004-01-01

    We present and discuss a modeling approach that supports event-based modeling of information and activity in information systems. Interacting human actors and IT-actors may carry out such activity. We use events to create meaningful relations between information structures and the related...... activities inside and outside an IT-system. We use event-activity diagrams to model activity. Such diagrams support the modeling of activity flow, object flow, shared events, triggering events, and interrupting events....

  3. Stressful life events in older bipolar patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, John L; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; Cassidy, Frederick; Krishnan, K Ranga R

    2008-12-01

    Theories about the impact of stressful life events (SLE) in bipolar disorder have focused on their role early in the disease. Few studies have examined SLE in older bipolar patients. We wanted to assess the impact of SLE in late life bipolar disorder We evaluated negative SLE experienced by older bipolar subjects compared with younger bipolar subjects and older controls for number, type, and their association with phase of illness, age of onset, and previous episodes. Both younger and older bipolar subjects have more SLE than similarly aged controls. There was no significant difference in the number of stressors that younger and older bipolar subjects experienced, based on mood state, previous episodes, or age-of-onset. Both older and younger depressed bipolar subjects reported more SLE in the previous 12 months compared with those in a manic state. Negative SLE are much more prevalent in bipolar patients compared with age-matched controls, and continue to be frequent in later life. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Premarital first births: The influence of the timing of sexual onset versus post-onset risks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lawrence L; Martin, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by long-standing debates between abstinence proponents and sceptics, we examine how socio-economic factors influence premarital first births via: (i) age at first sexual intercourse and (ii) the risk of a premarital first birth following the onset of sexual activity. Factors associated with an earlier age at first intercourse will imply more premarital first births owing to increased exposure to risk, but many of these same factors will also be associated with higher risks of a premarital first birth following onset. Our analyses confirm previous findings that women from disadvantaged backgrounds are younger at first intercourse and have higher premarital first-birth risks than women from more advantaged backgrounds. However, differences in onset timing have a strikingly smaller influence on premarital first-birth probabilities than do differences in post-onset risks. Our findings thus suggest that premarital first births result primarily from differences in post-onset risk behaviours as opposed to differences in onset timing.

  5. Surface energy budget of landfast sea ice during the transitions from winter to snowmelt and melt pond onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Else, B.G.T.; Papakyriakou, T.N.; Raddatz, R.

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few sea ice energy balance studies have successfully captured the transition season of warming, snowmelt, and melt pond formation. In this paper, we report a surface energy budget for landfast sea ice that captures this important period. The study was conducted in the Canadian Arctic......, but it delivered enough energy to significantly hasten melt onset had it occurred earlier in the season. Changes in the frequency, duration, and timing of synoptic-scale weather events that deliver clouds and/or strong turbulent heat fluxes may be important in explaining observed changes in sea ice melt onset......) combined with the seasonal increase in incoming shortwave radiation then triggered snowmelt onset. Melt progressed with a rapid reduction in albedo and attendant increases in shortwave energy absorption, resulting in melt pond formation 8 days later. The key role of longwave radiation in initiating melt...

  6. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on chronobiology at onset of acute myocardial infarction during the subsequent three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Matthew N; Katz, Morgan J; Moscona, John C; Alkadri, Mohi E; Khazi Syed, Rashad H; Turnage, Thomas A; Nijjar, Vikram S; Bisharat, Mohannad B; Delafontaine, Patrice; Irimpen, Anand M

    2013-03-15

    The onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been shown to occur in a nonrandom pattern, with peaks in midmorning and on weekdays (especially Monday). The incidence of AMI has been shown to increase locally after natural disasters, but the effect of catastrophic events on AMI biorhythms is largely unknown. To assess the differences in the chronobiology of AMI in residents of New Orleans before and after Hurricane Katrina, the onset of AMI in patients at Tulane University Health Sciences Center in the 6 years before and the 3 years after Hurricane Katrina was retrospectively examined. Compared to the pre-Katrina group, the post-Katrina cohort demonstrated significant decreases in the onset of AMI during mornings (p = 0.002), Mondays (p Hurricane Katrina, and expected morning, weekday, and Monday peaks were eliminated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lacosamide adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawh, Sonja C; Newman, Jennifer J; Deshpande, Santosh; Jones, Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Background. The relative efficacy and safety of lacosamide as adjunctive therapy compared to other antiepileptic drugs has not been well established. Objective. To determine if lacosamide provides improved efficacy and safety, reduced length of hospital stay and improved quality of life compared with other anti-epileptic therapies for adults with partial-onset seizures. Data Sources. A systematic review of the medical literature using Medline (1946-Week 4, 2012), EMBASE (1980-Week 3, 2012), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 1 of 12, January 2012). Additional studies were identified (through to February 7, 2012) by searching bibliographies, the FDA drug approval files, clinical trial registries and major national and international neurology meeting abstracts. No restrictions on publication status or language were applied. Study Selection. Randomized controlled trials of lacosamide in adults with partial-onset seizures were included. Data Extraction. Study selection, extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed independently by two authors. Authors of studies were contacted for missing data. Data Synthesis. All pooled analyses used the random effects model. Results. Three trials (1311 patients) met inclusion criteria. Lacosamide increased the 50% responder rate compared to placebo (RR 1.68 [95% CI 1.36 to 2.08]; I(2) = 0%). Discontinuation due to adverse events was statistically significantly higher in the lacosamide arm (RR3.13 [95% CI 1.94 to 5.06]; I(2) = 0%). Individual adverse events (ataxia, dizziness, fatigue, and nausea) were also significantly higher in the lacosamide group. Limitations. All dosage arms from the included studies were pooled to make a single pair-wise comparison to placebo. Selective reporting of outcomes was found in all of the included RCTs. Conclusions. Lacosamide as adjunctive therapy in patients with partial-onset seizures increases the 50% responder rate but with significantly more adverse events compared to

  8. Lacosamide adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja C. Sawh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The relative efficacy and safety of lacosamide as adjunctive therapy compared to other antiepileptic drugs has not been well established.Objective. To determine if lacosamide provides improved efficacy and safety, reduced length of hospital stay and improved quality of life compared with other anti-epileptic therapies for adults with partial-onset seizures.Data Sources. A systematic review of the medical literature using Medline (1946–Week 4, 2012, EMBASE (1980–Week 3, 2012, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Issue 1 of 12, January 2012. Additional studies were identified (through to February 7, 2012 by searching bibliographies, the FDA drug approval files, clinical trial registries and major national and international neurology meeting abstracts. No restrictions on publication status or language were applied.Study Selection. Randomized controlled trials of lacosamide in adults with partial-onset seizures were included.Data Extraction. Study selection, extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed independently by two authors. Authors of studies were contacted for missing data.Data Synthesis. All pooled analyses used the random effects model.Results. Three trials (1311 patients met inclusion criteria. Lacosamide increased the 50% responder rate compared to placebo (RR 1.68 [95% CI 1.36 to 2.08]; I2 = 0%. Discontinuation due to adverse events was statistically significantly higher in the lacosamide arm (RR3.13 [95% CI 1.94 to 5.06]; I2 = 0%. Individual adverse events (ataxia, dizziness, fatigue, and nausea were also significantly higher in the lacosamide group.Limitations. All dosage arms from the included studies were pooled to make a single pair-wise comparison to placebo. Selective reporting of outcomes was found in all of the included RCTs.Conclusions. Lacosamide as adjunctive therapy in patients with partial-onset seizures increases the 50% responder rate but with significantly more adverse events

  9. The role of life events in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteinsdottir, Ina; Svensson, Anna; Svedberg, Marcus; Anderberg, Ulla Maria; von Knorring, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the relationship between life events and social phobia. An inventory assessing life events during childhood, adulthood as well as life events experienced in relation to the onset of the disorder was administrated to 30 subjects with a DSM-IV diagnosis of social phobia. They were recruited by announcement and diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for axes I and II disorders. Seventy-five controls were selected by matching age and gender from the local population register. Individuals with social phobia reported significantly more life events during childhood and more life events with negative impact during the social phobia debuting year. Conversely, they described fewer events in the adult life than the controls. Close relatives with disabling conditions in the childhood, conflicts with wife/husband/cohabitant and divorces or similar were significantly more common in the debuting year in social phobic group. In adult life, the healthy individuals described significantly more often increased authority at work. A gender-specific analysis revealed significantly more experiences of a death of a relative/close friend during the year before the social phobia debut and significantly more negative life events in the women's adult life. In summary, the present results support that life events have a role in social phobia that may be gender influenced.

  10. Agriculture: Natural Events and Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural Events and DiasastersInformation on Natural Events and Disasters. Every year natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, fires, earthquakes, and tornadoes, challenge agricultural production.

  11. Laser homeostatics on delayed onset muscle soreness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T C Y; Fu, D R; Liu, X G; Tian, Z X, E-mail: liutcy@scnu.edu.cn [Lab Laser Sports Medicine, South China Normal University, University Town, Guangzhou, GD 510006 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and its photobiomodulation were reviewed from the viewpoint of function-specific homeostasis (FSH) in this paper. FSH is a negative-feedback response of a biosystem to maintain the function-specific fluctuations inside the biosystem so that the function is perfectly performed. A stressor may destroy a FSH. A stress is a response of a biosystem to a stressor and may also be in stress-specific homeostasis (StSH). A low level light (LLL) is so defined that it has no effects on a function in its FSH or a stress in its StSH, but it modulate a function far from its FSH or a stress far from its StSH. For DOMS recovery, protein metabolism in the Z-line streaming muscular cell is the essential process, but the inflammation, pain and soreness are non-essential processes. For many DOMS phenomena, protein metabolism in the Z-line streaming muscular cell is in protein metabolism-specific homeostasis (PmSH) so that there are no effects of LLL although the inflammation can be inhibited and the pain can be relieved. An athlete or animal in the dysfunctional conditions such as blood flow restriction and exercise exhaustion is far from PmSH and the protein metabolism can be improved with LLL.

  12. Violence in childhood-onset schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Lurie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Violence is elevated in older adolescents and adults with schizophrenia; however, little is known about younger children. This report focuses on rates of violence in younger children with schizophrenic-spectrum illnesses. A retrospective review of structured diagnostic interviews from a case series of 81 children, ages 4-15 years of age, with childhood onset of schizophrenic-spectrum illness is reported. Seventy-two percent of children had a history of violent behavior, including 25 children (31% with a history of severe violence. Of those with a history of violence, 60% had a least one episode of violence that did not appear to be in response to an external stimulus (internally driven violence. There was no significant impact of age or gender. For many children, these internally driven violent episodes were rare and unpredictable, but severe. Similar to what is found in adolescents and adults, violence is common in children with schizophrenic-spectrum illnesses. General violence prevention strategies combined with early identification and treatment of childhood psychotic illnesses may decrease the morbidity associated with childhood psychotic violence.

  13. [Early-onset sarcoidosis/Blau syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambe, Naotomo; Satoh, Takashi; Nakano, Michiyo; Nakamura, Yuumi; Matsue, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Familial Blau syndrome and sporadic early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS) are both systemic granulomatous diseases evoked by the spontaneous activation of mutated NOD2. In Japan, the R334W amino acid substitution is more frequently identified, whereas the R334Q mutation is rare and, in contrast to western countries where disease causing mutations are typically hereditary, most Japanese cases derive from sporadic mutations. Recently, a case with a six-base deletion in the NOD2 gene was reported. This Blau syndrome/EOS patient presented with the unpainful soft swelling of the dorsal side of the wrist and ankles, as well as flexion contracture at the proximal interphalangeal joint that gradually appeared during their clinical course. These features are useful for the differential diagnosis of Blau syndrome/EOS from juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Owing to their characteristic clinical symptoms, Blau and EOS patients can be identified earlier if medical experts become more acquainted with these distinctions. Even though specific treatment based on pathophysiologic mechanism has not been explored yet, early diagnosis will prevent the progression to severe impairment, which can severely affect patients' lives.

  14. Onset of sidebranching in directional solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echebarria, Blas; Karma, Alain; Gurevich, Sebastian

    2010-02-01

    We use a computationally efficient phase-field formulation [B. Echebarria , Phys. Rev. E 70, 061604 (2004)] to investigate the origin and dynamics of sidebranching in directional solidification for realistic parameters of a dilute alloy previously studied experimentally [M. Gorgelin and A. Pocheau, Phys. Rev. E 57, 3189 (1998)]. Sidebranching is found to result either from noise amplification or from deterministic oscillations that exist both in two dimensions and in a three-dimensional thin-sample geometry. The oscillatory branch of growth solutions bifurcates subcritically from the main steady-state branch of solutions and exists over a finite range of large array spacings. In contrast, noise-induced sidebranching is associated with a smooth transition where the sidebranching amplitude increases exponentially with spacing up to nonlinear saturation due to the overlap of diffusion fields from neighboring cells, as observed experimentally. In the latter case where sidebranching is noise-induced, we find that increasing the externally imposed thermal gradient reduces the onset velocity and wavelength of sidebranching, as also observed experimentally. We show that this counterintuitive effect is due to tip blunting with increasing thermal gradient that promotes noise amplification in the tip region.

  15. [Early onset scoliosis. What are the options?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, D M; Tatay-Díaz, A

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of children with progressive early onset scoliosis has improved considerably due to recent advances in surgical and non-surgical techniques and the understanding of the importance of preserving the thoracic space. Improvements in existing techniques and development of new methods have considerably improved the management of this condition. Derotational casting can be considered in children with documented progression of a <60° curve without previous surgical treatment. Both single and dual growing rods are effective, but the latter seem to offer better results. Hybrid constructs may be a better option in children who require a low-profile proximal anchor. The vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR(®)) appears to be beneficial for patients with congenital scoliosis and fused ribs, and thoracic Insufficiency Syndrome. Children with medical comorbidities who may not tolerate repeated lengthenings should be considered for Shilla or Luque Trolley technique. Growth modulation using shape memory alloy staples or other tethers seem promising for mild curves, although more research is required to define their precise indications. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Cannabinoids in late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Aia; van der Marck, M A; van den Elsen, Gah; Olde Rikkert, Mgm

    2015-06-01

    Given the lack of effective treatments for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) and the substantial burden on patients, families, health care systems, and economies, finding an effective therapy is one of the highest medical priorities. The past few years have seen a growing interest in the medicinal uses of cannabinoids, the bioactive components of the cannabis plant, including the treatment of LOAD and other physical conditions that are common in older people. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that cannabinoids can reduce oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, the key hallmarks of LOAD. In addition, in population-based studies, cannabinoids reduced dementia-related symptoms (e.g., behavioral disturbances). The current article provides an overview of the potential of cannabinoids in the treatment of LOAD and related neuropsychiatric symptoms in older people. We also discuss the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of cannabinoid-based drugs in older people with dementia. © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  17. Late onset form of Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattosova, S; Hlavata, A; Spalek, P; Kotysova, L; Macekova, D; Chandoga, J

    2015-01-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of glycogen metabolism caused by deficiency in lysosomal enzyme α-glucosidase. We present first two patients from Slovakia with confirmed Pompe disease. Activity of α-glucosidase was measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-D-glucopyranoside with the presence of acarbose, inhibitor that eliminates isoenzyme interference of maltase-glucoamylase. This methodical approach is substantial for determination of lysosomal enzyme deficiency. Using molecular genetic methods, PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing of coding region α-glucosidase gene (GAA) we have identified causal mutations in our patients. Late-onset type of disease was confirmed by measuring α-glucosidase activity in leukocytes isolated from blood. The presence of common Caucasian mutation c.-32-13T>G was proved by genetic testing in the first patient in homozygous state. Second patient was a compound heterozygote, with mutation c.-32-13T>G on one allele and mutation A486P on the second allele. We present a diagnostic algorithm for diagnosing the Pompe disease in patients of European origin. Enzyme replacement therapy has been used as a treatment option for improving the quality of life of patients. Early diagnosis and treatment of Pompe disease are considered to be critical for maximum efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy (Tab. 1, Fig. 3, Ref. 20).

  18. The Method of Event Determination Registered on the Event Source

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandr Vasilevich Kuznetcov

    2016-01-01

    In this article the method of event determination registered into audit trails on the event source based on solution of linear programming task is described. This method allows optimizing the event management process within an information security management system by quantity of incidents. This method considers restrictions related to performance of the event source.

  19. The Method of Event Determination Registered on the Event Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Vasilevich Kuznetcov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the method of event determination registered into audit trails on the event source based on solution of linear programming task is described. This method allows optimizing the event management process within an information security management system by quantity of incidents. This method considers restrictions related to performance of the event source.

  20. Differences of symptoms and standardized weight index between patients with early-onset and late-onset anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, H; Takei, N; Kawai, M; Saito, F; Kachi, K; Ohashi, Y; Takeuchi, H; Mori, N

    2001-07-01

    There have so far been no studies that directly compared clinical features between patients with early- and late-onset anorexia nervosa (AN). We identified 64 patients with DSM-III-R AN. We defined individuals as an early-onset group, who had an age of onset before 14 years (N = 31), and the remaining as a late-onset group (N = 33). The clinical symptoms, body weight and weight index, were compared between the two groups. Subjects were dichotomized into those with extremely low weight and those remaining. We compared the proportion of the patients with extremely low weight between the two groups. The rates of 'self-induced vomiting' and 'purging' were significantly lower in a group of patients with early-onset AN than in those with late-onset AN. There were significantly fewer subjects with extremely low weight in early-onset than in late-onset AN group. We found clear differences in clinical features between early- and late-onset AN groups.

  1. Onset symptoms in paediatric multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Magnus Spangsberg; Sellebjerg, Finn; Blinkenberg, Morten

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Paediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) carries a relatively higher mortality and morbidity than adult MS. Paediatric MS symptoms and paraclinical findings at the first demyelinating event have never before been characterised in a Danish setting. The aim of this study was to compare...... and the mean time to MS diagnosis was 1.7 years. The majority of children had sensory symptoms (47%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 23-72%) or optic neuritis (35%; CI: 14-62%) as their presenting symptoms. These results did not differ from the findings in adult MS subjects. Pleocytosis was present in 93% (CI...

  2. Chelyabinsk event: injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashova, A.; Popova, O.; Jenniskens, P.; Glazachev, D.

    2017-09-01

    In the morning of 2013 February 15 (at 3:20 UT), a relatively large ( 20m) meteoroid entered the Earth atmosphere in the Chelyabinsk Region of Russia and caused an airburst strong enough to create widespread glass damage. This event was observed by numerous eye witnesses. Most recent tally shows that 1613 people asked for medical assistance at hospitals. This paper presents data of injuries of the Chelyabinsk meteoroid obtained through interviews of eyewitnesses and from the official sources.

  3. Sport event marketing plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A marketing plan details how an event organization will compete in the marketplace in terms of its service offerings, promotions and evaluation. During the first stage of the marketing plan process, a number of its consumers (current, former and prospective and competitors. Marketing objectives are developed and implemented using an action plan. The marketing plan objectives are evaluated using an objective-discrepancy approach to determine the extent to which they were attained.

  4. Intercorporate Security Event Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Kovalev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Security controls are prone to false positives and false negatives which can lead to unwanted reputation losses for the bank. The reputational database within the security operations center (SOC and intercorporate correlation of security events are offered as a solution to increase attack detection fidelity. The theses introduce the definition and structure of the reputation, architectures of reputational exchange and the place of intercorporate correlation in overall SOC correlation analysis.

  5. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  6. Hypoglycemia and hemostatic parameters in juvenile-onset diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, S; Nielsen, J D

    1980-01-01

    Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous infusion of insulin in six juvenile-onset diabetic subjects. Hemostatic parameters were assessed before insulin infusion and 0, 1, and 2 h after discontinuation of insulin infusion. The onset of hypoglycemia coincided with an enhancement of ADP-induced plat...

  7. Distributional Cues and the Onset Bias in Early Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babineau, Mireille; Shi, Rushen

    2014-01-01

    In previous infant studies on statistics-based word segmentation, the unit of statistical computation was always aligned with the syllabic edge, which had a consonant onset. The current study addressed whether the learning system imposes a constraint that favors word forms beginning with a consonant onset over those beginning with an onsetless…

  8. Contextual risks linking parents' adolescent marijuana use to offspring onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Tiberio, Stacey S; Capaldi, Deborah M

    2015-09-01

    We studied the extent to which parent marijuana use in adolescence is associated with marijuana use onset in offspring through contextual family and peer risks. Fathers assessed (n=93) since childhood, their 146 offspring (n=83 girls), and offspring's mothers (n=85) participated in a longitudinal study. Using discrete-time survival analysis, fathers' (prospectively measured) and mothers' (retrospective) adolescent marijuana use was used to predict offspring marijuana use onset through age 19 years. Parental monitoring, child exposure to marijuana use, peer deviance, peer marijuana use, and perceptions of parent disapproval of child use were measured before or concurrent with onset. Parents' adolescent marijuana use was significantly associated with less monitoring, offspring alcohol use, the peer behaviors, exposure to adult marijuana use, and perceptions of less parent disapproval. Male gender and the two peer behaviors were positively associated with children's marijuana use onset, controlling for their alcohol use. Parents' adolescent marijuana use had a significant indirect effect on child onset through children's deviant peer affiliations and a composite contextual risk score. Parents' histories of marijuana use may contribute indirectly to children's marijuana use onset through their influence on the social environments children encounter; specifically, those characterized by more liberal use norms, exposure to marijuana use and deviant and marijuana-using peers, and less adult supervision. Given that alcohol use onset was controlled, findings suggest that the contextual factors identified here confer unique risk for child marijuana use onset. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface and upper air meteorological features during onset phase of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was a sharp fall in the temperature difference between 850 and 500 hPa, and the height of zero degree isotherm about 2–3 days before the monsoon onset. The flux of sensible heat was positive (sea to air) over south Arabian Sea during the onset phase. Over the Bay of Bengal higher negative (air to sea) values of ...

  10. The poor prognosis of childhood-onset bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leverich, Gabriele S.; Post, Robert M.; Keck, Paul E.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Frye, Mark A.; Kupka, Ralph W.; Nolen, Willem A.; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Susan L.; Grunze, Heinz; Denicoff, Kirk; Moravec, Maria K. M.; Luckenbaugh, David

    Objective We examined age of onset of bipolar disorder as a potential course-of-iflness modifier with the hypothesis that early onset will engender more severe illness. Study design A total of 480 carefully diagnosed adult outpatients with bipolar disorder (mean age, 42.5 +/- 11.6 years) were

  11. Late-onset metachromatic leukodystrophy: genotype strongly influences phenotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauschka, H.; Colsch, B.; Baumann, N.; Wevers, R.A.; Schmidbauer, M.; Krammer, M.; Turpin, J.C.; Lefevre, M.; Olivier, C.; Tardieu, S.; Krivit, W.; Moser, H.; Moser, A.; Gieselmann, V.; Zalc, B.; Cox, T.; Reuner, U.; Tylki-Szymanska, A.; Aboul-Enein, F.; LeGuern, E.; Bernheimer, H.; Berger, J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: P426L and I179S are the two most frequent mutations in juvenile and adult metachromatic leukodystrophy (late-onset MLD), which, in contrast to infantile MLD, show marked phenotypic heterogeneity. OBJECTIVE: To search for genotype-phenotype correlations in late-onset MLD. METHODS: The

  12. Clinical and genetic characteristics of late-onset Stargardt's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westeneng-van Haaften, S.C.; Boon, C.J.F.; Cremers, F.P.; Hoefsloot, L.H.; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the genotype and phenotype of patients with a late-onset Stargardt's disease (STGD1). DESIGN: Retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one unrelated STGD1 patients with an age at onset of >/=45 years and >/=1 rare variant in the ABCA4 gene. METHODS: Ophthalmologic

  13. Etiology and electroclinical pattern of late onset epilepsy in Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Late onset epilepsy (LOE) is a common neurological problem throughout the world. It is an area that has not been fully explored in the developing countries like Nigeria. The aim of the present study is to determine the pattern of presentation of late onset epilepsy with the view to identifying the etiologic as well as describe ...

  14. Summer monsoon onset over Kerala: New definition and prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gested that the onset is related to the warming of the Eurasian region by diabatic heating. Thus, the onset of monsoon ... only on the global daily 1. ◦ × 1. ◦ normalized pre- cipitable water data with the threshold .... correlation and helps to reduce the degrees of freedom by restricting the number of independent variables (Rao ...

  15. Cannabis and other variables affecting age at onset in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    However, data from clinical samples of subjects suffering from schizophrenia may shed some light on how cannabis use/ abuse may affect factors such as age at onset of illness and the. Cannabis and other variables affecting age at onset in a schizophrenia founder population. JL Roos1, HW Pretorius2, M Karayiorgou3, ...

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based,

  18. Operational Thought in Alzheimer's Disease Early Onset and SDAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Olga B.; Breslau, Lawrence D.

    For more than a decade it has been convention to assume that senile dementia Alzheimer's type (SDAT) and Alzheimer's disease early onset represent a unitary disease process with only an onset difference. This assumption has been neither confirmed nor disconfirmed. To address this issue, a study was conducted which analyzed the dissolution of…

  19. Hypocretin deficiency develops during onset of human narcolepsy with cataplexy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savvidou, Andri; Knudsen, Stine; Olsson-Engman, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Although hypothesized through animal studies, a temporal and causal association between hypocretin deficiency and the onset of narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) has never been proven in humans.......Although hypothesized through animal studies, a temporal and causal association between hypocretin deficiency and the onset of narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) has never been proven in humans....

  20. Reproductive outcome after early-onset pre-eclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, Jelle M.; Bruinse, Hein W.; van der Leeuw-Harmsen, Loes; Groeneveld, Els; Koopman, Corine; Franx, Arie; van Rijn, Bas B.

    2011-01-01

    Early-onset pre-eclampsia is an important cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and is believed to have a significant impact on future maternal physical and psychological health. However, structured follow-up data of women with a history of early-onset pre-eclampsia are lacking.

  1. Onset of Stuttering in Preschool Children: Selected Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yairi, Ehud; Ambrose, Nicoline

    1992-01-01

    Interviews with parents of 87 preschool children within a year of a stuttering diagnosis found that onset tended to occur earlier than was previously thought and was sudden and/or severe in many cases; about twice as many boys as girls stuttered; and there was a positive relationship between severe stuttering and sudden onset. (DB)

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Mediate Early-Onset Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Lier, P.A.C. van; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  3. Influence of physical restraint on the onset of experimentally induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of intermittent repeated physical restraint on the onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) was in-vestigated in this study. The study compared the onset of DM in mice dosed with streptozotocin (STZ), a DM-inducing drug, with immediate subsequent exposure to either physical restraint stress or non- exposure to the stress.

  4. Genetic influence on the age at onset of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Simon Francis; Duffy, David Lorenzo; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2010-01-01

    Although the genetics of asthma susceptibility have been frequently explored, little is known about genetic factors that influence the age at onset of asthma.......Although the genetics of asthma susceptibility have been frequently explored, little is known about genetic factors that influence the age at onset of asthma....

  5. Perinatal asphyxia: CNS development and deficits with delayed onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eHerrera-Marschitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Perinatal asphyxia constitutes a prototype of obstetric complications occurring when pulmonary oxygenation is delayed or interrupted. The primary insult relates to the duration of the period lacking oxygenation, leading to death if not re-established. Re-oxygenation leads to a secondary insult, related to a cascade of biochemical events required for restoring proper function. Perinatal asphyxia interferes with neonatal development, resulting in long-term deficits associated to mental and neurological diseases with delayed clinical onset, by mechanisms not yet clarified.In the experimental scenario, the effects observed long after perinatal asphyxia have been explained by over expression of sentinel proteins, such as poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1, competing for NAD+ during re-oxygenation, leading to the idea that sentinel protein inhibition constitutes a suitable therapeutic strategy. Asphyxia induces transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory factors, in tandem with PARP-1 overactivation, and pharmacologically induced PARP-1 inhibition also down-regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide has been proposed as a suitable PARP-1 inhibitor. Its effect has been studied in an experimental model of global hypoxia in rats. In that model, the insult is induced by immersing rat foetuses into a water bath for various periods of time. Following asphyxia, the pups are delivered, treated, and nursed by surrogate dams, pending further experiments. Nicotinamide rapidly distributes into the brain following systemic administration, reaching steady state concentrations sufficient to inhibit PARP-1 activity for several hours, preventing several of the long-term consequences of perinatal asphyxia, supporting the idea that it constitutes a lead for exploring compounds with similar or better pharmacological profiles.

  6. Perinatal asphyxia: CNS development and deficits with delayed onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Marschitz, Mario; Neira-Pena, Tanya; Rojas-Mancilla, Edgardo; Espina-Marchant, Pablo; Esmar, Daniela; Perez, Ronald; Muñoz, Valentina; Gutierrez-Hernandez, Manuel; Rivera, Benjamin; Simola, Nicola; Bustamante, Diego; Morales, Paola; Gebicke-Haerter, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia constitutes a prototype of obstetric complications occurring when pulmonary oxygenation is delayed or interrupted. The primary insult relates to the duration of the period lacking oxygenation, leading to death if not re-established. Re-oxygenation leads to a secondary insult, related to a cascade of biochemical events required for restoring proper function. Perinatal asphyxia interferes with neonatal development, resulting in long-term deficits associated to mental and neurological diseases with delayed clinical onset, by mechanisms not yet clarified. In the experimental scenario, the effects observed long after perinatal asphyxia have been explained by overexpression of sentinel proteins, such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), competing for NAD(+) during re-oxygenation, leading to the idea that sentinel protein inhibition constitutes a suitable therapeutic strategy. Asphyxia induces transcriptional activation of pro-inflammatory factors, in tandem with PARP-1 overactivation, and pharmacologically induced PARP-1 inhibition also down-regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide has been proposed as a suitable PARP-1 inhibitor. Its effect has been studied in an experimental model of global hypoxia in rats. In that model, the insult is induced by immersing rat fetus into a water bath for various periods of time. Following asphyxia, the pups are delivered, treated, and nursed by surrogate dams, pending further experiments. Nicotinamide rapidly distributes into the brain following systemic administration, reaching steady state concentrations sufficient to inhibit PARP-1 activity for several hours, preventing several of the long-term consequences of perinatal asphyxia, supporting the idea that nicotinamide constitutes a lead for exploring compounds with similar or better pharmacological profiles.

  7. Vitamins supplementation affects the onset of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhu-Mei; Ma, Zhen-Zhi; Liu, Guo-Jie; Wang, Lan-Ling; Guo, Yong

    2017-09-03

    Preeclampsia may affect between 2-8% of all pregnancies. It seriously affects maternal health after pregnancy. This meta-analysis was performed to define the efficacy of vitamins supplementation on the risk of preeclampsia. Potential articles were systematically searched on the databases of Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science up to May 2016. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were used to analyze the relationship of vitamins supplementation with risk of preeclampsia. Cochran Q test was used to test inter-study heterogeneity. Begg's funnel plot was adopted to assess the potential publication bias. 28 eligible studies were selected. Pooled results indicated that vitamins supplementation could reduce the risk of preeclampsia (RR = 0.74, 95%CI = 0.64-0.86). The studies with non-randomized controlled trial (RCT) analysis also suggested the significant relationship of vitamins supplementation with risk of preeclampsia (RR = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.42-0.85). However, negative results were observed in studies with RCT analysis. Subgroup analysis by vitamin type was performed among the studies with RCT analysis. The results indicated that vitamin D supplementation could significantly reduce the risk of preeclampsia (RR = 0.41, 95%CI = 0.22-0.78). Similar results were observed in the studies with multivitamins supplementation (RR = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.51-0.93). Vitamins supplementation could reduce the onset of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Nearwork in early-onset myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Seang-Mei; Chua, Wei-Han; Hong, Ching-Ye; Wu, Hui-Min; Chan, Wai-Ying; Chia, Kee-Seng; Stone, Richard A; Tan, Donald

    2002-02-01

    To determine the relationship of nearwork and myopia in young elementary school-age children in Singapore. A cross-sectional study of 1005 school children aged 7 to 9 years was conducted in two schools in Singapore. Cycloplegic autorefraction, keratometry, and biometry measurements were performed. In addition, the parents completed a detailed questionnaire on nearwork activity (books read per week, reading in hours per day and diopter hours [addition of three times reading, two times computer use, and two times video games use in hours per day]). Other risk factors, such as parental myopia, socioeconomic status, and light exposure history, were assessed. In addition to socioeconomic factors, several nearwork indices were associated with myopia in these young children. The multivariate adjusted odds ratio of higher myopia (at least -3.0 D) for children who read more than two books per week was 3.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-5.18). However, the odds ratios of higher myopia for children who read more than 2 hours per day or with more than 8 diopter hours (1.50; 95% CI, 0.87-2.55 and 1.04; 95% CI, 0.61-1.78, respectively) were not significant, after controlling for several factors. Children aged 7 to 9 years with a greater current reading exposure were more likely to be myopic. This association of reading and myopia in a young age cohort was greater than the strength of the reading association generally found in older myopic subjects. Whether these results identify an association of early-onset myopia with nearwork activity or other potentially confounding factors is discussed.

  9. Determining Time of Symptom Onset in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes: Agreement Between Medical Record and Interview Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Leslie L

    2015-01-01

    Prehospital delay, the time of symptom onset until the time of hospital arrival, for patients with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is frequently used to determine the course of care. Total ischemic time (time for symptom onset until the time of first coronary artery balloon inflation) is another criterion for quality of care for patients experiencing ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. However, obtaining the exact time of symptom onset, the starting point of both time intervals, is challenging. Currently 2 methods are used to obtain the time of symptom onset: abstraction of data from the medical record and structured interviews done after the acute event. It is not clear whether these methods are equally accurate. Using identified search terms, PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched for articles published from 1990 to 2014 to identify studies that examined agreement between the 2 data sources to determine prehospital delay in patients with ACS. Five studies examined the accuracy and/or agreement of prehospital delay by medical record review and structured patient interviews. In these studies, the percentage of missing/incomplete data in the medical record was higher compared with interviews (14%-40% vs 12%-13%). Three of the 4 studies that compared the 2 data sources reported more than 50% disagreement, with the time of symptom onset starting sooner when obtained by interview compared with the time recorded in their medical record at hospital presentation. There is a need for a consistent, reliable method to assess the time of symptom onset in patients with ACS. To ensure the accuracy of data collected for the medical record, training of emergency and critical care clinicians should (1) emphasize the importance of assessing symptoms broadly, (2) provide tips on interviewing techniques to help patients pinpoint the time of symptom onset, and (3) instill the value of complete documentation.

  10. Predictors of the onset of manic symptoms and a (hypomanic episode in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Boschloo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: One third of patients with a major depressive episode also experience manic symptoms or, even, a (hypomanic episode. Retrospective studies on the temporal sequencing of symptomatology suggest that the majority of these patients report depressive symptoms before the onset of manic symptoms. However, prospective studies are scarce and this study will, therefore, prospectively examine the onset of either manic symptoms or a (hypomanic episode in patients with a major depressive disorder. In addition, we will consider the impact of a large set of potential risk factors on both outcomes. METHODOLOGY: Four-year follow-up data were used to determine the onset of manic symptoms as well as a CIDI-based (hypomanic episode in a large sample (n = 889, age: 18-65 years of outpatients with a major depressive disorder and without manic symptoms at baseline. Baseline vulnerability (i.e., sociodemographics, family history of depression, childhood trauma, life-events and clinical (i.e., isolated manic symptoms, depression characteristics, and psychiatric comorbidity factors were considered as potential risk factors. RESULTS: In our sample of depressed patients, 15.9% developed manic symptoms and an additional 4.7% developed a (hypomanic episode during four years. Baseline isolated manic symptoms and comorbid alcohol dependence predicted both the onset of manic symptoms and a (hypomanic episode. Low education only predicted the onset of manic symptoms, whereas male gender, childhood trauma and severity of depressive symptoms showed strong associations with, especially, the onset of (hypomanic episodes. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion (20.6% of patients with a major depressive disorder later developed manic symptoms or a (hypomanic episode. Interestingly, some identified risk factors differed for the two outcomes, which may indicate that pathways leading to the onset of manic symptoms or a (hypomanic episode might be different. Our findings

  11. Phenytoin versus valproate monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Sarah J; Marson, Anthony G; Pulman, Jennifer; Tudur Smith, Catrin

    2013-08-23

    This is an updated version of the previously published Cochrane review (Issue 4, 2009)Worldwide, phenytoin and valproate are commonly used antiepileptic drugs. It is generally believed that phenytoin is more effective for partial onset seizures, and that valproate is more effective for generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalised seizure types. To review the best evidence comparing phenytoin and valproate when used as monotherapy in individuals with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalised seizure types. We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialised Register (19 February 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 1, The Cochrane Library, January 2013), MEDLINE (1946 to 18 February 2013), SCOPUS (19 February 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (19 February 2013), and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform ICTRP (19 February 2013). We handsearched relevant journals, contacted pharmaceutical companies, original trial investigators and experts in the field. Randomised controlled trials in children or adults with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with a comparison of valproate monotherapy versus phenytoin monotherapy. This was an individual patient data review. Outcomes were time to (a) treatment withdrawal (b) 12-month remission (c) six-month remission and (d) first seizure post randomisation. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain study-specific estimates of hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with the generic inverse variance method used to obtain the overall pooled HR and 95% CI. Individual patient data were available for 669 individuals out of 1119 eligible individuals from five out of 11 trials, 60% of the potential data. Results apply to generalised tonic-clonic seizures, but not absence or myoclonus seizure types. For remission outcomes, HR > 1 indicates an

  12. Onset of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression among refugees and voluntary migrants to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Crager, Mia; Baser, Ray E; Chu, Tracy; Gany, Francesca

    2012-12-01

    Although refugees are generally thought to be at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive episode (MDE), few studies have compared onset of PTSD and MDE between refugees and voluntary migrants. Given differences in migration histories, onset should differ pre- and postmigration. The National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS) is a national representative, complex dataset measuring psychiatric morbidity, mental health service use, and migration history among Latino and Asian immigrants to the United States. Of the 3,260 foreign-born participants, 660 were refugees (a weighted proportion of 9.52%). Refugees were more likely to report a history of war-related trauma, but reports of other traumatic events were similar. Premigration onset of PTSD was statistically higher for refugees than voluntary migrants, odds ratio (OR) = 4.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.01, 11.76], where postmigration onset for PTSD was not, OR = 0.61, 95% CI [0.29, 1.28]; a similar pattern was found for MDE, OR = 1.98, 95% CI [1.11, 3.51]; and OR = 1.02, 95% CI [0.65, 1.62], respectively. Although refugees arrive in host countries with more pressing psychiatric needs, onset is comparable over time, suggesting that postmigration refugees and voluntary migrants may be best served by similar programs. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  13. Estimating the onset of reaction for porous reactive polymer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredenburg, David; Coe, Joshua; Maerzke, Katie; Dattelbaum, Dana; Lang, John

    2017-06-01

    Shock-induced volume changes are a feature common to many polymeric materials, where the volume change is associated with decomposition of the inert material into a reacted, `products' phase. The onset of this transition has been measured experimentally for many materials whose density is near theoretical, and, generally speaking, the onset is restricted to a relatively narrow range in pressures for near solid density materials. For initially porous polymeric materials, characterizing the onset of reaction with changes in initial porosity is much less well defined. The present work examines how the onset of reaction varies with initial porosity for several polymer systems, and presents a methodology for estimating this onset for an arbitrary initial density sample.

  14. A study of weekly and seasonal variation of stroke onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbing; Sekine, Michikazu; Chen, Xiaoli; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2002-10-01

    A registry based study was conducted to assess the variation in first-onset stroke with weekdays and seasons, in relation to the effects of age. Between 1 December 1991 and 30 November 1998, 10,729 first-onset stroke patients aged 25 or more were registered in Toyama Prefecture, Japan. We compared the weekly and seasonal variation in first-onset stroke by a one-way goodness-of-fit χ2-test. The relationship between seasonal variation in stroke onset and age was also evaluated by the method of Kendall's τ-b R × C tables with ordered categories. The frequency of onset of all strokes and cerebral infarctions (CI) was significantly higher on weekdays than at weekends (P lifestyle and physiological condition may be different from those of older people.

  15. Local onset and demise of the Indian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Vasubandhu; Bhardwaj, Amit; Mishra, Akhilesh

    2017-10-01

    This paper introduces an objective definition of local onset and demise of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) at the native grid of the Indian Meteorological Department's rainfall analysis based on more than 100 years of rain gauge observations. The variability of the local onset/demise of the ISM is shown to be closely associated with the All India averaged rainfall onset/demise. This association is consistent with the corresponding evolution of the slow large-scale reversals of upper air and ocean variables that raise the hope of predictability of local onset and demise of the ISM. The local onset/demise of the ISM also show robust internannual variations associated with El Nino and the Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean dipole mode. It is also shown that the early monsoon rains over northeast India has a predictive potential for the following seasonal anomalies of rainfall and seasonal length of the monsoon over rest of India.

  16. Fatal thyrocardiac event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samit Kumar Khutia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation occurs frequently (2-20% in chronic hyperthyroidism patients. Poorly treated thyrotoxic patients may present with a life-threatening cerebrovascular accident giving little scope to revert the situation. At times, it is difficult to make a patient euthyroid with conventional management. The definitive treatment of choice is 131 I, radioiodine. An adjusted dose of an oral anticoagulant is highly efficacious for the prevention of all types of strokes. Timely intervention by a skilled airway manager with right instruments is the key to success in airway management. A 50-year-old thyrotoxic, semiconscious male presented with a sudden onset of haemiplegia. He had chronic AF, a huge thyroid swelling with gross tracheal deviation and dilated cardiomyopathy. A CT scan showed infarction in the left middle cerebral artery territory. After initial improvement with conservative management, patient′s condition deteriorated in the next 48 h. Repeat CT scan showed increase in the infarct size with haemorrhage and midline shift. Finally, he died despite all resuscitative measures.

  17. Event-Based Conceptual Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to obtain insight into and provide practical advice for event-based conceptual modeling. We analyze a set of event concepts and use the results to formulate a conceptual event model that is used to identify guidelines for creation of dynamic process models and static...... information models. We characterize events as short-duration processes that have participants, consequences, and properties, and that may be modeled in terms of information structures. The conceptual event model is used to characterize a variety of event concepts and it is used to illustrate how events can...... be used to integrate dynamic modeling of processes and static modeling of information structures. The results are unique in the sense that no other general event concept has been used to unify a similar broad variety of seemingly incompatible event concepts. The general event concept can be used...

  18. Slow saccades in bulbar-onset motor neurone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaghy, Colette; Pinnock, Ralph; Abrahams, Sharon; Cardwell, Chris; Hardiman, Orla; Patterson, Victor; McGivern, R Canice; Gibson, J Mark

    2010-07-01

    Historical studies of eye movements in motor neurone disease (MND) have been conflicting although current findings suggest that eye movement abnormalities relate to frontal lobe impairment. Numerous case reports, however, describe slow saccades and supranuclear gaze palsies in patients with MND often associated with bulbar-onset disease. We performed a study of saccades and smooth pursuit in a large group of patients with MND to examine for any differences between bulbar-onset and spinal-onset patients. Forty-four patients (14 bulbar-onset and 30 spinal-onset patients) and 45 controls were recruited. Reflexive saccades, antisaccades and smooth pursuit were examined using infra-red oculography and all subjects then underwent neuropsychological evaluation. Reflexive saccades were found to be slower in bulbar-onset compared to spinal-onset patients and controls (p = 0.03, p = 0.05). Antisaccade latency (p = 0.01) and antisaccade type 1 errors (p = 0.03, p = 0.04) were increased in patients compared to controls. 'Proportion of time spent in smooth pursuit' and smooth pursuit 'velocity gain' were reduced in patients compared to controls (p = 0.000, p = 0.001). Antisaccade errors and velocity gain correlated with neuropsychological measures sensitive to lesions of the frontal lobes. This is the first study to highlight the presence of slow saccades in bulbar-onset MND. These findings suggest that slow saccades may be due to increased brainstem pathology in bulbar-onset disease that involves burst cell neurons. Furthermore these observations highlight the potential for overlap between bulbar-onset MND and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) as both can have a bulbar palsy and slowed saccades.

  19. Vitamin D status and age of onset of demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, J Nicholas; Koenig, Scott; Goldman, Myla D

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of and associated factors impacting vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in childhood versus adult-onset demyelinating disease. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional, chart-review, cohort study on geographically-similar pediatric, young adult, and adult patients with a diagnosis of demyelinating disease identified at the University of Virginia from 2008 to 2013. Group prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency as well as relevant factors associated with vitamin D status was analyzed and compared. We identified 24 childhood-onset (CO), 33 young adult-onset (Y-AO), and 59 adult-onset (AO) cases. There was no difference in the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency between the cohorts. Non-Caucasian race and elevated body mass index were significantly associated with low vitamin D levels, regardless of age of onset. In regression models, race and obesity were independent predictors of vitamin D status. The prevalence of obesity was significantly higher in the childhood-onset cohort (CO=58.5%; Y-AO=31%; AO=34%; p=0.02). Our findings demonstrate no difference in the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency between childhood and adult-onset demyelinating disease, suggesting age at disease onset is irrelevant to vitamin D status in demyelinating disease. Both race and obesity are independent factors associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency, regardless of age of disease onset. Obesity, independent of gender, is significantly higher in children compared to adult patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and may have a role in the development of childhood-onset demyelinating disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Progesterone receptor gene (PROGINS) polymorphism correlates with late onset of migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; Barbanti, Piero; Ialongo, Cristiano; De Marchis, Maria Laura; Alessandroni, Jhessica; Egeo, Gabriella; Aurilia, Cinzia; Fofi, Luisa; Valente, Maria Giovanna; Ferroni, Patrizia; Della-Morte, David; Guadagni, Fiorella

    2015-03-01

    Progesterone influences central neuronal excitability, a key event in migraine pathophysiology. Progesterone receptor gene (PGR) rs1042838 (G/T - Val660Leu) variant is indicative of PROGINS haplotype and associated to a reduced PGR activity. With the aim of investigating whether any type of association existed between this genetic variant and migraine pathophysiology, genotyping was performed in 380 consecutive migraine patients and 185 age-, sex-, and race-ethnicity-matched healthy controls from Interinstitutional Multidisciplinary BioBank (BioBIM) of IRCCS San Raffaele Pisana, Rome, Italy. rs1042838 genotypes did not correlate with demographics or clinical migraine features. However, TT (Leu) genotype was significantly associated with a later age of migraine onset: Patients affected by migraine with aura showed a linear relationship between copy number of the T allele carried by the individual and the age of migraine onset. Our data suggest that the PROGINS PGR polymorphism does not directly predispose to migraine but significantly delays migraine onset probably via a reduction in brain neuronal excitability.

  1. Detection of recurrent activation patterns across focal seizures: Application to seizure onset zone identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Vidal, Manel; Principe, Alessandro; Ley, Miguel; Deco, Gustavo; Tauste Campo, Adrià; Rocamora, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a method that quantifies the consistent involvement of intracranially monitored regions in recurrent focal seizures. We evaluated the consistency of two ictal spectral activation patterns (mean power change and power change onset time) in intracranial recordings across focal seizures from seven patients with clinically marked seizure onset zone (SOZ). We examined SOZ discrimination using both patterns in different frequency bands and periods of interest. Activation patterns were proved to be consistent across more than 80% of recurrent ictal epochs. In all patients, whole-seizure mean activations were significantly higher for SOZ than non-SOZ regions (Pseizure period while gamma band (20-70Hz) achieved the highest discrimination values between SOZ and non-SOZ sites near seizure onset (0-5s). Consistent spectral activation patterns in focal epilepsies discriminate the SOZ with high effect sizes upon appropriate selection of frequency bands and activation periods. The present method may be used to improve epileptogenic identification as well as pinpoint additional regions that are functionally altered during ictal events. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictive capacity of prodromal symptoms in first-episode psychosis of recent onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barajas, Ana; Pelaez, Trinidad; González, Olga; Usall, Judith; Iniesta, Raquel; Arteaga, Maria; Jackson, Chris; Baños, Iris; Sánchez, Bernardo; Dolz, Montserrat; Obiols, Jordi E; Haro, Josep M; Ochoa, Susana

    2017-11-08

    Both the nature and number of a wide range of prodromal symptoms have been related to the severity and type of psychopathology in the psychotic phase. However, at present there is an incomplete picture focused mainly on the positive pre-psychotic dimension. To characterize the prodromal phase retrospectively, examining the number and nature of prodromal symptoms as well as their relationship with psychopathology at the onset of first-episode psychosis. Retrospective study of 79 patients experiencing a first-episode psychosis of less than 1 year from the onset of full-blown psychosis. All patients were evaluated with a comprehensive battery of instruments including socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire, IRAOS interview, PANSS, stressful life events scale (PERI) and WAIS/WISC (vocabulary subtest). Bivariate associations and multiple regression analysis were performed. Regression models revealed that several prodromal dimensions of IRAOS (delusions, affect, language, behaviour and non-hallucinatory disturbances of perception) predicted the onset of psychosis, with positive (22.4% of the variance) and disorganized (25.6% of the variance) dimensions being the most widely explained. In addition to attenuated positive symptoms, other symptoms such as affective, behavioural and language disturbances should also be considered in the definitions criteria of at-high-risk people. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Highly relevant stimuli may passively elicit processes associated with consciousness during the sleep onset period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Paniz; Varma, Sonia; Campbell, Kenneth

    2017-10-31

    Sleep onset marks the transition from waking to sleep, during which conscious awareness of the external environmental is gradually lost. The present study examines the extent of processing of acoustic change during sleep onset. An auditory optimal paradigm was used to record event-related potentials to six deviant stimuli during wakefulness, stage N1, and stage N2 sleep. During waking and early-stage N1, two of the deviants, environmental sounds and white noise, elicited a P3a reflecting processes that may lead to conscious awareness of acoustic change. Surprisingly, the P3a was also observed following both deviants during late-stage N1, a period thought to represent decreased awareness of the environment. Only the environmental sounds continued to elicit a P3a during stage N2 sleep, associated with the loss of consciousness of the external environment. Certain auditory stimuli may thus continue to activate processes that may lead to conscious awareness during the sleep onset period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Identifying anomalously early spring onsets in the CESM large ensemble project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labe, Zachary; Ault, Toby; Zurita-Milla, Raul

    2017-06-01

    Seasonal transitions from winter to spring impact a wide variety of ecological and physical systems. While the effects of early springs across North America are widely documented, changes in their frequency and likelihood under the combined influences of climate change and natural variability are poorly understood. Extremely early springs, such as March 2012, can lead to severe economical losses and agricultural damage when these are followed by hard freeze events. Here we use the new Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble project and Extended Spring Indices to simulate historical and future spring onsets across the United States and in the particular the Great Lakes region. We found a marked increase in the frequency of March 2012-like springs by midcentury in addition to an overall trend towards earlier spring onsets, which nearly doubles that of observational records. However, changes in the date of last freeze do not occur at the same rate, therefore, causing a potential increase in the threat of plant tissue damage. Although large-scale climate modes, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, have previously dominated decadal to multidecadal spring onset trends, our results indicate a decreased role in natural climate variability and hence a greater forced response by the end of the century for modulating trends. Without a major reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, our study suggests that years like 2012 in the US could become normal by mid-century.

  5. Prevalence of Comorbidity in Patients With Young-Onset Alzheimer Disease Compared With Late-Onset: A Comparative Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, A.A.J.; Bakker, C.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Vugt, M.E. de; Melis, R.J.; Koopmans, R.T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With the lack of a cure for Alzheimer disease (AD), the identification of comorbidity is important to reduce the possibility of excess disability. Although comorbidity in patients with late-onset AD (LO-AD) is common, for people with young-onset AD (YO-AD), it is unclear how often

  6. Pediatric-Onset and Adult-Onset Separation Anxiety Disorder Across Countries in the World Mental Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silove, Derrick; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Gruber, Mike; Sampson, Nancy; Scott, Kate; Andrade, Laura; Benjet, Corina; Caldas de Almeida, Jose Miguel; De Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fiestas, Fabian; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; He, Yanling; Karam, Elie; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Sam; Villa-Posada, Jose; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    Objective: The age-at-onset criterion for separation anxiety disorder was removed in DSM-5, making it timely to examine the epidemiology of separation anxiety disorder as a disorder with onsets spanning the life course, using cross-country data. Method: The sample included 38,993 adults in 18

  7. Suicide in later life : A comparison between cases with early-onset and late-onset depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Kapur, Nay; Bickley, Harriet; Williams, Alyson; Purandare, Nitin

    Background: Suicide rates are high in elderly people with depressive disorder. We compared behavioural, clinical and care characteristics of depressed elderly patients, aged 60 years and over at the time of death by suicide, with an early-onset depression (EOD, onset before 60 years) with those

  8. Update on the role of eslicarbazepine acetate in the treatment of partial-onset epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambucci R

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Renato Tambucci,1 Claudia Basti,1 Maria Maresca,1 Giangennaro Coppola,2 Alberto Verrotti11Department of Pediatrics, University of L’Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy; 2Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Unit, University of Salerno, Salerno, ItalyAbstract: Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL is a once daily new third generation antiepileptic drug that shares the basic chemical structure of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine – a dibenzazepine nucleus with the 5-carboxamide substituent, but is structurally different at the 10,11-position. ESL is a pro-drug metabolized to its major active metabolite eslicarbazepine. Despite the fact that the exact mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated, it is thought to involve inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC. ESL inhibits sodium currents in a voltage-dependent way by an interaction predominantly with the inactivated state of the VGSC, thus selectively reducing the activity of rapidly firing (epileptic neurons. ESL reduces VGSC availability through enhancement of slow inactivation. In Phase III studies, adjunctive therapy with ESL 800 or 1,200 mg/day leads to a significant decrease in the seizure frequency in adults with refractory partial onset epilepsy. Based on these results, ESL has been approved in Europe (by the European Medicines Agency and in the United States (by the US Food and Drug Administration as add-on therapy. Data on efficacy and safety have been confirmed by 1-year extension and real life observational studies. Recently, based on results from two randomized, double-blind, historical control Phase III trials, ESL received US Food and Drug Administration approval also as a monotherapy for patients with partial onset epilepsy. In the pediatric setting, encouraging results have been obtained suggesting its potential role in the management of epileptic children. Overall ESL was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse events were dizziness, somnolence, headache, nausea

  9. Detection of solar events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Ephraim; Jenkins, Jere

    2013-08-27

    A flux detection apparatus can include a radioactive sample having a decay rate capable of changing in response to interaction with a first particle or a field, and a detector associated with the radioactive sample. The detector is responsive to a second particle or radiation formed by decay of the radioactive sample. The rate of decay of the radioactive sample can be correlated to flux of the first particle or the field. Detection of the first particle or the field can provide an early warning for an impending solar event.

  10. CATASTROPHIC EVENTS MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciumas Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the emergence and evolution of catastrophe models (cat models. Starting with the present context of extreme weather events and features of catastrophic risk (cat risk we’ll make a chronological illustration from a theoretical point of view of the main steps taken for building such models. In this way the importance of interdisciplinary can be observed. The first cat model considered contains three modules. For each of these indentified modules: hazard, vulnerability and financial losses a detailed overview and also an exemplification of a potential case of an earthquake that measures more than 7 on Richter scale occurring nowadays in Bucharest will be provided. The key areas exposed to earthquake in Romania will be identified. Then, based on past catastrophe data and taking into account present conditions of housing stock, insurance coverage and the population of Bucharest the impact will be quantified by determining potential losses. In order to accomplish this work we consider a scenario with data representing average values for: dwelling’s surface, location, finishing works. On each step we’ll make a reference to the earthquake on March 4 1977 to see what would happen today if a similar event occurred. The value of Bucharest housing stock will be determined taking firstly the market value, then the replacement value and ultimately the real value to quantify potential damages. Through this approach we can find the insurance coverage of potential losses and also the uncovered gap. A solution that may be taken into account by public authorities, for example by Bucharest City Hall will be offered: in case such an event occurs the impossibility of paying compensations to insured people, rebuilding infrastructure and public buildings and helping the suffering persons should be avoided. An actively public-private partnership should be created between government authorities, the Natural Disaster Insurance Pool, private

  11. Co-occurring problems of early onset persistent, childhood limited, and adolescent onset conduct problem youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Edward D; Oliver, Bonamy R; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-11-01

    It is increasingly recognized that youth who follow early onset persistent (EOP), childhood limited (CL) and adolescent onset (AO) trajectories of conduct problems show somewhat varying patterns of risk (in childhood) and adjustment problems (in adolescence and adulthood). Little, however, is known about how other adjustment problems differentially co-develop with the EOP, CL and AO trajectories across the childhood and adolescent years. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, an epidemiological, longitudinal cohort of boys and girls, we estimated growth curves for parent-reported hyperactivity, emotional difficulties, peer relational problems, and prosocial behaviors conditional on trajectories of conduct problems (i.e., EOP, CL and AO) from ages 4 to 13 years. At ages 7-8 years, DSM-IV-based diagnoses of conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, depression were examined by conduct problems trajectory. Overall, the development of hyperactivity, emotional difficulties, peer relational problems, and prosocial behaviors mirrored the development of conduct problems, showing similar trajectories. Results indicated that the problems of EOP youth were persistent across domains, CL youth showed decreased behavior problems while increasing in prosocial behaviors, and AO youth increased in adjustment problems after 10 years of age. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2010 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. State-based Event Detection Optimization for Complex Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanglian PENG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Detection of patterns in high speed, large volume of event streams has been an important paradigm in many application areas of Complex Event Processing (CEP including security monitoring, financial markets analysis and health-care monitoring. To assure real-time responsive complex pattern detection over high volume and speed event streams, efficient event detection techniques have to be designed. Unfortunately evaluation of the Nondeterministic Finite Automaton (NFA based event detection model mainly considers single event query and its optimization. In this paper, we propose multiple event queries evaluation on event streams. In particular, we consider scalable multiple event detection model that shares NFA transfer states of different event queries. For each event query, the event query is parse into NFA and states of the NFA are partitioned into different units. With this partition, the same individual state of NFA is run on different processing nodes, providing states sharing and reducing partial matches maintenance. We compare our state-based approach with Stream-based And Shared Event processing (SASE. Our experiments demonstrate that state-based approach outperforms SASE both on CPU time usage and memory consumption.

  13. Event time analysis of longitudinal neuroimage data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabuncu, Mert R; Bernal-Rusiel, Jorge L; Reuter, Martin; Greve, Douglas N; Fischl, Bruce

    2014-08-15

    This paper presents a method for the statistical analysis of the associations between longitudinal neuroimaging measurements, e.g., of cortical thickness, and the timing of a clinical event of interest, e.g., disease onset. The proposed approach consists of two steps, the first of which employs a linear mixed effects (LME) model to capture temporal variation in serial imaging data. The second step utilizes the extended Cox regression model to examine the relationship between time-dependent imaging measurements and the timing of the event of interest. We demonstrate the proposed method both for the univariate analysis of image-derived biomarkers, e.g., the volume of a structure of interest, and the exploratory mass-univariate analysis of measurements contained in maps, such as cortical thickness and gray matter density. The mass-univariate method employs a recently developed spatial extension of the LME model. We applied our method to analyze structural measurements computed using FreeSurfer, a widely used brain Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) analysis software package. We provide a quantitative and objective empirical evaluation of the statistical performance of the proposed method on longitudinal data from subjects suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) at baseline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Relativistic tidal disruption events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levan A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In March 2011 Swift detected an extremely luminous and long-lived outburst from the nucleus of an otherwise quiescent, low luminosity (LMC-like galaxy. Named Swift J1644+57, its combination of high-energy luminosity (1048 ergs s−1 at peak, rapid X-ray variability (factors of >100 on timescales of 100 seconds and luminous, rising radio emission suggested that we were witnessing the birth of a moderately relativistic jet (Γ ∼ 2 − 5, created when a star is tidally disrupted by the supermassive black hole in the centre of the galaxy. A second event, Swift J2058+0516, detected two months later, with broadly similar properties lends further weight to this interpretation. Taken together this suggests that a fraction of tidal disruption events do indeed create relativistic outflows, demonstrates their detectability, and also implies that low mass galaxies can host massive black holes. Here, I briefly outline the observational properties of these relativistic tidal flares observed last year, and their evolution over the first year since their discovery.

  15. Onset, active and break periods of the Australian monsoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaik, Hakeem A [Northern Territory Regional Office, Australian Bureau of Meteorology, PO Box 40050, NT Regional Office, Bureau of Meteorology, Casuarina NT 0811, Darwin (Australia); Cleland, Samuel J, E-mail: h.shaik@bom.gov.a [Bureau of Meteorology, Cape Grim BAPS, Smithton Tasmania TAS 7300 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    Four operational techniques of monsoon monitoring the Australian monsoon at Darwin have been developed in the Darwin Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre. Two techniques used the rainfall only criteria and look into the onset of wet season rainfall/monsoon rainfall. The other two techniques are based purely on Darwin wind data. The data used for the study ranges from 14 to 21 years. The main purpose of the study is to develop near-real time monitoring tools for the Australian monsoon at Darwin. The average date of onset of the monsoon ranges from 19 December to 30 December. The average date of monsoon onset is 28 December. In eleven out of twenty-one years the onset date remained within three days range between the two rainfall techniques, whereas it is eleven out of fourteen years between the wind techniques. The median number of active monsoon spells in a wet season is 3 for the rainfall techniques and 6 for the wind techniques. The average length of each active monsoon spell is around 4 days for all of the techniques. The date of onset of the monsoon has shown negative correlation with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) that is late onset is found to occur in El Nino years while early onset is more likely in La Nina years.

  16. The Influence of Onsets and Offsets on Saccade Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frouke Hermens

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available When making a saccadic eye movement to a peripheral target, a simultaneous stimulus onset at central fixation generally increases saccadic latency, while offsets reduce latency (‘gap effect’. Visual onsets remote from fixation also increase latency (‘remote distractor effect’; however, the influence of remote visual offsets is less clear. Previous studies, which used a search task, found that remote offsets either facilitated, inhibited, or did nothing to saccade latencies towards a peripheral target. It cannot be excluded, however, that the target selection process in such search tasks influenced the results. We therefore simplified the task and asked participants to make eye movements to a predictable target. Simultaneously with target onset, either one or multiple remote stimulus onsets and offsets were presented. It was found that peripheral onsets increased saccade latencies, but offsets did not influence the initiation of a saccade to the target. Moreover, the number of onsets and offsets did not affect the results. These results suggest that earlier effects of remote stimulus offsets and of the number of remote distractor onsets reside in the target identification process of the visual search task rather than the competition between possible saccade goals. The results are discussed in the context of models of saccade target selection.

  17. Adverse Housing Conditions and Early-Onset Delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dylan B; Newsome, Jamie; Lynch, Kellie R

    2017-09-01

    Housing constitutes an important health resource for children. Research has revealed that, when housing conditions are unfavorable, they can interfere with child health, academic performance, and cognition. Little to no research, however, has considered whether adverse housing conditions and early-onset delinquency are significantly associated with one another. This study explores the associations between structural and non-structural housing conditions and delinquent involvement during childhood. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS) were employed in this study. Each adverse housing condition was significantly associated with early-onset delinquency. Even so, disarray and deterioration were only significantly linked to early delinquent involvement in the presence of health/safety hazards. The predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed to housing risks in the presence of health/safety hazards was nearly three times as large as the predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed only to disarray and/or deterioration, and nearly four times as large as the predicted probability of early-onset delinquency among children exposed to none of the adverse housing conditions. The findings suggest that minimizing housing-related health/safety hazards among at-risk subsets of the population may help to alleviate other important public health concerns-particularly early-onset delinquency. Addressing household health/safety hazards may represent a fruitful avenue for public health programs aimed at the prevention of early-onset delinquency. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  18. Temporal Discrimination: Mechanisms and Relevance to Adult-Onset Dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Conte

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Temporal discrimination is the ability to determine that two sequential sensory stimuli are separated in time. For any individual, the temporal discrimination threshold (TDT is the minimum interval at which paired sequential stimuli are perceived as being asynchronous; this can be assessed, with high test–retest and inter-rater reliability, using a simple psychophysical test. Temporal discrimination is disordered in a number of basal ganglia diseases including adult-onset dystonia, of which the two most common phenotypes are cervical dystonia and blepharospasm. The causes of adult-onset focal dystonia are unknown; genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors are relevant. Abnormal TDTs in adult-onset dystonia are associated with structural and neurophysiological changes considered to reflect defective inhibitory interneuronal processing within a network which includes the superior colliculus, basal ganglia, and primary somatosensory cortex. It is hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination is a mediational endophenotype and, when present in unaffected relatives of patients with adult-onset dystonia, indicates non-manifesting gene carriage. Using the mediational endophenotype concept, etiological factors in adult-onset dystonia may be examined including (i the role of environmental exposures in disease penetrance and expression; (ii sexual dimorphism in sex ratios at age of onset; (iii the pathogenesis of non-motor symptoms of adult-onset dystonia; and (iv subcortical mechanisms in disease pathogenesis.

  19. Weather as physiologically equivalent was not associated with ischemic stroke onsets in Vienna, 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Julia; Shiue, Ivy; Seyfang, Leonhard; Matzarakis, Andreas; Lang, Wilfried

    2015-06-01

    Stroke rates were found to have seasonal variations. However, previous studies using air temperature, humidity, or air pressure separately were not adequate, and the study catchment was not clearly drawn. Therefore, here we proposed to use a thermal index called physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) that incorporates air temperature, humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, air pressure and radiation flux from a biometeorological approach to estimate the effect of weather as physiologically equivalent on ischemic stroke onsets in an Austrian population. Eight thousand four hundred eleven stroke events in Vienna registered within the Austrian Stroke Unit Register from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2010 were included and were correlated with the weather data, obtained from the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics in the same area and study time period and calculated as PET (°C). Statistical analysis involved Poisson regression modeling. The median age was 74 years, and men made up 49 % of the entire population. Eighty percent had hypertension while 25.4 % were current smokers. Of note, 26.5 % had diabetes mellitus, 28.9 % had pre-stroke, and 11.5 % had pre-myocardial infarction. We have observed that onsets were higher on the weekdays than on the weekend. However, we did not find any significant association between PETs and ischemic stroke onsets by subtypes in Vienna. We did not observe any significant associations between PETs and ischemic stroke onsets by subtypes in Vienna. Hospital admission peaks on the weekdays might be due to hospital administration reasons.

  20. Late-onset Stargardt-like macular dystrophy maps to chromosome 1p13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, J.; Gerber, S.; Rozet, J.M. [Hopital des Enfants Malades, Paris (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Stargardt`s disease (MIM 248200), originally described in 1909, is an autosomal recessive condition of childhood, characterized by a sudden and bilateral loss of central vision. Typically, it has an early onset (7 to 12 years), a rapidly progressive course and a poor final outcome. The central area of the retina (macula) displays pigmentary changes in a ring form with depigmentation and atrophy of the retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE). Perimacular yellowish spots, termed fundus flavimaculatus, are observed in a high percentage of patients. We have recently reported the genetic mapping of Stargardt`s disease to chromosome 1p13. On the other hand, considering that fundus flavimaculatus (MIM 230100) is another form of fleck fundus disease, with a Stargardt-like retinal aspect but with a late-onset and a more progressive course, we decided to test the hypothesis of allelism between typical Stargardt`s disease and late-onset autosomal recessive fundus flavimaculatus. Significant pairwise lod scores were obtained in each of four multiplex families (11 affected individuals, 12 relatives) with four markers of the 1p13 region (Z = 4.79, 4.64, 3.07, 3.16 at loci D1S435, D1S424, D1S236, and D1S415, respectively at {theta} = 0). Multipoint analysis showed that the best estimate for location of the disease gene is between D1S424 and D1S236 (maximum lod score of 5.20) as also observed in Stargardt`s disease. Our results are consistent with the location of the gene responsible of the late-onset Stargardt-like macular dystrophy in the 1p13 region and raise the hypothesis of either allelic mutational events or contiguous genes in this chromosomal region. The question of possible relationship with some age-related macular dystrophies in now open to debate.

  1. Association between mental disorders and subsequent adult onset asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Jordi; de Jonge, Peter; Lim, Carmen C W; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Liu, Zhaorui; O'Neill, Siobhan; Stein, Dan J; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Borges, Guilherme; Ciutan, Marius; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fiestas, Fabian; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chiyi; Kessler, Ronald C; Lépine, Jean Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J; Scott, Kate M

    2014-12-01

    Associations between asthma and anxiety and mood disorders are well established, but little is known about their temporal sequence. We examined associations between a wide range of DSM-IV mental disorders with adult onset of asthma and whether observed associations remain after mental comorbidity adjustments. During face-to-face household surveys in community-dwelling adults (n = 52,095) of 19 countries, the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of 16 DSM-IV mental disorders. Asthma was assessed by self-report of physician's diagnosis together with age of onset. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent adult onset asthma, without and with comorbidity adjustment. 1860 adult onset (21 years+) asthma cases were identified, representing a total of 2,096,486 person-years of follow up. After adjustment for comorbid mental disorders several mental disorders were associated with subsequent adult asthma onset: bipolar (OR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.3-2.5), panic (OR = 1.4; 95%CI 1.0-2.0), generalized anxiety (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.7), specific phobia (OR = 1.3; 95%CI 1.1-1.6); post-traumatic stress (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1-1.9); binge eating (OR = 1.8; 95%CI 1.2-2.9) and alcohol abuse (OR = 1.5; 95%CI 1.1-2.0). Mental comorbidity linearly increased the association with adult asthma. The association with subsequent asthma was stronger for mental disorders with an early onset (before age 21). A wide range of temporally prior mental disorders are significantly associated with subsequent onset of asthma in adulthood. The extent to which asthma can be avoided or improved among those with early mental disorders deserves study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Event Shape Sorting: selecting events with similar evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomášik Boris

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present novel method for the organisation of events. The method is based on comparing event-by-event histograms of a chosen quantity Q that is measured for each particle in every event. The events are organised in such a way that those with similar shape of the Q-histograms end-up placed close to each other. We apply the method on histograms of azimuthal angle of the produced hadrons in ultrarelativsitic nuclear collisions. By selecting events with similar azimuthal shape of their hadron distribution one chooses events which are likely that they underwent similar evolution from the initial state to the freeze-out. Such events can more easily be compared to theoretical simulations where all conditions can be controlled. We illustrate the method on data simulated by the AMPT model.

  3. Efficacy of Retigabine in Adjunctive Treatment of Partial Onset Seizures in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Y. Splinter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate efficacy and tolerability of retigabine (ezogabine, US adopted name in the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults. Retigabine is the first anticonvulsant in its class, decreasing neuronal excitability by opening voltage-gated potassium channels. Methods MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched using search terms retigabine and ezogabine for randomized controlled trials published from 1980 through August 17, 2013. Additionally, articles relating to pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, tolerability and interactions were examined for inclusion. Published abstracts and websites of the Food and Drug Administration and European Medication Agency were reviewed for additional relevant information. Results One phase IIb and two phase III trials were identified. Retigabine has been reported to have dose dependent efficacy in adjunctive treatment of resistant partial-onset seizures in adults in doses of 600, 900 and 1200 mg/day. Similar to other anticonvulsants, the most common adverse events were central nervous system related. Retigabine has several unique adverse events compared to other anticonvulsants: urinary retention and, with extended use, pigment changes to the skin and retina. Retigabine is metabolized by glucuronidation and acetylation. There are few drug interactions with retigabine. Conclusions Retigabine has been shown to have efficacy when used as adjunctive therapy in partial-onset seizures. It has a novel mechanism of action, activation of voltage-gated potassium channels. It has less drug interactions than many other anticonvulsants because it is not metabolized through the P-450 system. Its place in therapy has yet to be determined, especially with recent reports of pigment discoloration of skin and the retina with extended use.

  4. Psychiatric morbidity develops after onset of pediatric multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangsberg Boesen, Magnus; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Uldall, Peter Vilhelm

    2018-01-01

    ascertainment was performed in all children with pediatric MS, including chart review. For each MS patient, we selected five controls using density sampling from the entire Danish population, matching controls to children with MS by sex and birthdate. We analyzed data as a nested case-control study......BACKGROUND: Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (MS) affects life at a stage vital for social and educational achievements and psychiatric co-morbidity is common after MS onset. Few studies have examined psychiatric morbidity before MS onset. METHODS: In this nationwide study, detailed case...

  5. Severe early onset ethylmalonic encephalopathy with West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papetti, Laura; Garone, Giacomo; Schettini, Livia; Giordano, Carla; Nicita, Francesco; Papoff, Paola; Zeviani, Massimo; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Spalice, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Ethylmalonic encephalopathy (EE) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early onset encephalopathy, chronic diarrhoea, petechiae, orthostatic acrocyanosis and defective cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in muscle and brain. High levels of lactic, ethylmalonic and methylsuccinic acids are detected in body fluids. EE is caused by mutations in ETHE1 gene, a mitochondrial sulfur dioxygenase. Neurologic signs and symptoms include progressively delayed development, hypotonia, seizures, and abnormal movements. We report on the clinical, electroencephalographic and MRI findings of a baby with a severe early onset encephalopathy associated with novel ETHE1 gene mutation. This is the first case described in literature with an early pure epileptic onset, presenting with West syndrome.

  6. Adult-onset nemaline myopathy presenting as respiratory failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Emer

    2008-11-01

    Nemaline myopathy is a rare congenital myopathy that generally presents in childhood. We report a case of a 44-year-old man who presented with severe hypoxic hypercapnic respiratory failure as the initial manifestation of nemaline myopathy. After starting noninvasive ventilation, his pulmonary function test results improved substantially, and over the 4 years since diagnosis his respiratory function remained stable. There are few reported cases of respiratory failure in patients with adult-onset nemaline myopathy, and the insidious onset in this case is even more unusual. This case highlights the varied presenting features of adult-onset nemaline myopathy and that noninvasive ventilation improves respiratory function.

  7. Early-onset Coronary Artery Disease: Clinical and Hereditary Aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Krogh

    2017-01-01

    the advances in genetic techniques has led to an increased understanding of the genetic background of CAD, which may potentially be translated into clinical use. The studies of this thesis aimed to investigate the burden of conventional risk factors and control in early-onset CAD (i.e. ... component of coronary atherosclerosis and underpin the need for risk factor optimization in early-onset CAD. Furthermore, our data support that yet identified common risk variants may have little clinical relevance in the clinical setting of early-onset CAD....

  8. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Zoom into the tracking detector. Muon tracks are colored red.

  9. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Muon tracks are colored red.

  10. [A rare and not very studied disorder: childhood-onset schizophrenia. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, D; de Chouly de Lenclave, M B

    2004-01-01

    Childhood-onset schizophrenia is rare: its prevalence is about 50 times lower than the one observed in adulthood. It is also frequently unrecognized, notably because its clinical aspect varies with age. The authors report the case of a prepubertal girl who developed a typical clinical picture of schizophrenia (paranoid subtype) by age 9. The patient was 10 years old when she was hospitalized for a relapse of a suspected childhood-onset schizophrenia. Several significant mental disorders were found in her family history: her mother was treated for mood disorders (including dysthymia and major depression with postpartum onset), while her father and a aunt exhibited schizophrenic disorders. In addition, prenatal and perinatal events (including probable prenatal maternal infection and obstetric complications) were reported by her mother. Demonstrable impairments were already present in her premorbid development: from the age of 3.5, she showed significant manifestations of behavioural inhibition and separation anxiety, severe difficulties in social adaptation, and language abnormalities (qualified by her general practitioner as selective mutism). At the age of 9, when her mother was hospitalized for a diabetes mellitus, she suddenly showed auditory and visual hallucinations associated with delusions. Their content included filiation, somatic, and persecutory themes. Grossly disorganized behaviour (and more particularly catatonic motor behaviours including catatonic rigidity and negativism and bizarre postures) was also observed. Negative symptoms (eg anhedonia, affective flattening, and alogia) were noted. Her IQ scores were 74 in the verbal subtests and 53 in the performance subtests. Because the diagnostic of childhood-onset schizophrenia was suspected, a neuroleptic treatment, haloperidol 3 mg/day, was tried. After a partial remission during a few months period (characterized by a decrease in delusions, anxiety and sleep difficulties), she showed a relapse leading

  11. Role of stressful life events in induction or exacerbation of psoriasis and chronic urticaria

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra S; Mehta Vivek

    2008-01-01

    Background: The possibility of a causal influence of emotional stress, especially of stressful life events, on the course of various skin diseases has long been postulated. Previous reports addressing its influence on skin psoriasis and chronic urticaria have been mainly anecdotal. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the stressful events of life within 1 year preceding onset or exacerbation of skin disease in patients of psoriasis vulgaris and chronic urticaria. Method: Fif...

  12. Uncovering undetected hypoglycemic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Jeff UngerCatalina Research Institute, Chino, CA, USAAbstract: Hypoglycemia is the rate-limiting factor that often prevents patients with diabetes from safely and effectively achieving their glycemic goals. Recent studies have reported that severe hypoglycemia is associated with a significant increase in the adjusted risks of major macrovascular events, major microvascular events, and mortality. Minor hypoglycemic episodes can also have serious implications for patient health, psychological well being, and adherence to treatment regimens. Hypoglycemic events can impact the health economics of the patient, their employer, and third-party payers. Insulin treatment is a key predictor of hypoglycemia, with one large population-based study reporting an overall prevalence of 7.1% (type 1 diabetes mellitus and 7.3% (type 2 diabetes mellitus in insulin-treated patients, compared with 0.8% in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with an oral sulfonylurea. Patients with type 1 diabetes typically experience symptomatic hypoglycemia on average twice weekly and severe hypoglycemia once annually. The progressive loss of islet cell function in patients with type 2 diabetes results in a higher risk of both symptomatic and unrecognized hypoglycemia over time. Patients with diabetes who become hypoglycemic are also more susceptible to developing defective counter-regulation, also known as hypoglycemia awareness autonomic failure, which is life-threatening and must be aggressively addressed. In patients unable to recognize hypoglycemia symptoms, frequent home monitoring or use of continuous glucose sensors are critical. Primary care physicians play a key role in the prevention and management of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes, particularly in those requiring intensive insulin therapy, yet physicians are often unaware of the multitude of consequences of hypoglycemia or how to deal with them. Careful monitoring, adherence to guidelines, and use of optimal

  13. Event-by-event simulation of quantum phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, H. De; Raedt, K. De; Michielsen, K.; Landau, DP; Lewis, SP; Schuttler, HB

    2006-01-01

    In various basic experiments in quantum physics, observations are recorded event-by-event. The final outcome of such experiments can be computed according to the rules of quantum theory but quantum theory does not describe single events. In this paper, we describe a stimulation approach that does

  14. Event Segmentation Improves Event Memory up to One Month Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Shaney; Bailey, Heather R.; Eisenberg, Michelle L.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    When people observe everyday activity, they spontaneously parse it into discrete meaningful events. Individuals who segment activity in a more normative fashion show better subsequent memory for the events. If segmenting events effectively leads to better memory, does asking people to attend to segmentation improve subsequent memory? To answer…

  15. Analysis of Future Event Set Algorithms for Discrete Event Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    McCormack, William M.; Sargent, Robert G.

    1980-01-01

    This work reports on new analytical and empirical results on the performance of algorithms for handling the future event set in discrete event simulation. These results provide a clear insight to the factors affecting algorithm performance; evaluate the "hold" model, often used to study future event set algorithms; and determine the best algorithm(s) to use.

  16. Event by event method for quantum interference simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutia Delina, M

    2014-01-01

    Event by event method is a simulation approach which is not based on the knowledge of the Schrödinger equation. This approach uses the classical wave theory and particle concept: we use particles, not waves. The data is obtained by counting the events that were detected by the detector, just as in

  17. Purchase decision involvement: Event management segments and related event behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the relationships between different levels of event purchase decision involvement (PDI) segments and their respective event behaviors (e.g., expenditures, travel behavior, event consumption and satisfaction). The specific purpose was to answer two major research questions: 1) Can PDI identify different levels or segments of...

  18. Phenobarbitone versus phenytoin monotherapy for partial onset seizures and generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Sarah J; Tudur Smith, Catrin; Pulman, Jennifer; Marson, Anthony G

    2013-01-31

    This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in The Cochrane Library 2001, Issue 4.Worldwide, particularly in the developing world, phenytoin and phenobarbitone are commonly used antiepileptic drugs, primarily because they are inexpensive. The aim of this review is to summarise data from existing trials comparing phenytoin and phenobarbitone. To review the best evidence comparing phenobarbitone and phenytoin when used as monotherapy in participants with partial onset seizures or generalised tonic-clonic seizures with or without other generalised seizure types. We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group trials register (31 May 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL Issue 5 of 12, The Cochrane Library 2012) and MEDLINE (1946 to May week 4, 2012). We hand-searched relevant journals, contacted pharmaceutical companies, original trial investigators and experts in the field.   Randomised controlled trials in children or adults with partial onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures with a comparison of phenobarbitone monotherapy with phenytoin monotherapy. This was an individual participant data (IPD) review. Outcomes were time to (a) treatment withdrawal (b) 12-month remission (c) six-month remission and (d) first seizure post randomisation. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to obtain study-specific estimates of hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with the generic inverse variance method used to obtain the overall pooled estimate of HRs and 95% CIs. Data have been obtained for four of eight studies meeting the inclusion criteria, amounting to 599 individuals, or approximately 63% of the potential data.The main overall results (pooled HR, 95% CI) were (a) time to treatment withdrawal 1.62 (1.23 to 2.14); (b) time to 12-month remission 0.90 (0.69 to 1.18) (c) time to six-month remission 0.92 (0.73 to 1.16) and (d) time to first seizure 0.85 (0.68 to 1.05). These results

  19. Countermeasures and vaccination against terrorism using smallpox: pre-event and post-event smallpox vaccination and its contraindications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hajime

    2011-09-01

    Smallpox, when used as a biological weapon, presents a serious threat to civilian populations. Core components of the public health management of a terrorism attack using smallpox are: vaccination (ring vaccination and mass vaccination), adverse event monitoring, confirmed and suspected smallpox case management, contact management, identifying, tracing, monitoring contacts, and quarantine. Above all, pre-event and post-event vaccination is an indispensable part of the strategies. Since smallpox patients are most infectious from onset of the rash through the first 7-10 days of the rash, vaccination should be administered promptly within a limited time frame. However, vaccination can accompany complications, such as postvaccinial encephalitis, progressive vaccinia, eczema vaccinatum, and generalized vaccinia. Therefore, vaccination is not recommended for certain groups. Public health professionals, as well as physicians and government officials, should also be well equipped with all information necessary for appropriate and effective smallpox management in the face of such a bioterrorism attack.

  20. Influence of stress in the onset of eating disorders: data from a two-stage epidemiologic controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Luis; Conesa, Llanos; Bermudez, Ovidio; Livianos, Lorenzo

    2006-01-01

    We explore the role of stress in the onset of eating disorders (EDs) in a community sample of adolescents, the mediating role of psychiatric comorbidity and the quantitative evolution of stress in the year preceding the onset of an ED. The Life Events and Difficulties Schedule interview was applied to a sample with 32 cases and 32 controls selected from a two-phase epidemiologic study among a representative population of adolescents, followed by a decay model to assess acute and chronic stress in the year preceding the onset of ED. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed using the SCAN interview. Cases (46.9%) and 9.4% of controls were found to have associated psychiatric comorbidity (chi2 = 11.74, p = .001). Of cases, 6.3% and none of the controls had at least one severe stressful event (N.S). Of cases, 18.8% and 3.1% of controls had at least one major difficulty (Fisher exact test = 0.05). Of cases, 25% and 3.1% of controls had a provoking stressful agent (Fisher exact test = 0.026). Psychiatric comorbidity partially mediated the relationship between stress and EDs. The Structural Equation Modeling Analysis shows that chronic stress is strongly associated with the onset of EDs, both directly (r(2) = 0.38) and indirectly, through psychiatric comorbidity (r2 = 0.56). Chronic stress and psychiatric comorbidity are strongly associated with the onset of EDs. Psychiatric comorbidity is a partial mediating factor in the association of stress with eating disorders.

  1. Event-Based Conceptual Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    The paper demonstrates that a wide variety of event-based modeling approaches are based on special cases of the same general event concept, and that the general event concept can be used to unify the otherwise unrelated fields of information modeling and process modeling. A set of event......-based modeling approaches are analyzed and the results are used to formulate a general event concept that can be used for unifying the seemingly unrelated event concepts. Events are characterized as short-duration processes that have participants, consequences, and properties, and that may be modeled in terms...... of information structures. The general event concept can be used to guide systems analysis and design and to improve modeling approaches....

  2. Extinction Events Can Accelerate Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate...

  3. Mental health in retired professional football players: 12-month incidence, adverse life events and support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ramele, Serena; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The primary aim was to explore the incidence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD; distress, sleep disturbance, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol use) in retired professional football players and to explore the association between adverse life events and the onset of symptoms of

  4. Adult onset glycogen storage disease type II (adult onset Pompe disease): report and magnetic resonance images of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Gaizo, Andrew [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology Resident, Atlanta, GA (United States); Banerjee, Sima [Emory University School of Medicine, Musculoskeletal Radiology Department, Atlanta, GA (United States); Terk, Michael [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII), also referred to as Pompe disease or acid maltase deficiency, is a rare inherited condition caused by a deficiency in acid alpha-glucosidase (GAA) enzyme activity. The condition is often classified by age of presentation, with infantile and late onset variants (Laforet et al. J Neurology 55:1122-8, 2000). Late onset tends to present with progressive proximal muscle weakness and respiratory insufficiency (Winkel et al. J Neurology 252:875-84, 2005). We report two cases of biopsy confirmed adult onset GSDII, along with key Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. (orig.)

  5. Oxytocin in survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daubenbuechel, Anna M. M.; Hoffmann, Anika; Eveslage, Maria; Oezyurt, Jale; Lohle, Kristin; Reichel, Julia; Thiel, Christiane M.; Martens, Henri; Geenen, Vincent; Mueller, Hermann L.

    2016-01-01

    Quality of survival of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma patients is frequently impaired by hypothalamic involvement or surgical lesions sequelae such as obesity and neuropsychological deficits. Oxytocin, a peptide hormone produced in the hypothalamus and secreted by posterior pituitary gland, plays

  6. Epidemiology and outcome of articular complications in adult onset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Madiha Mahfoudhi, Rafik Shimi, Sami Turki, Adel Kheder. Abstract. The adult onset Still's disease is a rare inflammatory pathology of unknown pathogeny. The clinical features are variable. The diagnosis is difficult since exclusion of infectious ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... parkinsonism have been diagnosed with anxiety, social phobias, depression, and seizures. It is unclear whether these disorders are related to the genetic changes that cause rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism . Related ...

  8. Gamelan Music Onset Detection based on Spectral Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoyon Kusnendar Suprapto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This research detects onsets of percussive instruments by examining the performance on the sound signals of gamelan instruments as one of traditional music instruments in Indonesia. Onset plays important role in determining musical rythmic structure, like beat, tempo, and is highly required in many applications of music information retrieval. There are four onset detection methods compared that employ spectral features, such as magnitude, phase, and the combination of both, which are phase slope (PS, weighted phase deviation (WPD, spectral flux (SF, and rectified complex domain (RCD. These features are extracted by representing the sound signals into time-frequency domain using overlapped Short-time Fourier Transform (STFT and varying the window length. Onset detection functions are processed through peak-picking using dynamic threshold. The results showed that by using suitable window length and parameter setting of dynamic threshold, F-measure which is greater than 0.80 can be obtained for certain methods.

  9. A Supervised Classification Algorithm for Note Onset Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Eck

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to detecting onsets in music audio files. We use a supervised learning algorithm to classify spectrogram frames extracted from digital audio as being onsets or nononsets. Frames classified as onsets are then treated with a simple peak-picking algorithm based on a moving average. We present two versions of this approach. The first version uses a single neural network classifier. The second version combines the predictions of several networks trained using different hyperparameters. We describe the details of the algorithm and summarize the performance of both variants on several datasets. We also examine our choice of hyperparameters by describing results of cross-validation experiments done on a custom dataset. We conclude that a supervised learning approach to note onset detection performs well and warrants further investigation.

  10. Onset Dynamics of Type A Botulinum Neurotoxin-Induced Paralysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lebeda, Frank J; Adler, Michael; Erickson, Keith; Chushak, Yaroslav

    2008-01-01

    .... We tested the hypothesis that mathematical models having a minimal number of reactions and reactants can simulate published data concerning the onset of paralysis of skeletal muscles induced by BoNT...

  11. Association of ADAM33 gene polymorphisms with adult-onset ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    onset asthma and its severity in an Indian adult population. Priya Tripathi, Shally Awasthi, Rajendra Prasad, Nuzhat Husain and Subramaniam Ganesh. J. Genet. 90, 265–273. Figure 1. Gel pictures of five genotyped ADAM33 gene polymorphisms ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: early-onset primary dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as seizures or a loss of intellectual function (dementia). Early-onset primary dystonia does not affect a person's intelligence. ... Diagnosis & Management Resources Genetic Testing (1 link) ... Isolated Dystonia MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Movement - uncontrolled or slow ...

  13. Associations between mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e. g., depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension

  14. Heatshield Ablation Pattern Roughness Onset and Effects Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a practical method for predicting pattern roughness onset and quantitative effects on heat and mass transfer rates for heatshield materials...

  15. Emotional Modulation of Cognition in Recent Onset Schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dieleman (Sieds)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The current thesis describes a number of important findings on the interaction between emotion and cognition in male recent onset schizophrenia patients. In healthy controls a general effect of emotional expressions on sustained attention is that it

  16. Late-onset Pompe disease with left-sided bronchomalacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chia-Feng; Niu, Dau-Ming; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Taso, Pei-Chen; Soong, Wen-Jue

    2015-02-01

    Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by α-glucosidase deficiency. Lower airway involvement and management are rare in patients with late-onset Pompe disease. We describe the case of a 16-y-old girl with late-onset Pompe disease who presented with obvious progressive deterioration in respiratory function. Pulmonary hypertension was also apparent on echocardiography. She had been on enzyme replacement therapy and nighttime CPAP ventilation for several years. Flexible bronchoscopy was used for diagnosis and subsequent implantation of a bronchial airway stent. Following implantation of the stent, the patient's pulmonary function stabilized, and her pulmonary hypertension resolved. The patient continued on enzyme replacement therapy and nighttime CPAP ventilation. This case highlights that lower airway involvement may occur with late-onset Pompe disease and that flexible bronchoscopy can be an effective tool for both diagnosis and management of lower airway collapse in late-onset Pompe disease. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  17. Stimulants and First-Onset Tics With ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis of studies concerning first-onset tics in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD treated with stimulants is reported from the University of Goettingen, Germany.

  18. The Infinite Latent Events Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wingate, David; Roy, Daniel; Tenenbaum, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    We present the Infinite Latent Events Model, a nonparametric hierarchical Bayesian distribution over infinite dimensional Dynamic Bayesian Networks with binary state representations and noisy-OR-like transitions. The distribution can be used to learn structure in discrete timeseries data by simultaneously inferring a set of latent events, which events fired at each timestep, and how those events are causally linked. We illustrate the model on a sound factorization task, a network topology identification task, and a video game task.

  19. The ATLAS Student Event Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Fassouliotis, D; Roupas, Z; Vudragovic, D

    2007-01-01

    The ASEC (ATLAS Student Event Challenge) is an educational project which allows the students to learn about the elementary particles by studying "events", the products of beam collisions at the LHC. The events are collected by the ATLAS detector and displayed graphically using the ATLANTIS package. The students are given the means to select and analyse the events on-line, and subsequently present the results and draw conclusions.

  20. Whole Exome Analysis of Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    variants of significant effect contributing to AD risk, however, with the advent of new genomic technologies such as high-throughput sequencing... technology , small family aggregates and isolated cases, particularly those with an extreme phenotype of the disorder (such as early onset) can be used . Thus... dementia and age at onset (AAO) among these individuals. For this study, we examined well-characterized EOAD families using WES to discover AD risk

  1. Early-onset dementias: diagnostic and etiological considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Masellis, Mario; Sherborn, Kayla; Neto, Pedro Rosa; Sadovnick, Dessa A; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R.; Black, Sandra E.; Prasad, Sadhana; Williams, Meghan; Gauthier, Serge

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the body of literature about early-onset dementia (EOD) that led to recommendations from the Fourth Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia. A broader differential diagnosis is required for EOD compared with late-onset dementia. Delays in diagnosis are common, and the social impact of EOD requires special care teams. The etiologies underlying EOD syndromes should take into account family history and comorbid diseases, such as cerebrovascu...

  2. Normal gastric antral myoelectrical activity in early onset anorexia nervosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Ravelli, A M; Helps, B. A.; Devane, S P; Lask, B. D.; Milla, P J

    1993-01-01

    Anorexia, epigastric discomfort, nausea, and vomiting may result from disordered gastric motility and emptying. These features have been found in many adults with anorexia nervosa, but have never been investigated in early onset anorexia nervosa. In 14 patients with early onset anorexia nervosa (eight of whom had upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms), six children with other eating disorders, four children with non-ulcer dyspepsia, and 10 controls matched for age and sex, the non-invasive te...

  3. Extreme Energy Events Monitoring report

    CERN Document Server

    Baimukhamedova, Nigina

    2015-01-01

    Following paper reflects the progress I made on Summer Student Program within Extreme Energy Events Monitor project I was working on. During 8 week period I managed to build a simple detector system that is capable of triggering events similar to explosions (sudden change in sound levels) and measuring approximate location of the event. Source codes are available upon request and settings described further.

  4. Integrity & sport events: Position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hover, P.; Dijk, B.; Breedveld, K.; Eekeren, F.J.A. van

    2016-01-01

    Sport events are appreciated as important sources of inspiration and positive energy. Yet, for a growing number of people, the negative aspects of sport events have come to cast a shadow over sport events as a positive experience. Questions and doubts have been raised about the transparency and good

  5. Stimuli, Reinforcers, and Private Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Radical behaviorism considers private events to be a part of ongoing observable behavior and to share the properties of public events. Although private events cannot be measured directly, their roles in overt action can be inferred from mathematical models that relate private responses to external stimuli and reinforcers according to the same…

  6. Combined effect of TLR2 gene polymorphism and early life stress on the age at onset of bipolar disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Oliveira

    Full Text Available Gene-environment interactions may play an important role in modulating the impact of early-life stressful events on the clinical course of bipolar disorder (BD, particularly associated to early age at onset. Immune dysfunction is thought to be an important mechanism linking childhood trauma with early-onset BD, thus the genetic diversity of immune-related loci may account for an important part of the interindividual susceptibility to this severe subform. Here we investigated the potential interaction between genetic variants of Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2 and 4 (TLR4, major innate immune response molecules to pathogens, and the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ in age at onset of BD. We recruited 531 BD patients (type I and II or not otherwise specified, genotyped for the TLR2 rs4696480 and rs3804099 and TLR4 rs1927914 and rs11536891 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and recorded for history of childhood trauma using the CTQ. TLR2 and TLR4 risk genotype carrier state and history of childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuses were evaluated in relation to age at onset as defined by the age at first manic or depressive episode. We observed a combined effect of TLR2 rs3804099 TT genotype and reported sexual abuse on determining an earlier age at onset of BD by means of a Kaplan-Meier survival curve (p = 0.002; corrected p = 0.02. Regression analysis, however, was non-significant for the TLR2-CTQ sexual abuse interaction term. The negative effects of childhood sexual abuse on age at onset of BD may be amplified in TLR2 rs3804099 risk genotype carriers through immune-mediated pathways. Clinical characteristics of illness severity, immune phenotypes and history of early life infectious insults should be included in future studies involving large patient cohorts.

  7. Combined effect of TLR2 gene polymorphism and early life stress on the age at onset of bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, José; Etain, Bruno; Lajnef, Mohamed; Hamdani, Nora; Bennabi, Meriem; Bengoufa, Djaouida; Sundaresh, Aparna; Chaabane, Arij Ben; Bellivier, Frank; Henry, Chantal; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Charron, Dominique; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Leboyer, Marion; Tamouza, Ryad

    2015-01-01

    Gene-environment interactions may play an important role in modulating the impact of early-life stressful events on the clinical course of bipolar disorder (BD), particularly associated to early age at onset. Immune dysfunction is thought to be an important mechanism linking childhood trauma with early-onset BD, thus the genetic diversity of immune-related loci may account for an important part of the interindividual susceptibility to this severe subform. Here we investigated the potential interaction between genetic variants of Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2) and 4 (TLR4), major innate immune response molecules to pathogens, and the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) in age at onset of BD. We recruited 531 BD patients (type I and II or not otherwise specified), genotyped for the TLR2 rs4696480 and rs3804099 and TLR4 rs1927914 and rs11536891 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and recorded for history of childhood trauma using the CTQ. TLR2 and TLR4 risk genotype carrier state and history of childhood emotional, physical and sexual abuses were evaluated in relation to age at onset as defined by the age at first manic or depressive episode. We observed a combined effect of TLR2 rs3804099 TT genotype and reported sexual abuse on determining an earlier age at onset of BD by means of a Kaplan-Meier survival curve (p = 0.002; corrected p = 0.02). Regression analysis, however, was non-significant for the TLR2-CTQ sexual abuse interaction term. The negative effects of childhood sexual abuse on age at onset of BD may be amplified in TLR2 rs3804099 risk genotype carriers through immune-mediated pathways. Clinical characteristics of illness severity, immune phenotypes and history of early life infectious insults should be included in future studies involving large patient cohorts.

  8. Neuroimaging findings in late-onset schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Changtae; Lim, Hyun Kook; Lee, Chang Uk

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in late-onset mental disorders. Among them, geriatric schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are significant health care risks and major causes of disability. We discussed whether late-onset schizophrenia (LOS) and late-onset bipolar (LOB) disorder can be a separate entity from early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and early-onset bipolar (EOB) disorder in a subset of late-life schizophrenia or late-life bipolar disorder through neuroimaging studies. A literature search for imaging studies of LOS or LOB was performed in the PubMed database. Search terms used were "(imaging OR MRI OR CT OR SPECT OR DTI OR PET OR fMRI) AND (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) AND late onset." Articles that were published in English before October 2013 were included. There were a few neuroimaging studies assessing whether LOS and LOB had different disease-specific neural substrates compared with EOS and EOB. These researches mainly observed volumetric differences in specific brain regions, white matter hyperintensities, diffusion tensor imaging, or functional neuroimaging to explore the differences between LOS and LOB and EOS and EOB. The aim of this review was to highlight the neural substrates involved in LOS and LOB through neuroimaging studies. The exploration of neuroanatomical markers may be the key to the understanding of underlying neurobiology in LOS and LOB.

  9. Explicit speech segmentation and syllabic onset structure: developmental trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelson, P; de Gelder, B; van Zon, M

    1997-01-01

    Recent applications of the hierarchical theory of the syllable to the development of explicit speech segmentation are critically examined. One particular prediction, that an initial consonant is more easily isolated when it constitutes the complete onset of a syllable than when it is part of a cluster onset, was tested on children with grade levels ranging from kindergarten to second grade. At each level, two independent groups of children worked with either CVCC (first consonant complete onset) or CCVC (part of cluster onset) syllables. First- and second-graders performed better on the CVCC than on the CCVC material in an initial consonant deletion task, but not when the task was comparison on the basis of that consonant. With the same instructions as the older children, kindergarten children performed at floor level on both tasks with both materials. However, in a new experiment in which the deletion task was presented as a puppet game, and with pretraining and selection on vowel deletion, a significantly higher level of success was achieved by the children working with the CVCC material. These results are consistent with the notion of developmental precedence of onset segmentation on phoneme segmentation. On the other hand, the results of the first and second graders show that onset superiority is not specific for the pre-reading stage.

  10. Education associated with a delayed onset of terminal decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrera, Graciela Muniz; Minett, Thais; Brayne, Carol; Matthews, Fiona E

    2014-01-01

    the terminal decline hypothesis suggests an acceleration in the rate of loss of cognitive function before death. Evidence about the association of educational attainment and the onset of terminal decline is scarce. to investigate the association of education with the onset of terminal decline in global cognitive function measured by Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) scores. deceased participants of the Cambridge City over 75 Cohort Study who were interviewed at about 2, 7, 9, 13, 17 and 21 years after baseline. regular and Tobit random change point growth models were fitted to MMSE scores to identify the onset of terminal decline and assess the effect of education on this onset. people who left school at an older age had a delayed onset of terminal decline. Thus better educated individuals experience a slightly shorter period of faster decline before death. an important finding emerging from our work is that education does appear to delay the onset of terminal decline, although only by a limited amount.

  11. Sleepwalking in psychiatric patients: comparison of childhood and adult onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Siu-Ping; Fong, Samson Yat-Yuk; Yu, Mandy Wai-Man; Li, Shirley Xin; Wing, Yun-Kwok

    2009-05-01

    In contrast to the 'benign and self-limiting nature' of childhood sleepwalking, some population and case studies have suggested that adult sleepwalking is more likely to be associated with psychopathology and psychotropic medications. There is a paucity, however, of systematic study in adult psychiatric populations, and the aim of the present study was therefore to compare the impact of psychopathology and medication usage on sleepwalking with reference to age of onset. Clinical characteristics, sleep symptoms, psychiatric diagnosis and psychotropic usage in 66 childhood- and adult-onset sleepwalkers as identified from a psychiatric clinic, were studied. There was a higher proportion of adult-onset sleepwalking in the psychiatric population. In comparison with childhood-onset sleepwalkers, adult-onset sleepwalkers had higher peak frequency of attacks and a high comorbidity with sleep-related eating features. Factors including frequent insomnia (odds ratio (OR) = 5.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.58-18.40, p = 0.007) and lifetime usage of regular zolpidem (OR = 5.58, 95%CI = 1.65-18.84, p sleepwalking. Adult-onset sleepwalking in a psychiatric sample has unique clinical characteristics and specific risk factors. These patients were more likely to present with sleep-related eating features, comorbid insomnia, had and lifetime usage of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, especially zolpidem. A heightened awareness of the presence of sleepwalking and their associated risk factors among the adult psychiatric population is needed.

  12. The Chelyabinsk event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovička, Jiří

    2016-10-01

    On February 15, 2013, 3:20 UT, an asteroid of the size of about 19 meters and mass of 12,000 metric tons entered the Earth's atmosphere unexpectedly near the border of Kazakhstan and Russia. It was the largest confirmed Earth impactor since the Tunguska event in 1908. The body moved approximately westwards with a speed of 19 km s-1, on a trajectory inclined 18 degrees to the surface, creating a fireball of steadily increasing brightness. Eleven seconds after the first sightings, the fireball reached its maximum brightness. At that point, it was located less than 40 km south from Chelyabinsk, a Russian city of population more than one million, at an altitude of 30 km. For people directly underneath, the fireball was 30 times brighter than the Sun. The cosmic body disrupted into fragments; the largest of them was visible for another five seconds before it disappeared at an altitude of 12.5 km, when it was decelerated to 3 km s-1. Fifty six second later, that ~600 kg fragment landed in Lake Chebarkul and created a 8 m wide hole in the ice. Small meteorites landed in an area 80 km long and several km wide and caused no damage. The meteorites were classified as LL ordinary chondrites and were interesting by the presence of two phases, light and dark. More material remained, however, in the atmosphere forming a dust trail up to 2 km wide and extending along the fireball trajectory from altitude 18 to 70 km. The dust then circled the Earth within few days and formed a ring around the northern hemisphere. In Chelyabinsk and its surroundings a very strong blast wave arrived 90 - 150 s after the fireball passage (depending on location). The wave was produced by the supersonic flight of the body and broke ~10% of windows in Chelyabinsk (~40% of buildings were affected). More than 1600 people were injured, mostly from broken glass. The whole event was well documented by video cameras, seismic and infrasonic records, and satellite observations. The total energy was 500 kT TNT

  13. Care path of person with stroke: from onset to rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Ana da Conceição Alves; Martins, Maria Manuela Ferreira Pereira da Silva; Schoeller, Soraia Dornelles; Matos, Leandro Oliveira de

    2017-01-01

    to describe the care path of the person with stroke goes through and to identify the important events in this path. qualitative descriptive exploratory research, using the semi-structured interview technique based on Meleis's Middle-Range Theory. The sample was composed of 13 people who became dependent after a stroke and were admitted to two hospital units in the region of Vale do Ave, Portugal. Data were collected between January and October 2013. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. The data revealed that the person's care path goes from recognition of the symptoms to preparation for hospital discharge. Adapting to the new situation of dependence brings the need for new competencies. The research aims to contribute to the improvement of nursing care regarding care for people with stroke including onset, recovery and rehabilitation, and home care. Descrever o percurso da pessoa com Acidente Vascular Encefálico e identificar os acontecimentos significativos neste percurso. Abordagem qualitativa e natureza exploratória- descritiva, valeu-se da técnica de entrevista semiestruturada baseada na Teoria de Médio Alcance de Meleis. Participaram 13 pessoas que se tornaram dependentes devido à Acidente Vascular Encefálico e recorreram a duas Unidades da região do Vale do Ave, Portugal. A colheita de dados deu-se durante Janeiro a Outubro de 2013. Para análise dos dados foi utilizada a análise de conteúdo. Os dados revelaram que o trajeto da pessoa vai desde o reconhecimento dos sintomas até à preparação da alta hospitalar. A dependência traz a necessidade de adquirir competências para se adaptar à nova situação. Espera-se contribuir para a melhoria dos cuidados de enfermagem no atendimento das pessoas acometidas com Acidente Vascular Encefálico, desde o acometimento, recuperação e reabilitação, até aos cuidados domiciliares.

  14. EVENT PLANNING USING FUNCTION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lori Braase; Jodi Grgich

    2011-06-01

    Event planning is expensive and resource intensive. Function analysis provides a solid foundation for comprehensive event planning (e.g., workshops, conferences, symposiums, or meetings). It has been used at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to successfully plan events and capture lessons learned, and played a significant role in the development and implementation of the “INL Guide for Hosting an Event.” Using a guide and a functional approach to planning utilizes resources more efficiently and reduces errors that could be distracting or detrimental to an event. This integrated approach to logistics and program planning – with the primary focus on the participant – gives us the edge.

  15. Cine Club - Special Event

    CERN Document Server

    Cine Club

    2017-01-01

    Special event on Thursday 4 May 2017 at 18:30 CERN Council Chamber In collaboration with the CERN Running Club and the Women In Technology initiative, the CERN CineClub is happy to announce the screening of the film Free to Run Directed by Pierre Morath Switzerland, 2016, 99 minutes Today, all anybody needs to run is the determination and a pair of the right shoes. But just fifty years ago, running was viewed almost exclusively as the domain of elite male athletes who competed on tracks. With insight and propulsive energy, director Pierre Morath traces running's rise to the 1960s, examining how the liberation movements and newfound sense of personal freedom that defined the era took the sport out of the stadiums and onto the streets, and how legends like Steve Prefontaine, Fred Lebow, and Kathrine Switzer redefined running as a populist phenomenon. Original version French; English subtitles. http://freetorun.ch/ Come along to watch the film and learn more about the history of popular races and amat...

  16. Event trigger identification for biomedical events extraction using domain knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Deyu; Zhong, Dayou; He, Yulan

    2014-06-01

    In molecular biology, molecular events describe observable alterations of biomolecules, such as binding of proteins or RNA production. These events might be responsible for drug reactions or development of certain diseases. As such, biomedical event extraction, the process of automatically detecting description of molecular interactions in research articles, attracted substantial research interest recently. Event trigger identification, detecting the words describing the event types, is a crucial and prerequisite step in the pipeline process of biomedical event extraction. Taking the event types as classes, event trigger identification can be viewed as a classification task. For each word in a sentence, a trained classifier predicts whether the word corresponds to an event type and which event type based on the context features. Therefore, a well-designed feature set with a good level of discrimination and generalization is crucial for the performance of event trigger identification. In this article, we propose a novel framework for event trigger identification. In particular, we learn biomedical domain knowledge from a large text corpus built from Medline and embed it into word features using neural language modeling. The embedded features are then combined with the syntactic and semantic context features using the multiple kernel learning method. The combined feature set is used for training the event trigger classifier. Experimental results on the golden standard corpus show that >2.5% improvement on F-score is achieved by the proposed framework when compared with the state-of-the-art approach, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed framework. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cardiovascular disease risk factors after early-onset preeclampsia, late-onset preeclampsia, and pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerbeek, Jan H W; Hermes, Wietske; Breimer, Anath Y; van Rijn, Bas B; Koenen, Steven V; Mol, Ben W; Franx, Arie; de Groot, Christianne J M; Koster, Maria P H

    2015-03-01

    Observational studies have shown an increased lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women who experienced a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy. This risk is related to the severity of the pregnancy-related hypertensive disease and gestational age at onset. However, it has not been investigated whether these differences in CVD risk factors are already present at postpartum cardiovascular screening. We evaluated postpartum differences in CVD risk factors in 3 subgroups of patients with a history of hypertensive pregnancy. We compared the prevalence of common CVD risk factors postpartum among 448 women with previous early-onset preeclampsia, 76 women with previous late-onset preeclampsia, and 224 women with previous pregnancy-induced hypertension. Women with previous early-onset preeclampsia were compared with women with late-onset preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension and had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (5.29 versus 4.80 and 4.83 mmol/L), insulin (9.12 versus 6.31 and 6.7 uIU/L), triglycerides (1.32 versus 1.02 and 0.97 mmol/L), and total cholesterol (5.14 versus 4.73 and 4.73 mmol/L). Almost half of the early-onset preeclampsia women had developed hypertension, as opposed to 39% and 25% of women in the pregnancy-induced hypertension and late-onset preeclampsia groups, respectively. Our data show differences in the prevalence of common modifiable CVD risk factors postpartum and suggest that prevention strategies should be stratified according to severity and gestational age of onset for the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Comparing Characteristics of Early-Onset Injection Drug Users to Those With Late-Onset Injection in Kermanshah, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjoran Shushtari, Zahra; Noroozi, Alireza; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Ahounbar, Elahe; Hajbi, Ahmad; Najafi, Mohammad; Bazrafshan, Ali; Farhadi, Mohammad Hossin; Farhoudian, Ali; Higgs, Peter; Shahboulagh, Farahnaz Mohammadi; Waye, Katherine; Noroozi, Mehdi

    2017-05-12

    Characteristics and behaviors of early-onset injection drug users are under studied topics in Iran. This study aimed to identify and compare the demographic characteristics as well as the drug using behaviors of early-onset and late-onset injection drug users in Kermanshah, West Iran. In this cross-sectional study using snowball and convenience sampling, we recruited 450 people during the Fall of 2014 from two drop in centers in Kermanshah, Iran. We collected data through face-to-face interviews. Early-onset injection is defined as whether the person reported their first injection at 22 years of age or younger. Subsequently, late-onset injection is defined as 23 years of age or older. We compared the characteristics of the two groups through both univariate and multiple logistic analyses. Overall, 54% (CI 95%: 44.3%, 62.2%) were early injectors. After controlling for low socioeconomic status, initiation of drug use at a young age, multiple drug use and methamphetamine use were all significantly associated with a higher likelihood of early-onset injection. Additionally, early-onset injection was associated with recent syringe borrowing (OR = 2.6, p = 0.001), recent syringe lending (OR = 1.4, p = 0.01), recent cooker sharing (OR = 3.2, p = 0.01) and injecting two or more times a day (OR = 2.2, p = 0.04). Early-onset injectors were more likely to report a lower socioeconomic status, initiation of first drug use at a younger age, using methamphetamine alongside polydrug use, and engaging in higher risk taking behaviors like borrowing needles. With these associations, the study emphasizes the need for drug-prevention programs to focus on the transition to injection drug use at younger ages.

  19. Prospective coding in event representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2007-06-01

    A perceived event such as a visual stimulus in the external world and a to-be-produced event such as an intentional action are subserved by event representations. Event representations do not only contain information about present states but also about past and future states. Here we focus on the role of representing future states in event perception and generation (i.e., prospective coding). Relevant theoretical issues and paradigms are discussed. We suggest that the predictive power of the motor system may be exploited for prospective coding not only in producing but also in perceiving events. Predicting is more advantageous than simply reacting. Perceptual prediction allows us to select appropriate responses ahead of the realization of an (anticipated) event and therefore, it is indispensable to flexibly and timely adapt to new situations and thus, successfully interact with our physical and social environment.

  20. Semantic Event Correlation Using Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Thomas; Roth, Heinz; Rozsnyai, Szabolcs; Mordinyi, Richard; Biffl, Stefan

    Complex event processing (CEP) is a software architecture paradigm that aims at low latency, high throughput, and quick adaptability of applications for supporting and improving event-driven business processes. Events sensed in real time are the basic information units on which CEP applications operate and react in self-contained decision cycles based on defined processing logic and rules. Event correlation is necessary to relate events gathered from various sources for detecting patterns and situations of interest in the business context. Unfortunately, event correlation has been limited to syntactically identical attribute values instead of addressing semantically equivalent attribute meanings. Semantic equivalence is particularly relevant if events come from organizations that use different terminologies for common concepts.

  1. Early identification of 'acute-onset' chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2014-08-01

    Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at an early stage, with the aim to better guide treatment. Clinical assessment, staging and nerve excitability tests were undertaken on patients initially fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy soon after symptom onset and their initial presentation. Patients were subsequently followed up for minimum of 12 months to determine if their clinical presentations were more consistent with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clinical severity as evaluated by Medical Research Council sum score and Hughes functional grading scale were not significantly different between the two cohorts. There was no difference between the time of onset of initial symptoms and nerve excitability test assessment between the two cohorts nor were there significant differences in conventional nerve conduction study parameters. However, nerve excitability test profiles obtained from patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy demonstrated abnormalities in the recovery cycle of excitability, including significantly reduced superexcitability (P demyelinating polyneuropathy, a different pattern occurred with the recovery cycle shifted downward (increased superexcitability, P demyelinating polyneuropathy and acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy could be clearly separated into two non-overlapping groups. Studies of nerve excitability may be able to differentiate acute from acute-onset

  2. Platelet reactivity and cardiovascular events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoep, Jacob Daniël

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the Western world. Platelets play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease, not only in the acute onset of thrombosis after atherosclerotic plaque rupture but also in the initiation and progression of

  3. Transportation planning for planned special events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Unique among planned special event activities are those events that carry the National Special Security Event (NSSE) designation. NSSEs occur with some frequency, with 35 of these events held between September 1998 and February 2010. These events inc...

  4. Timing and location of substorm onsets from THEMIS satellite and ground based observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mende

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented coverage of the THEMIS GBO station network coupled with high temporal and spatial resolution allowed us to determine the various stages of the global scale developments of the optical aurora at substorm onsets. We identified several steps of the substorm onset auroral phenomena and we suggest that the most rapid development is the starting of the Substorm Poleward Expansion (SPE and it is most useful for accurate timing of the substorm onset. The physical significance of this step is the start of the large scale substorm energy dissipation in the atmosphere due to particle precipitation and auroral electrojet currents. We also recognized several pre-cursor features. We also measured the time of arrival of magnetic impulses associated with the same substorms at the THEMIS satellites. We used these times and a simple model with assumed iono-acoustic speeds in the range of 300–800 km/s to calculate the location and time of the origin of the magnetic impulses propagating from substorm onset. The assumption was made that the substorm occurred between two THEMIS satellites and the impulses propagated away from a singular starting point in and out along the magneto tail GSM-x axis. This technique is only useful in cases where the ground based signature of the substorm is very close in local time (or longitude to the foot of the field lines of the THEMIS satellites. The x distance of the calculated origins were naturally highly dependent on the assumed propagation velocity model and the associated magneto-sonic speed. The resulting x distances of the starting point for the three events ranged between 11 and 17.6 RE. denoting a starting region that requires highly stretched field lines to map to the auroral onset latitude but which is generally considered to be too close for neutral line formation. The corresponding start times were in the range of 0 to 170 s prior SPE depending strongly on the assumed propagation speed.

  5. A case-crossover study of fine particulate matter air pollution and onset of congestive heart failure symptom exacerbation leading to hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, J M; Wang, L; Guallar, E; Howell, E; Dominici, F; Schwab, M; Ange, B A; Samet, J; Ondov, J; Harrison, D; Geyh, A

    2006-09-01

    Persons with congestive heart failure may be susceptible to ambient air pollution. The authors evaluated the association between exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 microm (PM2.5) and onset of symptom exacerbation leading to hospital admission in Baltimore, Maryland. They used a case-crossover design for 135 case events occurring among 125 persons with prevalent congestive heart failure who were admitted to a single hospital through the emergency department during 2002. The case period was assigned using three index times: 8-hour and 24-hour periods of symptom onset and date of hospital admission. Controlling for weather, the authors detected a modest relative increase in risk for cases defined by 8-hour symptom onset for an interquartile-range increase in PM2.5 at a 2-day lag (odds ratio=1.09, 95% confidence interval: 0.91, 1.30). A corresponding increase in risk was not observed when admission date was used to define the case period. A series of simulations based on study data indicated that the study had adequate statistical power to detect odds ratios of 1.2 or higher. Although overall findings were not statistically significant, the identification of case events defined by an 8-hour onset period may be more relevant than either a 24-hour onset period or the admission date for estimating harmful effects of air pollutant exposure on cardiovascular health.

  6. A superposed epoch analysis of auroral evolution during substorm growth, onset and recovery: open magnetic flux control of substorm intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We perform two superposed epoch analyses of the auroral evolution during substorms using the FUV instrument on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Explorer (IMAGE spacecraft. The larger of the two studies includes nearly 2000 substorms. We subdivide the substorms by onset latitude, a measure of the open magnetic flux in the magnetosphere, and determine average auroral images before and after substorm onset, for both electron and proton aurora. Our results indicate that substorms are more intense in terms of auroral brightness when the open flux content of the magnetosphere is larger, and that magnetic flux closure is more significant. The increase in auroral brightness at onset is larger for electrons than protons. We also show that there is a dawn-dusk offset in the location of the electron and proton aurora that mirrors the relative locations of the region 1 and region 2 current systems. Superposed epoch analyses of the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field, and geomagnetic indices for the substorms under study indicate that dayside reconnection is expected to occur at a faster rate prior to low latitude onsets, but also that the ring current is enhanced for these events.

  7. Which factors influence onset and latency to treatment in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benatti, Beatrice; Camuri, Giulia; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Cremaschi, Laura; Sembira, Ester; Palazzo, Carlotta; Oldani, Lucio; Dobrea, Cristina; Arici, Chiara; Primavera, Diego; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Castellano, Filippo; Carrà, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Baldwin, David S; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo

    2016-11-01

    Anxiety disorders are common, comorbid, and disabling conditions, often underdiagnosed and under-treated, typically with an early onset, chronic course, and prolonged duration of untreated illness. The present study aimed to explore the influence of sociodemographic and clinical factors in relation to onset and latency to treatment in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A total of 157 patients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of PD (n=49), GAD (n=68), and OCD (n=40) were recruited, and epidemiological and clinical variables were collected through a specific questionnaire. Statistical analyses were carried out to compare variables across diagnostic groups. PD, GAD, and OCD patients showed a duration of untreated illness of 53.9±81.5, 77.47±95.76, and 90.6±112.1 months, respectively. Significant differences between groups were found with respect to age, age of first diagnosis, age of first treatment, family history of psychiatric illness, onset-related stressful events, benzodiazepine prescription as first treatment, antidepressant prescription as first treatment, and help-seeking (self-initiated vs. initiated by others). Patients with GAD, PD, and OCD showed significant differences in factors influencing onset and latency to treatment, which may, in turn, affect condition-related outcome and overall prognosis. Further studies with larger samples are warranted in the field.

  8. Early onset obsessive-compulsive disorder with and without tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mathis, Maria Alice; Diniz, Juliana B; Shavitt, Roseli G; Torres, Albina R; Ferrão, Ygor A; Fossaluza, Victor; Pereira, Carlos; Miguel, Eurípedes; do Rosario, Maria Conceicão

    2009-07-01

    Research suggests that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is not a unitary entity, but rather a highly heterogeneous condition, with complex and variable clinical manifestations. The aims of this study were to compare clinical and demographic characteristics of OCD patients with early and late age of onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS); and to compare the same features in early onset OCD with and without tics. The independent impact of age at onset and presence of tics on comorbidity patterns was investigated. Three hundred and thirty consecutive outpatients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD were evaluated: 160 patients belonged to the "early onset" group (EOG): before 11 years of age, 75 patients had an "intermediate onset" (IOG), and 95 patients were from the "late onset" group (LOG): after 18 years of age. From the 160 EOG, 60 had comorbidity with tic disorders. The diagnostic instruments used were: the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (DY-BOCS), Yale Global Tics Severity Scale, and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-patient edition. Statistical tests used were: Mann-Whitney, full Bayesian significance test, and logistic regression. The EOG had a predominance of males, higher frequency of family history of OCS, higher mean scores on the "aggression/violence" and "miscellaneous" dimensions, and higher mean global DY-BOCS scores. Patients with EOG without tic disorders presented higher mean global DY-BOCS scores and higher mean scores in the "contamination/cleaning" dimension. The current results disentangle some of the clinical overlap between early onset OCD with and without tics.

  9. Phenotypic cognitive impairment in late-onset delusional disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ben S; Kotsopoulos, Eleftheria J; Yamin, Sami

    2014-06-01

    Previous use of heterogeneous diagnostic criteria and insensitive cognitive measures has impeded clarification of the extent and type of cognitive impairment specific to late-onset delusional disorder. We examined whether clinical presentations of late-onset delusional disorder are associated with prodromal or established dementia, and whether it might be a discrete clinical syndrome characterized by its own profile of cognitive impairment. Nineteen patients with late-onset delusional disorder from a hospital psychiatric service and 20 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (AD) from an outpatient memory clinic were recruited in a consecutive case series. All patients underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment that included general intellectual function, executive function, new learning and delayed memory, language, processing speed, and visuo-perceptual skills. Late-onset delusional disorder patients showed moderate impairment to conceptual reasoning, visual object recognition, processing speed, and confrontation naming. Severe impairment appeared in visuo-perceptual planning and organization, and divided attention. Compared with the Alzheimer's disease (AD) group, the late-onset delusional disorder group demonstrated significantly poorer visuo-perceptual skills but a significantly better capacity to consolidate information into delayed memory. A high rate of marked cognitive impairment occurs in late-onset delusional disorder. There was evidence of a conceptual reasoning deficit, plus the presence of a visuo-perceptual impairment affecting object recognition. This impairment profile can explain the genesis and maintenance of the observed delusions. Understanding late-onset delusional disorder as other than a purely psychiatric phenomenon or a precursor to AD will lead to better assessment and management approaches.

  10. Delayed-onset symptomatic hyphema after ab interno trabeculotomy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Yachna; Malihi, Mehrdad; Sit, Arthur J

    2012-09-01

    To describe patients who have experienced delayed-onset hyphema after ab interno trabeculotomy surgery with the Trabectome (Neomedix Corp) for open-angle glaucoma. Retrospective case series. study population: Patients at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, who underwent Trabectome surgery between September 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, and who had symptomatic hyphema at least 2 months after surgery. observation procedure: Patients with blurred vision at least 2 months after Trabectome surgery were examined for the presence of hyphema using a slit lamp and gonioscopy. main outcome measures: Proportion of patients experiencing delayed-onset symptomatic hyphema after Trabectome surgery. Associated factors and clinical course for these patients. Of 262 cases of Trabectome surgery, there were 12 cases of delayed-onset symptomatic hyphema (4.6%). The average age was 74.3 years (range, 66 to 82 years). Median time to onset of hyphema was 8.6 months (range, 2 to 31 months) after surgery. Symptom onset commonly occurred on awakening. The most common characteristic was maintaining a sleep position on the surgical side. Most hyphemas resolved within 1 to 2 weeks, except in 1 patient, who required trabeculectomy for a refractory intraocular pressure spike. This is a series of patients with symptomatic delayed-onset hyphema after Trabectome surgery in the absence of further surgeries or trauma. Likely mechanisms are exertion-related increase in episcleral venous pressure or ocular compression from sleeping on the surgical side, followed by sudden decompression and blood reflux. Symptomatic patients should identify and avoid associated triggers because delayed-onset hyphema may be associated with intermittent intraocular pressure spikes that may require medical or surgical treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Events and mega events: leisure and business in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alexandre Paiva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The promotion of events and mega events mobilizes at the same time, in a concatenated way or not, leisure and business practices, which are captured by the tourism industry as a stimulus for the reproduction of capitalism, by the amount of other activities which raise (primary, secondary and tertiary , placing the architecture and the city as protagonists in contemporary urban development. In this sense, the article analyzes the articulation of events and mega events to the provision of architecture and urban infrastructure, as well as the construction of the tourist image of the places, motivated by leisure and business activities. The methodological procedures have theoretical and exploratory character and have multidisciplinary intentions. This will be discussed, in a historical perspective, the concepts of leisure and business activities that raise as moving or traveling; next it will be delimited similarities and differences between tourism events and business tourism, entering after the analysis of the distinctions between events and mega events, highlighting the complexity and the role of mega-events as a major symptom of globalization; finally it will be presented the spatial scale developments in architecture and the city in the realization of (mega events, as well as its impact on the city's image. As a synthesis, it is important to notice that spatial developments business tourism, events and mega events are manifested in various scales and with different levels of complexity, revealing the strengths and / or weaknesses of the places. The urban planning, architecture and urbanism are important objects of knowledge and spatial intervention to ensure infrastructure and urban and architectural structures appropriate for events, which should be sensitive to the demands of tourists and host communities.

  12. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks of the two electron pairs are colored red, the clusters in the LAr calorimeter are colored darkgreen.

  13. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  14. Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4mu candidate event with m(4l) = 124.1 (125.1) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 86.3 GeV and 31.6 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 10-Jun-2012, 13:24:31 CEST in run number 204769 as event number 71902630. Muon tracks are colored red. The inset on the right-hand side shows a zoom into the tracking detector. The inset on top shows a zoom into the vertex region, indicating that the 4 muons originate from the same primary vertex.

  15. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. Zoom into the tracking detector and the LAr calorimeter where its detailed structure is highlighted. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  16. Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event

    CERN Multimedia

    ATLAS, Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Event display of a H -> 4e candidate event with m(4l) = 124.5 (124.6) GeV without (with) Z mass constraint. The masses of the lepton pairs are 70.6 GeV and 44.7 GeV. The event was recorded by ATLAS on 18-May-2012, 20:28:11 CEST in run number 203602 as event number 82614360. Zoom into the tracking detector. The tracks and clusters of the two electron pairs are colored red and blue, respectively.

  17. Generalized onset seizures with focal evolution (GOFE) - A unique seizure type in the setting of generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linane, Avriel; Lagrange, Andre H; Fu, Cary; Abou-Khalil, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    We report clinical and electrographic features of generalized onset seizures with focal evolution (GOFE) and present arguments for the inclusion of this seizure type in the seizure classification. The adult and pediatric Epilepsy Monitoring Unit databases at Vanderbilt Medical Center and Children's Hospital were screened to identify generalized onset seizures with focal evolution. We reviewed medical records for epilepsy characteristics, epilepsy risk factors, MRI abnormalities, neurologic examination, antiepileptic medications before and after diagnosis, and response to medications. We also reviewed ictal and interictal EEG tracings, as well as video-recorded semiology. Ten patients were identified, 7 males and 3 females. All of the patients developed generalized epilepsy in childhood or adolescence (ages 3-15years). Generalized onset seizures with focal evolution developed years after onset in 9 patients, with a semiology concerning for focal seizures or nonepileptic events. Ictal discharges had a generalized onset on EEG, described as either generalized spike-and-wave and/or polyspike-and-wave discharges, or generalized fast activity. This electrographic activity then evolved to focal rhythmic activity most commonly localized to one temporal or frontal region; five patients had multiple seizures evolving to focal activity in different regions of both hemispheres. The predominant interictal epileptiform activity included generalized spike-and-wave and/or polyspike-and-wave discharges in all patients. Taking into consideration all clinical and EEG data, six patients were classified with genetic (idiopathic) generalized epilepsy, and four were classified with structural/metabolic (symptomatic) generalized epilepsy. All of the patients had modifications to their medications following discharge, with three becoming seizure-free and five responding with >50% reduction in seizure frequency. Generalized onset seizures may occasionally have focal evolution with semiology

  18. Interaction between genetic polymorphisms and stressful life events in first episode depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Bock, Camilla; Vinberg, Maj

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene seems to moderate the influence of stressful life events on depression. However, the results from previous studies of gene-environment interactions in depression are inconsistent and might be confounded by the history...... of depression among participants. METHOD: We applied a case-only design, including 290 ethnically homogeneous patients suffering exclusively from first episode depression. Psychiatric mo-morbidity, personality traits and disorders and stressful life events in a six months period preceding onset of depression...... of stressful life events prior to onset of depression, also when corrected for the effect of age, gender, marital status, personality disorder, neuroticism, and severity of depressive symptoms at the time of interview. CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms in the genes encoding the serotonin transporter and the brain...

  19. Do stressful life events predict medical treatment outcome in first episode of depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Camilla; Bukh, Jens Drachmann; Vinberg, Maj

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether medical treatment outcome in first episode depression differ for patients with and without stressful life events prior to onset of depression. METHODS: Patients discharged with a diagnosis of a single depressive episode from a psychiatric in- or outpatient hospital...... adequate trials of antidepressant treatment. RESULTS: A total of 399 patients participated in the interview and among these 301 patients obtained a SCAN diagnosis of a single depressive episode. A total of 62.8% of the 301 patients experienced at least one moderate to severe stressful life event in a 6......: Medical treatment outcome in first episode depression does not depend on the prevalence of moderate to severe stressful life events prior to symptom onset....

  20. ACCEPT: Introduction of the Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodney A.; Santanu, Das; Janakiraman, Vijay Manikandan; Hosein, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of anomalies or adverse events is a challenging task, and there are a variety of methods which can be used to address the problem. In this paper, we introduce a generic framework developed in MATLAB (sup registered mark) called ACCEPT (Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox). ACCEPT is an architectural framework designed to compare and contrast the performance of a variety of machine learning and early warning algorithms, and tests the capability of these algorithms to robustly predict the onset of adverse events in any time-series data generating systems or processes.

  1. Premature birth and age at onset of puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lai Ling; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C Mary

    2012-05-01

    Premature birth is associated with poor metabolic health in both sexes, potentially via earlier pubertal timing. We examined the associations of gestational age and premature birth (Premature girls reached puberty about 4 months later than girls with ≥ 41 weeks' gestation (time ratio = 1.04 [95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.06]), adjusted for mother' age of menarche, mother's place of birth, and smoking during pregnancy. Gestational age was not associated with onset of puberty in boys (test for interaction by sex, P Premature birth was not related to earlier onset of puberty; instead, premature girls had later onset of puberty. Thus, the association between premature birth and subsequent cardiovascular risk is probably not mediated through the timing of pubertal onset. It is unclear whether onset, duration, or tempo of puberty is more relevant to the detrimental consequences of early puberty. Further studies investigating intrauterine, infant, and childhood influences on the duration and tempo of puberty may help unravel the early origins of cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Atypical antipsychotics in the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrdlicka M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Michal Hrdlicka, Iva Dudova Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs have been successfully used in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS. This review summarizes the randomized, double-blind, controlled studies of AAPs in EOS, including clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole, paliperidone, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. No significant differences in efficacy between AAPs were found, with the exception of clozapine and ziprasidone. Clozapine demonstrated superior efficacy in treatment-resistant patients with EOS, whereas ziprasidone failed to demonstrate efficacy in the treatment of EOS. Our review also focuses on the onset of action and weight gain associated with AAPs. The data on onset of action of AAPs in pediatric psychiatry are scanty and inconsistent. Olanzapine appears to cause the most significant weight gain in patients with EOS, while ziprasidone and aripiprazole seem to cause the least. Keywords: early-onset schizophrenia, atypical antipsychotics, efficacy, onset of action, weight gain

  3. Origin of the onset of meandering of a straight river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhasish; Ali, Sk Zeeshan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, to explore the origin of the onset of meandering of a straight river, we, first, analyse the linear stability of a straight river. We discover that the natural perturbation modes of a straight river maintain an equilibrium state by confining themselves to an onset wavenumber band that is dependent on the flow regimes, aspect ratio, relative roughness number and Shields number. Then, we put forward a phenomenological description of the onset of meandering of a straight river. Its mechanism is governed by turbulent flow, with counter-rotation of neighbouring large-scale or macro-turbulent eddies in succession to generate the processes of alternating erosion and deposition of sediment grains of the riverbed. This concept is explained by a theorem (universal scaling law) stemming from the phenomenology of a turbulent energy cascade to provide a quantitative insight into the criterion for the onset of meandering of a straight river. It is revealed from this universal scaling law that, at the onset of meandering of a river, the longitudinal riverbed slope is a unique function of the river width, flow discharge and sediment grain size. This unique functional relationship is corroborated by the data obtained from the measurements in natural and model rivers.

  4. Psychosocial influences in onset and progression of late life disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Rajan, Kumar B

    2014-03-01

    Disability in older age has been related to several psychosocial characteristics, including social networks, social engagement, and depression. However, the exact role of these characteristics in the disablement process remains uncertain. Data come from a population-based study of black and white adults aged ≥65 years (N = 5,306), with up to 9 yearly data on the primary outcome measure, activities of daily living (ADL) disability. We use a two-part regression model to simultaneously test the association between each psychosocial characteristic and both onset and progression of ADL disability, while controlling for demographic variables, education, and mode of interview in the first model and health status variables in the second model. Social networks were negatively associated with onset of ADL disability but not associated with progression. The association became non-significant after adjustment for health status. Social engagement was negatively associated with both onset and progression of disability, even after adjustment for health status. Depression was significantly associated with onset of disability after adjustment for health status but not with progression of disability. The results suggest a differential role for psychosocial characteristics in the disablement process, with generally stronger associations for transitions to onset of ADL disability than progression of ADL disability.

  5. Multisystem disorder in late-onset chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Gerald; Sirrs, Sandra; Wade, N Kevin; Mezei, Michelle M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a mitochondrial syndrome on a disease spectrum with Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS). Clinical presentation is variable and our experience suggested that phenotypic differences exist in CPEO with onset after age 20. This descriptive study is a retrospective chart review of 40 patients with late-onset CPEO. Clinical features, laboratory and neurophysiology results were reviewed. Multisystem dysfunction was very common in this series. Gastrointestinal dysfunction was more common than expected (60%) as was migraine headache (40%). Clinical characteristics on the KSS disease spectrum were uncommon in this series with only 2.5% having pigmentary retinopathy, 5% with cardiac conduction abnormality, and 22.5% having endocrinopathy (most often thyroid dysfunction rather than diabetes). Neurophysiology abnormalities included length-dependent axonal polyneuropathy in 44% (sometimes subclinical) and myopathic EMG changes in 26%. Exposure to sources of acquired mitochondrial toxicity including cigarette use and hepatitis C infection were more common than expected in this series. Phenotype was different in this late-onset series compared with previous reports in CPEO patients. In this series of late-onset patients, multi-organ dysfunction was more common than previously reported in CPEO, and some classical mitochondrial manifestations, such as pigmentary retinopathy were rare. We suggest that acquired mitochondrial toxicity may have a role in the pathogenesis of adult-onset CPEO.

  6. Attentional capture by motion onsets is modulated by perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2010-11-01

    The onset of motion captures attention during visual search even if the motion is not task relevant, which suggests that motion onsets capture attention in a stimulus-driven manner. However, we have recently shown that stimulus-driven attentional capture by abruptly appearing objects is attenuated under conditions of high perceptual load. In the present study, we examined the influence of perceptual load on attentional capture by another type of dynamic stimulus: the onset of motion. Participants searched for a target letter through briefly presented low- and high-load displays. On each trial, two irrelevant flankers also appeared, one with a motion onset and one that was static. Flankers defined by a motion onset captured attention in the low-load but not in the high-load displays. This modulation of capture in high-load displays was not the result of overall lengthening of reaction times (RTs) in this condition, since search for a single low-contrast target lengthened RTs but did not influence capture. These results, together with those of previous studies, suggest that perceptual load can modulate attentional capture by dynamic stimuli.

  7. Psychosocial Influences in Onset and Progression of Late Life Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Disability in older age has been related to several psychosocial characteristics, including social networks, social engagement, and depression. However, the exact role of these characteristics in the disablement process remains uncertain. Method. Data come from a population-based study of black and white adults aged ≥65 years (N = 5,306), with up to 9 yearly data on the primary outcome measure, activities of daily living (ADL) disability. We use a two-part regression model to simultaneously test the association between each psychosocial characteristic and both onset and progression of ADL disability, while controlling for demographic variables, education, and mode of interview in the first model and health status variables in the second model. Results. Social networks were negatively associated with onset of ADL disability but not associated with progression. The association became non-significant after adjustment for health status. Social engagement was negatively associated with both onset and progression of disability, even after adjustment for health status. Depression was significantly associated with onset of disability after adjustment for health status but not with progression of disability. Discussion. The results suggest a differential role for psychosocial characteristics in the disablement process, with generally stronger associations for transitions to onset of ADL disability than progression of ADL disability. PMID:24389123

  8. Early-onset dementias: diagnostic and etiological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masellis, Mario; Sherborn, Kayla; Neto, Pedro; Sadovnick, Dessa A; Hsiung, Ging-Yuek R; Black, Sandra E; Prasad, Sadhana; Williams, Meghan; Gauthier, Serge

    2013-07-31

    This paper summarizes the body of literature about early-onset dementia (EOD) that led to recommendations from the Fourth Canadian Consensus Conference on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dementia. A broader differential diagnosis is required for EOD compared with late-onset dementia. Delays in diagnosis are common, and the social impact of EOD requires special care teams. The etiologies underlying EOD syndromes should take into account family history and comorbid diseases, such as cerebrovascular risk factors, that may influence the clinical presentation and age at onset. For example, although many EODs are more likely to have Mendelian genetic and/or metabolic causes, the presence of comorbidities may drive the individual at risk for late-onset dementia to manifest the symptoms at an earlier age, which contributes further to the observed heterogeneity and may confound diagnostic investigation. A personalized medicine approach to diagnosis should therefore be considered depending on the age at onset, clinical presentation, and comorbidities. Genetic counseling and testing as well as specialized biochemical screening are often required, especially in those under the age of 40 and in those with a family history of autosomal dominant or recessive disease. Novel treatments in the drug development pipeline for EOD, such as genetic forms of Alzheimer's disease, should target the specific pathogenic cascade implicated by the mutation or biochemical defect.

  9. Atmospheric electric field anomalies associated with solar flare/coronal mass ejection events and solar energetic charged particle "Ground Level Events"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasatkina, E. A.; Shumilov, O. I.; Rycroft, M. J.; Marcz, F.; Frank-Kamenetsky, A. V.

    2009-10-01

    We discuss the fair weather atmospheric electric field signatures of three major solar energetic charged particle events which occurred in on 15 April 2001, 18 April and 4 November, and their causative solar flares/coronal mass ejections (SF/CMEs). Only the 15 April 2001 shows clear evidence for Ez variation associated to SF/CME events and the other two events may support this hypothesis as well although for them the meteorological data were not available. All three events seem to be associated with relativistic solar protons (i.e. protons with energies >450 MeV) of the Ground Level Event (GLE) type. The study presents data on variations of the vertical component of the atmospheric electric field (Ez) measured at the auroral station Apatity (geomagnetic latitude: 63.8°, the polar cap station Vostok (geomagnetic latitude: -89.3°) and the middle latitude stations Voyeikovo (geomagnetic latitude: 56.1°) and Nagycenk (geomagnetic latitude: 47.2°). A significant disturbance in the atmospheric electric field is sometimes observed close to the time of the causative solar flare; the beginning of the electric field perturbation at Apatity is detected one or two hours before the flare onset and the GLE onset. Atmospheric electric field records at Vostok and Voyeikovo show a similar disturbance at the same time for the 15 April 2001 event. Some mechanisms responsible for the electric field perturbations are considered.

  10. Watershed and longitudinal monitoring events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold Harbert; Steven Blackburn

    2016-01-01

    Georgia Adopt-A-Stream partners annually with many organizations, universities and watershed groups to conduct sampling events with volunteers at a watershed level. These monitoring events range from one-day snapshots to week-long paddle trips. One-day sampling events, also called “Blitzs,” River Adventures and River Rendezvous, generally target 20-50 sites within a...

  11. Extinction Events Can Accelerate Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Lehman; Risto Miikkulainen

    2015-01-01

    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate evolution by increasing evolvability. In particular, if extinction events extinguish indiscriminately many ways of life, indirectly they may select for the ability to expand rapidly through vacated niches. ...

  12. EventSlider User Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    vi 1. Introduction 1 2. Visual Elements of the EventSlider 2 3. Manipulation 3 4. Library and Namespace 4 5. Event Data 4 6. Initialization 5 7...is a Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) control developed using the .NET framework in Microsoft Visual Studio. As a WPF control, it can be used in...any WPF application as a graphical visual element. The purpose of the control is to visually display time-related events as vertical lines on a

  13. Nursing in sudden-onset disasters: factors and information that affect participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Satoko; Kuboyama, Kazutoshi; Shirakawa, Taro

    2003-01-01

    Little has been reported regarding the minimum conditions, information, and knowledge essential for dispatching nurses to join in sudden-onset disaster events from the viewpoint of nurses. This paper explores the issues and concerns that nurses faced when asked to respond to the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake event in Japan. A standardized written survey tool was developed using input from four nurses who had responded to the disaster event. Questionnaires that included both "yes" and "no" answers and multiple-choice answers were developed and sent to 823 nurses who worked in four hospitals. A total of 477/823 (58.0%) questionnaires were completed and returned. Of the respondents to the questionnaire, 309 (62.1%) were qualified nurses, and 148 (37.9%) were students. Sixty-nine (15%) of the total 477 respondents participated in the disaster response to the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. Primary among respondents' concerns were that they should wait for their superiors or institutions to direct them to go "somewhere" and to do "something", and how far away from home would they be required to travel. Home responsibilities conflicting with disaster response were a common concern for respondents. Managers should consider including the following conditions in disaster dispatch plans: (1) the dispatches should be made part of nursing duties; (2) the disaster plan should be constructed with organizations near disaster sites; and (3) clear directions regarding destination and expected activities should be provided to nurses.

  14. Event-by-event simulation of quantum phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, Hans; Michielsen, Kristel

    A discrete-event simulation approach is reviewed that does not require the knowledge of the solution of the wave equation of the whole system, yet reproduces the statistical distributions of wave theory by generating detection events one-by-one. The simulation approach is illustrated by applications

  15. Constraints on Cumulus Parameterization from Simulations of Observed MJO Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Genio, Anthony; Wu, Jingbo; Wolf, Audrey B.; Chen, Yonghua; Yao, Mao-Sung; Kim, Daehyun

    2015-01-01

    Two recent activities offer an opportunity to test general circulation model (GCM) convection and its interaction with large-scale dynamics for observed Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) events. This study evaluates the sensitivity of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM to entrainment, rain evaporation, downdrafts, and cold pools. Single Column Model versions that restrict weakly entraining convection produce the most realistic dependence of convection depth on column water vapor (CWV) during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement MJO Investigation Experiment at Gan Island. Differences among models are primarily at intermediate CWV where the transition from shallow to deeper convection occurs. GCM 20-day hindcasts during the Year of Tropical Convection that best capture the shallow–deep transition also produce strong MJOs, with significant predictability compared to Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data. The dry anomaly east of the disturbance on hindcast day 1 is a good predictor of MJO onset and evolution. Initial CWV there is near the shallow–deep transition point, implicating premature onset of deep convection as a predictor of a poor MJO simulation. Convection weakly moistens the dry region in good MJO simulations in the first week; weakening of large-scale subsidence over this time may also affect MJO onset. Longwave radiation anomalies are weakest in the worst model version, consistent with previous analyses of cloud/moisture greenhouse enhancement as the primary MJO energy source. The authors’ results suggest that both cloud-/moisture-radiative interactions and convection–moisture sensitivity are required to produce a successful MJO simulation.

  16. Mismatch Negativity in Recent-Onset and Chronic Schizophrenia: A Current Source Density Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulham, W. Ross; Michie, Patricia T.; Ward, Philip B.; Rasser, Paul E.; Todd, Juanita; Johnston, Patrick J.; Thompson, Paul M.; Schall, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a component of the event-related potential elicited by deviant auditory stimuli. It is presumed to index pre-attentive monitoring of changes in the auditory environment. MMN amplitude is smaller in groups of individuals with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. We compared duration-deviant MMN in 16 recent-onset and 19 chronic schizophrenia patients versus age- and sex-matched controls. Reduced frontal MMN was found in both patient groups, involved reduced hemispheric asymmetry, and was correlated with Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and negative symptom ratings. A cortically-constrained LORETA analysis, incorporating anatomical data from each individual's MRI, was performed to generate a current source density model of the MMN response over time. This model suggested MMN generation within a temporal, parietal and frontal network, which was right hemisphere dominant only in controls. An exploratory analysis revealed reduced CSD in patients in superior and middle temporal cortex, inferior and superior parietal cortex, precuneus, anterior cingulate, and superior and middle frontal cortex. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was performed. For the early phase of the MMN, patients had reduced bilateral temporal and parietal response and no lateralisation in frontal ROIs. For late MMN, patients had reduced bilateral parietal response and no lateralisation in temporal ROIs. In patients, correlations revealed a link between GAF and the MMN response in parietal cortex. In controls, the frontal response onset was 17 ms later than the temporal and parietal response. In patients, onset latency of the MMN response was delayed in secondary, but not primary, auditory cortex. However amplitude reductions were observed in both primary and secondary auditory cortex. These latency delays may indicate relatively intact information processing upstream of the primary auditory cortex, but impaired primary auditory cortex or cortico-cortical or

  17. A Unified Hypothesis of Early- and Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Craig S; Bowen, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (EOFAD) and late-onset sporadic AD (LOSAD) both follow a similar pathological and biochemical course that includes: neuron and synapse loss and dysfunction, microvascular damage, microgliosis, extracellular amyloid-β deposition, tau phosphorylation, formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, endoreduplication and related cell cycle events in affected brain regions. Any mechanistic explanation of AD must accommodate these biochemical and neuropathological features for both forms of the disease. In this insight paper we provide a unifying hypothesis for EOFAD and LOSAD that proposes that the aberrant re-entry of terminally differentiated, post-mitotic neurons into the cell division cycle is a common pathway that explains both early and late-onset forms of AD. Cell cycle abnormalities appear very early in the disease process, prior to the appearance of plaques and tangles, and explain the biochemical (e.g. tau phosphorylation), neuropathological (e.g. neuron hypertrophy; polypoidy) and cognitive changes observed in EOFAD and LOSAD. Genetic mutations in AβPP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 that alter amyloid-β precursor protein and Notch processing drive reactivation of the cell cycle in EOFAD, while age-related reproductive endocrine dyscrasia that upregulates mitogenic TNF signaling and AβPP processing toward the amyloidogenic pathway drives reactivation of the cell cycle in LOSAD. In essence, AβPP and presenilin mutations initiate early, what endocrine dyscrasia initiates later: aberrant cell cycle re-entry of post-mitotic neurons leading to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in AD. Inhibition of cell cycle re-entry in post-mitotic neurons may be a useful therapeutic strategy to prevent, slow or halt disease progression.

  18. The Prognostic Role of Obstructive Sleep Apnea at the Onset of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Vitaliano Nicola; Carratù, Pierluigi; Damiani, Mario Francesco; Dragonieri, Silvano; Capozzolo, Alberto; Cassano, Anna; Resta, Onofrio

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive loss of central and peripheral motor neurons. Some studies have found discordant data in the presence of sleep apnea in ALS patients. An obstructive component also occurs with upper airways hypotonia and muscle weakness that may result in an excessive reduction of airway lumen, leading to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to assess the role of obstructive apneic events at disease onset in the ALS prognosis. A longitudinal retrospective study was conducted on 42 clinically diagnosed ALS patients. The study population was divided into 2 groups according to their obstructive apnea/hypopnea index (AHIo): group 1 consisted of 20 patients with an AHIo ≥5 and group 2 consisted of 22 patients with an AHIo <5. Both groups were compared with regard to demographic, polygraphic, and respiratory function parameters as well as ALS characteristics (bulbar onset, time between onset and first check-up, time between diagnosis and first check-up, time between first check-up and death or tracheostomy). The mean survival in ALS patients with an AHIo ≥5 was significantly shorter than in ALS without OSA (p = 0.0237). The sniff nasal inspiratory pressure test was significantly correlated with AHIo, time of oxyhemoglobin saturation below 90% and the oxyhemoglobin desaturation index (p < 0.0001). Our study highlights the importance of an early diagnosis of OSA in ALS patients, allowing the identification of ALS patients with an OSA phenotype (AHIo ≥5), who are characterized by a worse prognosis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Fatal early-onset neonatal sepsis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallusamy, R

    1998-12-01

    Two cases of invasive early-onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis are reported. One neonate was born at term with no risk factors and the other preterm at 35 weeks. Sepsis was not detected at birth for either of these babies and diagnosis was made at the stage of severe sepsis. A fatal outcome resulted despite treatment. Pneumococcal sepsis was confirmed after death in both these cases. Although maternal carriage was not documented in either case, the ages at presentation and progression suggested perinatal acquisition of infection. Early onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis presents similarly as early onset neonatal Group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis. Vaginal carriage of pneumococcus is rare but the micro-organism may have a higher invasion to colonisation ratio (attack rate) than GBS. Risk factors for invasive disease are similar to GBS.

  20. Characterization of delamination onset and growth in a composite laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, T. K.

    1981-01-01

    The onset and growth of delaminations in unnotched (+ or - 30/+ or - 30/90/90 bar) sub S graphite epoxy laminates is described quantitatively. These laminates, designed to delaminate at the edges under tensile loads, were tested and analyzed. Delamination growth and stiffness loss were monitored nondestructively. Laminate stiffness decreased linearly with delamination size. The strain energy release rate, G, associated with delamination growth, was calculated from two analyses. A critical G for delamination onset was determined, and then was used to predict the onset of delaminations in (+45 sub n/-45 sub n/o sub n/90 sub n) sub s (n=1,2,3) laminates. A delamination resistance curve (R curve) was developed to characterize the observed stable delamination growth under quasi static loading. A power law correlation between G and delamination growth rates in fatigue was established.