WorldWideScience

Sample records for pseudo dirac scenario

  1. Dark matter scenarios in a constrained model with Dirac gauginos

    CERN Document Server

    Goodsell, Mark D.; Müller, Tobias; Porod, Werner; Staub, Florian

    2015-01-01

    We perform the first analysis of Dark Matter scenarios in a constrained model with Dirac Gauginos. The model under investigation is the Constrained Minimal Dirac Gaugino Supersymmetric Standard model (CMDGSSM) where the Majorana mass terms of gauginos vanish. However, $R$-symmetry is broken in the Higgs sector by an explicit and/or effective $B_\\mu$-term. This causes a mass splitting between Dirac states in the fermion sector and the neutralinos, which provide the dark matter candidate, become pseudo-Dirac states. We discuss two scenarios: the universal case with all scalar masses unified at the GUT scale, and the case with non-universal Higgs soft-terms. We identify different regions in the parameter space which fullfil all constraints from the dark matter abundance, the limits from SUSY and direct dark matter searches and the Higgs mass. Most of these points can be tested with the next generation of direct dark matter detection experiments.

  2. Probing pseudo-Dirac neutrino through detection of neutrino ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The expected secondary muons from such neutrinos that can be detected by a kilometer scale detector such as ICECUBE is calculated and compared with the same in the case of mass-flavour oscillations and for no oscillation cases. The calculated muon yields indicate that to probe such small pseudo-Dirac splittings one ...

  3. Probing pseudo-Dirac neutrino through detection of neutrino ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ~EeV for such neutrinos invoke the likelihood to probe very small pseudo-Dirac splittings. The expected secondary muons from such neutrinos that can be detected by a kilometer scale detector such as ICECUBE is calculated and compared with the same in the case of mass-flavour oscillations and for no oscillation cases.

  4. Neutrino Masses from a Pseudo-Dirac Bino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloma, Pilar; Ipek, Seyda

    2016-09-09

    We show that, in U(1)_{R}-symmetric supersymmetric models, the bino and its Dirac partner (the singlino) can play the role of right-handed neutrinos and generate the neutrino masses and mixing, without the need for traditional bilinear or trilinear R-parity violating operators. The two particles form a pseudo-Dirac pair, the "biνo." An inverse seesaw texture is generated for the neutrino-biνo sector, and the lightest neutrino is predicted to be massless. Unlike in most models with heavy right-handed neutrinos, the biνo can be sizably produced at the LHC through its interactions with colored particles, while respecting low energy constraints from neutrinoless double-beta decay and charged lepton flavor violation.

  5. Displaced vertices from pseudo-Dirac dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoli, Alessandro; De Simone, Andrea; Jacques, Thomas; Sanz, Verónica

    2017-11-01

    Displaced vertices are relatively unusual signatures for dark matter searches at the LHC. We revisit the model of pseudo-Dirac dark matter (pDDM), which can accommodate the correct relic density, evade direct detection constraints, and generically provide observable collider signatures in the form of displaced vertices. We use this model as a benchmark to illustrate the general techniques involved in the analysis, the complementarity between monojet and displaced vertex searches, and provide a comprehensive study of the current bounds and prospective reach.

  6. A model for pseudo-Dirac neutrinos: leptogenesis and ultra-high energy neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Y.H. [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science (IBS),Daejeon, 34051 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sin Kyu [Insitute for Convergence Fundamental Study, School of Liberal Arts, Seoul-Tech.,Seoul, 01811 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S. [Dept. of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-18

    We propose a model where sterile neutrinos are introduced to make light neutrinos to be pseudo-Dirac particles. It is shown how tiny mass splitting necessary for realizing pseudo-Dirac neutrinos can be achieved. Within the model, we show how leptogenesis can be successfully generated. Motivated by the recent observation of very high energy neutrino events at IceCube, we study a possibility to observe the effects of the pseudo-Dirac property of neutrinos by performing astronomical-scale baseline experiments to uncover the oscillation effects of very tiny mass splitting. We also discuss future prospect to observe the effects of the pseudo-Dirac property of neutrinos at high energy neutrino experiments.

  7. Ground state of the hydrogen atom via Dirac equation in a minimal-length scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonacci Oakes, T.L.; Francisco, R.O.; Fabris, J.C.; Nogueira, J.A. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica, Vitoria (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    In this work we calculate the correction to the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom due to contributions arising from the presence of a minimal length. The minimal-length scenario is introduced by means of modifying the Dirac equation through a deformed Heisenberg algebra (Kempf algebra). With the introduction of the Coulomb potential in the new Dirac energy operator, we calculate the energy shift of the ground state of the hydrogen atom in first order of the parameter related to the minimal length via perturbation theory. (orig.)

  8. The Supersymmetric Standard Models with a Pseudo-Dirac Gluino from Hybrid $F-$ and $D-$Term Supersymmetry Breakings

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Ran; Staub, Florian; Tian, Chi; Zhu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    We propose the Supersymmetric Standard Models (SSMs) with a pseudo-Dirac gluino from hybrid $F-$ and $D-$term supersymmetry (SUSY) breakings. Similar to the SSMs before the LHC, all the supersymmetric particles in the Minimal SSM (MSSM) obtain the SUSY breaking soft terms from the traditional gravity mediation and have masses within about 1 TeV except gluino. To evade the LHC SUSY search constraints, the gluino also has a heavy Dirac mass above 3 TeV from $D-$term SUSY breaking. Interestingly, such a heavy Dirac gluino mass will not induce the electroweak fine-tuning problem. We realize such SUSY breakings via an anomalous $U(1)_X$ gauge symmetry inspired from string models. To maintain the gauge coupling unification and increase the Higgs boson mass, we introduce extra vector-like particles. We study the viable parameter space which satisfies all the current experimental constraints, and present a concrete benchmark point. This kind of models not only preserves the merits of pre-LHC SSMs such as naturalness,...

  9. Inhomogeneous Weyl and Dirac Semimetals: Transport in Axial Magnetic Fields and Fermi Arc Surface States from Pseudo-Landau Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo G. Grushin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Topological Dirac and Weyl semimetals have an energy spectrum that hosts Weyl nodes appearing in pairs of opposite chirality. Topological stability is ensured when the nodes are separated in momentum space and unique spectral and transport properties follow. In this work, we study the effect of a space-dependent Weyl node separation, which we interpret as an emergent background axial-vector potential, on the electromagnetic response and the energy spectrum of Weyl and Dirac semimetals. This situation can arise in the solid state either from inhomogeneous strain or nonuniform magnetization and can also be engineered in cold atomic systems. Using a semiclassical approach, we show that the resulting axial magnetic field B_{5} is observable through an enhancement of the conductivity as σ∼B_{5}^{2} due to an underlying chiral pseudomagnetic effect. We then use two lattice models to analyze the effect of B_{5} on the spectral properties of topological semimetals. We describe the emergent pseudo-Landau-level structure for different spatial profiles of B_{5}, revealing that (i the celebrated surface states of Weyl semimetals, the Fermi arcs, can be reinterpreted as n=0 pseudo-Landau levels resulting from a B_{5} confined to the surface, (ii as a consequence of position-momentum locking, a bulk B_{5} creates pseudo-Landau levels interpolating in real space between Fermi arcs at opposite surfaces, and (iii there are equilibrium bound currents proportional to B_{5} that average to zero over the sample, which are the analogs of bound currents in magnetic materials. We conclude by discussing how our findings can be probed experimentally.

  10. Pseudo Dirac dispersion in Mn-intercalated graphene on SiC

    KAUST Repository

    Kahaly, M. Upadhyay

    2013-07-01

    The atomic and electronic structures of bulk C6Mn, bulk C 8Mn, and Mn-intercalated graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) and SiC(0001̄) are investigated by density functional theory. We find for both configurations of Mn-intercalated graphene a nonmagnetic state, in agreement with the experimental situation for SiC(0 0 0 1), and explain this property. The electronic structures around the Fermi energy are dominated by Dirac-like cones at energies consistent with data from angular resolved photoelectron spectroscopy [Gao et al., ACS Nano. 6 (2012) 6562]. However, our results demonstrate that the corresponding states trace back to hybridized Mn d orbitals, and not to the graphene. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Paul Dirac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Abraham; Jacob, Maurice; Olive, David I.; Atiyah, Michael F.

    2005-09-01

    Preface Peter Goddard; Dirac memorial address Stephen Hawking; 1. Paul Dirac: aspects of his life and work Abraham Pais; 2. Antimatter Maurice Jacob; 3. The monopole David Olive; 4. The Dirac equation and geometry Michael F. Atiyah.

  12. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  13. DIRAC Security

    CERN Document Server

    Casajús Ramo, A

    2006-01-01

    DIRAC is the LHCb Workload and Data Management System. Based on a service-oriented architecture, it enables generic distributed computing with lightweight Agents and Clients for job execution and data transfers. DIRAC implements a client-server architecture exposing server methods through XML Remote Procedure Call (XML-RPC) protocol. DIRAC is mostly coded in python. DIRAC security infrastructure has been designed to be a completely generic XML-RPC transport over a SSL tunnel. This new security layer is able to handle standard X509 certificates as well as grid-proxies to authenticate both sides of the connection. Serve and client authentication relies over OpenSSL and py-Open SSL, but to be able to handle grid proxies some modifications have been added to those libraries. DIRAC security infrastructure handles authorization and authorization as well as provides extended capabilities like secure connection tunneling and file transfer. Using this new security infrastructure all LHCb users can safely make use o...

  14. Paul Dirac:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laurie M.

    Paul Dirac was a brilliant and original thinker. He used his physical intuition and his ideal of mathematical beauty to construct bridges between major areas of physics. This article discusses several such important works, including the bridge between quantum mechanics and relativity that led to his prediction of the existence of antimatter.

  15. Scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Soba, Marta; Maas, Rob

    2015-01-01

    We cannot predict the future with certainty, but we know that it is influenced by our current actions, and that these in turn are influenced by our expectations. This is why future scenarios have existed from the dawn of civilization and have been used for developing military, political and economic

  16. Fermi–Dirac Statistics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Dirac statistics, identical and in- distinguishable particles, Fermi gas. Fermi–Dirac Statistics. Derivation and Consequences. S Chaturvedi and Shyamal Biswas ... GENERAL. ARTICLE. RESONANCE. January 2014. 57. Historically, one of the first applications of. Fermi–Dirac distribution came from Fowler in the context of.

  17. Pseudo-Supersymmetry and the Domain-Wall/Cosmology Correspondence

    OpenAIRE

    Skenderis, K.; Townsend, P. K.

    2006-01-01

    The correspondence between domain-wall and cosmological solutions of gravity coupled to scalar fields is explained. Any domain wall solution that admits a Killing spinor is shown to correspond to a cosmology that admits a pseudo-Killing spinor: whereas the Killing spinor obeys a Dirac-type equation with hermitian `mass'-matrix, the corresponding pseudo-Killing spinor obeys a Dirac-type equation with a anti-hermitian `mass'-matrix. We comment on some implications of (pseudo)supersymmetry.

  18. Theory of Dirac Electrons in Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Kobayashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamical property of electrons with the tilted Dirac cone was examined using the tilted Weyl equation. The polarization function exhibits cusps and nonmonotonic structures by varying both the frequency and the momentum. A pair of tilted Dirac cones exhibits a new plasmon for the intermediate magnitude of momentum owing to the combined effects of two tilted cones. Dirac electrons with the zero-gap state (ZGS in organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 are examined by calculating the Berry curvature, which displays the peak structure for a pair of Dirac particles between the conduction band and the valence band. The ZGS is theoretically predicted for α-(BEDT-TTF2NH4Hg(SCN4 under uniaxial pressure. Examining the band structure of the stripe charge ordered state of α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 under pressure, we have found a topological transition from a conventional insulator to a new phase of a pair of Dirac electrons with a finite mass. Further, investigating the zero-energy (N = 0 Landau level under a strong magnetic field, we propose ferromagnetism breaking the SU(2 valley-pseudo-spin symmetry, and the phase fluctuations of the order parameters leading to Kosterlitz-Thouless transition at lower temperatures.

  19. Photoconductivity in Dirac materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Shao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D Dirac materials including graphene and the surface of a three-dimensional (3D topological insulator, and 3D Dirac materials including 3D Dirac semimetal and Weyl semimetal have attracted great attention due to their linear Dirac nodes and exotic properties. Here, we use the Fermi’s golden rule and Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation to study and compare the photoconductivity of Dirac materials under different far- or mid-infrared irradiation. Theoretical results show that the photoconductivity exhibits the anisotropic property under the polarized irradiation, but the anisotropic strength is different between 2D and 3D Dirac materials. The photoconductivity depends strongly on the relaxation time for different scattering mechanism, just like the dark conductivity.

  20. Radiative left-right Dirac neutrino mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ernest; Sarkar, Utpal

    2018-01-01

    We consider the conventional left-right gauge extension of the standard model of quarks and leptons without a scalar bidoublet. We study systematically how one-loop radiative Dirac neutrino masses may be obtained. In addition to two well-known cases from almost 30 years ago, we find two new scenarios with verifiable predictions.

  1. Dirac reduction revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Marciniak, Krzysztof; Blaszak, Maciej

    2003-01-01

    The procedure of Dirac reduction of Poisson operators on submanifolds is discussed within a particularly useful special realization of the general Marsden-Ratiu reduction procedure. The Dirac classification of constraints on 'first-class' constraints and 'second-class' constraints is reexamined.

  2. (Pseudogoldstinos, SUSY fluids, Dirac gravitino and gauginos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benakli Karim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We review the emergence and fate of goldstinos in different frameworks. First, we consider a super-Higgs mechanism when supersymmetry breaking is induced by neither an F-term nor a D-term but related to a more general stress energy-momentum tensor. This allows us to build a novel Lagrangian that describes the propagation of a spin-3/2 state in a fluid. Then we briefly review the ubiquitous pseudo-goldstinos when breaking supersymmetry in an extra dimension. We remind that the fermion (gravitino or gaugino soft masses can be tuned to be of Dirac-type. Finally, we briefly connect the latter to the study of models with Dirac-type gaugino masses and stress the advantage of having both an F and a D-term sizable contributions for the hierarchies of soft-terms as well as for minimizing R-symmetry breaking.

  3. Two Categories of Dirac Manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn, Brett

    2007-01-01

    We define two categories of Dirac manifolds, i.e. manifolds with complex Dirac structures. The first notion of maps I call \\emph{Dirac maps}, and the category of Dirac manifolds is seen to contain the categories of Poisson and complex manifolds as full subcategories. The second notion, \\emph{dual-Dirac maps}, defines a \\emph{dual-Dirac category} which contains presymplectic and complex manifolds as full subcategories. The dual-Dirac maps are stable under B-transformations. In particular we ge...

  4. Equazione di Dirac

    CERN Document Server

    Monti, Dalida

    1996-01-01

    Relativamente poco noto al gran pubblico, il premio Nobel Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac appartiene a quel gruppo di uomini di ingegno che nei primi decenni del secolo contribuirono a dare alla nostra concezione del mondo fisico la sua impronta attuale. Assolutamente cruciali, per una valutazione dell'opera di Dirac, sono gli anni compresi tra il 1925 e il 1931: un periodo in cui il fisico fornisce la prima spiegazione chiara e coerente delle proprietà di spin dell'elettrone (equazione di Dirac) e perviene, in forza della pura deduzione matematica, alla scoperta dell'esistenza dell'elettrone positivo o positrone.

  5. Dirac Fermions in Borophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Baojie; Sugino, Osamu; Liu, Ro-Ya; Zhang, Jin; Yukawa, Ryu; Kawamura, Mitsuaki; Iimori, Takushi; Kim, Howon; Hasegawa, Yukio; Li, Hui; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Komori, Fumio; Chiang, Tai-Chang; Meng, Sheng; Matsuda, Iwao

    2017-03-03

    Honeycomb structures of group IV elements can host massless Dirac fermions with nontrivial Berry phases. Their potential for electronic applications has attracted great interest and spurred a broad search for new Dirac materials especially in monolayer structures. We present a detailed investigation of the β_{12} sheet, which is a borophene structure that can form spontaneously on a Ag(111) surface. Our tight-binding analysis revealed that the lattice of the β_{12} sheet could be decomposed into two triangular sublattices in a way similar to that for a honeycomb lattice, thereby hosting Dirac cones. Furthermore, each Dirac cone could be split by introducing periodic perturbations representing overlayer-substrate interactions. These unusual electronic structures were confirmed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and validated by first-principles calculations. Our results suggest monolayer boron as a new platform for realizing novel high-speed low-dissipation devices.

  6. Dirac Fermions in Borophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Baojie; Sugino, Osamu; Liu, Ro-Ya; Zhang, Jin; Yukawa, Ryu; Kawamura, Mitsuaki; Iimori, Takushi; Kim, Howon; Hasegawa, Yukio; Li, Hui; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Komori, Fumio; Chiang, Tai-Chang; Meng, Sheng; Matsuda, Iwao

    2017-03-01

    Honeycomb structures of group IV elements can host massless Dirac fermions with nontrivial Berry phases. Their potential for electronic applications has attracted great interest and spurred a broad search for new Dirac materials especially in monolayer structures. We present a detailed investigation of the β12 sheet, which is a borophene structure that can form spontaneously on a Ag(111) surface. Our tight-binding analysis revealed that the lattice of the β12 sheet could be decomposed into two triangular sublattices in a way similar to that for a honeycomb lattice, thereby hosting Dirac cones. Furthermore, each Dirac cone could be split by introducing periodic perturbations representing overlayer-substrate interactions. These unusual electronic structures were confirmed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and validated by first-principles calculations. Our results suggest monolayer boron as a new platform for realizing novel high-speed low-dissipation devices.

  7. Three dimensional Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Saad

    We extend the physics of graphene to three dimensional systems by showing that Dirac points can exist on the Fermi surface of realistic materials in three dimensions. Many of the exotic electronic properties of graphene can be ascribed to the pseudorelativistic behavior of its charge carriers due to two dimensional Dirac points on the Fermi surface. We show that certain nonsymmorphic spacegroups exhibit Dirac points among the irreducible representations of the appropriate little group at high symmetry points on the surface of the Brillouin zone. We provide a list of all Brillouin zone momenta in the 230 spacegroups that can host Dirac points. We describe microscopic considerations necessary to design materials in one of the candidate spacegroups such that the Dirac point appears at the Fermi energy without any additional non-Dirac-like Fermi pockets. We use density functional theory based methods to propose six new Dirac semimetals: BiO 2 and SbO2 in the beta-cristobalite lattice (spacegroup 227), and BiCaSiO4, BiMgSiO4, BiAlInO 4, and BiZnSiO4 in the distorted spinels lattice (spacegroup 74). Additionally we derive effective Dirac Hamiltonians given group representative operators as well as tight binding models incorporating spin-orbit coupling. Finally we study the Fermi surface of zincblende (spacegroup 216) HgTe which is effectively point-like at Gamma in the Brillouin zone and exhibits accidental degeneracies along a threefold rotation axis. Whereas compressive strain gaps the band structure into a topological insulator, tensile strain shifts the accidental degeneracies away from Gamma and enlarges the Fermi surface. States on the Fermi surface exhibit nontrivial spin texture marked by winding of spins around the threefold rotation axis and by spin vortices indicating a change in the winding number. This is confirmed by microscopic calculations performed in tensile strained HgTe and Hg0.5Zn 0.5 Te as well as k.p theory. We conclude with a summary of recent

  8. Topological Superconductivity in Dirac Semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shingo; Sato, Masatoshi

    2015-10-30

    Dirac semimetals host bulk band-touching Dirac points and a surface Fermi loop. We develop a theory of superconducting Dirac semimetals. Establishing a relation between the Dirac points and the surface Fermi loop, we clarify how the nontrivial topology of Dirac semimetals affects their superconducting state. We note that the unique orbital texture of Dirac points and a structural phase transition of the crystal favor symmetry-protected topological superconductivity with a quartet of surface Majorana fermions. We suggest the possible application of our theory to recently discovered superconducting states in Cd_{3}As_{2}.

  9. Split Dirac Supersymmetry: An Ultraviolet Completion of Higgsino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Kribs, Graham D. [Oregon U.; Martin, Adam [Notre Dame U.

    2014-10-07

    Motivated by the observation that the Higgs quartic coupling runs to zero at an intermediate scale, we propose a new framework for models of split supersymmetry, in which gauginos acquire intermediate scale Dirac masses of $\\sim 10^{8-11}$ GeV. Scalar masses arise from one-loop finite contributions as well as direct gravity-mediated contributions. Like split supersymmetry, one Higgs doublet is fine-tuned to be light. The scale at which the Dirac gauginos are introduced to make the Higgs quartic zero is the same as is necessary for gauge coupling unification. Thus, gauge coupling unification persists (nontrivially, due to adjoint multiplets), though with a somewhat higher unification scale $\\gtrsim 10^{17}$ GeV. The $\\mu$-term is naturally at the weak scale, and provides an opportunity for experimental verification. We present two manifestations of Split Dirac Supersymmetry. In the "Pure Dirac" model, the lightest Higgsino must decay through R-parity violating couplings, leading to an array of interesting signals in colliders. In the "Hypercharge Impure" model, the bino acquires a Majorana mass that is one-loop suppressed compared with the Dirac gluino and wino. This leads to weak scale Higgsino dark matter whose overall mass scale, as well as the mass splitting between the neutral components, is naturally generated from the same UV dynamics. We outline the challenges to discovering pseudo-Dirac Higgsino dark matter in collider and dark matter detection experiments.

  10. Superconductivity in Dirac semimetals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Tatsuki; Kobayashi, Shingo [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Sato, Masatoshi [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2016-07-01

    In this presentation, we would like to discuss the superconductivity in Dirac semimetals. Dirac semimetal is a material that hosts topologically protected bulk Dirac cones and surface Fermi loop. It has been revealed that the unique spin-orbit interaction in the Dirac semimetals stabilize the unconventional superconductivity. Experimentally, the zero-bias conductance peak that suggests the realization of topological superconductivity has been observed in Cd{sub 3}As{sub 2}. We use a k . p Hamiltonian around Γ point with spin and orbital degrees of freedom to describe the Dirac semimetal. For the model, we propose six types of k-independent pair potentials, where two of them are trivial pairings and others are topological ones. By introducing a single band description of the pair potentials, it is found that the superconducting gap and d-vector have the characteristic structure in each pair potential. To see these, we calculate the electronic specific heat and spin susceptibility and confirm that we can distinguish these superconducting states experimentally. In addition to the bulk physical properties, we also calculate the surface state by using the recursive Green's function method. It is find that either arc or flat shape Andreev bound states appear on the surface depending on the parity of mirror reflection symmetry.

  11. Dirac semimetal in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Young, S. M.; Zaheer, S.; Teo, J. C. Y.; Kane, C. L.; Mele, E. J.; Rappe, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    In a Dirac semimetal, the conduction and valence bands contact only at discrete (Dirac) points in the Brillouin zone (BZ) and disperse linearly in all directions around these critical points. Including spin, the low energy effective theory around each critical point is a four band Dirac Hamiltonian. In two dimensions (2D), this situation is realized in graphene without spin-orbit coupling. 3D Dirac points are predicted to exist at the phase transition between a topological and a normal insula...

  12. Dirac Induction for loop groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma, H.

    2011-01-01

    Using a coset version of the cubic Dirac operators for affine Lie algebras, we give an algebraic construction of the Dirac induction homomorphism for loop group representations. With this, we prove a homogeneous generalization of the Weyl-Kac character formula and show compatibility with Dirac

  13. Dirac's Large Numbers Hypothesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. Dirac's Large Numbers Hypothesis. Biman Nath. Article-in-a-Box Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 7-7. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/08/0007-0007. Author Affiliations.

  14. DIRAC AND HAMILTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. L. Leach

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dirac devised his theory of Quantum Mechanics and recognised that his operators resembled the canonical coordinates of Hamiltonian Mechanics. This gave the latter a new lease of life. We look at what happens to Dirac’s Quantum Mechanics if one starts from Hamiltonian Mechanics.

  15. Reduction of Dirac structures along isotropic subbundles

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo, I; Falceto, F.; Zambon, M

    2007-01-01

    Given a Dirac subbundle and an isotropic subbundle of a Courant algebroid, we provide a canonical method to obtain a new Dirac subbundle. When the original Dirac subbundle is involutive (i.e., a Dirac structure) this construction has interesting applications, for instance to Dirac's theory of constraints and to the Marsden-Ratiu reduction in Poisson geometry.

  16. Nonlinear Dirac Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Khim Ng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.

  17. DIRAC experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Benelli, Angela

    2012-01-01

    The precise measurements of $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $\\pi K$ atom lifetime allow to check the predictions of Chiral Perturbation Theory for the pion-pion s-wave scattering lengths with isospin 0 and 2 and for the pion-kaon scattering lengths with isospin 1/2 and 3/2. The DIRAC experiment with the latest results is presented together with the proposal for future investigations.

  18. Leptogenesis with dirac neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick; Lindner; Ratz; Wright

    2000-05-01

    We describe a "neutrinogenesis" mechanism whereby, in the presence of right-handed neutrinos with sufficiently small pure Dirac masses, (B+L)-violating sphaleron processes create the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, even when B = L = 0 initially. It is shown that the resulting neutrino mass constraints are easily fulfilled by the neutrino masses suggested by current experiments. We present a simple toy model which uses this mechanism to produce the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe.

  19. Dirac Semimetals in Two Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steve M; Kane, Charles L

    2015-09-18

    Graphene is famous for being a host of 2D Dirac fermions. However, spin-orbit coupling introduces a small gap, so that graphene is formally a quantum spin Hall insulator. Here we present symmetry-protected 2D Dirac semimetals, which feature Dirac cones at high-symmetry points that are not gapped by spin-orbit interactions and exhibit behavior distinct from both graphene and 3D Dirac semimetals. Using a two-site tight-binding model, we construct representatives of three possible distinct Dirac semimetal phases and show that single symmetry-protected Dirac points are impossible in two dimensions. An essential role is played by the presence of nonsymmorphic space group symmetries. We argue that these symmetries tune the system to the boundary between a 2D topological and trivial insulator. By breaking the symmetries we are able to access trivial and topological insulators as well as Weyl semimetal phases.

  20. Contextuality in multipartite pseudo-telepathy graph games

    OpenAIRE

    Anshu, Anurag; Hoyer, Peter; Mhalla, Mehdi; Perdrix, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Analyzing pseudo-telepathy graph games, we propose a way to build contextuality scenarios exhibiting the quantum supremacy using graph states. We consider the combinatorial structures that generate equivalent scenarios. We introduce a new tool called multipartiteness width to investigate which scenarios are harder to decompose and show that there exist graphs generating scenarios with a linear multipartiteness width.

  1. Designer Dirac fermions and topological phases in molecular graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Kenjiro K; Mar, Warren; Ko, Wonhee; Guinea, Francisco; Manoharan, Hari C

    2012-03-14

    The observation of massless Dirac fermions in monolayer graphene has generated a new area of science and technology seeking to harness charge carriers that behave relativistically within solid-state materials. Both massless and massive Dirac fermions have been studied and proposed in a growing class of Dirac materials that includes bilayer graphene, surface states of topological insulators and iron-based high-temperature superconductors. Because the accessibility of this physics is predicated on the synthesis of new materials, the quest for Dirac quasi-particles has expanded to artificial systems such as lattices comprising ultracold atoms. Here we report the emergence of Dirac fermions in a fully tunable condensed-matter system-molecular graphene-assembled by atomic manipulation of carbon monoxide molecules over a conventional two-dimensional electron system at a copper surface. Using low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we embed the symmetries underlying the two-dimensional Dirac equation into electron lattices, and then visualize and shape the resulting ground states. These experiments show the existence within the system of linearly dispersing, massless quasi-particles accompanied by a density of states characteristic of graphene. We then tune the quantum tunnelling between lattice sites locally to adjust the phase accrual of propagating electrons. Spatial texturing of lattice distortions produces atomically sharp p-n and p-n-p junction devices with two-dimensional control of Dirac fermion density and the power to endow Dirac particles with mass. Moreover, we apply scalar and vector potentials locally and globally to engender topologically distinct ground states and, ultimately, embedded gauge fields, wherein Dirac electrons react to 'pseudo' electric and magnetic fields present in their reference frame but absent from the laboratory frame. We demonstrate that Landau levels created by these gauge fields can be taken to the

  2. Dirac quantum time mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, Phillipp; Gorini, Cosimo; Goussev, Arseni; Krueckl, Viktor; Fink, Mathias; Richter, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Both metaphysical and practical considerations related to time inversion have intrigued scientists for generations. Physicists have strived to devise and implement time-inversion protocols, in particular different forms of "time mirrors" for classical waves. Here we propose an instantaneous time mirror for quantum systems, i.e., a controlled time discontinuity generating wave function echoes with high fidelities. This concept exploits coherent particle-hole oscillations in a Dirac spectrum in order to achieve population reversal, and can be implemented in systems such as (real or artificial) graphene.

  3. LHCb: DIRAC Secure Distributed Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Casajus, A

    2009-01-01

    DIRAC, the LHCb community grid solution, provides access to a vast amount of computing and storage resources to a large number of users. In DIRAC users are organized in groups with different needs and permissions. In order to ensure that only allowed users can access the resources and to enforce that there are no abuses, security is mandatory. All DIRAC services and clients use secure connections that are authenticated using certificates and grid proxies. Once a client has been authenticated, authorization rules are applied to the requested action based on the presented credentials. These authorization rules and the list of users and groups are centrally managed in the DIRAC Configuration Service. Users submit jobs to DIRAC using their local credentials. From then on, DIRAC has to interact with different Grid services on behalf of this user. DIRAC has a proxy management service where users upload short-lived proxies to be used when DIRAC needs to act on behalf of them. Long duration proxies are uploaded by us...

  4. Status of the DIRAC Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casajus, A.; Ciba, K.; Fernandez, V.; Graciani, R.; Hamar, V.; Mendez, V.; Poss, S.; Sapunov, M.; Stagni, F.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Ubeda, M.

    2012-12-01

    The DIRAC Project was initiated to provide a data processing system for the LHCb Experiment at CERN. It provides all the necessary functionality and performance to satisfy the current and projected future requirements of the LHCb Computing Model. A considerable restructuring of the DIRAC software was undertaken in order to turn it into a general purpose framework for building distributed computing systems that can be used by various user communities in High Energy Physics and other scientific application domains. The CLIC and ILC-SID detector projects started to use DIRAC for their data production system. The Belle Collaboration at KEK, Japan, has adopted the Computing Model based on the DIRAC system for its second phase starting in 2015. The CTA Collaboration uses DIRAC for the data analysis tasks. A large number of other experiments are starting to use DIRAC or are evaluating this solution for their data processing tasks. DIRAC services are included as part of the production infrastructure of the GISELA Latin America grid. Similar services are provided for the users of the France-Grilles and IBERGrid National Grid Initiatives in France and Spain respectively. The new communities using DIRAC started to provide important contributions to its functionality. Among recent additions can be mentioned the support of the Amazon EC2 computing resources as well as other Cloud management systems; a versatile File Replica Catalog with File Metadata capabilities; support for running MPI jobs in the pilot based Workload Management System. Integration with existing application Web Portals, like WS-PGRADE, is demonstrated. In this paper we will describe the current status of the DIRAC Project, recent developments of its framework and functionality as well as the status of the rapidly evolving community of the DIRAC users.

  5. Composition of infinite-dimensional Dirac structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurula, J.; Kurula, Mikael; van der Schaft, Arjan; Zwart, Heiko J.; Yamamoto, Y

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we define the Dirac structure and give some fundamental tools for its study.We then proceed by defining composition of ``split Dirac structures''. In the finite-dimensional case, composition of two Dirac structures always result in a new Dirac structure, but in the Hilbert space

  6. DIRAC universal pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; McNab, A.; Luzzi, C.; Krzemien, W.; consortium, DIRAC

    2017-10-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing models, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are in the form of opportunistic ones. Most but not all of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. In addition, some of them, present opportunities for multi-processor computing slots to the users. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to provide the transparent, uniform interface has become essential. The transparent access to the underlying resources is realized by implementing the pilot model. DIRAC’s newest generation of generic pilots (the so-called Pilots 2.0) are the “pilots for all the skies”, and have been successfully released in production more than a year ago. They use a plugin mechanism that makes them easily adaptable. Pilots 2.0 have been used for fetching and running jobs on every type of resource, being it a Worker Node (WN) behind a CREAM/ARC/HTCondor/DIRAC Computing element, a Virtual Machine running on IaaC infrastructures like Vac or BOINC, on IaaS cloud resources managed by Vcycle, the LHCb High Level Trigger farm nodes, and any type of opportunistic computing resource. Make a machine a “Pilot Machine”, and all diversities between them will disappear. This contribution describes how pilots are made suitable for different resources, and the recent steps taken towards a fully unified framework, including monitoring. Also, the cases of multi-processor computing slots either on real or virtual machines, with the whole node or a partition of it, is discussed.

  7. Discrete pseudo-integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mesiar, Radko; Li, J.; Pap, E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2013), s. 357-364 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : concave integral * pseudo-addition * pseudo- multiplication Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.977, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/mesiar-discrete pseudo-integrals. pdf

  8. Paul Dirac lectures at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    When a group of physicists entered the Main Auditorium, during the evening of 29 June, they felt they had opened a time portal.   Paul Dirac in front of a blackboard showing his formula. ©Sandra Hoogeboom An attentive audience, dressed in early 1900 costumes, were watching a lecture by the elusive Paul Dirac, presenting for the first time his famous formula on the blackboard. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902-1984) was a British mathematical physicist at Cambridge, and one of the "fathers" of quantum mechanics. When he first wrote it, in 1928, Dirac was not sure what his formula really meant. As demonstrated by Andersson four year later, what Dirac had written on the blackboard was the first definition of a positron, hence he is credited with having anticipated the existence of antimatter. The actor John Kohl performs as Paul Dirac. ©Sandra Hoogeboom What the group of puzzled physicists were really observing when they entered the CERN Auditorium was the shoo...

  9. Dirac Neutrino Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bélanger, Genevieve; Servant, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that dark matter is made of heavy Dirac neutrinos with mass in the range [O(1) GeV- a few TeV] and with suppressed but non-zero coupling to the Standard Model Z as well as a coupling to an additional Z' gauge boson. The first part of this paper provides a model-independent analysis for the relic density and direct detection in terms of four main parameters: the mass, the couplings to the Z, to the Z' and to the Higgs. These WIMP candidates arise naturally as Kaluza-Klein states in extra-dimensional models with extended electroweak gauge group SU(2)_L* SU(2)_R * U(1). They can be stable because of Kaluza-Klein parity or of other discrete symmetries related to baryon number for instance, or even, in the low mass and low coupling limits, just because of a phase-space-suppressed decay width. An interesting aspect of warped models is that the extra Z' typically couples only to the third generation, thus avoiding the usual experimental constraints. In the second part of the paper, we ...

  10. LHCb: LHCbDirac is a DIRAC extension to support LHCb specific workflows

    CERN Multimedia

    Stagni, Federico

    2012-01-01

    We present LHCbDIRAC, an extension of the DIRAC community Grid solution to handle the LHCb specificities. The DIRAC software has been developed for many years within LHCb only. Nowadays it is a generic software, used by many scientific communities worldwide. Each community wanting to take advantage of DIRAC has to develop an extension, containing all the necessary code for handling their specific cases. LHCbDIRAC is an actively developed extension, implementing the LHCb computing model and workflows. LHCbDIRAC extends DIRAC to handle all the distributed computing activities of LHCb. Such activities include real data processing (reconstruction, stripping and streaming), Monte-Carlo simulation and data replication. Other activities are groups and user analysis, data management, resources management and monitoring, data provenance, accounting for user and production jobs. LHCbDIRAC also provides extensions of the DIRAC interfaces, including a secure web client, python APIs and CLIs. While DIRAC and LHCbDIRAC f...

  11. The spectrum of a Dirac-like operator class and the topology in two dimensions; O espectro de uma classe de operadores Dirac e a topologia em 2 dimensoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L

    1998-05-01

    It is shown, in a relatively simple way and based on Seeley pseudo-differential operator theory, that the main result of Atiyah-Singer in which the trace of the evolution operator associated to a Dirac-like operator class defined in two-dimensional manifolds and coming out of Quantum Physics has a deep topological meaning 5 refs.

  12. Pseudo-populations a basic concept in statistical surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Quatember, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This book emphasizes that artificial or pseudo-populations play an important role in statistical surveys from finite universes in two manners: firstly, the concept of pseudo-populations may substantially improve users’ understanding of various aspects in the sampling theory and survey methodology; an example of this scenario is the Horvitz-Thompson estimator. Secondly, statistical procedures exist in which pseudo-populations actually have to be generated. An example of such a scenario can be found in simulation studies in the field of survey sampling, where close-to-reality pseudo-populations are generated from known sample and population data to form the basis for the simulation process. The chapters focus on estimation methods, sampling techniques, nonresponse, questioning designs and statistical disclosure control.This book is a valuable reference in understanding the importance of the pseudo-population concept and applying it in teaching and research.

  13. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M

    2016-01-01

    .... This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors...

  14. Cloud flexibility using DIRAC interware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez Albor, Víctor; Seco Miguelez, Marcos; Fernandez Pena, Tomas; Mendez Muñoz, Victor; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo

    2014-06-01

    Communities of different locations are running their computing jobs on dedicated infrastructures without the need to worry about software, hardware or even the site where their programs are going to be executed. Nevertheless, this usually implies that they are restricted to use certain types or versions of an Operating System because either their software needs an definite version of a system library or a specific platform is required by the collaboration to which they belong. On this scenario, if a data center wants to service software to incompatible communities, it has to split its physical resources among those communities. This splitting will inevitably lead to an underuse of resources because the data centers are bound to have periods where one or more of its subclusters are idle. It is, in this situation, where Cloud Computing provides the flexibility and reduction in computational cost that data centers are searching for. This paper describes a set of realistic tests that we ran on one of such implementations. The test comprise software from three different HEP communities (Auger, LHCb and QCD phenomelogists) and the Parsec Benchmark Suite running on one or more of three Linux flavors (SL5, Ubuntu 10.04 and Fedora 13). The implemented infrastructure has, at the cloud level, CloudStack that manages the virtual machines (VM) and the hosts on which they run, and, at the user level, the DIRAC framework along with a VM extension that will submit, monitorize and keep track of the user jobs and also requests CloudStack to start or stop the necessary VM's. In this infrastructure, the community software is distributed via the CernVM-FS, which has been proven to be a reliable and scalable software distribution system. With the resulting infrastructure, users are allowed to send their jobs transparently to the Data Center. The main purpose of this system is the creation of flexible cluster, multiplatform with an scalable method for software distribution for several

  15. On the Symplectic Dirac Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, R. G. G.; Ulhoa, S. C.; Silva, Edilberto O.

    2015-12-01

    Symplectic unitary representations for the Poincaré group are studied. The formalism is based on the noncommutative structure of the star-product, and using group theory approach as a guide, a consistent physical theory in phase space is constructed. The state of a quantum mechanics system is described by a quasi-probability amplitude that is in association with the Wigner function. In this context, we derive the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations. As an application, we study the Dirac equation with electromagnetic interaction in phase space.

  16. Interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer Dirac electron systems: motion and merging of Dirac cones

    OpenAIRE

    Assili, Mohamed; Haddad, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically study the effect of the motion and the merging of Dirac cone on the interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene like systems. This merging, which could be induced by a uniaxial strain, gives rise in monolayer Dirac electron system to a topological transition from a semi-metallic phase to an insulating phase where Dirac points disappear. Based on a universal Hamiltonian proposed to describe the motion and the merging of Dirac points in two dimensional Dirac electron cr...

  17. Pseudo Goldstone Bosons Phenomenology in Minimal Walking Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hapola, Tuomas; Mescia, Federico; Nardecchia, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We construct the non-linear realized Lagrangian for the Goldstone Bosons associated to the breaking pattern of SU(4) to SO(4). This pattern is expected to occur in any Technicolor extension of the standard model featuring two Dirac fermions transforming according to real representations of the un......We construct the non-linear realized Lagrangian for the Goldstone Bosons associated to the breaking pattern of SU(4) to SO(4). This pattern is expected to occur in any Technicolor extension of the standard model featuring two Dirac fermions transforming according to real representations...... of the underlying gauge group. We concentrate on the Minimal Walking Technicolor quantum number assignments with respect to the standard model symmetries. We demonstrate that for, any choice of the quantum numbers, consistent with gauge and Witten anomalies the spectrum of the pseudo Goldstone Bosons contains...

  18. Relation between Maxwell and Dirac theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickelsson, J. (Institut Mittag-Leffler, Djursholm (Sweden))

    1982-05-01

    It is shown that the Dirac equation can be written in a form similar to Maxwell equations, where the Maxwell tensor is written as a bilinear expression of the Dirac field and the current is a simple function of the external potential and the Dirac field. Similarly, the Maxwell equations can be written as a self-coupled Dirac equation where the potential is a simple function of the Dirac field itself. It is illustrated by examples how the new formalism helps to find solutions of the coupled field equations.

  19. A mathematical introduction to Dirac's formalism

    CERN Document Server

    van Eijndhoven, SJL

    1986-01-01

    This monograph contains a functional analytic introduction to Dirac''s formalism. The first part presents some new mathematical notions in the setting of triples of Hilbert spaces, mentioning the concept of Dirac basis. The second part introduces a conceptually new theory of generalized functions, integrating the notions of the first part.The last part of the book is devoted to a mathematical interpretation of the main features of Dirac''s formalism. It involves a pairing between distributional bras and kets, continuum expansions and continuum matrices.

  20. Dirac, Prof. Paul Adrien Maurice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dirac, Prof. Paul Adrien Maurice Nobel Laureate (Physics) - 1933. Date of birth: 8 August 1902. Date of death: 20 October 1984. YouTube ... Posted on 21 December 2017. ASTROPHYSICS: An Observational View of the Universe. Math Art and Design: MAD about Math, Math Education and Outreach. Math and Finance ...

  1. Expérience DIRAC

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: The DIRAC upstream vacuum channel placed between the target and the upstream detector region. Both the non-intracting primary proton beam and the seconday particle channel travel inside the shown vacuum channel. Photo 02: The DIRAC upstream detector region consisting of 4 planes of GEM/MSGC; 3 planes of Scintillating Fibres; 4 planes of Ionisation hodospope. The photo shows the cabling of GEM/MSGC (right end) and Scintillating Fibres (left end) detectors. Photo 03: Detailed view of the 4 GEM/MSGC planes. The secondary particle channel and the detectors are tilted by 5.7 degrees with respect to the primary proton beam channel visible on the bottom. Photo 04: View of the downstream part of the double arm DIRAC spectrometer, facing the direction of incoming particles. The Drift Chamber system, the scintillation hodoscopes and the threshold Cherenkov counters are shown in the picture. Photo 05: The DIRAC vacuum region between upstream detectors and the dipole magnet. The shielding around the primary pro...

  2. On the κ-Dirac oscillator revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, F.M., E-mail: fmandrade@uepg.br [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Silva, E.O., E-mail: edilbertoos@pq.cnpq.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus Universitário do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís, MA (Brazil); Ferreira, M.M., E-mail: manojr.ufma@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus Universitário do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís, MA (Brazil); Rodrigues, E.C., E-mail: ednilson.fisica@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus Universitário do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís, MA (Brazil)

    2014-04-04

    This Letter is based on the κ-Dirac equation, derived from the κ-Poincaré–Hopf algebra. It is shown that the κ-Dirac equation preserves parity while breaks charge conjugation and time reversal symmetries. Introducing the Dirac oscillator prescription, p→p−imωβr, in the κ-Dirac equation, one obtains the κ-Dirac oscillator. Using a decomposition in terms of spin angular functions, one achieves the deformed radial equations, with the associated deformed energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. The deformation parameter breaks the infinite degeneracy of the Dirac oscillator. In the case where ε=0, one recovers the energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the Dirac oscillator.

  3. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remenska, Daniela; Templon, Jeff; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof

    2012-12-01

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.

  4. Snapshots of Dirac fermions near the Dirac point in topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, C W; Wang, H J; Ku, S A; Chen, H-J; Yeh, T T; Lin, J-Y; Wu, K H; Juang, J Y; Young, B L; Kobayashi, T; Cheng, C-M; Chen, C-H; Tsuei, K-D; Sankar, R; Chou, F C; Kokh, K A; Tereshchenko, O E; Chulkov, E V; Andreev, Yu M; Gu, G D

    2013-01-01

    The recent focus on topological insulators is due to the scientific interest in the new state of quantum matter as well as the technology potential for a new generation of THz optoelectronics, spintronics and quantum computations. It is important to elucidate the dynamics of the Dirac fermions in the topologically protected surface state. Hence we utilized a novel ultrafast optical pump mid-infrared probe to explore the dynamics of Dirac fermions near the Dirac point. The femtosecond snapshots of the relaxation process were revealed by the ultrafast optics. Specifically, the Dirac fermion-phonon coupling strength in the Dirac cone was found to increase from 0.08 to 0.19 while Dirac fermions were away from the Dirac point into higher energy states. Further, the energy-resolved transient reflectivity spectra disclosed the energy loss rate of Dirac fermions at room temperature was about 1 meV/ps. These results are crucial to the design of Dirac fermion devices.

  5. DIRAC pilot framework and the DIRAC Workload Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casajus, Adrian; Graciani, Ricardo; Paterson, Stuart; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; LHCb DIRAC Team

    2010-04-01

    DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot Jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, Pilot Jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach.

  6. DIRAC in Large Particle Physics Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Arrabito, L.; Sailer, A.; Hara, T.; Zhang, X.; consortium, DIRAC

    2017-10-01

    The DIRAC project is developing interware to build and operate distributed computing systems. It provides a development framework and a rich set of services for both Workload and Data Management tasks of large scientific communities. A number of High Energy Physics and Astrophysics collaborations have adopted DIRAC as the base for their computing models. DIRAC was initially developed for the LHCb experiment at LHC, CERN. Later, the Belle II, BES III and CTA experiments as well as the linear collider detector collaborations started using DIRAC for their computing systems. Some of the experiments built their DIRAC-based systems from scratch, others migrated from previous solutions, ad-hoc or based on different middlewares. Adaptation of DIRAC for a particular experiment was enabled through the creation of extensions to meet their specific requirements. Each experiment has a heterogeneous set of computing and storage resources at their disposal that were aggregated through DIRAC into a coherent pool. Users from different experiments can interact with the system in different ways depending on their specific tasks, expertise level and previous experience using command line tools, python APIs or Web Portals. In this contribution we will summarize the experience of using DIRAC in particle physics collaborations. The problems of migration to DIRAC from previous systems and their solutions will be presented. An overview of specific DIRAC extensions will be given. We hope that this review will be useful for experiments considering an update, or for those designing their computing models.

  7. A note on the lattice Dirac-Kaehler equation

    OpenAIRE

    Striker, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    A lattice version of the Dirac-Kaehler equation (DKE) describing fermions was discussed in articles by Becher and Joos. The decomposition of lattice Dirac-Kaehler fields (inhomogeneous cochains) to lattice Dirac fields remained as an open problem. I show that it is possible to extract Dirac fields from the DKE and discuss the resulting lattice Dirac equation.

  8. Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan

    2014-07-07

    A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.

  9. Mapping curved spacetimes into Dirac spinors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabín, Carlos

    2017-01-11

    We show how to transform a Dirac equation in a curved static spacetime into a Dirac equation in flat spacetime. In particular, we show that any solution of the free massless Dirac equation in a 1 + 1 dimensional flat spacetime can be transformed via a local phase transformation into a solution of the corresponding Dirac equation in a curved static background, where the spacetime metric is encoded into the phase. In this way, the existing quantum simulators of the Dirac equation can naturally incorporate curved static spacetimes. As a first example we use our technique to obtain solutions of the Dirac equation in a particular family of interesting spacetimes in 1 + 1 dimensions.

  10. Data Management System of the DIRAC Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Haen, Christophe; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    The DIRAC Interware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. The DIRAC Data Management System (DMS) offers all the necessary tools to ensure data handling operations for small and large user communities. It supports transparent access to storage resources based on multiple technologies, and is easily expandable. The information on data files and replicas is kept in a File Catalog of which DIRAC offers a powerful and versatile implementation (DFC). Data movement can be performed using third party services including FTS3. Bulk data operations are resilient with respect to failures due to the use of the Request Management System (RMS) that keeps track of ongoing tasks. In this contribution we will present an overview of the DIRAC DMS capabilities and its connection with other DIRAC subsystems such as the Transformation System. The DIRAC DMS is in use by several user communities now. The contribution will present the experience of the LHCb exper...

  11. The DIRAC Data Management System (poster)

    CERN Document Server

    Haen, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The DIRAC Interware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. The DIRAC Data Management System (DMS) offers all the necessary tools to ensure data handling operations for small and large user communities. It supports transparent access to storage resources based on multiple technologies, and is easily expandable. The information on data files and replicas is kept in a File Catalog of which DIRAC offers a powerful and versatile implementation (DFC). Data movement can be performed using third party services including FTS3. Bulk data operations are resilient with respect to failures due to the use of the Request Management System (RMS) that keeps track of ongoing tasks. In this contribution we will present an overview of the DIRAC DMS capabilities and its connection with other DIRAC subsystems such as the Transformation System. The DIRAC DMS is in use by several user communities now. The contribution will present the experience of the LHCb exper...

  12. An extension of the Dirac and Gotay-Nester theories of constraints for Dirac dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cendra, Hernán; Etchechoury, María; Ferraro, Sebastián J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends the Gotay-Nester and the Dirac theories of constrained systems in order to deal with Dirac dynamical systems in the integrable case. Integrable Dirac dynamical systems are viewed as constrained systems where the constraint submanifolds are foliated, the case considered in Gotay-Nester theory being the particular case where the foliation has only one leaf. A Constraint Algorithm for Dirac dynamical systems (CAD), which extends the Gotay-Nester algorithm, is developed. Evolut...

  13. A Short Biography of Paul A. M. Dirac and Historical Development of Dirac Delta Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a short biography of Paul Dirac, his first celebrated work on quantum mechanics, his first formal systematic use of the Dirac delta function and his famous work on quantum electrodynamics and quantum statistics. Included are his first discovery of the Dirac relativistic wave equation, existence of positron and the intrinsic…

  14. LHCbDIRAC as Apache Mesos microservices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haen, Christophe; Couturier, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on LHCbDIRAC, an extension of DIRAC, to drive its offline computing. This middleware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. These components are currently installed and run on virtual machines (VM) or bare metal hardware. Due to the increased workload, high availability is becoming more and more important for the LHCbDIRAC services, and the current installation model is showing its limitations. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager which aims at abstracting heterogeneous physical resources on which various tasks can be distributed thanks to so called “frameworks” The Marathon framework is suitable for long running tasks such as the DIRAC services, while the Chronos framework meets the needs of cron-like tasks like the DIRAC agents. A combination of the service discovery tool Consul together with HAProxy allows to expose the running containers to the outside world while hiding their dynamic placements. Such an architecture brings a greater flexibility in the deployment of LHCbDirac services, allowing for easier deployment maintenance and scaling of services on demand (e..g LHCbDirac relies on 138 services and 116 agents). Higher reliability is also easier, as clustering is part of the toolset, which allows constraints on the location of the services. This paper describes the investigations carried out to package the LHCbDIRAC and DIRAC components into Docker containers and orchestrate them using the previously described set of tools.

  15. Discovery of 2D Anisotropic Dirac Cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Baojie; Zhang, Jin; Ito, Suguru; Arita, Masashi; Cheng, Cai; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui; Komori, Fumio; Sugino, Osamu; Miyamoto, Koji; Okuda, Taichi; Meng, Sheng; Matsuda, Iwao

    2018-01-01

    2D anisotropic Dirac cones are observed in χ3 borophene, a monolayer boron sheet, using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The Dirac cones are centered at the X and X' points. The data also reveal that the hybridization between borophene and Ag(111) is very weak, which explains the preservation of the Dirac cones. As χ3 borophene has been predicated to be a superconductor, the results may stimulate further research interest in the novel physics of borophene, such as the interplay between Cooper pairs and the massless Dirac fermions. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Unified picture for Dirac neutrinos, dark matter, dark energy and matter-antimatter asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Pei-Hong

    2007-01-01

    We propose a unified scenario to generate the masses of Dirac neutrinos and cold dark matter at the TeV scale, understand the origin of dark energy and explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe. This model can lead to significant impact on the Higgs searches at LHC.

  17. Quantum Pseudo-Telepathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Gilles; Broadbent, Anne; Tapp, Alain

    2005-11-01

    Quantum information processing is at the crossroads of physics, mathematics and computer science. It is concerned with that we can and cannot do with quantum information that goes beyond the abilities of classical information processing devices. Communication complexity is an area of classical computer science that aims at quantifying the amount of communication necessary to solve distributed computational problems. Quantum communication complexity uses quantum mechanics to reduce the amount of communication that would be classically required. Pseudo-telepathy is a surprising application of quantum information processing to communication complexity. Thanks to entanglement, perhaps the most nonclassical manifestation of quantum mechanics, two or more quantum players can accomplish a distributed task with no need for communication whatsoever, which would be an impossible feat for classical players. After a detailed overview of the principle and purpose of pseudo-telepathy, we present a survey of recent and no-so-recent work on the subject. In particular, we describe and analyse all the pseudo-telepathy games currently known to the authors.

  18. Electronic, Spin and Valley Transport in Two Dimensional Dirac Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongya

    This dissertation aims to study and understand relevant issues related to the electronic, spin and valley transport in two-dimensional Dirac systems for different given physical settings. In summary, four key findings are achieved. First, studying persistent currents in confined chaotic Dirac fermion systems with a ring geometry and an applied Aharonov-Bohm flux, unusual whispering-gallery modes with edge-dependent currents and spin polarization are identified. They can survive for highly asymmetric rings that host fully developed classical chaos. By sustaining robust persistent currents, these modes can be utilized to form a robust relativistic quantum two-level system. Second, the quantized topological edge states in confined massive Dirac fermion systems exhibiting a remarkable reverse Stark effect in response to an applied electric field, and an electrically or optically controllable spin switching behavior are uncovered. Third, novel wave scattering and transport in Dirac-like pseudospin-1 systems are reported. (a), for small scatterer size, a surprising revival resonant scattering with a peculiar boundary trapping by forming unusual vortices is uncovered. Intriguingly, it can persist in arbitrarily weak scatterer strength regime, which underlies a superscattering behavior beyond the conventional scenario. (b), for larger size, a perfect caustic phenomenon arises as a manifestation of the super-Klein tunneling effect. (c), in the far-field, an unexpected isotropic transport emerges at low energies. Fourth, a geometric valley Hall effect (gVHE) originated from fractional singular Berry flux is revealed. It is shown that gVHE possesses a nonlinear dependence on the Berry flux with asymmetrical resonance features and can be considerably enhanced by electrically controllable resonant valley skew scattering. With the gVHE, efficient valley filtering can arise and these phenomena are robust against thermal fluctuations and disorder averaging.

  19. Noncommutativity into Dirac Equation with mass dependent on the position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Samuel Batista; Almeida, Carlos Alberto Santos [Universidade Federal do Ceara - UFC, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Nunes, Luciana Angelica da Silva [Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-arido - UFERSA, Mossoro, RN (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: In recent years, there is growing interest in the study of theories in non-commutative spaces. Non-commutative fields theories are related with compactifications of M theory, string theory and the quantum Hall effect. Moreover, the role of the non-commutativity of theories of a particle finds large applications when analyzed in scenarios of quantum mechanics and relativistic quantum mechanics. In these contexts investigations on the Schrodinger and Dirac equations with mass depending on the position (MDP) has attracted much attention in the literature. Systems endowed with MDP models are useful for the study of many physical problems. In particular, they are used to study the energy density in problems of many bodies, determining the electronic properties of semiconductor heterostructures and also to describe the properties of heterojunctions and quantum dots. In particular, the investigation of relativistic effects it is important for systems containing heavy atoms or doping by heavy ions. For these types of materials, the study of the properties of the Dirac equation, in the case where the mass becomes variable is of great interest. In this paper, we seek for the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac Hamiltonian in the context of a theory of effective mass, through a Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We analyse the Dirac equation with mass dependent on the position, in a smooth step shape mass distribution, in non-commutative space (NC). This potential type kink was recently discussed by several authors in the commutative context and now we present our results in the non-commutative context. (author)

  20. Dirac and Weyl semimetals with holographic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, V.P.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338017828

    2015-01-01

    Dirac and Weyl semimetals are states of matter exhibiting the relativistic physics of, respectively, the Dirac and Weyl equation in a three-dimensional bulk material. These three-dimensional semimetals have recently been realized experimentally in various crystals. Theoretically, especially the

  1. The 2D κ-Dirac oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Fabiano M., E-mail: fmandrade@uepg.br [Departamento de Matemática e Estatística, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa-PR (Brazil); Silva, Edilberto O., E-mail: edilbertoo@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Campus Universitário do Bacanga, 65085-580 São Luís-MA (Brazil)

    2014-11-10

    In this Letter, 2D Dirac oscillator in the quantum deformed framework generated by the κ-Poincaré–Hopf algebra is considered. The problem is formulated using the κ-deformed Dirac equation. The resulting theory reveals that the energies and wave functions of the oscillator are modified by the deformation parameter.

  2. Two dimensional Dirac carbon allotropes from graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Chun; Wang, Ru-Zhi; Miao, Mao-Sheng; Wei, Xiao-Lin; Chen, Yuan-Ping; Yan, Hui; Lau, Woon-Ming; Liu, Li-Min; Ma, Yan-Ming

    2014-01-21

    Using a structural search method in combination with first-principles calculations, we found lots of low energy 2D carbon allotropes and examined all possible Dirac points around their Fermi levels. Three amazing 2D Dirac carbon allotropes have been discovered, named as S-graphene, D-graphene and E-graphene. By analyzing the topology correlations among S-, T, net W graphene and graphene, we found that a general rule is valuable for constructing 2D carbon allotropes that are keen to possess Dirac cones in their electronic structures. Based on this rule, we have successfully designed many new 2D carbon allotropes possessing Dirac cones. Their energy order can be well described by an Ising-like model, and some allotropes are energetically more stable than those recently reported. The related electronic structures of these Dirac allotropes are anisotropy distinguished from those of graphene. Moreover, the fact that D- and E-graphene present Dirac cones suggests that sp hybridization or sp(3) hybridization could not suppress the emerging of Dirac features. Our results demonstrate that the Dirac cone and carrier linear dispersion is a very common feature in 2D carbon allotropes and can exist beyond the limitations of fundamental structure features of graphene.

  3. The DIRAC Language: Concepts and Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallee, Jacques; Ludwig, Herbert

    The three documents contained in this report describe an interactive retrieval language implemented for the IBM 360/67 of the Campus Faculty at Stanford University, between October 1969 and May 1970. The three reports are: (1) DIRAC--An Interactive Retrieval Language with Computational Interface, (2) DIRAC--An Overview of an Interactive Retrieval…

  4. On localization of Dirac fermions by disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medvedyeva, Mariya Vyacheslavivna

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the effects of disorder on two-dimensional systems of Dirac fermions. Disorder localizes the usual electron system governed by the Schroedinger equation. The influence of disorder on Dirac fermions is qualitevely different. We concentrate on a random mass term in the

  5. Dirac quantization of noncommutative Abelian Proca field

    OpenAIRE

    Darabi, F.; F. Naderi

    2011-01-01

    Dirac formalism of Hamiltonian constraint systems is studied for the noncommutative Abelian Proca field. It is shown that the system of constraints are of second class in agreement with the fact that the Proca field is not guage invariant. Then, the system of second class constraints is quantized by introducing Dirac brackets in the reduced phase space.

  6. Double Dirac Semimetals in Three Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Benjamin J; Kim, Youngkuk; Rappe, A M; Kane, C L

    2016-05-06

    We study a class of Dirac semimetals that feature an eightfold-degenerate double Dirac point. We show that 7 of the 230 space groups can host such Dirac points and argue that they all generically display linear dispersion. We introduce an explicit tight-binding model for space groups 130 and 135. Space group 135 can host an intrinsic double Dirac semimetal with no additional states at the Fermi energy. This defines a symmetry-protected topological critical point, and we show that a uniaxial compressive strain applied in different directions leads to topologically distinct insulating phases. In addition, the double Dirac semimetal can accommodate topological line defects that bind helical modes. Connections are made to theories of strongly interacting filling-enforced semimetals, and potential materials realizations are discussed.

  7. Highly Anisotropic Dirac Fermions in Square Graphynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L Z; Wang, Z F; Wang, Zhiming M; Du, S X; Gao, H-J; Liu, Feng

    2015-08-06

    We predict a family of 2D carbon (C) allotropes, square graphynes (S-graphynes) that exhibit highly anisotropic Dirac fermions, using first-principle calculations within density functional theory. They have a square unit-cell containing two sizes of square C rings. The equal-energy contour of their 3D band structure shows a crescent shape, and the Dirac crescent has varying Fermi velocities from 0.6 × 10(5) to 7.2 × 10(5) m/s along different k directions. Near the Fermi level, the Dirac crescent can be nicely expressed by an extended 2D Dirac model Hamiltonian. Furthermore, tight-binding band fitting reveals that the Dirac crescent originates from the next-nearest-neighbor interactions between C atoms. S-graphynes may be used to build new 2D electronic devices taking advantages of their highly directional charge transport.

  8. LHCbDIRAC as Apache Mesos microservices

    CERN Multimedia

    Couturier, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on LHCbDIRAC, an extension of DIRAC, to drive its offline computing. This middleware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. These components are currently installed and ran on virtual machines (VM) or bare metal hardware. Due to the increased load of work, high availability is becoming more and more important for the LHCbDIRAC services, and the current installation model is showing its limitations. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager which aims at abstracting heterogeneous physical resources on which various tasks can be distributed thanks to so called "framework". The Marathon framework is suitable for long running tasks such as the DIRAC services, while the Chronos framework meets the needs of cron-like tasks like the DIRAC agents. A combination of the service discovery tool Consul together with HAProxy allows to expose the running containers to the outside world while hiding their dynamic placements. Such an arc...

  9. PSEUDO-CODEWORD LANDSCAPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-10

    The authors discuss performance of Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) codes decoded by Linear Programming (LP) decoding at moderate and large Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNR). Frame-Error-Rate (FER) dependence on SNR and the noise space landscape of the coding/decoding scheme are analyzed by a combination of the previously introduced instanton/pseudo-codeword-search method and a new 'dendro' trick. To reduce complexity of the LP decoding for a code with high-degree checks, {ge} 5, they introduce its dendro-LDPC counterpart, that is the code performing identifically to the original one under Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) decoding but having reduced (down to three) check connectivity degree. Analyzing number of popular LDPC codes and their dendro versions performing over the Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN) channel, they observed two qualitatively different regimes: (i) error-floor sets early, at relatively low SNR, and (ii) FER decays with SNR increase faster at moderate SNR than at the largest SNR. They explain these regimes in terms of the pseudo-codeword spectra of the codes.

  10. Magnetotransport properties near the Dirac point of Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Xian; Wang, Shuo; Li, Jin-Guang; Li, Cai-Zhen; Xu, Jun; Yu, Dapeng; Liao, Zhi-Min

    2017-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetals are featured by 3D linear energy-momentum dispersion relation, which have been proposed to be a desirable system to study Dirac fermions in 3D space and Weyl fermions in solid-state materials. Significantly, to reveal exotic transport properties of Dirac semimetals, the Fermi level should be close to the Dirac point, around which the linear dispersion is retained. Here we report the magnetotransport properties near the Dirac point in Cd3As2 nanowires, manifesting the evolution of band structure under magnetic field. Ambipolar field effect is observed with the Dirac point at V g  =  3.9 V. Under high magnetic field, there is a resistivity dip in transfer curve at the Dirac point, which is caused by the Zeeman splitting enhanced density of state around the Dirac point. Furthermore, the low carrier density in the nanowires makes it feasible to enter into the quantum limit regime, resulting in the quantum linear magnetoresistance being observed even at room temperature. Besides, the dramatic reduction of bulk conductivity due to the low carrier density, together with a large surface to volume ratio of the nanowire, collectively help to reveal the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations from the surface states. Our studies on transport properties around the Dirac point therefore provide deep insights into the emerging exotic physics of Dirac and Weyl fermions.

  11. Integrating out the Dirac sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbstein, Felix

    2009-07-08

    We introduce a new method for dealing with fermionic quantum field theories amenable to a mean-field-type approximation. In this work we focus on the relativistic Hartree approximation. Our aim is to integrate out the Dirac sea and derive a no-sea effective theory'' with positive energy single particle states only. As the derivation of the no-sea effective theory involves only standard Feynman diagrams, our approach is quite general and not restricted to particular space-time dimensions. We develop and illustrate the approach in the ''large N'' limit of the Gross-Neveu model family in 1+1 dimensions. As the Gross-Neveu model has been intensely studied and several analytical solutions are known for this model, it is an ideal testing ground for our no-sea effective theory approach. The chiral Gross-Neveu model, also referred to as 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, turns out to be of particular interest. In this case, we explicitly derive a consistent effective theory featuring both elementary ''{pi} meson'' fields and (positive energy) ''quark'' fields, starting from a purely fermionic quantum field theory. In the second part of this work, we apply our approach to the Walecka model in 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. As the Dirac sea caused considerable difficulties in attempts to base nuclear physics on field theoretic models like the Walecka model, mean-field calculations were typically done without the sea. We confront several of these mean-field theory results with our no-sea effective theory approach. The potential of our approach is twofold. While the no-sea effective theory can be utilized to provide new analytical insights in particular parameter regimes, it also sheds new light on more fundamental issues as the explicit emergence of effective, Dirac-sea induced multi-fermion interactions in an effective theory with positive energy states only. (orig.)

  12. Composition of Infinite-Dimensional Linear Dirac-type Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurula, Mikael; Schaft, Arjan van der; Zwart, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we define the Dirac structure and give some fundamental tools for its study. We then proceed by defining composition of "split Dirac structures". In the finite-dimensional case, composition of two Dirac structures always results in a new Dirac structure, but in the Hilbert-space

  13. Antiferromagnetic Dirac semimetals in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2017-03-01

    The search for symmetry-protected two-dimensional (2D) Dirac semimetals analogous to graphene is important both for fundamental and practical interest. The 2D Dirac cones are protected by crystalline symmetries and magnetic ordering may destroy their robustness. Here we propose a general framework to classify stable 2D Dirac semimetals in spin-orbit coupled systems having the combined time-reversal and inversion symmetries, and show the existence of the stable Dirac points in 2D antiferromagnetic semimetals. Compared to 3D Dirac semimetals which fall into two distinct classes, Dirac semimetals in 2D with combined time-reversal and inversion symmetries belong to a single class which is closely related to the nonsymmorphic space-group symmetries. We further provide a concrete model in antiferromagnetic semimetals which supports symmetry-protected 2D Dirac points. The symmetry breaking in such systems leads to 2D chiral topological states such as quantum anomalous Hall insulator and chiral topological superconductor phases.

  14. Dirac vs Majorana gauginos at a 100 TeV collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cortona, Giovanni Grilli; Hardy, Edward; Powell, Andrew J.

    2016-08-01

    We compare the prospects for observing theories with Majorana or Dirac gauginos at a future 100 TeV proton-proton collider. Calculating the expected discovery and exclusion regions, we find that for heavy gluino masses the squark discovery reach is significantly reduced in Dirac gluino models relative to the Majorana case. However, if the squark and gluino masses are close the reach is similar in both scenarios. We also consider the electroweak fine tuning of theories observable at such a collider, and the impact of existing constraints from flavour and CP violating observables. Models with Majorana gluinos that are fine tuned to less than one part in 10, 000 can typically be discovered or excluded, and Dirac models with tuning of one part in 1, 000 can be probed. The flavour structure of Majorana models is highly constrained if they have observable squarks, while O(1) violation is possible in accessible Dirac models. In both cases new sources of CP violation must be very suppressed. Future collider searches can also give important information on possible dark matter candidates. We study the relation of this to indirect and direct detection searches, and find that if dark matter is a neutralino, a 100 TeV collider could probe the viable dark matter candidates in large classes of both Dirac and Majorana models.

  15. The Dirac-Milne cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Chardin, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    We study an unconventional cosmology, in which we investigate the consequences that antigravity would pose to cosmology. We present the main characteristics of the Dirac-Milne Universe, a cosmological model where antimatter has a negative active gravitational mass. In this non-standard Universe, separate domains of matter and antimatter coexist at our epoch without annihilation, separated by a gravitationally induced depletion zone. We show that this cosmology does not require a priori the Dark Matter and Dark Energy components of the standard model of cosmology. Additionally, inflation becomes an unnecessary ingredient. Investigating this model, we show that the classical cosmological tests such as primordial nucleosynthesis, Type Ia supernovæ and Cosmic Microwave Background are surprisingly concordant.

  16. Global boundary conditions for the Dirac operator

    CERN Document Server

    Falomir, H A

    1997-01-01

    Ellipticity of boundary value problems is characterized in terms of the Calderon projector. The presence of topological obstructions for the chiral Dirac operator under local boundary conditions in even dimension is discussed. Functional determinants for Dirac operators on manifolds with boundary are considered. The functional determinant for a Dirac operator on a bidimensional disk, in the presence of an Abelian gauge field and subject to global boundary conditions of the type introduced by Atiyah-Patodi-Singer, is evaluated. The relationship with the index theorem is also commented.

  17. The Dirac equation and its solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagrov, Vladislav G. [Tomsk State Univ., Tomsk (Russian Federation). Dept. of Quantum Field Theroy; Gitman, Dmitry [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Univ., Tomsk (Russian Federation). Faculty of Physics

    2013-07-01

    The Dirac equation is of fundamental importance for relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. In relativistic quantum mechanics, the Dirac equation is referred to as one-particle wave equation of motion for electron in an external electromagnetic field. In quantum electrodynamics, exact solutions of this equation are needed to treat the interaction between the electron and the external field exactly. In particular, all propagators of a particle, i.e., the various Green's functions, are constructed in a certain way by using exact solutions of the Dirac equation.

  18. Relativistic quantum mechanics of a Dirac oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Martines y Romero, R P; Salas-Brito, A L

    1995-01-01

    The Dirac oscillator is an exactly soluble model recently introduced in the context of many particle models in relativistic quantum mechanics. The model has been also considered as an interaction term for modelling quark confinement in quantum chromodynamics. These considerations should be enough for demonstrating that the Dirac oscillator can be an excellent example in relativistic quantum mechanics. In this paper we offer a solution to the problem and discuss some of its properties. We also discuss a physical picture for the Dirac oscillator's non-standard interaction, showing how it arises on describing the behaviour of a neutral particle carrying an anomalous magnetic moment and moving inside a uniformly charged sphere. (author)

  19. Conformable fractional Dirac system on time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsen, Tuba; Yilmaz, Emrah; Goktas, Sertac

    2017-01-01

    We study the conformable fractional (CF) Dirac system with separated boundary conditions on an arbitrary time scale [Formula: see text]. Then we extend some basic spectral properties of the classical Dirac system to the CF case. Eventually, some asymptotic estimates for the eigenfunction of the CF Dirac eigenvalue problem are obtained on [Formula: see text]. So, we provide a constructive procedure for the solution of this problem. These results are important steps to consolidate the link between fractional calculus and time scale calculus in spectral theory.

  20. Dirac Nodal Lines and Tilted Semi-Dirac Cones Coexisting in a Striped Boron Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghong; Xie, Yuee; Zhang, Zhongwei; Zhong, Chengyong; Li, Yafei; Chen, Zhongfang; Chen, Yuanping

    2017-04-20

    The enchanting Dirac fermions in graphene stimulated us to seek other 2D Dirac materials, and boron monolayers may be a good candidate. So far, a number of monolayer boron sheets have been theoretically predicted, and three have been experimentally prepared. However, none of intrinsic sheets possess Dirac electrons near the Fermi level. Herein, by means of density functional theory computations, we identified a new boron monolayer, namely, hr-sB, with two types of Dirac fermions coexisting in the sheet: One type is related to Dirac nodal lines traversing Brillouin zone (BZ) with velocities approaching 106 m/s, and the other is related to tilted semi-Dirac cones with strong anisotropy. This newly predicted boron monolayer consists of hexagon and rhombus stripes. With an exceptional stability comparable to the experimentally achieved boron sheets, it is rather optimistic to grow hr-sB on some suitable substrates such as the Ag (111) surface.

  1. Dirac cones and Dirac saddle points of bright excitons in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongyi; Liu, Gui-Bin; Gong, Pu; Xu, Xiaodong; Yao, Wang

    2014-05-12

    In monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, tightly bound excitons have been discovered with a valley pseudospin optically addressable through polarization selection rules. Here, we show that this valley pseudospin is strongly coupled to the exciton centre-of-mass motion through electron-hole exchange. This coupling realizes a massless Dirac cone with chirality index I = 2 for excitons inside the light cone, that is, bright excitons. Under moderate strain, the I = 2 Dirac cone splits into two degenerate I = 1 Dirac cones, and saddle points with a linear Dirac spectrum emerge. After binding an extra electron, the charged exciton becomes a massive Dirac particle associated with a large valley Hall effect protected from intervalley scattering. Our results point to unique opportunities to study Dirac physics, with exciton's optical addressability at specifiable momentum, energy and pseudospin. The strain-tunable valley-orbit coupling also implies new structures of exciton condensates, new functionalities of excitonic circuits and mechanical control of valley pseudospin.

  2. Plasma oscillations of edge Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, V. A.; Zagorodnev, I. V.

    2013-06-01

    The dispersion law of one-dimensional plasmons in a quasi-one-dimensional system of massless Dirac fermions has been calculated. Two model two-dimensional systems where bands of edge states filled with such Dirac fermions appear at the edge have been considered. Edge states in the first system, topological insulator, are due to topological reasons. Edge states in the second system, system of massive Dirac fermions, have Tamm origin. It has been shown that the dispersion laws of plasmons in both systems in the long-wavelength limit differ only in the definition of the parameters (velocity and localization depth of Dirac fermions). The frequency of plasmons is formally quantum (ω ∝ ħ -1/2) and, in the case of the Coulomb interaction between electrons, depends slightly on the Fermi level E F. The dependence on E F is stronger in the case of short-range interaction. The quantum features of oscillations of massless one-dimensional Dirac fermions are removed by introducing the mass of Dirac fermions at the Fermi level and their density. Correspondence to the dispersion law of classical one-dimensional plasma oscillations in a narrow stripe of "Schrödinger" electrons has been revealed.

  3. Phenomenology of Dirac Neutralino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; Hooper, Dan; Kumar, Jason

    2013-09-01

    In supersymmetric models with an unbroken R-symmetry (rather than only R-parity), the neutralinos are Dirac fermions rather than Majorana. In this article, we discuss the phenomenology of neutralino dark matter in such models, including the calculation of the thermal relic abundance, and constraints and prospects for direct and indirect searches. Due to the large elastic scattering cross sections with nuclei predicted in R-symmetric models, we are forced to consider a neutralino that is predominantly bino, with very little higgsino mixing. We find a large region of parameter space in which bino-like Dirac neutralinos with masses between 10 and 380 GeV can annihilate through slepton exchange to provide a thermal relic abundance in agreement with the observed cosmological density, without relying on coannihilations or resonant annihilations. The signatures for the indirect detection of Dirac neutralinos are very different than predicted in the Majorana case, with annihilations proceeding dominately to $\\tau^+ \\tau^-$, $\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ and $e^+ e^-$ final states, without the standard chirality suppression. And unlike Majorana dark matter candidates, Dirac neutralinos experience spin-independent scattering with nuclei through vector couplings (via $Z$ and squark exchange), leading to potentially large rates at direct detection experiments. These and other characteristics make Dirac neutralinos potentially interesting within the context of recent direct and indirect detection anomalies. We also discuss the case in which the introduction of a small Majorana mass term breaks the $R$-symmetry, splitting the Dirac neutralino into a pair of nearly degenerate Majorana states.

  4. Three Dimensional Photonic Dirac Points in Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghua; Yang, Biao; Xia, Lingbo; Gao, Wenlong; Liu, Hongchao; Chen, Jing; Xiang, Yuanjiang; Zhang, Shuang

    2017-11-01

    Topological semimetals, representing a new topological phase that lacks a full band gap in bulk states and exhibiting nontrivial topological orders, recently have been extended to photonic systems, predominantly in photonic crystals and to a lesser extent metamaterials. Photonic crystal realizations of Dirac degeneracies are protected by various space symmetries, where Bloch modes span the spin and orbital subspaces. Here, we theoretically show that Dirac points can also be realized in effective media through the intrinsic degrees of freedom in electromagnetism under electromagnetic duality. A pair of spin-polarized Fermi-arc-like surface states is observed at the interface between air and the Dirac metamaterials. Furthermore, eigenreflection fields show the decoupling process from a Dirac point to two Weyl points. We also find the topological correlation between a Dirac point and vortex or vector beams in classical photonics. The experimental feasibility of our scheme is demonstrated by designing a realistic metamaterial structure. The theoretical proposal of the photonic Dirac point lays the foundation for unveiling the connection between intrinsic physics and global topology in electromagnetism.

  5. The DIRAC Web Portal 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Z.; Casajus Ramo, A.; Lazovsky, N.; Stagni, F.

    2015-12-01

    For many years the DIRAC interware (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) has had a web interface, allowing the users to monitor DIRAC activities and also interact with the system. Since then many new web technologies have emerged, therefore a redesign and a new implementation of the DIRAC Web portal were necessary, taking into account the lessons learnt using the old portal. These new technologies allowed to build a more compact, robust and responsive web interface that enables users to have better control over the whole system while keeping a simple interface. The web framework provides a large set of “applications”, each of which can be used for interacting with various parts of the system. Communities can also create their own set of personalised web applications, and can easily extend already existing ones with a minimal effort. Each user can configure and personalise the view for each application and save it using the DIRAC User Profile service as RESTful state provider, instead of using cookies. The owner of a view can share it with other users or within a user community. Compatibility between different browsers is assured, as well as with mobile versions. In this paper, we present the new DIRAC Web framework as well as the LHCb extension of the DIRAC Web portal.

  6. First-principles study of Dirac and Dirac-like cones in phononic and photonic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Mei, Jun

    2012-07-24

    By using the k•p method, we propose a first-principles theory to study the linear dispersions in phononic and photonic crystals. The theory reveals that only those linear dispersions created by doubly degenerate states can be described by a reduced Hamiltonian that can be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and possess a Berry phase of -π. Linear dispersions created by triply degenerate states cannot be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and carry no Berry phase, and, therefore should be called Dirac-like cones. Our theory is capable of predicting accurately the linear slopes of Dirac and Dirac-like cones at various symmetry points in a Brillouin zone, independent of frequency and lattice structure. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  7. Distinguishing Dirac/Majorana sterile neutrinos at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Claudio O.; Kim, C. S.; Wang, Kechen; Zhang, Jue

    2016-07-01

    We study the purely leptonic decays of W±→e±e±μ∓ν and μ±μ±e∓ν produced at the LHC, induced by sterile neutrinos with mass mN below MW in the intermediate state. Since the final state neutrino escapes detection, one cannot tell whether this process violates lepton number, which would indicate a Majorana character for the intermediate sterile neutrino. Our study shows that when the sterile neutrino mixings with electrons and muons are different enough, one can still discriminate between the Dirac and Majorana character of this intermediate neutrino by simply counting and comparing the above decay rates. After performing collider simulations and statistical analysis, we find that at the 14 TeV LHC with an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1, for two benchmark scenarios mN=20 and 50 GeV, at least a 3 σ level of exclusion on the Dirac case can be achieved for disparities as mild as, e.g., |UN e|2UN μ|2 or |UN μ|2UN e|2 , provided that |UN e|2 and |UN μ|2 are both above ˜2 ×10-6.

  8. Spin effects on the semiclassical trajectories of Dirac electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Jáuregui, R.; Pérez-Pascual, R.; Jáuregui, R.

    2017-11-01

    The relativistic semiclassical evolution of the position of an electron in the presence of an external electromagnetic field is studied in terms of a Newton equation that incorporates spin effects directly. This equation emerges from the Dirac equation and allows the identification of scenarios where spin effects are necessary to understand the main characteristics of the electron trajectories. It involves the eigenvalues of the non-Hermitian operator Σμ νFμ ν , with Σμ ν and Fμ ν as the spin and electromagnetic tensors. The formalism allows a deeper understanding on the physics behind known analytical solutions of the Dirac equation when translational dynamics seem to decouple from spin evolution. As an illustrative example, it is applied to an electron immersed in an electromagnetic field which exhibits chiral symmetry and optical vortices. It is shown that the polarization of intense structured light beams can be used to suppress or enhance spin effects on the electron semiclassical trajectory; the latter configuration yields a realization of a Stern-Gerlach apparatus for an electron.

  9. First results for SU(2) Yang-Mills with one adjoint Dirac Fermion

    CERN Document Server

    Athenodorou, Andreas; Bergner, Georg; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2013-01-01

    We present a first exploratory study of SU(2) gauge theory with one Dirac flavour in the adjoint representation. We provide initial results for the spectroscopy and the anomalous dimension for the chiral condensate. Our investigation indicates that the theory is conformal or near-conformal, with an anomalous dimension of order one. A discussion of the relevance of these findings in relation to walking technicolor scenarios is also presented.

  10. Pseudo-Marginal Slice Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Iain; Graham, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods asymptotically sample from complex probability distributions. The pseudo-marginal MCMC framework only requires an unbiased estimator of the unnormalized probability distribution function to construct a Markov chain. However, the resulting chains are harder to tune to a target distribution than conventional MCMC, and the types of updates available are limited. We describe a general way to clamp and update the random numbers used in a pseudo-marginal meth...

  11. Semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiujuan

    2014-01-01

    A semi-Dirac cone refers to a peculiar type of dispersion relation that is linear along the symmetry line but quadratic in the perpendicular direction. It was originally discovered in electron systems, in which the associated quasi-particles are massless along one direction, like those in graphene, but effective-mass-like along the other. It was reported that a semi-Dirac point is associated with the topological phase transition between a semi-metallic phase and a band insulator. Very recently, the classical analogy of a semi-Dirac cone has been reported in an electromagnetic system. Here, we demonstrate that, by accidental degeneracy, two-dimensional phononic crystals consisting of square arrays of elliptical cylinders embedded in water are also able to produce the particular dispersion relation of a semi-Dirac cone in the center of the Brillouin zone. A perturbation method is used to evaluate the linear slope and to affirm that the dispersion relation is a semi-Dirac type. If the scatterers are made of rubber, in which the acoustic wave velocity is lower than that in water, the semi-Dirac dispersion can be characterized by an effective medium theory. The effective medium parameters link the semi-Dirac point to a topological transition in the iso-frequency surface of the phononic crystal, in which an open hyperbola is changed into a closed ellipse. This topological transition results in drastic change in wave manipulation. On the other hand, the theory also reveals that the phononic crystal is a double-zero-index material along the x-direction and photonic-band-edge material along the perpendicular direction (y-direction). If the scatterers are made of steel, in which the acoustic wave velocity is higher than that in water, the effective medium description fails, even though the semi-Dirac dispersion relation looks similar to that in the previous case. Therefore different wave transport behavior is expected. The semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals described in

  12. Observation of the Kapitza-Dirac effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimund, Daniel L.; Aflatooni, Kayvan; Batelaan, Herman

    2001-09-01

    In their famous 1927 experiment, Davisson and Germer observed the diffraction of electrons by a periodic material structure, so showing that electrons can behave like waves. Shortly afterwards, Kapitza and Dirac predicted that electrons should also be diffracted by a standing light wave. This Kapitza-Dirac effect is analogous to the diffraction of light by a grating, but with the roles of the wave and matter reversed. The electron and the light grating interact extremely weakly, via the `ponderomotive potential', so attempts to measure the Kapitza-Dirac effect had to wait for the development of the laser. The idea that the underlying interaction with light is resonantly enhanced for electrons in an atom led to the observation that atoms could be diffracted by a standing wave of light. Deflection of electrons by high-intensity laser light, which is also a consequence of the Kapitza-Dirac effect, has also been demonstrated. But the coherent interference that characterizes wave diffraction has not hitherto been observed. Here we report the diffraction of free electrons from a standing light wave-a realization of the Kapitza-Dirac effect as originally proposed.

  13. Dirac Sea and its Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volfson, Boris

    2013-09-01

    The hypothesis of transition from a chaotic Dirac Sea, via highly unstable positronium, into a Simhony Model of stable face-centered cubic lattice structure of electrons and positrons securely bound in vacuum space, is considered. 13.75 Billion years ago, the new lattice, which, unlike a Dirac Sea, is permeable by photons and phonons, made the Universe detectable. Many electrons and positrons ended up annihilating each other producing energy quanta and neutrino-antineutrino pairs. The weak force of the electron-positron crystal lattice, bombarded by the chirality-changing neutrinos, may have started capturing these neutrinos thus transforming from cubic crystals into a quasicrystal lattice. Unlike cubic crystal lattice, clusters of quasicrystals are "slippery" allowing the formation of centers of local torsion, where gravity condenses matter into galaxies, stars and planets. In the presence of quanta, in a quasicrystal lattice, the Majorana neutrinos' rotation flips to the opposite direction causing natural transformations in a category comprised of three components; two others being positron and electron. In other words, each particle-antiparticle pair "e-" and "e+", in an individual crystal unit, could become either a quasi- component "e- ve e+", or a quasi- component "e+ - ve e-". Five-to-six six billion years ago, a continuous stimulation of the quasicrystal aetherial lattice by the same, similar, or different, astronomical events, could have triggered Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning processes. The Universe may have started writing script into its own aether in a code most appropriate for the quasicrystal aether "hardware": Eight three-dimensional "alphabet" characters, each corresponding to the individual quasi-crystal unit shape. They could be expressed as quantum Turing machine qubits, or, alternatively, in a binary code. The code numerals could contain terminal and nonterminal symbols of the Chomsky's hierarchy, wherein, the showers of quanta, forming the

  14. DIRAC - The Distributed MC Production and Analysis for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2004-01-01

    DIRAC is the LHCb distributed computing grid infrastructure for MC production and analysis. Its architecture is based on a set of distributed collaborating services. The service decomposition broadly follows the ARDA project proposal, allowing for the possibility of interchanging the EGEE/ARDA and DIRAC components in the future. Some components developed outside the DIRAC project are already in use as services, for example the File Catalog developed by the AliEn project. An overview of the DIRAC architecture will be given, in particular the recent developments to support user analysis. The main design choices will be presented. One of the main design goals of DIRAC is the simplicity of installation, configuring and operation of various services. This allows all the DIRAC resources to be easily managed by a single Production Manager. The modular design of the DIRAC components allows its functionality to be easily extended to include new computing and storage elements or to handle new tasks. The DIRAC system al...

  15. Interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer Dirac electron systems: motion and merging of Dirac cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assili, M.; Haddad, S.

    2013-09-01

    We theoretically study the effect of the motion and the merging of Dirac cones on the interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene-like systems. This merging, which can be induced by a uniaxial strain, gives rise in a monolayer Dirac electron system to a topological transition from a semi-metallic phase to an insulating phase whereby Dirac points disappear. Based on a universal Hamiltonian, proposed to describe the motion and the merging of Dirac points in two-dimensional Dirac electron crystals, we calculate the interlayer conductivity of a stack of deformed graphene-like layers using the Kubo formula in the quantum limit where only the contribution of the n = 0 Landau level is relevant. A crossover from a negative to a positive interlayer magnetoresistance is found to take place as the merging is approached. This sign change of the magnetoresistance can also result from a coupling between the Dirac valleys, which is enhanced as the magnetic field amplitude increases. Our results describe the behavior of the magnetotransport in the organic conductor α-(BEDT)2I3 and in a stack of deformed graphene-like systems. The latter can be simulated by optical lattices or microwave experiments in which the merging of Dirac cones can be observed.

  16. Interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer Dirac electron systems: motion and merging of Dirac cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assili, M; Haddad, S

    2013-09-11

    We theoretically study the effect of the motion and the merging of Dirac cones on the interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene-like systems. This merging, which can be induced by a uniaxial strain, gives rise in a monolayer Dirac electron system to a topological transition from a semi-metallic phase to an insulating phase whereby Dirac points disappear. Based on a universal Hamiltonian, proposed to describe the motion and the merging of Dirac points in two-dimensional Dirac electron crystals, we calculate the interlayer conductivity of a stack of deformed graphene-like layers using the Kubo formula in the quantum limit where only the contribution of the n = 0 Landau level is relevant. A crossover from a negative to a positive interlayer magnetoresistance is found to take place as the merging is approached. This sign change of the magnetoresistance can also result from a coupling between the Dirac valleys, which is enhanced as the magnetic field amplitude increases. Our results describe the behavior of the magnetotransport in the organic conductor α-(BEDT)2I3 and in a stack of deformed graphene-like systems. The latter can be simulated by optical lattices or microwave experiments in which the merging of Dirac cones can be observed.

  17. LHCb: Monitoring the DIRAC Distribution System

    CERN Multimedia

    Nandakumar, R; Santinelli, R

    2009-01-01

    DIRAC is the LHCb gateway to any computing grid infrastructure (currently supporting WLCG) and is intended to reliably run large data mining activities. The DIRAC system consists of various services (which wait to be contacted to perform actions) and agents (which carry out periodic activities) to direct jobs as required. An important part of ensuring the reliability of the infrastructure is the monitoring and logging of these DIRAC distributed systems. The monitoring is done collecting information from two sources - one is from pinging the services or by keeping track of the regular heartbeats of the agents, and the other from the analysis of the error messages generated by both agents and services and collected by the logging system. This allows us to ensure that he components are running properly and to collect useful information regarding their operations. The process status monitoring is displayed using the SLS sensor mechanism which also automatically allows one to plot various quantities and also keep ...

  18. Dirac neutrinos and SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the cooling of SN 1987A excludes a Dirac-neutrino mass greater than theta(20 keV) for nu(sub e), nu(sub mu), or nu(sub tau). The emission of wrong-helicity, Dirac neutrinos from SN 1987A, is re-examined. It is concluded that the effect of a Dirac neutrino on the cooling of SN 1987A has been underestimated due to neutrino degeneracy and additional emission processes. The limit that follows from the cooling of SN 1987A is believed to be greater (probably much greater) than 10 keV. This result is significant in light of the recent evidence for a 17 keV mass eigenstate that mixes with the electron neutrino.

  19. Triplet fermions and Dirac fermions in borophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezawa, Motohiko

    2017-07-01

    Borophene is a monolayer materials made of boron. A perfect planar boropehene called β12 borophene has Dirac cones and they are well reproduced by a tight-binding model according to recent experimental and first-principles calculation results. We explicitly derive a Dirac theory for β12 borophene. Dirac cones are gapless when the inversion symmetry exists, while they are gapped when it is broken. In addition, three-band touching points emerge together with pseudospin triplet fermions when all transfer energy is equal and all onsite energy is equal. The three-band touching is slightly resolved otherwise. We construct effective three-band theories for triplet fermions. We also study the edge states of borophene nanoribbons, which show various behaviors depending on the way of edge terminations.

  20. PERSAMAAN MEDAN DIRAC DALAM PENGARUH MEDAN MAGNETIK YANG SERAGAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrias Widiantoro, Erika Rani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan perlakuan khusus terhadap persamaan gerak partikel elementer yaitu Persamaan Dirac dengan dipengaruhi oleh medan magnet eksternal yang seragam untuk mendapat solusi Persamaan Dirac dalam pengaruh medan magnetic. Penambahan pengaruh potensial magnetik terhadap momentum dan energi total suatu partikel bermuatan dalam kajian teoritis terhadap persamaan gerak yaitu persamaan Dirac telah memberikan solusi persamaan medan Dirac yang baru, dan kuantisasi kedua yang terdapat konstanta tambahan serta propagasi fermioniknya terdapat suku pengali baru.

  1. On Huygens' principle for Dirac operators associated to electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHALUB FABIO A.C.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the behavior of massless Dirac particles, i.e., solutions of the Dirac equation with m = 0 in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Our main result (Theorem 1 is that for purely real or imaginary fields any Huygens type (in Hadamard's sense Dirac operators is equivalent to the free Dirac operator, equivalence given by changes of variables and multiplication (right and left by nonzero functions.

  2. Unconventional Dirac Polaritons in Cavity-Embedded Honeycomb Metasurfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Charlie-Ray; Sturges, Thomas Jebb; Weick, Guillaume; Barnes, William L.; Mariani, Eros

    2017-01-01

    The symmetries that dictate the existence of relativistic Dirac quasiparticles in condensed-matter systems have been exploited in the realization of a plethora of artificial Dirac materials. In these artificial systems, the ability to design and manipulate the lattice structure has enabled the exploration of Dirac physics in new regimes. However, little attention has been paid to the effect of the surrounding environment on the nature of the Dirac quasiparticles. Here we theoretically investi...

  3. Is the Composite Fermion a Dirac Particle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dam Thanh Son

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a particle-hole symmetric theory of the Fermi-liquid ground state of a half-filled Landau level. This theory should be applicable for a Dirac fermion in the magnetic field at charge neutrality, as well as for the ν=1/2 quantum Hall ground state of nonrelativistic fermions in the limit of negligible inter-Landau-level mixing. We argue that when particle-hole symmetry is exact, the composite fermion is a massless Dirac fermion, characterized by a Berry phase of π around the Fermi circle. We write down a tentative effective field theory of such a fermion and discuss the discrete symmetries, in particular, CP. The Dirac composite fermions interact through a gauge, but non-Chern-Simons, interaction. The particle-hole conjugate pair of Jain-sequence states at filling factors n/(2n+1 and (n+1/(2n+1, which in the conventional composite fermion picture corresponds to integer quantum Hall states with different filling factors, n and n+1, is now mapped to the same half-integer filling factor n+1/2 of the Dirac composite fermion. The Pfaffian and anti-Pfaffian states are interpreted as d-wave Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer paired states of the Dirac fermion with orbital angular momentum of opposite signs, while s-wave pairing would give rise to a particle-hole symmetric non-Abelian gapped phase. When particle-hole symmetry is not exact, the Dirac fermion has a CP-breaking mass. The conventional fermionic Chern-Simons theory is shown to emerge in the nonrelativistic limit of the massive theory.

  4. New explicit expressions for Dirac bilinears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2018-01-01

    We derive new explicit expressions for the Dirac bilinears based on a generic representation of the massive Dirac spinors with canonical polarization. These bilinears depend on a direction n in Minkowski space which specifies the form of dynamics. We argue that such a dependence is unavoidable in a relativistic theory with spin, since it originates from Wigner rotation effects. Contrary to most of the expressions found in the literature, ours are valid for all momenta and canonical polarizations of the spinors. As a byproduct, we also obtain a generic explicit expression for the covariant spin vector.

  5. Harmonic Spinors for Twisted Dirac Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, C

    1997-01-01

    We show that for a suitable class of ``Dirac-like'' operators there holds a Gluing Theorem for connected sums. More precisely, if $M_1$ and $M_2$ are closed Riemannian manifolds of dimension $n\\ge 3$ together with such operators, then the connected sum $M_1 # M_2$ can be given a Riemannian metric such that the spectrum of its associated operator is close to the disjoint union of the spectra of the two original operators. As an application, we show that in dimension $n\\equiv 3$ mod 4 harmonic spinors for the Dirac operator of a spin,

  6. Massive Dirac neutrinos and SN 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Adam; Gandhi, Raj; Turner, Michael S.

    1992-01-01

    The wrong-helicity states of a Dirac neutrino can provide an important cooling mechanism for young neutron stars. Based on numerical models of the early cooling of the neutron star associated with SN 1987A which self-consistently incorporate wrong-helicity neutrino emission, it is argued that a Dirac neutrino of mass greater than 30 keV (25 keV if it is degenerate) leads to shortening of the neutrino burst that is inconsistent with the Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven and Kamiokande II data. If pions are as abundant as nucleons in the cores of neutron stars, the present limit improves to 15 keV.

  7. A framework for unified Dirac gauginos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benakli Karim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We identify the Minimal Dirac Gaugino Supersymmetric Standard Model (MDGSSM as the minimal field content with Dirac gauginos allowing unification of gauge coupling. We stress that its parameter space describes also other most popular models as the MSSM, NMSSM and MRSSM. We discuss the generation of trilinear couplings in models of gauge mediation that has been overlooked in the past. We study the different source of Higgs mixings and constraints from the ƿ parameter. Finally, we provide new experimental limits on the masses of the scalar octets.

  8. Kondo effect in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, Andrew K.; Fritz, Lars|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371569559

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic impurities in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl systems are shown to exhibit a fascinatingly diverse range of Kondo physics, with distinctive experimental spectroscopic signatures. When the Fermi level is precisely at the Dirac point, Dirac semimetals are in fact unlikely candidates for a

  9. Interconnection of Dirac structures via kernel/image representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iftime, Orest V.; Sandovici, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Dirac structures are used to mathematically formalize the power-conserving interconnection structure of physical systems. For finite-dimensional systems several representations are available and it is known that the composition (or interconnection) of two Dirac structures is again a Dirac structure.

  10. Dirac cones beyond the honeycomb lattice : a symmetry based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miert, G. van; de Morais Smith, Cristiane

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several new materials exhibiting massless Dirac fermions have been proposed. However, many of these do not have the typical graphene honeycomb lattice, which is often associated with Dirac cones. Here, we present a classification of these different two-dimensional Dirac systems based on

  11. Estados de pseudo-Cushing

    OpenAIRE

    Romanholi, Daniella J.P.C.; SALGADO, Luiz Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Síndromes de pseudo-Cushing são um grupo heterogêneo de doenças, incluindo alcoolismo, anorexia nervosa, obesidade visceral e depressão, que compartilham muitas das características clínicas e bioquímicas da síndrome de Cushing. Os mecanismos responsáveis para a gênese da síndrome de pseudo-Cushing são fracamente compreendidos. Tem sido sugerido que o hipercortisolismo da síndrome de pseudo-Cushing pode ser resultante do aumento da secreção do hormônio liberador de corticotrofina (CRH) hipotal...

  12. Higher dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics and Dirac ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We exhibit the supersymmetric quantum mechanical structure of the full 3+1 dimensional Dirac equation considering `mass' as a function of coordinates. Its usefulness in solving potential problems is discussed with specific examples. We also discuss the `physical' significance of the supersymmetric states in this formalism.

  13. A Study of Dirac Fermionic Dark Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Chun-Khiang; Hsieh, Ron-Chou

    2013-01-01

    We study pure weak eigenstate Dirac fermionic dark matters (DM). We consider WIMP with renormalizable interaction. According to results of direct searches and the nature of DM (electrical neutral and being a pure weak eigenstate), the quantum number of DM is determined to be $I_3=Y=0$. There are only two possible cases: either DM has non-vanishing weak isospin ($I\

  14. On equivariant Dirac operators for SUq(2)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that for classical SU(2), there does not exist any Dirac operator acting on (one copy of) the L2 space that is both equivariant as well as 3-summable. These triples were later analysed by Connes [6] in great detail, where the general theory of Connes–Moscovici was applied to obtain a beautiful local index formula for SUq(2).

  15. All about the Dirac Delta Function (?)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. All about the Dirac Delta Function (?). V Balakrishnan. General Article Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 48-58. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/08/0048-0058. Keywords.

  16. Understanding Quaternions and the Dirac Belt Trick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2n rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4n rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors…

  17. The Dirac-Electron Vacuum Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daywitt W. C.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the Dirac equation can be interpreted as an interaction between the electron core and the Planck vacuum state, where the positive and negative solutions represent respectively the dynamics of the electron core and a vacuum wave propagating within the vacuum state. Results show that the nonrelativistic positive solution reduces to the Schrödinger wave equation

  18. Hourglass Dirac chain metal in rhenium dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Shan; Liu, Ying; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Sheng, Xian-Lei; Yang, Shengyuan A

    2017-11-29

    Nonsymmorphic symmetries, which involve fractional lattice translations, can generate exotic types of fermionic excitations in crystalline materials. Here we propose a topological phase arising from nonsymmorphic symmetries-the hourglass Dirac chain metal, and predict its realization in the rhenium dioxide. We show that ReO2 features hourglass-type dispersion in the bulk electronic structure dictated by its nonsymmorphic space group. Due to time reversal and inversion symmetries, each band has an additional two-fold degeneracy, making the neck crossing-point of the hourglass four-fold degenerate. Remarkably, close to the Fermi level, the neck crossing-point traces out a Dirac chain-a chain of connected four-fold-degenerate Dirac loops-in the momentum space. The symmetry protection, the transformation under symmetry-breaking, and the associated topological surface states of the Dirac chain are revealed. Our results open the door to an unknown class of topological matters, and provide a platform to explore their intriguing physics.

  19. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac-An Appreciation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac –An Appreciation. N Mukunda. Article-in-a-Box Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 3-6. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/08/0003-0006 ...

  20. LHCb: DIRAC A community grid solution

    CERN Multimedia

    Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2007-01-01

    The DIRAC project began as a solution for the LHCb experiment at CERN to carry out massive Monte Carlo simulation and data processing on various distributed computing resources. Now it is evolving to a complete Grid solution for community of users such as LHCb.

  1. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac-An Appreciation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dirac attended elementary and secondary schools in Bristol and in 1918 became a student of elec- ... failure of commutativity of multiplication, which. Heisenberg had regarded as a possible flaw in his theory, was in fact vitally ... the Bohr Institute in Copenhagen, as well as to. Max Born's school)n Gottingen. In the ensuing.

  2. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902-1984)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902-1984). Featured Scientist Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 113-113. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/08/0113-0113. Resonance – Journal of ...

  3. Dynamical Localization for Discrete Anderson Dirac Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Roberto A.; de Oliveira, César R.; Carvalho, Silas L.

    2017-04-01

    We establish dynamical localization for random Dirac operators on the d-dimensional lattice, with d\\in { 1, 2, 3} , in the three usual regimes: large disorder, band edge and 1D. These operators are discrete versions of the continuous Dirac operators and consist in the sum of a discrete free Dirac operator with a random potential. The potential is a diagonal matrix formed by different scalar potentials, which are sequences of independent and identically distributed random variables according to an absolutely continuous probability measure with bounded density and of compact support. We prove the exponential decay of fractional moments of the Green function for such models in each of the above regimes, i.e., (j) throughout the spectrum at larger disorder, (jj) for energies near the band edges at arbitrary disorder and (jjj) in dimension one, for all energies in the spectrum and arbitrary disorder. Dynamical localization in theses regimes follows from the fractional moments method. The result in the one-dimensional regime contrast with one that was previously obtained for 1D Dirac model with Bernoulli potential.

  4. The GridPP DIRAC project - DIRAC for non-LHC communities

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, D; Currie, R; Fayer, S; Huffman, A; Martyniak, J; Rand, D; Richards, A

    2015-01-01

    The GridPP consortium in the UK is currently testing a multi-VO DIRAC service aimed at non-LHC VOs. These VOs (Virtual Organisations) are typically small and generally do not have a dedicated computing support post. The majority of these represent particle physics experiments (e.g. NA62 and COMET), although the scope of the DIRAC service is not limited to this field. A few VOs have designed bespoke tools around the EMI-WMS & LFC, while others have so far eschewed distributed resources as they perceive the overhead for accessing them to be too high. The aim of the GridPP DIRAC project is to provide an easily adaptable toolkit for such VOs in order to lower the threshold for access to distributed resources such as Grid and cloud computing. As well as hosting a centrally run DIRAC service, we will also publish our changes and additions to the upstream DIRAC codebase under an open-source license. We report on the current status of this project and show increasing adoption of DIRAC within the non-LHC communiti...

  5. Pseudo-Weak-R0 Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Lin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A positive answer to the open problem of Iorgulescu on extending weak-R0 algebras and R0-algebras to the noncommutative forms is given. We show that pseudo-weak-R0 algebras are categorically isomorphic to pseudo-IMTL algebras and that pseudo-R0 algebras are categorically isomorphic to pseudo-NM algebras. Some properties, the noncommutative forms of the properties in weak-R0 algebras and R0-algebras, are investigated. The simplified axiom systems of pseudo-weak-R0 algebras and pseudo-R0 algebras are obtained.

  6. Exending pseudo-arcs in odd characteristic

    OpenAIRE

    Penttila, Tim; Van de Voorde, Geertrui

    2015-01-01

    A {\\em pseudo-arc} in $\\mathrm{PG}(3n-1,q)$ is a set of $(n-1)$-spaces such that any three of them span the whole space. A pseudo-arc of size $q^n+1$ is a {\\em pseudo-oval}. If a pseudo-oval $\\mathcal{O}$ is obtained by applying field reduction to a conic in $\\mathrm{PG}(2,q^n)$, then $\\mathcal{O}$ is called a {\\em pseudo-conic}. We first explain the connection of (pseudo-)arcs with Laguerre planes, orthogonal arrays and generalised quadrangles. In particular, we prove that the Ahrens-Szekere...

  7. Distinguishing Dirac/Majorana sterile neutrinos at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, Claudio O. [Univ. Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). CCTVal y Dept. of Physics; Kim, C.S. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics and IPAP; Wang, Kechen [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zhang, Jue [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics

    2016-06-15

    We study the purely leptonic decays of W{sup ±} → e{sup ±}e{sup ±}μ{sup -+}ν and μ{sup ±}μ{sup ±}e{sup -+}ν produced at the LHC, induced by sterile neutrinos with mass m{sub N} below M{sub W} in the intermediate state. Since the final state neutrino escapes detection, one cannot tell whether this process violates lepton number, what would indicate a Majorana character for the intermediate sterile neutrino. Our study shows that when the sterile neutrino mixings with electrons and muons are different enough, one can still discriminate between the Dirac and Majorana character of this intermediate neutrino by simply counting and comparing the above decay rates. After performing collider simulations and statistical analysis, we find that at the 14 TeV LHC with an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}, for two benchmark scenarios m{sub N}=20 GeV and 50 GeV, at least a 3σ level of exclusion on the Dirac case can be achieved for disparities as mild as e.g. vertical stroke U{sub Ne} vertical stroke {sup 2}<0.7 vertical stroke U{sub Nμ} vertical stroke {sup 2} or vertical stroke U{sub Nμ} vertical stroke {sup 2}<0.7 vertical stroke U{sub Ne} vertical stroke {sup 2}, provided that vertical stroke U{sub Ne} vertical stroke {sup 2}, vertical stroke U{sub Nμ} vertical stroke {sup 2} are both above ∝2 x 10{sup -6}.

  8. Scenario? Guilty!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1992-01-01

    Robert Campbell categorizes the word "scenario" as a buzzword, identifies four major uses within HCI and suggests that we adopt new terms differentiating these four uses of the word. My first reaction to reading the article was definitely positive, but rereading it gave me enough second thoughts...

  9. Classical electromagnetic radiation of the Dirac electron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanyi, G.

    1973-01-01

    A wave-function-dependent four-vector potential is added to the Dirac equation in order to achieve conservation of energy and momentum for a Dirac electron and its emitted electromagnetic field. The resultant equation contains solutions which describe transitions between different energy states of the electron. As a consequence it is possible to follow the space-time evolution of such a process. This evolution is shown in the case of the spontaneous emission of an electromagnetic field by an electron bound in a hydrogen-like atom. The intensity of the radiation and the spectral distribution are calculated for transitions between two eigenstates. The theory gives a self-consistent deterministic description of some simple radiation processes without using quantum electrodynamics or the correspondence principle.

  10. LHCb: Pilot Framework and the DIRAC WMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Graciani, R; Casajus, A

    2009-01-01

    DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, pilot jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach. Details of the implementation and the security aspects of this framework will be discussed.

  11. Floquet-Engineered Valleytronics in Dirac Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Arijit; Fertig, H. A.; Seradjeh, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Valley degrees of freedom offer a potential resource for quantum information processing if they can be effectively controlled. We discuss an optical approach to this problem in which intense light breaks electronic symmetries of a two-dimensional Dirac material. The resulting quasienergy structures may then differ for different valleys, so that the Floquet physics of the system can be exploited to produce highly polarized valley currents. This physics can be utilized to realize a valley valve whose behavior is determined optically. We propose a concrete way to achieve such valleytronics in graphene as well as in a simple model of an inversion-symmetry broken Dirac material. We study the effect numerically and demonstrate its robustness against moderate disorder and small deviations in optical parameters.

  12. Dynamical seesaw mechanism for Dirac neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José W.F. Valle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available So far we have not been able to establish that, as theoretically expected, neutrinos are their own anti-particles. Here we propose a dynamical way to account for the Dirac nature of neutrinos and the smallness of their mass in terms of a new variant of the seesaw paradigm in which the energy scale of neutrino mass generation could be accessible to the current LHC experiments.

  13. Dirac Quasinormal modes of Schwarzschild black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Jing, Jiliang

    2005-01-01

    The quasinormal modes (QNMs) associated with the decay of Dirac field perturbation around a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated by using continued fraction and Hill-determinant approaches. It is shown that the fundamental quasinormal frequencies become evenly spaced for large angular quantum number and the spacing is given by $\\omega_{\\lambda+1}- \\omega_{\\lambda}=0.38490-0.00000i$. The angular quantum number has the surprising effect of increasing real part of the quasinormal frequencies...

  14. Dirac particles in a gravitational field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosselin, Pierre [UFR de Mathematiques, Universite Grenoble I, BP74, Institut Fourier, UMR 5582 CNRS-UJF, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Mohrbach, Herve [Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Groupe BioPhysStat, ICPMB-FR CNRS 2843, Metz Cedex 3 (France)

    2011-09-15

    The semiclassical approximation for the Hamiltonian of Dirac particles interacting with an arbitrary gravitational field is investigated. The time dependence of the metric leads to new contributions to the in-band energy operator in comparison to previous works in the static case. In particular we find a new coupling term between the linear momentum and the spin, as well as couplings that contribute to the breaking of the particle-antiparticle symmetry. (orig.)

  15. Dirac particle in a pseudoscalar potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. Postal 20-364, 01000 (Mexico), D.F.; Zentella-Dehesa, A. [Departamento de Fisicoquimica, Intituto de Quimica, UNAM Ap. Postal 70-213, 04510 (Mexico), D.F.

    1996-02-01

    We study the problem of a Dirac particle with a pseudoscalar interaction in the potential approximation. It is shown how nonperturbative relativistic solutions arise. The case of the central pseudoscalar potential is explicitly worked out also in a closed form. The angular functions are worked out in general for this central case. Finally for the special case of the spherical well the radial solutions are shown to behave like Bessel-type functions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Pseudoclassical description of the Dirac Oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsolmesa, Antonio; Martinezyromero, R. P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the Dirac Oscillator wave equation in terms of pseudoclassical language, using Grassmann variables to describe the internal degrees of freedom of the oscillator. Regarding the original wave equation as a classical constraint, we use the theory of constrained systems, to develop a reparameterization invariant lagrangian, which is the pseudoclassical equivalent of the quantum case. The consistency of the Hamiltonian formalism and the quantization procedure are also analyzed.

  17. Dispersionless wave packets in Dirac materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubský, Vít, E-mail: jakub@ujf.cas.cz [Department of Theoretical Physics, Nuclear Physics Institute, 25068 Řež (Czech Republic); Tušek, Matěj, E-mail: tusekmat@fjfi.cvut.cz [Department of Mathematics, Czech Technical University in Prague, Trojanova 13, 120 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-15

    We show that a wide class of quantum systems with translational invariance can host dispersionless, soliton-like, wave packets. We focus on the setting where the effective, two-dimensional Hamiltonian acquires the form of the Dirac operator. The proposed framework for construction of the dispersionless wave packets is illustrated on silicene-like systems with topologically nontrivial effective mass. Our analytical predictions are accompanied by a numerical analysis and possible experimental realizations are discussed.

  18. Manipulation of Dirac Cones in Mechanical Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyado, Toshikaze; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Recently, quantum Hall state analogs in classical mechanics attract much attention from topological points of view. Topology is not only for mathematicians but also quite useful in a quantum world. Further it even governs the Newton’s law of motion. One of the advantages of classical systems over solid state materials is its clear controllability. Here we investigate mechanical graphene, which is a spring-mass model with the honeycomb structure as a typical mechanical model with nontrivial topological phenomena. The vibration spectrum of mechanical graphene is characterized by Dirac cones serving as sources of topological nontriviality. We find that the spectrum has dramatic dependence on the spring tension at equilibrium as a natural control parameter, i.e., creation and annihilation of the Dirac particles are realized as the tension increases. Just by rotating the system, the manipulated Dirac particles lead to topological transition, i.e., a jump of the “Chern number” occurs associated with flipping of propagating direction of chiral edge modes. This is a bulk-edge correspondence governed by the Newton’s law. A simple observation that in-gap edge modes exist only at the fixed boundary, but not at the free one, is attributed to the symmetry protection of topological phases.

  19. Manipulation of Dirac Cones in Mechanical Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariyado, Toshikaze; Hatsugai, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Recently, quantum Hall state analogs in classical mechanics attract much attention from topological points of view. Topology is not only for mathematicians but also quite useful in a quantum world. Further it even governs the Newton’s law of motion. One of the advantages of classical systems over solid state materials is its clear controllability. Here we investigate mechanical graphene, which is a spring-mass model with the honeycomb structure as a typical mechanical model with nontrivial topological phenomena. The vibration spectrum of mechanical graphene is characterized by Dirac cones serving as sources of topological nontriviality. We find that the spectrum has dramatic dependence on the spring tension at equilibrium as a natural control parameter, i.e., creation and annihilation of the Dirac particles are realized as the tension increases. Just by rotating the system, the manipulated Dirac particles lead to topological transition, i.e., a jump of the “Chern number” occurs associated with flipping of propagating direction of chiral edge modes. This is a bulk-edge correspondence governed by the Newton’s law. A simple observation that in-gap edge modes exist only at the fixed boundary, but not at the free one, is attributed to the symmetry protection of topological phases. PMID:26667580

  20. Type-II Symmetry-Protected Topological Dirac Semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tay-Rong; Xu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, Daniel S; Tsai, Wei-Feng; Huang, Shin-Ming; Chang, Guoqing; Hsu, Chuang-Han; Bian, Guang; Belopolski, Ilya; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Yang, Shengyuan A; Neupert, Titus; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M Zahid

    2017-07-14

    The recent proposal of the type-II Weyl semimetal state has attracted significant interest. In this Letter, we propose the concept of the three-dimensional type-II Dirac fermion and theoretically identify this new symmetry-protected topological state in the large family of transition-metal icosagenides, MA_{3} (M=V, Nb, Ta; A=Al, Ga, In). We show that the VAl_{3} family features a pair of strongly Lorentz-violating type-II Dirac nodes and that each Dirac node can be split into four type-II Weyl nodes with chiral charge ±1 via symmetry breaking. Furthermore, we predict that the Landau level spectrum arising from the type-II Dirac fermions in VAl_{3} is distinct from that of known Dirac or Weyl semimetals. We also demonstrate a topological phase transition from a type-II Dirac semimetal to a quadratic Weyl semimetal or a topological crystalline insulator via crystalline distortions.

  1. Spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator at finite lattice spacings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akemann, G.; Damgaard, Poul Henrik; Splittorff, Kim

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effect of discretization errors on the microscopic spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator using both chiral Perturbation Theory and chiral Random Matrix Theory. A graded chiral Lagrangian is used to evaluate the microscopic spectral density of the Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator...... as well as the distribution of the chirality over the real eigenvalues of the Wilson Dirac operator. It is shown that a chiral Random Matrix Theory for the Wilson Dirac operator reproduces the leading zero-momentum terms of Wilson chiral Perturbation Theory. All results are obtained for fixed index...... of the Wilson Dirac operator. The low-energy constants of Wilson chiral Perturbation theory are shown to be constrained by the Hermiticity properties of the Wilson Dirac operator....

  2. DIRAC The Distributed MC Production and Analysis for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Bernet, R; Blouw, J; Brook, N; Charpentier, P; Closier, J; Egede, U; Frank, M; Gandelman, M; Garonne, V; Graciani-Díaz, R; Korolko, I; Kuznetsov, G; Patrick, G; Pickford, A; Romanovski, V G; Saborido-Silva, J J; Sánchez-García, M; Saroka, A; Stokes-Rees, I; Tobin, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A Yu; Vagnoni, V; Witek, M

    2005-01-01

    DIRAC is the LHCb distributed computing grid infrastructure for MC production and analysis. Its architecture is based on a set of distributed collaborating services. The service decomposition broadly follows the CERN/ARDA-RTAG proposal, which can eventually make possible the interchange of the EGEE/gLite and DIRAC components. In this paper we give an overview of the DIRAC architecture, as well as the main design choices in its implementation. The light nature and modular design of the DIRAC components allows its functionality to be easily extended to include new computing and storage elements or to handle new types of tasks. The DIRAC system already uses different types of computing resources - from single PC's to a variety of batch systems and to the Grid environment. In particular, the DIRAC interface to the LCG2 grid will be presented.

  3. DIRAC - The Distributed MC Production and Analysis for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067410; Charpentier, P; Closier, J; Frank, M; Garonne, V; Witek, M; Romanovski, V; Egede, U; Vagnoni, V; Korolko, I; Blouw, J; Kuznetsov, G; Patrick, G; Gandelman, M; Graciani-Diaz, R; Bernet, R; Brook, N; Pickford, A; Tobin, M; Saroka, A; Stokes-Rees, I; Saborido-Silva, J; Sanchez-Garcia, M

    2004-09-30

    DIRAC is the LHCb distributed computing grid infrastructure for Monte Carlo (MC) production and analysis. Its architecture is based on a set of distributed collaborating services. The service decomposition broadly follows the CERN/ARDA-RTAG proposal, which should allow for the interchange of the EGEE/gLite and DIRAC components. In this paper we give an overview of the DIRAC architecture, as well as the main design choices in its implementation. The light nature and modular design of the DIRAC components allows its functionality to be easily extended to include new computing and storage elements or to handle new types of tasks. The DIRAC system already uses different types of computing resources - from single PC's to a variety of batch systems and to the Grid environment. In particular, the DIRAC interface to the LCG2 grid will be presented.

  4. Quasiparticle dynamics in reshaped helical Dirac cone of topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Lin; Wang, Z F; Ming, Wenmei; Yao, Meng-Yu; Wang, Meixiao; Yang, Fang; Song, Y R; Zhu, Fengfeng; Fedorov, Alexei V; Sun, Z; Gao, C L; Liu, Canhua; Xue, Qi-Kun; Liu, Chao-Xing; Liu, Feng; Qian, Dong; Jia, Jin-Feng

    2013-02-19

    Topological insulators and graphene present two unique classes of materials, which are characterized by spin-polarized (helical) and nonpolarized Dirac cone band structures, respectively. The importance of many-body interactions that renormalize the linear bands near Dirac point in graphene has been well recognized and attracted much recent attention. However, renormalization of the helical Dirac point has not been observed in topological insulators. Here, we report the experimental observation of the renormalized quasiparticle spectrum with a skewed Dirac cone in a single Bi bilayer grown on Bi(2)Te(3) substrate from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. First-principles band calculations indicate that the quasiparticle spectra are likely associated with the hybridization between the extrinsic substrate-induced Dirac states of Bi bilayer and the intrinsic surface Dirac states of Bi(2)Te(3) film at close energy proximity. Without such hybridization, only single-particle Dirac spectra are observed in a single Bi bilayer grown on Bi(2)Se(3), where the extrinsic Dirac states Bi bilayer and the intrinsic Dirac states of Bi(2)Se(3) are well separated in energy. The possible origins of many-body interactions are discussed. Our findings provide a means to manipulate topological surface states.

  5. Exact solutions for non-Hermitian Dirac-Pauli equation in an intensive magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionov, V. N.

    2015-04-01

    We consider modified Dirac-Pauli equations that are entered using {{γ }5}-mass factorization, m\\to {{m}1}+/- {{γ }5}{{m}2}, of an ordinary Klein-Gordon operator. We also consider the interaction of fermions with an intensive uniform magnetic field, focusing on their (g-2) gyromagnetic factor. Due to effective research procedures, we derive the exact solutions of the enregy spectra of pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians, taking into account the spin of the fermions. The basic research methods are the elucidation of the new border areas of the unbroken PT symmetry of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. In particular, it is shown that the reality energy spectrum of fermions at rest can be expressed by limiting the intensity of the magnetic field, H≤slant {{H}max }={{m}2}/(2Δ μ {{m}1}), where Δ μ is an anomalous magnetic moment of particles.

  6. Speed-of-light pulses in the massless nonlinear Dirac equation with a potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Niurka R.; Mertens, Franz G.; Cooper, Fred; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    We consider the massless nonlinear Dirac (NLD) equation in 1 +1 dimension with scalar-scalar self-interaction g/22 (Ψ¯Ψ ) 2 in the presence of three external electromagnetic real potentials V (x ) , a potential barrier, a constant potential, and a potential well. By solving numerically the NLD equation, we find different scenarios depending on initial conditions, namely, propagation of the initial pulse along one direction, splitting of the initial pulse into two pulses traveling in opposite directions, and focusing of two initial pulses followed by a splitting. For all considered cases, the final waves travel with the speed of light and are solutions of the massless linear Dirac equation. During these processes the charge and the energy are conserved, whereas the momentum is conserved when the solutions possess specific symmetries. For the case of the constant potential, we derive exact analytical solutions of the massless NLD equation that are also solutions of the massless linearized Dirac equation. Decay or growth of the initial pulse is also predicted from the evolution of the charge for the case of a non-zero imaginary part of the potential.

  7. Universal Quantum Criticality in the Metal-Insulator Transition of Two-Dimensional Interacting Dirac Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Otsuka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The metal-insulator transition has been a subject of intense research since Mott first proposed that the metallic behavior of interacting electrons could turn to an insulating one as electron correlations increase. Here, we consider electrons with massless Dirac-like dispersion in two spatial dimensions, described by the Hubbard models on two geometrically different lattices, and perform numerically exact calculations on unprecedentedly large systems that, combined with a careful finite-size scaling analysis, allow us to explore the quantum critical behavior in the vicinity of the interaction-driven metal-insulator transition. Thereby, we find that the transition is continuous, and we determine the quantum criticality for the corresponding universality class, which is described in the continuous limit by the Gross-Neveu model, a model extensively studied in quantum field theory. Furthermore, we discuss a fluctuation-driven scenario for the metal-insulator transition in the interacting Dirac electrons: The metal-insulator transition is triggered only by the vanishing of the quasiparticle weight, not by the Dirac Fermi velocity, which instead remains finite near the transition. This important feature cannot be captured by a simple mean-field or Gutzwiller-type approximate picture but is rather consistent with the low-energy behavior of the Gross-Neveu model.

  8. Dirac equation in 2-dimensional curved spacetime, particle creation, and coupled waveguide arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koke, Christian, E-mail: christian.koke@stud.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Noh, Changsuk, E-mail: changsuk@kias.re.kr [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Angelakis, Dimitris G., E-mail: dimitris.angelakis@gmail.com [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 (Singapore); School of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, Crete, 73100 (Greece)

    2016-11-15

    When quantum fields are coupled to gravitational fields, spontaneous particle creation may occur similarly to when they are coupled to external electromagnetic fields. A gravitational field can be incorporated as a background spacetime if the back-action of matter on the field can be neglected, resulting in modifications of the Dirac or Klein–Gordon equations for elementary fermions and bosons respectively. The semi-classical description predicts particle creation in many situations, including the expanding-universe scenario, near the event horizon of a black hole (the Hawking effect), and an accelerating observer in flat spacetime (the Unruh effect). In this work, we give a pedagogical introduction to the Dirac equation in a general 2D spacetime and show examples of spinor wave packet dynamics in flat and curved background spacetimes. In particular, we cover the phenomenon of particle creation in a time-dependent metric. Photonic analogs of these effects are then proposed, where classical light propagating in an array of coupled waveguides provides a visualisation of the Dirac spinor propagating in a curved 2D spacetime background. The extent to which such a single-particle description can be said to mimic particle creation is discussed.

  9. Prototype of a production system for Cherenkov Telescope Array with DIRAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrabito, L.; Bregeon, J.; Haupt, A.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Stagni, F.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.

    2015-12-01

    -defined scenarios. In this paper, we present a brief summary of the DIRAC evaluation done so far, as well as the future developments planned for the CTA production system. In particular, we will focus on the developments of CTA automatic workflows, based on the Transformation System. As a result, we also propose some design optimizations of the Transformation System, in order to fully support the most complex workflows, envisaged in the CTA processing.

  10. Chiral Anomaly from Strain-Induced Gauge Fields in Dirac and Weyl Semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulin, D. I.; Chen, Anffany; Franz, M.

    2016-10-01

    Dirac and Weyl semimetals form an ideal platform for testing ideas developed in high-energy physics to describe massless relativistic particles. One such quintessentially field-theoretic idea of the chiral anomaly already resulted in the prediction and subsequent observation of the pronounced negative magnetoresistance in these novel materials for parallel electric and magnetic fields. Here, we predict that the chiral anomaly occurs—and has experimentally observable consequences—when real electromagnetic fields E and B are replaced by strain-induced pseudo-electromagnetic fields e and b . For example, a uniform pseudomagnetic field b is generated when a Weyl semimetal nanowire is put under torsion. In accordance with the chiral anomaly equation, we predict a negative contribution to the wire resistance proportional to the square of the torsion strength. Remarkably, left- and right-moving chiral modes are then spatially segregated to the bulk and surface of the wire forming a "topological coaxial cable." This produces hydrodynamic flow with potentially very long relaxation time. Another effect we predict is the ultrasonic attenuation and electromagnetic emission due to a time-periodic mechanical deformation causing pseudoelectric field e . These novel manifestations of the chiral anomaly are most striking in the semimetals with a single pair of Weyl nodes but also occur in Dirac semimetals such as Cd3 As2 and Na3Bi and Weyl semimetals with unbroken time-reversal symmetry.

  11. Chiral Anomaly from Strain-Induced Gauge Fields in Dirac and Weyl Semimetals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Pikulin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dirac and Weyl semimetals form an ideal platform for testing ideas developed in high-energy physics to describe massless relativistic particles. One such quintessentially field-theoretic idea of the chiral anomaly already resulted in the prediction and subsequent observation of the pronounced negative magnetoresistance in these novel materials for parallel electric and magnetic fields. Here, we predict that the chiral anomaly occurs—and has experimentally observable consequences—when real electromagnetic fields E and B are replaced by strain-induced pseudo-electromagnetic fields e and b. For example, a uniform pseudomagnetic field b is generated when a Weyl semimetal nanowire is put under torsion. In accordance with the chiral anomaly equation, we predict a negative contribution to the wire resistance proportional to the square of the torsion strength. Remarkably, left- and right-moving chiral modes are then spatially segregated to the bulk and surface of the wire forming a “topological coaxial cable.” This produces hydrodynamic flow with potentially very long relaxation time. Another effect we predict is the ultrasonic attenuation and electromagnetic emission due to a time-periodic mechanical deformation causing pseudoelectric field e. These novel manifestations of the chiral anomaly are most striking in the semimetals with a single pair of Weyl nodes but also occur in Dirac semimetals such as Cd_{3}As_{2} and Na_{3}Bi and Weyl semimetals with unbroken time-reversal symmetry.

  12. Dirac Gauginos, Gauge Mediation and Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Benakli, K

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings.

  13. Topological strings linking with quasiparticle exchange in superconducting Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Pedro L. e. S.; Teo, Jeffrey C. Y.; Ryu, Shinsei

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate a topological classification of vortices in three-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological superconductors based on superconducting Dirac semimetals with an s -wave superconducting order parameter by means of a pair of numbers (NΦ,N ) , accounting how many units NΦ of magnetic fluxes h c /4 e and how many N chiral Majorana modes the vortex carries. From these quantities, we introduce a topological invariant, which further classifies the properties of such vortices under linking processes. While such processes are known to be related to instanton processes in a field theoretic description, we demonstrate here that they are, in fact, also equivalent to the fractional Josephson effect on junctions based at the edges of quantum spin Hall systems. This allows one to consider microscopically the effects of interactions in the linking problem. We therefore demonstrate that associated to links between vortices, one has the exchange of quasiparticles, either Majorana zero modes, or e /2 quasiparticles, which allows for a topological classification of vortices in these systems, seen to be Z8 classified. While NΦ and N are shown to be both even or odd in the weakly interacting limit, in the strongly interacting scenario one loosens this constraint. In this case, one may have further fractionalization possibilities for the vortices, whose excitations are described by SO(3) 3 -like conformal field theories with quasiparticle exchanges of more exotic types.

  14. Upper-Division Student Difficulties with the Dirac Delta Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them.…

  15. LEIBNIZ - DIRAC STRUCTURES AND NONCONSERVATIVE SYSTEMS WITH CONSTRAINTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftci, Unver

    Although conservative Hamiltonian systems with constraints can be formulated in terms of Dirac structures, a more general framework is necessary to cover also dissipative systems such as gradient and metriplectic systems with constraints. We define Leibniz-Dirac structures which lead to a natural

  16. Dirac point movement and topological phase transition in patterned graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Marc; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-02-28

    The honeycomb lattice of graphene is characterized by linear dispersion and pseudospin chirality of fermions on the Dirac cones. If lattice anisotropy is introduced, the Dirac cones stay intact but move in reciprocal space. Dirac point movement can lead to a topological transition from semimetal to semiconductor when two inequivalent Dirac points merge, an idea that has attracted significant research interest. However, such movement normally requires unrealistically high lattice anisotropy. Here we show that anisotropic defects can break the C3 symmetry of graphene, leading to Dirac point drift in the Brillouin zone. Additionally, the long-range order in periodically patterned graphene can induce intervalley scattering between two inequivalent Dirac points, resulting in a semimetal-to-insulator topological phase transition. The magnitude and direction of Dirac point drift are predicted analytically, which are consistent with our first-principles electronic structure calculations. Thus, periodically patterned graphene can be used to study the fascinating physics associated with Dirac point movement and the corresponding phase transition.

  17. Filling-Enforced Magnetic Dirac Semimetals in Two Dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Steve M; Wieder, Benjamin J

    2017-05-05

    Filling-enforced Dirac semimetals, or those required at specific fillings by the combination of crystalline and time-reversal symmetries, have been proposed in numerous materials. However, Dirac points in these materials are not generally robust against breaking or modifying time-reversal symmetry. We present a new class of two-dimensional Dirac semimetal protected by the combination of crystal symmetries and a special, antiferromagnetic time-reversal symmetry. Systems in this class of magnetic layer groups, while having broken time-reversal symmetry, still respect the operation of time-reversal followed by a half-lattice translation. In contrast to 2D time-reversal-symmetric Dirac semimetal phases, this magnetic Dirac phase is capable of hosting just a single isolated Dirac point at the Fermi level, one that can be stabilized solely by symmorphic crystal symmetries. We find that this Dirac point represents a new quantum critical point, existing at the boundary between Chern insulating, antiferromagnetic topological crystalline insulating, and trivial insulating phases, and we discuss its relationship with condensed matter fermion doubling theorems. We present density functional theoretic calculations which demonstrate the presence of these 2D magnetic Dirac points in FeSe monolayers and discuss the implications for engineering quantum phase transitions in these materials.

  18. Relativistic Spinning Particle without Grassmann Variables and the Dirac Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Deriglazov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the relativistic particle model without Grassmann variables which, being canonically quantized, leads to the Dirac equation. Classical dynamics of the model is in correspondence with the dynamics of mean values of the corresponding operators in the Dirac theory. Classical equations for the spin tensor are the same as those of the Barut-Zanghi model of spinning particle.

  19. Pseudo random signal processing theory and application

    CERN Document Server

    Zepernick, Hans-Jurgen

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, pseudo random signal processing has proven to be a critical enabler of modern communication, information, security and measurement systems. The signal's pseudo random, noise-like properties make it vitally important as a tool for protecting against interference, alleviating multipath propagation and allowing the potential of sharing bandwidth with other users. Taking a practical approach to the topic, this text provides a comprehensive and systematic guide to understanding and using pseudo random signals. Covering theoretical principles, design methodologies and applications

  20. Z_{2} and Chiral Anomalies in Topological Dirac Semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkov, Anton A; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-09-23

    We demonstrate that topological Dirac semimetals, which possess two Dirac nodes, separated in momentum space along a rotation axis and protected by rotational symmetry, exhibit an additional quantum anomaly, distinct from the chiral anomaly. This anomaly, which we call the Z_{2} anomaly, is a consequence of the fact that the Dirac nodes in topological Dirac semimetals carry a Z_{2} topological charge. The Z_{2} anomaly refers to nonconservation of this charge in the presence of external fields due to quantum effects and has observable consequences due to its interplay with the chiral anomaly. We discuss possible implications of this for the interpretation of magnetotransport experiments on topological Dirac semimetals. We also provide a possible explanation for the magnetic field dependent angular narrowing of the negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, observed in a recent experiment on Na_{3}Bi.

  1. Discrete Dirac equation on a finite half-integer lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, L. L.

    1986-01-01

    The formulation of the Dirac equation on a discrete lattice with half-integer spacing and periodic boundary conditions is investigated analytically. The importance of lattice formulations for problems in field theory and quantum mechanics is explained; the concept of half-integer Fourier representation is introduced; the discrete Dirac equation for the two-dimensional case is derived; dispersion relations for the four-dimensional case are developed; and the spinor formulation for the Dirac fields on the half-integer lattice and the discrete time variable for the four-dimensional time-dependent Dirac equation are obtained. It is argued that the half-integer lattice, because it takes the Dirac Lagrangian into account, is more than a mere relabeling of the integer lattice and may have fundamental physical meaning (e.g., for the statistics of fermions). It is noted that the present formulation does not lead to species doubling, except in the continuum limit.

  2. Floquet-Engineered Valleytronics in Dirac Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seradjeh, Babak; Kundu, Arijit; Fertig, Herbert

    Valley degrees of freedom offer a potential resource for quantum information processing if they can be effectively controlled. We discuss an optical approach to this problem in which intense light breaks electronic symmetries of a two-dimensional Dirac material. The resulting quasienergy structures may then differ for different valleys, so that the Floquet physics of the system can be exploited to produce highly polarized valley currents. This physics can be utilized to realize a valley valve whose behavior is determined optically. We propose a concrete way to achieve such valleytronics in graphene as well as in a simple model of an inversion-symmetry broken Dirac material, such as monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides. Simulating the system numerically, we find that the effect is robustness against moderate disorder and small deviations in optical parameters. We also study designs for coherent manipulation of valley degrees of freedom suitable for quantum information processing. This work was supported in part by the NSF through Grant Nos. DMR-1350663 and DMR-1506460, the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation, and by Indiana University.

  3. DIRAC File Replica and Metadata Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Poss, S.

    2012-12-01

    File replica and metadata catalogs are essential parts of any distributed data management system, which are largely determining its functionality and performance. A new File Catalog (DFC) was developed in the framework of the DIRAC Project that combines both replica and metadata catalog functionality. The DFC design is based on the practical experience with the data management system of the LHCb Collaboration. It is optimized for the most common patterns of the catalog usage in order to achieve maximum performance from the user perspective. The DFC supports bulk operations for replica queries and allows quick analysis of the storage usage globally and for each Storage Element separately. It supports flexible ACL rules with plug-ins for various policies that can be adopted by a particular community. The DFC catalog allows to store various types of metadata associated with files and directories and to perform efficient queries for the data based on complex metadata combinations. Definition of file ancestor-descendent relation chains is also possible. The DFC catalog is implemented in the general DIRAC distributed computing framework following the standard grid security architecture. In this paper we describe the design of the DFC and its implementation details. The performance measurements are compared with other grid file catalog implementations. The experience of the DFC Catalog usage in the CLIC detector project are discussed.

  4. Pseudo-complex general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, Peter O; Greiner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents an pseudo-complex extension of General Relativity which addresses these issues and presents proposals for experimental examinations in strong fields near a large mass. General Relativity is a beautiful and well tested theory of gravitation. Nevertheless, it implies conceptual problems like the creation of singularities (Black Holes) as a result of the collapse of large masses, or the appearance of event horizons which exclude parts of the space-time from the observation of external observers. The mathematical and geometrical foundations of this extension are displayed in detail, and applications including orbits and accretion disks around large central masses, neutron stars or cosmological models are introduced. Calculations both for classical and extended applications are often executed in the form of problems with extensive solutions, which makes this volume also a valuable resource for any student of General Relativity.

  5. Acroangiodermatitis (Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyendra Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acroangiodermatitis or Pseudo-Kaposi sarcoma is a rare angioproliferative entity, related to chronic venous insufficiency or certain other vascular anomalies. It is often associated with chronic venous insufficiency, arteriovenous malformation of the legs, chronic renal failure treated with dialysis, paralyzed legs and amputation stumps. We hereby describe a case of 45 year old female presenting with pitting pedal edema, multiple ulcers over bilateral lower limbs with irregular margins with erythema and hyperpigmentation of the surrounding skin. Color Doppler study of bilateral lower limbs was normal. Histopathological examination from one of the lesions showed hyperplastic epidermis, proliferation of capillaries in dermis, hemosiderin deposits and lymphocytic infiltrate. These features thus confirmed the diagnosis of Acroangiodermatitis.

  6. Strain-Induced Pseudo--Magnetic Fields in Graphene: MegaGauss in Nanobubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Niv

    2011-03-01

    Recent theoretical proposals suggest that strain can be used to modify graphene electronic states through the creation of a pseudo--magnetic field. This effect is unique to graphene because of its massless Dirac fermion-like band structure and particular lattice symmetry (C3v). Scanning tunneling microscopy shows that graphene grown on a platinum (111) surface forms nanobubbles, which are highly strained due to thermal expansion mismatch between the film and the substrate. We find that scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of these nanobubbles exhibit Landau levels that form in the presence of strain-induced pseudo--magnetic fields greater than 300 Tesla. This demonstration of enormous pseudo--magnetic fields opens the door to both the study of charge carriers in previously inaccessible high magnetic field regimes and deliberate mechanical control over electronic structure in graphene or so-called ``strain engineering''. In collaboration with S. A. Burke ,2 , K. L. Meaker 2 , M. Panlasigui 2 , A. Zettl 2,3 , F. Guinea 4 , A. H. Castro Neto 5 and M. F. Crommie 2,3 . 1. Present address: Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 121, Canada. 2. Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. 3. Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. 4. Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Madrid 28049, Spain. 5. Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

  7. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA SPECIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    ABSTRACT. The genus Pseudo-nitzschia is a chain-forming diatom comprising about 30 species some of which are known to produce domoic acid (DA) that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). The current study aimed at assessing the population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia in the near shore waters of Dar es ...

  8. Population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genus Pseudo-nitzschia is a chain-forming diatom comprising about 30 species some of which are known to produce domoic acid (DA) that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). The current study aimed at assessing the population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia in the near shore waters of Dar es Salaam. Samples ...

  9. Subadditive functions and their (pseudo-)inverses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2006-01-01

    The paper considers non-negative increasing functions on intervals with left endpoint closed at zero and investigates the duality between subadditivity and superadditivity via the inverse function and pseudo-inverses......The paper considers non-negative increasing functions on intervals with left endpoint closed at zero and investigates the duality between subadditivity and superadditivity via the inverse function and pseudo-inverses...

  10. Dirac operators and Killing spinors with torsion; Dirac-Operatoren und Killing-Spinoren mit Torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Bender, Julia

    2012-12-17

    On a Riemannian spin manifold with parallel skew torsion, we use the twistor operator to obtain an eigenvalue estimate for the Dirac operator with torsion. We consider the equality case in dimensions four and six. In odd dimensions we describe Sasaki manifolds on which equality in the estimate is realized by Killing spinors with torsion. In dimension five we characterize all Killing spinors with torsion and obtain certain naturally reductive spaces as exceptional cases.

  11. Nernst effect in Dirac and inversion-asymmetric Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Girish; Moore, Christopher; Saha, Subhodip; Tewari, Sumanta

    2017-11-01

    Dirac semimetals are three-dimensional analogs of graphene with massless Dirac fermions as low-energy electronic excitations. In contrast to Weyl semimetals, the point nodes in the bulk spectrum of topological Dirac semimetals have a vanishing Chern number, but can yet be stable due to the existence of crystalline symmetries such as uniaxial (discrete) rotation symmetry. We consider a model low-energy Hamiltonian appropriate for the recently discovered topological Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 , and calculate the Nernst response within semiclassical Boltzmann dynamics in the relaxation-time approximation. We show that, for small chemical potentials near the Dirac points, the low-temperature low-magnetic-field Nernst response is dominated by anomalous Nernst effect, arising from a nontrivial profile of Berry curvature on the Fermi surface. Although the Nernst coefficient (both anomalous as well as conventional) vanishes in the limit of zero magnetic field, the low-temperature low-magnetic-field Nernst response, which has an almost steplike profile near B =0 , serves as an effective experimental probe of anomalous Nernst effect in topological Dirac semimetals protected by crystalline symmetries. Additionally, we also calculate the Nernst response for a lattice model of an inversion-asymmetric Weyl semimetal for which, in contrast to the case of the Dirac semimetal, we find that the conventional Nernst response dominates over the anomalous. Our calculations in this paper on Nernst response of Dirac semimetals and inversion broken Weyl semimetals are directly relevant to recent experiments on Cd3As2 (Dirac semimetal) and NbP (inversion broken Weyl semimetal), respectively.

  12. Topological Insulators Dirac Equation in Condensed Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2012-01-01

    Topological insulators are insulating in the bulk, but process metallic states around its boundary owing to the topological origin of the band structure. The metallic edge or surface states are immune to weak disorder or impurities, and robust against the deformation of the system geometry. This book, Topological insulators, presents a unified description of topological insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. A series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary are derived, and the existing conditions of these solutions are described. Topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetalene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, and three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids are introduced, helping readers to better understand this fascinating new field. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in the field of topological in...

  13. Excitonic physics in a Dirac quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raca, V.; Milovanović, M. V.

    2017-11-01

    We present a description of vacuum polarization in a circular Dirac quantum dot in two spatial dimensions assuming α —the relative strength of the Coulomb interaction small enough to render an approximation with a single electron (hole) lowest energy level relevant. Applying this approximation, we find that for αc≈1.05 the lowest level is half filled irrespective of the number of flavors that are present. The ground state can be represented as a superposition of particular (even number) excitonic states which constitute an excitonic cloud that evolves in a crossover manner. The ground state is degenerate with an intervalley excitonic state at αc≈1.05 , a critical strength, that in our approximation marks a point with single electron and exciton resonances.

  14. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-01

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  15. Lanczos's equation to replace Dirac's equation ?

    CERN Document Server

    Gsponer, Andre; Gsponer, Andre; Hurni, Jean-Pierre

    1994-01-01

    Lanczos's quaternionic interpretation of Dirac's equation provides a unified description for all elementary particles of spin 0, 1/2, 1, and 3/2. The Lagrangian formulation given by Einstein and Mayer in 1933 predicts two main classes of solutions. (1) Point like partons which come in two families, quarks and leptons. The correct fractional or integral electric and baryonic charges, and zero mass for the neutrino and the u-quark, are set by eigenvalue equations. The electro-weak interaction of the partons is the same as with the Standard model, with the same two free parameters: e and sin^2 theta. There is no need for a Higgs symmetry breaking mechanism. (2) Extended hadrons for which there is no simple eigenvalue equation for the mass. The strong interaction is essentially non-local. The pion mass and pion-nucleon coupling constant determine to first order the nucleon size, mass and anomalous magnetic moment.

  16. Topological insulators Dirac equation in condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2017-01-01

    This new edition presents a unified description of these insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. It derives a series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary, and describes the current status of these solutions. Readers are introduced to topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetylene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids, and topological Weyl semimetals, helping them to better understand this fascinating field. To reflect research advances in topological insulators, several parts of the book have been updated for the second edition, including: Spin-Triplet Superconductors, Superconductivity in Doped Topological Insulators, Detection of Majorana Fermions and so on. In particular, the book features a new chapter on Weyl semimetals, a topic that has attracted considerable attention and has already b...

  17. Dirac cones in two-dimensional borane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Canales, Miguel; Galeev, Timur R.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2017-11-01

    We introduce two-dimensional borane, a single-layered material of BH stoichiometry, with promising electronic properties. We show that, according to density functional theory calculations, two-dimensional borane is semimetallic, with two symmetry-related Dirac cones meeting right at the Fermi energy Ef. The curvature of the cones is lower than in graphene, thus closer to the ideal linear dispersion. Its structure, formed by a puckered trigonal boron network with hydrogen atoms connected to each boron atom, can be understood as distorted, hydrogenated borophene [Mannix et al., Science 350, 1513 (2015), 10.1126/science.aad1080]. Chemical bonding analysis reveals the boron layer in the network being bound by delocalized four-center two-electron σ bonds. Finally, we suggest high pressure could be a feasible route to synthesize two-dimensional borane.

  18. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-09

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  19. Strangest man the hidden life of Paul Dirac, quantum genius

    CERN Document Server

    Farmelo, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Paul Dirac was among the great scientific geniuses of the modern age. One of the discoverers of quantum mechanics, the most revolutionary theory of the past century, his contributions had a unique insight, eloquence, clarity, and mathematical power. His prediction of antimatter was one of the greatest triumphs in the history of physics. One of Einstein's most admired colleagues, Dirac was in 1933 the youngest theoretician ever to win the Nobel Prize in physics. Dirac's personality is legendary. He was an extraordinarily reserved loner, relentlessly literal-minded and appeared to have no empath

  20. Dirac cone protected by non-symmorphic symmetry and three-dimensional Dirac line node in ZrSiS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Leslie M; Ali, Mazhar N; Straßer, Carola; Topp, Andreas; Varykhalov, Andrei; Marchenko, Dmitry; Duppel, Viola; Parkin, Stuart S P; Lotsch, Bettina V; Ast, Christian R

    2016-05-31

    Materials harbouring exotic quasiparticles, such as massless Dirac and Weyl fermions, have garnered much attention from physics and material science communities due to their exceptional physical properties such as ultra-high mobility and extremely large magnetoresistances. Here, we show that the highly stable, non-toxic and earth-abundant material, ZrSiS, has an electronic band structure that hosts several Dirac cones that form a Fermi surface with a diamond-shaped line of Dirac nodes. We also show that the square Si lattice in ZrSiS is an excellent template for realizing new types of two-dimensional Dirac cones recently predicted by Young and Kane. Finally, we find that the energy range of the linearly dispersed bands is as high as 2 eV above and below the Fermi level; much larger than of other known Dirac materials. This makes ZrSiS a very promising candidate to study Dirac electrons, as well as the properties of lines of Dirac nodes.

  1. Pseudo-Haptic Feedback in Teleoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, Carsten; Matich, Sebastian; Scherping, Nick; Kupnik, Mario; Werthschutzky, Roland; Hatzfeld, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we develop possible realizations of pseudo-haptic feedback in teleoperation systems based on existing works for pseudo-haptic feedback in virtual reality and the intended applications. We derive four potential factors affecting the performance of haptic feedback (calculation operator, maximum displacement, offset force, and scaling factor), which are analyzed in three compliance identification experiments. First, we analyze the principle usability of pseudo-haptic feedback by comparing information transfer measures for teleoperation and direct interaction. Pseudo-haptic interaction yields well above-chance performance, while direct interaction performs almost perfectly. In order to optimize pseudo-haptic feedback, in the second study we perform a full-factorial experimental design with 36 subjects performing 6,480 trials with 36 different treatments. Information transfer ranges from 0.68 bit to 1.72 bit in a task with a theoretical maximum of 2.6 bit, with a predominant effect of the calculation operator and a minor effect of the maximum displacement. In a third study, short- and long-term learning effects are analyzed. Learning effects regarding the performance of pseudo-haptic feedback cannot be observed for single-day experiments. Tests over 10 days show a maximum increase in information transfer of 0.8 bit. The results show the feasibility of pseudo-haptic feedback for teleoperation and can be used as design basis for task-specific systems.

  2. Pseudo-periodic partitions of biological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lugang; Jin, Renchao; Kok, Poh-Lin; Wan, Honghui

    2004-02-12

    Algorithm development for finding typical patterns in sequences, especially multiple pseudo-repeats (pseudo-periodic regions), is at the core of many problems arising in biological sequence and structure analysis. In fact, one of the most significant features of biological sequences is their high quasi-repetitiveness. Variation in the quasi-repetitiveness of genomic and proteomic texts demonstrates the presence and density of different biologically important information. It is very important to develop sensitive automatic computational methods for the identification of pseudo-periodic regions of sequences through which we can infer, describe and understand biological properties, and seek precise molecular details of biological structures, dynamics, interactions and evolution. We develop a novel, powerful computational tool for partitioning a sequence to pseudo-periodic regions. The pseudo-periodic partition is defined as a partition, which intuitively has the minimal bias to some perfect-periodic partition of the sequence based on the evolutionary distance. We devise a quadratic time and space algorithm for detecting a pseudo-periodic partition for a given sequence, which actually corresponds to the shortest path in the main diagonal of the directed (acyclic) weighted graph constructed by the Smith-Waterman self-alignment of the sequence. We use several typical examples to demonstrate the utilization of our algorithm and software system in detecting functional or structural domains and regions of proteins. A big advantage of our software program is that there is a parameter, the granularity factor, associated with it and we can freely choose a biological sequence family as a training set to determine the best parameter. In general, we choose all repeats (including many pseudo-repeats) in the SWISS-PROT amino acid sequence database as a typical training set. We show that the granularity factor is 0.52 and the average agreement accuracy of pseudo-periodic partitions

  3. Quantum-classical correspondence of the Dirac equation with a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    classical correspondence; scalar-like potential; Dirac equation; Klein–Gordon equation. ... Quantum matrix elements of the coordinate, momentum and the velocity operator for a spin-1/2 particle moving in a scalar-like potential are calculated.

  4. Science in culture the life of Paul Dirac

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, A

    2000-01-01

    The life of Paul Dirac has been used as the theme of a show held underground at the Delphi experiment at CERN. The 'Oracle of Delphi' was created as an outreach project and has been extremely successful (1 p).

  5. Variational Integrators for Interconnected Lagrange-Dirac Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Helen; Leok, Melvin

    2017-10-01

    Interconnected systems are an important class of mathematical models, as they allow for the construction of complex, hierarchical, multiphysics, and multiscale models by the interconnection of simpler subsystems. Lagrange-Dirac mechanical systems provide a broad category of mathematical models that are closed under interconnection, and in this paper, we develop a framework for the interconnection of discrete Lagrange-Dirac mechanical systems, with a view toward constructing geometric structure-preserving discretizations of interconnected systems. This work builds on previous work on the interconnection of continuous Lagrange-Dirac systems (Jacobs and Yoshimura in J Geom Mech 6(1):67-98, 2014) and discrete Dirac variational integrators (Leok and Ohsawa in Found Comput Math 11(5), 529-562, 2011). We test our results by simulating some of the continuous examples given in Jacobs and Yoshimura (2014).

  6. Overlap Dirac operator, eigenvalues and random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Robert G.; Heller, Urs M.; Kiskis, Joe; Narayanan, Rajamani

    2000-03-01

    The properties of the spectrum of the overlap Dirac operator and their relation to random matrix theory are studied. In particular, the predictions from chiral random matrix theory in topologically non-trivial gauge field sectors are tested.

  7. Evolution of magnetic Dirac bosons in a honeycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, D.; Balatsky, A. V.; Haraldsen, J. T.

    2018-01-01

    We examine the presence and evolution of magnetic Dirac nodes in the Heisenberg honeycomb lattice. Using linear spin theory, we evaluate the collinear phase diagram as well as the change in the spin dynamics with various exchange interactions. We show that the ferromagnetic structure produces bosonic Dirac and Weyl points due to the competition between the interactions. Furthermore, it is shown that the criteria for magnetic Dirac nodes are coupled to the magnetic structure and not the overall crystal symmetry, where the breaking of inversion symmetry greatly affects the antiferromagnetic configurations. The tunability of the nodal points through variation of the exchange parameters leads to the possibility of controlling Dirac symmetries through an external manipulation of the orbital interactions.

  8. Dirac Mass Dynamics in Multidimensional Nonlocal Parabolic Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Lorz, Alexander

    2011-01-17

    Nonlocal Lotka-Volterra models have the property that solutions concentrate as Dirac masses in the limit of small diffusion. Is it possible to describe the dynamics of the limiting concentration points and of the weights of the Dirac masses? What is the long time asymptotics of these Dirac masses? Can several Dirac masses coexist? We will explain how these questions relate to the so-called "constrained Hamilton-Jacobi equation" and how a form of canonical equation can be established. This equation has been established assuming smoothness. Here we build a framework where smooth solutions exist and thus the full theory can be developed rigorously. We also show that our form of canonical equation comes with a kind of Lyapunov functional. Numerical simulations show that the trajectories can exhibit unexpected dynamics well explained by this equation. Our motivation comes from population adaptive evolution a branch of mathematical ecology which models Darwinian evolution. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  9. The (weak) gravitational field of a Dirac monopole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyas, E.; Franklin, J.

    2017-10-01

    We establish the gravitational detectability of a Dirac monopole using a weak-field limit of general relativity, which can be developed from the Newtonian gravitational potential by including energy as a source. The resulting potential matches (by construction) the weak-field limit of two different solutions to Einstein’s equations of general relativity: one associated with the magnetically monopolar spray of field lines emerging from the half-infinite solenoid that makes up the Dirac monopole, the other associated with the field-energetic source of the solenoid itself (the Dirac string). The string’s gravitational effect dominates, and we suggest that the primary strong-field contribution of the Dirac configuration is that of a half-infinite line of energy, whose GR solution is known.

  10. 'Parabolic' trapped modes and steered Dirac cones in platonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, R C; Movchan, A B; Movchan, N V; Brun, M; Smith, M J A

    2015-05-08

    This paper discusses the properties of flexural waves governed by the biharmonic operator, and propagating in a thin plate pinned at doubly periodic sets of points. The emphases are on the design of dispersion surfaces having the Dirac cone topology, and on the related topic of trapped modes in plates for a finite set (cluster) of pinned points. The Dirac cone topologies we exhibit have at least two cones touching at a point in the reciprocal lattice, augmented by another band passing through the point. We show that these Dirac cones can be steered along symmetry lines in the Brillouin zone by varying the aspect ratio of rectangular lattices of pins, and that, as the cones are moved, the involved band surfaces tilt. We link Dirac points with a parabolic profile in their neighbourhood, and the characteristic of this parabolic profile decides the direction of propagation of the trapped mode in finite clusters.

  11. Does the Dirac cone of germanene exist on metal substrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangyang; Li, Jingzhen; Xiong, Junhua; Pan, Yuanyuan; Ye, Meng; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Han; Quhe, Ruge; Lu, Jing

    2016-07-28

    Germanene, a germanium analogue of graphene and silicene, has been synthesized on metal substrates. It is predicted that the intrinsic germanene has a Dirac cone in its band structure, just like graphene and silicene. Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the geometrical structures and electronic properties of germanene on the Ag, Au, Cu, Al, Pt and Ir substrates. The Dirac cone of germanene is destroyed on the Al, Pt and Ir substrates but preserved on the Ag and Au substrates with a slight band hybridization. The upper part of the Dirac cone is destroyed for germanene on the Cu substrate while the lower part remains preserved. By contrast, the Dirac cone is always destroyed for silicene on these metal substrates because of a strong band hybridization. Our study suggests that it is possible to extract the intrinsic properties of germanene on the Ag and Au substrates although it appears impossible for silicene on these two substrates.

  12. Dirac directional emission in anisotropic zero refractive index photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin-Tao; Zhong, Yao-Nan; Zhou, You; Zhong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2015-01-01

    A certain class of photonic crystals with conical dispersion is known to behave as isotropic zero-refractive-index medium. However, the discrete building blocks in such photonic crystals are limited to construct multidirectional devices, even for high-symmetric photonic crystals. Here, we show multidirectional emission from low-symmetric photonic crystals with semi-Dirac dispersion at the zone center. We demonstrate that such low-symmetric photonic crystal can be considered as an effective anisotropic zero-refractive-index medium, as long as there is only one propagation mode near Dirac frequency. Four kinds of Dirac multidirectional emitters are achieved with the channel numbers of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen, respectively. Spatial power combination for such kind of Dirac directional emitter is also verified even when multiple sources are randomly placed in the anisotropic zero-refractive-index photonic crystal. PMID:26271208

  13. PT-Symmetric Real Dirac Fermions and Semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y X; Lu, Y

    2017-02-03

    Recently, Weyl fermions have attracted increasing interest in condensed matter physics due to their rich phenomenology originated from their nontrivial monopole charges. Here, we present a theory of real Dirac points that can be understood as real monopoles in momentum space, serving as a real generalization of Weyl fermions with the reality being endowed by the PT symmetry. The real counterparts of topological features of Weyl semimetals, such as Nielsen-Ninomiya no-go theorem, 2D subtopological insulators, and Fermi arcs, are studied in the PT symmetric Dirac semimetals and the underlying reality-dependent topological structures are discussed. In particular, we construct a minimal model of the real Dirac semimetals based on recently proposed cold atom experiments and quantum materials about PT symmetric Dirac nodal line semimetals.

  14. Dirac Equation in Gauge and Affine-Metric Gravitation Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Giachetta, G.; Sardanashvily, G.

    1995-01-01

    We show that the covariant derivative of Dirac fermion fields in the presence of a general linear connection on a world manifold is universal for Einstein's, gauge and affine-metric gravitation theories.

  15. Using OSG Computing Resources with (iLC)Dirac

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)683529; Petric, Marko

    2017-01-01

    CPU cycles for small experiments and projects can be scarce, thus making use of all available resources, whether dedicated or opportunistic, is mandatory. While enabling uniform access to the LCG computing elements (ARC, CREAM), the DIRAC grid interware was not able to use OSG computing elements (GlobusCE, HTCondor-CE) without dedicated support at the grid site through so called 'SiteDirectors', which directly submit to the local batch system. This in turn requires additional dedicated effort for small experiments on the grid site. Adding interfaces to the OSG CEs through the respective grid middleware is therefore allowing accessing them within the DIRAC software without additional sitespecific infrastructure. This enables greater use of opportunistic resources for experiments and projects without dedicated clusters or an established computing infrastructure with the DIRAC software. To allow sending jobs to HTCondor-CE and legacy Globus computing elements inside DIRAC the required wrapper classes were develo...

  16. LHCb: Analysing DIRAC's Behavior using Model Checking with Process Algebra

    CERN Multimedia

    Remenska, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    DIRAC is the Grid solution designed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. Based on a service-oriented architecture, DIRAC consists of many cooperating distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the Grid resources. Services accept requests from agents and running jobs, while agents run as light-weight components, fulfilling specific goals. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check for changes in the service states, and react to these accordingly. A characteristic of DIRAC's architecture is the relatively low complexity in the logic of each agent; the main source of complexity lies in their cooperation. These agents run concurrently, and communicate using the services' databases as a shared memory for synchronizing the state transitions. Although much effort is invested in making DIRAC reliable, entities occasionally get into inconsistent states, leadi...

  17. Topological crystalline insulators and Dirac octets in antiperovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Timothy H.; Liu, Junwei; Fu, Liang

    2014-08-01

    We predict a class of topological crystalline insulators in the antiperovskite material family with the chemical formula A3BX. Here the nontrivial topology arises from band inversion between two J =3/2 quartets, which is described by a generalized Dirac equation for a "Dirac octet." Our work suggests that antiperovskites are a promising venue for exploring the cooperative interplay between band topology, crystal symmetry, and electron correlation.

  18. Neural network real time event selection for the DIRAC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kokkas, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Vlachos, S

    2001-01-01

    The neural network first level trigger for the DIRAC experiment at CERN is presented. Both the neural network algorithm used and its actual hardware implementation are described. The system uses the fast plastic scintillator information of the DIRAC spectrometer. In 210 ns it selects events with two particles having low relative momentum. Such events are selected with an efficiency of more than 0.94. The corresponding rate reduction for background events is a factor of 2.5. (10 refs).

  19. Strain-induced pseudomagnetic field in the Dirac semimetal borophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotskiy, A. D.; Lozovik, Yu. E.

    2016-10-01

    A tight-binding model of 8-P m m n borophene, a two-dimensional boron crystal, is developed. We confirm that the crystal hosts massless Dirac fermions and the Dirac points are protected by symmetry. Strain is introduced into the model, and it is shown to induce a pseudomagnetic field vector potential and a scalar potential. The dependence of the potentials on the strain tensor is calculated. The physical effects controlled by the pseudomagnetic field are discussed.

  20. Analytic Solutions to Coherent Control of the Dirac Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Andre G.; Cabrera, Renan; Rabitz, Herschel A.; Bondar, Denys I.

    2017-10-01

    A simple framework for Dirac spinors is developed that parametrizes admissible quantum dynamics and also analytically constructs electromagnetic fields, obeying Maxwell's equations, which yield a desired evolution. In particular, we show how to achieve dispersionless rotation and translation of wave packets. Additionally, this formalism can handle control interactions beyond electromagnetic. This work reveals unexpected flexibility of the Dirac equation for control applications, which may open new prospects for quantum technologies.

  1. The DIRAC Data Management System and the Gaudi dataset federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haen, Christophe; Charpentier, Philippe; Frank, Markus; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    The DIRAC Interware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. The DIRAC Data Management System (DMS) offers all the necessary tools to ensure data handling operations for small and large user communities. It supports transparent access to storage resources based on multiple technologies, and is easily expandable. The information on data files and replicas is kept in a File Catalog of which DIRAC offers a powerful and versatile implementation (DFC). Data movement can be performed using third party services including FTS3. Bulk data operations are resilient with respect to failures due to the use of the Request Management System (RMS) that keeps track of ongoing tasks. In this contribution we will present an overview of the DIRAC DMS capabilities and its connection with other DIRAC subsystems such as the Transformation System. This paper also focuses on the DIRAC File Catalog, for which a lot of new developments have been carried out, so that LHCb could migrate its replica catalog from the LCG File Catalog to the DFC. Finally, we will present how LHCb achieves a dataset federation without the need of an extra infrastructure.

  2. The DIRAC Data Management System and the Gaudi dataset federation

    CERN Document Server

    Haen, Christophe; Frank, Markus; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    The DIRAC Interware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. The DIRAC Data Management System (DMS) offers all the necessary tools to ensure data handling operations for small and large user communities. It supports transparent access to storage resources based on multiple technologies, and is easily expandable. The information on data files and replicas is kept in a File Catalog of which DIRAC offers a powerful and versatile implementation (DFC). Data movement can be performed using third party services including FTS3. Bulk data operations are resilient with respect to failures due to the use of the Request Management System (RMS) that keeps track of ongoing tasks.In this contribution we will present an overview of the DIRAC DMS capabilities and its connection with other DIRAC subsystems such as the Transformation System. This paper also focuses on the DIRAC File Catalog, for which a lot of new developments have been carried out, so that LH...

  3. Dirac equation in low dimensions: The factorization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Monroy, J.A., E-mail: antosan@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Quimbay, C.J., E-mail: cjquimbayh@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D. C. (Colombia); CIF, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2014-11-15

    We present a general approach to solve the (1+1) and (2+1)-dimensional Dirac equations in the presence of static scalar, pseudoscalar and gauge potentials, for the case in which the potentials have the same functional form and thus the factorization method can be applied. We show that the presence of electric potentials in the Dirac equation leads to two Klein–Gordon equations including an energy-dependent potential. We then generalize the factorization method for the case of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. Additionally, the shape invariance is generalized for a specific class of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. We also present a condition for the absence of the Klein paradox (stability of the Dirac sea), showing how Dirac particles in low dimensions can be confined for a wide family of potentials. - Highlights: • The low-dimensional Dirac equation in the presence of static potentials is solved. • The factorization method is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. • The shape invariance is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. • The stability of the Dirac sea is related to the existence of supersymmetric partner Hamiltonians.

  4. Families of quasi-pseudo-metrics generated by probabilistic quasi-pseudo-metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz T. Grabiec

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a study of families of quasi-pseudo-metrics (the concept of a quasi-pseudo-metric was introduced by Wilson (1931 , Albert (1941 and Kelly (1963 generated by probabilistic quasi-pseudo-metric-spaces which are generalization of probabilistic metric space (PM-space shortly [2, 3, 4, 6]. The idea of PM-spaces was introduced by Menger (1942, 1951, Schweizer and Sklar (1983 and Serstnev (1965. Families of pseudo-metrics generated by PM-spaces and those generalizing PM-spaces have been described by Stevens (1968 and Nishiure (1970.

  5. Dirac Born Infeld (DBI) Cosmic Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Caprini, Chiara; Martin, Jerome; Steer, Daniele A

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by brane physics, we consider the non-linear Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) extension of the Abelian-Higgs model and study the corresponding cosmic string configurations. The model is defined by a potential term, assumed to be of the mexican hat form, and a DBI action for the kinetic terms. We show that it is a continuous deformation of the Abelian-Higgs model, with a single deformation parameter depending on a dimensionless combination of the scalar coupling constant, the vacuum expectation value of the scalar field at infinity, and the brane tension. By means of numerical calculations, we investigate the profiles of the corresponding DBI-cosmic strings and prove that they have a core which is narrower than that of Abelian-Higgs strings. We also show that the corresponding action is smaller than in the standard case suggesting that their formation could be favoured in brane models. Moreover we show that the DBI-cosmic string solutions are non-pathological everywhere in parameter space. Finally, in the lim...

  6. Dirac-Fock internal conversion coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Band, I M; Nestor, C W; Tikkanen, P O; Raman, S

    2002-01-01

    Internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) obtained from relativistic self-consistent-field Dirac-Fock (DF) calculations are presented. The exchange terms of DF equations are included exactly, both for the interaction between bound electrons and for the interaction between bound and free electrons. Static and dynamic effects resulting from finite nuclear size are taken into account, the latter using the surface current model. Experimental electron-binding energies are used wherever possible. The hole in the atomic shell from which an electron was emitted is not taken into consideration because there is no compelling experimental evidence to warrant it. ICCs are given here for each Z between Z=10 and Z=126; for K, L sub 1 , L sub 2 , and L sub 3 atomic shells; for nuclear-transition multipolarities E1... E5, M1 ... M5; and for nuclear-transition energies from approx 1 keV above the L sub 1 threshold to 2000 keV. Also given are the total ICCs. Accurate (<=5%) experimental ICCs (K and total) are known for 77 tra...

  7. Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of Dirac fields in 2 +1 dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Navascués, Beatriz Elizaga; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Velhinho, José M.

    2017-07-01

    We study the Fock quantization of a free Dirac field in 2 +1 -dimensional backgrounds which are conformally ultrastatic, with a time-dependent conformal factor. As it is typical for field theories, there is an infinite ambiguity in the Fock representation of the canonical anticommutation relations. Different choices may lead to unitarily inequivalent theories that describe different physics. To remove this ambiguity one usually requires that the vacuum be invariant under the unitary transformations that implement the symmetries of the equations of motion. However, in nonstationary backgrounds, where time translation is not a symmetry transformation, the requirement of vacuum invariance is in general not enough to fix completely the Fock representation. We show that this problem is overcome in the considered scenario by demanding, in addition, a unitarily implementable nontrivial quantum dynamics. The combined imposition of these conditions selects a unique family of equivalent Fock representations. Moreover, one also obtains an essentially unique splitting of the time variation of the Dirac field into an explicit dependence on the background scale factor and a quantum evolution of the corresponding creation and annihilation operators.

  8. Primordial GWs from universality classes of pseudo-scalar inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, M.

    2017-05-01

    In this contribution we discuss the possibility of generating an observable gravitational wave (GW) background by coupling a pseudo-scalar inflaton to some Abelian gauge fields. This analysis is performed by dividing inflationary models into universality classes. We find that of the most promising scenario is a Starobinsky-like model, which may lead to the generation of observational signatures both in upcoming CMB detectors as well as for direct GW detectors. The signal which can be produced in these models would both be observable in ground-based detectors, such as advanced LIGO, and in space-based detectors, such as LISA. The complementarity between the CMB and direct GW detection may be used to extract informations on the microphysics of inflation. Interestingly the mechanism discussed in this contribution may also be relevant for the generation of Primordial Black Holes (PBHs).

  9. Dirac Dispersion in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We show how one may obtain conical (Dirac dispersions in photonic crystals, and in some cases, such conical dispersions can be used to create a metamaterial with an effective zero refractive index. We show specifically that in two-dimensional photonic crystals with C4v symmetry, we can adjust the system parameters to obtain accidental triple degeneracy at Γ point, whose band dispersion comprises two linear bands that generate conical dispersion surfaces and an additional flat band crossing the Dirac-like point. If this triply degenerate state is formed by monopole and dipole excitations, the system can be mapped to an effective medium with permittivity and permeability equal to zero simultaneously, and this system can transport wave as if the refractive index is effectively zero. However, not all the triply degenerate states can be described by monopole and dipole excitations and in those cases, the conical dispersion may not be related to an effective zero refractive index. Using multiple scattering theory, we calculate the Berry phase of the eigenmodes in the Dirac-like cone to be equal to zero for modes in the Dirac-like cone at the zone center, in contrast with the Berry phase of π for Dirac cones at the zone boundary.

  10. Phonon-drag thermopower in 3D Dirac semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubakaddi, S S

    2015-11-18

    A theory of low-temperature phonon-drag thermopower S(g) in three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetals has been developed considering screened electron-phonon deformation potential coupling. Numerical investigations of S(g), in the boundary scattering regime for phonons, are made in 3D Dirac semimetal Cd3As2, as a function of temperature T and electron concentration n e. S(g) is found to increase rapidly for about T  Dirac 3D electrons. Comparison with diffusion thermopower S(d) shows that S (g) dominates (and is much greater than) S(d) for about T  >  0.2 K. Herring's law S(g) μ p ~ T (-1), relating phonon limited mobility μ p and S(g) in the BG regime, is shown to be valid in 3D Dirac semimetals. The results obtained here are compared with those in 3D semiconductors, low-dimensional semiconductor heterojunctions and graphene. We conclude that n e-dependent measurements, rather than T-dependent ones, provide a clearer signature of the 3D Dirac semimetal phase.

  11. Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, J.; Thackeray, M.M.; Dees, D.W.; Vissers, D.R.; Myles, K.M.

    1998-11-24

    A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A{sub 2}[B{sub 2{minus}x}Pb{sub x}]O{sub 7{minus}y}, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and Opseudo-capacitance, affords high energy/power density in the pseudo-capacitor. The amount of expensive ruthenate and iridium can be substantially reduced in the pseudo-capacitor by increasing the lead content while improving energy storage capacity. 8 figs.

  12. Aerodynamics of the pseudo-glottis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotby, M N; Hegazi, M A; Kamal, I; Gamal El Dien, N; Nassar, J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the hitherto unclear aerodynamic parameters of the pseudo-glottis following total laryngectomy. These parameters include airflow rate, sub-pseudo-glottic pressure (SubPsG), efficiency and resistance, as well as sound pressure level (SPL). Eighteen male patients who have undergone total laryngectomy, with an age range from 54 to 72 years, were investigated in this study. All tested patients were fluent esophageal 'voice' speakers utilizing tracheo-esophageal prosthesis. The airflow rate, SubPsG and SPL were measured. The results showed that the mean value of the airflow rate was 53 ml/s, the SubPsG pressure was 13 cm H(2)O, while the SPL was 66 dB. The normative data obtained from the true glottis in healthy age-matched subjects are 89 ml/s, 7.9 cm H(2)O and 70 dB, respectively. Other aerodynamic indices were calculated and compared to the data obtained from the true glottis. Such a comparison of the pseudo-glottic aerodynamic data to the data of the true glottis gives an insight into the mechanism of action of the pseudo-glottis. The data obtained suggests possible clinical applications in pseudo-voice training. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. SEARCHING FOR LOW WEIGHT PSEUDO-CODEWORDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-23

    Belief Propagation (BP) and Linear Programming (LP) decodings of LDPC codes are discussed. The authors summarize results of instanton/pseudo-codeword approach developed for analysis of the error-floor domain of the codes. Instantons are special, code and decoding specific, configurations of the channel noise contributing most to the Frame-Error-Rate (FER). Instantons are decoded into pseudo-codewords. Instanton/pseudo-codeword with the lowest weight describes the largest Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) asymptotic of FER, while the whole spectra of the low weight instantons is descriptive of the FER vs. SNR profile in the extended error-floor domain. First, they describe a general optimization method that allows to find the instantons for any coding/decoding. Second, they introduce LP-specific pseudo-codeword search algorithm that allows efficient calculations of the pseudo-codeword spectra. Finally, they discuss results of combined BP/LP error-floor exploration experiments for two mode codes.

  14. Connecting nonzero θ 13, Dirac CP phase and leptogenesis through spontaneous CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Biswajit; Sil, Arunansu

    2017-09-01

    We have analyzed a Type-I+II seesaw scenario to generate neutrino masses and mixing in a A 4 based flavor symmetric framework. The Standard Model (SM) particle content is extended by three singlet right handed neutrinos, an additional higgs triplet along with few SM singlet flavon fields. In this set-up, the pure type-I contribution to the neutrino mass matrix exhibits a tribimaximal (TBM) of lepton mixing where the triplet contribution generates θ 13. Complex vev of one flavon provides a unique source of spontaneous CP violation. Here it turns out that the triplet contribution provides a common source for θ 13, Dirac CP phase (δ) and CP violation required for leptogenesis.

  15. Classification of stable three-dimensional Dirac semimetals with nontrivial topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bohm-Jung; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2014-09-15

    A three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetal (SM) is the 3D analogue of graphene having linear energy dispersion around Fermi points. Owing to the nontrivial topology of electronic wave functions, the 3D Dirac SM shows nontrivial physical properties and hosts various exotic quantum states such as Weyl SMs and topological insulators under proper external conditions. There are several kinds of Dirac SMs proposed theoretically and partly confirmed experimentally, but its unified picture is still missing. Here we propose a general framework to classify stable 3D Dirac SMs in systems having the time-reversal, inversion and uniaxial rotational symmetries. We show that there are two distinct classes of 3D Dirac SMs. In one class, the Dirac SM possesses a single Dirac point (DP) at a time-reversal invariant momentum on the rotation axis. Whereas the other class of Dirac SMs have a pair of DPs created by band inversion, and carry a quantized topological invariant.

  16. Pseudo-Goldstone Higgs Doublets from Non-Vectorlike Grand Unified Higgs Sector

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, A E Cárcamo

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel way of realizing the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson mechanism for the doublet-triplet splitting in supersymmetric grand unified theories. The global symmetries of the Higgs sector are attributed to a non-vectorlike Higgs content, which is consistent with unbroken supersymmetry in a scenario with flat extra dimensions and branes. We also show how in such a model one can naturally obtain a realistic pattern for the Standard Model fermion masses and mixings.

  17. Pseudo exchange bias due to rotational anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrmann, A., E-mail: andrea.ehrmann@fh-bielefeld.de [Faculty of Engineering and Mathematics, Bielefeld University of Applied Sciences, 33619 Bielefeld (Germany); Komraus, S.; Blachowicz, T.; Domino, K. [Institute of Physics – Center for Science and Education, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Nees, M.K.; Jakobs, P.J.; Leiste, H. [Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mathes, M.; Schaarschmidt, M. [ACCESS e. V., 57072 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    Ferromagnetic nanostructure arrays with particle dimensions between 160 nm and 400 nm were created by electron-beam lithography. The permalloy structures consist of rectangular-shaped walls around a square open space. While measuring their magnetic properties using the Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (MOKE), in some angular regions an exchange bias (EB) seemed to appear. This paper gives an overview of possible reasons for this “pseudo exchange bias” and shows experimentally and by means of micromagnetic simulations that this effect can be attributed to unintentionally measuring minor loops. - Highlights: • Pseudo exchange bias can be found in square Py nanorings of different dimensions. • Pseudo exchange bias stems from unintentionally measuring minor loops. • New approach in explaining “real” exchange bias effect in coupled FM/AFM systems. • Theoretical base to explain other measurements of a rotational anisotropy.

  18. DIRAC: A Scalable Lightweight Architecture for High Throughput Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Garonne, V; Stokes-Rees, I

    2004-01-01

    DIRAC (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) has been developed by the CERN LHCb physics experiment to facilitate large scale simulation and user analysis tasks spread across both grid and non-grid computing resources. It consists of a small set of distributed stateless Core Services, which are centrally managed, and Agents which are managed by each computing site. DIRAC utilizes concepts from existing distributed computing models to provide a lightweight, robust, and flexible system. This paper will discuss the architecture, performance, and implementation of the DIRAC system which has recently been used for an intensive physics simulation involving more than forty sites, 90 TB of data, and in excess of one thousand 1 GHz processor-years.

  19. Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ze-Guo

    2014-04-09

    Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.

  20. Luciano Maiani and Jean Iliopoulos awarded the Dirac Medal

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Luciano Maiani, when he was Director-General of CERN. Jean Iliopoulos in 1999. (©CNRS Photothèque - Julien Quideau)On 8 August, the 2007 Dirac Medal, one of the most prestigious prizes in the fields of theoretical physics and mathematics, was awarded to Luciano Maiani, professor at Rome’s La Sapienza University and former Director-General of CERN, and to Jean Iliopoulos, emeritus Director of Research at the CNRS Laboratory of Theoretical Physics. The medal was awarded to both physicists for their joint "work on the physics of the charm quark, a major contribution to the birth of the Standard Model, the modern theory of Elementary Particles." Founded by the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in 1985, the Dirac Medal is awarded annually on 8 August, the birthday of the famous physicist Paul Dirac, winner of the 1933 Nobel Prize for Physics. It is awarded to ...

  1. Spin-1 Dirac-Weyl fermions protected by bipartite symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zeren [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Zhirong, E-mail: LiuZhiRong@pku.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Nanochemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-07

    We propose that bipartite symmetry allows spin-1 Dirac-Weyl points, a generalization of the spin-1/2 Dirac points in graphene, to appear as topologically protected at the Fermi level. In this spirit, we provide methodology to construct spin-1 Dirac-Weyl points of this kind in a given 2D space group and get the classification of the known spin-1 systems in the literature. We also apply the workflow to predict two new systems, P3m1-9 and P31m-15, to possess spin-1 at K/K′ in the Brillouin zone of hexagonal lattice. Their stability under various strains is investigated and compared with that of T{sub 3}, an extensively studied model of ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattice with spin-1 also at K/K′.

  2. Scattering processes could distinguish Majorana from Dirac neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Barranco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that Majorana neutrinos have a pure axial neutral current interaction while Dirac neutrinos have the standard vector-axial interaction. In spite of this crucial difference, usually Dirac neutrino processes differ from Majorana processes by a term proportional to the neutrino mass, resulting in almost unmeasurable observations of this difference. In the present work we show that once the neutrino polarization evolution is considered, there are clear differences between Dirac and Majorana scattering on electrons. The change of polarization can be achieved in astrophysical environments with strong magnetic fields. Furthermore, we show that in the case of unpolarized neutrino scattering onto polarized electrons, this difference can be relevant even for large values of the neutrino energy.

  3. L∞-algebras and higher analogues of Dirac sturctures and Courant albegroids

    OpenAIRE

    Zambon, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We define a higher analogue of Dirac structures on a manifold $M$. Under a regularity assumption, higher Dirac structures can be described by a foliation and a (not necessarily closed, non-unique) differential form on $M$, and are equivalent to (and simpler to handle than) the multi-Dirac structures recently introduced in the context of field theory by Vankerschaver et al. We associate an $L_\\infty$-algebra of observables to every higher Dirac structure, extending work of...

  4. Hamiltonian Constraints and Dirac's Observables: from Relativistic Particles towards Field Theory and General Relativity.

    OpenAIRE

    Lusanna, Luca

    1995-01-01

    A review is given of the presymplectic approach to relativistic physical systems and of the determination of their Dirac's observables. After relativistic mechanics and Nambu string, the Dirac's observables of Yang-Mills theory with fermions are given for the case of massless vector bosons (like in QED). A Dirac-Yukawa-like intrinsic ultraviolet cut-off is identified from the study of the covariantization of Hamiltonian classical field theory in the Dirac-Tomonaga-Schwinger sens. The implicat...

  5. Dirac's and Generalized Faddeev-Jackiw brackets for Einstein's theory in G $\\rightarrow 0$ limit

    OpenAIRE

    Escalante, Alberto; Rodríguez-Tzompantzi, Omar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the Dirac and Faddeev-Jackiw formulation for Einstein's theory in the $G \\rightarrow 0$ limit is performed; the fundamental Dirac's and Faddeev-Jackiw brackets for the theory are obtained. First, the Dirac brackets are constructed by eliminating the second class constraints remaining the first class ones, then we fix the gauge and we convert the first class constraints into second class constraints and the new fundamental Dirac's brackets are computed. Alternatively, we reproduc...

  6. Spawning rings of exceptional points out of Dirac cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Bo; Hsu, Chia Wei; Igarashi, Yuichi; Lu, Ling; Kaminer, Ido; Pick, Adi; Chua, Song-Liang; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin

    2015-09-17

    The Dirac cone underlies many unique electronic properties of graphene and topological insulators, and its band structure--two conical bands touching at a single point--has also been realized for photons in waveguide arrays, atoms in optical lattices, and through accidental degeneracy. Deformation of the Dirac cone often reveals intriguing properties; an example is the quantum Hall effect, where a constant magnetic field breaks the Dirac cone into isolated Landau levels. A seemingly unrelated phenomenon is the exceptional point, also known as the parity-time symmetry breaking point, where two resonances coincide in both their positions and widths. Exceptional points lead to counter-intuitive phenomena such as loss-induced transparency, unidirectional transmission or reflection, and lasers with reversed pump dependence or single-mode operation. Dirac cones and exceptional points are connected: it was theoretically suggested that certain non-Hermitian perturbations can deform a Dirac cone and spawn a ring of exceptional points. Here we experimentally demonstrate such an 'exceptional ring' in a photonic crystal slab. Angle-resolved reflection measurements of the photonic crystal slab reveal that the peaks of reflectivity follow the conical band structure of a Dirac cone resulting from accidental degeneracy, whereas the complex eigenvalues of the system are deformed into a two-dimensional flat band enclosed by an exceptional ring. This deformation arises from the dissimilar radiation rates of dipole and quadrupole resonances, which play a role analogous to the loss and gain in parity-time symmetric systems. Our results indicate that the radiation existing in any open system can fundamentally alter its physical properties in ways previously expected only in the presence of material loss and gain.

  7. PREFACE: International Workshop on Dirac Electrons in Solids 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, M.; Suzumura, Y.; Fuseya, Y.; Matsuura, H.

    2015-04-01

    It is our pleasure to publish the Proceedings of the International Workshop on Dirac Electrons in Solids held in University of Tokyo, Japan, for January 14-15, 2015. The workshop was organized by the entitled project which lasted from April 2012 to March 2015 with 10 theorists. It has been supported by a Grand-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan. The subjects discussed in the workshop include bismuth, organic conductors, graphene, topological insulators, new materials including Ca3PbO, and new directions in theory (superconductivity, orbital susceptibility, etc). The number of participants was about 70 and the papers presented in the workshop include four invited talks, 16 oral presentations, and 23 poster presentations. Dirac electron systems appear in various systems, such as graphene, quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors, bismuth, surface states in topological insulators, new materials like Ca3PbO. In these systems, characteristic transport properties caused by the linear dispersion of Dirac electrons and topological properties, have been extensively discussed. In addition to these, there are many interesting research fields such as Spin-Hall effect, orbital diamagnetism due to interband effects, Landau levels characteristic to Dirac dispersion, anomalous interlayer transport phenomena and magnetoresistance, the effects of spin-orbit interaction, and electron correlation. The workshop focused on recent developments of theory and experiment of Dirac electron systems in the above materials. We note that all papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series were peer reviewed. Reviews were performed by expert referees with professional knowledge and high scientific standards in this field. Editors made efforts so that the papers may satisfy the criterion of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. We hope that all the participants of the workshop

  8. A pseudo-matched filter for chaos

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Seth D.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    A matched filter maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of a signal. In the recent work of Corron et al. [Chaos 20, 023123 (2010)], a matched filter is derived for the chaotic waveforms produced by a piecewise-linear system. Motivated by these results, we describe a pseudo-matched filter, which removes noise from the same chaotic signal. It consists of a notch filter followed by a first-order, low-pass filter. We compare quantitatively the matched filter's performance to that of our pseudo-match...

  9. A case of Pseudo-Bartter syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ik; Choi, Bo Whan; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    Pseudo-Bartter Syndrome is a rare medical disease of the kidney characterized by normal blood pressure, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia and hyperaldosteronism with drug history of diuretics. We report US, CT and MRI findings of a patients with clinically proved Pseudo-Bartter syndrome. The patient was a 37 year old woman with a history of long term ingestion of the diuretics(furosemide) for 20 years. Renal US revealed hyperechoic renal medulla at both kidneys. The resistive index(RI), calculated from the duplex doppler waveform is 0.61. Unenhanced CT revealed faint high attenuation along the medulla. T1-weighted MRI revealed indistinct corticomedullary differentiation.

  10. Twisting dirac fermions: circular dichroism in bilayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez Morell, E.; Chico, Leonor; Brey, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Twisted bilayer graphene is a chiral system which has been recently shown to present circular dichroism. In this work we show that the origin of this optical activity is the rotation of the Dirac fermions’ helicities in the top and bottom layer. Starting from the Kubo formula, we obtain a compact expression for the Hall conductivity that takes into account the dephasing of the electromagnetic field between the top and bottom layers and gathers all the symmetries of the system. Our results are based in both a continuum and a tight-binding model, and they can be generalized to any two-dimensional Dirac material with a chiral stacking between layers.

  11. Does the Dirac Cone Exist in Silicene on Metal Substrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quhe, Ruge; Yuan, Yakun; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wang, Yangyang; Ni, Zeyuan; Shi, Junjie; Yu, Dapeng; Yang, Jinbo; Lu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Absence of the Dirac cone due to a strong band hybridization is revealed to be a common feature for epitaxial silicene on metal substrates according to our first-principles calculations for silicene on Ir, Cu, Mg, Au, Pt, Al, and Ag substrates. The destroyed Dirac cone of silicene, however, can be effectively restored with linear or parabolic dispersion by intercalating alkali metal atoms between silicene and the metal substrates, offering an opportunity to study the intriguing properties of silicene without further transfer of silicene from the metal substrates. PMID:24969493

  12. Surface plasmon of three-dimensional Dirac semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacic Losic, Zeljana

    2017-12-08

    The surface plasmon excitation spectrum is calculated for the semi-infinite three-dimensional Dirac semimetal. We used the random phase approximation (RPA) for the calculation of the surface dielectric function, from which we derived the dynamical structure factor. The surface excitation spectrum shows a well-defined strong surface plasmon peak due to the plasmon mode in the bulk, with a noticeable influence of electron-hole excitations at large wave vectors parallel to the surface. The obtained spectrum will be useful for exploring experimentally the surface spectral properties of three-dimensional topological Dirac semimetals. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-03-11

    The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.

  14. Spectral Gaps of Dirac Operators Describing Graphene Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benguria, Rafael D.; Fournais, Søren; Stockmeyer, Edgardo; Van Den Bosch, Hanne

    2017-06-01

    The two-dimensional Dirac operator describes low-energy excitations in graphene. Different choices for the boundary conditions give rise to qualitative differences in the spectrum of the resulting operator. For a family of boundary conditions, we find a lower bound to the spectral gap around zero, proportional to |Ω|-1/2, where {Ω } \\subset R2 is the bounded region where the Dirac operator acts. This family contains the so-called infinite mass and armchair cases used in the physics literature for the description of graphene quantum dots.

  15. A Kernel Representation of Dirac Structures for Infinite-dimensional Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iftime, Orest; Roman, M.; Sandovici, A.

    2014-01-01

    Dirac structures are used as the underlying structure to mathematically formalize port-Hamiltonian systems. This note approaches the Dirac structures for infinite-dimensional systems using the theory of linear relations on Hilbert spaces. First, a kernel representation for a Dirac structure is

  16. Composition of Dirac structures and control of Port-Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaft, Arjan; Cervera, J.; Gilliam, D.S.; Rosenthal, J.

    2002-01-01

    Key feature of Dirac structures (as opposed to Poisson or symplectic structures) is the fact that the standard composition of two Dirac structures is again a Dirac structure. In particular this implies that any power-conserving interconnection of port-Hamiltonian systems is a port-Hamiltonian system

  17. Some Properties of Weighted Pseudo almost Periodic Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Ming Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several interesting and new properties of weighted pseudo almost periodic functions are established. Firstly, we obtain an equivalent definition for weighted pseudo almost periodic functions, which shows a close relationship between asymptotically almost periodic functions and weighted pseudo almost periodic functions; secondly, we prove that the space of asymptotically almost periodic functions is always a proper subspace of the space of weighted pseudo almost periodic functions; thirdly, we show that under some cases, the space of weighted pseudo almost periodic functions equals the classical space of pseudo almost periodic functions.

  18. Pseudo--Normals for Signed Distance Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2003-01-01

    undertake showing that the angle weighted pseudo--normal has an important property, namely that it allows us to discriminate between points that are inside and points that are outside the mesh. This result is used for proposing a simple and efficient algorithm for computing the signed distance field from...

  19. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA SPECIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nb

    coastal waters of the Western Indian Ocean has been reported before (Bryceson ... Ocean. There is however no study, which has analyzed the seasonal distribution of. Pseudo-nitzschia species along the. Tanzanian coastal waters as well as factors regulating such ... cleaned plastic vials and immediately kept cool on ice for ...

  20. A pseudo-matched filter for chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Seth D; Gauthier, Daniel J

    2012-09-01

    A matched filter maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of a signal. In the recent work of Corron et al. [Chaos 20, 023123 (2010)], a matched filter is derived for the chaotic waveforms produced by a piecewise-linear system. This system produces a readily available binary symbolic dynamics that can be used to perform correlations in the presence of large amounts of noise using the matched filter. Motivated by these results, we describe a pseudo-matched filter, which operates similarly to the original matched filter. It consists of a notch filter followed by a first-order, low-pass filter. We compare quantitatively the matched filter's performance to that of our pseudo-matched filter using correlation functions. On average, the pseudo-matched filter performs with a correlation signal-to-noise ratio that is 2.0 dB below that of the matched filter. Our pseudo-matched filter, though somewhat inferior in comparison to the matched filter, is easily realizable at high speed (>1 GHz) for potential radar applications.

  1. Pseudo-Canonical Formulae are Classical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caminati Marco B.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An original result about Hilbert Positive Propositional Calculus introduced in [11] is proven. That is, it is shown that the pseudo-canonical formulae of that calculus (and hence also the canonical ones, see [17] are a subset of the classical tautologies.

  2. Pseudo-observations in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Perme, Maja Pohar

    2010-01-01

    -state models, e.g. the competing risks cumulative incidence function. Graphical and numerical methods for assessing goodness-of-fit for hazard regression models and for the Fine-Gray model in competing risks studies based on pseudo-observations are also reviewed. Sensitivity to covariate-dependent censoring...... is studied. The methods are illustrated using a data set from bone marrow transplantation....

  3. Phenomenological constraints on light mixed sneutrino dark matter scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Kakizaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In supersymmetric models with Dirac neutrinos, the lightest sneutrino can be a good thermal dark matter candidate when the soft sneutrino trilinear parameter is large. In this paper, we focus on scenarios where the mass of the mixed sneutrino LSP is of the order of GeV so the sneutrino dark matter is still viable complying with the limits by current and near future direct detection experiments. We investigate phenomenological constraints in the parameter space of the models, as well as the vacuum stability bound. Finally, we show that the allowed regions can be explored by measuring Higgs boson properties at future collider experiments.

  4. Data-driven discovery of new Dirac semimetal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qimin; Chen, Ru; Neaton, Jeffrey

    In recent years, a significant amount of materials property data from high-throughput computations based on density functional theory (DFT) and the application of database technologies have enabled the rise of data-driven materials discovery. In this work, we initiate the extension of the data-driven materials discovery framework to the realm of topological semimetal materials and to accelerate the discovery of novel Dirac semimetals. We implement current available and develop new workflows to data-mine the Materials Project database for novel Dirac semimetals with desirable band structures and symmetry protected topological properties. This data-driven effort relies on the successful development of several automatic data generation and analysis tools, including a workflow for the automatic identification of topological invariants and pattern recognition techniques to find specific features in a massive number of computed band structures. Utilizing this approach, we successfully identified more than 15 novel Dirac point and Dirac nodal line systems that have not been theoretically predicted or experimentally identified. This work is supported by the Materials Project Predictive Modeling Center through the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  5. Dirac's Conception of the Magnetic Monopole, and its Modern Avatars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Dirac's Conception of the Magnetic Monopole, and its Modern Avatars. Sunil Mukhi. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 193-202. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Spectral invariants of operators of Dirac type on partitioned manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Bleecker, D.

    2004-01-01

    We review the concepts of the index of a Fredholm operator, the spectral flow of a curve of self-adjoint Fredholm operators, the Maslov index of a curve of Lagrangian subspaces in symplectic Hilbert space, and the eta invariant of operators of Dirac type on closed manifolds and manifolds...

  7. Type-II Dirac surface states in topological crystalline insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ching-Kai; Chan, Y.-H.; Li, Xiao; Nohara, Y.; Schnyder, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, it has been realized that topological Weyl semimetals come in two different varieties: (i) with standard Weyl cones with pointlike Fermi surfaces (type I) and (ii) with tilted Weyl cones that appear at the contact of electron and hole pockets (type II). These two types of Weyl semimetals have very different physical properties, in particular, in their thermodynamics and magnetotransport. Here, we show that Dirac cone surface states of topological crystalline insulators can be distinguished in a similar way. We demonstrate this in terms of a general surface theory and then apply this knowledge to a family of antiperovskites of the form A3E O , where A denotes an alkaline earth metal, while E stands for Pb or Sn. Using ab initio DFT calculations, we investigate the bulk and surface topology of these antiperovskites and show that they exhibit type-I as well as type-II Dirac surface states protected by reflection symmetry. We find that the type-II Dirac states, as opposed to the type-I Dirac states, exhibit characteristic van Hove singularities in their dispersion, which lead to different thermodynamic properties, and which can serve as an experimental fingerprint of type-II surface states. The different magnetotransport characteristics between type-I and type-II surface states are discussed. In addition, we show that both type-I and type-II surface states exhibit an unusual helical spin polarization, which could lead to topological surface superconductivity.

  8. Common origin of neutrino mass, dark matter and Dirac leptogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Debasish; Dasgupta, Arnab

    2016-12-01

    We study the possibility of generating tiny Dirac neutrino masses at one loop level through the scotogenic mechanism such that one of the particles going inside the loop can be a stable cold dark matter (DM) candidate. Majorana mass terms of singlet fermions as well as tree level Dirac neutrino masses are prevented by incorporating the presence of additional discrete symmetries in a minimal fashion, which also guarantee the stability of the dark matter candidate. Due to the absence of total lepton number violation, the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe is generated through the mechanism of Dirac leptogenesis where an equal and opposite amount of leptonic asymmetry is generated in the left and right handed sectors which are prevented from equilibration due to tiny Dirac Yukawa couplings. Dark matter relic abundance is generated through its usual freeze-out at a temperature much below the scale of leptogenesis. We constrain the relevant parameter space from neutrino mass, baryon asymmetry, Planck bound on dark matter relic abundance, and latest LUX bound on spin independent DM-nucleon scattering cross section. We also discuss the charged lepton flavour violation (μ → e γ) and electric dipole moment of electron in this model in the light of the latest experimental data and constrain the parameter space of the model.

  9. QCD Dirac spectra with and without random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damgaard, P.H. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1999-07-01

    Recent work on the spectrum of the Euclidean Dirac operator spectrum show that the exact microscopic spectral density can be computed in both random matrix theory, and directly from field theory. Exact relations to effective Lagrangians with additional quark species form the bridge between the two formulations. (author)

  10. Moving potential for Dirac and Klein–Gordon equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The problem of massless (2+1) Dirac particle is also considerered. Author Affiliations. Hamil B1 Chetouani L1. Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences Exactes, Université des Frères Mentouri, Constantine, Algeria. Dates. Manuscript received: 17 December 2014; Manuscript revised: 11 February 2015; Accepted ...

  11. Moving potential for Dirac and Klein–Gordon equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Using the Lorentz transformation, the Klein–Gordon and Dirac equations with moving potentials are reduced to one standard where the potential is time-independent. As application, the reflection and transmission coefficients are determined by considering the moving step with a constant velocity v. It has been ...

  12. Dirac structures and their composition on Hilbert spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurula, J.; Kurula, Mikael; Zwart, Heiko J.; van der Schaft, Arjan; Behrndt, Jussi

    2010-01-01

    Dirac structures appear naturally in the study of certain classes of physical models described by partial differential equations and they can be regarded as the underlying power conserving structures. We study these structures and their properties from an operator-theoretic point of view. In

  13. Dirac's Conception of the Magnetic Monopole, and its Modern Avatars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. Dirac's Conception of the Magnetic Monopole, and its Modern Avatars. Sunil Mukhi. General Article Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 17-26. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Dirac Magnon Nodal Loops in Quasi-2D Quantum Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2017-07-31

    In this report, we propose a new concept of one-dimensional (1D) closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in two-dimensional (2D) momentum space of quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. They are termed "2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops". We utilize the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets with intralayer coupling J and interlayer coupling J L , which is realizable in the honeycomb chromium compounds CrX3 (X ≡ Br, Cl, and I). However, our results can also exist in other layered quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. Here, we show that the magnon bands of the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets overlap for J L  ≠ 0 and form 1D closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in 2D momentum space. The 2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops are topologically protected by inversion and time-reversal symmetry. Furthermore, we show that they are robust against weak Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction Δ DM  < J L and possess chiral magnon edge modes.

  15. Bielectron vortices in two-dimensional Dirac semimetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, C A; Portnoi, M E

    2017-10-12

    Searching for new states of matter and unusual quasi-particles in emerging materials and especially low-dimensional systems is one of the major trends in contemporary condensed matter physics. Dirac materials, which host quasi-particles which are described by ultrarelativistic Dirac-like equations, are of a significant current interest from both a fundamental and applied physics perspective. Here we show that a pair of two-dimensional massless Dirac-Weyl fermions can form a bound state independently of the sign of the inter-particle interaction potential, as long as this potential decays at large distances faster than Kepler's inverse distance law. This leads to the emergence of a new type of energetically favorable quasiparticle: bielectron vortices, which are double-charged and reside at zero-energy. Their bosonic nature allows for condensation and may give rise to Majorana physics without invoking a superconductor. These novel quasi-particles arguably explain a range of poorly understood experiments in gated graphene structures at low doping.Two-dimensional Dirac semimetals are known to host fermionic excitations which can mimic physics usually found in ultrarelativistic quantum mechanics. Here, the authors unveil the existence of another type of quasiparticle, bielectron vortices, which are bosonic and may give rise to new types of condensates.

  16. Dirac cohomology for degenerate affine Hecke-Clifford algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, K.Y.

    In this paper, we study the Dirac cohomology theory on a class of algebraic structures. The main examples of this algebraic structure are the degenerate affine Hecke-Clifford algebra of type An-1 by Nazarov and of classical types by Khongsap-Wang. The algebraic structure contains a remarkable

  17. Some Characterizations of Dirac Type Singularity of Monopoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Takuro; Yoshino, Masaki

    2017-12-01

    We study singular monopoles on open subsets in the 3-dimensional Euclidean space. We give two characterizations of Dirac type singularities. One is given in terms of the growth order of the norms of sections which are invariant by the scattering map. The other is given in terms of the growth order of the norms of the Higgs fields.

  18. Photovoltaic Hall Effect in Dirac systems -- Application to Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takashi; Aoki, Hideo

    2009-03-01

    We theoretically propose to irradiate electron systems with massless Dirac dispersion with circularly polarized light, for which we predict that the photo-irradiation can induce a dc Hall effect in the absence of static, uniform magnetic fields. The effect bears a geometric origin, traced back to the non-adiabatic phase (Aharonov-Anandan phase) which is acquired by the motion of k-points in the Brilliouin zone when they encircle the Dirac cones. The Kubo formula for linear responses is extended to the nonlinear effects via the Floquet formalism for strong ac fields, which is used to calculate the photo-induced Berry curvature. The irradiation induces a dynamical gap at the Dirac point which gives rise to a universal ac Wannier-Stark ladder in Dirac systems observable in the density of states. We further use the Keldysh + Floquet method to analyze finite graphene systems, which confirms the existence of photovoltaic dc Hall effect. The required strength of the circularly polarized light to observe these effects is estimated to be O(10^7eV/m), which is within an accessible range for present laser sources. (arXiv:0807.4767)

  19. Distinguishing between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos withtwo-particle interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Thomas D.

    2006-03-02

    Two-particle interferometry, a second-order interferenceeffect, is explored as another possible tool to distinguish betweenmassive Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. A simple theoretical framework isdiscussed in the context of several gedanken experiments. The method canin principle provide both the mass scale and the quantum nature of theneutrino for a certain class of incoherent left-handed sourcecurrents.

  20. Existence of localized solutions for a classical nonlinear Dirac field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, T.; Vazquez, L.

    1986-05-01

    We prove the existence of stationary states for nonlinear Dirac equations of the form: iota..gamma..sup(..mu..)dsub(..mu..)psi-mpsi+F(anti psipsi)psi=0. We seek solutions which are separable in spherical coordinates and we use a shooting method for solving the associated problem of ordinary differential equations. (orig.).

  1. Dirac electronics states in graphene systems: optical spectroscopy studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orlita, Milan; Potemski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2010), 063001/1-063001/22 ISSN 0268-1242 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : graphene * Dirac fermions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.323, year: 2010

  2. LHCb : The DIRAC Web Portal 2.0

    CERN Multimedia

    Mathe, Zoltan; Lazovsky, N; Stagni, Federico

    2015-01-01

    For many years the DIRAC interware (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) has had a web interface, allowing the users to monitor DIRAC activities and also interact with the system. Since then many new web technologies have emerged, therefore a redesign and a new implementation of the DIRAC Web portal were necessary, taking into account the lessons learnt using the old portal. These new technologies allowed to build a more compact and more responsive web interface that is robust and that enables users to have more control over the whole system while keeping a simple interface. The framework provides a large set of "applications", each of which can be used for interacting with various parts of the system. Communities can also create their own set of personalised web applications, and can easily extend already existing web applications with a minimal effort. Each user can configure and personalise the view for each application and save it using the DIRAC User Profile service as RESTful state prov...

  3. Meson Spectra: Power Law Potential Model in the Dirac Equation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A single mass-spectra potential model has been used to predict the spectra of both light and heavy mesons (including leptonic decay-widths) in the Dirac equation. In fact a power law potential has been proposed with effective power where is the mass of the constituent quarks (in GeV) of the mesons considered.

  4. DIRAC v2 a DIgital Readout Asic for hadronic Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gaglione, R; Chefdeville, M; Drancourt, C; Vouters, G

    2009-01-01

    DIRAC is a 64 channel mixed-signal readout integrated circuit designed for Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MICROMEGAS, Gas Electron Multiplier) or Resistive Plate Chambers. These detectors are foreseen as the active part of a digital hadronic calorimeter for a high energy physics experiment at the International Linear Collider. Physic requirements lead to a highly granular hadronic calorimeter with up to thirty million channels with probably only hit information (digital calorimeter). The DIRAC ASIC has been especially designed for these constraints. Each channel of the DIRAC chip is made of a 4 gains charge preamplifier, a DC-servo loop, 3 switched comparators and a digital memory, thus providing additional energy information for a hit. A bulk MICROMEGAS detector with embedded DIRAC v1 ASIC has been built. The tests of this assembly, both in laboratory with X-Rays and in a beam at CERN are presented, demonstrating the feasibility of a bulk MICROMEGAS detector with embedded electronics. The second version of...

  5. A new derivation of Dirac's magnetic monopole strength

    CERN Document Server

    Panat, P V

    2003-01-01

    A new derivation of the strength of Dirac's magnetic monopole is presented which does not require an explicit form of the magnetic induction in terms of g, the magnetic pole strength. The derivation essentially uses a modification of Faraday's law of induction and quantization of angular momentum.

  6. Dirac's Constrained Hamiltonian Dynamics from an Unconstrained Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rothe, Heinz J.

    2003-01-01

    We derive the Hamilton equations of motion for a constrained system in the form given by Dirac, by a limiting procedure, starting from the Lagrangean for an unconstrained system. We thereby ellucidate the role played by the primary constraints and their persistance in time.

  7. Majorana zero modes in Dirac semimetal Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; de Boer, Jorrit; de Ronde, Bob; Huang, Yingkai; Golden, Mark; Brinkman, Alexander

    We have realized proximity-induced superconductivity in a Dirac semimetal and revealed the topological nature of the superconductivity by the observation of Majorana zero modes. As a Dirac semimetal, Bi0.97Sb0.03 is used, where a three-dimensional Dirac cone exists in the bulk due to an accidental touching between conduction and valence bands. Electronic transport measurements on Hall-bars fabricated out of Bi0.97Sb0.03 flakes consistently show negative magnetoresistance for magnetic fields parallel to the current, which is associated with the chiral anomaly. In perpendicular magnetic fields, we see Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations that indicate very low carrier densities. The low Fermi energy and protection against backscattering in our Dirac semimetal Josephson junctions provide favorable conditions for a large contribution of Majorana zero modes to the supercurrent. In radiofrequency irradiation experiments, we indeed observe these Majorana zero modes in Nb-Bi0.97Sb0.03-Nb Josephson junctions as a 4 π periodic contribution to the current-phase relation.

  8. Precise identification of Dirac-like point through a finite photonic crystal square matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guoyan; Zhou, Ji; Yang, Xiulun; Meng, Xiangfeng

    2016-11-18

    The phenomena of the minimum transmittance spectrum or the maximum reflection spectrum located around the Dirac frequency have been observed to demonstrate the 1/L scaling law near the Dirac-like point through the finite ribbon structure. However, so far there is no effective way to identify the Dirac-like point accurately. In this work we provide an effective measurement method to identify the Dirac-like point accurately through a finite photonic crystal square matrix. Based on the Dirac-like dispersion achieved by the accidental degeneracy at the centre of the Brillouin zone of dielectric photonic crystal, both the simulated and experimental results demonstrate that the transmittance spectra through a finite photonic crystal square matrix not only provide the clear evidence for the existence of Dirac-like point but also can be used to identify the precise location of Dirac-like point by the characteristics of sharp cusps embedded in the extremum spectra surrounding the conical singularity.

  9. Primary palpebral and orbital ossification in pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauber, S.; Heegaard, S.; Prause, J.U.

    2002-01-01

    ophthalmology, Albright's heriditary osteodystrophy, ossification, pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism, pseodohypoparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, GNAS1 gene, history, eyelid, orbit......ophthalmology, Albright's heriditary osteodystrophy, ossification, pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism, pseodohypoparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, GNAS1 gene, history, eyelid, orbit...

  10. Two component WIMP-FImP dark matter model with singlet fermion, scalar and pseudo scalar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta Banik, Amit; Pandey, Madhurima; Majumdar, Debasish [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Kolkata (India); Biswas, Anirban [Harish Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad (India)

    2017-10-15

    We explore a two component dark matter model with a fermion and a scalar. In this scenario the Standard Model (SM) is extended by a fermion, a scalar and an additional pseudo scalar. The fermionic component is assumed to have a global U(1){sub DM} and interacts with the pseudo scalar via Yukawa interaction while a Z{sub 2} symmetry is imposed on the other component - the scalar. These ensure the stability of both dark matter components. Although the Lagrangian of the present model is CP conserving, the CP symmetry breaks spontaneously when the pseudo scalar acquires a vacuum expectation value (VEV). The scalar component of the dark matter in the present model also develops a VEV on spontaneous breaking of the Z{sub 2} symmetry. Thus the various interactions of the dark sector and the SM sector occur through the mixing of the SM like Higgs boson, the pseudo scalar Higgs like boson and the singlet scalar boson. We show that the observed gamma ray excess from the Galactic Centre as well as the 3.55 keV X-ray line from Perseus, Andromeda etc. can be simultaneously explained in the present two component dark matter model and the dark matter self interaction is found to be an order of magnitude smaller than the upper limit estimated from the observational results. (orig.)

  11. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudo-depth domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2012-01-01

    Extrapolating seismic waves in Cartesian coordinate is prone to uneven spatial sampling, because the seismic wavelength tends to grow with depth, as velocity increase. We transform the vertical depth axis to a pseudo one using a velocity weighted mapping, which can effectively mitigate this wavelength variation. We derive acoustic wave equations in this new domain based on the direct transformation of the Laplacian derivatives, which admits solutions that are more accurate and stable than those derived from the kinematic transformation. The anisotropic versions of these equations allow us to isolate the vertical velocity influence and reduce its impact on modeling and imaging. The major benefit of extrapolating wavefields in pseudo-depth space is its near uniform wavelength as opposed to the normally dramatic change of wavelength with the conventional approach. Time wavefield extrapolation on a complex velocity shows some of the features of this approach.

  12. Pseudo-differential operators and generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Toft, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    This book gathers peer-reviewed contributions representing modern trends in the theory of generalized functions and pseudo-differential operators. It is dedicated to Professor Michael Oberguggenberger (Innsbruck University, Austria) in honour of his 60th birthday. The topics covered were suggested by the ISAAC Group in Generalized Functions (GF) and the ISAAC Group in Pseudo-Differential Operators (IGPDO), which met at the 9th ISAAC congress in Krakow, Poland in August 2013. Topics include Columbeau algebras, ultra-distributions, partial differential equations, micro-local analysis, harmonic analysis, global analysis, geometry, quantization, mathematical physics, and time-frequency analysis. Featuring both essays and research articles, the book will be of great interest to graduate students and researchers working in analysis, PDE and mathematical physics, while also offering a valuable complement to the volumes on this topic previously published in the OT series.

  13. Inflation and pseudo-Goldstone Higgs boson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alanne, Tommi; Sannino, Francesco; Tenkanen, Tommi

    2017-01-01

    We consider inflation within a model framework where the Higgs boson arises as a pseudo-Goldstone boson associated with the breaking of a global symmetry at a scale significantly larger than the electroweak one. We show that in such a model the scalar self-couplings can be parametrically suppressed...... field. Our model therefore suggests that inflation and low energy particle phenomenology may be more entwined than assumed so far....

  14. Pseudo-Hermitian random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S. C. L.; Jain, S. R.

    2013-02-01

    Complex extension of quantum mechanics and the discovery of pseudo-unitarily invariant random matrix theory has set the stage for a number of applications of these concepts in physics. We briefly review the basic ideas and present applications to problems in statistical mechanics where new results have become possible. We have found it important to mention the precise directions where advances could be made if further results become available.

  15. Pseudo-Hermitian random matrix theory

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Shashi C. L.; Jain, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Complex extension of quantum mechanics and the discovery of pseudo-unitarily invariant random matrix theory has set the stage for a number of applications of these concepts in physics. We briefly review the basic ideas and present applications to problems in statistical mechanics where new results have become possible. We have found it important to mention the precise directions where advances could be made if further results become available.

  16. Crossing textual and visual content in different application scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Ah-Pine, Julien; Bressan, Marco; Clinchant, Stephane; Csurka, Gabriela; Hoppenot, Yves; Renders, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with multimedia information access. We propose two new approaches for hybrid text-image information processing that can be straightforwardly generalized to the more general multimodal scenario. Both approaches fall in the trans-media pseudo-relevance feedback category. Our first method proposes using a mixture model of the aggregate components, considering them as a single relevance concept. In our second approach, we define trans-media similarities as...

  17. Wavefield Extrapolation in Pseudo-depth Domain

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xuxin

    2011-12-11

    Wave-equation based seismic migration and inversion tools are widely used by the energy industry to explore hydrocarbon and mineral resources. By design, most of these techniques simulate wave propagation in a space domain with the vertical axis being depth measured from the surface. Vertical depth is popular because it is a straightforward mapping of the subsurface space. It is, however, not computationally cost-effective because the wavelength changes with local elastic wave velocity, which in general increases with depth in the Earth. As a result, the sampling per wavelength also increases with depth. To avoid spatial aliasing in deep fast media, the seismic wave is oversampled in shallow slow media and therefore increase the total computation cost. This issue is effectively tackled by using the vertical time axis instead of vertical depth. This is because in a vertical time representation, the "wavelength" is essentially time period for vertical rays. This thesis extends the vertical time axis to the pseudo-depth axis, which features distance unit while preserving the properties of the vertical time representation. To explore the potentials of doing wave-equation based imaging in the pseudo-depth domain, a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) is derived to describe acoustic wave in this new domain. This new PDE is inherently anisotropic because the use of a constant vertical velocity to convert between depth and vertical time. Such anisotropy results in lower reflection coefficients compared with conventional space domain modeling results. This feature is helpful to suppress the low wavenumber artifacts in reverse-time migration images, which are caused by the widely used cross-correlation imaging condition. This thesis illustrates modeling acoustic waves in both conventional space domain and pseudo-depth domain. The numerical tool used to model acoustic waves is built based on the lowrank approximation of Fourier integral operators. To investigate the potential

  18. Anomalous U(1), Gauge-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking and Higgs as Pseudo-Goldstone Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Dvali, Gia; Pomarol, Alex

    1998-01-01

    We study the breaking of supersymmetry in models with anomalous U(1). These models are simple to construct and contain natural candidates for being the messengers of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking. When some of the ordinary matter fields transform under the anomalous U(1), we find a hybrid scenario in which the U(1) and the gauge interactions mediate the breaking of supersymmetry. This leads to a hierarchy of soft masses between the charged and neutral fields and provides a solution to the $\\mu$-problem. Among these models, we present a scenario in which the Higgs arises as a pseudo-Goldstone boson. This scenario naturally allows for values of the $\\mu$-term and the scalar soft masses larger than the weak scale.

  19. The Lightest Pseudo-Goldstone Boson at Future $e^{+}e^{-}$ Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Casalbuoni, R.; De Curtis, S.; Dominici, D.; Gatto, Raoul; Gunion, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    In a class of models of dynamical symmetry breaking not ruled out by the available data, the lightest neutral pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson P0 contains only down-type techniquarks and charged technileptons. Its mass scale is naturally determined by the b-quark and therefore it is likely to be light. As the presence of pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons in models of dynamical symmetry breaking is a quite general feature, the search of the P0 at colliders is an interesting opportunity of putting limits on or discovering a dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scenario. In this note we discuss the prospects for discovering and studying the P0 at future e+e- and gamma-gamma colliders.

  20. Type-II Dirac cone and Dirac cone protected by nonsymmorphic symmetry in the carbon-lithium compound C4Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuamba, Armindo S.; Hosur, Pavan; Lu, Hong-Yan; Hao, Lei; Ting, C. S.

    2017-11-01

    In this work, we predict a band structure for the carbon-lithium (C4Li ) compound using first principles calculations. We show that it exhibits two Dirac nodes near the Fermi level: (i) a line node protected by the nonsymmorphic symmetries of the compound and (ii) a type-II Dirac node with the highest tilt along the Γ -X line. The electron and hole pockets in the vicinity of the type-II Dirac node are separated in the stoichiometric compound, and they would touch each other when the Fermi level is doped up to the Dirac cone. The evolution of the Fermi surface with doping is also discussed. The bands crossing from T to W make a line node at the intersection of the kx=π and ky=π mirror planes. C4Li is a material with both a nonsymmorphic protected line node and a type-II Dirac cone near the Fermi level.

  1. Size quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrés, B.; Chizhova, L. A.; Libisch, F.; Peiro, J.; Jörger, D.; Engels, S.; Girschik, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Rotkin, S. V.; Burgdörfer, J.; Stampfer, C.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum point contacts are cornerstones of mesoscopic physics and central building blocks for quantum electronics. Although the Fermi wavelength in high-quality bulk graphene can be tuned up to hundreds of nanometres, the observation of quantum confinement of Dirac electrons in nanostructured graphene has proven surprisingly challenging. Here we show ballistic transport and quantized conductance of size-confined Dirac fermions in lithographically defined graphene constrictions. At high carrier densities, the observed conductance agrees excellently with the Landauer theory of ballistic transport without any adjustable parameter. Experimental data and simulations for the evolution of the conductance with magnetic field unambiguously confirm the identification of size quantization in the constriction. Close to the charge neutrality point, bias voltage spectroscopy reveals a renormalized Fermi velocity of ~1.5 × 106 m s-1 in our constrictions. Moreover, at low carrier density transport measurements allow probing the density of localized states at edges, thus offering a unique handle on edge physics in graphene devices.

  2. Dirac bound states of anharmonic oscillator in external fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamzavi, Majid, E-mail: majid.hamzavi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Zanjan, Zanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ikhdair, Sameer M., E-mail: sikhdair@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, an-Najah National University, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine (Country Unknown); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Near East University, 922022 Nicosia, Northern Cyprus, Mersin 10 (Turkey); Falaye, Babatunde J., E-mail: fbjames11@physicist.net [Theoretical Physics Section, Department of Physics, University of Ilorin, P. M. B. 1515, Ilorin (Nigeria)

    2014-02-15

    We explore the effect of the external magnetic and Aharonov–Bohm (AB) flux fields on the energy levels of Dirac particle subjects to mixed scalar and vector anharmonic oscillator field in the two-dimensional (2D) space. We calculate the exact energy eigenvalues and the corresponding un-normalized two-spinor-components wave functions in terms of the chemical potential parameter, magnetic field strength, AB flux field and magnetic quantum number by using the Nikiforov–Uvarov (NU) method. -- Highlights: • Effect of the external fields on the energy levels of Dirac particle with the anharmonic oscillator is investigated. • The solutions are discussed in view of spin and pseudospin symmetries limits. • The energy levels and wave function are presented by the Nikiforov–Uvarov method.

  3. Three-dimensional periodic dielectric structures having photonic Dirac points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-06-02

    The dielectric, three-dimensional photonic materials disclosed herein feature Dirac-like dispersion in quasi-two-dimensional systems. Embodiments include a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure formed by alternating layers of dielectric rods and dielectric slabs patterned with holes on respective triangular lattices. This fcc structure also includes a defect layer, which may comprise either dielectric rods or a dielectric slab with patterned with holes. This defect layer introduces Dirac cone dispersion into the fcc structure's photonic band structure. Examples of these fcc structures enable enhancement of the spontaneous emission coupling efficiency (the .beta.-factor) over large areas, contrary to the conventional wisdom that the .beta.-factor degrades as the system's size increases. These results enable large-area, low-threshold lasers; single-photon sources; quantum information processing devices; and energy harvesting systems.

  4. Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Remenska, Daniela; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Diaz, Ricardo Graciani; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple, the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike con...

  5. Peccei-Quinn symmetry for Dirac seesaw and leptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Pei-Hong [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University,800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2016-07-04

    We extend the DFSZ invisible axion model to simultaneously explain small Dirac neutrino masses and cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry. After the Peccei-Quinn and electroweak symmetry breaking, the effective Yukawa couplings of the Dirac neutrinos to the standard model Higgs scalar can be highly suppressed by the ratio of the vacuum expectation value of an iso-triplet Higgs scalar over the masses of some heavy gauge-singlet fermions, iso-doublet Higgs scalars or iso-triplet fermions. The iso-triplet fields can carry a zero or nonzero hypercharge. Through the decays of the heavy gauge-singlet fermions, iso-doublet scalars or iso-triplet fermions, we can obtain a lepton asymmetry in the left-handed leptons and an opposite lepton asymmetry in the right-handed neutrinos. Since the right-handed neutrinos do not participate in the sphaleron processes, the left-handed lepton asymmetry can be partially converted to a baryon asymmetry.

  6. Photon-Assisted Spectroscopy of Dirac Electrons in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrazek A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The quantum Goos-Hanchen effect in graphene is investigated. The Goos-Hanchen phase shift is derived by solving the Dirac eigenvalue differential equation. This phase shift varies with the angle of incidence of the quasiparticle Dirac fermions on the bar- rier. Calculations show that the dependence of the phase shift on the angle of incidence is sensitive to the variation of the energy gap of graphene, the applied magnetic field and the frequency of the electromagnetic waves. The present results show that the con- ducting states in the sidebands is very effective in the phase shift for frequencies of the applied electromagnetic field. This investigation is very important for the application of graphene in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics.

  7. Food scenarios 2025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Jon

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results of a future study of the food sector. Two scenarios have been developed using a combination of: 1) a summary of the relevant scientific knowledge, 2) systematic scenario writing, 3) an expert-based Delphi technique, and 4) an expert seminar assessment. The two...... scenarios present possible futures at global, national (Denmark) and regional (Zealand, Denmark) levels. The main scenario is called ‘Food for ordinary days and celebrations’ (a combination of ‘High-technological food production − The functional society’ and ‘High-gastronomic food − The experience society...

  8. Dirac equation in noncommutative space for hydrogen atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, T.C., E-mail: tadorno@nonada.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Baldiotti, M.C., E-mail: baldiott@fma.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chaichian, M., E-mail: Masud.Chaichian@helsinki.f [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, PO Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Gitman, D.M., E-mail: gitman@dfn.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tureanu, A., E-mail: Anca.Tureanu@helsinki.f [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, PO Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2009-11-30

    We consider the energy levels of a hydrogen-like atom in the framework of theta-modified, due to space noncommutativity, Dirac equation with Coulomb field. It is shown that on the noncommutative (NC) space the degeneracy of the levels 2S{sub 1/2}, 2P{sub 1/2} and 2P{sub 3/2} is lifted completely, such that new transition channels are allowed.

  9. Comparing lattice Dirac operators with Random Matrix Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farchioni, F.; Hipt, I.; Lang, C.B

    2000-03-01

    We study the eigenvalue spectrum of different lattice Dirac operators (staggered, fixed point, overlap) and discuss their dependence on the topological sectors. Although the model is 2D (the Schwinger model with massless fermions) our observations indicate possible problems in 4D applications. In particular misidentification of the smallest eigenvalues due to non-identification of the topological sector may hinder successful comparison with Random Matrix Theory (RMT)

  10. A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, D; Qian, D; Wray, L; Xia, Y; Hor, Y S; Cava, R J; Hasan, M Z

    2008-04-24

    When electrons are subject to a large external magnetic field, the conventional charge quantum Hall effect dictates that an electronic excitation gap is generated in the sample bulk, but metallic conduction is permitted at the boundary. Recent theoretical models suggest that certain bulk insulators with large spin-orbit interactions may also naturally support conducting topological boundary states in the quantum limit, which opens up the possibility for studying unusual quantum Hall-like phenomena in zero external magnetic fields. Bulk Bi(1-x)Sb(x) single crystals are predicted to be prime candidates for one such unusual Hall phase of matter known as the topological insulator. The hallmark of a topological insulator is the existence of metallic surface states that are higher-dimensional analogues of the edge states that characterize a quantum spin Hall insulator. In addition to its interesting boundary states, the bulk of Bi(1-x)Sb(x) is predicted to exhibit three-dimensional Dirac particles, another topic of heightened current interest following the new findings in two-dimensional graphene and charge quantum Hall fractionalization observed in pure bismuth. However, despite numerous transport and magnetic measurements on the Bi(1-x)Sb(x) family since the 1960s, no direct evidence of either topological Hall states or bulk Dirac particles has been found. Here, using incident-photon-energy-modulated angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (IPEM-ARPES), we report the direct observation of massive Dirac particles in the bulk of Bi(0.9)Sb(0.1), locate the Kramers points at the sample's boundary and provide a comprehensive mapping of the Dirac insulator's gapless surface electron bands. These findings taken together suggest that the observed surface state on the boundary of the bulk insulator is a realization of the 'topological metal'. They also suggest that this material has potential application in developing next-generation quantum computing devices that may

  11. Invariance properties of the Dirac equation with external electro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we attempt to obtain the nature of the external field such that the Dirac equation with external electro-magnetic field is invariant. The Poincar´e group, which is the maximal symmetry group for field free case, is constrained by the presence of the external field. Introducing infinitesimal transformation of x andψ, ...

  12. Existence of excited states for a nonlinear Dirac equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabane, M.; Cazenave, T.; Douady, A.; Merle, F.

    1988-01-21

    We prove the existence of infinitely many stationary states for the nonlinear Dirac equation. Seeking eigenfunctions splitted in spherical coordinates leads to analyse a nonautonomous dynamical system in R/sup 2/. The number of eigenfunctions is given by the number of intersections of the stable manifold of the origin with the curve of admissible data. This proves the existence of infinitely many stationary states ordered by the number of nodes of the components

  13. Most pseudo-bulges can be formed at later stages of major mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvaget, T.; Hammer, F.; Puech, M.; Yang, Y. B.; Flores, H.; Rodrigues, M.

    2018-01-01

    Most giant spiral galaxies have pseudo or disc-like bulges that are considered to be the result of purely secular processes. This may challenge the hierarchical scenario predicting about one major merger per massive galaxy (>3 × 1010 M⊙) since the last ∼9 billion years. Here, we verify whether or not the association between pseudo-bulges and secular processes is irrevocable. Using GADGET2 N-body/SPH simulations, we have conducted a systematic study of remnants of major mergers for which progenitors have been selected (1) to follow the gas richness-look back time relationship, and (2) with a representative distribution of orbits and spins in a cosmological frame. Analysing the surface mass density profile of both nearby galaxies and merger remnants with two components, we find that most of them show pseudo-bulges or bar dominated centres. Even if some orbits lead to classical bulges just after the fusion, the contamination by the additional gas that gradually accumulates to the centre and forming stars later on, leads to remnants apparently dominated by pseudo-bulges. We also found that simple smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations should be sufficient to form realistic spiral galaxies as remnants of ancient gas-rich mergers without the need for specifically tuned feedback conditions. We then conclude that pseudo-bulges and bars in spiral galaxies are natural consequences of major mergers when they are realized in a cosmological context, i.e. with gas-rich progenitors as expected when selected in the distant Universe.

  14. Bound states of the Dirac equation on Kerr spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Sam R

    2015-01-01

    We formulate the Dirac equation for a massive neutral spin-half particle on a rotating black hole spacetime, and we consider its (quasi)bound states: gravitationally-trapped modes which are regular across the future event horizon. These bound states decay with time, due to the absence of superradiance in the (single-particle) Dirac field. We introduce a practical method for computing the spectrum of energy levels and decay rates, and we compare our numerical results with known asymptotic results in the small-$M \\mu$ and large-$M \\mu$ regimes. By applying perturbation theory in a horizon-penetrating coordinate system, we compute the `fine structure' of the energy spectrum, and show good agreement with numerical results. We obtain data for a hyperfine splitting due to black hole rotation. We evolve generic initial data in the time domain, and show how Dirac bound states appear as spectral lines in the power spectra. In the rapidly-rotating regime, we find that the decay of low-frequency co-rotating modes is sup...

  15. Non-Grassmann mechanical model of the Dirac equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deriglazov, A. A.; Zamudio, G. P.; Castro, P. S. [Department de Matematica, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Rizzuti, B. F. [ISB, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Coari-AM (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    We construct a new example of the spinning-particle model without Grassmann variables. The spin degrees of freedom are described on the base of an inner anti-de Sitter space. This produces both {Gamma}{sup {mu}} and {Gamma}{sup {mu}{nu}}-matrices in the course of quantization. Canonical quantization of the model implies the Dirac equation. We present the detailed analysis of both the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulations of the model and obtain the general solution to the classical equations of motion. Comparing Zitterbewegung of the spatial coordinate with the evolution of spin, we ask on the possibility of space-time interpretation for the inner space of spin. We enumerate similarities between our analogous model of the Dirac equation and the two-body system subject to confining potential which admits only the elliptic orbits of the order of de Broglie wavelength. The Dirac equation dictates the perpendicularity of the elliptic orbits to the direction of center-of-mass motion.

  16. Upper-division student difficulties with the Dirac delta function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R. Wilcox

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them. To characterize student difficulties with the delta function at the upper-division level, we examined students’ responses to traditional exam questions and a standardized conceptual assessment, and conducted think-aloud interviews. Our analysis was guided by an analytical framework that focuses on how students activate, construct, execute, and reflect on the Dirac delta function in the context of problem solving in physics. Here, we focus on student difficulties using the delta function to express charge distributions in the context of junior-level electrostatics. Common challenges included invoking the delta function spontaneously, translating a description of a charge distribution into a mathematical expression using delta functions, integrating 3D or non-Cartesian delta function expressions, and recognizing that the delta function can have units. We also briefly discuss implications of these difficulties for instruction.

  17. Evidence for $\\pi K$ -atoms with DIRAC-II

    CERN Document Server

    Allkofer, Yves

    2008-01-01

    DIRAC-II is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN Proton Synchroton (PS) which has been designed to search for piK atoms, a bound state of a pi±K± pair, and measure their lifetime. These atoms are observed through an excess of low energetic piK pairs over the background, detected in the two spectrometer arms. This excess comes from the ionization of piK atoms in the target and can be related to their mean life. The piK S-wave scattering length combination |a1/2 - a3/2| (for isospin 1/2 and 3/2) can be related to the latter. The aim of the upgraded DIRAC-II experiment is a measurement of the scattering length combination |a1/2 - a3/2| with a precision of 5%. piK atoms have not been observed so far. The original DIRAC experiment was designed to measure the scattering lengths of pipi atoms. So far, close to 15 000 atoms have been detected, leading to a precision on |a0 - a2| which is better than 10%. In chiral perturbation theories (ChPT) the pipi scattering lengths have been calculated with 2% precision a...

  18. Are the surface Fermi arcs in Dirac semimetals topologically protected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarian, Mehdi; Randeria, Mohit; Lu, Yuan-Ming

    2016-08-02

    Motivated by recent experiments probing anomalous surface states of Dirac semimetals (DSMs) Na3Bi and Cd3As2, we raise the question posed in the title. We find that, in marked contrast to Weyl semimetals, the gapless surface states of DSMs are not topologically protected in general, except on time-reversal-invariant planes of surface Brillouin zone. We first demonstrate this finding in a minimal four-band model with a pair of Dirac nodes at [Formula: see text] where gapless states on the side surfaces are protected only near [Formula: see text] We then validate our conclusions about the absence of a topological invariant protecting double Fermi arcs in DSMs, using a K-theory analysis for space groups of Na3Bi and Cd3As2 Generically, the arcs deform into a Fermi pocket, similar to the surface states of a topological insulator, and this pocket can merge into the projection of bulk Dirac Fermi surfaces as the chemical potential is varied. We make sharp predictions for the doping dependence of the surface states of a DSM that can be tested by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and quantum oscillation experiments.

  19. Imaging electrostatically confined Dirac fermions in graphene quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juwon; Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jairo, Jr.; Rodriguez-Nieva, Joaquin F.; Kahn, Salman; Tsai, Hsin-Zon; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Zettl, Alex; Wang, Feng; Levitov, Leonid S.; Crommie, Michael F.

    2016-11-01

    Electrostatic confinement of charge carriers in graphene is governed by Klein tunnelling, a relativistic quantum process in which particle-hole transmutation leads to unusual anisotropic transmission at p-n junction boundaries. Reflection and transmission at these boundaries affect the quantum interference of electronic waves, enabling the formation of novel quasi-bound states. Here we report the use of scanning tunnelling microscopy to map the electronic structure of Dirac fermions confined in quantum dots defined by circular graphene p-n junctions. The quantum dots were fabricated using a technique involving local manipulation of defect charge within the insulating substrate beneath a graphene monolayer. Inside such graphene quantum dots we observe resonances due to quasi-bound states and directly visualize the quantum interference patterns arising from these states. Outside the quantum dots Dirac fermions exhibit Friedel oscillation-like behaviour. Bolstered by a theoretical model describing relativistic particles in a harmonic oscillator potential, our findings yield insights into the spatial behaviour of electrostatically confined Dirac fermions.

  20. Pilots 2.0: DIRAC pilots for all the skies

    CERN Document Server

    Stagni, F; McNab, A; Luzzi, C

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing infrastructures, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are opportunistic. Most of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. Meanwhile, some concepts, such as distributed queues, lost appeal, while still supporting a vast amount of resources. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to hide the diversity of underlying resources has become essential. The DIRAC WMS is based on the concept of pilot jobs that was introduced back in 2004. A pilot is what creates the possibility to run jobs on a worker node. Within DIRAC, we developed a new generation of pilot jobs, that we dubbed Pilots 2.0. Pilots 2.0 are not tied to a specific infrastructure; rather they are generic, fully configurable and extendible pilots. A Pilot 2.0 can be s...

  1. Double Dirac point semimetal in 2D material: Ta2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yandong; Jing, Yu; Heine, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Here, we report by first-principles calculations one new stable 2D Dirac material, Ta2Se3 monolayer. For this system, stable layered bulk phase exists, and exfoliation should be possible. Ta2Se3 monolayer is demonstrated to support two Dirac points close to the Fermi level, achieving the exotic 2D double Dirac semimetal. And like 2D single Dirac and 2D node-line semimetals, spin-orbit coupling could introduce an insulating state in this new class of 2D Dirac semimetals. Moreover, the Dirac feature in this system is layer-dependent and a metal-to-insulator transition is identified in Ta2Se3 when reducing the layer-thickness from bilayer to monolayer. These findings are of fundamental interests and of great importance for nanoscale device applications.

  2. The strangest man. The hidden life of Paul Dirac; Der seltsamste Mensch. Das verborgene Leben des Quantengenies Paul Dirac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmelo, Graham

    2016-07-01

    The Strangest Man is the Costa Biography Award-winning account of Paul Dirac, the famous physicist sometimes called the British Einstein. He was one of the leading pioneers of the greatest revolution in twentieth-century science: quantum mechanics. The youngest theoretician ever to win the Nobel Prize for Physics, he was also pathologically reticent, strangely literal-minded and legendarily unable to communicate or empathize. Through his greatest period of productivity, his postcards home contained only remarks about the weather. Based on a previously undiscovered archive of family papers, Graham Farmelo celebrates Dirac's massive scientific achievement while drawing a compassionate portrait of his life and work. Farmelo shows a man who, while hopelessly socially inept, could manage to love and sustain close friendship. The Strangest Man is an extraordinary and moving human story, as well as a study of one of the most exciting times in scientific history.

  3. Nuclear Security Futures Scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Warren, Drake Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the scenarios used in strategic futures workshops conducted at Sandia on September 21 and 29, 2016. The workshops, designed and facilitated by analysts in Center 100, used scenarios to enable thought leaders to think collectively about the changing aspects of global nuclear security and the potential implications for the US Government and Sandia National Laboratories.

  4. Learning Through Scenario Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balarezo, Jose

    This project investigates the uses and effects of scenario planning in companies operating in highly uncertain and dynamic environments. Whereas previous research on scenario planning has fallen short of providing sufficient evidence of its mechanisms and effects on individual or organizational...

  5. Providing output of DIRAC-SAM jobs to the IT-based SAM-Nagios framework

    CERN Document Server

    Volkl, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Information available on LHCb grid sites in the SAM-Nagios monitor- ing framework - gathered mainly through functional tests - has been sup- plemented with results from LHCbDIRAC SAMJobs published by means of message client newly integrated in LHCbDIRAC. These are displayed as a new metric org.lhcb.DiracTest-lhcb giving additional debug in- formation to system administrators and influencing reports on grid site performances in the future

  6. Pseudo-Hermitian random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.L. [RIBFG, Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan nagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India); Jain, S.R. [NPD, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2013-02-15

    Complex extension of quantum mechanics and the discovery of pseudo-unitarily invariant random matrix theory has set the stage for a number of applications of these concepts in physics. We briefly review the basic ideas and present applications to problems in statistical mechanics where new results have become possible. We have found it important to mention the precise directions where advances could be made if further results become available. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Bladder rupture causing pseudo acute renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Andrea Avena Smeili

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bladder rupture is a rare condition associated with significant morbidityand mortality. It is classified into traumatic, nontraumatic or idiopathic andspontaneous. The nonspecific initial clinical presentation is followed bydiscomfort in the lower abdomen, oliguria, hematuria and ascitis. Laboratoryabnormalities simulate the picture of acute renal failure and occurs by amechanism called auto reverse dialysis, with absorption of excreta throughthe peritoneal membrane. The authors describe a case of bladder rupturein morphologically and functionally normal urinary bladder associated withalcohol intake in young healthy man, manifested by abdominal discomfort,pseudo renal failure and massive ascitis. The diagnosis was made by anabdominal multidetector computed tomography confirmed by the finding of7 cm laceration at laparotomy.

  8. Pseudo ventricular tachycardia: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Riaz, A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Dramatic artifacts of pseudo flutter have been reported in the past secondary to various factors including tremor (Handwerker and Raptopoulos in N Engl J Med 356:503, 2007) and dialysis machines (Kostis et al. in J Electrocardiol 40(4):316-318, 2007). METHODS: We present this unusual case where the artifact, produced by tremor, was so pronounced to be misdiagnosed and treated as ventricular tachycardia. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of correlating ECG findings with history and clinical examination and of using 12 lead ECGs for rhythm interpretation especially to confirm consistence of arrhythmias in all leads.

  9. Pseudo-communication vs Quasi-communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Константиновна Черничкина

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of such specific forms of human interaction as quasi- and pseudo-communication. The authors specify the terms which sometimes are used interchangeably. The aim of the conducted research is to find out and demonstrate existing differences and similarities of these communicative phenomena on the basis of theoretical and empirical analysis of the research material in the Russian and English languages. The authors describe communicative features of these phenomena and consider the reasons for such forms of communication and their increased use at present. The research material is represented fiction extracts, film scripts, jokes, print media, a collection of oral speech records both in Russian and English. The authors make use of the following research methods: definitional analysis (to define the terminology of the research, the method of linguistic observation and introspection (to select the communicative situations, the descriptive-analytical method and the method of comparative analysis (to identify similarities and differences of the target phenomena, and the conversational analysis method (to view productivity and effectiveness of a dialogue, etc. The classification of possible forms of their existence in different discourses is suggested. The authors assume that both pseudo- and quasi-communication are characterized as fictitious forms of human interaction with some noticeable violation of the basic communicative model. Pseudo-communication suffers from the discrepancy of the meaning of a coded and decoded message. The authors put forward the main parameters of scientific classification of it as follows: adequate understanding, intentionality, and the stage of communicative action where the failure takes place. At the same time they stress the necessity to distinguish the cases of pseudo talks from phatic and indirect communication. Quasi-communcation is marked by the lack of a real partner and hence

  10. Pilots 2.0: DIRAC pilots for all the skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagni, F.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; McNab, A.; Luzzi, C.

    2015-12-01

    In the last few years, new types of computing infrastructures, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are opportunistic. Most of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. Meanwhile, some concepts, such as distributed queues, lost appeal, while still supporting a vast amount of resources. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to hide the diversity of underlying resources has become essential. The DIRAC WMS is based on the concept of pilot jobs that was introduced back in 2004. A pilot is what creates the possibility to run jobs on a worker node. Within DIRAC, we developed a new generation of pilot jobs, that we dubbed Pilots 2.0. Pilots 2.0 are not tied to a specific infrastructure; rather they are generic, fully configurable and extendible pilots. A Pilot 2.0 can be sent, as a script to be run, or it can be fetched from a remote location. A pilot 2.0 can run on every computing resource, e.g.: on CREAM Computing elements, on DIRAC Computing elements, on Virtual Machines as part of the contextualization script, or IAAC resources, provided that these machines are properly configured, hiding all the details of the Worker Nodes (WNs) infrastructure. Pilots 2.0 can be generated server and client side. Pilots 2.0 are the “pilots to fly in all the skies”, aiming at easy use of computing power, in whatever form it is presented. Another aim is the unification and simplification of the monitoring infrastructure for all kinds of computing resources, by using pilots as a network of distributed sensors coordinated by a central resource monitoring system. Pilots 2.0 have been developed using the command pattern. VOs using DIRAC can tune pilots 2.0 as they need, and extend or replace each and every pilot command in an easy way. In this

  11. The Flavor of the Composite Pseudo-Goldstone Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Csaki, Csaba; Weiler, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    We study the flavor structure of 5D warped models that provide a dual description of a composite pseudo-Goldstone Higgs. We first carefully re-examine the flavor constraints on the mass scale of new physics in the standard Randall-Sundrum-type scenarios, and find that the KK gluon mass should generically be heavier than about 21 TeV. We then compare the flavor structure of the composite Higgs models to those in the RS model. We find new contributions to flavor violation, which while still are suppressed by the RS-GIM mechanism, will enhance the amplitudes of flavor violations. In particular, there is a kinetic mixing term among the SM fields which (although parametrically not enhanced) will make the flavor bounds even more stringent than in RS, and imply the KK gluon mass to be at least about 33 TeV. For both the RS and the composite Higgs models the flavor bounds could be stronger or weaker depending on the assumption on the value of the gluon boundary kinetic term. These strong bounds seem to imply that the...

  12. Functional symptoms in clinically definite MS--pseudo-relapse syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Merwick, A

    2012-02-03

    Although the diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS) have become more formalized and sensitive in the era of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, the assessment of individual relapses may not always be straightforward or easily linked to a particular lesion seen on imaging. In addition, acute episodes often have to be assessed outside of normal working hours or when the individual patients usual medical team is not available. Often the emergency department physicians have little formal neurological training and are under time pressure to get patients through the system as quickly as possible. It is therefore possible to mislabel functional symptoms as being true relapses. To illustrate scenarios of possible pseudo-relapse, three clinical vignettes are described. Misclassification of functional symptoms as relapse carries a number of inherent risks. Functional symptoms can be multifactorial and may cause a burden of disease. A multidisciplinary approach may be useful in minimizing unnecessary harm and identify if there is more than meets the eye to an episode of clinical deterioration.

  13. Transport Phenomena in Multilayered Massless Dirac Fermion System α-(BEDT-TTF2I3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Tajima

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A zero-gap state with a Dirac cone type energy dispersion was discovered in an organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 under high hydrostatic pressures. This is the first two-dimensional (2D zero-gap state discovered in bulk crystals with a layered structure. In contrast to the case of graphene, the Dirac cone in this system is highly anisotropic. The present system, therefore, provides a new type of massless Dirac fermion system with anisotropic Fermi velocity. This system exhibits remarkable transport phenomena characteristic to electrons on the Dirac cone type energy structure.

  14. Analytical solutions for Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations using Backlund transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabadal, Jorge R.; Borges, Volnei, E-mail: jorge.zabadal@ufrgs.br, E-mail: borges@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Ribeiro, Vinicius G., E-mail: vinicius_ribeiro@uniritter.edu.br [Centro Universitario Ritter dos Reis (UNIRITTER), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos, Marcio, E-mail: marciophd@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Centro de Estudos Interdisciplinares

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a new analytical method for solving Klein-Gordon type equations via Backlund transformations. The method consists in mapping the Klein-Gordon model into a first order system of partial differential equations, which contains a generalized velocity field instead of the Dirac matrices. This system is a tensor model for quantum field theory whose space solution is wider than the Dirac model in the original form. Thus, after finding analytical expressions for the wave functions, the Maxwell field can be readily obtained from the Dirac equations, furnishing a self-consistent field solution for the Maxwell-Dirac system. Analytical and numerical results are reported. (author)

  15. Lorentz-violating type-II Dirac fermions in transition metal dichalcogenide PtTe2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingzhe; Huang, Huaqing; Zhang, Kenan; Wang, Eryin; Yao, Wei; Deng, Ke; Wan, Guoliang; Zhang, Hongyun; Arita, Masashi; Yang, Haitao; Sun, Zhe; Yao, Hong; Wu, Yang; Fan, Shoushan; Duan, Wenhui; Zhou, Shuyun

    2017-08-15

    Topological semimetals have recently attracted extensive research interests as host materials to condensed matter physics counterparts of Dirac and Weyl fermions originally proposed in high energy physics. Although Lorentz invariance is required in high energy physics, it is not necessarily obeyed in condensed matter physics, and thus Lorentz-violating type-II Weyl/Dirac fermions could be realized in topological semimetals. The recent realization of type-II Weyl fermions raises the question whether their spin-degenerate counterpart-type-II Dirac fermions-can be experimentally realized too. Here, we report the experimental evidence of type-II Dirac fermions in bulk stoichiometric PtTe2 single crystal. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements and first-principles calculations reveal a pair of strongly tilted Dirac cones along the Γ-A direction, confirming PtTe2 as a type-II Dirac semimetal. Our results provide opportunities for investigating novel quantum phenomena (e.g., anisotropic magneto-transport) and topological phase transition.Whether the spin-degenerate counterpart of Lorentz-violating Weyl fermions, the Dirac fermions, can be realized remains as an open question. Here, Yan et al. report experimental evidence of such type-II Dirac fermions in bulk PtTe2 single crystal with a pair of strongly tilted Dirac cones.

  16. Non-Abelian statistics of vortices with non-Abelian Dirac fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Shigehiro; Hirono, Yuji; Itakura, Kazunori; Nitta, Muneto

    2013-05-01

    We extend our previous analysis on the exchange statistics of vortices having a single Dirac fermion trapped in each core to the case where vortices trap two Dirac fermions with U(2) symmetry. Such a system of vortices with non-Abelian Dirac fermions appears in color superconductors at extremely high densities and in supersymmetric QCD. We show that the exchange of two vortices having doublet Dirac fermions in each core is expressed by non-Abelian representations of a braid group, which is explicitly verified in the matrix representation of the exchange operators when the number of vortices is up to four. We find that the result contains the matrices previously obtained for the vortices with a single Dirac fermion in each core as a special case. The whole braid group does not immediately imply non-Abelian statistics of identical particles because it also contains exchanges between vortices with different numbers of Dirac fermions. However, we find that it does contain, as its subgroup, genuine non-Abelian statistics for the exchange of the identical particles, that is, vortices with the same number of Dirac fermions. This result is surprising compared with conventional understanding because all Dirac fermions are defined locally at each vortex, unlike the case of Majorana fermions for which Dirac fermions are defined nonlocally by Majorana fermions located at two spatially separated vortices.

  17. Analysis of Forest Fires by means of Pseudo Phase Plane and Multidimensional Scaling Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires dynamics is often characterized by the absence of a characteristic length-scale, long range correlations in space and time, and long memory, which are features also associated with fractional order systems. In this paper a public domain forest fires catalogue, containing information of events for Portugal, covering the period from 1980 up to 2012, is tackled. The events are modelled as time series of Dirac impulses with amplitude proportional to the burnt area. The time series are viewed as the system output and are interpreted as a manifestation of the system dynamics. In the first phase we use the pseudo phase plane (PPP technique to describe forest fires dynamics. In the second phase we use multidimensional scaling (MDS visualization tools. The PPP allows the representation of forest fires dynamics in two-dimensional space, by taking time series representative of the phenomena. The MDS approach generates maps where objects that are perceived to be similar to each other are placed on the map forming clusters. The results are analysed in order to extract relationships among the data and to better understand forest fires behaviour.

  18. Pseudo-random Aloha for inter-frame soft combining in RFID systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castiglione, Paolo; Ricciato, Fabio; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    In this work we consider a recently proposed variant of the classical Framed Slotted-ALOHA where slot selection is based on a pseudo-random function of the message to be transmitted and of the frame index. We couple this feature with convolutional encoding, that allows to perform Inter-frame Soft...... cancellation (instead of combining). Numerical simulation results show that the ISoC scheme brings a noticeable throughput gain over traditional schemes in a dense RFID scenario with multiple concurrent Tag transmissions....

  19. Mars base buildup scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacic, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Two surface base build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second scenario, early development of an infrastructure to exploite the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first, but once begun develops rapidly aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station.

  20. Scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis: Frequency, pathogenesis and course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, K.; Teifke, A.; Benning, R.; Dahm, M.; Thelen, R.; Schild, H.

    1989-06-01

    Eighty-three scaphoid pseudo-arthroses were found amongst 1.104 scaphoid examinations. Sixtyseven were present at the first examination and 16 pseudo-arthroses developed amongst 252 scaphoid fractures. Men were affected predominantly, particularly in the 20 to 40-year old group. Fractures in the proximal third of the scaphoid and vertical oblique fractures had a particular tendency to pseudo-arthrosis formation. The operative treatment of choice is a Matti-Russe bone graft. Only one patient in seven with definite scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis showed firm fusion. (orig.).

  1. The Geometrical Nature of the Cosmological Inflation in the Framework of the Weyl-Dirac Conformal Gravity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martini, Francesco; Santamato, Enrico

    2017-12-01

    The nature of the scalar field responsible for the cosmological inflation, the "inflaton", is found to be rooted in the most fundamental concept of the Weyl's differential geometry: the parallel displacement of vectors in curved space-time. The Euler-Lagrange theory based on a scalar-tensor Weyl-Dirac Lagrangian leads straightforwardly to the Einstein equation admitting as a source the characteristic energy-momentum tensor of the inflaton field. Within the dynamics of the inflation, e.g. in the slow roll transition from a "false" toward a "true vacuum", the inflaton's geometry implies a temperature driven symmetry change between a highly symmetrical "Weylan" to a low symmetry "Riemannian" scenario. Since the dynamics of the Weyl curvature scalar, constructed over differentials of the inflaton field, has been found to account for the quantum phenomenology at the microscopic scale, the present work suggests interesting connections between the "micro" and the "macro" aspects of our Universe.

  2. Nonlinearity of the zigzag graphene nanoribbons with antidots via the f-deformed Dirac oscillator in (2+1)-dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setare, M. R.; Majari, P.

    2018-02-01

    We study the nonlinearity for the zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) with zigzag triangular holes (ZTHs). We show that in the presence of an external uniform magnetic field, a two-dimensional f-deformed Dirac oscillator can be used to describe the dynamics of the electrons in the ZGNRs with ZTHs. It is shown for the first time that the magnetic field direction has effect on the chirality of charge carriers in the ZGNRs punched with triangular holes. We also obtain the Landau-level spectrum in the weak and strong magnetic field regimes. Additionally, we compare Landau-level spectrum of this graphene-based device in the f-deformed scenario and original one. Our results provide a general viewpoint for the development of the zigzag graphene nanoribbons.

  3. Stationary bound states of Dirac particles in collapsar's fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbatenko, M. V.; Neznamov, V. P.

    2012-03-01

    For a Schwarzschild gravitational field by use of a self-conjugate Hamiltonian with a flat scalar product in a wide interval of gravitational constant stationary non-decaiing in time bound states for spin 1/2 elementary particles have been obtained for a first time. To obtain a discrete energies spectrum a boundary condition was introduced, corresponding to null current density of Dirac partciles near the events horizon. The results obtained could lead to reevaluation of some existing representations of the standart cosmological model, related with the Universe's evolution and with collapsars interactions with encountering media.

  4. U(1) staggered Dirac operator and random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Bernd A.; Markum, Harald; Pullirsch, Rainer; Wettig, Tilo

    2000-03-01

    We investigate the spectrum of the staggered Dirac operator in 4d quenched U(1) lattice gauge theory and its relationship to random matrix theory. In the confined as well as in the Coulomb phase the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution of the unfolded eigenvalues is well described by the chiral unitary ensemble. The same is true for the distribution of the smallest eigenvalue and the microscopic spectral density in the confined phase. The physical origin of the chiral condensate in this phase deserves further study.

  5. Dirac Quantisation Conditions and Kaluza-Klein Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, M S; Pope, C N; Stelle, Kellogg S

    1998-01-01

    We present the form of the Dirac quantisation condition for the p-form charges carried by p-brane solutions of supergravity theories. This condition agrees precisely with the conditions obtained in lower dimensions, as is necessary for consistency with Kaluza-klein dimensional reduction. These considerations also determine the charge lattice of BPS soliton states, which proves to be a universal modulus-independent lattice when the charges are defined to be the canonical charges corresponding to the quantum supergravity symmetry groups.

  6. Weyl and Dirac semimetals in three-dimensional solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, N. P.; Mele, E. J.; Vishwanath, Ashvin

    2018-01-01

    Weyl and Dirac semimetals are three-dimensional phases of matter with gapless electronic excitations that are protected by topology and symmetry. As three-dimensional analogs of graphene, they have generated much recent interest. Deep connections exist with particle physics models of relativistic chiral fermions, and, despite their gaplessness, to solid-state topological and Chern insulators. Their characteristic electronic properties lead to protected surface states and novel responses to applied electric and magnetic fields. The theoretical foundations of these phases, their proposed realizations in solid-state systems, and recent experiments on candidate materials as well as their relation to other states of matter are reviewed.

  7. The supersymmetric Dirac equation the application to hydrogenic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Hirshfeld, Allen

    2012-01-01

    The solution of the Dirac equation for an electron in a Coulomb field is systematically treated here by utilizing new insights provided by supersymmetry. It is shown that each of the concepts has its analogue in the non-relativistic case. Indeed, the non-relativistic case is developed first, in order to introduce the new concepts in a familiar context. The symmetry of the non-relativistic model is already present in the classical limit, so the classical Kepler problem is first discussed in order to bring out the role played by the Laplace vector, one of the central concepts of the whole book.

  8. Geometric algebras in physics: Eigenspinors and Dirac theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselica, J. David

    The foundations of quantum theory are closely tied to a formulation of classical relativistic physics. In Clifford's geometric algebra classical relativistic physics has a spinorial formulation that is closely related to the standard Dirac equation. The algebra of physical space, APS, gives clear insight into the quantum/classical interface. Here, APS is compared to other formulations of relativistic quantum theory, especially the Dirac equation. These formulations are shown to be effectively equivalent to each other and to the standard theory, as demonstrated by establishing several isomorphisms. Dirac spinors are four-component complex entities, and so must be represented by objects containing 8 real degrees of freedom in the standard treatment (or 7 if a normalization constant is added). The relation C4→Cl3 ⋍Cl+1,3⋍C l+3,1⋍H⊗ C indicates that the 8-dimensional even subalgebra Cl+1,3 of the Space-time algebra, STA is isomorphic to APS Cl 3, which is isomorphic to complex quaternions H⊗C . The complex quaternions should not be confused with the biquaternions, a name sometimes used for them. The biquaternions are more generally elements of the algebra H⊕H . The algebras Cl1,3 and Cl 3,1 are not isomorphic but their even sub-algebras are[1]. The Klein paradox is resolved in APS by considering Feynman's picture of antiparticles as negative energy solutions traveling backward in time. It is also shown that the algebra of physical space can naturally describe an extended version of the De Broglie-Bohm approach to quantum theory. A relativistic causal account of a spin measurement in APS is given. The Stern-Gerlach magnet acts on the eigenspinor Λ field of a charged particle in a way that is analogous to the interaction of a birefringent medium acts on a beam of light. Then we introduce a covariant interpretation of complex algebra of physical space, CAPS, the complex extension of APS. This is done to solve a problem in that the space-time inversion, PT

  9. Pseudo-Observables in Higgs decays

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    In view of future high-statistics data, it is useful to define a framework for precise determinations of the properties of the Higgs particle valid in generic extensions of the Standard Model. For Higgs decays, this goal can be achieved with a limited set of "Pseudo-Observables" (PO). The PO provides a systematic generalization of the "kappa-framework" so far adopted by the LHC experiments and provide a useful bridge between data and theory predictions. I discuss how the PO are defined, with particular attention to the h->4f decays, and how they can be used to test various dynamical and symmetry hypotheses about the Higgs sector. The relation between PO and EFT couplings is also discussed.

  10. Flights in a pseudo-chaotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, J H; Vivaldi, F

    2011-09-01

    We consider the problem of transport in a one-parameter family of piecewise rotations of the torus, for rotation number approaching 1∕4. This is a zero-entropy system which in this limit exhibits a divided phase space, with island chains immersed in a "pseudo-chaotic" region. We identify a novel mechanism for long-range transport, namely the adiabatic destruction of accelerator-mode islands. This process originates from the approximate translational invariance of the phase space and leads to long flights of linear motion, for a significant measure of initial conditions. We show that the asymptotic probability distribution of the flight lengths is determined by the geometric properties of a partition of the accelerator-mode island associated with the flight. We establish the existence of flights travelling distances of order O(1) in phase space. We provide evidence for the existence of a scattering process that connects flights travelling in opposite directions.

  11. A general solution of the Dirac equation with superposition of δ-potentials and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialka, Siarhei; Kapshai, Valery

    2017-01-01

    Elastic scattering of relativistic spin 1/2 particle was investigated in the spherically-symmetric case. Based on the phase-shift method, a general solution of the Dirac equation with superposition of N δ-potentials is obtained. The method for approximate solutions of Dirac equation with arbitrary smooth potentials is presented. Scattering cross section dependences on various parameters are investigated.

  12. Lorentz Covariance of Dirac Electrons in Solids: Dielectric and Diamagnetic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maebashi, Hideaki; Ogata, Masao; Fukuyama, Hidetoshi

    2017-08-01

    We study the electrodynamics of Dirac electrons in solids (e.g., bismuth) by comparing it with quantum electrodynamics (QED). It is shown that Lorentz covariance associated with the Dirac electrons in solids results in a remarkable correlation between the dielectric and diamagnetic properties, leading to a significant enhancement in the permittivity directly linked to the well-known phenomenon of large diamagnetism.

  13. On stabilization of small solutions in the nonlinear Dirac equation with a trapping potential

    OpenAIRE

    Cuccagna, Scipio; Tarulli, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a Dirac operator with short range potential and with eigenvalues. We add a nonlinear term and we show that the small standing waves of the corresponding nonlinear Dirac equation (NLD) are attractors for small solutions of the NLD. This extends to the NLD results already known for the Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger Equation (NLS)

  14. The Howe duality for the Dunkl version of the Dirac operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted, Bent; Somberg, Petr; Soucek, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    of the Dirac operator was introduced and studied by P. Cerejeiras, U. Kähler and G. Ren. The aim of the article is to describe an analogue of the Fischer decomposition for solutions of the Dunkl Dirac operator. The main methods used are coming from representation theory, in particular, from ideas connected...

  15. L'électron magnétique (théorie de Dirac)

    CERN Document Server

    Broglie, Louis de

    1934-01-01

    Succès et échecs des théories quantiques et de la mécanique ondulatoire primitive ; la théorie de l'électron magnétique et tournant de Dirac, principes généraux ; applications de la théorie de Dirac, critiques et compléments divers.

  16. Dirac mass generation from crystal symmetry breaking on the surfaces of topological crystalline insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljkovic, Ilija; Okada, Yoshinori; Serbyn, Maksym; Sankar, R; Walkup, Daniel; Zhou, Wenwen; Liu, Junwei; Chang, Guoqing; Wang, Yung Jui; Hasan, M Zahid; Chou, Fangcheng; Lin, Hsin; Bansil, Arun; Fu, Liang; Madhavan, Vidya

    2015-03-01

    The tunability of topological surface states and controllable opening of the Dirac gap are of fundamental and practical interest in the field of topological materials. In the newly discovered topological crystalline insulators (TCIs), theory predicts that the Dirac node is protected by a crystalline symmetry and that the surface state electrons can acquire a mass if this symmetry is broken. Recent studies have detected signatures of a spontaneously generated Dirac gap in TCIs; however, the mechanism of mass formation remains elusive. In this work, we present scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) measurements of the TCI Pb1-xSnxSe for a wide range of alloy compositions spanning the topological and non-topological regimes. The STM topographies reveal a symmetry-breaking distortion on the surface, which imparts mass to the otherwise massless Dirac electrons-a mechanism analogous to the long sought-after Higgs mechanism in particle physics. Interestingly, the measured Dirac gap decreases on approaching the trivial phase, whereas the magnitude of the distortion remains nearly constant. Our data and calculations reveal that the penetration depth of Dirac surface states controls the magnitude of the Dirac mass. At the limit of the critical composition, the penetration depth is predicted to go to infinity, resulting in zero mass, consistent with our measurements. Finally, we discover the existence of surface states in the non-topological regime, which have the characteristics of gapped, double-branched Dirac fermions and could be exploited in realizing superconductivity in these materials.

  17. On the excited state wave functions of Dirac fermions in the random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the last decade, it was shown that the Liouville field theory is an effective theory of Dirac fermions in the random gauge potential (FRGP). We show that the Dirac wave functions in FRGP can be written in terms of descendents of the Liouville vertex operator. In the quasiclassical approximation of the Liouville theory, our ...

  18. Exact analytic solutions for a Dirac electron moving in graphene under magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuru, S [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Negro, J; Nieto, L M, E-mail: sengul.kuru@science.ankara.edu.t, E-mail: jnegro@fta.uva.e, E-mail: luismi@metodos.fam.cie.uva.e [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)

    2009-11-11

    Exact analytical solutions for the bound states of a graphene Dirac electron in various magnetic fields with translational symmetry are obtained. In order to solve the time-independent Dirac-Weyl equation the factorization method used in supersymmetric quantum mechanics is adapted to this problem. The behavior of the discrete spectrum, probability and current densities are discussed.

  19. Exact analytic solutions for a Dirac electron moving in graphene under magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru, S; Negro, J; Nieto, L M

    2009-11-11

    Exact analytical solutions for the bound states of a graphene Dirac electron in various magnetic fields with translational symmetry are obtained. In order to solve the time-independent Dirac-Weyl equation the factorization method used in supersymmetric quantum mechanics is adapted to this problem. The behavior of the discrete spectrum, probability and current densities are discussed.

  20. Constraints on spacetime manifold in Euclidean supergravity in terms of Dirac eigenvalues

    OpenAIRE

    Ciuhu, C.; Vancea, I. V.

    1998-01-01

    We generalize previous work on Dirac eigenvalues as dynamical variables of Euclidean supergravity. The most general set of constraints on the curvatures of the tangent bundle and on the spinor bundle of the spacetime manifold under which spacetime admits Dirac eigenvalues as observables, are derived.

  1. A semi-Dirac point and an electromagnetic topological transition in a dielectric photonic crystal

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Accidental degeneracy in a photonic crystal consisting of a square array of elliptical dielectric cylinders leads to both a semi-Dirac point at the center of the Brillouin zone and an electromagnetic topological transition (ETT). A perturbation method is deduced to affirm the peculiar linear-parabolic dispersion near the semi-Dirac point. An effective medium theory is developed to explain the simultaneous semi-Dirac point and ETT and to show that the photonic crystal is either a zero-refractive-index material or an epsilon-near-zero material at the semi-Dirac point. Drastic changes in the wave manipulation properties at the semi-Dirac point, resulting from ETT, are described.©2014 Optical Society of America.

  2. Light trapping and circularly polarization at a Dirac point in 2D plasma photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Hu, Lei; Mao, Qiuping; Jiang, Haiming; Hu, Zhijia; Xie, Kang; Wei, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Light trapping at the Dirac point in 2D plasma photonic crystal has been obtained. The new localized mode, Dirac mode, is attributable to neither photonic bandgap nor total internal reflection. It exhibits a unique algebraic profile and possesses a high-Q factor resonator of about 105. The Dirac point could be modulated by tuning the filling factor, plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency, respectively. When a magnetic field parallel to the wave vector is applied, Dirac modes for right circularly polarized and left circularly polarized waves could be obtained at different frequencies, and the Q factor could be tuned. This property will add more controllability and flexibility to the design and modulation of novel photonic devices. It is also valuable for the possibilities of Dirac modes in photonic crystal containing other kinds of metamaterials.

  3. Realization of Dirac Cones in Few Bilayer Sb(111) Films by Surface Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hui; Wang, Xue-Sen

    2015-12-01

    We report the first-principle study on the recovery and linearization of Dirac cones in the electronic band structures of a few bilayer Sb(111) films (n-BL Sb) by surface modification. Due to the interaction between the surface states on the two surfaces of a free-standing film, the distorted Dirac cone in n-BL Sb(111) (n Dirac cone can be restored by functionalizing one surface with certain atoms including H, Ag, and Au, to reduce the inter-surface interaction. We further show that an ideal Dirac cone with linear dispersion of topological surface states near the zone center can be realized by functionalizing both surfaces of the film with oxygen, which enhances spin-orbital coupling. The realization of Dirac cone by surface functionalization shows promise for applications of topologic materials to spintronic devices and their operation in complicated conditions.

  4. A new Dirac cone material: a graphene-like Be3C2 monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Yuan, Shijun; Li, Yunhai; Shi, Li; Wang, Jinlan

    2017-05-04

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with Dirac cones exhibit rich physics and many intriguing properties, but the search for new 2D Dirac materials is still a current hotspot. Using the global particle-swarm optimization method and density functional theory, we predict a new stable graphene-like 2D Dirac material: a Be3C2 monolayer with a hexagonal honeycomb structure. The Dirac point occurs exactly at the Fermi level and arises from the merging of the hybridized pz bands of Be and C atoms. Most interestingly, this monolayer exhibits a high Fermi velocity in the same order of graphene. Moreover, the Dirac cone is very robust and retains even included spin-orbit coupling or external strain. These outstanding properties render the Be3C2 monolayer a promising 2D material for special electronics applications.

  5. Terahertz-induced acceleration of massive Dirac electrons in semimetal bismuth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Yasuo; Araki, Kotaro; Dao, Thang Duy; Nagao, Tadaaki; Kitajima, Masahiro; Takeda, Jun; Katayama, Ikufumi

    2015-11-02

    Dirac-like electrons in solid state have been of great interest since they exhibit many peculiar physical behaviors analogous to relativistic mechanics. Among them, carriers in graphene and surface states of topological insulators are known to behave as massless Dirac fermions with a conical band structure in the two-dimensional momentum space, whereas electrons in semimetal bismuth (Bi) are expected to behave as massive Dirac-like fermions in the three-dimensional momentum space, whose dynamics is of particular interest in comparison with that of the massless Dirac fermions. Here, we demonstrate that an intense terahertz electric field transient accelerates the massive Dirac-like fermions in Bi from classical Newtonian to the relativistic regime; the electrons are accelerated approaching the effective "speed of light" with the "relativistic" beta β = 0.89 along the asymptotic linear band structure. As a result, the effective electron mass is enhanced by a factor of 2.4.

  6. Observation of an anisotropic Dirac cone reshaping and ferrimagnetic spin polarization in an organic conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Michihiro; Ishikawa, Kyohei; Miyagawa, Kazuya; Tamura, Masafumi; Berthier, Claude; Basko, Denis; Kobayashi, Akito; Matsuno, Genki; Kanoda, Kazushi

    2016-08-31

    The Coulomb interaction among massless Dirac fermions in graphene is unscreened around the isotropic Dirac points, causing a logarithmic velocity renormalization and a cone reshaping. In less symmetric Dirac materials possessing anisotropic cones with tilted axes, the Coulomb interaction can provide still more exotic phenomena, which have not been experimentally unveiled yet. Here, using site-selective nuclear magnetic resonance, we find a non-uniform cone reshaping accompanied by a bandwidth reduction and an emergent ferrimagnetism in tilted Dirac cones that appear on the verge of charge ordering in an organic compound. Our theoretical analyses based on the renormalization-group approach and the Hubbard model show that these observations are the direct consequences of the long-range and short-range parts of the Coulomb interaction, respectively. The cone reshaping and the bandwidth renormalization, as well as the magnetic behaviour revealed here, can be ubiquitous and vital for many Dirac materials.

  7. Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Xian; Li, Cai-Zhen; Yu, Da-Peng; Liao, Zhi-Min

    2016-02-23

    Three-dimensional Dirac semimetals, three-dimensional analogues of graphene, are unusual quantum materials with massless Dirac fermions, which can be further converted to Weyl fermions by breaking time reversal or inversion symmetry. Topological surface states with Fermi arcs are predicted on the surface and have been observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. Although the exotic transport properties of the bulk Dirac cones have been demonstrated, it is still a challenge to reveal the surface states via transport measurements due to the highly conductive bulk states. Here, we show Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in individual single-crystal Cd3As2 nanowires with low carrier concentration and large surface-to-volume ratio, providing transport evidence of the surface state in three-dimensional Dirac semimetals. Moreover, the quantum transport can be modulated by tuning the Fermi level using a gate voltage, enabling a deeper understanding of the rich physics residing in Dirac semimetals.

  8. Transport properties of disordered photonic crystals around a Dirac-like point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Jiang, Haitao; Li, Yuan; Yan, Chao; Deng, Fusheng; Sun, Yong; Li, Yunhui; Shi, Yunlong; Chen, Hong

    2015-02-23

    At the Dirac-like point at the Brillouin zone center, the photonic crystals (PhCs) can mimic a zero-index medium. In the band structure, an additional flat band of longitudinal mode will intersect the Dirac cone. This longitudinal mode can be excited in PhCs with finite sizes at the Dirac-like point. By introducing positional shift in the PhCs, we study the dependence of the longitudinal mode on the disorder. At the Dirac-like point, the transmission peak induced by the longitudinal mode decreases as the random degree increases. However, at a frequency slightly above the Dirac-like point, in which the longitudinal mode is absent, the transmission is insensitive to the disorder because the effective index is still near zero and the effective wavelength in the PhC is very large.

  9. Aharonov–Bohm oscillations in Dirac semimetal Cd3As2 nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Xian; Li, Cai-Zhen; Yu, Da-Peng; Liao, Zhi-Min

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional Dirac semimetals, three-dimensional analogues of graphene, are unusual quantum materials with massless Dirac fermions, which can be further converted to Weyl fermions by breaking time reversal or inversion symmetry. Topological surface states with Fermi arcs are predicted on the surface and have been observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. Although the exotic transport properties of the bulk Dirac cones have been demonstrated, it is still a challenge to reveal the surface states via transport measurements due to the highly conductive bulk states. Here, we show Aharonov–Bohm oscillations in individual single-crystal Cd3As2 nanowires with low carrier concentration and large surface-to-volume ratio, providing transport evidence of the surface state in three-dimensional Dirac semimetals. Moreover, the quantum transport can be modulated by tuning the Fermi level using a gate voltage, enabling a deeper understanding of the rich physics residing in Dirac semimetals. PMID:26902716

  10. Photonic crystal surface-emitting lasers enabled by an accidental Dirac point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Song Liang; Lu, Ling; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-12-02

    A photonic-crystal surface-emitting laser (PCSEL) includes a gain medium electromagnetically coupled to a photonic crystal whose energy band structure exhibits a Dirac cone of linear dispersion at the center of the photonic crystal's Brillouin zone. This Dirac cone's vertex is called a Dirac point; because it is at the Brillouin zone center, it is called an accidental Dirac point. Tuning the photonic crystal's band structure (e.g., by changing the photonic crystal's dimensions or refractive index) to exhibit an accidental Dirac point increases the photonic crystal's mode spacing by orders of magnitudes and reduces or eliminates the photonic crystal's distributed in-plane feedback. Thus, the photonic crystal can act as a resonator that supports single-mode output from the PCSEL over a larger area than is possible with conventional PCSELs, which have quadratic band edge dispersion. Because output power generally scales with output area, this increase in output area results in higher possible output powers.

  11. Data Mining for Three-Dimensional Organic Dirac Materials: Focus on Space Group 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilhufe, R Matthias; Borysov, Stanislav S; Bouhon, Adrien; Balatsky, Alexander V

    2017-08-04

    We combined the group theory and data mining approach within the Organic Materials Database that leads to the prediction of stable Dirac-point nodes within the electronic band structure of three-dimensional organic crystals. We find a particular space group P212121 (#19) that is conducive to the Dirac nodes formation. We prove that nodes are a consequence of the orthorhombic crystal structure. Within the electronic band structure, two different kinds of nodes can be distinguished: 8-fold degenerate Dirac nodes protected by the crystalline symmetry and 4-fold degenerate Dirac nodes protected by band topology. Mining the Organic Materials Database, we present band structure calculations and symmetry analysis for 6 previously synthesized organic materials. In all these materials, the Dirac nodes are well separated within the energy and located near the Fermi surface, which opens up a possibility for their direct experimental observation.

  12. SCENARIO PLANNING AS LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lourenço Junior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Scenario Planning has been increasingly used, from its introduction to the decision process as effective tools to test decisions, and improve performance in a dynamic environment (Chermack, 2005. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the potential of an experimental Scenario Planning Model to mobilize, encourage and add more content to the organization’s decision making process – mainly with respect to Strategic Plans of two governmental institutions, a pharmaceutical company and a technology education foundation.  This study describes the application stages of a hybrid scenario-planning model – herein referred to as Planning as Learning – via action-research, showing the scenarios resulting from the experiment and describes the main results of an assessment of such practice. In order to do that, two well-established Scenario Planning models (Prospective school and Shell’s model were analyzed. They were used as a reference for the proposition and application of an experimental model in the two study objects. A questionnaire was used to assess the technique impact. It was possible to obtain high levels of reliability. In-depth interviews were also conducted with the participants. At the end, the results confirmed the model efficiency as a basis for decision making in the competitive environment in which the two institutions are inserted, also to encourage the learning process as a group, as observed throughout the work.

  13. BCube Ocean Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mattia; Schofield, Oscar; Pearlman, Jay; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    To address complex Earth system issues such as climate change and water resources, geoscientists must work across disciplinary boundaries; this requires them to access data outside of their fields. Scientists are being called upon to find, access, and use diverse and voluminous data types that are described with semantics. Within the framework of the NSF EarthCube programme, the BCube project (A Broker Framework for Next Generation Geoscience) is addressing the need for effective and efficient multi-disciplinary collaboration and interoperability through the advancement of brokering technologies. BCube develops science scenarios as key elements in providing an environment for demonstrating capabilities, benefits, and challenges of the developed e-infrastructure. The initial focus is on hydrology, oceans, polar and weather, with the intent to make the technology applicable and available to all the geosciences. This presentation focuses on the BCube ocean scenario. The purpose of this scenario is to increase the understanding of the ocean dynamics through incorporation of a wide range of in-situ and satellite data into ocean models using net primary productivity as the initial variable. The science scenario aims to identify spatial and temporal domains in ocean models, and key ecological variables. Field data sets and remote observations data sets from distributed and heterogeneous systems are accessed through the broker and will be incorporated into the models. In this work we will present the achievements in the development of the BCube ocean scenario.

  14. Syngeneic AAV pseudo-vectors potentiates full vector transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    An excessive amount of empty capsids are generated during regular AAV vector production process. These pseudo-vectors often remain in final vectors used for animal studies or clinical trials. The potential effects of these pseudo-vectors on AAV transduction have been a major concern. In the current ...

  15. Solutions of selected pseudo loop equations in water distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper demonstrated the use of Microsoft Excel Solver (a computer package) in solving selected pseudo loop equations in pipe network analysis problems. Two pipe networks with pumps and overhead tanks were used to demonstrate the use of Microsoft Excel Solver in solving pseudo loops (open loops; networks with ...

  16. Micromagnetic sensors and Dirac fermions in HgTe heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buettner, Bastian

    2012-08-06

    Within the scope of this thesis two main topics have been investigated: the examination of micromagnetic sensors and transport of massive and massless Dirac fermions in HgTe quantum wells. For the investigation of localized, inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the fabrication and characterization of two different non-invasive and ultra sensitive sensors has been established at the chair ''Experimentelle Physik'' of the University of Wuerzburg. The first sensor is based on the young technique named micro-Hall magnetometry. The necessary semiconductor devices (Hall cross structures) were fabricated by high-resolution electron beam lithography based on two different two dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), namely InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb- and HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te-heterostructures. The characteristics have been examined in two different ways. Measurements in homogeneous magnetic fields served for characterization of the sensors, whereas the investigation of artificially produced sub-{mu}m magnets substantiates the suitability of the devices for the study of novel nanoscale magnetic materials (e.g. nanowires). Systematic experiments with various magnets are in accordance with the theory of single-domain particles and anisotropic behavior due to shapes with high aspect ratio. The highest sensitivity for strongly localized fields was obtained at T=4.2 K for a (200.200) nm{sup 2} Hall cross - made from shallow, high mobility HgTe 2DEG. Although the field resolution was merely {delta}B{approx}100 {mu}T, the nanoscale sensor size yields an outstanding flux resolution of {delta}{Phi}=2.10{sup -3} {Phi}{sub 0}, where {Phi}{sub 0}=h/2e is the flux quantum. Translating this result in terms of magnetic moment, the sensitivity allows for the detection of magnetization changes of a particle centered on top of the sensor as low as {delta}M{approx}10{sup 2} {mu}{sub B}, with the magnetic moment of a single electron {mu}{sub B}, the Bohr magneton. The further examination of a permalloy

  17. SARAH 3.2: Dirac gauginos, UFO output, and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, Florian

    2013-07-01

    SARAH is a Mathematica package optimized for the fast, efficient and precise study of supersymmetric models beyond the MSSM: a new model can be defined in a short form and all vertices are derived. This allows SARAH to create model files for FeynArts/FormCalc, CalcHep/CompHep and WHIZARD/O'Mega. The newest version of SARAH now provides the possibility to create model files in the UFO format which is supported by MadGraph 5, MadAnalysis 5, GoSam, and soon by Herwig++. Furthermore, SARAH also calculates the mass matrices, RGEs and 1-loop corrections to the mass spectrum. This information is used to write source code for SPheno in order to create a precision spectrum generator for the given model. This spectrum-generator-generator functionality as well as the output of WHIZARD and CalcHep model files has seen further improvement in this version. Also models including Dirac gauginos are supported with the new version of SARAH, and additional checks for the consistency of the implementation of new models have been created. Program summaryProgram title:SARAH Catalogue identifier: AEIB_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIB_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 22 411 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 629 206 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: All for which Mathematica is available. Operating system: All for which Mathematica is available. Classification: 11.1, 11.6. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEIB_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 182 (2011) 808 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes, the new version includes all known features of the previous version but also provides the new features mentioned below

  18. Aneesur Rahman Prize for Computational Physics Lecture: Addressing Dirac's Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelikowsky, James

    2013-03-01

    After the invention of quantum mechanics, P. A. M. Dirac made the following observation: ``The underlying physical laws necessary for the mathematical theory of a large part of physics and the whole of chemistry are thus completely known, and the difficulty is only that the exact application of these laws leads to equations much too complicated to be soluble. It therefore becomes desirable that approximate practical methods of applying quantum mechanics should be developed, which can lead to an explanation of the main features of complex atomic systems...'' The creation of ``approximate practical methods'' in response to Dirac's challenge has included the one electron picture, density functional theory and the pseudopotential concept. The combination of such methods in conjunction with contemporary computational platforms and new algorithms offer the possibility of predicting properties of materials solely from knowledge of the atomic species present. I will give an overview of progress in this field with an emphasis on materials at the nanoscale. Support from the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation is acknowledged.

  19. Photon-Electron Interactions in Dirac Quantum Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiaodong [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Material Science and Engineering

    2017-11-10

    The objective of this proposal was to explore the fundamental light-matter interactions in a new class of Dirac quantum materials, atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Monolayer TMDs are newly discovered two-dimensional semiconductors with direct bandgap. Due to their hexagonal lattice structure, the band edge localizes at corner of Brillouin zone, i.e. “Dirac valleys”. This gives the corresponding electron states a “valley index” (or pseudospin) in addition to the real spin. Remarkably, the valley pseudospins have circularly polarized optical selection rules, providing the first solid state system for dynamic control of the valley degree of freedom. During this award, we have developed a suite of advanced nano-optical spectroscopy tools in the investigation and manipulation of charge, spin, and valley degrees of freedom in monolayer semiconductors. Emerging physical phenomena, such as quantum coherence between valley pseudospins, have been demonstrated for the first time in solids. In addition to monolayers, we have developed a framework in engineering, formulating, and understanding valley pseudospin physics in 2D heterostructures formed by different monolayer semiconductors. We demonstrated long-lived valley-polarized interlayer excitons with valley-dependent many-body interaction effects. These works push the research frontier in understanding the light-matter interactions in atomically-thin quantum materials for protentional transformative energy technologies.

  20. Detection of chiral anomaly and valley transport in Dirac semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Enze; Liu, Yanwen; Chen, Zhigang; Liang, Sihang; Cao, Junzhi; Yuan, Xiang; Tang, Lei; Li, Qian; Gu, Teng; Wu, Yizheng; Zou, Jin; Xiu, Faxian

    Chiral anomaly is a non-conservation of chiral charge pumped by the topological nontrivial gauge field, which has been predicted to exist in the emergent quasiparticle excitations in Dirac and Weyl semimetals. However, so far, such pumping process hasn't been clearly demonstrated and lacks a convincing experimental identification. Here, we report the detection of the charge pumping effect and the related valley transport in Cd3As2 driven by external electric and magnetic fields (EB). We find that the chiral imbalance leads to a non-zero gyrotropic coefficient, which can be confirmed by the EB-generated Kerr effect. By applying B along the current direction, we observe a negative magnetoresistance despite the giant positive one at other directions, a clear indication of the chiral anomaly. Remarkably, a robust nonlocal response in valley diffusion originated from the chiral anomaly is persistent up to room temperature when B is parallel to E. The ability to manipulate the valley polarization in Dirac semimetal opens up a brand-new route to understand its fundamental properties through external fields and utilize the chiral fermions in valleytronic applications.

  1. Design, manufacture and measurements of permanent dipole magnets for DIRAC

    CERN Document Server

    Vorozhtsov, A; Kasaei, S; Solodko, E; Thonet, P A; Tommasini, D

    2013-01-01

    The one of the aim of the DIRAC experiment is the observation of the long-lived π+π- atoms, using the proton beam of the CERN Proton Synchrotron [1]. Two dipole magnets are needed for the for the DIRAC experiment as high resolution spectrometers. The dipole magnet will be used to identify the long-lived atoms on the high level background of π+π- pairs produced simultaneously with π+π- atoms. The proposed design is a permanent magnet dipole with a mechanical aperture of 60 mm. The magnet, of a total physical length of 66 mm, is based on Sm2Co17 blocks and provides an integrated field strength of 24·10-3 T×m. The Sm2Co17 was chosen as a material for the permanent magnet blocks due to its radiation hardness and weaker temperature dependence. The magnetic field quality is determined by 2 ferromagnetic poles, aligned together with the permanent magnets blocks. The paper describes the design, manufacture and magnetic measurements of the magnets.

  2. Federating LHCb datasets using the DIRAC File catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Haen, Christophe; Frank, Markus; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In the distributed computing model of LHCb the File Catalog (FC) is a central component that keeps track of each file and replica stored on the Grid. It is federating the LHCb data files in a logical namespace used by all LHCb applications. As a replica catalog, it is used for brokering jobs to sites where their input data is meant to be present, but also by jobs for finding alternative replicas if necessary. The LCG File Catalog (LFC) used originally by LHCb and other experiments is now being retired and needs to be replaced. The DIRAC File Catalog (DFC) was developed within the framework of the DIRAC Project and presented during CHEP 2012. From the technical point of view, the code powering the DFC follows an Aspect oriented programming (AOP): each type of entity that is manipulated by the DFC (Users, Files, Replicas, etc) is treated as a separate 'concern' in the AOP terminology. Hence, the database schema can also be adapted to the needs of a Virtual Organization. LHCb opted for a highly tuned MySQL datab...

  3. Prediction of another semimetallic silicene allotrope with Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiping; Qian, Yan; Du, Zhengwei; Zhu, Renzhu; Kan, Erjun; Deng, Kaiming

    2017-11-01

    Materials with Dirac point are so amazing since the charge carriers are massless and have an effective speed of light. However, among the predicted two-dimensional silicon allotropes with Dirac point, no one has been directly proved by experiment. This fact motivates us to search for other two-dimensional silicon allotropes. As a result, another stable single atomic layer thin silicon allotrope is found with the help of CALYPSO code in this work. This silicene allotrope is composed of eight-membered rings linked by Si-Si bonds with buckling formation. The electronic calculation reveals that it behaves as a nodal line semimetal with the linear energy dispersion relation near the Fermi surface. Notably, the ab initio molecular dynamics simulations display that the original atomic configuration can be remained even at an extremely high temperature of 1000 K. Additionally, hydrogenation could induce a semimetal-semiconductor transition in this silicene allotrope. We hope this work can expand the family of single atomic layer thin silicon allotropes with special applications.

  4. Optical properties of Dirac electrons in a parabolic well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S C; Lee, J W; Yang, S-R Eric

    2013-09-01

    A single electron transitor may be fabricated using qunatum dots. A good model for the confinement potential of a quantum dot is a parabolic well. Here we consider such a parabolic dot made of graphene. Recently, we found counter intuitively that resonant quasi-boundstates of both positive and negative energies exist in the energy spectrum. The presence of resonant quasi-boundstates of negative energies is a unique property of massless Dirac fermions. As magnetic field B gets smaller the energy width of these states become broader and for sufficiently weak value of B resonant quasi-bound states disappear into a quasi-continuum. In the limit of small B resonant and nonresonant states transform into discrete anomalous states with a narrow probability density peak inside the well and another broad peak under the potential barrier. In this paper we compute the optical strength between resonant quasi-bound states as a function of B, and investigate how the signature of resonant quasi-bound states of Dirac electrons may appear in optical measurements.

  5. Dirac potential in the Doebner-Goldin equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Ma, Yi Rong; Hu, Fang Qi; Zhao, Qing

    2018-01-01

    We study a dissipative quantum system which is described by the Doebner-Goldin equation (DGE) model. For time-independent states, the new three-dimensional analytical solutions of the DGE are obtained by binding the vertical relation of velocity and the gradient of density in the system, when the form of a central potential such as hard core or harmonic oscillator is suggested. Through the gauge-invariant parameters which characterize the physical nature of the dissipation, we find a novel set of gauge-invariant parameters which show that the Galilean invariance is broken in this system. Moreover, a subfamily of the DGE can be obtained after a gauge transformation, which describes a dissipative quantum system with the conserved Galilean invariance. It is interesting that this dissipative quantum system is completely equivalent to a charge-monopole system, in which the Dirac potential is supplied with the nonlinear terms and two cases of the velocity potential. Especially, the two gauge potentials given by Wu and Yang emerge from solving the DGE as two cases in our approach. The results not only present some new physical comprehension of the dissipative quantum system, but also might shed light on the Dirac monopole potential, in the sense that the partition into south and north hemisphere is avoided in our new solutions.

  6. Nonequilibrium transport in the pseudospin-1 Dirac-Weyl system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Zhen; Xu, Hong-Ya; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Recently, solid state materials hosting pseudospin-1 quasiparticles have attracted a great deal of attention. In these materials, the energy band contains a pair of Dirac cones and a flatband through the connecting point of the cones. As the "caging" of carriers with a zero group velocity, the flatband itself has zero conductivity. However, in a nonequilibrium situation where a constant electric field is suddenly switched on, the flatband can enhance the resulting current in both the linear and nonlinear response regimes through distinct physical mechanisms. Using the (2 +1 )-dimensional pseudospin-1 Dirac-Weyl system as a concrete setting, we demonstrate that, in the weak field regime, the interband current is about twice larger than that for pseudospin-1/2 system due to the interplay between the flatband and the negative band, with the scaling behavior determined by the Kubo formula. In the strong field regime, the intraband current is √{2 } times larger than that in the pseudospin-1/2 system, due to the additional contribution from particles residing in the flatband. In this case, the current and field follow the scaling law associated with Landau-Zener tunneling. These results provide a better understanding of the role of the flatband in nonequilibrium transport and are experimentally testable using electronic or photonic systems.

  7. Dirac Matrices and Feynman’s Rest of the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available There are two sets of four-by-four matrices introduced by Dirac. The first set consists of fifteen Majorana matrices derivable from his four γ matrices. These fifteen matrices can also serve as the generators of the group SL(4, r. The second set consists of ten generators of the Sp(4 group which Dirac derived from two coupled harmonic oscillators. It is shown possible to extend the symmetry of Sp(4 to that of SL(4, r if the area of the phase space of one of the oscillators is allowed to become smaller without a lower limit. While there are no restrictions on the size of phase space in classical mechanics, Feynman’s rest of the universe makes this Sp(4-to-SL(4, r transition possible. The ten generators are for the world where quantum mechanics is valid. The remaining five generators belong to the rest of the universe. It is noted that the groups SL(4, r and Sp(4 are locally isomorphic to the Lorentz groups O(3, 3 and O(3, 2 respectively. This allows us to interpret Feynman’s rest of the universe in terms of space-time symmetry.

  8. Quasiclassical theory for the superconducting proximity effect in Dirac materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugdal, Henning G.; Linder, Jacob; Jacobsen, Sol H.

    2017-06-01

    We derive the quasiclassical nonequilibrium Eilenberger and Usadel equations to first order in quantities small compared to the Fermi energy, valid for Dirac edge and surface electrons with spin-momentum locking p .σ ¯ , as relevant for topological insulators. We discuss in detail several of the key technical points and assumptions of the derivation, and provide a Riccati parametrization of the equations. Solving first the equilibrium equations for S/N and S/F bilayers and Josephson junctions, we study the superconducting proximity effect in Dirac materials. Similarly to related works, we find that the effect of an exchange field depends strongly on the direction of the field. Only components normal to the transport direction lead to attenuation of the Cooper pair wave function inside the F. Fields parallel to the transport direction lead to phase shifts in the dependence on the superconducting phase difference for both the charge current and density of states in an S/F/S junction. Moreover, we compute the differential conductance in S/N and S/F bilayers with an applied voltage bias and determine the dependence on the length of the N and F regions and the exchange field.

  9. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  10. Transport of Dirac fermions on the surface of strong topological insulator and graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Arijit

    2012-06-14

    estimates covering the full temperature range are provided for the parameters of Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} which possibly can be verified by experiment. Afterwards, a theory of quantum transport and scattering by spatially localized static magnetic fields is developed in a unified way for the low energy Dirac Fermions on topological insulator and graphene. The employed model describes in a unified manner the effects of orbital magnetic fields, Zeeman and exchange fields in topological insulators, and the pseudo-magnetic fields caused by strain or defects in monolayer graphene. The general scattering theory is formulated, and for radially symmetric fields, the scattering amplitude and the total and transport cross sections are expressed in terms of phase shifts. As applications, I study ring-shaped magnetic fields. The Aharonov-Bohm geometry is also studied as a limit to the ring geometry. I also review the superconducting proximity effect on graphene and study resonant tunneling through a superconducting double barrier structure in graphene as a function of the system parameters. In this geometry, transmission resonances occur because of the formation of Andreev bound states. The evolution of the transport through this geometry as a function of the incident energy for various angles of incidence shows the damping of the resonance as normal reflection between the barriers increases. I also consider the phenomenon of quantum charge pumping of electrons in this geometry in the adiabatic limit. Quantum charge pumping can be achieved by modulating the amplitudes (Δ{sub 1} and Δ{sub 2}) of the gaps associated with the two superconducting strips. Because of transmission resonances in the Δ{sub 1} - Δ{sub 2} plane of parameter space, a large value of pumped charge is obtained when the pumping contour encloses the resonances. This is in sharp contrast to the case of charge pumping in a normal double barrier structure in graphene, where the pumped charge is very small, due to the

  11. PseudoBase++: an extension of PseudoBase for easy searching, formatting and visualization of pseudoknots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufer, Michela; Licon, Abel; Araiza, Roberto; Mireles, David; van Batenburg, F H D; Gultyaev, Alexander P; Leung, Ming-Ying

    2009-01-01

    Pseudoknots have been recognized to be an important type of RNA secondary structures responsible for many biological functions. PseudoBase, a widely used database of pseudoknot secondary structures developed at Leiden University, contains over 250 records of pseudoknots obtained in the past 25 years through crystallography, NMR, mutational experiments and sequence comparisons. To promptly address the growing analysis requests of the researchers on RNA structures and bring together information from multiple sources across the Internet to a single platform, we designed and implemented PseudoBase++, an extension of PseudoBase for easy searching, formatting and visualization of pseudoknots. PseudoBase++ (http://pseudobaseplusplus.utep.edu) maps the PseudoBase dataset into a searchable relational database including additional functionalities such as pseudoknot type. PseudoBase++ links each pseudoknot in PseudoBase to the GenBank record of the corresponding nucleotide sequence and allows scientists to automatically visualize RNA secondary structures with PseudoViewer. It also includes the capabilities of fine-grained reference searching and collecting new pseudoknot information.

  12. La tuberculose abdominale pseudo-tumorale

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Barni, Rachid; Lahkim, Mohamed; Achour, Abdessamad

    2012-01-01

    Introduction L’objectif de ce travail est de rapporter cinq cas de tuberculose abdominale pseudo-tumorale afin d’en souligner les aspects diagnostiques et thérapeutiques. Cinq observations sont colligées dans le service de chirurgie générale de l’hôpital militaire Avicenne de Marrakech au cours de l’année 2007. Les aspects cliniques sont disparates. Ainsi, les auteurs ont noté un syndrome péritonéal dans un cas, une masse épigastrique dans un cas, une lésion suspect du sigmoïde dans un cas, une masse de la fosse iliaque droite dans un cas et une altération de l’état général avec fièvre dans le dernier cas. Un seul patient avaient bénéficié d’une biopsie scano-guidée et les quatre patients restants avaient été opérés. Une masse du méso côlon était notée dans le premier cas. Dans le second cas, l’aspect de la masse épigastrique et son siège avaient orienté vers une tumeur du grand omentum. Une localisation tuberculeuse péritonéale et sigmoïdienne avait été trouvée dans le troisième cas. Le diagnostic d’une tumeur du côlon droit était hautement suspect chez le patient séropositif qui avait présenté une péritonite post-opératoire et décédé à J + 3 dans un tableau de choc septique. Le siège et l’aspect nécrotique des lésions trouvées à la tomodensitométrie chez la seule patiente de l’étude avaient fait discuter en premier un lymphome. Même en l’absence d’antécédents de tuberculose pulmonaire, le diagnostic tuberculose abdominale pseudo-tumorale doit être évoqué surtout dans un pays d’endémie comme le notre et le recours à une laparotomie est justifié chaque fois que persiste un doute diagnostique ou en cas de complication. PMID:23330023

  13. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, K.; Jones, Lucile M.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Borrero, J.; Bwarie, J.; Dykstra, D.; Geist, Eric L.; Johnson, L.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Long, K.; Lynett, P.; Miller, K.; Mortensen, Carl E.; Perry, S.; Plumlee, G.; Real, C.; Ritchie, L.; Scawthorn, C.; Thio, H.K.; Wein, Anne; Whitmore, P.; Wilson, R.; Wood, Nathan J.; Ostbo, Bruce I.; Oates, Don

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and several partners operate a program called Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) that produces (among other things) emergency planning scenarios for natural disasters. The scenarios show how science can be used to enhance community resiliency. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario describes potential impacts of a hypothetical, but realistic, tsunami affecting California (as well as the west coast of the United States, Alaska, and Hawaii) for the purpose of informing planning and mitigation decisions by a variety of stakeholders. The scenario begins with an Mw 9.1 earthquake off the Alaska Peninsula. With Pacific basin-wide modeling, we estimate up to 5m waves and 10 m/sec currents would strike California 5 hours later. In marinas and harbors, 13,000 small boats are damaged or sunk (1 in 3) at a cost of $350 million, causing navigation and environmental problems. Damage in the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach amount to $110 million, half of it water damage to vehicles and containerized cargo. Flooding of coastal communities affects 1800 city blocks, resulting in $640 million in damage. The tsunami damages 12 bridge abutments and 16 lane-miles of coastal roadway, costing $85 million to repair. Fire and business interruption losses will substantially add to direct losses. Flooding affects 170,000 residents and workers. A wide range of environmental impacts could occur. An extensive public education and outreach program is underway, as well as an evaluation of the overall effort.

  14. HEALTH SCENARIO IN INDIA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. HEALTH SCENARIO IN INDIA. Health Doctor / Hospital Infant expenditure 1000 beds / 1000 mortality / % GDP 1000. India 0.8 0.47 0.8 71. World 2.6 1.5 3.3 54. Developed 6.1 2.8 7.2 6 Countries.

  15. Crisis and Crisis Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Nordicum-Mediterraneum contains select proceedings from the third meeting of the Nordic Summer University research circle called “Crisis and Crisis Scenarios: Normativity, Possibilities and Dilemmas”, held April 9th — 12th, 2015 at the Lysebu Conference Centre in Oslo, Norway...

  16. Brane world scenarios

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    February 2003 physics pp. 183–188. Brane world scenarios. DILEEP P JATKAR. Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211 019, India. Email: dileep@mri.ernet.in. Abstract. .... However, we have to tuneV0 = V1 =24M3k and this is like fine tuning. There are a couple of caveats in the RS model ...

  17. The theory of pseudo-rigid bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Harley

    1988-01-01

    This monograph concerns the development, analysis, and application of the theory of pseudo-rigid bodies. It collects together our work on that subject over the last five years. While some results have appeared else­ where, much of the work is new. Our objective in writing this mono­ graph has been to present a new theory of the deformation of bodies, one that has not only a firm theoretical basis, but also the simplicity to serve as an effective tool in practical problems. Consequently, the main body of the treatise is a multifaceted development of the theory, from foundations to explicit solutions to linearizations to methods of approximation. The fact that this variety of aspects, each examined in considerable detail, can be collected together in a single, unified treat­ ment gives this theory an elegance that we feel sets it apart from many others. While our goal has always been to give a complete treatment of the theory as it now stands, the work here is not meant to be definitive. Theories are not ent...

  18. Loop-Effects in Pseudo-Supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Matthias

    2002-11-01

    We analyze the transmission of supersymmetry breaking in brane-world models of pseudo-supersymmetry. In these models two branes preserve different halves of the bulk supersymmetry. Thus supersymmetry is broken although each sector of the model is supersymmetric when considered separately. The world-volume theory on one brane feels the breakdown of supersymmetry only through two-loop interactions involving a coupling to fields from the other brane. In a 5D toy model with bulk vectors, we compute the diagrams that contribute to scalar masses on one brane and find that the masses are proportional to the compactification scale up to logarithmic corrections, m{sup 2} {infinity} (2{pi}R){sup -2} (ln(2{pi}R m{sub S}) - 1.1), where m{sub s} is an ultraviolet cutoff. Thus, for large compactification radii, where this result is valid, the brane scalars acquire a positive mass squared. We also compute the three-loop diagrams relevant to the Casimir energy between the two branes and find E {infinity} (2{pi}R){sup -4}((ln(2{pi}R m{sub S}) - 1.7){sup 2} + 0.2). For large radii, this yields a repulsive Casimir force.

  19. A beautiful sea: P. A. M. Dirac's epistemology and ontology of the vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Aaron Sidney

    2016-07-01

    This paper charts P.A.M. Dirac's development of his theory of the electron, and its radical picture of empty space as an almost-full plenum. Dirac's Quantum Electrodynamics famously accomplished more than the unification of special relativity and quantum mechanics. It also accounted for the 'duplexity phenomena' of spectral line splitting that we now attribute to electron spin. But the extra mathematical terms that allowed for spin were not alone, and this paper charts Dirac's struggle to ignore or account for them as a sea of strange, negative-energy, particles with positive 'holes'. This work was not done in solitude, but rather in exchanges with Dirac's correspondence network. This social context for Dirac's work contests his image as a lone genius, and documents a community wrestling with the ontological consequences of their work. Unification, consistency, causality, and community are common factors in explanations in the history of physics. This paper argues on the basis of materials in Dirac's archive that --- in addition --- mathematical beauty was an epistemological factor in the development of the electron and hole theory. In fact, if we believe that Dirac's beautiful mathematics captures something of the world, then there is both an epistemology and an ontology of mathematical beauty.

  20. Tuning the Fermi velocity in Dirac materials with an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Fernández, A; Chico, Leonor; González, J W; Domínguez-Adame, F

    2017-08-14

    Dirac materials are characterized by energy-momentum relations that resemble those of relativistic massless particles. Commonly denominated Dirac cones, these dispersion relations are considered to be their essential feature. These materials comprise quite diverse examples, such as graphene and topological insulators. Band-engineering techniques should aim to a full control of the parameter that characterizes the Dirac cones: the Fermi velocity. We propose a general mechanism that enables the fine-tuning of the Fermi velocity in Dirac materials in a readily accessible way for experiments. By embedding the sample in a uniform electric field, the Fermi velocity is substantially modified. We first prove this result analytically, for the surface states of a topological insulator/semiconductor interface, and postulate its universality in other Dirac materials. Then we check its correctness in carbon-based Dirac materials, namely graphene nanoribbons and nanotubes, thus showing the validity of our hypothesis in different Dirac systems by means of continuum, tight-binding and ab-initio calculations.

  1. Nearly massless Dirac fermions hosted by Sb square net in BaMnSb2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyu; Hu, Jin; Cao, Huibo; Zhu, Yanglin; Chuang, Alyssa; Graf, D; Adams, D J; Radmanesh, S M A; Spinu, L; Chiorescu, I; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2016-07-28

    Layered compounds AMnBi2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba, or rare earth element) have been established as Dirac materials. Dirac electrons generated by the two-dimensional (2D) Bi square net in these materials are normally massive due to the presence of a spin-orbital coupling (SOC) induced gap at Dirac nodes. Here we report that the Sb square net in an isostructural compound BaMnSb2 can host nearly massless Dirac fermions. We observed strong Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations in this material. From the analyses of the SdH oscillations, we find key signatures of Dirac fermions, including light effective mass (~0.052m0; m0, mass of free electron), high quantum mobility (1280 cm(2)V(-1)S(-1)) and a π Berry phase accumulated along cyclotron orbit. Compared with AMnBi2, BaMnSb2 also exhibits much more significant quasi two-dimensional (2D) electronic structure, with the out-of-plane transport showing nonmetallic conduction below 120 K and the ratio of the out-of-plane and in-plane resistivity reaching ~670. Additionally, BaMnSb2 also exhibits a G-type antiferromagnetic order below 283 K. The combination of nearly massless Dirac fermions on quasi-2D planes with a magnetic order makes BaMnSb2 an intriguing platform for seeking novel exotic phenomena of massless Dirac electrons.

  2. Two-dimensional spin-orbit Dirac point in monolayer HfGeTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shan; Liu, Ying; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shan-Shan; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2017-10-01

    Dirac points in two-dimensional (2D) materials have been a fascinating subject of research, with graphene as the most prominent example. However, the Dirac points in existing 2D materials, including graphene, are vulnerable against spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Here, based on first-principles calculations and theoretical analysis, we propose a new family of stable 2D materials, the HfGeTe-family monolayers, which host so-called spin-orbit Dirac points (SDPs) close to the Fermi level. These Dirac points are special in that they are formed only under significant SOC, hence they are intrinsically robust against SOC. We show that the existence of a pair of SDPs are dictated by the nonsymmorphic space group symmetry of the system, which are very robust under various types of lattice strains. The energy, the dispersion, and the valley occupation around the Dirac points can be effectively tuned by strain. We construct a low-energy effective model to characterize the Dirac fermions around the SDPs. Furthermore, we find that the material is simultaneously a 2D Z2 topological metal, which possesses nontrivial Z2 invariant in the bulk and spin-helical edge states on the boundary. From the calculated exfoliation energies and mechanical properties, we show that these materials can be readily obtained in experiment from the existing bulk materials. Our result reveals HfGeTe-family monolayers as a promising platform for exploring spin-orbit Dirac fermions and topological phases in two-dimensions.

  3. Renormalization of Coulomb interactions in a system of two-dimensional tilted Dirac fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu-Wen; Lee, Yu-Li

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the effects of long-ranged Coulomb interactions in a tilted Dirac semimetal in two dimensions by using the perturbative renormalization-group (RG) method. Depending on the magnitude of the tilting parameter, the undoped system can have either Fermi points (type I) or Fermi lines (type II). Previous studies usually performed the renormalization-group transformations by integrating out the modes with large momenta. This is problematic when the Fermi surface is open, like type-II Dirac fermions. In this work we study the effects of Coulomb interactions, following the spirit of Shankar [Rev. Mod. Phys. 66, 129 (1994), 10.1103/RevModPhys.66.129], by introducing a cutoff in the energy scale around the Fermi surface and integrating out the high-energy modes. For type-I Dirac fermions, our result is consistent with that of the previous work. On the other hand, we find that for type-II Dirac fermions, the magnitude of the tilting parameter increases monotonically with lowering energies. This implies the stability of type-II Dirac fermions in the presence of Coulomb interactions, in contrast with previous results. Furthermore, for type-II Dirac fermions, the velocities in different directions acquire different renormalization even if they have the same bare values. By taking into account the renormalization of the tilting parameter and the velocities due to the Coulomb interactions, we show that while the presence of a charged impurity leads only to charge redistribution around the impurity for type-I Dirac fermions, for type-II Dirac fermions, the impurity charge is completely screened, albeit with a very long screening length. The latter indicates that the temperature dependence of physical observables are essentially determined by the RG equations we derived. We illustrate this by calculating the temperature dependence of the compressibility and specific heat of the interacting tilted Dirac fermions.

  4. Hacerse y volverse como nexos pseudo-copulativos

    OpenAIRE

    Delbecque, Nicole; Van Gorp, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Cette contribution aborde les différences conceptuelles entre les pseudo-copules hacerse et volverse, partant des notions de «réalisation» et de «régression» qui caractérisent leurs emplois lexicaux. Esta contribución aborda las diferencias conceptuales entre las pseudo-cópulas hacerse y volverse, partiendo de las nociones de «realización» y de «regresión» que caracterizan sus empleos léxicos. This contribution tackles the conceptual differences between the pseudo-copulas hacerse and vo...

  5. Numerical study of DNA denaturation with self-avoidance: pseudo-critical temperatures and finite size behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Barbara; Yeramian, Edouard

    2016-04-01

    We perform an extensive numerical study of the disordered Poland-Scheraga (PS) model for DNA denaturation in which self-avoidance is completely taken into account. To complement to our previous work, we focus here on the finite size scaling in terms of pseudo-critical temperatures. Notably, we find that the mean value and the fluctuations of the pseudo-T c scale with the same exponent, the correlation length exponent {ν\\text{r}} (for which we provide the refined evaluation {ν\\text{r}}=2.9+/- 0.4 ). This result (coherent with the typical picture that describes random ferromagnets when disorder is relevant) is at variance with the numerical results reported in the literature for the PS model with self-avoidance, leading to an alternative scenario with a pseudo-first-order transition. We moreover introduce a crossover chain length N *, which we evaluate, appropriate for characterizing the approach to the asymptotic regime in this model. Essentially, below N *, the behaviour of the model in our study could also agree with such an alternative scenario. Based on an approximate prediction of the dependence of N * on the parameters of the model, we show that following the choice of such parameters it would not be possible to reach the asymptotic regime in practice. In such a context it becomes then possible to reconcile the apparently contradictory numerical studies.

  6. The Dirac System on the Anti-de Sitter Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelot, Alain

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the global solutions of the Dirac equation on the Anti- de-Sitter Universe. Since this space is not globally hyperbolic, the Cauchy problem is not, a priori, well-posed. Nevertheless we can prove that there exists unitary dynamics, but its uniqueness crucially depends on the ratio beween the mass M of the field and the cosmological constant Λ > 0: it appears a critical value, Λ/12, which plays a role similar to the Breitenlohner-Freedman bound for the scalar fields. When M 2 ≥ Λ/12 there exists a unique unitary dynamics. On the contrary, for the light fermions satisfying M 2 < Λ/12, we construct several asymptotic conditions at infinity, such that the problem becomes well-posed. In all the cases, the spectrum of the hamiltonian is discrete. We also prove a result of equipartition of the energy.

  7. Propagation of Dirac electrons in Cantor graphene multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-González, R.; Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Madrigal-Melchor, J.; Rodríguez-Vargas, I. [Unidad Académica de Física, Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Calzada Solidaridad Esquina Con Paseo La Bufa S/N, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2014-05-15

    In this work we use the standard T-matrix method to study the tunneling of Dirac electrons through graphene multilayers. A graphene sheet is deposited on top of slabs of Silicon-Oxide (SiO{sub 2}) and Silicon-Carbide (SiC) substrates, in which we applied the Cantor’s series. We calculate the transmittance as a function of energy for different incident angles and different generations of the Cantor’s series. Comparing the transmittance, we found three types of self-similarity: (a) local - into generations, (b) between incident angles and (c) between generations. We also compute the angular distribution of the transmittance for fixed energies finding a self-similar pattern between generations. To our knowledge is the first time that four different self-similar patterns are presented in Cantor-based multilayers.

  8. Relativistic quantum Darwinism in Dirac fermion and graphene systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Xuan; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Pecora, Louis

    2012-02-01

    We solve the Dirac equation in two spatial dimensions in the setting of resonant tunneling, where the system consists of two symmetric cavities connected by a finite potential barrier. The shape of the cavities can be chosen to yield both regular and chaotic dynamics in the classical limit. We find that certain pointer states about classical periodic orbits can exist, which are signatures of relativistic quantum Darwinism (RQD). These localized states suppress quantum tunneling, and the effect becomes less severe as the underlying classical dynamics in the cavity is chaotic, leading to regularization of quantum tunneling. Qualitatively similar phenomena have been observed in graphene. A physical theory is developed to explain relativistic quantum Darwinism and its effects based on the spectrum of complex eigenenergies of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian describing the open cavity system.

  9. Dirac Particles Emission from An Elliptical Black Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuant Tiandho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the general theory of relativiy, a black hole is defined as a region of spacetime with super-strong gravitational effects and there is nothing can escape from it. So in the classical theory of relativity, it is safe to say that black hole is a "dead" thermodynamical object. However, by using quantum mechanics theory, Hawking has shown that a black hole may emit particles. In this paper, calculation of temperature of an elliptical black hole when emitting the Dirac particles was presented. By using the complexpath method, radiation can be described as emission process in the tunneling pictures. According to relationship between probability of outgoing particle with the spectrum of black body radiation for fermion particles, temperature of the elliptical black hole can be obtained and it depend on the azimuthal angle. This result also showed that condition on the surface of elliptical black hole is not in thermal equilibrium.

  10. ILCDIRAC, a DIRAC extension for the Linear Collider community

    CERN Document Server

    Grefe, C; Sailer, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2014-01-01

    ILCDIRAC is a complete distributed computing solution for the Linear Collider community. It's an extension of the Dirac system and now used by all detector concepts of the LC community. ILCDIRAC provides a unified interface to the distributed resources for the ILC Virtual Organization and provides common interfaces to all ILC applications via a simplified API. It supports the overlay of beam-induced backgrounds with minimal impact on the Storage Elements by properly scheduling the jobs attempting to access the files. ILCDIRAC has been successfully used for the CLIC Conceptual Design Report and the ILC SiD Detailed Baseline Design, and is now adopted by the LC community as the official grid production tool. Members of the CALICE collaboration also use ILCDIRAC within their own Virtual Organization.

  11. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Spin Hall Effects of Dirac Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, Takaaki; Kohno, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Junji

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the spin Hall effect (SHE) of electrons described by the Dirac equation, which is used as an effective model near the L-points in bismuth. By considering short-range nonmagnetic impurities, we calculate the extrinsic as well as intrinsic contributions on an equal footing. The vertex corrections are taken into account within the ladder type and the so-called skew-scattering type. The intrinsic SHE which we obtain is consistent with that of Fuseya et al. [https://doi.org/10.1143/JPSJ.81.093704" xlink:type="simple">J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81, 093704 (2012)]. It is found that the extrinsic contribution dominates the intrinsic one when the system is metallic. The extrinsic SHE due to the skew scattering is proportional to Δ/niu, where 2Δ is the band gap, ni is the impurity concentration, and u is the strength of the impurity potential.

  12. States of the Dirac Equation in Confining Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giachetti, Riccardo; Sorace, Emanuele

    2008-11-01

    We study the Dirac equation in confining potentials with pure vector coupling, proving the existence of metastable states with longer and longer lifetimes as the nonrelativistic limit is approached and eventually merging with continuity into the Schrödinger bound states. The existence of these states could concern high energy models and possible resonant scattering effects in systems like graphene. We present numerical results for the linear and the harmonic cases and we show that the density of the states of the continuous spectrum is well described by a sum of Breit-Wigner lines. The width of the line with lowest positive energy well reproduces the Schwinger pair production rate for a linear potential: this gives an explanation of the Klein paradox for bound states and a new concrete way to get information on pair production in unbounded, nonuniform electric fields, where very little is known.

  13. Dirac equation in very special relativity for hydrogen atom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Maluf

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we study the modified Dirac equation in the framework of very special relativity (VSR. The low-energy regime is accessed and the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian is obtained. It turns out that this Hamiltonian is similar to that achieved from the Standard Model Extension (SME via coupling of the spinor field to a Lorentz-violating term, but new features arise inherited from the non-local character of the VSR. In addition, the implications of the VSR-modified Lorentz symmetry on the spectrum of a hydrogen atom are determined by calculating the first-order energy corrections in the context of standard quantum mechanics. Among the results, we highlight that the modified Hamiltonian provides non-vanishing corrections which lift the degeneracy of the energy levels and allow us to find an upper bound upon the VSR-parameter.

  14. The first principle calculation of two-dimensional Dirac materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin

    2017-12-01

    As the size of integrated device becoming increasingly small, from the last century, semiconductor industry is facing the enormous challenge to break the Moore’s law. The development of calculation, communication and automatic control have emergent expectation of new materials at the aspect of semiconductor industrial technology and science. In spite of silicon device, searching the alternative material with outstanding electronic properties has always been a research point. As the discovery of graphene, the research of two-dimensional Dirac material starts to express new vitality. This essay studied the development calculation of 2D material’s mobility and introduce some detailed information of some approximation method of the first principle calculation.

  15. Pair of null gravitating shells: III. Algebra of Dirac's observables

    CERN Document Server

    Kouletsis, I

    2002-01-01

    The study of the two-shell system started in 'pair of null gravitating shells I and II' is continued. The pull back of the Liouville form to the constraint surface, which contains complete information about the Poisson brackets of Dirac observables, is computed in the singular double-null Eddington-Finkelstein (DNEF) gauge. The resulting formula shows that the variables conjugate to the Schwarzschild masses of the intershell spacetimes are simple combinations of the values of the DNEF coordinates on these spacetimes at the shells. The formula is valid for any number of in- and outgoing shells. After applying it to the two-shell system, the symplectic form is calculated for each component of the physical phase space; regular coordinates are found, defining it as a symplectic manifold. The symplectic transformation between the initial and final values of observables for the shell-crossing case is given.

  16. Dissipative quantum hall effect in graphene near the Dirac point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanin, Dmitry A; Novoselov, Kostya S; Zeitler, Uli; Lee, Patrick A; Geim, A K; Levitov, L S

    2007-05-11

    We report on the unusual nature of the nu=0 state in the integer quantum Hall effect (QHE) in graphene and show that electron transport in this regime is dominated by counterpropagating edge states. Such states, intrinsic to massless Dirac quasiparticles, manifest themselves in a large longitudinal resistivity rho(xx) > or approximately h/e(2), in striking contrast to rho(xx) behavior in the standard QHE. The nu=0 state in graphene is also predicted to exhibit pronounced fluctuations in rho(xy) and rho(xx) and a smeared zero Hall plateau in sigma(xy), in agreement with experiment. The existence of gapless edge states puts stringent constraints on possible theoretical models of the nu=0 state.

  17. Chaos, solitons and fractals in the nonlinear Dirac equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccari, Attilio E-mail: solitone@yahoo.it

    2005-03-07

    By means of the asymptotic perturbation (AP) method, analytical investigation of a nonlinear Dirac equation shows the existence of interacting coherent excitations such as the dromions, lumps, ring soliton solutions and breathers as well as instanton solutions. The interaction between the localized solutions are completely elastic, because they pass through each other and preserve their shapes and velocities, the only change being a phase shift. Finally, one may obtain approximate lower-dimensional chaotic patterns such as chaotic-chaotic patterns, periodic-chaotic patterns, chaotic line soliton patterns and chaotic dromion patterns, due to the possibility of selecting appropriately some arbitrary functions. In a similar way, fractal dromion and lump patterns as well as stochastic fractal excitations can appear in the solution.

  18. Robustness of Rashba and Dirac Fermions against Strong Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Sante, Domenico; Barone, Paolo; Plekhanov, Evgeny; Ciuchi, Sergio; Picozzi, Silvia

    2015-06-01

    By addressing the interplay between substitutional disorder and spin-orbit-coupling in chalcogenide alloys, we predict a strong robustness of spectral features at the Fermi energy. Indeed, supplementing our state of the art first-principles calculations with modeling analysis, we show that the disorder self-energy is vanishingly small close to the band gap, thus i) allowing for bulk Rashba-like spin splitting to be observed in ferroelectric alloys by means of Angle Resolved PhotoEmission Spectroscopy, and ii) protecting the band-character inversion related to the topological transition in recently discovered Topological Crystalline Insulators. Such a protection against strong disorder, which we demonstrate to be general for three dimensional Dirac systems, has potential and valuable implications for novel technologies, as spintronics and/or spinorbitronics.

  19. Experimental Realization of a Dirac Monopole through the Decay of an Isolated Monopole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollikainen, T.; Tiurev, K.; Blinova, A.; Lee, W.; Hall, D. S.; Möttönen, M.

    2017-04-01

    We experimentally observe the decay dynamics of deterministically created isolated monopoles in spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates. As the condensate undergoes a change between magnetic phases, the isolated monopole gradually evolves into a spin configuration hosting a Dirac monopole in its synthetic magnetic field. We characterize in detail the Dirac monopole by measuring the particle densities of the spin states projected along different quantization axes. Importantly, we observe the spontaneous emergence of nodal lines in the condensate density that accompany the Dirac monopole. We also demonstrate that the monopole decay accelerates in weaker magnetic field gradients.

  20. Experimental Realization of a Dirac Monopole through the Decay of an Isolated Monopole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ollikainen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally observe the decay dynamics of deterministically created isolated monopoles in spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensates. As the condensate undergoes a change between magnetic phases, the isolated monopole gradually evolves into a spin configuration hosting a Dirac monopole in its synthetic magnetic field. We characterize in detail the Dirac monopole by measuring the particle densities of the spin states projected along different quantization axes. Importantly, we observe the spontaneous emergence of nodal lines in the condensate density that accompany the Dirac monopole. We also demonstrate that the monopole decay accelerates in weaker magnetic field gradients.

  1. Selection rule for Dirac-like points in two-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    We developed a selection rule for Dirac-like points in two-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals. The rule is derived from a perturbation theory and states that a non-zero, mode-coupling integral between the degenerate Bloch states guarantees a Dirac-like point, regardless of the type of the degeneracy. In fact, the selection rule can also be determined from the symmetry of the Bloch states even without computing the integral. Thus, the existence of Dirac-like points can be quickly and conclusively predicted for various photonic crystals independent of wave polarization, lattice structure, and composition. © 2013 Optical Society of America.

  2. A novel quantum-mechanical interpretation of the Dirac equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    K-H Kiessling, M.; Tahvildar-Zadeh, A. S.

    2016-04-01

    A novel interpretation is given of Dirac’s ‘wave equation for the relativistic electron’ as a quantum-mechanical one-particle equation. In this interpretation the electron and the positron are merely the two different ‘topological spin’ states of a single more fundamental particle, not distinct particles in their own right. The new interpretation is backed up by the existence of such ‘bi-particle’ structures in general relativity, in particular the ring singularity present in any spacelike section of the spacetime singularity of the maximal-analytically extended, topologically non-trivial, electromagnetic Kerr-Newman (KN)spacetime in the zero-gravity limit (here, ‘zero-gravity’ means the limit G\\to 0, where G is Newton’s constant of universal gravitation). This novel interpretation resolves the dilemma that Dirac’s wave equation seems to be capable of describing both the electron and the positron in ‘external’ fields in many relevant situations, while the bi-spinorial wave function has only a single position variable in its argument, not two—as it should if it were a quantum-mechanical two-particle wave equation. A Dirac equation is formulated for such a ring-like bi-particle which interacts with a static point charge located elsewhere in the topologically non-trivial physical space associated with the moving ring particle, the motion being governed by a de Broglie-Bohm type law extracted from the Dirac equation. As an application, the pertinent general-relativistic zero-gravity hydrogen problem is studied in the usual Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Its spectral results suggest that the zero-G KN magnetic moment be identified with the so-called ‘anomalous magnetic moment of the physical electron,’ not with the Bohr magneton, so that the ring radius is only a tiny fraction of the electron’s reduced Compton wavelength.

  3. Demand scenarios, worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.

  4. Pseudo-differential operators groups, geometry and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    This volume consists of papers inspired by the special session on pseudo-differential operators at the 10th ISAAC Congress held at the University of Macau, August 3-8, 2015 and the mini-symposium on pseudo-differential operators in industries and technologies at the 8th ICIAM held at the National Convention Center in Beijing, August 10-14, 2015. The twelve papers included present cutting-edge trends in pseudo-differential operators and applications from the perspectives of Lie groups (Chapters 1-2), geometry (Chapters 3-5) and applications (Chapters 6-12). Many contributions cover applications in probability, differential equations and time-frequency analysis. A focus on the synergies of pseudo-differential operators with applications, especially real-life applications, enhances understanding of the analysis and the usefulness of these operators.

  5. Pseudo-Goldstone modes in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, T.D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Broniowski, W. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1995-01-01

    The authors analyze the chiral limit in dense isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the pseudo-Goldstone modes in this system are qualitatively different from the case of isospin-symmetric matter.

  6. Pseudo-Goldstone modes in isospin-asymmetric nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, T.D. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Broniowski, W. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-12-01

    We analyze the chiral limit in dense isoptin-asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the pseudo-Goldstone modes in this system are qualitatively different from the case of isospin-symmetric matter. (author). 20 refs.

  7. Her-entingen tegen Pseudo Vogelpest (NCD) op 'Het Spelderholt'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorst, van A.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudo Vogelpest of NCD is een gevreesde virusziekte, waartegen een entverplichting geldt. Na het uitbreken van de ziekte in het zuiden van Nederland is al het volwassen pluimvee op Het Spelderholt opnieuw geënt.

  8. Pseudo-outbreak of Actinomyces graevenitzii associated with bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peaper, David R; Havill, Nancy L; Aniskiewicz, Michael; Callan, Deborah; Pop, Olivia; Towle, Dana; Boyce, John M

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of infection related to bronchoscopy typically involve Gram-negative bacteria, Mycobacterium species or Legionella species. We report an unusual bronchoscopy-related pseudo-outbreak due to Actinomyces graevenitzii. Extensive epidemiological and microbiological investigation failed to identify a common source. Strain typing revealed that the cluster was comprised of heterogeneous strains of A. graevenitzii. A change in laboratory procedures for Actinomyces cultures was coincident with the emergence of the pseudo-outbreak, and we determined that A. graevenitzii isolates more readily adopted a white, dry, molar tooth appearance on anaerobic colistin nalidixic acid (CNA) agar which likely facilitated its detection and identification in bronchoscopic specimens. This unusual pseudo-outbreak was related to frequent requests of bronchoscopists for Actinomyces cultures combined with a change in microbiology laboratory practices. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Pseudo-telepathy: input cardinality and Bell-type inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Gisin, Nicolas; Methot, André; Scarani, Valerio

    2006-01-01

    Pseudo-telepathy is the most recent form of rejection of locality. Many of its properties have already been discovered: for instance, the minimal entanglement, as well as the minimal cardinality of the output sets, have been characterized. This paper contains two main results. First, we prove that no bipartite pseudo-telepathy game exists, in which one of the partners receives only two questions; as a corollary, we show that the minimal "input cardinality", that is, the minimal number of ques...

  10. Maximally entangled states in pseudo-telepathy games

    OpenAIRE

    Mančinska, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A pseudo-telepathy game is a nonlocal game which can be won with probability one using some finite-dimensional quantum strategy but not using a classical one. Our central question is whether there exist two-party pseudo-telepathy games which cannot be won with probability one using a maximally entangled state. Towards answering this question, we develop conditions under which maximally entangled states suffice. In particular, we show that maximally entangled states suffice for weak projection...

  11. On Some (Pseudo) Involutions in the Riordan Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Naiomi T.; Nkwanta, Asamoah

    2005-08-01

    In this paper, we address a question posed by L. Shapiro regarding algebraic and/or combinatorial characterizations of the elements of order 2 in the Riordan group. We present two classes of combinatorial matrices having pseudo-order 2. In one class, we find generalizations of Pascal's triangle and use some special cases to discover and prove interesting identities. In the other class, we find generalizations of Nkwanta's RNA triangle and show that they are pseudo-involutions.

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pseudo-Class III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Ariel Reyes; Luis Serret; Marcos Peguero; Orlando Tanaka

    2014-01-01

    Pseudo-Class III malocclusion is characterized by the presence of an anterior crossbite due to a forward functional displacement of the mandible; in most cases, the maxillary incisors present some degree of retroclination, and the mandibular incisors are proclined. Various types of appliances have been described in the literature for the early treatment of pseudo-Class III malocclusion. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the importance of making the differential diagnosis between...

  13. Study of gray image pseudo-color processing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinlong; Peng, Xianrong; Xu, Zhiyong

    In gray images which contain abundant information, if the differences between adjacent pixels' intensity are small, the required information can not be extracted by humans, since humans are more sensitive to color images than gray images. If gray images are transformed to pseudo-color images, the details of images will be more explicit, and the target will be recognized more easily. There are two methods (in frequency field and in spatial field) to realize pseudo-color enhancement of gray images. The first method is mainly the filtering in frequency field, and the second is the equal density pseudo-color coding methods which mainly include density segmentation coding, function transformation and complementary pseudo-color coding. Moreover, there are many other methods to realize pseudo-color enhancement, such as pixel's self-transformation based on RGB tri-primary, pseudo-color coding from phase-modulated image based on RGB color model, pseudo-color coding of high gray-resolution image, et al. However, above methods are tailored to a particular situation and transformations are based on RGB color space. In order to improve the visual effect, the method based on RGB color space and pixels' self-transformation is improved in this paper, which is based on HIS color space. Compared with other methods, some gray images with ordinary formats can be processed, and many gray images can be transformed to pseudo-color images with 24 bits. The experiment shows that the processed image has abundant levels, which is consistent with human's perception.

  14. Gastric pseudo-ulcers: membrana angularis and pyloric torus defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peavy, P W; Clements, J L; Weens, H S

    1975-03-01

    The membrana angularis and pyloric torus defects are two physiologic bulges which can simulate ulcerations along the lesser curvature of the stomach. The muscular anatomy of the stomach and the mechanism which produces these pseudo-ulcers are discussed. Both pseudoniches can be seen transiently in normal individuals but occasionally are such prominence as to become diagnostic pitfalls. The features and significance of each pseudo-ulcer are reviewed in an attempt to facilitate recognition on the upper gastrointestinal barium examination.

  15. Pseudo-Hermitian quantum mechanics with unbounded metric operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafazadeh, Ali

    2013-04-28

    I extend the formulation of pseudo-Hermitian quantum mechanics to η(+)-pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonian operators H with an unbounded metric operator η(+). In particular, I give the details of the construction of the physical Hilbert space, observables and equivalent Hermitian Hamiltonian for the case that H has a real and discrete spectrum and its eigenvectors belong to the domain of η(+) and consequently √η(+).

  16. "Pseudo" nomenclature in dermatology: What′s in a name?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the bewildering array of scientific nomenclature in the medical field, it is important to use correct terminology, know their aberrations and the reason behind a specific terminology. This paper is an attempt towards compiling all the pseudo-nomenclatures coined in dermatology, in order to make it easier to retain and recollect these pseudo names, signs, morphology, diseases, and conditions. It is also imperative to know the true entities that these pseudo names masquerade as, so as to understand the explanation for assigning the term ′pseudo′ to these conditions. A total of 52 pseudo-terms have been compiled here in reference to dermatology. Most of these pseudo-nomenclatures were coined due to some clinical or histopathological resemblance to the true conditions, while some were premature conclusions drawn from a flawed understanding of the basic nature of the condition. Clear understanding of each of these terms and the explanation behind them being pseudo will enable a dermatologist to avoid misdiagnosis and needless confusion.

  17. Topological Node-Line Semimetal and Dirac Semimetal State in Antiperovskite Cu3PdN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui; Weng, Hongming; Fang, Zhong; Dai, Xi; Hu, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    Based on first-principles calculation and effective model analysis, we propose that the cubic antiperovskite material Cu3PdN can host a three-dimensional (3D) topological node-line semimetal state when spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is ignored, which is protected by the coexistence of time-reversal and inversion symmetry. There are three node-line circles in total due to the cubic symmetry. Drumheadlike surface flat bands are also derived. When SOC is included, each node line evolves into a pair of stable 3D Dirac points as protected by C4 crystal symmetry. This is remarkably distinguished from the Dirac semimetals known so far, such as Na3Bi and Cd3As2 , both having only one pair of Dirac points. Once C4 symmetry is broken, the Dirac points are gapped and the system becomes a strong topological insulator with (1;111) Z2 indices.

  18. Non-uniqueness of the Dirac theory in a curved spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arminjon, Mayeul [CNRS - Section of Theoretical Physics, Laboratory ' Soils, Solids, Structures, Risks' , Grenoble (France); Reifler, Frank, E-mail: arminjon@hmg.inpg.f [Lockheed Martin Corporation, MS2 Division, Moorestown, New Jersey (United States)

    2010-04-01

    We summarize a recent work on the subject title. The Dirac equation in a curved spacetime depends on a field of coefficients (essentially the Dirac matrices), for which a continuum of different choices are possible. We study the conditions under which a change of the coefficient fields leads to an equivalent Hamiltonian operator H, or to an equivalent energy operator E. In this paper, we focus on the standard version of the gravitational Dirac equation, but the non-uniqueness applies also to our alternative versions. We find that the changes which lead to an equivalent operator H, or respectively to an equivalent operator E, are determined by initial data, or respectively have to make some point-dependent antihermitian matrix vanish. Thus, the vast majority of the possible coefficient changes lead neither to an equivalent operator H, nor to an equivalent operator E, whence a lack of uniqueness. We show that even the Dirac energy spectrum is not unique.

  19. Tunable Dirac points and high spin polarization in ferromagnetic-strain graphene superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Ping; Liu, Zheng-Fang; Chen, Ai-Xi; Xiao, Xian-Bo; Miao, Guo-Xing

    2017-11-07

    Spin-dependent energy bands and transport properties of ferromagnetic-strain graphene superlattices are studied. The high spin polarization appears at the Dirac points due to the presence of spin-dependent Dirac points in the energy band structure. A gap can be induced in the vicinity of Dirac points by strain and the width of the gap is enlarged with increasing strain strength, which is beneficial for enhancing spin polarization. Moreover, a full spin polarization can be achieved at large strain strength. The position and number of the Dirac points corresponding to high spin polarization can be effectively manipulated with barrier width, well width and effective exchange field, which reveals a remarkable tunability on the wavevector filtering behavior.

  20. Creating stable Floquet-Weyl semimetals by laser-driving of 3D Dirac materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübener, Hannes; Sentef, Michael A; De Giovannini, Umberto; Kemper, Alexander F; Rubio, Angel

    2017-01-17

    Tuning and stabilizing topological states, such as Weyl semimetals, Dirac semimetals or topological insulators, is emerging as one of the major topics in materials science. Periodic driving of many-body systems offers a platform to design Floquet states of matter with tunable electronic properties on ultrafast timescales. Here we show by first principles calculations how femtosecond laser pulses with circularly polarized light can be used to switch between Weyl semimetal, Dirac semimetal and topological insulator states in a prototypical three-dimensional (3D) Dirac material, Na3Bi. Our findings are general and apply to any 3D Dirac semimetal. We discuss the concept of time-dependent bands and steering of Floquet-Weyl points and demonstrate how light can enhance topological protection against lattice perturbations. This work has potential practical implications for the ultrafast switching of materials properties, such as optical band gaps or anomalous magnetoresistance.

  1. Dirac State in the FeB2 Monolayer with Graphene-Like Boron Sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijun; Li, Yafei; Hou, Jianhou; Du, Aijun; Chen, Zhongfang

    2016-10-12

    By introducing the commonly utilized Fe atoms into a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb boron network, we theoretically designed a new Dirac material of FeB2 monolayer with a Fermi velocity in the same order of graphene. The electron transfer from Fe atoms to B networks not only effectively stabilizes the FeB2 networks but also leads to the strong interaction between the Fe and B atoms. The Dirac state in FeB2 system primarily arises from the Fe d orbitals and hybridized orbital from Fe-d and B-p states. The newly predicted FeB2 monolayer has excellent dynamic and thermal stabilities and is also the global minimum of 2D FeB2 system, implying its experimental feasibility. Our results are beneficial to further uncovering the mechanism of the Dirac cones and providing a feasible strategy for Dirac materials design.

  2. The Emergence of Dirac points in Photonic Crystals with Mirror Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wen-Yu; Chan, C. T.

    2015-01-01

    We show that Dirac points can emerge in photonic crystals possessing mirror symmetry when band gap closes. The mechanism of generating Dirac points is discussed in a two-dimensional photonic square lattice, in which four Dirac points split out naturally after the touching of two bands with different parity. The emergence of such nodal points, characterized by vortex structure in momentum space, is attributed to the unavoidable band crossing protected by mirror symmetry. The Dirac nodes can be unbuckled through breaking the mirror symmetry and a photonic analog of Chern insulator can be achieved through time reversal symmetry breaking. Breaking time reversal symmetry can lead to unidirectional helical edge states and breaking mirror symmetry can reduce the band gap to amplify the finite size effect, providing ways to engineer helical edge states. PMID:25640993

  3. Drive the Dirac electrons into Cooper pairs in SrxBi2Se3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Guan; Shao, Jifeng; Yang, Xiong; Du, Zengyi; Fang, Delong; Wang, Jinghui; Ran, Kejing; Wen, Jinsheng; Zhang, Changjin; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Yuheng; Wen, Hai-Hu

    2017-02-15

    Topological superconductors are a very interesting and frontier topic in condensed matter physics. Despite the tremendous efforts in exploring topological superconductivity, its presence is however still under heavy debate. The Dirac electrons have been proven to exist on the surface of a topological insulator. It remains unclear whether and how the Dirac electrons fall into Cooper pairing in an intrinsic superconductor with the topological surface states. Here we show the systematic study of scanning tunnelling microscope/spectroscopy on the possible topological superconductor SrxBi2Se3. We first demonstrate that only the intercalated Sr atoms can induce superconductivity. Then we show the full superconducting gaps without any in-gap density of states as expected theoretically for a bulk topological superconductor. Finally, we find that the surface Dirac electrons will simultaneously condense into the superconducting state within the superconducting gap. This vividly demonstrates how the surface Dirac electrons are driven into Cooper pairs.

  4. ‘Parabolic’ trapped modes and steered Dirac cones in platonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhedran, R. C.; Movchan, A. B.; Movchan, N. V.; Brun, M.; Smith, M. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the properties of flexural waves governed by the biharmonic operator, and propagating in a thin plate pinned at doubly periodic sets of points. The emphases are on the design of dispersion surfaces having the Dirac cone topology, and on the related topic of trapped modes in plates for a finite set (cluster) of pinned points. The Dirac cone topologies we exhibit have at least two cones touching at a point in the reciprocal lattice, augmented by another band passing through the point. We show that these Dirac cones can be steered along symmetry lines in the Brillouin zone by varying the aspect ratio of rectangular lattices of pins, and that, as the cones are moved, the involved band surfaces tilt. We link Dirac points with a parabolic profile in their neighbourhood, and the characteristic of this parabolic profile decides the direction of propagation of the trapped mode in finite clusters. PMID:27547089

  5. Emergence of Type-II Dirac Points in Graphynelike Photonic Lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrialakos, Georgios G; Nye, Nicholas S; Kantartzis, Nikolaos V; Christodoulides, Demetrios N

    2017-09-15

    We theoretically demonstrate that a type-II class of tilted Dirac cones can emerge in generalized two-dimensional anisotropic lattice arrangements. This is achieved by introducing a special set of graphynelike exchange bonds by means of which the complete spectrum of the underlying Weyl Hamiltonian can be realized. Our ab initio calculations demonstrate a unique class of eigensolutions corresponding to a type-II class of Dirac fermionic excitations. Based on our approach, one can systematically synthesize a wide range of strongly anisotropic band diagrams having tilted Dirac cones with variable location and orientation. Moreover, we show that asymmetric conical diffraction, as well as edge states, can arise in these configurations. Our results can provide a versatile platform to observe, for the first time, optical transport around type-II Dirac points in two-dimensional optical settings under linear, nonlinear, and non-Hermitian conditions.

  6. Elemental Topological Dirac Semimetal: α-Sn on InSb(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cai-Zhi; Chan, Yang-Hao; Chen, Yige; Chen, Peng; Wang, Xiaoxiong; Dejoie, Catherine; Wong, Man-Hong; Hlevyack, Joseph Andrew; Ryu, Hyejin; Kee, Hae-Young; Tamura, Nobumichi; Chou, Mei-Yin; Hussain, Zahid; Mo, Sung-Kwan; Chiang, Tai-Chang

    2017-04-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) topological Dirac semimetals (TDSs) are rare but important as a versatile platform for exploring exotic electronic properties and topological phase transitions. A quintessential feature of TDSs is 3D Dirac fermions associated with bulk electronic states near the Fermi level. Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we have observed such bulk Dirac cones in epitaxially grown α-Sn films on InSb(111), the first such TDS system realized in an elemental form. First-principles calculations confirm that epitaxial strain is key to the formation of the TDS phase. A phase diagram is established that connects the 3D TDS phase through a singular point of a zero-gap semimetal phase to a topological insulator phase. The nature of the Dirac cone crosses over from 3D to 2D as the film thickness is reduced.

  7. Entropy spikes as a signature of Lifshitz transitions in the Dirac materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaran, V Yu; Kavokin, A V; Sharapov, S G; Varlamov, A A; Gusynin, V P

    2017-08-31

    We demonstrate theoretically that the characteristic feature of a 2D system undergoing N consequent Lifshitz topological transitions is the occurrence of spikes of entropy per particle s of a magnitude ±ln2/(J - 1/2) with 2 ≤ J ≤ N at low temperatures. We derive a general expression for s as a function of chemical potential, temperature and gap magnitude for the gapped Dirac materials. Inside the smallest gap, the dependence of s on the chemical potential exhibits a dip-and-peak structure in the temperature vicinity of the Dirac point. The spikes of the entropy per particles can be considered as a signature of the Dirac materials. These distinctive characteristics of gapped Dirac materials can be detected in transport experiments where the temperature is modulated in gated structures.

  8. Dynamical polarizability, screening and plasmons in one, two and three dimensional massive Dirac systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anmol; Sachdeva, Rashi; Agarwal, Amit

    2017-03-15

    We study the density-density response function of a collection of charged massive Dirac particles and present analytical expressions for the dynamical polarization function in one, two and three dimensions. The polarization function is then used to find the dispersion of the plasmon modes, and electrostatic screening of Coulomb interactions within the random phase approximation. We find that for massive Dirac systems, the oscillating screened potential (or density) decays as r -2 and r -3 in two and three dimensions respectively, and as r -1 for one dimensional non-interacting systems. However for massless Dirac systems there is no electrostatic screening or Friedel oscillation in one dimension, and the oscillating screened potential decays as r -3 and r -4, in two and three dimensions respectively. Our analytical results for the polarization function will be useful for exploring the physics of massive and massless Dirac electrons in different experimental systems with varying dimensionality.

  9. Anomalous Dirac point transport due to extended defects in bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Sam; Sharma, Sangeeta; Weber, Heiko B

    2017-08-24

    Charge transport at the Dirac point in bilayer graphene exhibits two dramatically different transport states, insulating and metallic, that occur in apparently otherwise indistinguishable experimental samples. We demonstrate that the existence of these two transport states has its origin in an interplay between evanescent modes, that dominate charge transport near the Dirac point, and disordered configurations of extended defects in the form of partial dislocations. In a large ensemble of bilayer systems with randomly positioned partial dislocations, the distribution of conductivities is found to be strongly peaked at both the insulating and metallic limits. We argue that this distribution form, that occurs only at the Dirac point, lies at the heart of the observation of both metallic and insulating states in bilayer graphene.In seemingly indistinguishable bilayer graphene samples, two distinct transport regimes, insulating and metallic, have been identified experimentally. Here, the authors demonstrate that these two states originate from the interplay between extended defects and evanescent modes at the Dirac point.

  10. Creating stable Floquet–Weyl semimetals by laser-driving of 3D Dirac materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübener, Hannes; Sentef, Michael A.; De Giovannini, Umberto; Kemper, Alexander F.; Rubio, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Tuning and stabilizing topological states, such as Weyl semimetals, Dirac semimetals or topological insulators, is emerging as one of the major topics in materials science. Periodic driving of many-body systems offers a platform to design Floquet states of matter with tunable electronic properties on ultrafast timescales. Here we show by first principles calculations how femtosecond laser pulses with circularly polarized light can be used to switch between Weyl semimetal, Dirac semimetal and topological insulator states in a prototypical three-dimensional (3D) Dirac material, Na3Bi. Our findings are general and apply to any 3D Dirac semimetal. We discuss the concept of time-dependent bands and steering of Floquet–Weyl points and demonstrate how light can enhance topological protection against lattice perturbations. This work has potential practical implications for the ultrafast switching of materials properties, such as optical band gaps or anomalous magnetoresistance. PMID:28094286

  11. Electric Control of Dirac Quasiparticles by Spin-Orbit Torque in an Antiferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejkal, L; Železný, J; Sinova, J; Jungwirth, T

    2017-03-10

    Spin orbitronics and Dirac quasiparticles are two fields of condensed matter physics initiated independently about a decade ago. Here we predict that Dirac quasiparticles can be controlled by the spin-orbit torque reorientation of the Néel vector in an antiferromagnet. Using CuMnAs as an example, we formulate symmetry criteria allowing for the coexistence of topological Dirac quasiparticles and Néel spin-orbit torques. We identify the nonsymmorphic crystal symmetry protection of Dirac band crossings whose on and off switching is mediated by the Néel vector reorientation. We predict that this concept verified by minimal model and density functional calculations in the CuMnAs semimetal antiferromagnet can lead to a topological metal-insulator transition driven by the Néel vector and to the topological anisotropic magnetoresistance.

  12. Two-Dimensional Dirac Fermions Protected by Space-Time Inversion Symmetry in Black Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jimin; Baik, Seung Su; Jung, Sung Won; Sohn, Yeongsup; Ryu, Sae Hee; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Yang, Bohm-Jung; Kim, Keun Su

    2017-12-01

    We report the realization of novel symmetry-protected Dirac fermions in a surface-doped two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor, black phosphorus. The widely tunable band gap of black phosphorus by the surface Stark effect is employed to achieve a surprisingly large band inversion up to ˜0.6 eV . High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectra directly reveal the pair creation of Dirac points and their movement along the axis of the glide-mirror symmetry. Unlike graphene, the Dirac point of black phosphorus is stable, as protected by space-time inversion symmetry, even in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. Our results establish black phosphorus in the inverted regime as a simple model system of 2D symmetry-protected (topological) Dirac semimetals, offering an unprecedented opportunity for the discovery of 2D Weyl semimetals.

  13. Integral identities and bounds for scattering calculations in the Dirac formalism

    OpenAIRE

    Darewych, Jurij

    1998-01-01

    Integral identities that hold between ``desired'' and ``comparison'' solutions of the radial Dirac equations for scattering precesses are considered. Applications of these identities are discussed, particularly the determination of bounds to variational calculations of $K$-matrix elements.

  14. The design of d-character Dirac cones based on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanchang; Fang, Ying

    2014-09-24

    We introduce a new framework for designing a transition metal (TM) d-electrons dominant Dirac cone spectrum based on the hybridization between graphene and a modulated TM d impurity band. The obtained Dirac cone behaves like a 'copy' from graphene, insensitive to the TM coverage and order. First-principles calculations reveal such a system of Mn intercalated epitaxial graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1), dubbed manganosine. The robustness of the Dirac cone is discussed in terms of the possible imperfection of Mn atoms. The mechanism at work is expected to be rather general and may open the door to designing new d- or f-character Dirac systems.

  15. Emergence of Type-II Dirac Points in Graphynelike Photonic Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrialakos, Georgios G.; Nye, Nicholas S.; Kantartzis, Nikolaos V.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2017-09-01

    We theoretically demonstrate that a type-II class of tilted Dirac cones can emerge in generalized two-dimensional anisotropic lattice arrangements. This is achieved by introducing a special set of graphynelike exchange bonds by means of which the complete spectrum of the underlying Weyl Hamiltonian can be realized. Our ab initio calculations demonstrate a unique class of eigensolutions corresponding to a type-II class of Dirac fermionic excitations. Based on our approach, one can systematically synthesize a wide range of strongly anisotropic band diagrams having tilted Dirac cones with variable location and orientation. Moreover, we show that asymmetric conical diffraction, as well as edge states, can arise in these configurations. Our results can provide a versatile platform to observe, for the first time, optical transport around type-II Dirac points in two-dimensional optical settings under linear, nonlinear, and non-Hermitian conditions.

  16. Dispersive estimates for the Dirac equation in an Aharonov-Bohm field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciafesta, F.; Fanelli, L.

    2017-10-01

    We prove local smoothing and weighted Strichartz estimates for the Dirac equation with a Aharonov-Bohm potential. The proof, inspired by [12], relies on an explicit representation of the solution built in terms of spectral projections.

  17. On Charge Conjugation, Chirality and Helicity of the Dirac and Majorana Equation for Massive Leptons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart Marsch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the charge-conjugation operation for the Dirac equation in its chiral representation. A new decomposition of the Dirac spinor field is suggested and achieved by means of projection operators based on charge conjugation, which is discussed here in a non-standard way. Thus, two separate two-component Majorana-type field equations for the eigenfields of the charge-conjugation operator are obtained. The corresponding free fields are entirely separated without a gauge field, but remain mixed and coupled together through an electromagnetic field term. For fermions that are charged and, thus, subjected to the gauge field of electrodynamics, these two Majorana fields can be reassembled into a doublet, which is equivalent to a standard four-component Dirac spinor field. In this way, the Dirac equation is retained in a new guise, which is fully equivalent to that equation in its chiral form.

  18. Dirac quasinormal modes of two-dimensional charged dilatonic black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becar, Ramon [Universidad Catolica de Temuco, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas y Fisicas, Temuco (Chile); Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)

    2014-06-15

    We study charged fermionic perturbations in the background of two-dimensional charged dilatonic black holes, and we present the exact Dirac quasinormal modes. Also, we study the stability of these black holes under charged fermionic perturbations. (orig.)

  19. LHC Upgrade Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Koutchouk, J P

    2010-01-01

    An LHC high-luminosity upgrade has been studied by various European and international collaborations since about 2001. Ingredients of such an LHC upgrade include the optimization of the interaction-region (IR) layout, new high-field or large-aperture triplet quadrupoles, chromatic correction, possibly detector-integrated slim magnets, crab cavities, beam-beam compensators, operation in a regime of large Piwinski angle, luminosity levelling for reduced detector pile up, heat-load, background, radiation damage due to the collision debris, and a renovation of the injector complex. Scenarios, decision paths, and present R&D efforts will be presented.

  20. LHC Injection Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2002-01-01

    Injection of nominal beam intensities from the SPS into the LHC must be done under well-controlled conditions since an abnormal state of one or more elements in the LHC could lead to severe damage of LHC machine components. This note proposes some general principles to be applied for injection into the LHC. Firstly, only low intensity beams below damage threshold can be injected into an empty machine. Secondly, high intensity beams can only be injected when some beam is already present in the machine. Procedures for injection and failure scenarios are discussed.

  1. Normal and Dirac fermions in graphene multilayers: Tight-binding description of the electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partoens, B.; Peeters, F. M.

    2007-05-01

    Within a tight-binding approach we show that around the K point of the energy spectrum Dirac fermions are present in AB stacked graphene multilayers if they have mirror plane symmetry. In other words, Dirac fermions are present in graphene stacks with an odd number of layers. For an even number of stacked graphene layers, only normal fermions with a parabolic energy dispersion are found near the K point.

  2. Weak solutions for A-Dirac equations with variable growth in Clifford analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binlin Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we show the existence of weak solutions for obstacle problems for A-Dirac equations with variable growth in the setting of variable exponent spaces of Clifford-valued functions. We also obtain the existence of weak solutions to the scalar part of A-Dirac equations in space $W_0^{1,p(x}(Omega,Cell_n$.

  3. Solar test of Dirac's large number hypothesis. [multiplicative creation model for solar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, C.-W.; Stothers, R.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the implications of Dirac's theories (1973, 1974) concerning the creation of new matter. It is found that Dirac's theory of multiplicative creation, but not his theory of additive creation, is not in contradiction with known facts about the sun. According to the theory of additive creation, matter is formed uniformly throughout space. The concept of multiplicative creation implies that existing matter multiplies itself in proportion to the amount of matter already present.

  4. Creating, moving and merging Dirac points with a Fermi gas in a tunable honeycomb lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarruell, Leticia; Greif, Daniel; Uehlinger, Thomas; Jotzu, Gregor; Esslinger, Tilman

    2012-03-14

    Dirac points are central to many phenomena in condensed-matter physics, from massless electrons in graphene to the emergence of conducting edge states in topological insulators. At a Dirac point, two energy bands intersect linearly and the electrons behave as relativistic Dirac fermions. In solids, the rigid structure of the material determines the mass and velocity of the electrons, as well as their interactions. A different, highly flexible means of studying condensed-matter phenomena is to create model systems using ultracold atoms trapped in the periodic potential of interfering laser beams. Here we report the creation of Dirac points with adjustable properties in a tunable honeycomb optical lattice. Using momentum-resolved interband transitions, we observe a minimum bandgap inside the Brillouin zone at the positions of the two Dirac points. We exploit the unique tunability of our lattice potential to adjust the effective mass of the Dirac fermions by breaking inversion symmetry. Moreover, changing the lattice anisotropy allows us to change the positions of the Dirac points inside the Brillouin zone. When the anisotropy exceeds a critical limit, the two Dirac points merge and annihilate each other-a situation that has recently attracted considerable theoretical interest but that is extremely challenging to observe in solids. We map out this topological transition in lattice parameter space and find excellent agreement with ab initio calculations. Our results not only pave the way to model materials in which the topology of the band structure is crucial, but also provide an avenue to exploring many-body phases resulting from the interplay of complex lattice geometries with interactions. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  5. Investigating and improving student understanding of quantum mechanical observables and their corresponding operators in Dirac notation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha

    2018-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, for every physical observable, there is a corresponding Hermitian operator. According to the most common interpretation of quantum mechanics, measurement of an observable collapses the quantum state into one of the possible eigenstates of the operator and the corresponding eigenvalue is measured. Since Dirac notation is an elegant notation that is commonly used in upper-level quantum mechanics, it is important that students learn to express quantum operators corresponding to observables in Dirac notation in order to apply the quantum formalism effectively in diverse situations. Here we focus on an investigation that suggests that, even though Dirac notation is used extensively, many advanced undergraduate and PhD students in physics have difficulty expressing the identity operator and other Hermitian operators corresponding to physical observables in Dirac notation. We first describe the difficulties students have with expressing the identity operator and a generic Hermitian operator corresponding to an observable in Dirac notation. We then discuss how the difficulties found via written surveys and individual interviews were used as a guide in the development of a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) to help students develop a good grasp of these concepts. The QuILT strives to help students become proficient in expressing the identity operator and a generic Hermitian operator corresponding to an observable in Dirac notation. We also discuss the effectiveness of the QuILT based on in-class evaluations.

  6. First-Principles Prediction of Spin-Polarized Multiple Dirac Rings in Manganese Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yalong; Ma, Fengxian; Zhang, Chunmei; Bell, John; Sanvito, Stefano; Du, Aijun

    2017-07-07

    Spin-polarized materials with Dirac features have sparked great scientific interest due to their potential applications in spintronics. But such a type of structure is very rare and none has been fabricated. Here, we investigate the already experimentally synthesized manganese fluoride (MnF_{3}) as a novel spin-polarized Dirac material by using first-principles calculations. MnF_{3} exhibits multiple Dirac cones in one spin orientation, while it behaves like a large gap semiconductor in the other spin channel. The estimated Fermi velocity for each cone is of the same order of magnitude as that in graphene. The 3D band structure further reveals that MnF_{3} possesses rings of Dirac nodes in the Brillouin zone. Such a spin-polarized multiple Dirac ring feature is reported for the first time in an experimentally realized material. Moreover, similar band dispersions can be also found in other transition metal fluorides (e.g., CoF_{3}, CrF_{3}, and FeF_{3}). Our results highlight a new interesting single-spin Dirac material with promising applications in spintronics and information technologies.

  7. Tunability of 1/f Noise at Multiple Dirac Cones in hBN Encapsulated Graphene Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Chandan; Kuiri, Manabendra; Jung, Jeil; Das, Tanmoy; Das, Anindya

    2016-02-10

    The emergence of multiple Dirac cones in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)-graphene heterostructures is particularly attractive because it offers potentially better landscape for higher and versatile transport properties than the primary Dirac cone. However, the transport coefficients of the cloned Dirac cones is yet not fully characterized and many open questions, including the evolution of charge dynamics and impurity scattering responsible for them, have remained unexplored. Noise measurements, having the potential to address these questions, have not been performed to date in dual-gated hBN-graphene-hBN devices. Here, we present the low-frequency 1/f noise measurements at multiple Dirac cones in hBN encapsulated single and bilayer graphene in dual-gated geometry. Our results reveal that the low-frequency noise in graphene can be tuned by more than two-orders of magnitude by changing carrier concentration as well as by modifying the band structure in bilayer graphene. We find that the noise is surprisingly suppressed at the cloned Dirac cone compared to the primary Dirac cone in single layer graphene device, while it is strongly enhanced for the bilayer graphene with band gap opening. The results are explained with the calculation of dielectric function using tight-binding model. Our results also indicate that the 1/f noise indeed follows the Hooge's empirical formula in hBN-protected devices in dual-gated geometry. We also present for the first time the noise data in bipolar regime of a graphene device.

  8. Zeeman splitting and dynamical mass generation in Dirac semimetal ZrTe5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanwen; Yuan, Xiang; Zhang, Cheng; Jin, Zhao; Narayan, Awadhesh; Luo, Chen; Chen, Zhigang; Yang, Lei; Zou, Jin; Wu, Xing; Sanvito, Stefano; Xia, Zhengcai; Li, Liang; Wang, Zhong; Xiu, Faxian

    2016-08-12

    Dirac semimetals have attracted extensive attentions in recent years. It has been theoretically suggested that many-body interactions may drive exotic phase transitions, spontaneously generating a Dirac mass for the nominally massless Dirac electrons. So far, signature of interaction-driven transition has been lacking. In this work, we report high-magnetic-field transport measurements of the Dirac semimetal candidate ZrTe5. Owing to the large g factor in ZrTe5, the Zeeman splitting can be observed at magnetic field as low as 3 T. Most prominently, high pulsed magnetic field up to 60 T drives the system into the ultra-quantum limit, where we observe abrupt changes in the magnetoresistance, indicating field-induced phase transitions. This is interpreted as an interaction-induced spontaneous mass generation of the Dirac fermions, which bears resemblance to the dynamical mass generation of nucleons in high-energy physics. Our work establishes Dirac semimetals as ideal platforms for investigating emerging correlation effects in topological matters.

  9. Self-Assembled Si(111) Surface States: 2D Dirac Material for THz Plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z F; Liu, Feng

    2015-07-10

    Graphene, the first discovered 2D Dirac material, has had a profound impact on science and technology. In the last decade, we have witnessed huge advances in graphene related fundamental and applied research. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we propose a new 2D Dirac band on the Si(111) surface with 1/3 monolayer halogen coverage. The sp(3) dangling bonds form a honeycomb superstructure on the Si(111) surface that results in an anisotropic Dirac band with a group velocity (∼10(6)  m/s) comparable to that in graphene. Most remarkably, the Si-based surface Dirac band can be used to excite a tunable THz plasmon through electron-hole doping. Our results demonstrate a new way to design Dirac states on a traditional semiconductor surface, so as to make them directly compatible with Si technology. We envision this new type of Dirac material to be generalized to other semiconductor surfaces with broad applications.

  10. Tensile strained gray tin: Dirac semimetal for observing negative magnetoresistance with Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaqing; Liu, Feng

    2017-05-01

    The extremely stringent requirement on material quality has hindered the investigation and potential applications of exotic chiral magnetic effect in Dirac semimetals. Here, we propose that gray tin is a perfect candidate for observing the chiral anomaly effect and Shubnikov-de-Haas (SdH) oscillation at relatively low magnetic field. Based on effective k .p analysis and first-principles calculations, we discover that gray tin becomes a Dirac semimetal under tensile uniaxial strain, in contrast to a topological insulator under compressive uniaxial strain as known before. In this newly found Dirac semimetal state, two Dirac points which are tunable by tensile [001] strains lie in the kz axis and Fermi arcs appear in the (010) surface. Due to the low carrier concentration and high mobility of gray tin, a large chiral anomaly induced negative magnetoresistance and a strong SdH oscillation are anticipated in this half of the strain spectrum. Comparing to other Dirac semimetals, the proposed Dirac semimetal state in the nontoxic elemental gray tin can be more easily manipulated and accurately controlled. We envision that gray tin provides a perfect platform for strain engineering of chiral magnetic effects by sweeping through the strain spectrum from positive to negative and vice versa.

  11. Experimental Realization of Type-II Dirac Fermions in a PdTe_{2} Superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Han-Jin; Jeong, Jinwon; Cho, En-Jin; Kim, Kyoo; Min, B I; Park, Byeong-Gyu

    2017-07-07

    A Dirac fermion in a topological Dirac semimetal is a quadruple-degenerate quasiparticle state with a relativistic linear dispersion. Breaking either time-reversal or inversion symmetry turns this system into a Weyl semimetal that hosts double-degenerate Weyl fermion states with opposite chiralities. These two kinds of quasiparticles, although described by a relativistic Dirac equation, do not necessarily obey Lorentz invariance, allowing the existence of so-called type-II fermions. The recent theoretical discovery of type-II Weyl fermions evokes the prediction of type-II Dirac fermions in PtSe_{2}-type transition metal dichalcogenides, expecting experimental confirmation. Here, we report an experimental realization of type-II Dirac fermions in PdTe_{2} by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy combined with ab initio band calculations. Our experimental finding shows the first example that has both superconductivity and type-II Dirac fermions, which turns the topological material research into a new phase.

  12. Applications of the pseudo-harmonics to the multidimensional kinetics; Aplicacao do metodo dos pseudo-harmonicos a cinetica multidimensional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Zelmo Rodrigues de; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da; Alvim, Antonio C. Marques [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: zelmo@con.ufrj.br; fernando@con.ufrj.br; alvim@con.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    In this work we propose the application of the pseudo-harmonics in modal methods of spatial kinetics. The pseudo-harmonics, or the pseudo-modes, are the eigenfunctions associated to the leakage+removal operator in each group of energy of the steady-state diffusion equation. This operator is self-adjoint and it is not necessary to calculate the adjoints eigenfunctions. In the present work the pseudo-harmonics will be obtained starting from the equation of diffusion discretized by the coarse-mesh finite difference (CMFD). The modal methods approximate the time-dependent flux for an expansion in functions predetermined, that include the spatial dependence, with unknown expansion coefficients, that include the whole dependent part of the time. The obtaining of the system whose solution they are the coefficients of the modal expansion is done with aid of a function weight. Using the pseudomodes obtained in the steady state calculations, in the modal expansion as been the dependent functions of the space, we will show that the function weight can be chosen as being the own adjoint pseudo-modes. This calculation leads to a linear system of ordinary differential equations with the defined dimension for the number of pseudo-harmonics employed. The solution of the equations is built through the analytical integration of the equations of the precursor of delayed neutron. The proposed method was tested and it present good results, when compared with the direct method. (author)

  13. Multiscale scenarios for nature futures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosa, IMD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Targets for human development are increasingly connected with targets for nature, however, existing scenarios do not explicitly address this relationship. Here, we outline a strategy to generate scenarios centred on our relationship with nature...

  14. When Is "Pseudo-Ludwig's Angina" Associated With Coagulopathy Also a "Pseudo" Hemorrhage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovallo, Emily; Patterson, Sarah; Erickson, Mitchel; Chin, Cynthia; Blanc, Paul; Durrani, Timur S

    2013-01-01

    Sublingual hematoma secondary to short-acting anticoagulants such as warfarin has been labeled "pseudo-Ludwig's angina" to distinguish it from the classic syndrome of localized infection and swelling involving the upper airway. Sublingual hematoma with airway compromise secondary to brodifacoum, a common long-acting anticoagulant rodenticide, has only been reported in the veterinary literature. We report a case of massive tongue swelling and impending airway compromise in the context of an intentional long-acting anticoagulant ingestion leading to coagulopathy. The swelling was initially presumed to be due either to infection or hemorrhage, but this was not supported by computed tomography scan imaging. Instead, the patient's clinical course was consistent with corticosteroid-responsive angioedema, temporally associated with the ingested brodifacoum.

  15. 40 Years of Shell Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Shell has been using scenario planning for four decades. During that time these scenarios have helped the company and governments across the world to make better strategic choices. Scenarios provide lenses that help see future prospects more clearly, make richer judgments and be more sensitive to uncertainties. Discover how the Shell Scenarios team has helped guide decision makers at major moments in history and get a peek at the team future focus, including the intricate relationship between energy, water and food.

  16. Engaging Personas and Narrative Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene

    2004-01-01

    design ideas. The concept of engaging personas and narrative scenario explores personas in the light of what what it is to identify with and have empathy with a character. The concept of narrative scenarios views the narrative as aid for exploration of design ideas. Both concepts incorporate...... a distinktion between creating, writing and reading. Keywords: personas, scenarios, user-centered design, HCI...

  17. Biomass Scenario Model Scenario Library: Definitions, Construction, and Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inman, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Bush, B.; Peterson, S.

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the development of the biofuels industry in the United States is important to policymakers and industry. The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a system dynamics model of the biomass-to-biofuels system that can be used to explore policy effects on biofuels development. Because of the complexity of the model, as well as the wide range of possible future conditions that affect biofuels industry development, we have not developed a single reference case but instead developed a set of specific scenarios that provide various contexts for our analyses. The purpose of this report is to describe the scenarios that comprise the BSM scenario library. At present, we have the following policy-focused scenarios in our library: minimal policies, ethanol-focused policies, equal access to policies, output-focused policies, technological diversity focused, and the point-of-production- focused. This report describes each scenario, its policy settings, and general insights gained through use of the scenarios in analytic studies.

  18. Scenario development methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, J. [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City, Herts (United Kingdom); Stephansson, O. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Engineering Geology; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-11-01

    In the period 1981-1994, SKB has studied several methodologies to systematize and visualize all the features, events and processes (FEPs) that can influence a repository for radioactive waste in the future. All the work performed is based on the terminology and basic findings in the joint SKI/SKB work on scenario development presented in the SKB Technical Report 89-35. The methodologies studied are (a) Event tree analysis, (b) Influence diagrams and (c) Rock Engineering Systems (RES) matrices. Each one of the methodologies is explained in this report as well as examples of applications. One chapter is devoted to a comparison between the two most promising methodologies, namely: Influence diagrams and the RES methodology. In conclusion a combination of parts of the Influence diagram and the RES methodology is likely to be a promising approach. 26 refs.

  19. Strategic Scenario Construction Made Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2016-01-01

    insights from the area of strategic forecasting (of which scenario planning is a proper subset) and experiences gained from a recent course in that area to develop a simpler, more direct, hands-on method for scenario construction and to provide several ideas for scenario construction that can be used......Scenario planning is a well-known way to develop corporate strategy by creating multiple images of alternative futures. Yet although scenario planning grew from very hands-on strategy development efforts in the military and from operations research dedicated to solving practical problems, the use...

  20. Confinement and fermion doubling problem in Dirac-like Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias de Resende, B.; de Lima, F. Crasto; Miwa, R. H.; Vernek, E.; Ferreira, G. J.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the interplay between confinement and the fermion doubling problem in Dirac-like Hamiltonians. Individually, both features are well known. First, simple electrostatic gates do not confine electrons due to the Klein tunneling. Second, a typical lattice discretization of the first-order derivative k →-i ∂x skips the central point and allow spurious low-energy, highly oscillating solutions known as fermion doublers. While a no-go theorem states that the doublers cannot be eliminated without artificially breaking a symmetry, here we show that the symmetry broken by the Wilson's mass approach is equivalent to the enforcement of hard-wall boundary conditions, thus making the no-go theorem irrelevant when confinement is foreseen. We illustrate our arguments by calculating the following: (i) the band structure and transport properties across thin films of the topological insulator Bi2Se3 , for which we use ab initio density functional theory calculations to justify the model; and (ii) the band structure of zigzag graphene nanoribbons.

  1. Temperature Equilibration Rate with Fermi-Dirac Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Lowell S

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the electron-ion temperature equilibration rate in a fully ionized, weakly to moderately coupled plasma, using an exact treatment of the Fermi-Dirac electrons. The temperature is sufficiently high so that the quantum-mechanical Born approximation to the scattering is valid. At the heart of this calculation lies the method of dimensional continuation, a technique that we borrow from quantum field theory and use in a novel fashion to regulate the kinetic equations in a consistent manner. We can then perform a systematic perturbation expansion and thereby obtain a finite first-principles result to leading and next-to-leading order. Unlike model building, this systematic calculation yields an estimate of its own error and thus prescribes its domain of applicability. The calculational error is small for a weakly to moderately coupled plasma, for which our result is nearly exact. It should also be emphasized that our calculation becomes unreliable for a strongly coupled plasma, where the perturbative e...

  2. Quantum Fisher and skew information for Unruh accelerated Dirac qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Subhashish; Alok, Ashutosh Kumar [Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Jodhpur (India); Omkar, S. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram (India)

    2016-08-15

    We develop a Bloch vector representation of the Unruh channel for a Dirac field mode. This is used to provide a unified, analytical treatment of quantum Fisher and skew information for a qubit subjected to the Unruh channel, both in its pure form as well as in the presence of experimentally relevant external noise channels. The time evolution of Fisher and skew information is studied along with the impact of external environment parameters such as temperature and squeezing. The external noises are modelled by both purely dephasing phase damping and the squeezed generalised amplitude damping channels. An interesting interplay between the external reservoir temperature and squeezing on the Fisher and skew information is observed, in particular, for the action of the squeezed generalised amplitude damping channel. It is seen that for some regimes, squeezing can enhance the quantum information against the deteriorating influence of the ambient environment. Similar features are also observed for the analogous study of skew information, highlighting a similar origin of the Fisher and skew information. (orig.)

  3. Existence of standing waves for Dirac fields with singular nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balabane, M. (Reims Univ., 51 (France). Dept. de Mathematiques Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France)); Cazenave, T. (Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Lab. d' Analyse Numerique); Vazquez, L. (Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica)

    1990-09-01

    We prove the existence of stationary states for nonlinear Dirac equations of the form i {Sigma}{sub {mu}=0}{sup 3} {gamma}{sup {mu}}d{sub {mu}}{psi}-M{psi}+F(anti {psi}{psi}){psi}=0, (E) where M>0 and F is a singular self-interaction. In particular, in the model case where F(s)=-s{sup -{alpha}}, for some 0<{alpha}<1, and for every {omega}>M, there exists a solution of (E) of the form {psi}(t, x)=esup(i{omega}t){phi}(x), where x{sub 0}=t and x=(x{sub 1}, x{sub 2}, x{sub 3}), such that {phi} has compact support. If 0<{alpha}<1/3, then {phi} is of class C{sup 1}. If 1/3<{alpha}<1, then {phi} is continuously differentiable, except on some sphere {l brace}vertical strokexvertical stroke=R{r brace}, where vertical stroke{nabla}{phi}vertical stroke is infinite. (orig.).

  4. Thermoelectric and thermospintronic transport in Dirac material-based nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Hao

    The growing need for power due to the rapid developments of the technologies has urged both engineers and scientists to study more sustainable types of energy. On the other hand, the improvement of our abilities although enable us, for example, to double the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit approximately every two years (Moore's law), comes with side effect due to overheating. Taking advantage of thermoelectric effect has thus become one of the obvious solutions for the problems. But due to the poor efficiency of electricity-heat conversion, there are still challenges to be overcome in order to fully utilize the idea. In the past few years, the realization of graphene along with the discoveries of topological insulators (TI) which are both considered as Dirac material (DM) have offer alternative routs for improving the energy conversion efficiency through different approaches as well as novel quantum effects of materials themselves for investigation. The aim of this thesis is to present contributions to improving the efficiency of thermoelectric conversion as well as analyzing spin transport phenomena that occur in nano-devices. This thesis spans the areas of thermoelectric (TE) effect, spin-Seebeck effect (SSE) and the spin transport on the 3D topological insulator (TI). The different methods have been applied ranging from tight-binding (TB) approximation to density function theory (DFT) combined with non-equilibrium function (NEGF) techniques.

  5. Transmission properties of Dirac electrons through Cantor monolayer graphene superlattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rodríguez-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo usamos el método de la matriz de transferencia para estudiar el tunelamiento de los electrones de Dirac a través de superredes aperiodicas en grafeno. Consideramos una hoja de grafeno depositada encima de bloques de sustratos de Óxido de Silicio (SiO2 y Carburo de Silicio (SiC, en los cuales aplicamos la serie de Cantor. Calculamos la transmitancia para diferentes parámetros fundamentales tales como: ancho de partida, energía de incidencia, ángulo de incidencia y número de generación de la serie de Cantor. En este caso, la transmitancia como función de la energía presenta rasgos autosimilares al variar el número de generación. También computamos la distribución angular de la transmitancia para energías fijas econtrando un patrón autosimilar entre generaciones. Por último, calculamos los factores de escala para algunos espectros de la transmitancia, los cuales efectivamente muestran escalabilidad.

  6. Tuning chemical potential in the dirac cone by compositional engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, R. K.; Singh, Sourabh; Sarkar, Jit; Mitra, Chiranjib

    2017-10-01

    To realize fully topological transport for any device applications it is essential to tune the chemical potential in the bulk gap of the Dirac cone. Bi2Se3 (BS) and Bi2Te3 (BT) thin films do not show in general topological transport as the chemical potential doesn't lie entirely in the bulk gap. We report the successful formation of bulk insulating ternary topological insulators Bi2Se2Te (BST) by double target pulsed laser deposition technique. The films were deposited with sequential ablation of separate BS and BT targets. From the X-ray diffraction analysis and temperature dependent resistivity, we were able to conclude that the as-grown thin films have ordered chalcogen layers and the chemical potential in these thin films lie in the bulk gap. We have been able to achieve this fully topological transport in our sample grown by this technique. Our Magnetotransport data exhibits pronounced two-dimensional weak-antilocalization behavior (WAL) at low temperatures. It was possible to tune the chemical potential at will in the gap by depositing thin films through pulsed laser deposition technique using this simple and cost effective double target approach to grow quaternary TI thin films.

  7. Pseudo-Newtonian planar circular restricted 3-body problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubeibe, F.L., E-mail: fldubeibem@unal.edu.co [Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y de la Educación, Universidad de los Llanos, Villavicencio (Colombia); Grupo de Investigación en Relatividad y Gravitación, Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Lora-Clavijo, F.D., E-mail: fadulora@uis.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Relatividad y Gravitación, Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia); González, Guillermo A., E-mail: guillermo.gonzalez@saber.uis.edu.co [Grupo de Investigación en Relatividad y Gravitación, Escuela de Física, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2017-02-12

    We study the dynamics of the planar circular restricted three-body problem in the context of a pseudo-Newtonian approximation. By using the Fodor–Hoenselaers–Perjés procedure, we perform an expansion in the mass potential of a static massive spherical source up to the first non-Newtonian term, giving place to a gravitational potential that includes first-order general relativistic effects. With this result, we model a system composed by two pseudo-Newtonian primaries describing circular orbits around their common center of mass, and a test particle orbiting the system in the equatorial plane. The dynamics of the new system of equations is studied in terms of the Poincaré section method and the Lyapunov exponents, where the introduction of a new parameter ϵ, allows us to observe the transition from the Newtonian to the pseudo-Newtonian regime. We show that when the Jacobian constant is fixed, a chaotic orbit in the Newtonian regime can be either chaotic or regular in the pseudo-Newtonian approach. As a general result, we find that most of the pseudo-Newtonian configurations are less stable than their Newtonian equivalent.

  8. Brain MR image segmentation using NAMS in pseudo-color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Chen, Chuanbo; Fang, Shaohong; Zhao, Shengrong

    2017-12-01

    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in various biomedical applications. In general, the segmentation of brain Magnetic Resonance (MR) images is mainly used to represent the image with several homogeneous regions instead of pixels for surgical analyzing and planning. This paper proposes a new approach for segmenting MR brain images by using pseudo-color based segmentation with Non-symmetry and Anti-packing Model with Squares (NAMS). First of all, the NAMS model is presented. The model can represent the image with sub-patterns to keep the image content and largely reduce the data redundancy. Second, the key idea is proposed that convert the original gray-scale brain MR image into a pseudo-colored image and then segment the pseudo-colored image with NAMS model. The pseudo-colored image can enhance the color contrast in different tissues in brain MR images, which can improve the precision of segmentation as well as directly visual perceptional distinction. Experimental results indicate that compared with other brain MR image segmentation methods, the proposed NAMS based pseudo-color segmentation method performs more excellent in not only segmenting precisely but also saving storage.

  9. Profiling, analisi delle prestazioni e proposte per l'ottimizzazione del RDBMS MySQL utilizzato dal progetto DIRAC/LHCbDIRAC

    CERN Document Server

    Mesin, Alberto

    Il lavoro presentato in questa tesi riguarda lo studio, l'analisi e la formula- zione di proposte per il miglioramento del database di back-end del progetto DIRAC/LHCbDIRAC. LHCbDIRAC, basato su DIRAC, e il sistema di sot- tomissione per l'accesso all'infrastruttura distribuita Grid per l'esperimento LHCb del CERN. Ad esso e adata la gestione dei job di Produzione, Mer- ge, Ricostruzione degli Eventi e Analisi per i dati sperimentali e simulati. Il sistema utilizza un RDBMS MySQL per la gestione di numerosi databa- se. La volonta di passare ad un motore relazionale e transazionale per la denizione schemi e la possibilita che, in un recente futuro, il DBMS possa rappresentare un serio limite alle prestazioni del sistema stesso hanno reso necessario questo studio. Il lavoro svolto si e concentrato sul proling di un singolo schema relazionale per il quale sono stati utilizzati metodi di analisi e fornite soluzioni ai problemi riscontrati il quanto piu possibile generali e per tanto validi per l'intero sistema. L...

  10. Pythagoras's theorem on a two-dimensional lattice from a `natural' Dirac operator and Connes's distance formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jian; Song, Xing-Chang

    2001-07-01

    One of the key ingredients of Connes's noncommutative geometry is a generalized Dirac operator which induces a metric (Connes's distance) on the pure state space. We generalize such a Dirac operator devised by Dimakis et al, whose Connes distance recovers the linear distance on an one-dimensional lattice, to the two-dimensional case. This Dirac operator has the local eigenvalue property and induces a Euclidean distance on this two-dimensional lattice, which is referred to as `natural'. This kind of Dirac operator can be easily generalized into any higher-dimensional lattices.

  11. Direct Observation of Landau Level Resonance and Mass Generation in Dirac Semimetal Cd3As2 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiang; Cheng, Peihong; Zhang, Longqiang; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Junyong; Liu, Yanwen; Sun, Qingqing; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, David Wei; Hu, Zhigao; Wan, Xiangang; Yan, Hugen; Li, Zhiqiang; Xiu, Faxian

    2017-04-12

    Three-dimensional topological Dirac semimetals have hitherto stimulated unprecedented research interests as a new class of quantum materials. Breaking certain types of symmetries has been proposed to enable the manipulation of Dirac fermions, and that was soon realized by external modulations such as magnetic fields. However, an intrinsic manipulation of Dirac states, which is more efficient and desirable, remains a significant challenge. Here, we report a systematic study of quasi-particle dynamics and band evolution in Cd3As2 thin films with controlled chromium (Cr) doping by both magneto-infrared spectroscopy and electrical transport. We observe the √B relation of inter-Landau-level resonance in Cd3As2, an important signature of ultrarelativistic massless state inaccessible in previous optical experiments. A crossover from quantum to quasi-classical behavior makes it possible to directly probe the mass of Dirac fermions. Importantly, Cr doping allows for a Dirac mass acquisition and topological phase transition enabling a desired dynamic control of Dirac fermions. Corroborating with the density-functional theory calculations, we show that the mass generation can be explained by the explicit C4 rotation symmetry breaking and the resultant Dirac gap engineering through Cr substitution for Cd atoms. The manipulation of the system symmetry and Dirac mass in Cd3As2 thin films provides a tuning knob to explore the exotic states stemming from the parent phase of Dirac semimetals.

  12. Correlated Dirac semimetallic state with unusual positive magnetoresistance in strain-free perovskite SrIrO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, J.; Okawa, T.; Yamamoto, A.; Tokura, Y.

    2017-03-01

    We investigated magnetotransport properties and charge dynamics of strain-free perovskite SrIrO3. Both the longitudinal and transverse magnetoresistivity (MR) are significantly enhanced with decreasing temperature, in accord with the evolution of the Dirac semimetallic state. The electron correlation effect in the Dirac state shows up as a dramatic change in charge dynamics with temperature and as an enhanced paramagnetic susceptibility. We propose that the field-induced topological transition of the Dirac node coupled to the enhanced paramagnetism causes the unique MR of correlated Dirac electrons.

  13. A convergent 2D finite-difference scheme for the Dirac-Poisson system and the simulation of graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Brinkman, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present a convergent finite-difference scheme of second order in both space and time for the 2D electromagnetic Dirac equation. We apply this method in the self-consistent Dirac-Poisson system to the simulation of graphene. The model is justified for low energies, where the particles have wave vectors sufficiently close to the Dirac points. In particular, we demonstrate that our method can be used to calculate solutions of the Dirac-Poisson system where potentials act as beam splitters or Veselago lenses. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Direct evidence of interaction-induced Dirac cones in a monolayer silicene/Ag(111) system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ya; Liu, Defa; Feng, Baojie; Liu, Xu; Zhao, Lin; Xie, Zhuojin; Liu, Yan; Liang, Aiji; Hu, Cheng; Hu, Yong; He, Shaolong; Liu, Guodong; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Chuangtian; Xu, Zuyan; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui; Liu, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Hsin; Huang, Zhi-Quan; Hsu, Chia-Hsiu; Chuang, Feng-Chuan; Bansil, Arun; Zhou, X J

    2016-12-20

    Silicene, analogous to graphene, is a one-atom-thick 2D crystal of silicon, which is expected to share many of the remarkable properties of graphene. The buckled honeycomb structure of silicene, along with enhanced spin-orbit coupling, endows silicene with considerable advantages over graphene in that the spin-split states in silicene are tunable with external fields. Although the low-energy Dirac cone states lie at the heart of all novel quantum phenomena in a pristine sheet of silicene, a hotly debated question is whether these key states can survive when silicene is grown or supported on a substrate. Here we report our direct observation of Dirac cones in monolayer silicene grown on a Ag(111) substrate. By performing angle-resolved photoemission measurements on silicene(3 × 3)/Ag(111), we reveal the presence of six pairs of Dirac cones located on the edges of the first Brillouin zone of Ag(111), which is in sharp contrast to the expected six Dirac cones centered at the K points of the primary silicene(1 × 1) Brillouin zone. Our analysis shows clearly that the unusual Dirac cone structure we have observed is not tied to pristine silicene alone but originates from the combined effects of silicene(3 × 3) and the Ag(111) substrate. Our study thus identifies the case of a unique type of Dirac cone generated through the interaction of two different constituents. The observation of Dirac cones in silicene/Ag(111) opens a unique materials platform for investigating unusual quantum phenomena and for applications based on 2D silicon systems.

  15. The LHCb Experience on the Grid from the DIRAC Accounting Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casajús, Adrian; Graciani, Ricardo; Puig, Albert; Vázquez, Ricardo; LHCb Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    DIRAC is the software framework developed by LHCb to manage all its computing operations on the Grid. Since 2003 it has been used for large scale Monte Carlo simulation productions and for user analysis of these data. Since the end of 2009, with the start-up of LHC, DIRAC also takes care of the distribution, reconstruction, selection and analysis of the physics data taken by the detector apparatus. During 2009, DIRAC executed almost 5 million jobs for LHCb. In order to execute this workload slightly over 6 million of pilot jobs were submitted, out of which approximately one third were aborted by the Grid infrastructure. In 2010, thanks to their improved efficiency, DIRAC pilots are able, on average, to match and execute between 2 and 3 LHCb jobs during their lifetime, largely reducing the load on the Grid infrastructure. Given the large amount of submitted jobs and used resources, it becomes essential to store detailed information about their execution to track the behaviour of the system. The DIRAC Accounting system takes care, among other things, to collect and store data concerning the execution of jobs and pilots, making it available to everyone via the public interface of the LHCb DIRAC web portal in the form of time-binned accumulated distributions. The analysis of the raw accounting data stored allow us to improve and debug the system performance, as well as, to give a detailed picture on how LHCb uses its Grid resources. A new tool has been developed to extract the raw records from the DIRAC Accounting database and to transform them into ROOT files for subsequent study. This contribution presents an analysis of such data both for LHCb jobs and the corresponding pilots, including resource usage, number of pilots per job, job efficiency and other relevant variables that will help to further improving the LHCb Grid experience.

  16. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pseudo-Class III Malocclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Ariel; Serret, Luis; Peguero, Marcos; Tanaka, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Pseudo-Class III malocclusion is characterized by the presence of an anterior crossbite due to a forward functional displacement of the mandible; in most cases, the maxillary incisors present some degree of retroclination, and the mandibular incisors are proclined. Various types of appliances have been described in the literature for the early treatment of pseudo-Class III malocclusion. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the importance of making the differential diagnosis between a skeletal and a pseudo-Class III malocclusion and to describe the correction of an anterior crossbite. The association of maxillary expansion and a 2 × 4 appliance can successfully be used to correct anterior crossbites. PMID:25525526

  17. Diagnosis and Treatment of Pseudo-Class III Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudo-Class III malocclusion is characterized by the presence of an anterior crossbite due to a forward functional displacement of the mandible; in most cases, the maxillary incisors present some degree of retroclination, and the mandibular incisors are proclined. Various types of appliances have been described in the literature for the early treatment of pseudo-Class III malocclusion. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the importance of making the differential diagnosis between a skeletal and a pseudo-Class III malocclusion and to describe the correction of an anterior crossbite. The association of maxillary expansion and a 2 × 4 appliance can successfully be used to correct anterior crossbites.

  18. Occlusal rehabilitation of pseudo-class III patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Antônio Carlos; Ferreira, Cimara Fortes; Oderich, Elisa; Pedroso, Moira Leão; Wicks, Russell

    2015-01-01

    To treat a patient with anterior crossbite, the clinician should first assess if it is a genuine class III or a pseudo-class III malocclusion. Cephalometric analysis is important; however, registering a patient's centric relation (CR) is simple, quick, and costless and can play a decisive role in a differential diagnosis for this type of patient profile. This clinical report depicts a patient clinically diagnosed as class III. After mandible manipulation in CR, it was noted that the patient in question was a pseudo-class III. The treatment was based on the pseudo-class III diagnosis. Therefore, the patient was rehabilitated by occlusal adjustments and conventional and implant-supported prostheses and without the need for invasive orthognathic surgery. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Pseudo-Glassification Material for G-Demption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Buck, Edgar C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gates, Robert O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Riley, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    G-Demption, LLC has requested that PPNL provide design input for a “pseudo-glassification” process associated with their proposed technology for generating gamma irradiation stations from used nuclear fuel. The irradiation design currently consists of an aluminum enclosure designed to allow for proper encapsulation of and heat flow from a used fuel rod while minimally impacting the streaming of gamma rays from the fuel. In order to make their design more robust, G-Demption is investigating the benefits of backfilling this aluminum enclosure with a setting material once the used fuel rod is properly placed. This process has been initially referred to as “pseudo-glassification”, and strives not to impact heat transport or gamma streaming from the used fuel rod while providing increased fuel rod protection and fission gas retention. PNNL has compiled an internal material evaluation and discussion for the “pseudo-glassification” process in this report.

  20. Pseudo-periodic maps and degeneration of Riemann surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    The first part of the book studies pseudo-periodic maps of a closed surface of genus greater than or equal to two. This class of homeomorphisms was originally introduced by J. Nielsen in 1944 as an extension of periodic maps. In this book, the conjugacy classes of the (chiral) pseudo-periodic mapping classes are completely classified, and Nielsen’s incomplete classification is corrected. The second part applies the results of the first part to the topology of degeneration of Riemann surfaces. It is shown that the set of topological types of all the singular fibers appearing in one-parameter holomorphic families of Riemann surfaces is in a bijective correspondence with the set of conjugacy classes of the pseudo-periodic maps of negative twists. The correspondence is given by the topological monodromy.