Dark matter scenarios in a constrained model with Dirac gauginos
Goodsell, Mark D.; Müller, Tobias; Porod, Werner; Staub, Florian
2015-01-01
We perform the first analysis of Dark Matter scenarios in a constrained model with Dirac Gauginos. The model under investigation is the Constrained Minimal Dirac Gaugino Supersymmetric Standard model (CMDGSSM) where the Majorana mass terms of gauginos vanish. However, $R$-symmetry is broken in the Higgs sector by an explicit and/or effective $B_\\mu$-term. This causes a mass splitting between Dirac states in the fermion sector and the neutralinos, which provide the dark matter candidate, become pseudo-Dirac states. We discuss two scenarios: the universal case with all scalar masses unified at the GUT scale, and the case with non-universal Higgs soft-terms. We identify different regions in the parameter space which fullfil all constraints from the dark matter abundance, the limits from SUSY and direct dark matter searches and the Higgs mass. Most of these points can be tested with the next generation of direct dark matter detection experiments.
A model for pseudo-Dirac neutrinos: leptogenesis and ultra-high energy neutrinos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahn, Y.H. [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science (IBS),Daejeon, 34051 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sin Kyu [Insitute for Convergence Fundamental Study, School of Liberal Arts, Seoul-Tech.,Seoul, 01811 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C.S. [Dept. of Physics and IPAP, Yonsei University,Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-18
We propose a model where sterile neutrinos are introduced to make light neutrinos to be pseudo-Dirac particles. It is shown how tiny mass splitting necessary for realizing pseudo-Dirac neutrinos can be achieved. Within the model, we show how leptogenesis can be successfully generated. Motivated by the recent observation of very high energy neutrino events at IceCube, we study a possibility to observe the effects of the pseudo-Dirac property of neutrinos by performing astronomical-scale baseline experiments to uncover the oscillation effects of very tiny mass splitting. We also discuss future prospect to observe the effects of the pseudo-Dirac property of neutrinos at high energy neutrino experiments.
Relativistic U(3) symmetry and pseudo-U(3) symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginocchio, Joseph N.
2010-01-01
The Dirac Hamiltonian with relativistic scalar and vector harmonic oscillator potentials has been solved analytically in two limits. One is the spin limit for which spin is an invariant symmetry of the the Dirac Hamiltonian and the other is the pseudo-spin limit for which pseudo-spin is an invariant symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian. The spin limit occurs when the scalar potential is equal to the vector potential plus a constant, and the pseudospin limit occurs when the scalar potential is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the vector potential plus a constant. Like the non-relativistic harmonic oscillator, each of these limits has a higher symmetry. For example, for the spherically symmetric oscillator, these limits have a U(3) and pseudo-U(3) symmetry respectively. We shall discuss the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of these two limits and derive the relativistic generators for the U(3) and pseudo-U(3) symmetry. We also argue, that, if an anti-nucleon can be bound in a nucleus, the spectrum will have approximate spin and U(3) symmetry.
Topological phase transition of Dirac superconductors in the presence of pseudo-scalar pairings
Salehi, Morteza; Jafari, S. A.
2018-06-01
Motivated by recent developments in the field of topological superconductors, we show that there is a topological phase transition (TPT) for three dimensional Dirac superconductors (3DDS) in the presence of pseudo-scalar superconducting order parameter which leads to the appearance of a two dimensional Majorana sea (2DMS) on its surface. The perfect Andreev-Klein transmission, resonant peak with robust character in the differential conductance and 4π periodic Josephson current are experimental signatures of 2DMS.
Salehi, Morteza; Jafari, S A
2017-08-15
We suggest that spin-singlet pseudo-scalar s-wave superconducting pairing creates a two dimensional sea of Majorana fermions on the surface of three dimensional Dirac superconductors (3DDS). This pseudo-scalar superconducting order parameter Δ 5 , in competition with scalar Dirac mass m, leads to a topological phase transition due to band inversion. We find that a perfect Andreev-Klein reflection is guaranteed by presence of anomalous Andreev reflection along with the conventional one. This effect manifests itself in a resonant peak of the differential conductance. Furthermore, Josephson current of the Δ 5 |m|Δ 5 junction in the presence of anomalous Andreev reflection is fractional with 4π period. Our finding suggests another search area for condensed matter realization of Majorana fermions which are beyond the vortex-core of p-wave superconductors. The required Δ 5 pairing can be extrinsically induced by a conventional s-wave superconductor into a three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM).
Grushin, Adolfo G.; Venderbos, Jörn W. F.; Vishwanath, Ashvin; Ilan, Roni
2016-10-01
Topological Dirac and Weyl semimetals have an energy spectrum that hosts Weyl nodes appearing in pairs of opposite chirality. Topological stability is ensured when the nodes are separated in momentum space and unique spectral and transport properties follow. In this work, we study the effect of a space-dependent Weyl node separation, which we interpret as an emergent background axial-vector potential, on the electromagnetic response and the energy spectrum of Weyl and Dirac semimetals. This situation can arise in the solid state either from inhomogeneous strain or nonuniform magnetization and can also be engineered in cold atomic systems. Using a semiclassical approach, we show that the resulting axial magnetic field B5 is observable through an enhancement of the conductivity as σ ˜B52 due to an underlying chiral pseudomagnetic effect. We then use two lattice models to analyze the effect of B5 on the spectral properties of topological semimetals. We describe the emergent pseudo-Landau-level structure for different spatial profiles of B5, revealing that (i) the celebrated surface states of Weyl semimetals, the Fermi arcs, can be reinterpreted as n =0 pseudo-Landau levels resulting from a B5 confined to the surface, (ii) as a consequence of position-momentum locking, a bulk B5 creates pseudo-Landau levels interpolating in real space between Fermi arcs at opposite surfaces, and (iii) there are equilibrium bound currents proportional to B5 that average to zero over the sample, which are the analogs of bound currents in magnetic materials. We conclude by discussing how our findings can be probed experimentally.
Pseudo Dirac dispersion in Mn-intercalated graphene on SiC
Kahaly, M. Upadhyay
2013-07-01
The atomic and electronic structures of bulk C6Mn, bulk C 8Mn, and Mn-intercalated graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) and SiC(0001̄) are investigated by density functional theory. We find for both configurations of Mn-intercalated graphene a nonmagnetic state, in agreement with the experimental situation for SiC(0 0 0 1), and explain this property. The electronic structures around the Fermi energy are dominated by Dirac-like cones at energies consistent with data from angular resolved photoelectron spectroscopy [Gao et al., ACS Nano. 6 (2012) 6562]. However, our results demonstrate that the corresponding states trace back to hybridized Mn d orbitals, and not to the graphene. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pseudo Dirac dispersion in Mn-intercalated graphene on SiC
Kahaly, M. Upadhyay; Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2013-01-01
The atomic and electronic structures of bulk C6Mn, bulk C 8Mn, and Mn-intercalated graphene on SiC(0 0 0 1) and SiC(0001̄) are investigated by density functional theory. We find for both configurations of Mn-intercalated graphene a nonmagnetic state, in agreement with the experimental situation for SiC(0 0 0 1), and explain this property. The electronic structures around the Fermi energy are dominated by Dirac-like cones at energies consistent with data from angular resolved photoelectron spectroscopy [Gao et al., ACS Nano. 6 (2012) 6562]. However, our results demonstrate that the corresponding states trace back to hybridized Mn d orbitals, and not to the graphene. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pais, Abraham; Jacob, Maurice; Olive, David I.; Atiyah, Michael F.
2005-09-01
Preface Peter Goddard; Dirac memorial address Stephen Hawking; 1. Paul Dirac: aspects of his life and work Abraham Pais; 2. Antimatter Maurice Jacob; 3. The monopole David Olive; 4. The Dirac equation and geometry Michael F. Atiyah.
Dark energy from pNGB mediated Dirac neutrino condensate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ujjal Kumar Dey
2018-03-01
Full Text Available We consider an extension of the Standard Model that provide an unified description of eV scale neutrino mass and dark energy. An explicit model is presented by augmenting the Standard Model with an SU(2L doublet scalar, a singlet scalar and right handed neutrinos where all of them are assumed to be charged under a global U(1X symmetry. A light pseudo-Nambu–Goldstone Boson, associated with the spontaneously broken U(1X symmetry, acts as a mediator of an attractive force leading to a Dirac neutrino condensate, with large correlation length, and a non-zero gap in the right range providing a cosmologically feasible dark energy scenario. The neutrino mass is generated through the usual Dirac seesaw mechanism. Parameter space, reproducing viable dark energy scenario while having neutrino mass in the right ballpark, is presented.
Wehling, T. O.; Black-Schaffer, A. M.; Balatsky, A. V.
2014-01-01
A wide range of materials, like d-wave superconductors, graphene, and topological insulators, share a fundamental similarity: their low-energy fermionic excitations behave as massless Dirac particles rather than fermions obeying the usual Schrodinger Hamiltonian. This emergent behavior of Dirac fermions in condensed matter systems defines the unifying framework for a class of materials we call "Dirac materials''. In order to establish this class of materials, we illustrate how Dirac fermions ...
Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel
2017-01-01
This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...
Casajús Ramo, A
2006-01-01
DIRAC is the LHCb Workload and Data Management System. Based on a service-oriented architecture, it enables generic distributed computing with lightweight Agents and Clients for job execution and data transfers. DIRAC implements a client-server architecture exposing server methods through XML Remote Procedure Call (XML-RPC) protocol. DIRAC is mostly coded in python. DIRAC security infrastructure has been designed to be a completely generic XML-RPC transport over a SSL tunnel. This new security layer is able to handle standard X509 certificates as well as grid-proxies to authenticate both sides of the connection. Serve and client authentication relies over OpenSSL and py-Open SSL, but to be able to handle grid proxies some modifications have been added to those libraries. DIRAC security infrastructure handles authorization and authorization as well as provides extended capabilities like secure connection tunneling and file transfer. Using this new security infrastructure all LHCb users can safely make use o...
Pérez-Soba, Marta; Maas, Rob
2015-01-01
We cannot predict the future with certainty, but we know that it is influenced by our current actions, and that these in turn are influenced by our expectations. This is why future scenarios have existed from the dawn of civilization and have been used for developing military, political and economic
Pseudoclassical supergauge model for a (2 + 1) Dirac particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gitman, D.M.; Gonsalves, A.E.; Tyhtin, I.V.
1997-01-01
A new pseudo-classical supergauge model of the Dirac particle in 2 + 1 dimensions is proposed. Two ways of its quantization are discussed. Both reproduce the minimal quantum theory of the particle. 24 refs
The Dirac equation in the Lobachevsky space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paramonov, D.V.; Paramonova, N.N.; Shavokhina, N.S.
2000-01-01
The product of the Lobachevsky space and the time axis is termed the Lobachevsky space-time. The Lobachevsky space is considered as a hyperboloid's sheet in the four-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. The Dirac-Fock-Ivanenko equation is reduced to the Dirac equation in two special forms by passing from Lame basis in the Lobachevsky space to the Cartesian basis in the enveloping pseudo-Euclidean space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Afanasev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Doudarev, A.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Goldin, D.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Hosek, R.; Iliescu, M.; Jabitski, M.; Kalinina, N.; Karpoukhine, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Koulikov, A.; Kouptsov, A.; Krouglov, V.; Krouglova, L.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshine, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Rykaline, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Trusov, S.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P.
2001-01-01
The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime τ of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of π + and π - mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode π + π - → π 0 π 0 due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference |a 0 - a 2 | for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of τ with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of |a 0 - a 2 | at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomez, F.; Adeva, B.; Afanasev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Doudarev, A.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Gallas, M.V.; Gerndt, J.; Giacomich, R.; Gianotti, P.; Goldin, D.; Gorin, A.; Gortchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Hansroul, M.; Hosek, R.; Iliescu, M.; Jabitski, M.; Kalinina, N.; Karpoukhine, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Koulikov, A.; Kouptsov, A.; Krouglov, V.; Krouglova, L.; Kuroda, K.-I.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshine, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levisandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Montanet, L.; Narjoux, J.-L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J.-M.; Petrascu, C.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Pop, D.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Rykaline, V.; Santamarina, C.; Saborido, J.; Schacher, J.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M.J.; Trusov, S.; Vazquez, P.; Vlachos, S.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zrelov, P
2001-04-01
The main objective of DIRAC experiment is the measurement of the lifetime {tau} of the exotic hadronic atom consisting of {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup -} mesons. The lifetime of this atom is determined by the decay mode {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup 0} {pi}{sup 0} due to the strong interaction. Through the precise relationship between the lifetime and the S-wave pion-pion scattering length difference |a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}| for isospin 0 and 2 (respectively), a measurement of {tau} with an accuracy of 10% will allow a determination of |a{sub 0} - a{sub 2}| at a 5% precision level. Pion-pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory with an accuracy below 5%. In this way DIRAC experiment will provide a crucial test of the chiral symmetry breaking scheme in QCD effective theories at low energies.
Optical analogue of relativistic Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tran, Truong X., E-mail: truong.tran@mpl.mpg.de [Department of Physics, Le Quy Don University, 236 Hoang Quoc Viet str., 10000 Hanoi (Viet Nam); Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Longhi, Stefano [Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano and Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Biancalana, Fabio [Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Günther-Scharowsky str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
2014-01-15
We study analytically and numerically an optical analogue of Dirac solitons in binary waveguide arrays in the presence of Kerr nonlinearity. Pseudo-relativistic soliton solutions of the coupled-mode equations describing dynamics in the array are analytically derived. We demonstrate that with the found soliton solutions, the coupled mode equations can be converted into the nonlinear relativistic 1D Dirac equation. This paves the way for using binary waveguide arrays as a classical simulator of quantum nonlinear effects arising from the Dirac equation, something that is thought to be impossible to achieve in conventional (i.e. linear) quantum field theory. -- Highlights: •An optical analogue of Dirac solitons in nonlinear binary waveguide arrays is suggested. •Analytical solutions to pseudo-relativistic solitons are presented. •A correspondence of optical coupled-mode equations with the nonlinear relativistic Dirac equation is established.
Quasi-Dirac neutrino oscillations
Anamiati, Gaetana; Fonseca, Renato M.; Hirsch, Martin
2018-05-01
Dirac neutrino masses require two distinct neutral Weyl spinors per generation, with a special arrangement of masses and interactions with charged leptons. Once this arrangement is perturbed, lepton number is no longer conserved and neutrinos become Majorana particles. If these lepton number violating perturbations are small compared to the Dirac mass terms, neutrinos are quasi-Dirac particles. Alternatively, this scenario can be characterized by the existence of pairs of neutrinos with almost degenerate masses, and a lepton mixing matrix which has 12 angles and 12 phases. In this work we discuss the phenomenology of quasi-Dirac neutrino oscillations and derive limits on the relevant parameter space from various experiments. In one parameter perturbations of the Dirac limit, very stringent bounds can be derived on the mass splittings between the almost degenerate pairs of neutrinos. However, we also demonstrate that with suitable changes to the lepton mixing matrix, limits on such mass splittings are much weaker, or even completely absent. Finally, we consider the possibility that the mass splittings are too small to be measured and discuss bounds on the new, nonstandard lepton mixing angles from current experiments for this case.
Pseudo-supersymmetry and the domain-wall/cosmology correspondence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skenderis, Kostas; Townsend, Paul K
2007-01-01
The correspondence between domain-wall and cosmological solutions of gravity coupled to scalar fields is explained. Any domain-wall solutions that admit a Killing spinor are shown to correspond to a cosmology that admits a pseudo-Killing spinor; whereas the Killing spinor obeys a Dirac-type equation with Hermitian 'mass'-matrix, the corresponding pseudo-Killing spinor obeys a Dirac-type equation with a anti-Hermitian 'mass'-matrix. We comment on some implications of (pseudo)supersymmetry
Thermal dark matter through the Dirac neutrino portal
Batell, Brian; Han, Tao; McKeen, David; Haghi, Barmak Shams Es
2018-04-01
We study a simple model of thermal dark matter annihilating to standard model neutrinos via the neutrino portal. A (pseudo-)Dirac sterile neutrino serves as a mediator between the visible and the dark sectors, while an approximate lepton number symmetry allows for a large neutrino Yukawa coupling and, in turn, efficient dark matter annihilation. The dark sector consists of two particles, a Dirac fermion and complex scalar, charged under a symmetry that ensures the stability of the dark matter. A generic prediction of the model is a sterile neutrino with a large active-sterile mixing angle that decays primarily invisibly. We derive existing constraints and future projections from direct detection experiments, colliders, rare meson and tau decays, electroweak precision tests, and small scale structure observations. Along with these phenomenological tests, we investigate the consequences of perturbativity and scalar mass fine tuning on the model parameter space. A simple, conservative scheme to confront the various tests with the thermal relic target is outlined, and we demonstrate that much of the cosmologically-motivated parameter space is already constrained. We also identify new probes of this scenario such as multibody kaon decays and Drell-Yan production of W bosons at the LHC.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Hyo Heon; Cho, Sin Young; Suh, Hong Kil; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Choi, Chul Soon; Lee, Eil Seong; Kang, Ik Won [Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)
1995-12-15
Perisplenic pseudo 'fluid collection' is one of the rare normal variations. Its frequency and sonographic findings for the differentiation from true perisplenic fluid collection have not been well described. Thus, we performed this study. The examination was performed with special attention to the splenic and perisplenic areas. We excluded patients with proved or suspected liver cirrhosis, pancreatic diseases,and abdominal trauma from the study population, but did not exclude the patients with chronic hepatitis and the carriers of hepatitis B virus. Of the examined 4794 patients, 8 cases showed perisplenic pseudo 'fluid collection'. Two of them were confirmed with computed tomography and liver scan, and six were inferred from the fact proved to be a part of the left lobe extension of the liver by tracing with the transducer. All cases ofperisplenic pseudo 'fluid collection' showed hypoechoic crescent area with hepatic ductal echoes. Perisplenic pseudo 'fluid collection' is very rare. The helpful findings for the differentiation from true fluid collection are the hepatic ductal echoes seen in the normal liver, proof of continuation into remained voluminous liver by tracing with the transducer. High awareness of it would prevent further unnecessary studies such as computed tomography and liver scan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyo Heon; Cho, Sin Young; Suh, Hong Kil; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Choi, Chul Soon; Lee, Eil Seong; Kang, Ik Won
1995-01-01
Perisplenic pseudo 'fluid collection' is one of the rare normal variations. Its frequency and sonographic findings for the differentiation from true perisplenic fluid collection have not been well described. Thus, we performed this study. The examination was performed with special attention to the splenic and perisplenic areas. We excluded patients with proved or suspected liver cirrhosis, pancreatic diseases,and abdominal trauma from the study population, but did not exclude the patients with chronic hepatitis and the carriers of hepatitis B virus. Of the examined 4794 patients, 8 cases showed perisplenic pseudo 'fluid collection'. Two of them were confirmed with computed tomography and liver scan, and six were inferred from the fact proved to be a part of the left lobe extension of the liver by tracing with the transducer. All cases ofperisplenic pseudo 'fluid collection' showed hypoechoic crescent area with hepatic ductal echoes. Perisplenic pseudo 'fluid collection' is very rare. The helpful findings for the differentiation from true fluid collection are the hepatic ductal echoes seen in the normal liver, proof of continuation into remained voluminous liver by tracing with the transducer. High awareness of it would prevent further unnecessary studies such as computed tomography and liver scan
DIRAC distributed secure framework
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casajus, A; Graciani, R
2010-01-01
DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, provides access to a vast amount of computing and storage resources to a large number of users. In DIRAC users are organized in groups with different needs and permissions. In order to ensure that only allowed users can access the resources and to enforce that there are no abuses, security is mandatory. All DIRAC services and clients use secure connections that are authenticated using certificates and grid proxies. Once a client has been authenticated, authorization rules are applied to the requested action based on the presented credentials. These authorization rules and the list of users and groups are centrally managed in the DIRAC Configuration Service. Users submit jobs to DIRAC using their local credentials. From then on, DIRAC has to interact with different Grid services on behalf of this user. DIRAC has a proxy management service where users upload short-lived proxies to be used when DIRAC needs to act on behalf of them. Long duration proxies are uploaded by users to a MyProxy service, and DIRAC retrieves new short delegated proxies when necessary. This contribution discusses the details of the implementation of this security infrastructure in DIRAC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casajus Ramo, A; Graciani Diaz, R; Tsaregorodtsev, A
2012-01-01
The DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a flexible and modular solution that can be adapted to the requirements of any community. Users interact with DIRAC via command line, using the web portal or accessing resources via the DIRAC python API. The current DIRAC API requires users to use a python version valid for DIRAC. Some communities have developed their own software solutions for handling their specific workload, and would like to use DIRAC as their back-end to access distributed computing resources easily. Many of these solutions are not coded in python or depend on a specific python version. To solve this gap DIRAC provides a new language agnostic API that any software solution can use. This new API has been designed following the RESTful principles. Any language with libraries to issue standard HTTP queries may use it. GSI proxies can still be used to authenticate against the API services. However GSI proxies are not a widely adopted standard. The new DIRAC API also allows clients to use OAuth for delegating the user credentials to a third party solution. These delegated credentials allow the third party software to query to DIRAC on behalf of the users. This new API will further expand the possibilities communities have to integrate DIRAC into their distributed computing models.
Photoconductivity in Dirac materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shao, J. M.; Yang, G. W.
2015-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) Dirac materials including graphene and the surface of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator, and 3D Dirac materials including 3D Dirac semimetal and Weyl semimetal have attracted great attention due to their linear Dirac nodes and exotic properties. Here, we use the Fermi’s golden rule and Boltzmann equation within the relaxation time approximation to study and compare the photoconductivity of Dirac materials under different far- or mid-infrared irradiation. Theoretical results show that the photoconductivity exhibits the anisotropic property under the polarized irradiation, but the anisotropic strength is different between 2D and 3D Dirac materials. The photoconductivity depends strongly on the relaxation time for different scattering mechanism, just like the dark conductivity
Dirac, Weyl, Majorana, a review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uschersohn, J.
1982-05-01
The Dirac equation and the properties of Dirac matrices are presented and discussed. A large number of representations of the Dirac matrices is identified. Special emphasis is put on aspects rarely treated or neglected in textbooks
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
Pauli exclusion principle, Fermi–. Dirac statistics, identical and in- distinguishable particles, Fermi gas. Fermi–Dirac Statistics. Derivation and Consequences. S Chaturvedi and Shyamal Biswas. (left) Subhash Chaturvedi is at University of. Hyderabad. His current research interests include phase space descriptions.
Dimock, J.
2010-01-01
We give an alternate definition of the free Dirac field featuring an explicit construction of the Dirac sea. The treatment employs a semi-infinite wedge product of Hilbert spaces. We also show that the construction is equivalent to the standard Fock space construction.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
We present an account of the work of Niels Bohr and Paul Dirac, their interactions and personal- ities. 1. Introduction. In this essay I would like to convey to my readers some- thing about the personalities and work of Niels Bohr and Paul Dirac, juxtaposed against one another. Let me hope that the portraits I will paint of these ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, R. de Lima
2007-01-01
In the present work we obtain a new representation for the Dirac oscillator based on the Clifford algebra C 7. The symmetry breaking and the energy eigenvalues for our model of the Dirac oscillator are studied in the non-relativistic limit. (author)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. P A M Dirac. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 102-110 Classics. XI. The Relation between Mathematics and Physics · P A M Dirac · More Details Fulltext PDF ...
Elastic gauge fields and Hall viscosity of Dirac magnons
Ferreiros, Yago; Vozmediano, María A. H.
2018-02-01
We analyze the coupling of elastic lattice deformations to the magnon degrees of freedom of magnon Dirac materials. For a honeycomb ferromagnet we find that, as happens in the case of graphene, elastic gauge fields appear coupled to the magnon pseudospinors. For deformations that induce constant pseudomagnetic fields, the spectrum around the Dirac nodes splits into pseudo-Landau levels. We show that when a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is considered, a topological gap opens in the system and a Chern-Simons effective action for the elastic degrees of freedom is generated. Such a term encodes a phonon Hall viscosity response, entirely generated by quantum fluctuations of magnons living in the vicinity of the Dirac points. The magnon Hall viscosity vanishes at zero temperature, and grows as temperature is raised and the states around the Dirac points are increasingly populated.
Particles and Dirac-type operators on curved spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Visinescu, Mihai
2003-01-01
We review the geodesic motion of pseudo-classical particles in curved spaces. Investigating the generalized Killing equations for spinning spaces, we express the constants of motion in terms of Killing-Yano tensors. Passing from the spinning spaces to the Dirac equation in curved backgrounds we point out the role of the Killing-Yano tensors in the construction of the Dirac-type operators. The general results are applied to the case of the four-dimensional Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino space. From the covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors of this space we construct three new Dirac-type operators which are equivalent with the standard Dirac operator. Finally the Runge-Lenz operator for the Dirac equation in this background is expressed in terms of the fourth Killing-Yano tensor which is not covariantly constant. As a rule the covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors realize certain square roots of the metric tensor. Such a Killing-Yano tensor produces simultaneously a Dirac-type operator and the generator of a one-parameter Lie group connecting this operator with the standard Dirac one. On the other hand, the not covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors are important in generating hidden symmetries. The presence of not covariantly constant Killing-Yano tensors implies the existence of non-standard supersymmetries in point particle theories on curved background. (author)
Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetals
Zaheer, Saad
2014-03-01
Dirac points on the Fermi surface of two dimensional graphene are responsible for its unique electronic behavior. One can ask whether any three dimensional materials support similar pseudorelativistic physics in their bulk electronic spectra. This possibility has been investigated theoretically and is now supported by two successful experimental demonstrations reported during the last year. In this talk, I will summarize the various ways in which Dirac semimetals can be realized in three dimensions with primary focus on a specific theory developed on the basis of representations of crystal spacegroups. A three dimensional Dirac (Weyl) semimetal can appear in the presence (absence) of inversion symmetry by tuning parameters to the phase boundary separating a bulk insulating and a topological insulating phase. More generally, we find that specific rules governing crystal symmetry representations of electrons with spin lead to robust Dirac points at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Combining these rules with microscopic considerations identifies six candidate Dirac semimetals. Another method towards engineering Dirac semimetals involves combining crystal symmetry and band inversion. Several candidate materials have been proposed utilizing this mechanism and one of the candidates has been successfully demonstrated as a Dirac semimetal in two independent experiments. Work carried out in collaboration with: Julia A. Steinberg, Steve M. Young, J.C.Y. Teo, C.L. Kane, E.J. Mele and Andrew M. Rappe.
Monti, Dalida
1996-01-01
Relativamente poco noto al gran pubblico, il premio Nobel Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac appartiene a quel gruppo di uomini di ingegno che nei primi decenni del secolo contribuirono a dare alla nostra concezione del mondo fisico la sua impronta attuale. Assolutamente cruciali, per una valutazione dell'opera di Dirac, sono gli anni compresi tra il 1925 e il 1931: un periodo in cui il fisico fornisce la prima spiegazione chiara e coerente delle proprietà di spin dell'elettrone (equazione di Dirac) e perviene, in forza della pura deduzione matematica, alla scoperta dell'esistenza dell'elettrone positivo o positrone.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1988-04-15
It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1988-01-01
It was Paul Dirac who cast quantum mechanics into the form we now use, and many generations of theoreticians openly acknowledge his influence on their thinking. When Dirac died in 1984, St. John's College, Cambridge, his base for most of his lifetime, instituted an annual lecture in his memory at Cambridge. The first lecture, in 1986, attracted two heavyweights - Richard Feynman and Steven Weinberg. Far from using the lectures as a platform for their own work, in the Dirac tradition they presented stimulating material on deep underlying questions
DIRAC distributed computing services
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsaregorodtsev, A
2014-01-01
DIRAC Project provides a general-purpose framework for building distributed computing systems. It is used now in several HEP and astrophysics experiments as well as for user communities in other scientific domains. There is a large interest from smaller user communities to have a simple tool like DIRAC for accessing grid and other types of distributed computing resources. However, small experiments cannot afford to install and maintain dedicated services. Therefore, several grid infrastructure projects are providing DIRAC services for their respective user communities. These services are used for user tutorials as well as to help porting the applications to the grid for a practical day-to-day work. The services are giving access typically to several grid infrastructures as well as to standalone computing clusters accessible by the target user communities. In the paper we will present the experience of running DIRAC services provided by the France-Grilles NGI and other national grid infrastructure projects.
Casajus Ramo, A.; Graciani Diaz, R.
2012-12-01
DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a group of collaborating components, agents and servers, with persistent database back-end. Components communicate with each other using DISET, an in-house protocol that provides Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and file transfer capabilities. This approach has provided DIRAC with a modular and stable design by enforcing stable interfaces across releases. But it made complicated to scale further with commodity hardware. To further scale DIRAC, components needed to send more queries between them. Using RPC to do so requires a lot of processing power just to handle the secure handshake required to establish the connection. DISET now provides a way to keep stable connections and send and receive queries between components. Only one handshake is required to send and receive any number of queries. Using this new communication mechanism DIRAC now provides a new type of component called Executor. Executors process any task (such as resolving the input data of a job) sent to them by a task dispatcher. This task dispatcher takes care of persisting the state of the tasks to the storage backend and distributing them among all the Executors based on the requirements of each task. In case of a high load, several Executors can be started to process the extra load and stop them once the tasks have been processed. This new approach of handling tasks in DIRAC makes Executors easy to replace and replicate, thus enabling DIRAC to further scale beyond the current approach based on polling agents.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casajus Ramo, A; Graciani Diaz, R
2012-01-01
DIRAC framework for distributed computing has been designed as a group of collaborating components, agents and servers, with persistent database back-end. Components communicate with each other using DISET, an in-house protocol that provides Remote Procedure Call (RPC) and file transfer capabilities. This approach has provided DIRAC with a modular and stable design by enforcing stable interfaces across releases. But it made complicated to scale further with commodity hardware. To further scale DIRAC, components needed to send more queries between them. Using RPC to do so requires a lot of processing power just to handle the secure handshake required to establish the connection. DISET now provides a way to keep stable connections and send and receive queries between components. Only one handshake is required to send and receive any number of queries. Using this new communication mechanism DIRAC now provides a new type of component called Executor. Executors process any task (such as resolving the input data of a job) sent to them by a task dispatcher. This task dispatcher takes care of persisting the state of the tasks to the storage backend and distributing them among all the Executors based on the requirements of each task. In case of a high load, several Executors can be started to process the extra load and stop them once the tasks have been processed. This new approach of handling tasks in DIRAC makes Executors easy to replace and replicate, thus enabling DIRAC to further scale beyond the current approach based on polling agents.
Probing pseudo-Dirac neutrino through detection of neutrino ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
-shower ratios. Keywords. ... Debasish Majumdar trial rock. Already installed AMANDA in the south pole and the future ICECUBE. [1] detector, are able to detect such secondary muons. Both are water Cherenkov detectors and use south pole ...
Split Dirac Supersymmetry: An Ultraviolet Completion of Higgsino Dark Matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Kribs, Graham D. [Oregon U.; Martin, Adam [Notre Dame U.
2014-10-07
Motivated by the observation that the Higgs quartic coupling runs to zero at an intermediate scale, we propose a new framework for models of split supersymmetry, in which gauginos acquire intermediate scale Dirac masses of $\\sim 10^{8-11}$ GeV. Scalar masses arise from one-loop finite contributions as well as direct gravity-mediated contributions. Like split supersymmetry, one Higgs doublet is fine-tuned to be light. The scale at which the Dirac gauginos are introduced to make the Higgs quartic zero is the same as is necessary for gauge coupling unification. Thus, gauge coupling unification persists (nontrivially, due to adjoint multiplets), though with a somewhat higher unification scale $\\gtrsim 10^{17}$ GeV. The $\\mu$-term is naturally at the weak scale, and provides an opportunity for experimental verification. We present two manifestations of Split Dirac Supersymmetry. In the "Pure Dirac" model, the lightest Higgsino must decay through R-parity violating couplings, leading to an array of interesting signals in colliders. In the "Hypercharge Impure" model, the bino acquires a Majorana mass that is one-loop suppressed compared with the Dirac gluino and wino. This leads to weak scale Higgsino dark matter whose overall mass scale, as well as the mass splitting between the neutral components, is naturally generated from the same UV dynamics. We outline the challenges to discovering pseudo-Dirac Higgsino dark matter in collider and dark matter detection experiments.
DIRAC optimized workload management
Paterson, S K
2008-01-01
The LHCb DIRAC Workload and Data Management System employs advanced optimization techniques in order to dynamically allocate resources. The paradigms realized by DIRAC, such as late binding through the Pilot Agent approach, have proven to be highly successful. For example, this has allowed the principles of workload management to be applied not only at the time of user job submission to the Grid but also to optimize the use of computing resources once jobs have been acquired. Along with the central application of job priorities, DIRAC minimizes the system response time for high priority tasks. This paper will describe the recent developments to support Monte Carlo simulation, data processing and distributed user analysis in a consistent way across disparate compute resources including individual PCs, local batch systems, and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The Grid environment is inherently unpredictable and whilst short-term studies have proven to deliver high job efficiencies, the system performance over ...
Maxwell-Like Equations for Free Dirac Electrons
Bruce, S. A.
2018-03-01
In this article, we show that the wave equation for a free Dirac electron can be represented in a form that is analogous to Maxwell's electrodynamics. The electron bispinor wavefunction is explicitly expressed in terms of its real and imaginary components. This leads us to incorporate into it appropriate scalar and pseudo-scalar fields in advance, so that a full symmetry may be accomplished. The Dirac equation then takes on a form similar to that of a set of inhomogeneous Maxwell's equations involving a particular self-source. We relate plane wave solutions of these equations to waves corresponding to free Dirac electrons, identifying the longitudinal component of the electron motion, together with the corresponding Zitterbewegung ("trembling motion").
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abel, Steven [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology; CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Goodsell, Mark [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2011-02-15
A simple and natural model is presented that gives Dirac gauginos. The configuration is related to ''deconstructed gaugino mediation''. A high energy completion is provided based on existing ISS-like models of deconstructed gaugino mediation. This provides a complete picture of Dirac gauginos that includes the necessary extra adjoint fermions (generated as magnetic quarks of the ISS theory) and supersymmetry breaking (via the ISS mechanism). Moreover the screening of the scalar masses means that they can similar to or less than the gaugino masses, even though the supersymmetry breaking is driven by F-terms. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abel, Steven; Goodsell, Mark
2011-02-01
A simple and natural model is presented that gives Dirac gauginos. The configuration is related to ''deconstructed gaugino mediation''. A high energy completion is provided based on existing ISS-like models of deconstructed gaugino mediation. This provides a complete picture of Dirac gauginos that includes the necessary extra adjoint fermions (generated as magnetic quarks of the ISS theory) and supersymmetry breaking (via the ISS mechanism). Moreover the screening of the scalar masses means that they can similar to or less than the gaugino masses, even though the supersymmetry breaking is driven by F-terms. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thaller, B.
1992-01-01
This monograph treats most of the usual material to be found in texts on the Dirac equation such as the basic formalism of quantum mechanics, representations of Dirac matrices, covariant realization of the Dirac equation, interpretation of negative energies, Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation, Klein's paradox, spherically symmetric interactions and a treatment of the relativistic hydrogen atom, etc., and also provides excellent additional treatments of a variety of other relevant topics. The monograph contains an extensive treatment of the Lorentz and Poincare groups and their representations. The author discusses in depth Lie algebaic and projective representations, covering groups, and Mackey's theory and Wigner's realization of induced representations. A careful classification of external fields with respect to their behavior under Poincare transformations is supplemented by a basic account of self-adjointness and spectral properties of Dirac operators. A state-of-the-art treatment of relativistic scattering theory based on a time-dependent approach originally due to Enss is presented. An excellent introduction to quantum electrodynamics in external fields is provided. Various appendices containing further details, notes on each chapter commenting on the history involved and referring to original research papers and further developments in the literature, and a bibliography covering all relevant monographs and over 500 articles on the subject, complete this text. This book should satisfy the needs of a wide audience, ranging from graduate students in theoretical physics and mathematics to researchers interested in mathematical physics
Dirac gauginos in low scale supersymmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goodsell, Mark D.; Tziveloglou, Pantelis
2014-01-01
It has been claimed that Dirac gaugino masses are necessary for realistic models of low-scale supersymmetry breaking, and yet very little attention has been paid to the phenomenology of a light gravitino when gauginos have Dirac masses. We begin to address this deficit by investigating the couplings and phenomenology of the gravitino in the effective Lagrangian approach. We pay particular attention to the phenomenology of the scalar octets, where new decay channels open up. This leads us to propose a new simplified effective scenario including only light gluinos, sgluons and gravitinos, allowing the squarks to be heavy – with the possible exception of the third generation. Finally, we comment on the application of our results to Fake Split Supersymmetry
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mesiar, Radko; Li, J.; Pap, E.
2013-01-01
Roč. 54, č. 3 (2013), s. 357-364 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : concave integral * pseudo-addition * pseudo-multiplication Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.977, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/mesiar-discrete pseudo-integrals.pdf
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Khim Ng
2009-02-01
Full Text Available We construct nonlinear extensions of Dirac's relativistic electron equation that preserve its other desirable properties such as locality, separability, conservation of probability and Poincaré invariance. We determine the constraints that the nonlinear term must obey and classify the resultant non-polynomial nonlinearities in a double expansion in the degree of nonlinearity and number of derivatives. We give explicit examples of such nonlinear equations, studying their discrete symmetries and other properties. Motivated by some previously suggested applications we then consider nonlinear terms that simultaneously violate Lorentz covariance and again study various explicit examples. We contrast our equations and construction procedure with others in the literature and also show that our equations are not gauge equivalent to the linear Dirac equation. Finally we outline various physical applications for these equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joshipura, A.S.; Rindani, S.D.
1991-01-01
The consequences of imposing an exact L e +L τ -L μ symmetry on a 6x6 matrix describing neutrino masses are discussed. The presence of right-handed neutrinos avoids the need of introducing any SU(2) Higgs triplet. Hence the conflict with the CERN LEP data on the Z width found in earlier models with L e +L τ -L μ symmetry is avoided. The L e +L τ -L μ symmetry provides an interesting realization of a recent proposal of Glashow to accommodate the 17-keV Dirac neutrino in the SU(2)xU(1) theory. All the neutrinos in this model are Dirac particles. The solar-neutrino problem can be solved in an extension of the model which generates a large (∼10 -11 μ B ) magnetic moment for the electron neutrino
Sheka, Elena F.
2016-01-01
The paper presents the author view on spin-rooted properties of graphene supported by numerous experimental and calculation evidences. Dirac fermions of crystalline graphene and local spins of graphene molecules are suggested to meet a strict demand - different orbitals for different spins- which leads to a large spectrum of effects caused by spin polarization of electronic states. The consequent topological non-triviality, making graphene topological insulator, and local spins, imaging graph...
Potential scattering of Dirac particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thaller, B.
1981-01-01
A quantum mechanical interpretation of the Dirac equation for particles in external electromagnetic potentials is discussed. It is shown that a consequent development of the Stueckelberg-Feynman theory into a probabilistic interpretation of the Dirac equation corrects some prejudices concerning negative energy states, Zitterbewegung and bound states in repulsive potentials and yields the connection between propagator theory and scattering theory. Limits of the Dirac equation, considered as a wave mechanical equation, are considered. (U.K.)
On holography for (pseudo-)conformal cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Libanov, M. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect, 7a, 117312, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per., 9, 141700, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Rubakov, V. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect, 7a, 117312, Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Particle Physics and Cosmology, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Vorobjevy Gory, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sibiryakov, S., E-mail: sibir@ms2.inr.ac.ru [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect, 7a, 117312, Moscow (Russian Federation); Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); FSB/ITP/LPPC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2015-02-04
We propose a holographic dual for (pseudo-)conformal cosmological scenario, with a scalar field that forms a moving domain wall in adS{sub 5}. The domain wall separates two vacua with unequal energy densities. Unlike in the existing construction, the 5d solution is regular in the relevant space–time domain.
On holography for (pseudo-)conformal cosmology
Libanov, M.; Sibiryakov, S.
2015-01-01
We propose a holographic dual for (pseudo-)conformal cosmological scenario, with a scalar field that forms a moving domain wall in adS_5. The domain wall separates two vacua with unequal energy densities. Unlike in the existing construction, the 5d solution is regular in the relevant space-time domain.
The spectrum of a Dirac-like operator class and the topology in two dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botelho, Luiz C.L.
1998-05-01
It is shown, in a relatively simple way and based on Seeley pseudo-differential operator theory, that the main result of Atiyah-Singer in which the trace of the evolution operator associated to a Dirac-like operator class defined in two-dimensional manifolds and coming out of Quantum Physics has a deep topological meaning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leo, Stefano de; Rotelli, Pietro
2009-01-01
We present the results of the planar diffusion of a Dirac particle by step and barrier potentials, when the incoming wave impinges at an arbitrary angle with the potential. Except for right-angle incidence this process is characterized by the appearance of spin flip terms. For the step potential, spin flip occurs for both transmitted and reflected waves. However, we find no spin flip in the transmitted barrier result. This is surprising because the barrier result may be derived directly from a two-step calculation. We demonstrate that the spin flip cancellation indeed occurs for each ''particle'' (wave packet) contribution. (orig.)
Viability of Dirac phase leptogenesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anisimov, Alexey; Blanchet, Steve; Di Bari, Pasquale
2008-01-01
We discuss the conditions for a non-vanishing Dirac phase δ and mixing angle θ 13 , sources of CP violation in neutrino oscillations, to be uniquely responsible for the observed matter–antimatter asymmetry of the Universe through leptogenesis. We show that this scenario, that we call δ-leptogenesis, is viable when the degenerate limit for the heavy right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum is considered. We derive an interesting joint condition on sinθ 13 and the absolute neutrino mass scale that can be tested in future neutrino oscillation experiments. In the limit of the hierarchical heavy RH neutrino spectrum, we strengthen the previous result that δ-leptogenesis is only very marginally allowed, even when the production from the two heavier RH neutrinos is taken into account. An improved experimental upper bound on sinθ 13 and/or an account of quantum kinetic effects could completely rule out this option in the future. Therefore, δ-leptogenesis can be also regarded as motivation for models with degenerate heavy neutrino spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, P.L.; Palladino, B.E.
1985-01-01
The problem of a Dirac particle in stationary motion on S 2 - a two dimensional sphere embedded in Euclidean space E 3 - is discussed. It provides a particularly simple case of an exactly solvable constrained Dirac particle whose properties are here studied, with emphasis on its magnetic moment. (Author) [pt
LHCb: DIRAC Secure Distributed Platform
Casajus, A
2009-01-01
DIRAC, the LHCb community grid solution, provides access to a vast amount of computing and storage resources to a large number of users. In DIRAC users are organized in groups with different needs and permissions. In order to ensure that only allowed users can access the resources and to enforce that there are no abuses, security is mandatory. All DIRAC services and clients use secure connections that are authenticated using certificates and grid proxies. Once a client has been authenticated, authorization rules are applied to the requested action based on the presented credentials. These authorization rules and the list of users and groups are centrally managed in the DIRAC Configuration Service. Users submit jobs to DIRAC using their local credentials. From then on, DIRAC has to interact with different Grid services on behalf of this user. DIRAC has a proxy management service where users upload short-lived proxies to be used when DIRAC needs to act on behalf of them. Long duration proxies are uploaded by us...
DIRAC: data production management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A C; Tsaregorodtsev, A
2008-01-01
The LHCb Computing Model describes the dataflow for all stages in the processing of real and simulated events, and defines the role of LHCb associated Tier-1 and Tier-2 computing centers. The WLCG 'Dress Rehearsal' exercise aims to allow LHC experiments to deploy the full chain of their Computing Models, making use of all underlying WLCG services and resources, in preparation for real data taking. During this exercise simulated RAW physics data, matching the properties of eventual real data, will be uploaded from the LHCb Online storage system to Grid enabled storage. This data will then be replicated to LHCb Tier-1 centers and subsequently processed (reconstructed and stripped). The product of this processing is user analysis data that are distributed to all LHCb Tier-1 centers. DIRAC, LHCbs Workload and Data Management System, supports the implementation of the Computing Model in a data driven, real time and coordinated fashion. In this paper the LHCb Computing Model will be reviewed and the DIRAC components providing the needed functionality to support the Computing Model will be detailed. An evaluation of the preparedness for real data taking will also be given
DIRAC: data production management
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, A C [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva (Switzerland); Tsaregorodtsev, A [CPPM, Marseille (France)], E-mail: a.smith@cern.ch, E-mail: atsareg@in2p3.fr
2008-07-15
The LHCb Computing Model describes the dataflow for all stages in the processing of real and simulated events, and defines the role of LHCb associated Tier-1 and Tier-2 computing centers. The WLCG 'Dress Rehearsal' exercise aims to allow LHC experiments to deploy the full chain of their Computing Models, making use of all underlying WLCG services and resources, in preparation for real data taking. During this exercise simulated RAW physics data, matching the properties of eventual real data, will be uploaded from the LHCb Online storage system to Grid enabled storage. This data will then be replicated to LHCb Tier-1 centers and subsequently processed (reconstructed and stripped). The product of this processing is user analysis data that are distributed to all LHCb Tier-1 centers. DIRAC, LHCbs Workload and Data Management System, supports the implementation of the Computing Model in a data driven, real time and coordinated fashion. In this paper the LHCb Computing Model will be reviewed and the DIRAC components providing the needed functionality to support the Computing Model will be detailed. An evaluation of the preparedness for real data taking will also be given.
Dirac neutrinos and hybrid inflation from string theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antusch, Stefan; Eyton-Williams, Oliver J.; King, Steve F.
2005-01-01
We consider a possible scenario for the generation of Dirac neutrino masses motivated by type-I string theory. The smallness of the neutrino Yukawa couplings is explained by an anisotropic compactification with one compactification radius larger than the others. In addition to this we utilise small Yukawa couplings to develop strong links between the origin of neutrino masses and the physics driving inflation. We construct a minimal model which simultaneously accommodates small Dirac neutrino masses leading to bi-large lepton mixing as well as an inflationary solution to the strong CP and to the μ problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casajus, A; Ciba, K; Fernandez, V; Graciani, R; Hamar, V; Mendez, V; Poss, S; Sapunov, M; Stagni, F; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Ubeda, M
2012-01-01
The DIRAC Project was initiated to provide a data processing system for the LHCb Experiment at CERN. It provides all the necessary functionality and performance to satisfy the current and projected future requirements of the LHCb Computing Model. A considerable restructuring of the DIRAC software was undertaken in order to turn it into a general purpose framework for building distributed computing systems that can be used by various user communities in High Energy Physics and other scientific application domains. The CLIC and ILC-SID detector projects started to use DIRAC for their data production system. The Belle Collaboration at KEK, Japan, has adopted the Computing Model based on the DIRAC system for its second phase starting in 2015. The CTA Collaboration uses DIRAC for the data analysis tasks. A large number of other experiments are starting to use DIRAC or are evaluating this solution for their data processing tasks. DIRAC services are included as part of the production infrastructure of the GISELA Latin America grid. Similar services are provided for the users of the France-Grilles and IBERGrid National Grid Initiatives in France and Spain respectively. The new communities using DIRAC started to provide important contributions to its functionality. Among recent additions can be mentioned the support of the Amazon EC2 computing resources as well as other Cloud management systems; a versatile File Replica Catalog with File Metadata capabilities; support for running MPI jobs in the pilot based Workload Management System. Integration with existing application Web Portals, like WS-PGRADE, is demonstrated. In this paper we will describe the current status of the DIRAC Project, recent developments of its framework and functionality as well as the status of the rapidly evolving community of the DIRAC users.
Pseudo-populations a basic concept in statistical surveys
Quatember, Andreas
2015-01-01
This book emphasizes that artificial or pseudo-populations play an important role in statistical surveys from finite universes in two manners: firstly, the concept of pseudo-populations may substantially improve users’ understanding of various aspects in the sampling theory and survey methodology; an example of this scenario is the Horvitz-Thompson estimator. Secondly, statistical procedures exist in which pseudo-populations actually have to be generated. An example of such a scenario can be found in simulation studies in the field of survey sampling, where close-to-reality pseudo-populations are generated from known sample and population data to form the basis for the simulation process. The chapters focus on estimation methods, sampling techniques, nonresponse, questioning designs and statistical disclosure control.This book is a valuable reference in understanding the importance of the pseudo-population concept and applying it in teaching and research.
On the Relativistic Origin of Pseudo spin Symmetry in Nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leviatan, A.
1998-01-01
We review the concept of pseudo spin symmetry and its role in nuclear spectroscopy. We survey the attempts to arrive at a microscopic understanding of this symmetry. In particular, we show that pseudo spin symmetry in nuclei could arise from nucleons moving in a relativistic mean field which has an attractive scalar (Vs) and repulsive vector (Vv) potential nearly equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. We show that the generators of pseudo spin symmetry are the non-relativistic limit of the generators of an SU(2) symmetry which leaves invariant the Dirac Hamiltonian with Vs 2= -Vv. Furthermore within this framework, we demonstrate that this symmetry may be approximately conserved for realistic scalar and vector potentials
Barasz, Kate; John, Leslie K; Keenan, Elizabeth A; Norton, Michael I
2017-10-01
Pseudo-set framing-arbitrarily grouping items or tasks together as part of an apparent "set"-motivates people to reach perceived completion points. Pseudo-set framing changes gambling choices (Study 1), effort (Studies 2 and 3), giving behavior (Field Data and Study 4), and purchase decisions (Study 5). These effects persist in the absence of any reward, when a cost must be incurred, and after participants are explicitly informed of the arbitrariness of the set. Drawing on Gestalt psychology, we develop a conceptual account that predicts what will-and will not-act as a pseudo-set, and defines the psychological process through which these pseudo-sets affect behavior: over and above typical reference points, pseudo-set framing alters perceptions of (in)completeness, making intermediate progress seem less complete. In turn, these feelings of incompleteness motivate people to persist until the pseudo-set has been fulfilled. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Dark matter asymmetry in supersymmetric Dirac leptogenesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Ki-Young; Chun, Eung Jin; Shin, Chang Sub
2013-01-01
We discuss asymmetric or symmetric dark matter candidate in the supersymmetric Dirac leptogenesis scenario. By introducing a singlet superfield coupling to right-handed neutrinos, the overabundance problem of dark matter can be evaded and various possibilities for dark matter candidate arise. If the singlino is the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP), it becomes naturally asymmetric dark matter. On the other hand, the right-handed sneutrino is a symmetric dark matter candidate whose relic density can be determined by the usual thermal freeze-out process. The conventional neutralino or gravitino LSP can be also a dark matter candidate as its non-thermal production from the right-handed sneutrino can be controlled appropriately. In our scenario, the late-decay of heavy supersymmetric particles mainly produces the right-handed sneutrino and neutrino which is harmless to the standard prediction of the Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis
DIRAC data production management
Smith, A C
2008-01-01
The LHCb Computing Model describes the dataflow for all stages in the processing of real and simulated events, and defines the role of LHCb associated Tier-1 and Tier-2 computing centers. The WLCG 'Dress Rehearsal' exercise aims to allow LHC experiments to deploy the full chain of their Computing Models, making use of all underlying WLCG services and resources, in preparation for real data taking. During this exercise simulated RAW physics data, matching the properties of eventual real data, will be uploaded from the LHCb Online storage system to Grid enabled storage. This data will then be replicated to LHCb Tier-1 centers and subsequently processed (reconstructed and stripped). The product of this processing is user analysis data that are distributed to all LHCb Tier-1 centers. DIRAC, LHCbs Workload and Data Management System, supports the implementation of the Computing Model in a data driven, real time and coordinated fashion.
Smith, A C
2007-01-01
The LHCb experiment being built to utilize CERN’s flagship Large Hadron Collider will generate data to be analysed by a community of over 600 physicists worldwide. DIRAC, LHCb’s Workload and Data Management System, facilitates the use of underlying EGEE Grid resources to generate, process and analyse this data in the distributed environment. The Data Management System, presented here, provides real-time, data-driven distribution in accordance with LHCb’s Computing Model. The data volumes produced by the LHC experiments are unprecedented, rendering individual institutes and even countries, unable to provide the computing and storage resources required to make full use of the produced data. EGEE Grid resources allow the processing of LHCb data possible in a distributed fashion and LHCb’s Computing Model is based on this approach. Data Management in this environment requires reliable and high-throughput transfer of data, homogeneous access to storage resources and the cataloguing of data replicas, all of...
Stagni, F.; McNab, A.; Luzzi, C.; Krzemien, W.; Consortium, DIRAC
2017-10-01
In the last few years, new types of computing models, such as IAAS (Infrastructure as a Service) and IAAC (Infrastructure as a Client), gained popularity. New resources may come as part of pledged resources, while others are in the form of opportunistic ones. Most but not all of these new infrastructures are based on virtualization techniques. In addition, some of them, present opportunities for multi-processor computing slots to the users. Virtual Organizations are therefore facing heterogeneity of the available resources and the use of an Interware software like DIRAC to provide the transparent, uniform interface has become essential. The transparent access to the underlying resources is realized by implementing the pilot model. DIRAC’s newest generation of generic pilots (the so-called Pilots 2.0) are the “pilots for all the skies”, and have been successfully released in production more than a year ago. They use a plugin mechanism that makes them easily adaptable. Pilots 2.0 have been used for fetching and running jobs on every type of resource, being it a Worker Node (WN) behind a CREAM/ARC/HTCondor/DIRAC Computing element, a Virtual Machine running on IaaC infrastructures like Vac or BOINC, on IaaS cloud resources managed by Vcycle, the LHCb High Level Trigger farm nodes, and any type of opportunistic computing resource. Make a machine a “Pilot Machine”, and all diversities between them will disappear. This contribution describes how pilots are made suitable for different resources, and the recent steps taken towards a fully unified framework, including monitoring. Also, the cases of multi-processor computing slots either on real or virtual machines, with the whole node or a partition of it, is discussed.
The Dirac equation for accountants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ord, G.N.
2006-01-01
In the context of relativistic quantum mechanics, derivations of the Dirac equation usually take the form of plausibility arguments based on experience with the Schroedinger equation. The primary reason for this is that we do not know what wavefunctions physically represent, so derivations have to rely on formal arguments. There is however a context in which the Dirac equation in one dimension is directly related to a classical generating function. In that context, the derivation of the Dirac equation is an exercise in counting. We provide this derivation here and discuss its relationship to quantum mechanics
κ-deformed Dirac oscillator in an external magnetic field
Chargui, Y.; Dhahbi, A.; Cherif, B.
2018-04-01
We study the solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional κ-deformed Dirac oscillator in the presence of a constant transverse magnetic field. We demonstrate how the deformation parameter affects the energy eigenvalues of the system and the corresponding eigenfunctions. Our findings suggest that this system could be used to detect experimentally the effect of the deformation. We also show that the hidden supersymmetry of the non-deformed system reduces to a hidden pseudo-supersymmetry having the same algebraic structure as a result of the κ-deformation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skyrme, T.H.R.
1994-01-01
In a model quantum theory of interacting mesons, the motion of certain conserved particle-like structures is discussed. It is shown how collective coordinates may be introduced to describe them, leading, in lowest approximation, to a Dirac equation. (author)
Alternatives to the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Girvin, S.M.; Brownstein, K.R.
1975-01-01
Recent work by Biedenharn, Han, and van Dam (BHvD) has questioned the uniqueness of the Dirac equation. BHvD have obtained a two-component equation as an alternate to the Dirac equation. Although they later show their alternative to be unitarily equivalent to the Dirac equation, certain physical differences were claimed. BHvD attribute the existence of this alternate equation to the fact that their factorizing matrices were position-dependent. To investigate this, we factor the Klein-Gordon equation in spherical coordinates allowing the factorizing matrices to depend arbitrarily upon theta and phi. It is shown that despite this additional freedom, and without involving any relativistic covariance, the conventional four-component Dirac equation is the only possibility
CERN Bulletin
2010-01-01
When a group of physicists entered the Main Auditorium, during the evening of 29 June, they felt they had opened a time portal. Paul Dirac in front of a blackboard showing his formula. ©Sandra Hoogeboom An attentive audience, dressed in early 1900 costumes, were watching a lecture by the elusive Paul Dirac, presenting for the first time his famous formula on the blackboard. Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (1902-1984) was a British mathematical physicist at Cambridge, and one of the "fathers" of quantum mechanics. When he first wrote it, in 1928, Dirac was not sure what his formula really meant. As demonstrated by Andersson four year later, what Dirac had written on the blackboard was the first definition of a positron, hence he is credited with having anticipated the existence of antimatter. The actor John Kohl performs as Paul Dirac. ©Sandra Hoogeboom What the group of puzzled physicists were really observing when they entered the CERN Auditorium was the shoo...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Botelho, Luiz C.L
1998-05-01
It is shown, in a relatively simple way and based on Seeley pseudo-differential operator theory, that the main result of Atiyah-Singer in which the trace of the evolution operator associated to a Dirac-like operator class defined in two-dimensional manifolds and coming out of Quantum Physics has a deep topological meaning 5 refs.
LHCb: LHCbDirac is a DIRAC extension to support LHCb specific workflows
Stagni, Federico
2012-01-01
We present LHCbDIRAC, an extension of the DIRAC community Grid solution to handle the LHCb specificities. The DIRAC software has been developed for many years within LHCb only. Nowadays it is a generic software, used by many scientific communities worldwide. Each community wanting to take advantage of DIRAC has to develop an extension, containing all the necessary code for handling their specific cases. LHCbDIRAC is an actively developed extension, implementing the LHCb computing model and workflows. LHCbDIRAC extends DIRAC to handle all the distributed computing activities of LHCb. Such activities include real data processing (reconstruction, stripping and streaming), Monte-Carlo simulation and data replication. Other activities are groups and user analysis, data management, resources management and monitoring, data provenance, accounting for user and production jobs. LHCbDIRAC also provides extensions of the DIRAC interfaces, including a secure web client, python APIs and CLIs. While DIRAC and LHCbDIRAC f...
THE PSEUDO-SMARANDACHE FUNCTION
David Gorski
2007-01-01
The Pseudo-Smarandache Function is part of number theory. The function comes from the Smarandache Function. The Pseudo-Smarandache Function is represented by Z(n) where n represents any natural number.
Pseudo-deterministic Algorithms
Goldwasser , Shafi
2012-01-01
International audience; In this talk we describe a new type of probabilistic algorithm which we call Bellagio Algorithms: a randomized algorithm which is guaranteed to run in expected polynomial time, and to produce a correct and unique solution with high probability. These algorithms are pseudo-deterministic: they can not be distinguished from deterministic algorithms in polynomial time by a probabilistic polynomial time observer with black box access to the algorithm. We show a necessary an...
Cloud flexibility using DIRAC interware
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albor, Víctor Fernandez; Miguelez, Marcos Seco; Silva, Juan Jose Saborido; Pena, Tomas Fernandez; Muñoz, Victor Mendez; Diaz, Ricardo Graciani
2014-01-01
Communities of different locations are running their computing jobs on dedicated infrastructures without the need to worry about software, hardware or even the site where their programs are going to be executed. Nevertheless, this usually implies that they are restricted to use certain types or versions of an Operating System because either their software needs an definite version of a system library or a specific platform is required by the collaboration to which they belong. On this scenario, if a data center wants to service software to incompatible communities, it has to split its physical resources among those communities. This splitting will inevitably lead to an underuse of resources because the data centers are bound to have periods where one or more of its subclusters are idle. It is, in this situation, where Cloud Computing provides the flexibility and reduction in computational cost that data centers are searching for. This paper describes a set of realistic tests that we ran on one of such implementations. The test comprise software from three different HEP communities (Auger, LHCb and QCD phenomelogists) and the Parsec Benchmark Suite running on one or more of three Linux flavors (SL5, Ubuntu 10.04 and Fedora 13). The implemented infrastructure has, at the cloud level, CloudStack that manages the virtual machines (VM) and the hosts on which they run, and, at the user level, the DIRAC framework along with a VM extension that will submit, monitorize and keep track of the user jobs and also requests CloudStack to start or stop the necessary VM's. In this infrastructure, the community software is distributed via the CernVM-FS, which has been proven to be a reliable and scalable software distribution system. With the resulting infrastructure, users are allowed to send their jobs transparently to the Data Center. The main purpose of this system is the creation of flexible cluster, multiplatform with an scalable method for software distribution for
Cloud flexibility using DIRAC interware
Fernandez Albor, Víctor; Seco Miguelez, Marcos; Fernandez Pena, Tomas; Mendez Muñoz, Victor; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo
2014-06-01
Communities of different locations are running their computing jobs on dedicated infrastructures without the need to worry about software, hardware or even the site where their programs are going to be executed. Nevertheless, this usually implies that they are restricted to use certain types or versions of an Operating System because either their software needs an definite version of a system library or a specific platform is required by the collaboration to which they belong. On this scenario, if a data center wants to service software to incompatible communities, it has to split its physical resources among those communities. This splitting will inevitably lead to an underuse of resources because the data centers are bound to have periods where one or more of its subclusters are idle. It is, in this situation, where Cloud Computing provides the flexibility and reduction in computational cost that data centers are searching for. This paper describes a set of realistic tests that we ran on one of such implementations. The test comprise software from three different HEP communities (Auger, LHCb and QCD phenomelogists) and the Parsec Benchmark Suite running on one or more of three Linux flavors (SL5, Ubuntu 10.04 and Fedora 13). The implemented infrastructure has, at the cloud level, CloudStack that manages the virtual machines (VM) and the hosts on which they run, and, at the user level, the DIRAC framework along with a VM extension that will submit, monitorize and keep track of the user jobs and also requests CloudStack to start or stop the necessary VM's. In this infrastructure, the community software is distributed via the CernVM-FS, which has been proven to be a reliable and scalable software distribution system. With the resulting infrastructure, users are allowed to send their jobs transparently to the Data Center. The main purpose of this system is the creation of flexible cluster, multiplatform with an scalable method for software distribution for several
The Dirac medals of the ICTP. 1993
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-12-31
The Dirac Medals of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) were instituted in 1985. These are awarded yearly to outstanding physicists, on Dirac`s birthday - 8th August- for contributions to theoretical physics. The document includes the lectures of the three Dirac Medalists for 1993: Professor Sergio Ferrara, Professor Daniel Z. Freedman, and Professor Peter van Nieuwenhuizen. A separate abstract was prepared for each lecture
A Dirac algebraic approach to supersymmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guersey, F.
1984-01-01
The power of the Dirac algebra is illustrated through the Kaehler correspondence between a pair of Dirac spinors and a 16-component bosonic field. The SO(5,1) group acts on both the fermion and boson fields, leading to a supersymmetric equation of the Dirac type involving all these fields. (author)
Interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer Dirac electron systems: motion and merging of Dirac cones
Assili, Mohamed; Haddad, Sonia
2013-01-01
We theoretically study the effect of the motion and the merging of Dirac cone on the interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene like systems. This merging, which could be induced by a uniaxial strain, gives rise in monolayer Dirac electron system to a topological transition from a semi-metallic phase to an insulating phase where Dirac points disappear. Based on a universal Hamiltonian proposed to describe the motion and the merging of Dirac points in two dimensional Dirac electron cr...
Pseudo-Goldstino in Field Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Argurio, Riccardo; Komargodski, Zohar; Mariotti, Alberto
2011-01-01
We consider two SUSY-breaking hidden sectors which decouple when their respective couplings to the visible particles are switched off. In such a scenario one expects to find two light fermions: the Goldstino and the pseudo-Goldstino. While the former remains massless in the rigid limit, the latter becomes massive due to radiative effects which we analyze from several different points of view. This analysis is greatly facilitated by a version of the Goldberger-Treiman relation, which allows us to write a universal nonperturbative formula for the mass. We carry out the analysis in detail in the context of gauge mediation, where we find that the pseudo-Goldstino mass is at least around the GeV scale and can be easily at the electroweak range, even in low scale models. This leads to interesting and unconventional possibilities in collider physics and it also has potential applications in cosmology.
Dirac, Prof. Paul Adrien Maurice
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Dirac, Prof. Paul Adrien Maurice Nobel Laureate (Physics) - 1933. Date of birth: 8 August 1902. Date of death: 20 October 1984. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year ...
Dirac, Jordan and quantum fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darrigol, O.
1985-01-01
The case of two principal physicists of quantum mechanics is specially chose: Paul Dirac and Pascual Jordan. They gave a signification and an importance very different to the notion of quantum field, and in particular to the quantized matter wave one. Through their formation and motivation differences, such as they are expressed in their writings, this deep difference is tentatively understood [fr
about the Dirac Delta Function(?)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
V Balakrishnan is in the. Department of ... and sweet as befits this impatient age. It said (in its en- ... to get down to real work by shutting down the system and reverting to ... the Dirac delta function" - but do note the all-important question mark in ...
Superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals
Hashimoto, Tatsuki; Kobayashi, Shingo; Tanaka, Yukio; Sato, Masatoshi
2016-07-01
We theoretically study intrinsic superconductivity in doped Dirac semimetals. Dirac semimetals host bulk Dirac points, which are formed by doubly degenerate bands, so the Hamiltonian is described by a 4 ×4 matrix and six types of k -independent pair potentials are allowed by the Fermi-Dirac statistics. We show that the unique spin-orbit coupling leads to characteristic superconducting gap structures and d vectors on the Fermi surface and the electron-electron interaction between intra and interorbitals gives a novel phase diagram of superconductivity. It is found that when the interorbital attraction is dominant, an unconventional superconducting state with point nodes appears. To verify the experimental signature of possible superconducting states, we calculate the temperature dependence of bulk physical properties such as electronic specific heat and spin susceptibility and surface state. In the unconventional superconducting phase, either dispersive or flat Andreev bound states appear between point nodes, which leads to double peaks or a single peak in the surface density of states, respectively. As a result, possible superconducting states can be distinguished by combining bulk and surface measurements.
Dirac Magnons in Honeycomb Ferromagnets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergey S. Pershoguba
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The discovery of the Dirac electron dispersion in graphene [A. H. Castro Neto, et al., The Electronic Properties of Graphene, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109 (2009RMPHAT0034-686110.1103/RevModPhys.81.109] led to the question of the Dirac cone stability with respect to interactions. Coulomb interactions between electrons were shown to induce a logarithmic renormalization of the Dirac dispersion. With a rapid expansion of the list of compounds and quasiparticle bands with linear band touching [T. O. Wehling, et al., Dirac Materials, Adv. Phys. 63, 1 (2014ADPHAH0001-873210.1080/00018732.2014.927109], the concept of bosonic Dirac materials has emerged. We consider a specific case of ferromagnets consisting of van der Waals-bonded stacks of honeycomb layers, e.g., chromium trihalides CrX_{3} (X=F, Cl, Br and I, that display two spin wave modes with energy dispersion similar to that for the electrons in graphene. At the single-particle level, these materials resemble their fermionic counterparts. However, how different particle statistics and interactions affect the stability of Dirac cones has yet to be determined. To address the role of interacting Dirac magnons, we expand the theory of ferromagnets beyond the standard Dyson theory [F. J. Dyson, General Theory of Spin-Wave Interactions, Phys. Rev. 102, 1217 (1956PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.102.1217, F. J. Dyson, Thermodynamic Behavior of an Ideal Ferromagnet, Phys. Rev. 102, 1230 (1956PHRVAO0031-899X10.1103/PhysRev.102.1230] to the case of non-Bravais honeycomb layers. We demonstrate that magnon-magnon interactions lead to a significant momentum-dependent renormalization of the bare band structure in addition to strongly momentum-dependent magnon lifetimes. We show that our theory qualitatively accounts for hitherto unexplained anomalies in nearly half-century-old magnetic neutron-scattering data for CrBr_{3} [W. B. Yelon and R. Silberglitt, Renormalization of Large-Wave-Vector Magnons in
Dirac Magnons in Honeycomb Ferromagnets
Pershoguba, Sergey S.; Banerjee, Saikat; Lashley, J. C.; Park, Jihwey; Ågren, Hans; Aeppli, Gabriel; Balatsky, Alexander V.
2018-01-01
The discovery of the Dirac electron dispersion in graphene [A. H. Castro Neto, et al., The Electronic Properties of Graphene, Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 109 (2009), 10.1103/RevModPhys.81.109] led to the question of the Dirac cone stability with respect to interactions. Coulomb interactions between electrons were shown to induce a logarithmic renormalization of the Dirac dispersion. With a rapid expansion of the list of compounds and quasiparticle bands with linear band touching [T. O. Wehling, et al., Dirac Materials, Adv. Phys. 63, 1 (2014), 10.1080/00018732.2014.927109], the concept of bosonic Dirac materials has emerged. We consider a specific case of ferromagnets consisting of van der Waals-bonded stacks of honeycomb layers, e.g., chromium trihalides CrX3 (X =F , Cl, Br and I), that display two spin wave modes with energy dispersion similar to that for the electrons in graphene. At the single-particle level, these materials resemble their fermionic counterparts. However, how different particle statistics and interactions affect the stability of Dirac cones has yet to be determined. To address the role of interacting Dirac magnons, we expand the theory of ferromagnets beyond the standard Dyson theory [F. J. Dyson, General Theory of Spin-Wave Interactions, Phys. Rev. 102, 1217 (1956), 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1217, F. J. Dyson, Thermodynamic Behavior of an Ideal Ferromagnet, Phys. Rev. 102, 1230 (1956), 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1230] to the case of non-Bravais honeycomb layers. We demonstrate that magnon-magnon interactions lead to a significant momentum-dependent renormalization of the bare band structure in addition to strongly momentum-dependent magnon lifetimes. We show that our theory qualitatively accounts for hitherto unexplained anomalies in nearly half-century-old magnetic neutron-scattering data for CrBr3 [W. B. Yelon and R. Silberglitt, Renormalization of Large-Wave-Vector Magnons in Ferromagnetic CrBr3 Studied by Inelastic Neutron Scattering: Spin-Wave Correlation
Graphene based d-character Dirac Systems
Li, Yuanchang; Zhang, S. B.; Duan, Wenhui
From graphene to topological insulators, Dirac material continues to be the hot topics in condensed matter physics. So far, almost all of the theoretically predicted or experimentally observed Dirac materials are composed of sp -electrons. By using first-principles calculations, we find the new Dirac system of transition-metal intercalated epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001). Intrinsically different from the conventional sp Dirac system, here the Dirac-fermions are dominantly contributed by the transition-metal d-electrons, which paves the way to incorporate correlation effect with Dirac-cone physics. Many intriguing quantum phenomena are proposed based on this system, including quantum spin Hall effect with large spin-orbital gap, quantum anomalous Hall effect, 100% spin-polarized Dirac fermions and ferromagnet-to-topological insulator transition.
Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remenska, Daniela; Templon, Jeff; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof; Diaz, Ricardo Graciani
2012-01-01
DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.
Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra
Remenska, Daniela; Templon, Jeff; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof
2012-12-01
DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple; the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike conventional testing, it allows full control over the parallel processes execution, and supports exhaustive state-space exploration. We used the mCRL2 language and toolset to model the behavior of two related DIRAC subsystems: the workload and storage management system. Based on process algebra, mCRL2 allows defining custom data types as well as functions over these. This makes it suitable for modeling the data manipulations made by DIRAC's agents. By visualizing the state space and replaying scenarios with the toolkit's simulator, we have detected race-conditions and deadlocks in these systems, which, in several cases, were confirmed to occur in the reality. Several properties of interest were formulated and verified with the tool. Our future direction is automating the translation from DIRAC to a formal model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2007-01-10
The authors discuss performance of Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) codes decoded by Linear Programming (LP) decoding at moderate and large Signal-to-Noise-Ratios (SNR). Frame-Error-Rate (FER) dependence on SNR and the noise space landscape of the coding/decoding scheme are analyzed by a combination of the previously introduced instanton/pseudo-codeword-search method and a new 'dendro' trick. To reduce complexity of the LP decoding for a code with high-degree checks, {ge} 5, they introduce its dendro-LDPC counterpart, that is the code performing identifically to the original one under Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) decoding but having reduced (down to three) check connectivity degree. Analyzing number of popular LDPC codes and their dendro versions performing over the Additive-White-Gaussian-Noise (AWGN) channel, they observed two qualitatively different regimes: (i) error-floor sets early, at relatively low SNR, and (ii) FER decays with SNR increase faster at moderate SNR than at the largest SNR. They explain these regimes in terms of the pseudo-codeword spectra of the codes.
DIRAC pilot framework and the DIRAC Workload Management System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casajus, Adrian; Graciani, Ricardo; Paterson, Stuart; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei
2010-01-01
DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot Jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, Pilot Jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach.
DIRAC pilot framework and the DIRAC Workload Management System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casajus, Adrian; Graciani, Ricardo [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Paterson, Stuart [CERN (Switzerland); Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei, E-mail: adria@ecm.ub.e, E-mail: graciani@ecm.ub.e, E-mail: stuart.paterson@cern.c, E-mail: atsareg@in2p3.f [CPPM Marseille (France)
2010-04-01
DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot Jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, Pilot Jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach.
Pseudo-Riemannian Novikov algebras
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Zhiqi; Zhu Fuhai [School of Mathematical Sciences and LPMC, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)], E-mail: chenzhiqi@nankai.edu.cn, E-mail: zhufuhai@nankai.edu.cn
2008-08-08
Novikov algebras were introduced in connection with the Poisson brackets of hydrodynamic-type and Hamiltonian operators in formal variational calculus. Pseudo-Riemannian Novikov algebras denote Novikov algebras with non-degenerate invariant symmetric bilinear forms. In this paper, we find that there is a remarkable geometry on pseudo-Riemannian Novikov algebras, and give a special class of pseudo-Riemannian Novikov algebras.
DIRAC in Large Particle Physics Experiments
Stagni, F.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Arrabito, L.; Sailer, A.; Hara, T.; Zhang, X.; Consortium, DIRAC
2017-10-01
The DIRAC project is developing interware to build and operate distributed computing systems. It provides a development framework and a rich set of services for both Workload and Data Management tasks of large scientific communities. A number of High Energy Physics and Astrophysics collaborations have adopted DIRAC as the base for their computing models. DIRAC was initially developed for the LHCb experiment at LHC, CERN. Later, the Belle II, BES III and CTA experiments as well as the linear collider detector collaborations started using DIRAC for their computing systems. Some of the experiments built their DIRAC-based systems from scratch, others migrated from previous solutions, ad-hoc or based on different middlewares. Adaptation of DIRAC for a particular experiment was enabled through the creation of extensions to meet their specific requirements. Each experiment has a heterogeneous set of computing and storage resources at their disposal that were aggregated through DIRAC into a coherent pool. Users from different experiments can interact with the system in different ways depending on their specific tasks, expertise level and previous experience using command line tools, python APIs or Web Portals. In this contribution we will summarize the experience of using DIRAC in particle physics collaborations. The problems of migration to DIRAC from previous systems and their solutions will be presented. An overview of specific DIRAC extensions will be given. We hope that this review will be useful for experiments considering an update, or for those designing their computing models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fadia M. Al-Hummayani
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month.
Lung inflammatory pseudo tumor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veliz, Elizabeth; Leone, Gaetano; Cano, Fernando; Sanchez, Jaime
2005-01-01
The inflammatory pseudo tumor is a non neoplastic process characterized by an irregular growth of inflammatory cells. We described the case of a 38 year-old patient, she went to our institute for a in situ cervix cancer and left lung nodule without breathing symptoms; valued by neumology who did bronchoscopy with biopsy whose result was negative for malignancy. She went to surgery in where we find intraparenquima nodule in felt lingula of approximately 4 cms, we remove it; the result was: Inflammatory pseudotumor. This pathology is a not very frequent, it can develop in diverse regions of the organism, it is frequent in lung. The image tests are not specific for the diagnose, which it is possible only with the biopsy. The treatment is the complete resection. (The author)
Halogenated arsenenes as Dirac materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, Wencheng; Sun, Minglei; Ren, Qingqiang; Wang, Sake; Yu, Jin
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We have revealed the presence of Dirac cone in fully-halogenated arsenene compounds. • All fully-halogenated arsenene except As_2I_2 would spontaneously form and stable in defending the thermal fluctuation in room temperature. - Abstract: Arsenene is the graphene-like arsenic nanosheet, which has been predicted very recently [S. Zhang, Z. Yan, Y. Li, Z. Chen, and H. Zeng, Angewandte Chemie, 127 (2015) 3155–3158]. Using first-principles calculations, we systematically investigate the structures and electronic properties of fully-halogenated arsenenes. Formation energy analysis reveals that all the fully-halogenated arsenenes except iodinated arsenene are energetically favorable and could be synthesized. We have revealed the presence of Dirac cone in fully-halogenated arsenene compounds. They may have great potential applications in next generation of high-performance devices.
Pseudo color ghost coding imaging with pseudo thermal light
Duan, De-yang; Xia, Yun-jie
2018-04-01
We present a new pseudo color imaging scheme named pseudo color ghost coding imaging based on ghost imaging but with multiwavelength source modulated by a spatial light modulator. Compared with conventional pseudo color imaging where there is no nondegenerate wavelength spatial correlations resulting in extra monochromatic images, the degenerate wavelength and nondegenerate wavelength spatial correlations between the idle beam and signal beam can be obtained simultaneously. This scheme can obtain more colorful image with higher quality than that in conventional pseudo color coding techniques. More importantly, a significant advantage of the scheme compared to the conventional pseudo color coding imaging techniques is the image with different colors can be obtained without changing the light source and spatial filter.
DIRAC: Secure web user interface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casajus Ramo, A; Sapunov, M
2010-01-01
Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.
Einstein-Dirac theory in spin maximum I
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crumeyrolle, A.
1975-01-01
An unitary Einstein-Dirac theory, first in spin maximum 1, is constructed. An original feature of this article is that it is written without any tetrapod technics; basic notions and existence conditions for spinor structures on pseudo-Riemannian fibre bundles are only used. A coupling gravitation-electromagnetic field is pointed out, in the geometric setting of the tangent bundle over space-time. Generalized Maxwell equations for inductive media in presence of gravitational field are obtained. Enlarged Einstein-Schroedinger theory, gives a particular case of this E.D. theory. E. S. theory is a truncated E.D. theory in spin maximum 1. A close relation between torsion-vector and Schroedinger's potential exists and nullity of torsion-vector has a spinor meaning. Finally the Petiau-Duffin-Kemmer theory is incorporated in this geometric setting [fr
Dirac's Dream - the Search for the Magnetic Monopole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinfold, James L.
2010-01-01
I first quickly summarize the history of the Magnetic Monopole leading to the quantum theory of magnetic charge that started with a 1931 paper by Paul Dirac who showed that the existence of magnetic monopoles was consistent with Maxwell's equations only if electric charges are quantized. Next I will briefly review the status of monopole searches. Last, but not least I discuss in more detail the MoEDAL experiment--the latest accelerator experiment designed to search for direct production of magnetic monopoles or dyons (particles with electric and magnetic charge) and other highly ionizing particles - such as heavy (pseudo-) stable particles with conventional electric charge - at the LHC. The MoEDAL experiment employs nuclear track-etch detectors deployed in the VELO vertex region of the LHCb experiment.
Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals
Li, Yan
2014-07-07
A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.
Data Management System of the DIRAC Project
Haen, Christophe; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei
2015-01-01
The DIRAC Interware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. The DIRAC Data Management System (DMS) offers all the necessary tools to ensure data handling operations for small and large user communities. It supports transparent access to storage resources based on multiple technologies, and is easily expandable. The information on data files and replicas is kept in a File Catalog of which DIRAC offers a powerful and versatile implementation (DFC). Data movement can be performed using third party services including FTS3. Bulk data operations are resilient with respect to failures due to the use of the Request Management System (RMS) that keeps track of ongoing tasks. In this contribution we will present an overview of the DIRAC DMS capabilities and its connection with other DIRAC subsystems such as the Transformation System. The DIRAC DMS is in use by several user communities now. The contribution will present the experience of the LHCb exper...
The DIRAC Data Management System (poster)
Haen, Christophe
2015-01-01
The DIRAC Interware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. The DIRAC Data Management System (DMS) offers all the necessary tools to ensure data handling operations for small and large user communities. It supports transparent access to storage resources based on multiple technologies, and is easily expandable. The information on data files and replicas is kept in a File Catalog of which DIRAC offers a powerful and versatile implementation (DFC). Data movement can be performed using third party services including FTS3. Bulk data operations are resilient with respect to failures due to the use of the Request Management System (RMS) that keeps track of ongoing tasks. In this contribution we will present an overview of the DIRAC DMS capabilities and its connection with other DIRAC subsystems such as the Transformation System. The DIRAC DMS is in use by several user communities now. The contribution will present the experience of the LHCb exper...
Double Dirac cones in phononic crystals
Li, Yan; Wu, Ying; Mei, Jun
2014-01-01
A double Dirac cone is realized at the center of the Brillouin zone of a two-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) consisting of a triangular array of core-shell-structure cylinders in water. The double Dirac cone is induced by the accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate Bloch states. Using a perturbation method, we demonstrate that the double Dirac cone is composed of two identical and overlapping Dirac cones whose linear slopes can also be accurately predicted from the method. Because the double Dirac cone occurs at a relatively low frequency, a slab of the PC can be mapped onto a slab of zero refractive index material by using a standard retrieval method. Total transmission without phase change and energy tunneling at the double Dirac point frequency are unambiguously demonstrated by two examples. Potential applications can be expected in diverse fields such as acoustic wave manipulations and energy flow control.
The Dirac medals of the ICTP. 1993
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-01-01
The Dirac Medals of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) were instituted in 1985. These are awarded yearly to outstanding physicists, on Dirac's birthday - 8th August- for contributions to theoretical physics. The document includes the lectures of the three Dirac Medalists for 1993: Professor Sergio Ferrara, Professor Daniel Z. Freedman, and Professor Peter van Nieuwenhuizen. A separate abstract was prepared for each lecture
LHCbDIRAC as Apache Mesos microservices
Haen, Christophe; Couturier, Benjamin
2017-01-01
The LHCb experiment relies on LHCbDIRAC, an extension of DIRAC, to drive its offline computing. This middleware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. These components are currently installed and run on virtual machines (VM) or bare metal hardware. Due to the increased workload, high availability is becoming more and more important for the LHCbDIRAC services, and the current installation model is showing its limitations. A...
LHCbDIRAC as Apache Mesos microservices
Haen, Christophe; Couturier, Benjamin
2017-10-01
The LHCb experiment relies on LHCbDIRAC, an extension of DIRAC, to drive its offline computing. This middleware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. These components are currently installed and run on virtual machines (VM) or bare metal hardware. Due to the increased workload, high availability is becoming more and more important for the LHCbDIRAC services, and the current installation model is showing its limitations. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager which aims at abstracting heterogeneous physical resources on which various tasks can be distributed thanks to so called “frameworks” The Marathon framework is suitable for long running tasks such as the DIRAC services, while the Chronos framework meets the needs of cron-like tasks like the DIRAC agents. A combination of the service discovery tool Consul together with HAProxy allows to expose the running containers to the outside world while hiding their dynamic placements. Such an architecture brings a greater flexibility in the deployment of LHCbDirac services, allowing for easier deployment maintenance and scaling of services on demand (e..g LHCbDirac relies on 138 services and 116 agents). Higher reliability is also easier, as clustering is part of the toolset, which allows constraints on the location of the services. This paper describes the investigations carried out to package the LHCbDIRAC and DIRAC components into Docker containers and orchestrate them using the previously described set of tools.
Unified picture for Dirac neutrinos, dark matter, dark energy and matter–antimatter asymmetry
Gu, Pei-Hong
2008-01-01
We propose a unified scenario to generate the masses of Dirac neutrinos and cold dark matter at the TeV scale, understand the origin of dark energy and explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe. This model can lead to significant impact on the Higgs searches at LHC.
Geometric phase of neutrinos: Differences between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos
Capolupo, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Hiesmayr, B. C.; Vitiello, G.
2018-05-01
We analyze the non-cyclic geometric phase for neutrinos. We find that the geometric phase and the total phase associated to the mixing phenomenon provide a theoretical tool to distinguish between Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. Our results hold for neutrinos propagating in vacuum and through the matter. We feed the values of the experimental parameters in our formulas in order to make contact with experiments. Although it remains an open question how the geometric phase of neutrinos could be detected, our theoretical results may open new scenarios in the investigation of the neutrino nature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karbstein, Felix
2009-01-01
We introduce a new method for dealing with fermionic quantum field theories amenable to a mean-field-type approximation. In this work we focus on the relativistic Hartree approximation. Our aim is to integrate out the Dirac sea and derive a no-sea effective theory'' with positive energy single particle states only. As the derivation of the no-sea effective theory involves only standard Feynman diagrams, our approach is quite general and not restricted to particular space-time dimensions. We develop and illustrate the approach in the ''large N'' limit of the Gross-Neveu model family in 1+1 dimensions. As the Gross-Neveu model has been intensely studied and several analytical solutions are known for this model, it is an ideal testing ground for our no-sea effective theory approach. The chiral Gross-Neveu model, also referred to as 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, turns out to be of particular interest. In this case, we explicitly derive a consistent effective theory featuring both elementary ''π meson'' fields and (positive energy) ''quark'' fields, starting from a purely fermionic quantum field theory. In the second part of this work, we apply our approach to the Walecka model in 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. As the Dirac sea caused considerable difficulties in attempts to base nuclear physics on field theoretic models like the Walecka model, mean-field calculations were typically done without the sea. We confront several of these mean-field theory results with our no-sea effective theory approach. The potential of our approach is twofold. While the no-sea effective theory can be utilized to provide new analytical insights in particular parameter regimes, it also sheds new light on more fundamental issues as the explicit emergence of effective, Dirac-sea induced multi-fermion interactions in an effective theory with positive energy states only. (orig.)
Noncommutativity into Dirac Equation with mass dependent on the position
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bastos, Samuel Batista; Almeida, Carlos Alberto Santos; Nunes, Luciana Angelica da Silva
2013-01-01
Full text: In recent years, there is growing interest in the study of theories in non-commutative spaces. Non-commutative fields theories are related with compactifications of M theory, string theory and the quantum Hall effect. Moreover, the role of the non-commutativity of theories of a particle finds large applications when analyzed in scenarios of quantum mechanics and relativistic quantum mechanics. In these contexts investigations on the Schrodinger and Dirac equations with mass depending on the position (MDP) has attracted much attention in the literature. Systems endowed with MDP models are useful for the study of many physical problems. In particular, they are used to study the energy density in problems of many bodies, determining the electronic properties of semiconductor heterostructures and also to describe the properties of heterojunctions and quantum dots. In particular, the investigation of relativistic effects it is important for systems containing heavy atoms or doping by heavy ions. For these types of materials, the study of the properties of the Dirac equation, in the case where the mass becomes variable is of great interest. In this paper, we seek for the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac Hamiltonian in the context of a theory of effective mass, through a Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation. We analyse the Dirac equation with mass dependent on the position, in a smooth step shape mass distribution, in non-commutative space (NC). This potential type kink was recently discussed by several authors in the commutative context and now we present our results in the non-commutative context. (author)
Dirac tensor with heavy photon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bytev, V.V.; Kuraev, E.A. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics; Scherbakova, E.S. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik
2012-01-15
For the large-angles hard photon emission by initial leptons in process of high energy annihilation of e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} to hadrons the Dirac tensor is obtained, taking into account the lowest order radiative corrections. The case of large-angles emission of two hard photons by initial leptons is considered. This result is being completed by the kinematics case of collinear hard photons emission as well as soft virtual and real photons and can be used for construction of Monte-Carlo generators. (orig.)
The Dirac equation in classical statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ord, G.N.
2002-01-01
The Dirac equation, usually obtained by 'quantizing' a classical stochastic model is here obtained directly within classical statistical mechanics. The special underlying space-time geometry of the random walk replaces the missing analytic continuation, making the model 'self-quantizing'. This provides a new context for the Dirac equation, distinct from its usual context in relativistic quantum mechanics
Dirac and Weyl semimetals with holographic interactions
Jacobs, V.P.J.
2015-01-01
Dirac and Weyl semimetals are states of matter exhibiting the relativistic physics of, respectively, the Dirac and Weyl equation in a three-dimensional bulk material. These three-dimensional semimetals have recently been realized experimentally in various crystals. Theoretically, especially the
A fractional Dirac equation and its solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muslih, Sami I; Agrawal, Om P; Baleanu, Dumitru
2010-01-01
This paper presents a fractional Dirac equation and its solution. The fractional Dirac equation may be obtained using a fractional variational principle and a fractional Klein-Gordon equation; both methods are considered here. We extend the variational formulations for fractional discrete systems to fractional field systems defined in terms of Caputo derivatives. By applying the variational principle to a fractional action S, we obtain the fractional Euler-Lagrange equations of motion. We present a Lagrangian and a Hamiltonian for the fractional Dirac equation of order α. We also use a fractional Klein-Gordon equation to obtain the fractional Dirac equation which is the same as that obtained using the fractional variational principle. Eigensolutions of this equation are presented which follow the same approach as that for the solution of the standard Dirac equation. We also provide expressions for the path integral quantization for the fractional Dirac field which, in the limit α → 1, approaches to the path integral for the regular Dirac field. It is hoped that the fractional Dirac equation and the path integral quantization of the fractional field will allow further development of fractional relativistic quantum mechanics.
New solitons connected to the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, H.
1984-01-01
Imposing isospectral invariance for the one dimensional Dirac operator leads to systems of nonlinear partial differential equations. By constructing reflectionless potentials of the Dirac equation we obtain a new type of solitons for a system of modified Korteweg-de Vries equations. (Author)
Effects of acceleration through the Dirac sea
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hacyan, S.
1986-01-01
The effects of acceleration through massive scalar and spin-1/2 fields are investigated. It is shown that the density-of-states factor in a uniformly accelerated frame takes a complicated form, but the energy spectrum exhibits a Bose-Einstein or Fermi-Dirac distribution function. In particular, the Dirac sea shows thermal-like effects
Semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals
Zhang, Xiujuan; Wu, Ying
2014-01-01
of rubber, in which the acoustic wave velocity is lower than that in water, the semi-Dirac dispersion can be characterized by an effective medium theory. The effective medium parameters link the semi-Dirac point to a topological transition in the iso
On the solution of the Dirac equation in de Sitter space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klishevich, V V; Tyumentsev, V A
2005-01-01
It is shown that the maximal number of first-order symmetry operators for the Dirac equation (including spin symmetries), both in arbitrary signature flat space and in de Sitter space, is equal. The isomorphic representation of 11-dimensional nonlinear symmetry algebra (W-algebra) of first-order operators for the Dirac operator in flat space and de Sitter space is considered. The algebra is an extension of the Lie algebra of the group of pseudo-orthogonal rotations and this extension is unique. We have found all linear Lie subalgebras in the nonlinear algebra that satisfy the conditions of the noncommutative integration theorem. Using one subalgebra we have integrated the Dirac equation in the generalized spherical system of coordinates and have constructed the complete class of exact solutions. The solution is found by a method that differs from the variable separation method and is new in the literature. The massive particle spectrum, models of particle into antiparticle transmutation, the disappearance of particles and the quantization conditions of the motion are discussed. One can use the results of the paper to pose the boundary problem for the Dirac equation in de Sitter space if the interval is used in the boundary condition. As an example, we consider a model of asymptotically flat space that is glued from the de Sitter space and flat space. We interpret the model as a gravitational well or barrier
LHCbDIRAC as Apache Mesos microservices
Couturier, Ben
2016-01-01
The LHCb experiment relies on LHCbDIRAC, an extension of DIRAC, to drive its offline computing. This middleware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. These components are currently installed and ran on virtual machines (VM) or bare metal hardware. Due to the increased load of work, high availability is becoming more and more important for the LHCbDIRAC services, and the current installation model is showing its limitations. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager which aims at abstracting heterogeneous physical resources on which various tasks can be distributed thanks to so called "framework". The Marathon framework is suitable for long running tasks such as the DIRAC services, while the Chronos framework meets the needs of cron-like tasks like the DIRAC agents. A combination of the service discovery tool Consul together with HAProxy allows to expose the running containers to the outside world while hiding their dynamic placements. Such an arc...
Dirac operators on coset spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balachandran, A.P.; Immirzi, Giorgio; Lee, Joohan; Presnajder, Peter
2003-01-01
The Dirac operator for a manifold Q, and its chirality operator when Q is even dimensional, have a central role in noncommutative geometry. We systematically develop the theory of this operator when Q=G/H, where G and H are compact connected Lie groups and G is simple. An elementary discussion of the differential geometric and bundle theoretic aspects of G/H, including its projective modules and complex, Kaehler and Riemannian structures, is presented for this purpose. An attractive feature of our approach is that it transparently shows obstructions to spin- and spin c -structures. When a manifold is spin c and not spin, U(1) gauge fields have to be introduced in a particular way to define spinors, as shown by Avis, Isham, Cahen, and Gutt. Likewise, for manifolds like SU(3)/SO(3), which are not even spin c , we show that SU(2) and higher rank gauge fields have to be introduced to define spinors. This result has potential consequences for string theories if such manifolds occur as D-branes. The spectra and eigenstates of the Dirac operator on spheres S n =SO(n+1)/SO(n), invariant under SO(n+1), are explicitly found. Aspects of our work overlap with the earlier research of Cahen et al
Naturally light Dirac neutrino in Left-Right Symmetric Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borah, Debasish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam-781039 (India); Dasgupta, Arnab, E-mail: dborah@iitg.ernet.in, E-mail: arnab.d@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, HBNI, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneshwar-751005 (India)
2017-06-01
We study the possibility of generating tiny Dirac masses of neutrinos in Left-Right Symmetric Model (LRSM) without requiring the existence of any additional symmetries. The charged fermions acquire masses through a universal seesaw mechanism due to the presence of additional vector like fermions. The neutrinos acquire a one-loop Dirac mass from the same additional vector like charged leptons without requiring any additional discrete symmetries. The model can also be extended by an additional Z {sub 2} symmetry in order to have a scotogenic version of this scenario predicting a stable dark matter candidate. We show that the latest Planck upper bound on the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom N {sub eff}=3.15 ± 0.23 tightly constrains the right sector gauge boson masses to be heavier than 3.548 TeV . This bound on gauge boson mass also affects the allowed values of right scalar doublet dark matter mass from the requirement of satisfying the Planck bound on dark matter relic abundance. We also discuss the possible implications of such a scenario in charged lepton flavour violation and generating observable electric dipole moment of leptons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karbstein, Felix
2009-07-08
We introduce a new method for dealing with fermionic quantum field theories amenable to a mean-field-type approximation. In this work we focus on the relativistic Hartree approximation. Our aim is to integrate out the Dirac sea and derive a no-sea effective theory'' with positive energy single particle states only. As the derivation of the no-sea effective theory involves only standard Feynman diagrams, our approach is quite general and not restricted to particular space-time dimensions. We develop and illustrate the approach in the ''large N'' limit of the Gross-Neveu model family in 1+1 dimensions. As the Gross-Neveu model has been intensely studied and several analytical solutions are known for this model, it is an ideal testing ground for our no-sea effective theory approach. The chiral Gross-Neveu model, also referred to as 1+1 dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, turns out to be of particular interest. In this case, we explicitly derive a consistent effective theory featuring both elementary ''{pi} meson'' fields and (positive energy) ''quark'' fields, starting from a purely fermionic quantum field theory. In the second part of this work, we apply our approach to the Walecka model in 1+1 and 3+1 dimensions. As the Dirac sea caused considerable difficulties in attempts to base nuclear physics on field theoretic models like the Walecka model, mean-field calculations were typically done without the sea. We confront several of these mean-field theory results with our no-sea effective theory approach. The potential of our approach is twofold. While the no-sea effective theory can be utilized to provide new analytical insights in particular parameter regimes, it also sheds new light on more fundamental issues as the explicit emergence of effective, Dirac-sea induced multi-fermion interactions in an effective theory with positive energy states only. (orig.)
Predictions for the Dirac C P -violating phase from sum rules
Delgadillo, Luis A.; Everett, Lisa L.; Ramos, Raymundo; Stuart, Alexander J.
2018-05-01
We explore the implications of recent results relating the Dirac C P -violating phase to predicted and measured leptonic mixing angles within a standard set of theoretical scenarios in which charged lepton corrections are responsible for generating a nonzero value of the reactor mixing angle. We employ a full set of leptonic sum rules as required by the unitarity of the lepton mixing matrix, which can be reduced to predictions for the observable mixing angles and the Dirac C P -violating phase in terms of model parameters. These sum rules are investigated within a given set of theoretical scenarios for the neutrino sector diagonalization matrix for several known classes of charged lepton corrections. The results provide explicit maps of the allowed model parameter space within each given scenario and assumed form of charged lepton perturbations.
Paul Dirac: the purest soul in physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berry, M.
1998-01-01
Paul Dirac published the first of his papers on ''The Quantum Theory of the Electron'' seventy years ago this month. Published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society (London) in February and March 1928, the papers contained one of the greatest leaps of imagination in 20th century physics. The Dirac equation, derived in those papers, is one of the most important equations in physics. Dirac showed that the simplest wave satisfying the requirements of quantum mechanics and relativity was not a simple number but had four components. He found that the logic that led to the theory was, although deeply sophisticated, in a sense beautifully simple. Much later, when someone asked him ''How did you find the Dirac equation?'' he is said to have replied: ''I found it beautiful''. In addition to explaining the magnetic and spin properties of the electron, the equation also predicts the existence of antimatter. Because Dirac was a quiet man - famously quiet, indeed - he is not well known outside physics, although this is slowly changing. In 1995 a plaque to Dirac was unveiled at Westminster Abbey in London and last year Institute of Physics Publishing, which is based in Bristol, named its new building Dirac House. In this article the author recalls the achievements of the greatest physicists of the 20th century. (UK)
Dirac fermions in blue-phosphorus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Yuanchang; Chen, Xiaobin
2014-01-01
We propose that Dirac cones can be engineered in phosphorene with fourfold-coordinated phosphorus atoms. The key is to separate the energy levels of the in-plane (s, p x , and p y ) and out-of-plane (p z ) oribtals through the sp 2 configuration, yielding respective σ- and π-character Dirac cones, and then quench the latter. As a proof-of-principle study, we create σ-character Dirac cones in hydrogenated and fluorinated phosphorene with a honeycomb lattice. The obtained Dirac cones are at K-points, slightly anisotropic, with Fermi velocities of 0.91 and 1.23 times that of graphene along the ΓK and KM direction, and maintain good linearity up to ∼2 eV for holes. A substantive advantage of a σ-character Dirac cone is its convenience in tuning the Dirac gap via in-plane strain. Our findings pave the way for development of high-performance electronic devices based on Dirac materials. (letter)
Dirac cones in isogonal hexagonal metallic structures
Wang, Kang
2018-03-01
A honeycomb hexagonal metallic lattice is equivalent to a triangular atomic one and cannot create Dirac cones in its electromagnetic wave spectrum. We study in this work the low-frequency electromagnetic band structures in isogonal hexagonal metallic lattices that are directly related to the honeycomb one and show that such structures can create Dirac cones. The band formation can be described by a tight-binding model that allows investigating, in terms of correlations between local resonance modes, the condition for the Dirac cones and the consequence of the third structure tile sustaining an extra resonance mode in the unit cell that induces band shifts and thus nonlinear deformation of the Dirac cones following the wave vectors departing from the Dirac points. We show further that, under structure deformation, the deformations of the Dirac cones result from two different correlation mechanisms, both reinforced by the lattice's metallic nature, which directly affects the resonance mode correlations. The isogonal structures provide new degrees of freedom for tuning the Dirac cones, allowing adjustment of the cone shape by modulating the structure tiles at the local scale without modifying the lattice periodicity and symmetry.
Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Chardin, Gabriel
2014-05-01
We study an unconventional cosmology, in which we investigate the consequences that antigravity would pose to cosmology. We present the main characteristics of the Dirac-Milne Universe, a cosmological model where antimatter has a negative active gravitational mass. In this non-standard Universe, separate domains of matter and antimatter coexist at our epoch without annihilation, separated by a gravitationally induced depletion zone. We show that this cosmology does not require a priori the Dark Matter and Dark Energy components of the standard model of cosmology. Additionally, inflation becomes an unnecessary ingredient. Investigating this model, we show that the classical cosmological tests such as primordial nucleosynthesis, Type Ia supernovæ and Cosmic Microwave Background are surprisingly concordant.
The Dirac equation and its solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagrov, Vladislav G. [Tomsk State Univ., Tomsk (Russian Federation). Dept. of Quantum Field Theroy; Gitman, Dmitry [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Univ., Tomsk (Russian Federation). Faculty of Physics
2013-07-01
The Dirac equation is of fundamental importance for relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. In relativistic quantum mechanics, the Dirac equation is referred to as one-particle wave equation of motion for electron in an external electromagnetic field. In quantum electrodynamics, exact solutions of this equation are needed to treat the interaction between the electron and the external field exactly. In particular, all propagators of a particle, i.e., the various Green's functions, are constructed in a certain way by using exact solutions of the Dirac equation.
The Dirac equation and its solutions
Bagrov, Vladislav G
2014-01-01
Dirac equations are of fundamental importance for relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. In relativistic quantum mechanics, the Dirac equation is referred to as one-particle wave equation of motion for electron in an external electromagnetic field. In quantum electrodynamics, exact solutions of this equation are needed to treat the interaction between the electron and the external field exactly.In particular, all propagators of a particle, i.e., the various Green's functions, are constructed in a certain way by using exact solutions of the Dirac equation.
Counter-diabatic driving for Dirac dynamics
Fan, Qi-Zhen; Cheng, Xiao-Hang; Chen, Xi
2018-03-01
In this paper, we investigate the fast quantum control of Dirac equation dynamics by counter-diabatic driving, sharing the concept of shortcut to adiabaticity. We systematically calculate the counter-diabatic terms in different Dirac systems, like graphene and trapped ions. Specially, the fast and robust population inversion processes are achieved in Dirac system, taking into account the quantum simulation with trapped ions. In addition, the population transfer between two bands can be suppressed by counter-diabatic driving in graphene system, which might have potential applications in opt-electric devices.
Quantum geometry of the Dirac fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korchemskij, G.P.
1989-01-01
The bosonic path integral formalism is developed for Dirac fermions interacting with a nonabelian gauge field in the D-dimensional Euclidean space-time. The representation for the effective action and correlation functions of interacting fermions as sums over all bosonic paths on the complex projective space CP 2d-1 , (2d=2 [ D 2] is derived where all the spinor structure is absorbed by the one-dimensional Wess-Zumino term. It is the Wess-Zumino term that ensures all necessary properties of Dirac fermions under quantization. i.e., quantized values of the spin, Dirac equation, Fermi statistics. 19 refs
The Dirac equation and its solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagrov, Vladislav G.; Gitman, Dmitry; P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow; Tomsk State Univ., Tomsk
2013-01-01
The Dirac equation is of fundamental importance for relativistic quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. In relativistic quantum mechanics, the Dirac equation is referred to as one-particle wave equation of motion for electron in an external electromagnetic field. In quantum electrodynamics, exact solutions of this equation are needed to treat the interaction between the electron and the external field exactly. In particular, all propagators of a particle, i.e., the various Green's functions, are constructed in a certain way by using exact solutions of the Dirac equation.
Scalar potentials and the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergerhoff, B.; Soff, G.
1994-01-01
The Dirac equation is solved for various types of scalar potentials. Energy eigenvalues and normalized bound-state wave functions are calculated analytically for a scalar 1/r-potential as well as for a mixed scalar and Coulomb 1/r-potential. Also continuum wave functions for positive and negative energies are derived. Similarly, we investigate the solutions of the Dirac equation for a scalar square-well potential. Relativistic wave functions for scalar Yukawa and exponential potentials are determined numerically. Finally, we also discuss solutions of the Dirac equation for scalar linear and quadratic potentials which are frequently used to simulate quark confinement. (orig.)
Dirac spinors for doubly special relativity and κ-Minkowski noncommutative spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Agostini, Alessandra; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Arzano, Michele
2004-01-01
We construct a Dirac equation that is consistent with one of the recently-proposed schemes for a 'doubly special relativity', a relativity with both an observer-independent velocity scale (still naturally identified with the speed-of-light constant) and an observer-independent length/momentum scale (possibly given by the Planck length/momentum). We find that the introduction of the second observer-independent scale only induces a mild deformation of the structure of Dirac spinors. We also show that our modified Dirac equation naturally arises in constructing a Dirac equation in the κ-Minkowski noncommutative spacetime. Previous, more heuristic studies had already argued for a possible role of doubly special relativity in κ-Minkowski, but remained vague on the nature of the consistency requirements that should be implemented in order to assure the observer-independence of the two scales. We find that a key role is played by the choice of a differential calculus in κ-Minkowski. A much-studied choice of the differential calculus does lead to our doubly special relativity Dirac equation, but a different scenario is encountered for another popular choice of differential calculus
A generalization of Dirac non-linear electrodynamics, and spinning charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Vaz Junior, J.; Recami, E.
1992-08-01
The Dirac non-linear electrodynamics is generalized by introducing two potentials (namely, the vector potential a and the pseudo-vector potential γ 5 B of the electromagnetic theory with charges and magnetic monopoles), and by imposing the pseudoscalar part of the product W W * to BE zero, with W = A + γ 5 B. Also, is demonstrated that the field equations of such a theory posses a soliton-like solution which can represent a priori a charged particle. (L.C.J.A.)
Romanholi, Daniella J.P.C.; Salgado, Luiz Roberto
2007-01-01
Síndromes de pseudo-Cushing são um grupo heterogêneo de doenças, incluindo alcoolismo, anorexia nervosa, obesidade visceral e depressão, que compartilham muitas das características clínicas e bioquímicas da síndrome de Cushing. Os mecanismos responsáveis para a gênese da síndrome de pseudo-Cushing são fracamente compreendidos. Tem sido sugerido que o hipercortisolismo da síndrome de pseudo-Cushing pode ser resultante do aumento da secreção do hormônio liberador de corticotrofina (CRH) hipotal...
Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Kai; Wang Jianhua; Yuan Yi
2011-01-01
The Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space is studied in this paper. Firstly, since the Dirac equation is described as a matrix equation in phase space, it is necessary to define the Wigner function as a matrix function in spinor space. Secondly, the matrix form of the Wigner function is proven to support the Dirac equation. Thirdly, by solving the Dirac equation, energy levels and the Wigner function for the Dirac oscillator in spinor space are obtained. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hervik, Sigbjoern; Coley, Alan
2011-01-01
In this paper we consider pseudo-Riemannian spaces of arbitrary signature for which all of the polynomial curvature invariants vanish (VSI spaces). We discuss an algebraic classification of pseudo-Riemannian spaces in terms of the boost weight decomposition and define the S i - and N-properties, and show that if the curvature tensors of the space possess the N-property, then it is a VSI space. We then use this result to construct a set of metrics that are VSI. All of the VSI spaces constructed possess a geodesic, expansion-free, shear-free, and twist-free null congruence. We also discuss the related Walker metrics.
Dirac equation in magnetic-solenoid field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gavrilov, S.P. [Dept. Fisica e Quimica, UNESP, Campus de Guaratingueta (Brazil); Gitman, D.M.; Smirnov, A.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2004-07-01
We consider the Dirac equation in the magnetic-solenoid field (the field of a solenoid and a collinear uniform magnetic field). For the case of Aharonov-Bohm solenoid, we construct self-adjoint extensions of the Dirac Hamiltonian using von Neumann's theory of deficiency indices. We find self-adjoint extensions of the Dirac Hamiltonian and boundary conditions at the AB solenoid. Besides, for the first time, solutions of the Dirac equation in the magnetic-solenoid field with a finite radius solenoid were found. We study the structure of these solutions and their dependence on the behavior of the magnetic field inside the solenoid. Then we exploit the latter solutions to specify boundary conditions for the magnetic-solenoid field with Aharonov-Bohm solenoid. (orig.)
SU(4) proprerties of the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linhares, C.A.; Mignaco, J.A.
1985-09-01
The Dirac equation in four dimensions has an intimate connection with the representations of the group SU(4). This connection is shown in detail and subsequent properties are displayed in the continuum as well as in the lattice description [pt
New symmetries for the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linhares, C.A.; Mignaco, J.A.
1990-01-01
The Dirac equation in four dimension is studied describing fermions, both as 4 x 4 matrices and differential forms. It is discussed in both formalisms its properties under transformations of the group SU(4). (A.C.A.S.) [pt
On the level order for Dirac operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, H.
1987-01-01
We start from the Dirac operator for the Coulomb potential and prove within first order perturbation theory that degenerate levels split in a definite way depending on the sign of the Laplacian of the perturbing potential. 9 refs. (Author)
Data acquisition software for DIRAC experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ol'shevskij, V.G.; Trusov, S.V.
2000-01-01
The structure and basic processes of data acquisition software of DIRAC experiment for the measurement of π + π - atom life-time are described. The experiment is running on PS accelerator of CERN. The developed software allows one to accept, record and distribute to consumers up to 3 Mbytes of data in one accelerator supercycle of 14.4 s duration. The described system is used successfully in the DIRAC experiment starting from 1998 year
New exact solutions of the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagrov, V.G.; Gitman, D.M.; Zadorozhnyj, V.N.; Lavrov, P.M.; Shapovalov, V.N.
1980-01-01
Search for new exact solutions of the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations are in progress. Considered are general properties of the Dirac equation solutions for an electron in a purely magnetic field, in combination with a longitudinal magnetic and transverse electric fields. New solutions for the equations of charge motion in an electromagnetic field of axial symmetry and in a nonstationary field of a special form have been found for potentials selected concretely
Deuteron stripping reactions using dirac phenomenology
Hawk, E. A.; McNeil, J. A.
2001-04-01
In this work deuteron stripping reactions are studied using the distorted wave born approximation employing dirac phenomenological potentials. In 1982 Shepard and Rost performed zero-range dirac phenomenological stripping calculations and found a dramatic reduction in the predicted cross sections when compared with similar nonrelativistic calculations. We extend the earlier work by including full finite range effects as well as the deuteron's internal D-state. Results will be compared with traditional nonrelativistic approaches and experimental data at low energy.
Solvable linear potentials in the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominguez-Adame, F.; Gonzalez, M.A.
1990-01-01
The Dirac equation for some linear potentials leading to Schroedinger-like oscillator equations for the upper and lower components of the Dirac spinor have been solved. Energy levels for the bound states appear in pairs, so that both particles and antiparticles may be bound with the same energy. For weak coupling, the spacing between levels is proportional to the coupling constant while in the strong limit those levels are depressed compared to the nonrelativistic ones
Leptons as systems of Dirac particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borstnik, N.M.; Kaluza, M.
1988-03-01
Charged leptons are treated as systems of three equal independent Dirac particles in an external static effective potential which has a vector and a scalar term. The potential is constructed to reproduce the experimental mass spectrum of the charged leptons. The Dirac covariant equation for three interacting particles is discussed in order to comment on the magnetic moment of leptons. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs
Dirac equation on a curved surface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandt, F.T., E-mail: fbrandt@usp.br; Sánchez-Monroy, J.A., E-mail: antosan@usp.br
2016-09-07
The dynamics of Dirac particles confined to a curved surface is examined employing the thin-layer method. We perform a perturbative expansion to first-order and split the Dirac field into normal and tangential components to the surface. In contrast to the known behavior of second order equations like Schrödinger, Maxwell and Klein–Gordon, we find that there is no geometric potential for the Dirac equation on a surface. This implies that the non-relativistic limit does not commute with the thin-layer method. Although this problem can be overcome when second-order terms are retained in the perturbative expansion, this would preclude the decoupling of the normal and tangential degrees of freedom. Therefore, we propose to introduce a first-order term which rescues the non-relativistic limit and also clarifies the effect of the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures on the dynamics of the Dirac particles. - Highlights: • The thin-layer method is employed to derive the Dirac equation on a curved surface. • A geometric potential is absent at least to first-order in the perturbative expansion. • The effects of the extrinsic curvature are included to rescue the non-relativistic limit. • The resulting Dirac equation is consistent with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.
Mathe, Z.; Casajus Ramo, A.; Lazovsky, N.; Stagni, F.
2015-12-01
For many years the DIRAC interware (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) has had a web interface, allowing the users to monitor DIRAC activities and also interact with the system. Since then many new web technologies have emerged, therefore a redesign and a new implementation of the DIRAC Web portal were necessary, taking into account the lessons learnt using the old portal. These new technologies allowed to build a more compact, robust and responsive web interface that enables users to have better control over the whole system while keeping a simple interface. The web framework provides a large set of “applications”, each of which can be used for interacting with various parts of the system. Communities can also create their own set of personalised web applications, and can easily extend already existing ones with a minimal effort. Each user can configure and personalise the view for each application and save it using the DIRAC User Profile service as RESTful state provider, instead of using cookies. The owner of a view can share it with other users or within a user community. Compatibility between different browsers is assured, as well as with mobile versions. In this paper, we present the new DIRAC Web framework as well as the LHCb extension of the DIRAC Web portal.
Dirac Fermions in an Antiferromagnetic Semimetal
Tang, Peizhe; Zhou, Quan; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Shou-Cheng Zhang's Group Team, Prof.
Analogues of the elementary particles have been extensively searched for in condensed matter systems for both scientific interest and technological applications. Recently, massless Dirac fermions were found to emerge as low energy excitations in materials now known as Dirac semimetals. All the currently known Dirac semimetals are nonmagnetic with both time-reversal symmetry and inversion symmetry "". Here we show that Dirac fermions can exist in one type of antiferromagnetic systems, where both and "" are broken but their combination "" is respected. We propose orthorhombic antiferromagnet CuMnAs as a candidate, analyze the robustness of the Dirac points under symmetry protections, and demonstrate its distinctive bulk dispersions as well as the corresponding surface states by ab initio calculations. Our results provide a possible platform to study the interplay of Dirac fermion physics and magnetism. We acknowledge the DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under contract DE-AC02-76SF00515, NSF under Grant No.DMR-1305677 and FAME, one of six centers of STARnet.
Conformal maps between pseudo-Finsler spaces
Voicu, Nicoleta
The paper aims to initiate a systematic study of conformal mappings between Finsler spacetimes and, more generally, between pseudo-Finsler spaces. This is done by extending several results in pseudo-Riemannian geometry which are necessary for field-theoretical applications and by proposing a technique that reduces some problems involving pseudo-Finslerian conformal vector fields to their pseudo-Riemannian counterparts. Also, we point out, by constructing classes of examples, that conformal groups of flat (locally Minkowskian) pseudo-Finsler spaces can be much richer than both flat Finslerian and pseudo-Euclidean conformal groups.
Itinerant quantum multicriticality of two-dimensional Dirac fermions
Roy, Bitan; Goswami, Pallab; Juričić, Vladimir
2018-05-01
We analyze emergent quantum multicriticality for strongly interacting, massless Dirac fermions in two spatial dimensions (d =2 ) within the framework of Gross-Neveu-Yukawa models, by considering the competing order parameters that give rise to fully gapped (insulating or superconducting) ground states. We focus only on those competing orders which can be rotated into each other by generators of an exact or emergent chiral symmetry of massless Dirac fermions, and break O(S1) and O(S2) symmetries in the ordered phase. Performing a renormalization-group analysis by using the ɛ =(3 -d ) expansion scheme, we show that all the coupling constants in the critical hyperplane flow toward a new attractive fixed point, supporting an enlarged O(S1+S2) chiral symmetry. Such a fixed point acts as an exotic quantum multicritical point (MCP), governing the continuous semimetal-insulator as well as insulator-insulator (for example, antiferromagnet to valence bond solid) quantum phase transitions. In comparison with the lower symmetric semimetal-insulator quantum critical points, possessing either O(S1) or O(S2) chiral symmetry, the MCP displays enhanced correlation length exponents, and anomalous scaling dimensions for both fermionic and bosonic fields. We discuss the scaling properties of the ratio of bosonic and fermionic masses, and the increased dc resistivity at the MCP. By computing the scaling dimensions of different local fermion bilinears in the particle-hole channel, we establish that most of the four fermion operators or generalized density-density correlation functions display faster power-law decays at the MCP compared to the free fermion and lower symmetric itinerant quantum critical points. Possible generalization of this scenario to higher-dimensional Dirac fermions is also outlined.
First-principles study of Dirac and Dirac-like cones in phononic and photonic crystals
Mei, Jun; Wu, Ying; Chan, C. T.; Zhang, Zhao-Qing
2012-01-01
By using the k•p method, we propose a first-principles theory to study the linear dispersions in phononic and photonic crystals. The theory reveals that only those linear dispersions created by doubly degenerate states can be described by a reduced Hamiltonian that can be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and possess a Berry phase of -π. Linear dispersions created by triply degenerate states cannot be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and carry no Berry phase, and, therefore should be called Dirac-like cones. Our theory is capable of predicting accurately the linear slopes of Dirac and Dirac-like cones at various symmetry points in a Brillouin zone, independent of frequency and lattice structure. © 2012 American Physical Society.
First-principles study of Dirac and Dirac-like cones in phononic and photonic crystals
Mei, Jun
2012-07-24
By using the k•p method, we propose a first-principles theory to study the linear dispersions in phononic and photonic crystals. The theory reveals that only those linear dispersions created by doubly degenerate states can be described by a reduced Hamiltonian that can be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and possess a Berry phase of -π. Linear dispersions created by triply degenerate states cannot be mapped into the Dirac Hamiltonian and carry no Berry phase, and, therefore should be called Dirac-like cones. Our theory is capable of predicting accurately the linear slopes of Dirac and Dirac-like cones at various symmetry points in a Brillouin zone, independent of frequency and lattice structure. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Distinguishing Dirac/Majorana sterile neutrinos at the LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dib, Claudio O.; Zhang, Jue
2016-06-01
We study the purely leptonic decays of W ± → e ± e ± μ -+ ν and μ ± μ ± e -+ ν produced at the LHC, induced by sterile neutrinos with mass m N below M W in the intermediate state. Since the final state neutrino escapes detection, one cannot tell whether this process violates lepton number, what would indicate a Majorana character for the intermediate sterile neutrino. Our study shows that when the sterile neutrino mixings with electrons and muons are different enough, one can still discriminate between the Dirac and Majorana character of this intermediate neutrino by simply counting and comparing the above decay rates. After performing collider simulations and statistical analysis, we find that at the 14 TeV LHC with an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb -1 , for two benchmark scenarios m N =20 GeV and 50 GeV, at least a 3σ level of exclusion on the Dirac case can be achieved for disparities as mild as e.g. vertical stroke U Ne vertical stroke 2 <0.7 vertical stroke U Nμ vertical stroke 2 or vertical stroke U Nμ vertical stroke 2 <0.7 vertical stroke U Ne vertical stroke 2 , provided that vertical stroke U Ne vertical stroke 2 , vertical stroke U Nμ vertical stroke 2 are both above ∝2 x 10 -6 .
Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander
2011-03-01
In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can
Volfson, Boris
2013-09-01
The hypothesis of transition from a chaotic Dirac Sea, via highly unstable positronium, into a Simhony Model of stable face-centered cubic lattice structure of electrons and positrons securely bound in vacuum space, is considered. 13.75 Billion years ago, the new lattice, which, unlike a Dirac Sea, is permeable by photons and phonons, made the Universe detectable. Many electrons and positrons ended up annihilating each other producing energy quanta and neutrino-antineutrino pairs. The weak force of the electron-positron crystal lattice, bombarded by the chirality-changing neutrinos, may have started capturing these neutrinos thus transforming from cubic crystals into a quasicrystal lattice. Unlike cubic crystal lattice, clusters of quasicrystals are "slippery" allowing the formation of centers of local torsion, where gravity condenses matter into galaxies, stars and planets. In the presence of quanta, in a quasicrystal lattice, the Majorana neutrinos' rotation flips to the opposite direction causing natural transformations in a category comprised of three components; two others being positron and electron. In other words, each particle-antiparticle pair "e-" and "e+", in an individual crystal unit, could become either a quasi- component "e- ve e+", or a quasi- component "e+ - ve e-". Five-to-six six billion years ago, a continuous stimulation of the quasicrystal aetherial lattice by the same, similar, or different, astronomical events, could have triggered Hebbian and anti-Hebbian learning processes. The Universe may have started writing script into its own aether in a code most appropriate for the quasicrystal aether "hardware": Eight three-dimensional "alphabet" characters, each corresponding to the individual quasi-crystal unit shape. They could be expressed as quantum Turing machine qubits, or, alternatively, in a binary code. The code numerals could contain terminal and nonterminal symbols of the Chomsky's hierarchy, wherein, the showers of quanta, forming the
Semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals
Zhang, Xiujuan
2014-01-01
A semi-Dirac cone refers to a peculiar type of dispersion relation that is linear along the symmetry line but quadratic in the perpendicular direction. It was originally discovered in electron systems, in which the associated quasi-particles are massless along one direction, like those in graphene, but effective-mass-like along the other. It was reported that a semi-Dirac point is associated with the topological phase transition between a semi-metallic phase and a band insulator. Very recently, the classical analogy of a semi-Dirac cone has been reported in an electromagnetic system. Here, we demonstrate that, by accidental degeneracy, two-dimensional phononic crystals consisting of square arrays of elliptical cylinders embedded in water are also able to produce the particular dispersion relation of a semi-Dirac cone in the center of the Brillouin zone. A perturbation method is used to evaluate the linear slope and to affirm that the dispersion relation is a semi-Dirac type. If the scatterers are made of rubber, in which the acoustic wave velocity is lower than that in water, the semi-Dirac dispersion can be characterized by an effective medium theory. The effective medium parameters link the semi-Dirac point to a topological transition in the iso-frequency surface of the phononic crystal, in which an open hyperbola is changed into a closed ellipse. This topological transition results in drastic change in wave manipulation. On the other hand, the theory also reveals that the phononic crystal is a double-zero-index material along the x-direction and photonic-band-edge material along the perpendicular direction (y-direction). If the scatterers are made of steel, in which the acoustic wave velocity is higher than that in water, the effective medium description fails, even though the semi-Dirac dispersion relation looks similar to that in the previous case. Therefore different wave transport behavior is expected. The semi-Dirac points in phononic crystals described in
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hervik, Sigbjoern [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Stavanger, N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Coley, Alan, E-mail: sigbjorn.hervik@uis.no, E-mail: aac@mathstat.dal.ca [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada)
2011-01-07
In this paper we consider pseudo-Riemannian spaces of arbitrary signature for which all of the polynomial curvature invariants vanish (VSI spaces). We discuss an algebraic classification of pseudo-Riemannian spaces in terms of the boost weight decomposition and define the S{sub i}- and N-properties, and show that if the curvature tensors of the space possess the N-property, then it is a VSI space. We then use this result to construct a set of metrics that are VSI. All of the VSI spaces constructed possess a geodesic, expansion-free, shear-free, and twist-free null congruence. We also discuss the related Walker metrics.
Strain engineering of Dirac cones in graphyne
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Gaoxue; Kumar, Ashok; Pandey, Ravindra, E-mail: pandey@mtu.edu [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan 49931 (United States); Si, Mingsu [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)
2014-05-26
6,6,12-graphyne, one of the two-dimensional carbon allotropes with the rectangular lattice structure, has two kinds of non-equivalent anisotropic Dirac cones in the first Brillouin zone. We show that Dirac cones can be tuned independently by the uniaxial compressive strain applied to graphyne, which induces n-type and p-type self-doping effect, by shifting the energy of the Dirac cones in the opposite directions. On the other hand, application of the tensile strain results into a transition from gapless to finite gap system for the monolayer. For the AB-stacked bilayer, the results predict tunability of Dirac-cones by in-plane strains as well as the strain applied perpendicular to the plane. The group velocities of the Dirac cones show enhancement in the resistance anisotropy for bilayer relative to the case of monolayer. Such tunable and direction-dependent electronic properties predicted for 6,6,12-graphyne make it to be competitive for the next-generation electronic devices at nanoscale.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kyng, Morten
1992-01-01
Robert Campbell categorizes the word "scenario" as a buzzword, identifies four major uses within HCI and suggests that we adopt new terms differentiating these four uses of the word. My first reaction to reading the article was definitely positive, but rereading it gave me enough second thoughts...... to warrant a response. I should probably confess that I searched my latest paper for the word "scenario" and found eight occurrences, none of which fell in the categories described by Campbell....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Gaofeng; Dong Shihai
2010-01-01
Based on the Sturm-Liouville theorem and shape invariance formalism, we study by applying a Pekeris-type approximation to the pseudo-centrifugal term the pseudospin symmetry of a Dirac nucleon subjected to scalar and vector Manning-Rosen potentials including the spin-orbit coupling term. A quartic energy equation and spinor wave functions with arbitrary spin-orbit coupling quantum number k are presented. The bound states are calculated numerically. The relativistic Manning-Rosen potential could not trap a Dirac nucleon in the limit case β→∞.
The pseudo-spin orbit interaction and the normal spin orbit interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugawara-Tanabe, K.
1999-01-01
We found the hidden symmetry of the pseudo-spin approximation which is inherent in the Dirac equation both for the spherical potential and for deformed potential with axially symmetric shape. We found two kinds of conditions for both cases, i.e., the exact conditions and the approximate condition for the pseudo-spin symmetry. The former condition is not always satisfied by the real nuclei, but the latter condition is realistic and applicable to the real nuclei. We found that the LS coupling scheme is restored not only for the parity doublet states by also for the other levels at superdeformation because of strong quadrupole field. The contribution from the unique-parity level to the E1 transition becomes non-negligible order in superdeformation. (author)
Interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer Dirac electron systems: motion and merging of Dirac cones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assili, M; Haddad, S
2013-01-01
We theoretically study the effect of the motion and the merging of Dirac cones on the interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene-like systems. This merging, which can be induced by a uniaxial strain, gives rise in a monolayer Dirac electron system to a topological transition from a semi-metallic phase to an insulating phase whereby Dirac points disappear. Based on a universal Hamiltonian, proposed to describe the motion and the merging of Dirac points in two-dimensional Dirac electron crystals, we calculate the interlayer conductivity of a stack of deformed graphene-like layers using the Kubo formula in the quantum limit where only the contribution of the n = 0 Landau level is relevant. A crossover from a negative to a positive interlayer magnetoresistance is found to take place as the merging is approached. This sign change of the magnetoresistance can also result from a coupling between the Dirac valleys, which is enhanced as the magnetic field amplitude increases. Our results describe the behavior of the magnetotransport in the organic conductor α-(BEDT) 2 I 3 and in a stack of deformed graphene-like systems. The latter can be simulated by optical lattices or microwave experiments in which the merging of Dirac cones can be observed. (paper)
Interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer Dirac electron systems: motion and merging of Dirac cones
Assili, M.; Haddad, S.
2013-09-01
We theoretically study the effect of the motion and the merging of Dirac cones on the interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene-like systems. This merging, which can be induced by a uniaxial strain, gives rise in a monolayer Dirac electron system to a topological transition from a semi-metallic phase to an insulating phase whereby Dirac points disappear. Based on a universal Hamiltonian, proposed to describe the motion and the merging of Dirac points in two-dimensional Dirac electron crystals, we calculate the interlayer conductivity of a stack of deformed graphene-like layers using the Kubo formula in the quantum limit where only the contribution of the n = 0 Landau level is relevant. A crossover from a negative to a positive interlayer magnetoresistance is found to take place as the merging is approached. This sign change of the magnetoresistance can also result from a coupling between the Dirac valleys, which is enhanced as the magnetic field amplitude increases. Our results describe the behavior of the magnetotransport in the organic conductor α-(BEDT)2I3 and in a stack of deformed graphene-like systems. The latter can be simulated by optical lattices or microwave experiments in which the merging of Dirac cones can be observed.
Assili, M; Haddad, S
2013-09-11
We theoretically study the effect of the motion and the merging of Dirac cones on the interlayer magnetoresistance in multilayer graphene-like systems. This merging, which can be induced by a uniaxial strain, gives rise in a monolayer Dirac electron system to a topological transition from a semi-metallic phase to an insulating phase whereby Dirac points disappear. Based on a universal Hamiltonian, proposed to describe the motion and the merging of Dirac points in two-dimensional Dirac electron crystals, we calculate the interlayer conductivity of a stack of deformed graphene-like layers using the Kubo formula in the quantum limit where only the contribution of the n = 0 Landau level is relevant. A crossover from a negative to a positive interlayer magnetoresistance is found to take place as the merging is approached. This sign change of the magnetoresistance can also result from a coupling between the Dirac valleys, which is enhanced as the magnetic field amplitude increases. Our results describe the behavior of the magnetotransport in the organic conductor α-(BEDT)2I3 and in a stack of deformed graphene-like systems. The latter can be simulated by optical lattices or microwave experiments in which the merging of Dirac cones can be observed.
Dirac operator on spaces with conical singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, A.W.
1982-01-01
The Dirac operator on compact spaces with conical singularities is studied via the separation of variables formula and the functional calculus of the Dirac Laplacian on the cone. A Bochner type vanishing theorem which gives topological obstructions to the existence of non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 in the singular case is proved. An index formula relating the index of the Dirac operator to the A-genus and Eta-invariant similar to that of Atiyah-Patodi-Singer is obtained. In an appendix, manifolds with boundary with non-negative scalar curvature k greater than or equal to 0 are studied, and several new results on constructing complete metrics with k greater than or equal to on them are obtained
LHCb: Monitoring the DIRAC Distribution System
Nandakumar, R; Santinelli, R
2009-01-01
DIRAC is the LHCb gateway to any computing grid infrastructure (currently supporting WLCG) and is intended to reliably run large data mining activities. The DIRAC system consists of various services (which wait to be contacted to perform actions) and agents (which carry out periodic activities) to direct jobs as required. An important part of ensuring the reliability of the infrastructure is the monitoring and logging of these DIRAC distributed systems. The monitoring is done collecting information from two sources - one is from pinging the services or by keeping track of the regular heartbeats of the agents, and the other from the analysis of the error messages generated by both agents and services and collected by the logging system. This allows us to ensure that he components are running properly and to collect useful information regarding their operations. The process status monitoring is displayed using the SLS sensor mechanism which also automatically allows one to plot various quantities and also keep ...
DIRAC - Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control
Tsaregorodtsev, A; Closier, J; Frank, M; Gaspar, C; van Herwijnen, E; Loverre, F; Ponce, S; Graciani Diaz, R.; Galli, D; Marconi, U; Vagnoni, V; Brook, N; Buckley, A; Harrison, K; Schmelling, M; Egede, U; Bogdanchikov, A; Korolko, I; Washbrook, A; Palacios, J P; Klous, S; Saborido, J J; Khan, A; Pickford, A; Soroko, A; Romanovski, V; Patrick, G N; Kuznetsov, G; Gandelman, M
2003-01-01
This paper describes DIRAC, the LHCb Monte Carlo production system. DIRAC has a client/server architecture based on: Compute elements distributed among the collaborating institutes; Databases for production management, bookkeeping (the metadata catalogue) and software configuration; Monitoring and cataloguing services for updating and accessing the databases. Locally installed software agents implemented in Python monitor the local batch queue, interrogate the production database for any outstanding production requests using the XML-RPC protocol and initiate the job submission. The agent checks and, if necessary, installs any required software automatically. After the job has processed the events, the agent transfers the output data and updates the metadata catalogue. DIRAC has been successfully installed at 18 collaborating institutes, including the DataGRID, and has been used in recent Physics Data Challenges. In the near to medium term future we must use a mixed environment with different types of grid mid...
DIRAC - The Distributed MC Production and Analysis for LHCb
Tsaregorodtsev, A
2004-01-01
DIRAC is the LHCb distributed computing grid infrastructure for MC production and analysis. Its architecture is based on a set of distributed collaborating services. The service decomposition broadly follows the ARDA project proposal, allowing for the possibility of interchanging the EGEE/ARDA and DIRAC components in the future. Some components developed outside the DIRAC project are already in use as services, for example the File Catalog developed by the AliEn project. An overview of the DIRAC architecture will be given, in particular the recent developments to support user analysis. The main design choices will be presented. One of the main design goals of DIRAC is the simplicity of installation, configuring and operation of various services. This allows all the DIRAC resources to be easily managed by a single Production Manager. The modular design of the DIRAC components allows its functionality to be easily extended to include new computing and storage elements or to handle new tasks. The DIRAC system al...
Light dark Higgs boson in minimal sub-GeV dark matter scenarios
Darmé, Luc; Rao, Soumya; Roszkowski, Leszek
2018-03-01
Minimal scenarios with light (sub-GeV) dark matter whose relic density is obtained from thermal freeze-out must include new light mediators. In particular, a very well-motivated case is that of a new "dark" massive vector gauge boson mediator. The mass term for such mediator is most naturally obtained by a "dark Higgs mechanism" which leads to the presence of an often long-lived dark Higgs boson whose mass scale is the same as that of the mediator. We study the phenomenology and experimental constraints on two minimal, self-consistent dark sectors that include such a light dark Higgs boson. In one the dark matter is a pseudo-Dirac fermion, in the other a complex scalar. We find that the constraints from BBN and CMB are considerably relaxed in the framework of such minimal dark sectors. We present detection prospects for the dark Higgs boson in existing and projected proton beam-dump experiments. We show that future searches at experiments like Xenon1T or LDMX can probe all the relevant parameter space, complementing the various upcoming indirect constraints from astrophysical observations.
Stationary solutions of the Maxwell-Dirac and the Klein-Gordon-Dirac equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esteban, M.J.; Georgiev, V.; Sere, E.
1995-01-01
The Maxwell-Dirac system describes the interaction of an electron with its own electromagnetic field. We prove the existence of soliton-like solutions of Maxwell-Dirac in (3+1)-Minkowski space-time. The solutions obtained are regular, stationary in time, and localized in space. They are found by a variational method, as critical points of an energy functional. This functional is strongly indefinite and presents a lack of compactness. We also find soliton-like solutions for the Klein-Gordon-Dirac system, arising in the Yukawa model. (author). 32 refs
All-Metallic Vertical Transistors Based on Stacked Dirac Materials
Wang, Yangyang; Ni, Zeyuan; Liu, Qihang; Quhe, Ruge; Zheng, Jiaxin; Ye, Meng; Yu, Dapeng; Shi, Junjie; Yang, Jinbo; Lu, Jing
2014-01-01
It is an ongoing pursuit to use metal as a channel material in a field effect transistor. All metallic transistor can be fabricated from pristine semimetallic Dirac materials (such as graphene, silicene, and germanene), but the on/off current ratio is very low. In a vertical heterostructure composed by two Dirac materials, the Dirac cones of the two materials survive the weak interlayer van der Waals interaction based on density functional theory method, and electron transport from the Dirac ...
On Huygens' principle for Dirac operators associated to electromagnetic fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CHALUB FABIO A.C.C.
2001-01-01
Full Text Available We study the behavior of massless Dirac particles, i.e., solutions of the Dirac equation with m = 0 in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Our main result (Theorem 1 is that for purely real or imaginary fields any Huygens type (in Hadamard's sense Dirac operators is equivalent to the free Dirac operator, equivalence given by changes of variables and multiplication (right and left by nonzero functions.
Dirac equations for generalised Yang-Mills systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lechtenfeld, O.; Nahm, W.; Tchrakian, D.H.
1985-06-01
We present Dirac equations in 4p dimensions for the generalised Yang-Mills (GYM) theories introduced earlier. These Dirac equations are related to the self-duality equations of the GYM and are checked to be elliptic in a 'BPST' background. In this background these Dirac equations are integrated exactly. The possibility of imposing supersymmetry in the GYM-Dirac system is investigated, with negative results. (orig.)
A framework for unified Dirac gauginos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benakli Karim
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We identify the Minimal Dirac Gaugino Supersymmetric Standard Model (MDGSSM as the minimal field content with Dirac gauginos allowing unification of gauge coupling. We stress that its parameter space describes also other most popular models as the MSSM, NMSSM and MRSSM. We discuss the generation of trilinear couplings in models of gauge mediation that has been overlooked in the past. We study the different source of Higgs mixings and constraints from the ƿ parameter. Finally, we provide new experimental limits on the masses of the scalar octets.
Dirac particle tunneling from black rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Qingquan
2008-01-01
Recent research shows that Hawking radiation can be treated as a quantum tunneling process, and Hawking temperatures of Dirac particles across the horizon of a black hole can be correctly recovered via the fermion tunneling method. In this paper, motivated by the fermion tunneling method, we attempt to apply the analysis to derive Hawking radiation of Dirac particles via tunneling from black ring solutions of 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity theory. Finally, it is interesting to find that, as in the black hole case, fermion tunneling can also result in correct Hawking temperatures for the rotating neutral, dipole, and charged black rings.
Kapitza–Dirac effect with traveling waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayrapetyan, Armen G; Götte, Jörg B; Grigoryan, Karen K; Petrosyan, Rubik G
2015-01-01
We report on the possibility of diffracting electrons from light waves traveling inside a dielectric medium. We show that, in the frame of reference which moves with the group velocity of light, the traveling wave acts as a stationary diffraction grating from which electrons can diffract, similar to the conventional Kapitza–Dirac effect. To characterize the Kapitza–Dirac effect with traveling light waves, we make use of the Hamiltonian Analogy between electron optics and quantum mechanics and apply the Helmholtz–Kirchhoff theory of diffraction. (fast track communication)
Are Dirac electrons faster than light?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Angelis, G.F.
1986-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of path integral solutions of the Dirac equation. The path integral construction of the Dirac propagator which extends Fynman's checkerboard rule in more than one space dimension is discussed. A distinguished feature of such extension is the fact that the speed of a relativistic electron is actually greater than the speed of light when the space has more than one dimension. A technique employed in obtaining an extension to higher space dimension is described which consists in comparing continuity equations of quantum mechanical origin with forward Kolmogorov equations for suitable chosen classes of random processes
New exact solutions of the Dirac equation. 8
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagrov, V.G.; Gitman, D.M.; Zadorozhnyj, V.N.; Sukhomlin, N.B.; Shapovalov, V.N.
1978-01-01
The paper continues the investigation into the exact solutions of the Dirac, Klein-Gordon, and Lorentz equations for a charge in an external electromagnetic field. The fields studied do not allow for separation of variables in the Dirac equation, but solutions to the Dirac equation are obtained
Kondo effect in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl systems
Mitchell, Andrew K.; Fritz, Lars
2015-01-01
Magnetic impurities in three-dimensional Dirac and Weyl systems are shown to exhibit a fascinatingly diverse range of Kondo physics, with distinctive experimental spectroscopic signatures. When the Fermi level is precisely at the Dirac point, Dirac semimetals are in fact unlikely candidates for a
Dirac cones beyond the honeycomb lattice : a symmetry based approach
Miert, G. van; de Morais Smith, Cristiane
2016-01-01
Recently, several new materials exhibiting massless Dirac fermions have been proposed. However, many of these do not have the typical graphene honeycomb lattice, which is often associated with Dirac cones. Here, we present a classification of these different two-dimensional Dirac systems based on
Texture one zero Dirac neutrino mass matrix with vanishing determinant or trace condition
Singh, Madan
2018-06-01
In the light of non-zero and relatively large value of rector mixing angle (θ13), we have performed a detailed analysis of texture one zero neutrino mass matrix Mν in the scenario of vanishing determinant/trace conditions, assuming the Dirac nature of neutrinos. In both the scenarios, normal mass ordering is ruled out for all the six possibilities of Mν, however for inverted mass ordering, only two are found to be viable with the current neutrino oscillation data at 3σ confidence level. Numerical and some approximate analytical results are presented.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Current scenario. India , like other parts of the world, is also facing the problem of increase in the incidence of drug resistance in tuberculosis. Multi-drug resistance (MDR, resistance to RIF & INH) and extensively drug resistant strains (X-DR, resistance to RIF, INH, FQs ...
Dirac's aether in relativistic quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petroni, N.C.; Bari Univ.; Vigier, J.P.
1984-01-01
The paper concerns Dirac's aether model, based on a stochastic covariant distribution of subquantum motions. Stochastic derivation of the relativistic quantum equations; deterministic nonlocal interpretation of the Aspect-Rapisarda experiments on the EPR paradox; and photon interference with itself; are all discussed. (U.K.)
Dirac's minimum degree condition restricted to claws
Broersma, Haitze J.; Ryjacek, Z.; Schiermeyer, I.
1997-01-01
Let G be a graph on n 3 vertices. Dirac's minimum degree condition is the condition that all vertices of G have degree at least . This is a well-known sufficient condition for the existence of a Hamilton cycle in G. We give related sufficiency conditions for the existence of a Hamilton cycle or a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, P.L.; Alcaras, J.A.C.
1980-01-01
The group theoretical properties of the Dirac groups of rank n are discussed together with the properties and construction of their IR's. The cases n even and n odd show distinct features. Furthermore, for n odd, the cases n=4K+1 and n=4K+3 exhibit some different properties too. (Author) [pt
Higher dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics and Dirac ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We exhibit the supersymmetric quantum mechanical structure of the full 3+1 dimensional Dirac equation considering `mass' as a function of coordinates. Its usefulness in solving potential problems is discussed with speciﬁc examples. We also discuss the `physical' signiﬁcance of the supersymmetric states in this formalism.
Applications of Dirac's Delta Function in Statistics
Khuri, Andre
2004-01-01
The Dirac delta function has been used successfully in mathematical physics for many years. The purpose of this article is to bring attention to several useful applications of this function in mathematical statistics. Some of these applications include a unified representation of the distribution of a function (or functions) of one or several…
On Kaehler's geometric description of dirac fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goeckeler, M.; Joos, H.
1983-12-01
A differential geometric generalization of the Dirac equation due to E. Kaehler seems to be an appropriate starting point for the lattice approximation of matter fields. It is the purpose of this lecture to illustrate several aspects of this approach. (orig./HSI)
SU(4) properties of the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linhares, C.A.; Mignaco, J.A.
1988-01-01
The Dirac equation in four dimensions has an intimate connection with the representations of the group SU(4). This connection is shown in detail and subsequente properties are displayed in the continuum as well as in the lattice description. (author) [pt
The Dirac operator on the Fuzzy sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosse, H.
1994-01-01
We introduce the Fuzzy analog of spinor bundles over the sphere on which the non-commutative analog of the Dirac operator acts. We construct the complete set of eigenstates including zero modes. In the commutative limit we recover known results. (authors)
Mass and oscillations of Dirac neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collot, J.
1989-01-01
In the most economical extension of the standard model, we have presented the theory of massive Dirac neutrinos. We have particularly emphasized that, in this model, a complete analogy between quarks and leptons can be erected and predicts neutrino flavor oscillations. We have reviewed the last experimental results concerning kinetic neutrino mass experiments and neutrino oscillation investigations
First level trigger of the DIRAC experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afanas'ev, L.G.; Karpukhin, V.V.; Kulikov, A.V.; Gallas, M.
2001-01-01
The logic of the first level trigger of the DIRAC experiment at CERN is described. A parallel running of different trigger modes with tagging of events and optional independent prescaling is realized. A CAMAC-based trigger system is completely computer controlled
Evolution kernel for the Dirac field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baaquie, B.E.
1982-06-01
The evolution kernel for the free Dirac field is calculated using the Wilson lattice fermions. We discuss the difficulties due to which this calculation has not been previously performed in the continuum theory. The continuum limit is taken, and the complete energy eigenfunctions as well as the propagator are then evaluated in a new manner using the kernel. (author)
Probabilistic solution of the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanchard, P.; Combe, P.
1985-01-01
Various probabilistic representations of the 2, 3 and 4 dimensional Dirac equation are given in terms of expectation with respect to stochastic jump processes and are used to derive the nonrelativistic limit even in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. (orig.)
Poisson geometry from a Dirac perspective
Meinrenken, Eckhard
2018-03-01
We present proofs of classical results in Poisson geometry using techniques from Dirac geometry. This article is based on mini-courses at the Poisson summer school in Geneva, June 2016, and at the workshop Quantum Groups and Gravity at the University of Waterloo, April 2016.
A Route to Dirac Liquid Theory: A Fermi Liquid Description for Dirac Materials
Gochan, Matthew; Bedell, Kevin
Since the pioneering work developed by L.V. Landau sixty years ago, Fermi Liquid Theory has seen great success in describing interacting Fermi systems. While much interest has been generated over the study of non-Fermi Liquid systems, Fermi Liquid theory serves as a formidable model for many systems and offers a rich amount of of results and insight. The recent classification of Dirac Materials, and the lack of a unifying theoretical framework for them, has motivated our study. Dirac materials are a versatile class of materials in which an abundance of unique physical phenomena can be observed. Such materials are found in all dimensions, with the shared property that their low-energy fermionic excitations behave as massless Dirac fermions and are therefore governed by the Dirac equation. The most popular Dirac material, graphene, is the focus of this work. We present our Fermi Liquid description of Graphene. We find many interesting results, specifically in the transport and dynamics of the system. Additionally, we expand on previous work regarding the Virial Theorem and its impact on the Fermi Liquid parameters in graphene. Finally, we remark on viscoelasticity of Dirac Materials and other unusual results that are consequences of AdS-CFT.
The GridPP DIRAC project - DIRAC for non-LHC communities
Bauer, D; Currie, R; Fayer, S; Huffman, A; Martyniak, J; Rand, D; Richards, A
2015-01-01
The GridPP consortium in the UK is currently testing a multi-VO DIRAC service aimed at non-LHC VOs. These VOs (Virtual Organisations) are typically small and generally do not have a dedicated computing support post. The majority of these represent particle physics experiments (e.g. NA62 and COMET), although the scope of the DIRAC service is not limited to this field. A few VOs have designed bespoke tools around the EMI-WMS & LFC, while others have so far eschewed distributed resources as they perceive the overhead for accessing them to be too high. The aim of the GridPP DIRAC project is to provide an easily adaptable toolkit for such VOs in order to lower the threshold for access to distributed resources such as Grid and cloud computing. As well as hosting a centrally run DIRAC service, we will also publish our changes and additions to the upstream DIRAC codebase under an open-source license. We report on the current status of this project and show increasing adoption of DIRAC within the non-LHC communiti...
The GridPP DIRAC project - DIRAC for non-LHC communities
Bauer, D.; Colling, D.; Currie, R.; Fayer, S.; Huffman, A.; Martyniak, J.; Rand, D.; Richards, A.
2015-12-01
The GridPP consortium in the UK is currently testing a multi-VO DIRAC service aimed at non-LHC VOs. These VOs (Virtual Organisations) are typically small and generally do not have a dedicated computing support post. The majority of these represent particle physics experiments (e.g. NA62 and COMET), although the scope of the DIRAC service is not limited to this field. A few VOs have designed bespoke tools around the EMI-WMS & LFC, while others have so far eschewed distributed resources as they perceive the overhead for accessing them to be too high. The aim of the GridPP DIRAC project is to provide an easily adaptable toolkit for such VOs in order to lower the threshold for access to distributed resources such as Grid and cloud computing. As well as hosting a centrally run DIRAC service, we will also publish our changes and additions to the upstream DIRAC codebase under an open-source license. We report on the current status of this project and show increasing adoption of DIRAC within the non-LHC communities.
Identifying Dirac cones in carbon allotropes with square symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Jinying [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang, Huaqing; Duan, Wenhui [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Zhirong, E-mail: LiuZhiRong@pku.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species and Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2013-11-14
A theoretical study is conducted to search for Dirac cones in two-dimensional carbon allotropes with square symmetry. By enumerating the carbon atoms in a unit cell up to 12, an allotrope with octatomic rings is recognized to possess Dirac cones under a simple tight-binding approach. The obtained Dirac cones are accompanied by flat bands at the Fermi level, and the resulting massless Dirac-Weyl fermions are chiral particles with a pseudospin of S = 1, rather than the conventional S = 1/2 of graphene. The spin-1 Dirac cones are also predicted to exist in hexagonal graphene antidot lattices.
Pseudo random signal processing theory and application
Zepernick, Hans-Jurgen
2013-01-01
In recent years, pseudo random signal processing has proven to be a critical enabler of modern communication, information, security and measurement systems. The signal's pseudo random, noise-like properties make it vitally important as a tool for protecting against interference, alleviating multipath propagation and allowing the potential of sharing bandwidth with other users. Taking a practical approach to the topic, this text provides a comprehensive and systematic guide to understanding and using pseudo random signals. Covering theoretical principles, design methodologies and applications
Distinguishing Dirac/Majorana sterile neutrinos at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dib, Claudio O. [Univ. Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile). CCTVal y Dept. of Physics; Kim, C.S. [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics and IPAP; Wang, Kechen [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zhang, Jue [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics
2016-06-15
We study the purely leptonic decays of W{sup ±} → e{sup ±}e{sup ±}μ{sup -+}ν and μ{sup ±}μ{sup ±}e{sup -+}ν produced at the LHC, induced by sterile neutrinos with mass m{sub N} below M{sub W} in the intermediate state. Since the final state neutrino escapes detection, one cannot tell whether this process violates lepton number, what would indicate a Majorana character for the intermediate sterile neutrino. Our study shows that when the sterile neutrino mixings with electrons and muons are different enough, one can still discriminate between the Dirac and Majorana character of this intermediate neutrino by simply counting and comparing the above decay rates. After performing collider simulations and statistical analysis, we find that at the 14 TeV LHC with an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}, for two benchmark scenarios m{sub N}=20 GeV and 50 GeV, at least a 3σ level of exclusion on the Dirac case can be achieved for disparities as mild as e.g. vertical stroke U{sub Ne} vertical stroke {sup 2}<0.7 vertical stroke U{sub Nμ} vertical stroke {sup 2} or vertical stroke U{sub Nμ} vertical stroke {sup 2}<0.7 vertical stroke U{sub Ne} vertical stroke {sup 2}, provided that vertical stroke U{sub Ne} vertical stroke {sup 2}, vertical stroke U{sub Nμ} vertical stroke {sup 2} are both above ∝2 x 10{sup -6}.
Pseudo-complex general relativity
Hess, Peter O; Greiner, Walter
2016-01-01
This volume presents an pseudo-complex extension of General Relativity which addresses these issues and presents proposals for experimental examinations in strong fields near a large mass. General Relativity is a beautiful and well tested theory of gravitation. Nevertheless, it implies conceptual problems like the creation of singularities (Black Holes) as a result of the collapse of large masses, or the appearance of event horizons which exclude parts of the space-time from the observation of external observers. The mathematical and geometrical foundations of this extension are displayed in detail, and applications including orbits and accretion disks around large central masses, neutron stars or cosmological models are introduced. Calculations both for classical and extended applications are often executed in the form of problems with extensive solutions, which makes this volume also a valuable resource for any student of General Relativity.
Dirac phenomenology and hyperon-nucleus interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mares, J; Jennings, B K [TRIUMF, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Cooper, E D [Fraser Valley Univ. College, Chilliwack, British Columbia (Canada). Dept. of Physics
1993-05-01
We discuss various aspects of hyperon-nucleus interactions in the relativistic mean field theory. First, characteristics of {Lambda}, {Sigma} and {identical_to} hypernuclei, as well as multi strange baryonic objects, are investigated. The spin-orbit splittings and magnetic moments are shown to be very sensitive to the value of the tensor coupling f{omega}y. Second, optical potentials for {Lambda} and {Sigma} scattering off nuclei are developed based on a global nucleon-nucleon Dirac optical potential and SU(3) symmetry. The tensor coupling has a large effect on the predictions for the analyzing power. Third, the Dirac approach is used in the calculations of the non-mesonic decay of {Lambda} hypernuclei. The large discrepancy between the decay rates and data suggests the need for additional meson exchanges. (authors). 62 refs.,7 figs., 6 tabs.
Classical electromagnetic radiation of the Dirac electron
Lanyi, G.
1973-01-01
A wave-function-dependent four-vector potential is added to the Dirac equation in order to achieve conservation of energy and momentum for a Dirac electron and its emitted electromagnetic field. The resultant equation contains solutions which describe transitions between different energy states of the electron. As a consequence it is possible to follow the space-time evolution of such a process. This evolution is shown in the case of the spontaneous emission of an electromagnetic field by an electron bound in a hydrogen-like atom. The intensity of the radiation and the spectral distribution are calculated for transitions between two eigenstates. The theory gives a self-consistent deterministic description of some simple radiation processes without using quantum electrodynamics or the correspondence principle.
Dirac neutrino masses from generalized supersymmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demir, D.A.; Everett, L.L.; Langacker, P.
2007-12-01
We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the Standard Model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the usual superpotential Yukawa couplings are forbidden by the additional gauge symmetry (such as a U(1) ' ), effective Dirac mass terms involving the ''wrong Higgs'' field can arise either at tree level due to hard supersymmetry breaking fermion Yukawa couplings, or at one-loop due to nonanalytic or ''nonholomorphic'' soft supersymmetry breaking trilinear scalar couplings. As both of these operators are naturally suppressed in generic models of supersymmetry breaking, the resulting neutrino masses are naturally in the sub-eV range. The neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments resulting from the radiative mechanism also vanish at one-loop order. (orig.)
Floquet-Engineered Valleytronics in Dirac Systems.
Kundu, Arijit; Fertig, H A; Seradjeh, Babak
2016-01-08
Valley degrees of freedom offer a potential resource for quantum information processing if they can be effectively controlled. We discuss an optical approach to this problem in which intense light breaks electronic symmetries of a two-dimensional Dirac material. The resulting quasienergy structures may then differ for different valleys, so that the Floquet physics of the system can be exploited to produce highly polarized valley currents. This physics can be utilized to realize a valley valve whose behavior is determined optically. We propose a concrete way to achieve such valleytronics in graphene as well as in a simple model of an inversion-symmetry broken Dirac material. We study the effect numerically and demonstrate its robustness against moderate disorder and small deviations in optical parameters.
Crucial test of the Dirac cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steigman, G.
1978-01-01
In a cosmology consistent with the Cosmological Principle (large scale, statistical isotropy and homogeneity of the universe), a Planck spectrum is not preserved as the universe evolves unless the number of photons in a comoving volume is conserved. It is shown that a large class of cosmological models based on Dirac's Large Numbers Hypothesis (LNH) violate this constraint. The observed isotropy and spectral distribution of the microwave background radiation thus provide a crucial test of such cosmologies. After reviewing the LNH, the general evolution of radiation spectra in cosmologies consistent with the cosmological principle is outlined. It is shown that the predicted deviations from a Planck spectrum for Dirac cosmologies (as well as for ''tired-light'' cosmologies) are enormous. The Planckian (or near-Planckian) spectral form for the microwave radiation provides a crucial test, failed by such cosmologies
Excitation spectrum of correlated Dirac fermions
Jalali, Z.; Jafari, S. A.
2015-04-01
Motivated by the puzzling optical conductivity measurements in graphene, we speculate on the possible role of strong electronic correlations on the two-dimensional Dirac fermions. In this work we employ the slave-particle method to study the excitations of the Hubbard model on honeycomb lattice, away from half-filling. Since the ratio U/t ≈ 3.3 in graphene is not infinite, double occupancy is not entirely prohibited and hence a finite density of doublonscan be generated. We therefore extend the Ioff-Larkin composition rule to include a finite density of doublons. We then investigate the role played by each of these auxiliary particles in the optical absorption of strongly correlated Dirac fermions.
Dirac operator, chirality and random matrix theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pullirsch, R.
2001-05-01
Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is considered to be the correct theory which describes quarks and gluons and, thus, all strong interaction phenomena from the fundamental forces of nature. However, important properties of QCD such as the physical mechanism of color confinement and the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry are still not completely understood and under extensive discussion. Analytical calculations are limited, because in the low-energy regime where quarks are confined, application of perturbation theory is restricted due to the large gluon coupling. A powerful tool to investigate numerically and analytically the non-perturbative region is provided by the lattice formulation of QCD. From Monte Carlo simulations of lattice QCD we know that chiral symmetry is restored above a critical temperature. As the chiral condensate is connected to the spectral density of the Dirac operator via the Banks-Casher relation, the QCD Dirac spectrum is an interesting object for detailed studies. In search for an analytical expression of the infrared limit of the Dirac spectrum it has been realized that chiral random-matrix theory (chRMT) is a suitable tool to compare with the distribution and the correlations of the small Dirac eigenvalues. Further, it has been shown that the correlations of eigenvalues on the scale of mean level spacings are universal for complex physical systems and are given by random-matrix theory (Rm). This has been formulated as the Baghouse-Giannoni-Schmit conjecture which states that spectral correlations of a classically chaotic system are given by RMT on the quantum level. The aim of this work is to analyze the relationship between chiral phase transitions and chaos to order transitions in quantum field theories. We study the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator for Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) with compact gauge group U(1) on the lattice. This theory shows chiral symmetry breaking and confinement in the strong coupling region. Although being
Renormalization group evolution of Dirac neutrino masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindner, Manfred; Ratz, Michael; Schmidt, Michael Andreas
2005-01-01
There are good reasons why neutrinos could be Majorana particles, but there exist also a number of very good reasons why neutrinos could have Dirac masses. The latter option deserves more attention and we derive therefore analytic expressions describing the renormalization group evolution of mixing angles and of the CP phase for Dirac neutrinos. Radiative corrections to leptonic mixings are in this case enhanced compared to the quark mixings because the hierarchy of neutrino masses is milder and because the mixing angles are larger. The renormalization group effects are compared to the precision of current and future neutrino experiments. We find that, in the MSSM framework, radiative corrections of the mixing angles are for large tan β comparable to the precision of future experiments
Dirac equation in Kerr space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Iyer, B R; Kumar, Arvind [Bombay Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics
1976-06-01
The weak-field low-velocity approximation of Dirac equation in Kerr space-time is investigated. The interaction terms admit of an interpretation in terms of a 'dipole-dipole' interaction in addition to coupling of spin with the angular momentum of the rotating source. The gravitational gyro-factor for spin is identified. The charged case (Kerr-Newman) is studied using minimal prescription for electromagnetic coupling in the locally intertial frame and to the leading order the standard electromagnetic gyro-factor is retrieved. A first order perturbation calculation of the shift of the Schwarzchild energy level yields the main interesting result of this work: the anomalous Zeeman splitting of the energy level of a Dirac particle in Kerr metric.
On an uninterpretated tensor in Dirac's theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa de Beauregard, O.
1989-01-01
Franz, in 1935, deduced systematically from the Dirac equation 10 tensorial equations, 5 with a mechanical interpretation, 5 with an electromagnetic interpretation, which are also consequences of Kemmer's formalism for spins 1 and 0; Durand, in 1944, operating similarly with the second order Dirac equation, obtained, 10 equations, 5 of which expressing the divergences of the Gordon type tensors. Of these equations, together with the tensors they imply, some are easily interpreted by reference to the classical theories, some other remain uniterpreted. Recently (1988) we proposed a theory of the coupling between Einstein's gravity field and the 5 Franz mechanical equations, yielding as a bonus the complete interpretation of the 5 Franz mechanical equations. This is an incitation to reexamine the 5 electromagnetic equations. We show here that two of these, together with one of the Durand equations, implying the same tensor, remain uninterpreted. This is proposed as a challenge to the reader's sagacity [fr
LHCb: Pilot Framework and the DIRAC WMS
Graciani, R; Casajus, A
2009-01-01
DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, has pioneered the use of pilot jobs in the Grid. Pilot jobs provide a homogeneous interface to an heterogeneous set of computing resources. At the same time, pilot jobs allow to delay the scheduling decision to the last moment, thus taking into account the precise running conditions at the resource and last moment requests to the system. The DIRAC Workload Management System provides one single scheduling mechanism for jobs with very different profiles. To achieve an overall optimisation, it organizes pending jobs in task queues, both for individual users and production activities. Task queues are created with jobs having similar requirements. Following the VO policy a priority is assigned to each task queue. Pilot submission and subsequent job matching are based on these priorities following a statistical approach. Details of the implementation and the security aspects of this framework will be discussed.
Transversal Dirac families in Riemannian foliations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glazebrook, J.F.; Kamber, F.W.
1991-01-01
We describe a family of differential operators parametrized by the transversal vector potentials of a Riemannian foliation relative to the Clifford algebra of the foliation. This family is non-elliptic but in certain ways behaves like a standard Dirac family in the absolute case as a result of its elliptic-like regularity properties. The analytic and topological indices of this family are defined as elements of K-theory in the parameter space. We indicate how the cohomology of the parameter space is described via suitable maps to Fredholm operators. We outline the proof of a theorem of Vafa-Witten type on uniform bounds for the eigenvalues of this family using a spectral flow argument. A determinant operator is also defined with the appropriate zeta function regularization dependent on the codimension of the foliation. With respect to a generalized coupled Dirac-Yang-Mills system, we indicate how chiral anomalies are located relative to the foliation. (orig.)
Population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia species ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The genus Pseudo-nitzschia is a chain-forming diatom comprising about 30 species some of which are known to produce domoic acid (DA) that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). The current study aimed at assessing the population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia in the near shore waters of Dar es Salaam. Samples ...
[Pseudo-Bartter syndrome--2 cases].
Jóźwiak, Lucyna; Jaroszyński, Andrzej; Baranowicz-Gaszczyk, Iwona; Borowicz, Ewa; Ksiazek, Andrzej
2010-01-01
Bartter syndrome represents the group of renal disturbances characterized by hypokaliemia and metabolic alkalosis. Some diseases could display hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis without primary tubular dysfunction. These disorders are called pseudo-Bartter syndrome. In this paper we present 2 cases of pseudo-Bartter syndrome related among to other things to overuse of diuretic drugs.
Permanent Magnet Dipole for DIRAC Design Report
Vorozhtsov, Alexey
2012-01-01
Two dipole magnets including one spare unit are needed for the for the DIRAC experiment. The proposed design is a permanent magnet dipole. The design based on Sm2Co17 blocks assembled together with soft ferromagnetic pole tips. The magnet provides integrated field strength of 24.6 10-3 T×m inside the aperture of 60 mm. This Design Report summarizes the main magnetic and mechanic design parameters of the permanent dipole magnets.
Dirac monopole without strings: monopole harmonics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, T.T.; Yang, C.N.
1983-01-01
Using the ideas developed in a previous paper which are borrowed from the mathematics of fiber bundles, it is shown that the wave function psi of a particle of charge Ze around a Dirac monopole of strength g should be regarded as a section. The section is without discontinuities. Thus the monopole does not possess strings of singularities in the field around it. The eigensections of the angular momentum operators are monopole harmonics which are explicitly exhibited. 7 references, 2 figures, 1 table
Dispersionless wave packets in Dirac materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jakubský, Vít; Tušek, Matěj
2017-01-01
We show that a wide class of quantum systems with translational invariance can host dispersionless, soliton-like, wave packets. We focus on the setting where the effective, two-dimensional Hamiltonian acquires the form of the Dirac operator. The proposed framework for construction of the dispersionless wave packets is illustrated on silicene-like systems with topologically nontrivial effective mass. Our analytical predictions are accompanied by a numerical analysis and possible experimental realizations are discussed.
Dirac operators and Killing spinors with torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker-Bender, Julia
2012-01-01
On a Riemannian spin manifold with parallel skew torsion, we use the twistor operator to obtain an eigenvalue estimate for the Dirac operator with torsion. We consider the equality case in dimensions four and six. In odd dimensions we describe Sasaki manifolds on which equality in the estimate is realized by Killing spinors with torsion. In dimension five we characterize all Killing spinors with torsion and obtain certain naturally reductive spaces as exceptional cases.
Data acquisition software for DIRAC experiment
Olshevsky, V G
2001-01-01
The structure and basic processes of data acquisition software of the DIRAC experiment for the measurement of pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ atom lifetime are described. The experiment is running on the PS accelerator of CERN. The developed software allows one to accept, record and distribute up to 3 Mbytes of data to consumers in one accelerator supercycle of 14.4 s duration. The described system is successfully in use in the experiment since its startup in 1998. (13 refs).
Data acquisition software for DIRAC experiment
Olshevsky, V.; Trusov, S.
2001-08-01
The structure and basic processes of data acquisition software of the DIRAC experiment for the measurement of π +π - atom lifetime are described. The experiment is running on the PS accelerator of CERN. The developed software allows one to accept, record and distribute up to 3 Mbytes of data to consumers in one accelerator supercycle of 14.4 s duration. The described system is successfully in use in the experiment since its startup in 1998.
Data acquisition software for DIRAC experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olshevsky, V.; Trusov, S.
2001-01-01
The structure and basic processes of data acquisition software of the DIRAC experiment for the measurement of π + π - atom lifetime are described. The experiment is running on the PS accelerator of CERN. The developed software allows one to accept, record and distribute up to 3 Mbytes of data to consumers in one accelerator supercycle of 14.4 s duration. The described system is successfully in use in the experiment since its startup in 1998
Quantum transport through 3D Dirac materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salehi, M. [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, S.A., E-mail: jafari@physics.sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 11155-9161 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Complex Systems and Condensed Matter (CSCM), Sharif University of Technology, Tehran 1458889694 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-08-15
Bismuth and its alloys provide a paradigm to realize three dimensional materials whose low-energy effective theory is given by Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We study the quantum transport properties of three dimensional Dirac materials within the framework of Landauer–Büttiker formalism. Charge carriers in normal metal satisfying the Schrödinger equation, can be split into four-component with appropriate matching conditions at the boundary with the three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM). We calculate the conductance and the Fano factor of an interface separating 3DDM from a normal metal, as well as the conductance through a slab of 3DDM. Under certain circumstances the 3DDM appears transparent to electrons hitting the 3DDM. We find that electrons hitting the metal-3DDM interface from metallic side can enter 3DDM in a reversed spin state as soon as their angle of incidence deviates from the direction perpendicular to interface. However the presence of a second interface completely cancels this effect.
Quantum transport through 3D Dirac materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salehi, M.; Jafari, S.A.
2015-01-01
Bismuth and its alloys provide a paradigm to realize three dimensional materials whose low-energy effective theory is given by Dirac equation in 3+1 dimensions. We study the quantum transport properties of three dimensional Dirac materials within the framework of Landauer–Büttiker formalism. Charge carriers in normal metal satisfying the Schrödinger equation, can be split into four-component with appropriate matching conditions at the boundary with the three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM). We calculate the conductance and the Fano factor of an interface separating 3DDM from a normal metal, as well as the conductance through a slab of 3DDM. Under certain circumstances the 3DDM appears transparent to electrons hitting the 3DDM. We find that electrons hitting the metal-3DDM interface from metallic side can enter 3DDM in a reversed spin state as soon as their angle of incidence deviates from the direction perpendicular to interface. However the presence of a second interface completely cancels this effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfven, H.; Arrhenius, G.
1985-05-01
A recent analysis demonstrates that the Saturnian C ring and essential features of the B and A rings agrees with the plasma cosmogony approach with an accuracy of about 1% or even better. This starts a transition of cosmogony from speculation to real science. Based on the monographs by Alfven and Arrhenius on the evolution of the solar system a cosmogonic scenario is tentatively proposed. This outlines the evolution of an interstellar cloud and the formation of stars surrounded by solar nebulae under the combined action of gravitational and electromagnetic forces. Further, matter falling in from the solar nebula towards the sun is processed by newly clarified electromagnetic processes and a plasma-planetesimal transition (PPT) occurs. Planetesimals accrete to planets and around some of them the same process in miniature leads to the formation of satellites. Also the origin of comets is discussed. (author)
Spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator at finite lattice spacings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Akemann, G.; Damgaard, Poul Henrik; Splittorff, Kim
2011-01-01
We consider the effect of discretization errors on the microscopic spectrum of the Wilson Dirac operator using both chiral Perturbation Theory and chiral Random Matrix Theory. A graded chiral Lagrangian is used to evaluate the microscopic spectral density of the Hermitian Wilson Dirac operator...... as well as the distribution of the chirality over the real eigenvalues of the Wilson Dirac operator. It is shown that a chiral Random Matrix Theory for the Wilson Dirac operator reproduces the leading zero-momentum terms of Wilson chiral Perturbation Theory. All results are obtained for fixed index...... of the Wilson Dirac operator. The low-energy constants of Wilson chiral Perturbation theory are shown to be constrained by the Hermiticity properties of the Wilson Dirac operator....
Wave Functions for Time-Dependent Dirac Equation under GUP
Zhang, Meng-Yao; Long, Chao-Yun; Long, Zheng-Wen
2018-04-01
In this work, the time-dependent Dirac equation is investigated under generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) framework. It is possible to construct the exact solutions of Dirac equation when the time-dependent potentials satisfied the proper conditions. In (1+1) dimensions, the analytical wave functions of the Dirac equation under GUP have been obtained for the two kinds time-dependent potentials. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11565009
Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.
Gabbard, Scott L; Lacy, Brian E
2013-06-01
Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a rare and serious disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract characterized as a motility disorder with the primary defect of impaired peristalsis; symptoms are consistent with a bowel obstruction, although mechanical obstruction cannot be identified. CIP is classified as a neuropathy, myopathy, or mesenchymopathy; it is a neuropathic process in the majority of patients. The natural history of CIP is generally that of a progressive disorder, although occasional patients with secondary CIP note significant symptomatic improvement when the underlying disorder is identified and treated. Symptoms vary from patient to patient depending on the location of the luminal GI tract involved and the degree of involvement; however, the small intestine is nearly always involved. Common symptoms include dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal distension, constipation or diarrhea, and involuntary weight loss. Unfortunately, these symptoms are nonspecific, which can contribute to misdiagnosis or a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Since many of the symptoms and signs suggest a mechanical bowel obstruction, diagnostic tests typically focus on uncovering a mechanical obstruction, although routine tests do not identify an obstructive process. Nutrition supplementation is required for many patients with CIP due to symptoms of dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. This review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with CIP, with an emphasis on nutrition assessment and treatment options for patients with nutrition compromise.
Strain-Induced Pseudo--Magnetic Fields in Graphene: MegaGauss in Nanobubbles
Levy, Niv
2011-03-01
Recent theoretical proposals suggest that strain can be used to modify graphene electronic states through the creation of a pseudo--magnetic field. This effect is unique to graphene because of its massless Dirac fermion-like band structure and particular lattice symmetry (C3v). Scanning tunneling microscopy shows that graphene grown on a platinum (111) surface forms nanobubbles, which are highly strained due to thermal expansion mismatch between the film and the substrate. We find that scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements of these nanobubbles exhibit Landau levels that form in the presence of strain-induced pseudo--magnetic fields greater than 300 Tesla. This demonstration of enormous pseudo--magnetic fields opens the door to both the study of charge carriers in previously inaccessible high magnetic field regimes and deliberate mechanical control over electronic structure in graphene or so-called ``strain engineering''. In collaboration with S. A. Burke ,2 , K. L. Meaker 2 , M. Panlasigui 2 , A. Zettl 2,3 , F. Guinea 4 , A. H. Castro Neto 5 and M. F. Crommie 2,3 . 1. Present address: Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 121, Canada. 2. Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. 3. Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. 4. Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), Madrid 28049, Spain. 5. Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopic Studies of Dirac Fermions in Graphene and Topological Insulators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
wang K.-L.
2012-03-01
Full Text Available We report novel properties derived from scanning tunnelling spectroscopic (STS studies of Dirac fermions in graphene and the surface state (SS of a strong topological insulator (STI, Bi2Se3. For mono-layer graphene grown on Cu by chemical vapour deposition (CVD, strain-induced scalar and gauge potentials are manifested by the charging effects and the tunnelling conductance peaks at quantized energies, respectively. Additionally, spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking is evidenced by the alternating anti-localization and localization spectra associated with the zero-mode of two sublattices while global time-reversal symmetry is preserved under the presence of pseudo-magnetic fields. For Bi2Se3 epitaxial films grown on Si(111 by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE, spatially localized unitary impurity resonances with sensitive dependence on the energy difference between the Fermi level and the Dirac point are observed for samples thicker than 6 quintuple layers (QL. These findings are characteristic of the SS of a STI and are direct manifestation of strong topological protection against impurities. For samples thinner than 6-QL, STS studies reveal the openup of an energy gap in the SS due to overlaps of wave functions between the surface and interface layers. Additionally, spin-preserving quasiparticle interference wave-vectors are observed, which are consistent with the Rashba-like spin-orbit splitting.
Chiral Anomaly from Strain-Induced Gauge Fields in Dirac and Weyl Semimetals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. I. Pikulin
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Dirac and Weyl semimetals form an ideal platform for testing ideas developed in high-energy physics to describe massless relativistic particles. One such quintessentially field-theoretic idea of the chiral anomaly already resulted in the prediction and subsequent observation of the pronounced negative magnetoresistance in these novel materials for parallel electric and magnetic fields. Here, we predict that the chiral anomaly occurs—and has experimentally observable consequences—when real electromagnetic fields E and B are replaced by strain-induced pseudo-electromagnetic fields e and b. For example, a uniform pseudomagnetic field b is generated when a Weyl semimetal nanowire is put under torsion. In accordance with the chiral anomaly equation, we predict a negative contribution to the wire resistance proportional to the square of the torsion strength. Remarkably, left- and right-moving chiral modes are then spatially segregated to the bulk and surface of the wire forming a “topological coaxial cable.” This produces hydrodynamic flow with potentially very long relaxation time. Another effect we predict is the ultrasonic attenuation and electromagnetic emission due to a time-periodic mechanical deformation causing pseudoelectric field e. These novel manifestations of the chiral anomaly are most striking in the semimetals with a single pair of Weyl nodes but also occur in Dirac semimetals such as Cd_{3}As_{2} and Na_{3}Bi and Weyl semimetals with unbroken time-reversal symmetry.
Chiral Anomaly from Strain-Induced Gauge Fields in Dirac and Weyl Semimetals
Pikulin, D. I.; Chen, Anffany; Franz, M.
2016-10-01
Dirac and Weyl semimetals form an ideal platform for testing ideas developed in high-energy physics to describe massless relativistic particles. One such quintessentially field-theoretic idea of the chiral anomaly already resulted in the prediction and subsequent observation of the pronounced negative magnetoresistance in these novel materials for parallel electric and magnetic fields. Here, we predict that the chiral anomaly occurs—and has experimentally observable consequences—when real electromagnetic fields E and B are replaced by strain-induced pseudo-electromagnetic fields e and b . For example, a uniform pseudomagnetic field b is generated when a Weyl semimetal nanowire is put under torsion. In accordance with the chiral anomaly equation, we predict a negative contribution to the wire resistance proportional to the square of the torsion strength. Remarkably, left- and right-moving chiral modes are then spatially segregated to the bulk and surface of the wire forming a "topological coaxial cable." This produces hydrodynamic flow with potentially very long relaxation time. Another effect we predict is the ultrasonic attenuation and electromagnetic emission due to a time-periodic mechanical deformation causing pseudoelectric field e . These novel manifestations of the chiral anomaly are most striking in the semimetals with a single pair of Weyl nodes but also occur in Dirac semimetals such as Cd3 As2 and Na3Bi and Weyl semimetals with unbroken time-reversal symmetry.
Full utilization of semi-Dirac cones in photonics
Yasa, Utku G.; Turduev, Mirbek; Giden, Ibrahim H.; Kurt, Hamza
2018-05-01
In this study, realization and applications of anisotropic zero-refractive-index materials are proposed by exposing the unit cells of photonic crystals that exhibit Dirac-like cone dispersion to rotational symmetry reduction. Accidental degeneracy of two Bloch modes in the Brillouin zone center of two-dimensional C2-symmetric photonic crystals gives rise to the semi-Dirac cone dispersion. The proposed C2-symmetric photonic crystals behave as epsilon-and-mu-near-zero materials (ɛeff≈ 0 , μeff≈ 0 ) along one propagation direction, but behave as epsilon-near-zero material (ɛeff≈ 0 , μeff≠ 0 ) for the perpendicular direction at semi-Dirac frequency. By extracting the effective medium parameters of the proposed C4- and C2-symmetric periodic media that exhibit Dirac-like and semi-Dirac cone dispersions, intrinsic differences between isotropic and anisotropic materials are investigated. Furthermore, advantages of utilizing semi-Dirac cone materials instead of Dirac-like cone materials in photonic applications are demonstrated in both frequency and time domains. By using anisotropic transmission behavior of the semi-Dirac materials, photonic application concepts such as beam deflectors, beam splitters, and light focusing are proposed. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, semi-Dirac cone dispersion is also experimentally demonstrated for the first time by including negative, zero, and positive refraction states of the given material.
Quasiparticle dynamics in reshaped helical Dirac cone of topological insulators.
Miao, Lin; Wang, Z F; Ming, Wenmei; Yao, Meng-Yu; Wang, Meixiao; Yang, Fang; Song, Y R; Zhu, Fengfeng; Fedorov, Alexei V; Sun, Z; Gao, C L; Liu, Canhua; Xue, Qi-Kun; Liu, Chao-Xing; Liu, Feng; Qian, Dong; Jia, Jin-Feng
2013-02-19
Topological insulators and graphene present two unique classes of materials, which are characterized by spin-polarized (helical) and nonpolarized Dirac cone band structures, respectively. The importance of many-body interactions that renormalize the linear bands near Dirac point in graphene has been well recognized and attracted much recent attention. However, renormalization of the helical Dirac point has not been observed in topological insulators. Here, we report the experimental observation of the renormalized quasiparticle spectrum with a skewed Dirac cone in a single Bi bilayer grown on Bi(2)Te(3) substrate from angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. First-principles band calculations indicate that the quasiparticle spectra are likely associated with the hybridization between the extrinsic substrate-induced Dirac states of Bi bilayer and the intrinsic surface Dirac states of Bi(2)Te(3) film at close energy proximity. Without such hybridization, only single-particle Dirac spectra are observed in a single Bi bilayer grown on Bi(2)Se(3), where the extrinsic Dirac states Bi bilayer and the intrinsic Dirac states of Bi(2)Se(3) are well separated in energy. The possible origins of many-body interactions are discussed. Our findings provide a means to manipulate topological surface states.
Pseudo-Haptic Feedback in Teleoperation.
Neupert, Carsten; Matich, Sebastian; Scherping, Nick; Kupnik, Mario; Werthschutzky, Roland; Hatzfeld, Christian
2016-01-01
In this paper, we develop possible realizations of pseudo-haptic feedback in teleoperation systems based on existing works for pseudo-haptic feedback in virtual reality and the intended applications. We derive four potential factors affecting the performance of haptic feedback (calculation operator, maximum displacement, offset force, and scaling factor), which are analyzed in three compliance identification experiments. First, we analyze the principle usability of pseudo-haptic feedback by comparing information transfer measures for teleoperation and direct interaction. Pseudo-haptic interaction yields well above-chance performance, while direct interaction performs almost perfectly. In order to optimize pseudo-haptic feedback, in the second study we perform a full-factorial experimental design with 36 subjects performing 6,480 trials with 36 different treatments. Information transfer ranges from 0.68 bit to 1.72 bit in a task with a theoretical maximum of 2.6 bit, with a predominant effect of the calculation operator and a minor effect of the maximum displacement. In a third study, short- and long-term learning effects are analyzed. Learning effects regarding the performance of pseudo-haptic feedback cannot be observed for single-day experiments. Tests over 10 days show a maximum increase in information transfer of 0.8 bit. The results show the feasibility of pseudo-haptic feedback for teleoperation and can be used as design basis for task-specific systems.
Newtonian and pseudo-Newtonian Hill problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steklain, A.F.; Letelier, P.S.
2006-01-01
A pseudo-Newtonian Hill problem based on the Paczynski-Wiita pseudo-Newtonian potential that reproduces general relativistic effects is presented and compared with the usual Newtonian Hill problem. Poincare maps, Lyapunov exponents and fractal escape techniques are employed to study bounded and unbounded orbits. In particular we consider the systems composed by Sun, Earth and Moon and composed by the Milky Way, the M2 cluster and a star. We find that some pseudo-Newtonian systems-including the M2 system-are more stable than their Newtonian equivalent
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yuichi Otsuka
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The metal-insulator transition has been a subject of intense research since Mott first proposed that the metallic behavior of interacting electrons could turn to an insulating one as electron correlations increase. Here, we consider electrons with massless Dirac-like dispersion in two spatial dimensions, described by the Hubbard models on two geometrically different lattices, and perform numerically exact calculations on unprecedentedly large systems that, combined with a careful finite-size scaling analysis, allow us to explore the quantum critical behavior in the vicinity of the interaction-driven metal-insulator transition. Thereby, we find that the transition is continuous, and we determine the quantum criticality for the corresponding universality class, which is described in the continuous limit by the Gross-Neveu model, a model extensively studied in quantum field theory. Furthermore, we discuss a fluctuation-driven scenario for the metal-insulator transition in the interacting Dirac electrons: The metal-insulator transition is triggered only by the vanishing of the quasiparticle weight, not by the Dirac Fermi velocity, which instead remains finite near the transition. This important feature cannot be captured by a simple mean-field or Gutzwiller-type approximate picture but is rather consistent with the low-energy behavior of the Gross-Neveu model.
Dirac equation in 2-dimensional curved spacetime, particle creation, and coupled waveguide arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koke, Christian, E-mail: christian.koke@stud.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Noh, Changsuk, E-mail: changsuk@kias.re.kr [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Angelakis, Dimitris G., E-mail: dimitris.angelakis@gmail.com [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, 117542 (Singapore); School of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, Crete, 73100 (Greece)
2016-11-15
When quantum fields are coupled to gravitational fields, spontaneous particle creation may occur similarly to when they are coupled to external electromagnetic fields. A gravitational field can be incorporated as a background spacetime if the back-action of matter on the field can be neglected, resulting in modifications of the Dirac or Klein–Gordon equations for elementary fermions and bosons respectively. The semi-classical description predicts particle creation in many situations, including the expanding-universe scenario, near the event horizon of a black hole (the Hawking effect), and an accelerating observer in flat spacetime (the Unruh effect). In this work, we give a pedagogical introduction to the Dirac equation in a general 2D spacetime and show examples of spinor wave packet dynamics in flat and curved background spacetimes. In particular, we cover the phenomenon of particle creation in a time-dependent metric. Photonic analogs of these effects are then proposed, where classical light propagating in an array of coupled waveguides provides a visualisation of the Dirac spinor propagating in a curved 2D spacetime background. The extent to which such a single-particle description can be said to mimic particle creation is discussed.
Prototype of a production system for Cherenkov Telescope Array with DIRAC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arrabito, L; Bregeon, J; Haupt, A; Graciani Diaz, R; Stagni, F; Tsaregorodtsev, A
2015-01-01
-defined scenarios. In this paper, we present a brief summary of the DIRAC evaluation done so far, as well as the future developments planned for the CTA production system. In particular, we will focus on the developments of CTA automatic workflows, based on the Transformation System. As a result, we also propose some design optimizations of the Transformation System, in order to fully support the most complex workflows, envisaged in the CTA processing. (paper)
Nonlinear and anisotropic polarization rotation in two-dimensional Dirac materials
Singh, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Saikat; Agarwal, Amit
2018-05-01
We predict nonlinear optical polarization rotation in two-dimensional massless Dirac systems including graphene and 8-P m m n borophene. When illuminated, a continuous-wave optical field leads to a nonlinear steady state of photoexcited carriers in the medium. The photoexcited population inversion and the interband coherence give rise to a finite transverse optical conductivity σx y(ω ) . This in turn leads to definitive signatures in associated Kerr and Faraday polarization rotation, which are measurable in a realistic experimental scenario.
On the Uniqueness of the Fock Quantization of the Dirac Field in the Closed FRW Cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerónimo Cortez
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The Fock quantization of free fields propagating in cosmological backgrounds is in general not unambiguously defined due to the nonstationarity of the space-time. For the case of a scalar field in cosmological scenarios, it is known that the criterion of unitary implementation of the dynamics serves to remove the ambiguity in the choice of Fock representation (up to unitary equivalence. Here, applying the same type of arguments and methods previously used for the scalar field case, we discuss the issue of the uniqueness of the Fock quantization of the Dirac field in the closed FRW space-time proposed by D’Eath and Halliwell.
Local moment formation in Dirac electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mashkoori, M; Mahyaeh, I; Jafari, S A
2015-01-01
Elemental bismuth and its compounds host strong spin-orbit interaction which is at the heart of topologically non-trivial alloys based on bismuth. These class of materials are described in terms of 4x4 matrices at each v point where spin and orbital labels of the underlying electrons are mixed. In this work we investigate the single impurity Anderson model (SIAM) within a mean field approximation to address the nature of local magnetic moment formation in a generic Dirac Hamiltonian. Despite the spin-mixing in the Hamiltonian, within the Hartree approximation it turns out that the impuritys Green function is diagonal in spin label. In the three dimensional Dirac materials defined over a bandwidth D and spin-orbit parameter γ, that hybridizes with impurity through V, a natural dimensionless parameter V 2 D/2πγ 3 emerges. So neither the hybridization strength, V, nor the spin-orbit coupling γ, but a combination thereof governs the phase diagram. By tuning chemical potential and the impurity level, we present phase diagram for various values of Hubbard U. Numerical results suggest that strong spin-orbit coupling enhances the local moment formation both in terms of its strength and the area of the local moment region. In the case that we tune the chemical potential in a similar way as normal metal we find that magnetic region is confined to μ ≥ ε 0 , in sharp contrast to 2D Dirac fermions. If one fixes the chemical potential and tunes the impurity level, phase diagram has two magnetic regions which corresponds to hybridization of impurity level with lower and upper bands. (paper)
Pseudo-Kaehler quantization on flag manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karabegov, A.V.
1997-07-01
A unified approach to geometric, symbol and deformation quantizations on a generalized flag manifold endowed with an invariant pseudo-Kaehler structure is proposed. In particular cases we arrive at Berezin's quantization via covariant and contravariant symbols. (author). 16 refs
POPULATION DYNAMICS OF PSEUDO-NITZSCHIA SPECIES ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
nb
current study aimed at assessing the population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia ... and to the developing aquaculture industry ... B. Hotel. Pangani Island. Bongoyo Island. Mbudya Island. Msasani Bay ... Salinity values did not show clear trends.
The Dirac distorted wave Born approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, T.; Sherif, H.S.; Johansson, J.; Sawafta, R.I.
1985-02-01
The purpose of this investigation is to illuminate the assumptions which are made when one writes down a Dirac DWBA matrix element. Due to the strong nature of the nucleon-nucleon potentials it is difficult to justify some of the steps involved in the general case; however by limiting ourselves to situations where only one (interacting) nucleon is present we can side-step this difficulty. We conclude the excellent agreement with the experiment justifies, a posteriori, the procedure, however we would like to remind the reader that, at least for proton inelastic scattering to collective states, the same quality of agreement can be obtained purely within a Schrodinger formalism
Dirac gauginos, gauge mediation and unification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benakli, K.
2010-03-01
We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings. (orig.)
Total angular momentum from Dirac eigenspinors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szabados, Laszlo B
2008-01-01
The eigenvalue problem for Dirac operators, constructed from two connections on the spinor bundle over closed spacelike 2-surfaces, is investigated. A class of divergence-free vector fields, built from the eigenspinors, are found, which, for the lowest eigenvalue, reproduce the rotation Killing vectors of metric spheres, and provide rotation BMS vector fields at future null infinity. This makes it possible to introduce a well-defined, gauge invariant spatial angular momentum at null infinity, which reduces to the standard expression in stationary spacetimes. The general formula for the angular momentum flux carried away by the gravitational radiation is also derived
Dirac gauginos, gauge mediation and unification
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benakli, K. [UPMC Univ. Paris 06 (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS; Goodsell, M.D. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2010-03-15
We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings. (orig.)
Dirac Gauginos, Gauge Mediation and Unification
Benakli, K
2010-01-01
We investigate the building of models with Dirac gauginos and perturbative gauge coupling unification. Here, in contrast to the MSSM, additional fields are required for unification, and these can naturally play the role of the messengers of supersymmetry breaking. We present a framework within which such models can be constructed, including the constraints that the messenger sector must satisfy; and the renormalisation group equations for the soft parameters, which differ from those of the MSSM. For illustration, we provide the spectrum at the electroweak scale for explicit models whose gauge couplings unify at the scale predicted by heterotic strings.
Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chandre, C., E-mail: chandre@cpt.univ-mrs.fr
2015-10-15
First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac’s theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac–Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed. The relevance of this procedure for infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems is exemplified.
Dispersionless wave packets in Dirac materials
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jakubský, Vít; Tušek, M.
2017-01-01
Roč. 378, MAR (2017), s. 171-182 ISSN 0003-4916 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-07674Y; GA ČR GA17-01706S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum systems * wave packets * dispersion * dirac materials Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 2.465, year: 2016
Correlated Dirac particles and superconductivity on the honeycomb lattice
Wu, Wei; Scherer, Michael M.; Honerkamp, Carsten; Le Hur, Karyn
2013-03-01
We investigate the properties of the nearest-neighbor singlet pairing and the emergence of d-wave superconductivity in the doped honeycomb lattice considering the limit of large interactions and the t-J1-J2 model. First, by applying a renormalized mean-field procedure as well as slave-boson theories which account for the proximity to the Mott-insulating state, we confirm the emergence of d-wave superconductivity, in agreement with earlier works. We show that a small but finite J2 spin coupling between next-nearest neighbors stabilizes d-wave symmetry compared to the extendeds-wave scenario. At small hole doping, to minimize the energy and to gap the whole Fermi surface or all the Dirac points, the superconducting ground state is characterized by a d+id singlet pairing assigned to one valley and a d-id singlet pairing to the other, which then preserves time-reversal symmetry. The slightly doped situation is distinct from the heavily doped case (around 3/8 and 5/8 filling) supporting a pure chiral d+id symmetry and breaking time-reversal symmetry. Then, we apply the functional renormalization group and study in more detail the competition between antiferromagnetism and superconductivity in the vicinity of half filling. We discuss possible applications to strongly correlated compounds with copper hexagonal planes such as In3Cu2VO9. Our findings are also relevant to the understanding of exotic superfluidity with cold atoms.
Dirac's equation and the nature of quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plotnitsky, Arkady
2012-01-01
This paper re-examines the key aspects of Dirac's derivation of his relativistic equation for the electron in order advance our understanding of the nature of quantum field theory. Dirac's derivation, the paper argues, follows the key principles behind Heisenberg's discovery of quantum mechanics, which, the paper also argues, transformed the nature of both theoretical and experimental physics vis-à-vis classical physics and relativity. However, the limit theory (a crucial consideration for both Dirac and Heisenberg) in the case of Dirac's theory was quantum mechanics, specifically, Schrödinger's equation, while in the case of quantum mechanics, in Heisenberg's version, the limit theory was classical mechanics. Dirac had to find a new equation, Dirac's equation, along with a new type of quantum variables, while Heisenberg, to find new theory, was able to use the equations of classical physics, applied to different, quantum-mechanical variables. In this respect, Dirac's task was more similar to that of Schrödinger in his work on his version of quantum mechanics. Dirac's equation reflects a more complex character of quantum electrodynamics or quantum field theory in general and of the corresponding (high-energy) experimental quantum physics vis-à-vis that of quantum mechanics and the (low-energy) experimental quantum physics. The final section examines this greater complexity and its implications for fundamental physics.
Special function solutions of the free particle Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strange, P
2012-01-01
The Dirac equation is one of the fundamental equations in physics. Here we present and discuss two novel solutions of the free particle Dirac equation. These solutions have an exact analytical form in terms of Airy or Mathieu functions and exhibit unexpected properties including an enhanced Doppler effect, accelerating wavefronts and solutions with a degree of localization. (paper)
On oscillations of neutrinos with Dirac and Majorana masses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilenky, S.M.; Hosek, J.; Petcov, S.T.; Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia)
1980-01-01
Pontecorvo neutrino beam oscillations are discussed assuming both Dirac and Majorana neutrino mass terms. It is proved that none of possible experiments on neutrino oscillations, including those on effects of CP violation, can distinguish between these two possibilities. Neutrino oscillations with concomitant Dirac and Majorana mass terms are also considered
Equivalence of Dirac quantization and Schwinger's action principle quantization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, A.; Scherer, W.
1987-01-01
We show that the method of Dirac quantization is equivalent to Schwinger's action principle quantization. The relation between the Lagrange undetermined multipliers in Schwinger's method and Dirac's constraint bracket matrix is established and it is explicitly shown that the two methods yield identical (anti)commutators. This is demonstrated in the non-trivial example of supersymmetric quantum mechanics in superspace. (orig.)
Upper-Division Student Difficulties with the Dirac Delta Function
Wilcox, Bethany R.; Pollock, Steven J.
2015-01-01
The Dirac delta function is a standard mathematical tool that appears repeatedly in the undergraduate physics curriculum in multiple topical areas including electrostatics, and quantum mechanics. While Dirac delta functions are often introduced in order to simplify a problem mathematically, students still struggle to manipulate and interpret them.…
Multi-component bi-Hamiltonian Dirac integrable equations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma Wenxiu [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620-5700 (United States)], E-mail: mawx@math.usf.edu
2009-01-15
A specific matrix iso-spectral problem of arbitrary order is introduced and an associated hierarchy of multi-component Dirac integrable equations is constructed within the framework of zero curvature equations. The bi-Hamiltonian structure of the obtained Dirac hierarchy is presented be means of the variational trace identity. Two examples in the cases of lower order are computed.
Relativistic Spinning Particle without Grassmann Variables and the Dirac Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Deriglazov
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We present the relativistic particle model without Grassmann variables which, being canonically quantized, leads to the Dirac equation. Classical dynamics of the model is in correspondence with the dynamics of mean values of the corresponding operators in the Dirac theory. Classical equations for the spin tensor are the same as those of the Barut-Zanghi model of spinning particle.
The algebraic manipulation program DIRAC on IBM personal computers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grozin, A.G.; Perlt, H.
1989-01-01
The version DIRAC (2.2) for IBM compatible personal computers is described. It is designed to manipulate algebraically with polynomials and tensors. After a short introduction concerning implementation and usage on personal computers an example program is given. It contains a detailed user's guide to DIRAC (2.2) and, additionally some useful applications. 4 refs
A matricial approach for the Dirac-Kahler formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goto, M.
1987-01-01
A matricial approach for the Dirac-Kahler formalism is considered. It is shown that the matrical approach i) brings a great computational simplification compared to the common use of differential forms and that ii) by an appropriate choice of notation, it can be extended to the lattice, including a matrix Dirac-Kahler equation. (author) [pt
Dirac in 20th century physics: a centenary assessment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanyuk, Valerii I; Sukhanov, Alexander D
2003-01-01
Current views on Dirac's creative heritage and on his role in the formation and development of quantum physics and in shaping the physical picture of the world are discussed. Dirac's fundamental ideas in later life (1948 - 1984) and their current development are given considerable attention. (from the history of physics)
Remarks about singular solutions to the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uhlir, M.
1975-01-01
In the paper singular solutions of the Dirac equation are investigated. They are derived in the Lorentz-covariant way of functions proportional to static multipole fields of scalar and (or) electromagnetic fields and of regular solutions of the Dirac equations. The regularization procedure excluding divergences of total energy, momentum and angular momentum of the spinor field considered is proposed
Graphene Dirac point tuned by ferroelectric polarization field
Wang, Xudong; Chen, Yan; Wu, Guangjian; Wang, Jianlu; Tian, Bobo; Sun, Shuo; Shen, Hong; Lin, Tie; Hu, Weida; Kang, Tingting; Tang, Minghua; Xiao, Yongguang; Sun, Jinglan; Meng, Xiangjian; Chu, Junhao
2018-04-01
Graphene has received numerous attention for future nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. The Dirac point is a key parameter of graphene that provides information about its carrier properties. There are lots of methods to tune the Dirac point of graphene, such as chemical doping, impurities, defects, and disorder. In this study, we report a different approach to tune the Dirac point of graphene using a ferroelectric polarization field. The Dirac point can be adjusted to near the ferroelectric coercive voltage regardless its original position. We have ensured this phenomenon by temperature-dependent experiments, and analyzed its mechanism with the theory of impurity correlation in graphene. Additionally, with the modulation of ferroelectric polymer, the current on/off ratio and mobility of graphene transistor both have been improved. This work provides an effective method to tune the Dirac point of graphene, which can be readily used to configure functional devices such as p-n junctions and inverters.
Bosonic Analogue of Dirac Composite Fermi Liquid
Mross, David; Alicea, Jason; Motrunich, Olexei
The status of particle-hole symmetry has long posed a challenge to the theory of the quantum Hall effect. It is expected to be present in the half-filled Landau level, but is absent in the conventional field theory, i.e., the composite Fermi liquid. Recently, Son proposed an alternative, explicitly particle-hole symmetric theory which features composite fermions that exhibit a Dirac dispersion. In my talk, I will introduce an analogous particle-hole-symmetric metallic state of bosons at odd-integer filling. This state hosts composite fermions whose energy dispersion features a quadratic band touching and corresponding 2 Ï Berry flux, protected by particle-hole and discrete rotation symmetries. As in the Dirac composite Fermi liquid introduced by Son, breaking particle-hole symmetry recovers the familiar Chern-Simons theory. I will discuss realizations of this phase both in 2D and on bosonic topological insulator surfaces, as well as its signatures in experiments and simulations.
Veselago focusing of anisotropic massless Dirac fermions
Zhang, Shu-Hui; Yang, Wen; Peeters, F. M.
2018-05-01
Massless Dirac fermions (MDFs) emerge as quasiparticles in various novel materials such as graphene and topological insulators, and they exhibit several intriguing properties, of which Veselago focusing is an outstanding example with a lot of possible applications. However, up to now Veselago focusing merely occurred in p-n junction devices based on the isotropic MDF, which lacks the tunability needed for realistic applications. Here, motivated by the emergence of novel Dirac materials, we investigate the propagation behaviors of anisotropic MDFs in such a p-n junction structure. By projecting the Hamiltonian of the anisotropic MDF to that of the isotropic MDF and deriving an exact analytical expression for the propagator, precise Veselago focusing is demonstrated without the need for mirror symmetry of the electron source and its focusing image. We show a tunable focusing position that can be used in a device to probe masked atom-scale defects. This study provides an innovative concept to realize Veselago focusing relevant for potential applications, and it paves the way for the design of novel electron optics devices by exploiting the anisotropic MDF.
White dwarfs, the galaxy and Dirac's cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stothers, R.
1976-01-01
Reference is made to the apparent absence, or deficiency, of white dwarfs fainter than about 10 -4 L solar mass. An explanation is here proposed on the basis of Dirac's cosmological hypothesis that the gravitational constant, G, has varied with the time elapsed since the beginning of the expansion of the Universe as t -1 and the number of particles in the Universe has increases as t 2 , if the measurements are made in atomic units. For a white dwarf the Chandrasekhar mass limit is a collection of fundamental constants proportional to Gsup(-3/2) and therefore increases with time as tsup(3/2). In the 'additive' version of Dirac's theory the actual mass, M, of a relatively small object like a star remains essentially unchanged by the creation of new matter in the Universe and hence a white dwarf will become more stable with the course of time; but in the 'multiplicative' version of the theory, M increases as t 2 and may eventually exceed the Chandrasekhar limit, and if this happens, gravitational collapse of the white dwarf into an invisible black hole or neutron star will quickly occur. It is considered interesting to find whether the 'multiplicative' theory may have a bearing on the apparent deficiency of faint white dwarfs, and to consider whether there are any possible consequences for galactic evolution. This is here discussed. (U.K.)
White dwarfs, the galaxy and Dirac's cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stothers, R [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, Md. (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center
1976-08-05
Reference is made to the apparent absence, or deficiency, of white dwarfs fainter than about 10/sup -4/L solar mass. An explanation is here proposed on the basis of Dirac's cosmological hypothesis that the gravitational constant, G, has varied with the time elapsed since the beginning of the expansion of the Universe as t/sup -1/ and the number of particles in the Universe has increases as t/sup 2/, if the measurements are made in atomic units. For a white dwarf the Chandrasekhar mass limit is a collection of fundamental constants proportional to Gsup(-3/2) and therefore increases with time as tsup(3/2). In the 'additive' version of Dirac's theory the actual mass, M, of a relatively small object like a star remains essentially unchanged by the creation of new matter in the Universe and hence a white dwarf will become more stable with the course of time; but in the 'multiplicative' version of the theory, M increases as t/sup 2/ and may eventually exceed the Chandrasekhar limit, and if this happens, gravitational collapse of the white dwarf into an invisible black hole or neutron star will quickly occur. It is considered interesting to find whether the 'multiplicative' theory may have a bearing on the apparent deficiency of faint white dwarfs, and to consider whether there are any possible consequences for galactic evolution. This is here discussed.
Pseudo-color processing in nuclear medical image
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhiqian; Jin Yongjie
1992-01-01
The application of pseudo-color technology in nuclear medical image processing is discussed. It includes selection of the number of pseudo-colors, method of realizing pseudo-color transformation, function of pseudo-color transformation and operation on the function
Algebra of pseudo-differential C*-operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammad, N.
1987-11-01
In this paper the algebra of pseudo-differential operators is studied in the framework of C * -algebras. It is proved that every pseudo-differential operator of order m admits an adjoint operator, in this case, which is again a pseudo-differential operator. Consequently, the space of all pseudo-differential operators on a compact manifold is an involutive algebra. 10 refs
THE PSEUDO-EVOLUTION OF HALO MASS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; More, Surhud
2013-01-01
A dark matter halo is commonly defined as a spherical overdensity of matter with respect to a reference density, such as the critical density or the mean matter density of the universe. Such definitions can lead to a spurious pseudo-evolution of halo mass simply due to redshift evolution of the reference density, even if its physical density profile remains constant over time. We estimate the amount of such pseudo-evolution of mass between z = 1 and 0 for halos identified in a large N-body simulation, and show that it accounts for almost the entire mass evolution of the majority of halos with M 200ρ-bar ≲ 10 12 h -1 M ☉ and can be a significant fraction of the apparent mass growth even for cluster-sized halos. We estimate the magnitude of the pseudo-evolution assuming that halo density profiles remain static in physical coordinates, and show that this simple model predicts the pseudo-evolution of halos identified in numerical simulations to good accuracy, albeit with significant scatter. We discuss the impact of pseudo-evolution on the evolution of the halo mass function and show that the non-evolution of the low-mass end of the halo mass function is the result of a fortuitous cancellation between pseudo-evolution and the absorption of small halos into larger hosts. We also show that the evolution of the low-mass end of the concentration-mass relation observed in simulations is almost entirely due to the pseudo-evolution of mass. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of the evolution of various scaling relations between the observable properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters and their halo masses.
SEARCHING FOR LOW WEIGHT PSEUDO-CODEWORDS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chertkov, Michael; Stepanov, Mikhail
2007-01-01
Belief Propagation (BP) and Linear Programming (LP) decodings of LDPC codes are discussed. The authors summarize results of instanton/pseudo-codeword approach developed for analysis of the error-floor domain of the codes. Instantons are special, code and decoding specific, configurations of the channel noise contributing most to the Frame-Error-Rate (FER). Instantons are decoded into pseudo-codewords. Instanton/pseudo-codeword with the lowest weight describes the largest Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) asymptotic of FER, while the whole spectra of the low weight instantons is descriptive of the FER vs. SNR profile in the extended error-floor domain. First, they describe a general optimization method that allows to find the instantons for any coding/decoding. Second, they introduce LP-specific pseudo-codeword search algorithm that allows efficient calculations of the pseudo-codeword spectra. Finally, they discuss results of combined BP/LP error-floor exploration experiments for two mode codes.
Maintaining heterokaryosis in pseudo-homothallic fungi.
Grognet, Pierre; Silar, Philippe
2015-01-01
Among all the strategies displayed by fungi to reproduce and propagate, some species have adopted a peculiar behavior called pseudo-homothallism. Pseudo-homothallic fungi are true heterothallics, i.e., they need 2 genetically-compatible partners to mate, but they produce self-fertile mycelium in which the 2 different nuclei carrying the compatible mating types are present. This lifestyle not only enables the fungus to reproduce without finding a compatible partner, but also to cross with any mate it may encounter. However, to be fully functional, pseudo-homothallism requires maintaining heterokaryosis at every stage of the life cycle. We recently showed that neither the structure of the mating-type locus nor hybrid-enhancing effect due to the presence of the 2 mating types accounts for the maintenance of heterokaryosis in the pseudo-homothallic fungus P. anserina. In this addendum, we summarize the mechanisms creating heterokaryosis in P. anserina and 2 other well-known pseudo-homothallic fungi, Neurospora tetrasperma and Agaricus bisporus. We also discuss mechanisms potentially involved in maintaining heterokaryosis in these 3 species.
SEARCHING FOR LOW WEIGHT PSEUDO-CODEWORDS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
CHERTKOV, MICHAEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEPANOV, MIKHAIL [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2007-01-23
Belief Propagation (BP) and Linear Programming (LP) decodings of LDPC codes are discussed. The authors summarize results of instanton/pseudo-codeword approach developed for analysis of the error-floor domain of the codes. Instantons are special, code and decoding specific, configurations of the channel noise contributing most to the Frame-Error-Rate (FER). Instantons are decoded into pseudo-codewords. Instanton/pseudo-codeword with the lowest weight describes the largest Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) asymptotic of FER, while the whole spectra of the low weight instantons is descriptive of the FER vs. SNR profile in the extended error-floor domain. First, they describe a general optimization method that allows to find the instantons for any coding/decoding. Second, they introduce LP-specific pseudo-codeword search algorithm that allows efficient calculations of the pseudo-codeword spectra. Finally, they discuss results of combined BP/LP error-floor exploration experiments for two mode codes.
Dirac operators and Killing spinors with torsion; Dirac-Operatoren und Killing-Spinoren mit Torsion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becker-Bender, Julia
2012-12-17
On a Riemannian spin manifold with parallel skew torsion, we use the twistor operator to obtain an eigenvalue estimate for the Dirac operator with torsion. We consider the equality case in dimensions four and six. In odd dimensions we describe Sasaki manifolds on which equality in the estimate is realized by Killing spinors with torsion. In dimension five we characterize all Killing spinors with torsion and obtain certain naturally reductive spaces as exceptional cases.
Axial anomaly and index theorem for Dirac-Kaehler fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fonseca Junior, C.A.L. da.
1985-02-01
Some aspects of topological influence on gauge field theory are analysed, considering the geometry and differential topology methods. A review of concepts of differential forms, fibered spaces, connection and curvature, showing an interpretation of gauge theory in this context, is presented. The question of fermions, analysing in details the Dirac-Kaehler which fermionic particle is considered a general differential form, is studied. It is shown how the explicit expressions in function of the Dirac spinor components vary with the Dirac matrix representation. The Dirac-Kahler equation contains 4 times (in 4 dimensions) the Dirac equation, each particle being associated an ideal at left of the algebra of general differential forms. These ideals and the SU(4) symmetry among them are also studied on the point of view of spinors and, the group of reduction to one of the ideals is identified as the Cartan subalgebra of this SU(4). Finally, the axial anomaly is calculated through the functional determinant given by the Dirac-Kaehler operator. The regularization method is the Seeley's coefficients. From that results a comparison of the index theorems for the twisted complexes of signature and spin, which proportionality is given by the number of the algebra ideals contained in the Dirac-Kaehler equation and which also manifests in the respective axial anomaly equations. (L.C.) [pt
The flavor of the composite pseudo-goldstone Higgs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csaki, Csaba; Weiler, Andreas; Falkowski, Adam
2008-01-01
We study the flavor structure of 5D warped models that provide a dual description of a composite pseudo-Goldstone Higgs. We first carefully re-examine the flavor constraints on the mass scale of new physics in the standard Randall-Sundrum-type scenarios, and find that the KK gluon mass should generically be heavier than about 21 TeV. We then compare the flavor structure of the composite Higgs models to those in the RS model. We find new contributions to flavor violation, which while still are suppressed by the RS-GIM mechanism, will enhance the amplitudes of flavor violations. In particular, there is a kinetic mixing term among the SM fields which (although parametrically not enhanced) will make the flavor bounds even more stringent than in RS. This together with the fact that in the pseudo-Goldstone scenario Yukawa couplings are set by a gauge coupling implies the KK gluon mass to be at least about 33 TeV. For both the RS and the composite Higgs models the flavor bounds could be stronger or weaker depending on the assumption on the value of the gluon boundary kinetic term. These strong bounds seem to imply that the fully anarchic approach to flavor in warped extra dimensions is implausible, and there have to be at least some partial flavor symmetries appearing that eliminate part of the sources for flavor violation. We also present complete expressions for the radiatively generated Higgs potential of various 5D implementations of the composite Higgs model, and comment on the 1-5 percent level tuning needed in the top sector to achieve a phenomenologically acceptable vacuum state.
Topological insulators Dirac equation in condensed matter
Shen, Shun-Qing
2017-01-01
This new edition presents a unified description of these insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. It derives a series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary, and describes the current status of these solutions. Readers are introduced to topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetylene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids, and topological Weyl semimetals, helping them to better understand this fascinating field. To reflect research advances in topological insulators, several parts of the book have been updated for the second edition, including: Spin-Triplet Superconductors, Superconductivity in Doped Topological Insulators, Detection of Majorana Fermions and so on. In particular, the book features a new chapter on Weyl semimetals, a topic that has attracted considerable attention and has already b...
New experimental proposals for testing Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camacho, Abel; Macias, Alfredo
2004-01-01
The advent of phenomenological quantum gravity has ushered us in the search for experimental tests of the deviations from general relativity predicted by quantum gravity or by string theories, and as a by-product of this quest the possible modifications that some field equations, for instance, the motion equation of spin-1/2-particles, have already been considered. In the present Letter a modified Dirac equation, whose extra term embraces a second-order time derivative, is taken as mainstay, and three different experimental proposals to detect it are put forward. The novelty in these ideas is that two of them do not fall within the extant approaches in this context, to wit, red-shift, atomic interferometry, or Hughes-Drever type-like experiments
Topological Insulators Dirac Equation in Condensed Matters
Shen, Shun-Qing
2012-01-01
Topological insulators are insulating in the bulk, but process metallic states around its boundary owing to the topological origin of the band structure. The metallic edge or surface states are immune to weak disorder or impurities, and robust against the deformation of the system geometry. This book, Topological insulators, presents a unified description of topological insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. A series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary are derived, and the existing conditions of these solutions are described. Topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetalene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, and three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids are introduced, helping readers to better understand this fascinating new field. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in the field of topological in...
DIRAC reliable data management for LHCb
Smith, A C
2008-01-01
DIRAC, LHCb's Grid Workload and Data Management System, utilizes WLCG resources and middleware components to perform distributed computing tasks satisfying LHCb's Computing Model. The Data Management System (DMS) handles data transfer and data access within LHCb. Its scope ranges from the output of the LHCb Online system to Grid-enabled storage for all data types. It supports metadata for these files in replica and bookkeeping catalogues, allowing dataset selection and localization. The DMS controls the movement of files in a redundant fashion whilst providing utilities for accessing all metadata. To do these tasks effectively the DMS requires complete self integrity between its components and external physical storage. The DMS provides highly redundant management of all LHCb data to leverage available storage resources and to manage transient errors in underlying services. It provides data driven and reliable distribution of files as well as reliable job output upload, utilizing VO Boxes at LHCb Tier1 sites ...
Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes
Prakash, Jai; Thackeray, Michael M.; Dees, Dennis W.; Vissers, Donald R.; Myles, Kevin M.
1998-01-01
A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A.sub.2 ›B.sub.2-x Pb.sub.x !O.sub.7-y, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and Ocapacitor. The amount of expensive ruthenate and iridium can be substantially reduced in the pseudo-capacitor by increasing the lead content while improving energy storage capacity.
Pseudo-entanglement evaluated in noninertial frames
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehri-Dehnavi, Hossein; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Rahimi, Robabeh
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → We study pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. → We examine different measures of entanglement and nonclassical correlation for the state. → We find the threshold for entanglement is changed in noninertial frames. → We also describe the behavior of local unitary classes of states in noninertial frames. - Abstract: We study quantum discord, in addition to entanglement, of bipartite pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. It is shown that the entanglement degrades from its maximum value in a stationary frame to a minimum value in an infinite accelerating frame. There is a critical region found in which, for particular cases, entanglement of states vanishes for certain accelerations. The quantum discord of pseudo-entanglement decreases by increasing the acceleration. Also, for a physically inaccessible region, entanglement and nonclassical correlation are evaluated and shown to match the corresponding values of the physically accessible region for an infinite acceleration.
Topology-optimized dual-polarization Dirac cones
Lin, Zin; Christakis, Lysander; Li, Yang; Mazur, Eric; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Lončar, Marko
2018-02-01
We apply a large-scale computational technique, known as topology optimization, to the inverse design of photonic Dirac cones. In particular, we report on a variety of photonic crystal geometries, realizable in simple isotropic dielectric materials, which exhibit dual-polarization Dirac cones. We present photonic crystals of different symmetry types, such as fourfold and sixfold rotational symmetries, with Dirac cones at different points within the Brillouin zone. The demonstrated and related optimization techniques open avenues to band-structure engineering and manipulating the propagation of light in periodic media, with possible applications to exotic optical phenomena such as effective zero-index media and topological photonics.
Majorana mass term, Dirac neutrinos and selective neutrino oscillations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leung, C.N.
1987-01-01
In a theory of neutrino mixing via a Majorana mass term involving only the left-handed neutrinos there exist selection rules for neutrino oscillations if true Dirac and/or exactly zero mass eigenstates are present. In the case of three neutrino flavours no oscillation is allowed if the mass spectrum contains one Dirac and one nondegenerate Majorana massive neutrino. The origin of these selection rules and their implications are discussed and the number of possible CP-violating phases in the lepton mixing matrix when Dirac and Majorana mass eigenstates coexist is given. (orig.)
Strangest man the hidden life of Paul Dirac, quantum genius
Farmelo, Graham
2009-01-01
Paul Dirac was among the great scientific geniuses of the modern age. One of the discoverers of quantum mechanics, the most revolutionary theory of the past century, his contributions had a unique insight, eloquence, clarity, and mathematical power. His prediction of antimatter was one of the greatest triumphs in the history of physics. One of Einstein's most admired colleagues, Dirac was in 1933 the youngest theoretician ever to win the Nobel Prize in physics. Dirac's personality is legendary. He was an extraordinarily reserved loner, relentlessly literal-minded and appeared to have no empath
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costella, J P
1995-05-22
In this short note, it is argued that [p, q] {ne} i{Dirac_h}, contrary to the oiginal claims of Born and Jordan, and Dirac. Rather, [p, q] is equal to something that is infinitesimally different from i{Dirac_h}. While this difference is usually harmless, it does provide the solution of the Born-Jordan `trace paradox` of [p, q]. More recently, subtleties of a very similar form have been found to be of fundamental importance in quantum field theory. 3 refs.
A strong-topological-metal material with multiple Dirac cones
Ji, Huiwen; Pletikosić, I; Gibson, Q. D.; Sahasrabudhe, Girija; Valla, T.; Cava, R. J.
2015-01-01
We report a new, cleavable, strong-topological-metal, Zr2Te2P, which has the same tetradymite-type crystal structure as the topological insulator Bi2Te2Se. Instead of being a semiconductor, however, Zr2Te2P is metallic with a pseudogap between 0.2 and 0.7 eV above the fermi energy (EF). Inside this pseudogap, two Dirac dispersions are predicted: one is a surface-originated Dirac cone protected by time-reversal symmetry (TRS), while the other is a bulk-originated and slightly gapped Dirac cone...
Dirac particle in a box, and relativistic quantum Zeno dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menon, Govind; Belyi, Sergey
2004-01-01
After developing a complete set of eigenfunctions for a Dirac particle restricted to a box, the quantum Zeno dynamics of a relativistic system is considered. The evolution of a continuously observed quantum mechanical system is governed by the theorem put forth by Misra and Sudarshan. One of the conditions for quantum Zeno dynamics to be manifest is that the Hamiltonian is semi-bounded. This Letter analyzes the effects of continuous observation of a particle whose time evolution is generated by the Dirac Hamiltonian. The theorem by Misra and Sudarshan is not applicable here since the Dirac operator is not semi-bounded
A case of Pseudo-Bartter syndrome
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Ik; Choi, Bo Whan; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1994-10-15
Pseudo-Bartter Syndrome is a rare medical disease of the kidney characterized by normal blood pressure, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia and hyperaldosteronism with drug history of diuretics. We report US, CT and MRI findings of a patients with clinically proved Pseudo-Bartter syndrome. The patient was a 37 year old woman with a history of long term ingestion of the diuretics(furosemide) for 20 years. Renal US revealed hyperechoic renal medulla at both kidneys. The resistive index(RI), calculated from the duplex doppler waveform is 0.61. Unenhanced CT revealed faint high attenuation along the medulla. T1-weighted MRI revealed indistinct corticomedullary differentiation.
A case of Pseudo-Bartter syndrome
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Ik; Choi, Bo Whan; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young
1994-01-01
Pseudo-Bartter Syndrome is a rare medical disease of the kidney characterized by normal blood pressure, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia and hyperaldosteronism with drug history of diuretics. We report US, CT and MRI findings of a patients with clinically proved Pseudo-Bartter syndrome. The patient was a 37 year old woman with a history of long term ingestion of the diuretics(furosemide) for 20 years. Renal US revealed hyperechoic renal medulla at both kidneys. The resistive index(RI), calculated from the duplex doppler waveform is 0.61. Unenhanced CT revealed faint high attenuation along the medulla. T1-weighted MRI revealed indistinct corticomedullary differentiation
Pseudo harmonic morphisms on Riemannian polyhedra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aprodu, M.A.; Bouziane, T.
2004-10-01
The aim of this paper is to extend the notion of pseudo harmonic morphism (introduced by Loubeau) to the case when the source manifold is an admissible Riemannian polyhedron. We define these maps to be harmonic in the sense of Eells-Fuglede and pseudo-horizontally weakly conformal in our sense. We characterize them by means of germs of harmonic functions on the source polyhedron, in the sense of Korevaar-Schoen, and germs of holomorphic functions on the Kaehler target manifold. (author)
Pseudo-Goldstone Higgs Doublets from Non-Vectorlike Grand Unified Higgs Sector
Hernández, A E Cárcamo
2016-01-01
We present a novel way of realizing the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson mechanism for the doublet-triplet splitting in supersymmetric grand unified theories. The global symmetries of the Higgs sector are attributed to a non-vectorlike Higgs content, which is consistent with unbroken supersymmetry in a scenario with flat extra dimensions and branes. We also show how in such a model one can naturally obtain a realistic pattern for the Standard Model fermion masses and mixings.
Magnetotransport in Layered Dirac Fermion System Coupled with Magnetic Moments
Iwasaki, Yoshiki; Morinari, Takao
2018-03-01
We theoretically investigate the magnetotransport of Dirac fermions coupled with localized moments to understand the physical properties of the Dirac material EuMnBi2. Using an interlayer hopping form, which simplifies the complicated interaction between the layers of Dirac fermions and the layers of magnetic moments in EuMnBi2, the theory reproduces most of the features observed in this system. The hysteresis observed in EuMnBi2 can be caused by the valley splitting that is induced by the spin-orbit coupling and the external magnetic field with the molecular field created by localized moments. Our theory suggests that the magnetotransport in EuMnBi2 is due to the interplay among Dirac fermions, localized moments, and spin-orbit coupling.
Using OSG Computing Resources with (iLC)Dirac
AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)683529; Petric, Marko
2017-01-01
CPU cycles for small experiments and projects can be scarce, thus making use of all available resources, whether dedicated or opportunistic, is mandatory. While enabling uniform access to the LCG computing elements (ARC, CREAM), the DIRAC grid interware was not able to use OSG computing elements (GlobusCE, HTCondor-CE) without dedicated support at the grid site through so called 'SiteDirectors', which directly submit to the local batch system. This in turn requires additional dedicated effort for small experiments on the grid site. Adding interfaces to the OSG CEs through the respective grid middleware is therefore allowing accessing them within the DIRAC software without additional sitespecific infrastructure. This enables greater use of opportunistic resources for experiments and projects without dedicated clusters or an established computing infrastructure with the DIRAC software. To allow sending jobs to HTCondor-CE and legacy Globus computing elements inside DIRAC the required wrapper classes were develo...
Invariance properties of the Dirac equation with external electro ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
. Introduction. The objective of this short paper is to investigate the invariance properties of the Dirac equation with external electro-magnetic field. There exists a large number of literatures on the problem beginning almost from the formulation ...
LHCb: Analysing DIRAC's Behavior using Model Checking with Process Algebra
Remenska, Daniela
2012-01-01
DIRAC is the Grid solution designed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. Based on a service-oriented architecture, DIRAC consists of many cooperating distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the Grid resources. Services accept requests from agents and running jobs, while agents run as light-weight components, fulfilling specific goals. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check for changes in the service states, and react to these accordingly. A characteristic of DIRAC's architecture is the relatively low complexity in the logic of each agent; the main source of complexity lies in their cooperation. These agents run concurrently, and communicate using the services' databases as a shared memory for synchronizing the state transitions. Although much effort is invested in making DIRAC reliable, entities occasionally get into inconsistent states, leadi...
Dirac Mass Dynamics in Multidimensional Nonlocal Parabolic Equations
Lorz, Alexander
2011-01-17
Nonlocal Lotka-Volterra models have the property that solutions concentrate as Dirac masses in the limit of small diffusion. Is it possible to describe the dynamics of the limiting concentration points and of the weights of the Dirac masses? What is the long time asymptotics of these Dirac masses? Can several Dirac masses coexist? We will explain how these questions relate to the so-called "constrained Hamilton-Jacobi equation" and how a form of canonical equation can be established. This equation has been established assuming smoothness. Here we build a framework where smooth solutions exist and thus the full theory can be developed rigorously. We also show that our form of canonical equation comes with a kind of Lyapunov functional. Numerical simulations show that the trajectories can exhibit unexpected dynamics well explained by this equation. Our motivation comes from population adaptive evolution a branch of mathematical ecology which models Darwinian evolution. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
Dirac directional emission in anisotropic zero refractive index photonic crystals.
He, Xin-Tao; Zhong, Yao-Nan; Zhou, You; Zhong, Zhi-Chao; Dong, Jian-Wen
2015-08-14
A certain class of photonic crystals with conical dispersion is known to behave as isotropic zero-refractive-index medium. However, the discrete building blocks in such photonic crystals are limited to construct multidirectional devices, even for high-symmetric photonic crystals. Here, we show multidirectional emission from low-symmetric photonic crystals with semi-Dirac dispersion at the zone center. We demonstrate that such low-symmetric photonic crystal can be considered as an effective anisotropic zero-refractive-index medium, as long as there is only one propagation mode near Dirac frequency. Four kinds of Dirac multidirectional emitters are achieved with the channel numbers of five, seven, eleven, and thirteen, respectively. Spatial power combination for such kind of Dirac directional emitter is also verified even when multiple sources are randomly placed in the anisotropic zero-refractive-index photonic crystal.
Science in culture the life of Paul Dirac
Abbott, A
2000-01-01
The life of Paul Dirac has been used as the theme of a show held underground at the Delphi experiment at CERN. The 'Oracle of Delphi' was created as an outreach project and has been extremely successful (1 p).
Large optical conductivity of Dirac semimetal Fermi arc surface states
Shi, Li-kun; Song, Justin C. W.
2017-08-01
Fermi arc surface states, a hallmark of topological Dirac semimetals, can host carriers that exhibit unusual dynamics distinct from that of their parent bulk. Here we find that Fermi arc carriers in intrinsic Dirac semimetals possess a strong and anisotropic light-matter interaction. This is characterized by a large Fermi arc optical conductivity when light is polarized transverse to the Fermi arc; when light is polarized along the Fermi arc, Fermi arc optical conductivity is significantly muted. The large surface spectral weight is locked to the wide separation between Dirac nodes and persists as a large Drude weight of Fermi arc carriers when the system is doped. As a result, large and anisotropic Fermi arc conductivity provides a novel means of optically interrogating the topological surfaces states of Dirac semimetals.
Pseudo-observations in survival analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Per Kragh; Perme, Maja Pohar
2010-01-01
-state models, e.g. the competing risks cumulative incidence function. Graphical and numerical methods for assessing goodness-of-fit for hazard regression models and for the Fine-Gray model in competing risks studies based on pseudo-observations are also reviewed. Sensitivity to covariate-dependent censoring...
Wills, Joerg M.
2013-01-01
There are two hypotheses on Leonardo's polyhedron based on the Pseudo-RCO and drawn for Luca Pacioli's book: Leonardo made an error, or: Leonardo draw it with intention, as it is. We give arguments, which support the Intention-hypothesis.
Genetics Home Reference: intestinal pseudo-obstruction
... A characteristic of X-linked inheritance is that fathers cannot pass X-linked traits to their sons. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction caused by ACTG2 gene mutations is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern , which means one copy of the altered ...
Pseudo--Normals for Signed Distance Computation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aanæs, Henrik; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
2003-01-01
the relation of a point to a mesh. At the vertices and edges of a triangle mesh, the surface is not \\$C\\^1\\$ continuous. Hence, the normal is undefined at these loci. Thürmer and Wüthrich proposed the \\$\\backslash\\$emph{angle weighted pseudo--normal} as a way to deal with this problem. In this paper, we...
From a world-sheet supersymmetry to the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mankoc Borstnik, N.
1991-10-01
Starting from a classical action for a point particle with a local world-sheet supersymmetry, the Dirac equation follows with operators α-vector, β-vector γ-vector being defined in the Grassmann space as differential operators and having all the properties of the corresponding Dirac matrices except that α-vector and β-vector are anti-Hermitian rather than Hermitian. Such a particle interacts with an external field as expected. (author). 7 refs
The confluent supersymmetry algorithm for Dirac equations with pseudoscalar potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Schulze-Halberg, Axel
2014-01-01
We introduce the confluent version of the quantum-mechanical supersymmetry formalism for the Dirac equation with a pseudoscalar potential. Application of the formalism to spectral problems is discussed, regularity conditions for the transformed potentials are derived, and normalizability of the transformed solutions is established. Our findings extend and complement former results [L. M. Nieto, A. A. Pecheritsin, and B. F. Samsonov, “Intertwining technique for the one-dimensional stationary Dirac equation,” Ann. Phys. 305, 151–189 (2003)
Topological Crystalline Insulators and Dirac Octets in Anti-perovskites
Hsieh, Timothy H.; Liu, Junwei; Fu, Liang
2014-01-01
We predict a new class of topological crystalline insulators (TCI) in the anti-perovskite material family with the chemical formula A$_3$BX. Here the nontrivial topology arises from band inversion between two $J=3/2$ quartets, which is described by a generalized Dirac equation for a "Dirac octet". Our work suggests that anti-perovskites are a promising new venue for exploring the cooperative interplay between band topology, crystal symmetry and electron correlation.
Relativistic Photoionization Computations with the Time Dependent Dirac Equation
2016-10-12
Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6795--16-9698 Relativistic Photoionization Computations with the Time Dependent Dirac... Photoionization Computations with the Time Dependent Dirac Equation Daniel F. Gordon and Bahman Hafizi Naval Research Laboratory 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW...Unclassified Unlimited Unclassified Unlimited 22 Daniel Gordon (202) 767-5036 Tunneling Photoionization Ionization of inner shell electrons by laser
Dirac and Weyl fermion dynamics on two-dimensional surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kavalov, A.R.; Sedrakyan, A.G.; Kostov, I.K.
1986-01-01
Fermions on 2-dimensional surface, embedded into a 3-dimensional space are investigated. The determinant of induced Dirac operator for the Dirac and Weyl fermions is calculated. The reparametrization-invariant effective action is determined by conformal anomaly (giving Liouville action) and also by Lorentz anomaly leading to Wess-Zumino term, the structure of which at d=3 is determined by the Hopf topological invariant of the S 3 → S 2 map
Einstein-Cartan-Dirac theory in (1+2)-dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dereli, Tekin [Koc University, Department of Physics, Istanbul (Turkey); Oezdemir, Nese [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Physics Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey); Sert, Oezcan [Pamukkale University, Department of Physics, Denizli (Turkey)
2013-01-15
Einstein-Cartan theory is formulated in (1+2) dimensions using the algebra of exterior differential forms. A Dirac spinor is coupled to gravity and the field equations are obtained by a variational principle. The space-time torsion is found to be given algebraically in terms of a quadratic spinor condensate field. Circularly symmetric, exact solutions that collapse to AdS{sub 3} geometry in the absence of the Dirac condensate are found. (orig.)
Lie algebras for the Dirac-Clifford ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mignaco, J.A.; Linhares, C.A.
1992-01-01
It is shown in a general way that the Dirac-Clifford ring formed by the Dirac matrices and all their products, for all even and odd spacetime dimensions D, span the cumulation algebras SU(2 D/2 ) for even D and SU(2 (D- 1 )/2 ) + SU(2 (D-1)/2 ) for odd D. Some physical consequences of these results are discussed. (author)
Neural network real time event selection for the DIRAC experiment
Kokkas, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Vlachos, S
2001-01-01
The neural network first level trigger for the DIRAC experiment at CERN is presented. Both the neural network algorithm used and its actual hardware implementation are described. The system uses the fast plastic scintillator information of the DIRAC spectrometer. In 210 ns it selects events with two particles having low relative momentum. Such events are selected with an efficiency of more than 0.94. The corresponding rate reduction for background events is a factor of 2.5. (10 refs).
The confluent supersymmetry algorithm for Dirac equations with pseudoscalar potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Contreras-Astorga, Alonso, E-mail: aloncont@iun.edu; Schulze-Halberg, Axel, E-mail: axgeschu@iun.edu, E-mail: xbataxel@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science and Department of Physics, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary, Indiana 46408 (United States)
2014-10-15
We introduce the confluent version of the quantum-mechanical supersymmetry formalism for the Dirac equation with a pseudoscalar potential. Application of the formalism to spectral problems is discussed, regularity conditions for the transformed potentials are derived, and normalizability of the transformed solutions is established. Our findings extend and complement former results [L. M. Nieto, A. A. Pecheritsin, and B. F. Samsonov, “Intertwining technique for the one-dimensional stationary Dirac equation,” Ann. Phys. 305, 151–189 (2003)].
Simulation of Zitterbewegung by modelling the Dirac equation in Metamaterials
Ahrens, Sven; Jiang, Jun; Sun, Yong; Zhu, Shi-Yao
2015-01-01
We develop a dynamic description of an effective Dirac theory in metamaterials, in which the wavefunction is modeled by the corresponding electric and magnetic field in the metamaterial. This electro-magnetic field can be probed in the experimental setup, which means that the wavefunction of the effective theory is directly accessible by measurement. Our model is based on a plane wave expansion, which ravels the identification of Dirac spinors with single-frequency excitations of the electro-...
Nonlinear Excitations in Strongly-Coupled Fermi-Dirac Plasmas
Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.
2012-01-01
In this paper we use the conventional quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) model in combination with the Sagdeev pseudopotential method to explore the effects of Thomas-Fermi nonuniform electron distribution, Coulomb interactions, electron exchange and ion correlation on the large-amplitude nonlinear soliton dynamics in Fermi-Dirac plasmas. It is found that in the presence of strong interactions significant differences in nonlinear wave dynamics of Fermi-Dirac plasmas in the two distinct regimes of no...
Revivals of zitterbewegung of a bound localized Dirac particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romera, Elvira
2011-01-01
In this paper a bound localized Dirac particle is shown to exhibit a revival of the zitterbewegung (ZB) oscillation amplitude. These revivals go beyond the known quasiclassical regenerations in which the ZB oscillation amplitude is decreasing from period to period. This phenomenon is studied in a Dirac oscillator and it is shown that it is possible to set up wave packets in which there is a regeneration of the initial ZB amplitude.
Bound-state Dirac eigenvalues for scalar potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ram, B.; Arafah, M.
1981-01-01
The Dirac equation is solved with a linear and a quadratic scalar potential using an approach in which the Dirac equation is first transformed to a one-dimensional Schroedinger equation with an effective potential. The WKB method is used to obtain the energy eigenvalues. The eigenvalues for the quadratic scalar potential are real just as they are for the linear potential. The results with the linear potential agree well with those obtained by Critchfield. (author)
[P.A.M. Dirac and antimatter applied to medicine].
Kulenović, Fahrudin; Vobornik, Slavenka; Dalagija, Faruk
2003-01-01
Regarding to the hundredth anniversary of P. Dirac birth, it was made review on life and work of this genius in the history of physics and science generally. His ingenious scientific work, that significantly marked contemporary time, was presented in the simplest way with aim to approach more number of readers. Special accent was put on application of Dirac's ideas about antiparticles in medical practice.
Particle creation and Dirac's large number hypothesis; and Reply
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canuto, V.; Adams, P.J.; Hsieh, S.H.; Tsiang, E.; Steigman, G.
1976-01-01
The claim made by Steigman (Nature; 261:479 (1976)), that the creation of matter as postulated by Dirac (Proc. R. Soc.; A338:439 (1974)) is unnecessary, is here shown to be incorrect. It is stated that Steigman's claim that Dirac's large Number Hypothesis (LNH) does not require particle creation is wrong because he has assumed that which he was seeking to prove, that is that rho does not contain matter creation. Steigman's claim that Dirac's LNH leads to nonsensical results in the very early Universe is superficially correct, but this only supports Dirac's contention that the LNH may not be valid in the very early Universe. In a reply Steigman points out that in Dirac's original cosmology R approximately tsup(1/3) and using this model the results and conclusions of the present author's paper do apply but using a variation chosen by Canuto et al (T approximately t) Dirac's LNH cannot apply. Additionally it is observed that a cosmological theory which only predicts the present epoch is of questionable value. (U.K.)
The Lorentz-Dirac equation in light of quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikishov, A.I.
1996-01-01
To high accuracy, an electron in ultrarelativistic motion 'sees' an external field in its rest frame as a crossed field (E=H, E·H=0). In this case, quantum expressions allow the introduction of a local intensity of the radiation, which determines the radiative term of the force of radiative reaction. For γ=(1-v2)-1/2>> 1 this term is much larger than the mass term, i.e., the term with xd3do. Under these conditions, the reduced Lorentz-Dirac equation, which is obtained from the full Lorentz-Dirac equation by eliminating the terms xd3do and xe on the right side using the equation of motion without taking into account the force of radiative reaction, is equivalent to good accuracy to the original Lorentz-Dirac equation. Exact solutions to the reduced Lorentz-Dirac equation are obtained for a constant field and the field of a plane wave. For γ∼1 a local expression for the radiative term cannot be obtained quantitatively from the quantum expressions. In this case the mass (Lorentz-Dirac) terms in the original and reduced Lorentz-Dirac equations are not small compared to the radiative term. The predictions of these equations, which depend appreciably on the mass terms, are therefore less reliable
The DIRAC Data Management System and the Gaudi dataset federation
Haen, Christophe; Frank, Markus; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei
2015-01-01
The DIRAC Interware provides a development framework and a complete set of components for building distributed computing systems. The DIRAC Data Management System (DMS) offers all the necessary tools to ensure data handling operations for small and large user communities. It supports transparent access to storage resources based on multiple technologies, and is easily expandable. The information on data files and replicas is kept in a File Catalog of which DIRAC offers a powerful and versatile implementation (DFC). Data movement can be performed using third party services including FTS3. Bulk data operations are resilient with respect to failures due to the use of the Request Management System (RMS) that keeps track of ongoing tasks.In this contribution we will present an overview of the DIRAC DMS capabilities and its connection with other DIRAC subsystems such as the Transformation System. This paper also focuses on the DIRAC File Catalog, for which a lot of new developments have been carried out, so that LH...
Dirac equation in low dimensions: The factorization method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sánchez-Monroy, J.A., E-mail: antosan@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Quimbay, C.J., E-mail: cjquimbayh@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D. C. (Colombia); CIF, Bogotá (Colombia)
2014-11-15
We present a general approach to solve the (1+1) and (2+1)-dimensional Dirac equations in the presence of static scalar, pseudoscalar and gauge potentials, for the case in which the potentials have the same functional form and thus the factorization method can be applied. We show that the presence of electric potentials in the Dirac equation leads to two Klein–Gordon equations including an energy-dependent potential. We then generalize the factorization method for the case of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. Additionally, the shape invariance is generalized for a specific class of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. We also present a condition for the absence of the Klein paradox (stability of the Dirac sea), showing how Dirac particles in low dimensions can be confined for a wide family of potentials. - Highlights: • The low-dimensional Dirac equation in the presence of static potentials is solved. • The factorization method is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. • The shape invariance is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. • The stability of the Dirac sea is related to the existence of supersymmetric partner Hamiltonians.
P A M Dirac meets M G Krein: matrix orthogonal polynomials and Dirac's equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duran, Antonio J; Gruenbaum, F Alberto
2006-01-01
The solution of several instances of the Schroedinger equation (1926) is made possible by using the well-known orthogonal polynomials associated with the names of Hermite, Legendre and Laguerre. A relativistic alternative to this equation was proposed by Dirac (1928) involving differential operators with matrix coefficients. In 1949 Krein developed a theory of matrix-valued orthogonal polynomials without any reference to differential equations. In Duran A J (1997 Matrix inner product having a matrix symmetric second order differential operator Rocky Mt. J. Math. 27 585-600), one of us raised the question of determining instances of these matrix-valued polynomials going along with second order differential operators with matrix coefficients. In Duran A J and Gruenbaum F A (2004 Orthogonal matrix polynomials satisfying second order differential equations Int. Math. Res. Not. 10 461-84), we developed a method to produce such examples and observed that in certain cases there is a connection with the instance of Dirac's equation with a central potential. We observe that the case of the central Coulomb potential discussed in the physics literature in Darwin C G (1928 Proc. R. Soc. A 118 654), Nikiforov A F and Uvarov V B (1988 Special Functions of Mathematical Physics (Basle: Birkhauser) and Rose M E 1961 Relativistic Electron Theory (New York: Wiley)), and its solution, gives rise to a matrix weight function whose orthogonal polynomials solve a second order differential equation. To the best of our knowledge this is the first instance of a connection between the solution of the first order matrix equation of Dirac and the theory of matrix-valued orthogonal polynomials initiated by M G Krein
Relic right-handed Dirac neutrinos and implications for detection of cosmic neutrino background
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jue Zhang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available It remains to be determined experimentally if massive neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac particles. In this connection, it has been recently suggested that the detection of cosmic neutrino background of left-handed neutrinos νL and right-handed antineutrinos ν‾R in future experiments of neutrino capture on beta-decaying nuclei (e.g., νe+H3→He3+e− for the PTOLEMY experiment is likely to distinguish between Majorana and Dirac neutrinos, since the capture rate is twice larger in the former case. In this paper, we investigate the possible impact of right-handed neutrinos on the capture rate, assuming that massive neutrinos are Dirac particles and both right-handed neutrinos νR and left-handed antineutrinos ν‾L can be efficiently produced in the early Universe. It turns out that the capture rate can be enhanced at most by 28% due to the presence of relic νR and ν‾L with a total number density of 95 cm−3, which should be compared to the number density 336 cm−3 of cosmic neutrino background. The enhancement has actually been limited by the latest cosmological and astrophysical bounds on the effective number of neutrino generations Neff=3.14−0.43+0.44 at the 95% confidence level. For illustration, two possible scenarios have been proposed for thermal production of right-handed neutrinos in the early Universe.
Primary palpebral and orbital ossification in pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Klauber, S.; Heegaard, S.; Prause, J.U.
2002-01-01
ophthalmology, Albright's heriditary osteodystrophy, ossification, pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism, pseodohypoparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, GNAS1 gene, history, eyelid, orbit......ophthalmology, Albright's heriditary osteodystrophy, ossification, pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism, pseodohypoparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, GNAS1 gene, history, eyelid, orbit...
Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Staley, Mark
2010-01-01
The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2π rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4π rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.
DIRAC: reliable data management for LHCb
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A C; Tsaregorodtsev, A
2008-01-01
DIRAC, LHCb's Grid Workload and Data Management System, utilizes WLCG resources and middleware components to perform distributed computing tasks satisfying LHCb's Computing Model. The Data Management System (DMS) handles data transfer and data access within LHCb. Its scope ranges from the output of the LHCb Online system to Grid-enabled storage for all data types. It supports metadata for these files in replica and bookkeeping catalogues, allowing dataset selection and localization. The DMS controls the movement of files in a redundant fashion whilst providing utilities for accessing all metadata. To do these tasks effectively the DMS requires complete self integrity between its components and external physical storage. The DMS provides highly redundant management of all LHCb data to leverage available storage resources and to manage transient errors in underlying services. It provides data driven and reliable distribution of files as well as reliable job output upload, utilizing VO Boxes at LHCb Tier1 sites to prevent data loss. This paper presents several examples of mechanisms implemented in the DMS to increase reliability, availability and integrity, highlighting successful design choices and limitations discovered
Dirac and non-Dirac conditions in the two-potential theory of magnetic charge
Scott, John; Evans, Timothy J.; Singleton, Douglas; Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir
2018-05-01
We investigate the Cabbibo-Ferrari, two-potential approach to magnetic charge coupled to two different complex scalar fields, Φ _1 and Φ _2, each having different electric and magnetic charges. The scalar field, Φ _1, is assumed to have a spontaneous symmetry breaking self-interaction potential which gives a mass to the "magnetic" gauge potential and "magnetic" photon, while the other "electric" gauge potential and "electric" photon remain massless. The magnetic photon is hidden until one reaches energies of the order of the magnetic photon rest mass. The second scalar field, Φ _2, is required in order to make the theory non-trivial. With only one field one can always use a duality rotation to rotate away either the electric or magnetic charge, and thus decouple either the associated electric or magnetic photon. In analyzing this system of two scalar fields in the Cabbibo-Ferrari approach we perform several duality and gauge transformations, which require introducing non-Dirac conditions on the initial electric and magnetic charges. We also find that due to the symmetry breaking the usual Dirac condition is altered to include the mass of the magnetic photon. We discuss the implications of these various conditions on the charges.
Wavefield extrapolation in pseudo-depth domain
Ma, Xuxin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2012-01-01
Extrapolating seismic waves in Cartesian coordinate is prone to uneven spatial sampling, because the seismic wavelength tends to grow with depth, as velocity increase. We transform the vertical depth axis to a pseudo one using a velocity weighted mapping, which can effectively mitigate this wavelength variation. We derive acoustic wave equations in this new domain based on the direct transformation of the Laplacian derivatives, which admits solutions that are more accurate and stable than those derived from the kinematic transformation. The anisotropic versions of these equations allow us to isolate the vertical velocity influence and reduce its impact on modeling and imaging. The major benefit of extrapolating wavefields in pseudo-depth space is its near uniform wavelength as opposed to the normally dramatic change of wavelength with the conventional approach. Time wavefield extrapolation on a complex velocity shows some of the features of this approach.
[Hysterical pseudo-coma: A case report].
Chouaib, N; Chouaib, H; Belyamani, L; Otheman, Y; Bichra, M Z
2015-09-01
Hysterical pseudo-coma corresponds to a state of clinical sleep with contrasting waking electroencephalogram. It can last several hours or even several days in the absence of an underlying organic disease. In psychiatry, this disorder is currently part of the "dissociative disorder not otherwise specified". Through this case report, we describe the evolution of a hysterical pseudo-coma that lasted four days in a 28-year-old man. The normality of biological, radiological and electroencephalographic assessments, and responsiveness of the patient during the implementation of a nasogastric tube, led us to suspect a mental origin. An adapted psychiatric care allowed the patient to recover his autonomy after three days of hospitalization. This had prevented the escalation of explorations and invasive treatments. However, the search for organic comorbidity and its management remains a priority. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
3D Object Metamorphosis with Pseudo Metameshes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MOCANU, B.
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a novel framework for 3D object metamorphosis, represented by closed triangular meshes. The systems returns a high quality transition sequence, smooth and gradual, that is visual pleasant and consistent to both source and target topologies. The method starts by parameterizing both the source and the target model to a common domain (the unit sphere. Then, the features selected from the two models are aligned by applying the CTPS C2a radial basis functions. We demonstrate how the selected approach can create valid warping by deforming the models embedded into the parametric domain. In the final stage, we propose and validate a novel algorithm to construct a pseudo-supermesh able to approximate both, the source and target 3D objects. By using the pseudo-supermesh we developed a morphing transition consistent with respect to both geometry and topology of the 3D models.
Pseudo-differential operators and generalized functions
Toft, Joachim
2015-01-01
This book gathers peer-reviewed contributions representing modern trends in the theory of generalized functions and pseudo-differential operators. It is dedicated to Professor Michael Oberguggenberger (Innsbruck University, Austria) in honour of his 60th birthday. The topics covered were suggested by the ISAAC Group in Generalized Functions (GF) and the ISAAC Group in Pseudo-Differential Operators (IGPDO), which met at the 9th ISAAC congress in Krakow, Poland in August 2013. Topics include Columbeau algebras, ultra-distributions, partial differential equations, micro-local analysis, harmonic analysis, global analysis, geometry, quantization, mathematical physics, and time-frequency analysis. Featuring both essays and research articles, the book will be of great interest to graduate students and researchers working in analysis, PDE and mathematical physics, while also offering a valuable complement to the volumes on this topic previously published in the OT series.
Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stepanov, Igor B.; Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A.
2014-01-01
The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface
Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source.
Stepanov, Igor B; Ryabchikov, Alexander I; Sivin, Denis O; Verigin, Dan A
2014-02-01
The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.
Two component WIMP-FImP dark matter model with singlet fermion, scalar and pseudo scalar
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutta Banik, Amit; Pandey, Madhurima; Majumdar, Debasish [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Kolkata (India); Biswas, Anirban [Harish Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad (India)
2017-10-15
We explore a two component dark matter model with a fermion and a scalar. In this scenario the Standard Model (SM) is extended by a fermion, a scalar and an additional pseudo scalar. The fermionic component is assumed to have a global U(1){sub DM} and interacts with the pseudo scalar via Yukawa interaction while a Z{sub 2} symmetry is imposed on the other component - the scalar. These ensure the stability of both dark matter components. Although the Lagrangian of the present model is CP conserving, the CP symmetry breaks spontaneously when the pseudo scalar acquires a vacuum expectation value (VEV). The scalar component of the dark matter in the present model also develops a VEV on spontaneous breaking of the Z{sub 2} symmetry. Thus the various interactions of the dark sector and the SM sector occur through the mixing of the SM like Higgs boson, the pseudo scalar Higgs like boson and the singlet scalar boson. We show that the observed gamma ray excess from the Galactic Centre as well as the 3.55 keV X-ray line from Perseus, Andromeda etc. can be simultaneously explained in the present two component dark matter model and the dark matter self interaction is found to be an order of magnitude smaller than the upper limit estimated from the observational results. (orig.)
Acute pseudo-obstruction of the colon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beese, M.; Heller, M.
1988-01-01
The radiological correlate to the pseudo-obstruction of the colon is not specific, but it does supply a pointer to the disease of it shows dilation of the caecum, colon ascendens and colon transversum with air-pockets and reflected imaging as well as a usually not dilated colon descendens with remarkably little air. To make the diagnosis quite sure we must exclude intestinal obstruction by using X-ray contrast media or by coloscopy. (orig./GDG) [de
Pseudo-hermafroditismo masculino em cadela
Fantoni,M.S.; Silva,B.C.; Ferreira,L.F.L.; Valle,G.R.; Rachid,M.A.
2012-01-01
A case of male pseudo-hermaphrodite in a six-month-old Pinscher dog with mild signs of agression towards other dogs is reported. The animal presented fibrous mass in clitorial region, with structure similar to a diminutive penis. Testicles were found in the abdominal cavity, uterus had normal size and localization and hypertrophic clitoris was seen during exploratory laparotomy. The histopathological examination revealed testicular tissue, composed of hypotrophic seminipherous tubules and exu...
Quality pseudo-random number generator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasiuk, J.
1996-01-01
The pseudo-random number generator (RNG) was written to match needs of nuclear and high-energy physics computation which in some cases require very long and independent random number sequences. In this random number generator the repetition period is about 10 36 what should be sufficient for all computers in the world. In this article the test results of RNG correlation, speed and identity of computations for PC, Sun4 and VAX computer tests are presented
Double Dirac Point Semimetal in Two-Dimensional Material: Ta2Se3
Ma, Yandong; Jing, Yu; Heine, Thomas
2017-01-01
Here, we report by first-principles calculations one new stable 2D Dirac material, Ta2Se3 monolayer. For this system, stable layered bulk phase exists, and exfoliation should be possible. Ta2Se3 monolayer is demonstrated to support two Dirac points close to the Fermi level, achieving the exotic 2D double Dirac semimetal. And like 2D single Dirac and 2D node-line semimetals, spin-orbit coupling could introduce an insulating state in this new class of 2D Dirac semimetals. Moreover, the Dirac fe...
Dirac matrices for Chern-Simons gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Izaurieta, Fernando; Ramirez, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Eduardo [Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Ribera 2850, 4090541 Concepcion (Chile)
2012-10-06
A genuine gauge theory for the Poincare, de Sitter or anti-de Sitter algebras can be constructed in (2n- 1)-dimensional spacetime by means of the Chern-Simons form, yielding a gravitational theory that differs from General Relativity but shares many of its properties, such as second order field equations for the metric. The particular form of the Lagrangian is determined by a rank n, symmetric tensor invariant under the relevant algebra. In practice, the calculation of this invariant tensor can be reduced to the computation of the trace of the symmetrized product of n Dirac Gamma matrices {Gamma}{sub ab} in 2n-dimensional spacetime. While straightforward in principle, this calculation can become extremely cumbersome in practice. For large enough n, existing computer algebra packages take an inordinate long time to produce the answer or plainly fail having used up all available memory. In this talk we show that the general formula for the trace of the symmetrized product of 2n Gamma matrices {Gamma}{sub ab} can be written as a certain sum over the integer partitions s of n, with every term being multiplied by a numerical cofficient {alpha}{sub s}. We then give a general algorithm that computes the {alpha}-coefficients as the solution of a linear system of equations generated by evaluating the general formula for different sets of tensors B{sup ab} with random numerical entries. A recurrence relation between different coefficients is shown to hold and is used in a second, 'minimal' algorithm to greatly speed up the computations. Runtime of the minimal algorithm stays below 1 min on a typical desktop computer for up to n = 25, which easily covers all foreseeable applications of the trace formula.
Wavefield Extrapolation in Pseudo-depth Domain
Ma, Xuxin
2011-12-11
Wave-equation based seismic migration and inversion tools are widely used by the energy industry to explore hydrocarbon and mineral resources. By design, most of these techniques simulate wave propagation in a space domain with the vertical axis being depth measured from the surface. Vertical depth is popular because it is a straightforward mapping of the subsurface space. It is, however, not computationally cost-effective because the wavelength changes with local elastic wave velocity, which in general increases with depth in the Earth. As a result, the sampling per wavelength also increases with depth. To avoid spatial aliasing in deep fast media, the seismic wave is oversampled in shallow slow media and therefore increase the total computation cost. This issue is effectively tackled by using the vertical time axis instead of vertical depth. This is because in a vertical time representation, the "wavelength" is essentially time period for vertical rays. This thesis extends the vertical time axis to the pseudo-depth axis, which features distance unit while preserving the properties of the vertical time representation. To explore the potentials of doing wave-equation based imaging in the pseudo-depth domain, a Partial Differential Equation (PDE) is derived to describe acoustic wave in this new domain. This new PDE is inherently anisotropic because the use of a constant vertical velocity to convert between depth and vertical time. Such anisotropy results in lower reflection coefficients compared with conventional space domain modeling results. This feature is helpful to suppress the low wavenumber artifacts in reverse-time migration images, which are caused by the widely used cross-correlation imaging condition. This thesis illustrates modeling acoustic waves in both conventional space domain and pseudo-depth domain. The numerical tool used to model acoustic waves is built based on the lowrank approximation of Fourier integral operators. To investigate the potential
Relativistic space-charge-limited current for massive Dirac fermions
Ang, Y. S.; Zubair, M.; Ang, L. K.
2017-04-01
A theory of relativistic space-charge-limited current (SCLC) is formulated to determine the SCLC scaling, J ∝Vα/Lβ , for a finite band-gap Dirac material of length L biased under a voltage V . In one-dimensional (1D) bulk geometry, our model allows (α ,β ) to vary from (2,3) for the nonrelativistic model in traditional solids to (3/2,2) for the ultrarelativistic model of massless Dirac fermions. For 2D thin-film geometry we obtain α =β , which varies between 2 and 3/2, respectively, at the nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic limits. We further provide rigorous proof based on a Green's-function approach that for a uniform SCLC model described by carrier-density-dependent mobility, the scaling relations of the 1D bulk model can be directly mapped into the case of 2D thin film for any contact geometries. Our simplified approach provides a convenient tool to obtain the 2D thin-film SCLC scaling relations without the need of explicitly solving the complicated 2D problems. Finally, this work clarifies the inconsistency in using the traditional SCLC models to explain the experimental measurement of a 2D Dirac semiconductor. We conclude that the voltage scaling 3 /2 <α <2 is a distinct signature of massive Dirac fermions in a Dirac semiconductor and is in agreement with experimental SCLC measurements in MoS2.
Dirac strings and magnetic monopoles in the spin ice Dy2Ti2O7.
Morris, D J P; Tennant, D A; Grigera, S A; Klemke, B; Castelnovo, C; Moessner, R; Czternasty, C; Meissner, M; Rule, K C; Hoffmann, J-U; Kiefer, K; Gerischer, S; Slobinsky, D; Perry, R S
2009-10-16
Sources of magnetic fields-magnetic monopoles-have so far proven elusive as elementary particles. Condensed-matter physicists have recently proposed several scenarios of emergent quasiparticles resembling monopoles. A particularly simple proposition pertains to spin ice on the highly frustrated pyrochlore lattice. The spin-ice state is argued to be well described by networks of aligned dipoles resembling solenoidal tubes-classical, and observable, versions of a Dirac string. Where these tubes end, the resulting defects look like magnetic monopoles. We demonstrated, by diffuse neutron scattering, the presence of such strings in the spin ice dysprosium titanate (Dy2Ti2O7). This is achieved by applying a symmetry-breaking magnetic field with which we can manipulate the density and orientation of the strings. In turn, heat capacity is described by a gas of magnetic monopoles interacting via a magnetic Coulomb interaction.
Construction of the mathematical concept of pseudo thinking students
Anggraini, D.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.
2018-05-01
Thinking process is a process that begins with the acceptance of information, information processing and information calling in memory with structural changes that include concepts or knowledges. The concept or knowledge is individually constructed by each individual. While, students construct a mathematical concept, students may experience pseudo thinking. Pseudo thinking is a thinking process that results in an answer to a problem or construction to a concept “that is not true”. Pseudo thinking can be classified into two forms there are true pseudo and false pseudo. The construction of mathematical concepts in students of pseudo thinking should be immediately known because the error will have an impact on the next construction of mathematical concepts and to correct the errors it requires knowledge of the source of the error. Therefore, in this article will be discussed thinking process in constructing of mathematical concepts in students who experience pseudo thinking.
Exposure scenarios for workers
Marquart, H.; Northage, C.; Money, C.
2007-01-01
The new European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) requires the development of Exposure Scenarios describing the conditions and risk management measures needed for the safe use of chemicals. Such Exposure Scenarios should integrate
Dirac equation and optical wave propagation in one dimension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, Gabriel [Catedras CONACYT, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Coordinacion para la Innovacion y la Aplicacion de la Ciencia y la Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)
2018-02-15
We show that the propagation of transverse electric (TE) polarized waves in one-dimensional inhomogeneous settings can be written in the form of the Dirac equation in one space dimension with a Lorentz scalar potential, and consequently perform photonic simulations of the Dirac equation in optical structures. In particular, we propose how the zero energy state of the Jackiw-Rebbi model can be generated in an optical set-up by controlling the refractive index landscape, where TE-polarized waves mimic the Dirac particles and the soliton field can be tuned by adjusting the refractive index. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Shot noise in systems with semi-Dirac points
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhai, Feng; Wang, Juan
2014-01-01
We calculate the ballistic conductance and shot noise of electrons through a two-dimensional stripe system (width W ≫ length L) with semi-Dirac band-touching points. We find that the ratio between zero-temperature noise power and mean current (the Fano factor) is highly anisotropic. When the transport is along the linear-dispersion direction and the Fermi energy is fixed at the semi-Dirac point, the Fano factor has a universal value F = 0.179 while a minimum conductivity exists and scales with L 1∕2 . Along the parabolic dispersion direction, the Fano factor at the semi-Dirac point has a contact-independent limit exceeding 0.9, which varies weakly with L due to the common-path interference of evanescent waves. Our findings suggest a way to discern the type of band-touching points
Spin-1 Dirac-Weyl fermions protected by bipartite symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Zeren [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Liu, Zhirong, E-mail: LiuZhiRong@pku.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Nanochemistry, Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2015-12-07
We propose that bipartite symmetry allows spin-1 Dirac-Weyl points, a generalization of the spin-1/2 Dirac points in graphene, to appear as topologically protected at the Fermi level. In this spirit, we provide methodology to construct spin-1 Dirac-Weyl points of this kind in a given 2D space group and get the classification of the known spin-1 systems in the literature. We also apply the workflow to predict two new systems, P3m1-9 and P31m-15, to possess spin-1 at K/K′ in the Brillouin zone of hexagonal lattice. Their stability under various strains is investigated and compared with that of T{sub 3}, an extensively studied model of ultracold atoms trapped in optical lattice with spin-1 also at K/K′.
New approaches for searching for the Dirac magnetic monopole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kukhtin, V.V.; Krivokhizhin, V.G.; Stetsenko, S.G.; Cheplakov, A.P.
2012-01-01
Three new approaches, not applied earlier, are proposed to search for the Dirac monopole - an object whose existence was proposed by P.Dirac more than 80 years ago to explain the electrical charge quantization. The first approach assumes that the monopole must be accelerated by a magnetic field, and such acceleration is constant in the magnetic field which is homogeneous and constant. The conclusion about the object movement nature can be drawn by measuring the time marks for equidistant registering planes. The second approach is supposed to reconstruct the movement trajectory in the homogeneous and permanent electrical field, which is the circle or its part for the magnetic monopole. The third approach is based on the constancy of energy losses by Dirac monopole due to medium ionization in the multilayer passive dielectric tracking detectors placed in the homogeneous and permanent electrical field
Time-dependent massless Dirac fermions in graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khantoul, Boubakeur, E-mail: bobphys@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Jijel, BP 98, Ouled Aissa, 18000 Jijel (Algeria); Fring, Andreas, E-mail: a.fring@city.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)
2015-10-30
Using the Lewis–Riesenfeld method of invariants we construct explicit analytical solutions for the massless Dirac equation in 2+1 dimensions describing quasi-particles in graphene. The Hamiltonian of the system considered contains some explicit time-dependence in addition to one resulting from being minimally coupled to a time-dependent vector potential. The eigenvalue equations for the two spinor components of the Lewis–Riesenfeld invariant are found to decouple into a pair of supersymmetric invariants in a similar fashion as the known decoupling for the time-independent Dirac Hamiltonians. - Highlights: • An explicit analytical solution for a massless 2+1 dimensional time-dependent Dirac equation is found. • All steps of the Lewis–Riesenfeld method have been carried out.
Dirac vacuum: Acceleration and external-field effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jauregui, R.; Torres, M.; Hacyan, S.
1991-01-01
The quantization of the massive spin-1/2 field in Rindler coordinates is considered, including the effects of a background magnetic field. We calculate the expectation values of conserved quantities such as the stress-energy tensor, current density, and spin distribution, as detected by an accelerated observer. The ratio of the energy and particle densities is given by a Fermi-Dirac distribution, but the spectrum of these quantities takes in general a complicated form that cannot be simply interpreted as a thermal spectrum. For the free-particle case the spectrum of the energy-stress tensor has a Fermi-Dirac form only in the massless limit. In the presence of the magnetic field the Dirac vacuum is magnetized and exhibits plasmalike properties
String effects on Fermi-Dirac correlation measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duran Delgado, R.M.; Gustafson, G.; Loennblad, L.
2007-01-01
We investigate some recent measurements of Fermi-Dirac correlations by the LEP collaborations indicating surprisingly small source radii for the production of baryons in e + e - annihilation at the Z 0 peak. In hadronization models there is besides the Fermi-Dirac correlation effect also a strong dynamical (anti-) correlation. We demonstrate that the extraction of the pure FD effect is highly dependent on a realistic Monte Carlo event generator, both for separation of those dynamical correlations that are not related to Fermi-Dirac statistics, and for corrections of the data and background subtractions. Although the model can be tuned to well reproduce single particle distributions, there are large model uncertainties when it comes to correlations between identical baryons. We therefore, unfortunately, have to conclude that it is at present not possible to draw any firm conclusion about the source radii relevant for baryon production at LEP. (orig.)
Inverse scattering scheme for the Dirac equation at fixed energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leeb, H.; Lehninger, H.; Schilder, C.
2001-01-01
Full text: Based on the concept of generalized transformation operators a new hierarchy of Dirac equations with spherical symmetric scalar and fourth component vector potentials is presented. Within this hierarchy closed form expressions for the solutions, the potentials and the S-matrix can be given in terms of solutions of the original Dirac equation. Using these transformations an inverse scattering scheme has been constructed for the Dirac equation which is the analog to the rational scheme in the non-relativistic case. The given method provides for the first time an inversion scheme with closed form expressions for the S-matrix for non-relativistic scattering problems with central and spin-orbit potentials. (author)
Luciano Maiani and Jean Iliopoulos awarded the Dirac Medal
2007-01-01
Luciano Maiani, when he was Director-General of CERN. Jean Iliopoulos in 1999. (©CNRS Photothèque - Julien Quideau)On 8 August, the 2007 Dirac Medal, one of the most prestigious prizes in the fields of theoretical physics and mathematics, was awarded to Luciano Maiani, professor at Rome’s La Sapienza University and former Director-General of CERN, and to Jean Iliopoulos, emeritus Director of Research at the CNRS Laboratory of Theoretical Physics. The medal was awarded to both physicists for their joint "work on the physics of the charm quark, a major contribution to the birth of the Standard Model, the modern theory of Elementary Particles." Founded by the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in 1985, the Dirac Medal is awarded annually on 8 August, the birthday of the famous physicist Paul Dirac, winner of the 1933 Nobel Prize for Physics. It is awarded to ...
Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, Michael C; Li, Z.Q.; Henriksen, E.A.; Jiang, Z.; Hao, Z.; Martin, Michael C; Kim, P.; Stormer, H.L.; Basov, Dimitri N.
2008-01-01
A remarkable manifestation of the quantum character of electrons in matter is offered by graphene, a single atomic layer of graphite. Unlike conventional solids where electrons are described with the Schroedinger equation, electronic excitations in graphene are governed by the Dirac hamiltonian. Some of the intriguing electronic properties of graphene, such as massless Dirac quasiparticles with linear energy-momentum dispersion, have been confirmed by recent observations. Here, we report an infrared spectromicroscopy study of charge dynamics in graphene integrated in gated devices. Our measurements verify the expected characteristics of graphene and, owing to the previously unattainable accuracy of infrared experiments, also uncover significant departures of the quasiparticle dynamics from predictions made for Dirac fermions in idealized, free-standing graphene. Several observations reported here indicate the relevance of many-body interactions to the electromagnetic response of graphene
Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal
Chen, Ze-Guo; Ni, Xu; Wu, Ying; He, Cheng; Sun, Xiao-Chen; Zheng, Li-Yang; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yan-Feng
2014-01-01
Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.
Accidental degeneracy of double Dirac cones in a phononic crystal
Chen, Ze-Guo
2014-04-09
Artificial honeycomb lattices with Dirac cone dispersion provide a macroscopic platform to study the massless Dirac quasiparticles and their novel geometric phases. In this paper, a quadruple-degenerate state is achieved at the center of the Brillouin zone in a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice phononic crystal, which is a result of accidental degeneracy of two double-degenerate states. In the vicinity of the quadruple-degenerate state, the dispersion relation is linear. Such quadruple degeneracy is analyzed by rigorous representation theory of groups. Using method, a reduced Hamiltonian is obtained to describe the linear Dirac dispersion relations of this quadruple-degenerate state, which is well consistent with the simulation results. Near such accidental degeneracy, we observe some unique properties in wave propagating, such as defect-insensitive propagating character and the Talbot effect.
Electronic structure of a graphene superlattice with massive Dirac fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lima, Jonas R. F.
2015-01-01
We study the electronic and transport properties of a graphene-based superlattice theoretically by using an effective Dirac equation. The superlattice consists of a periodic potential applied on a single-layer graphene deposited on a substrate that opens an energy gap of 2Δ in its electronic structure. We find that extra Dirac points appear in the electronic band structure under certain conditions, so it is possible to close the gap between the conduction and valence minibands. We show that the energy gap E g can be tuned in the range 0 ≤ E g ≤ 2Δ by changing the periodic potential. We analyze the low energy electronic structure around the contact points and find that the effective Fermi velocity in very anisotropic and depends on the energy gap. We show that the extra Dirac points obtained here behave differently compared to previously studied systems
Iyer, Gokul; Edmonds, James
2018-05-01
Quantitative scenarios from energy-economic models inform decision-making about uncertain futures. Now, research shows the different ways these scenarios are subsequently used by users not involved in their initial development. In the absence of clear guidance from modellers, users may place too much or too little confidence in scenario assumptions and results.
PREFACE: International Workshop on Dirac Electrons in Solids 2015
Ogata, M.; Suzumura, Y.; Fuseya, Y.; Matsuura, H.
2015-04-01
It is our pleasure to publish the Proceedings of the International Workshop on Dirac Electrons in Solids held in University of Tokyo, Japan, for January 14-15, 2015. The workshop was organized by the entitled project which lasted from April 2012 to March 2015 with 10 theorists. It has been supported by a Grand-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan. The subjects discussed in the workshop include bismuth, organic conductors, graphene, topological insulators, new materials including Ca3PbO, and new directions in theory (superconductivity, orbital susceptibility, etc). The number of participants was about 70 and the papers presented in the workshop include four invited talks, 16 oral presentations, and 23 poster presentations. Dirac electron systems appear in various systems, such as graphene, quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors, bismuth, surface states in topological insulators, new materials like Ca3PbO. In these systems, characteristic transport properties caused by the linear dispersion of Dirac electrons and topological properties, have been extensively discussed. In addition to these, there are many interesting research fields such as Spin-Hall effect, orbital diamagnetism due to interband effects, Landau levels characteristic to Dirac dispersion, anomalous interlayer transport phenomena and magnetoresistance, the effects of spin-orbit interaction, and electron correlation. The workshop focused on recent developments of theory and experiment of Dirac electron systems in the above materials. We note that all papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series were peer reviewed. Reviews were performed by expert referees with professional knowledge and high scientific standards in this field. Editors made efforts so that the papers may satisfy the criterion of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. We hope that all the participants of the workshop
Chemistry at the dirac point of graphene
Sarkar, Santanu
device mobility. To this end, we find that the organometallic hexahapto metal complexation chemistry of graphene, in which the graphene pi-band constructively hybridizes with the vacant d-orbitals of transition metals, allows the fabrication of field effect devices which retain a high degree of the mobility with enhanced on-off ratio. In summary, we find that the singular electronic structure of graphene at the Dirac point governs the chemical reactivity of graphene and this chemistry will play a vital role in propelling graphene to assume its role as the next generation electronic material beyond silicon.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escalante, Alberto, E-mail: aescalan@ifuap.buap.mx; Zarate, Moises, E-mail: mzarate@ifuap.buap.mx
2015-02-15
A detailed Hamiltonian analysis for a five-dimensional Stüeckelberg theory with a compact dimension is performed. First, we develop a pure Dirac’s analysis of the theory; we show that after performing the compactification, the theory is reduced to four-dimensional Stüeckelberg theory plus a tower of Kaluza–Klein modes. We develop a complete analysis of the constraints, we fix the gauge and we show that there are present pseudo-Goldstone bosons. Then we quantize the theory by constructing the Dirac brackets. As complementary work, we perform the Faddeev–Jackiw quantization for the theory under study, and we calculate the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets, we show that both the Faddeev–Jackiw and Dirac’s brackets are the same. Finally we discuss some remarks and prospects. - Highlights: • Dirac’s method for 5D Stueckelberg theory with a compact dimension is performed. • By fixing the gauge in the effective theory we find present pseudo-Goldstone bosons. • Dirac’s brackets are constructed for the zero-modes and the kk-excitations. • The Faddeev–Jackiw quantization is performed. • The equivalence between generalized Faddeev–Jackiw and Dirac’s brackets is shown.
Phenomenological constraints on light mixed sneutrino dark matter scenarios
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mitsuru Kakizaki
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In supersymmetric models with Dirac neutrinos, the lightest sneutrino can be a good thermal dark matter candidate when the soft sneutrino trilinear parameter is large. In this paper, we focus on scenarios where the mass of the mixed sneutrino LSP is of the order of GeV so the sneutrino dark matter is still viable complying with the limits by current and near future direct detection experiments. We investigate phenomenological constraints in the parameter space of the models, as well as the vacuum stability bound. Finally, we show that the allowed regions can be explored by measuring Higgs boson properties at future collider experiments.
Out-of-Bounds Hydrodynamics in Anisotropic Dirac Fluids
Link, Julia M.; Narozhny, Boris N.; Kiselev, Egor I.; Schmalian, Jörg
2018-05-01
We study hydrodynamic transport in two-dimensional, interacting electronic systems with merging Dirac points at charge neutrality. The dispersion along one crystallographic direction is Dirac-like, while it is Newtonian-like in the orthogonal direction. As a result, the electrical conductivity is metallic in one and insulating in the other direction. The shear viscosity tensor contains six independent components, which can be probed by measuring an anisotropic thermal flow. One of the viscosity components vanishes at zero temperature leading to a generalization of the previously conjectured lower bound for the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio.
Geometric interpretation for the Dirac field in curved space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ranganathan, D.
1987-01-01
The imposition of the condition of length invariance on a Weyl manifold that does not lead uniquely to general relativity is shown. Rather, in this limit, the Weyl vector field can be interpreted as a Dirac current. The action is also the same as the Einstein Dirac one, if and only if, the spinor field is anticommuting. The allowed interactions are greatly restricted. They are only minimal gauge couplings and Yukawa interactions with a scalar field transforming according to the rules of Utiyama [Prog. Theor. Phys. 53, 565 (1975)
Levinson theorem for Dirac particles in n dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Yu
2005-01-01
We study the Levinson theorem for a Dirac particle in an n-dimensional central field by use of the Green function approach, based on an analysis of the n-dimensional radial Dirac equation obtained through a simple algebraic derivation. We show that the zero-momentum phase shifts are related to the number of bound states with |E|< m plus the number of half-bound states of zero momenta--i.e., |E|=m--which are denoted by finite, but not square-integrable, wave functions
Dirac potentials in a coupled channel approach to inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, V.K.; Clark, B.C.; Cooper, E.D.; Mercer, R.L.
1990-01-01
It has been shown that there exist transformations that can be used to change the Lorentz transformation character of potentials, which appear in the Dirac equation for elastic scattering. We consider the situation for inelastic scattering described by coupled channel Dirac equations. We examine a two-level problem where both the ground and excited states are assumed to have zero spin. Even in this simple case we have not found an appropriate transformation. However, if the excited state has zero excitation energy it is possible to find a transformation
Adaptive Multigrid Algorithm for the Lattice Wilson-Dirac Operator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babich, R.; Brower, R. C.; Rebbi, C.; Brannick, J.; Clark, M. A.; Manteuffel, T. A.; McCormick, S. F.; Osborn, J. C.
2010-01-01
We present an adaptive multigrid solver for application to the non-Hermitian Wilson-Dirac system of QCD. The key components leading to the success of our proposed algorithm are the use of an adaptive projection onto coarse grids that preserves the near null space of the system matrix together with a simplified form of the correction based on the so-called γ 5 -Hermitian symmetry of the Dirac operator. We demonstrate that the algorithm nearly eliminates critical slowing down in the chiral limit and that it has weak dependence on the lattice volume.
Radiative heat transfer in 2D Dirac materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez-López, Pablo; Tse, Wang-Kong; Dalvit, Diego A R
2015-01-01
We compute the radiative heat transfer between two sheets of 2D Dirac materials, including topological Chern insulators and graphene, within the framework of the local approximation for the optical response of these materials. In this approximation, which neglects spatial dispersion, we derive both numerically and analytically the short-distance asymptotic of the near-field heat transfer in these systems, and show that it scales as the inverse of the distance between the two sheets. Finally, we discuss the limitations to the validity of this scaling law imposed by spatial dispersion in 2D Dirac materials. (paper)
Rigid particle revisited: Extrinsic curvature yields the Dirac equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deriglazov, Alexei, E-mail: alexei.deriglazov@ufjf.edu.br [Depto. de Matemática, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation); Nersessian, Armen, E-mail: arnerses@ysu.am [Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian St., Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation)
2014-03-01
We reexamine the model of relativistic particle with higher-derivative linear term on the first extrinsic curvature (rigidity). The passage from classical to quantum theory requires a number of rather unexpected steps which we report here. We found that, contrary to common opinion, quantization of the model in terms of so(3.2)-algebra yields massive Dirac equation. -- Highlights: •New way of canonical quantization of relativistic rigid particle is proposed. •Quantization made in terms of so(3.2) angular momentum algebra. •Quantization yields massive Dirac equation.
Job monitoring on DIRAC for Belle II distributed computing
Kato, Yuji; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi; Hara, Takanori; Miyake, Hideki; Ueda, Ikuo
2015-12-01
We developed a monitoring system for Belle II distributed computing, which consists of active and passive methods. In this paper we describe the passive monitoring system, where information stored in the DIRAC database is processed and visualized. We divide the DIRAC workload management flow into steps and store characteristic variables which indicate issues. These variables are chosen carefully based on our experiences, then visualized. As a result, we are able to effectively detect issues. Finally, we discuss the future development for automating log analysis, notification of issues, and disabling problematic sites.
Zero-energy eigenstates for the Dirac boundary problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hortacsu, M.; Rothe, K.D.; Schroer, B.
1980-01-01
As an alternative to the method of spherical compactification for the Dirac operator in instanton background fields we study the correct method of 'box-quantization': the Atiyah-Patodi-Singer spectral boundary condition. This is the only self-adjoint boundary condition which respects the charge conjugation property and the γ 5 symmetry, apart form the usual breaking due to zero modes. We point out the relevance of this approach to the computation of instanton determinants and other problems involving Dirac spinors. (orig.)
Dispersive estimates for massive Dirac operators in dimension two
Erdoğan, M. Burak; Green, William R.; Toprak, Ebru
2018-05-01
We study the massive two dimensional Dirac operator with an electric potential. In particular, we show that the t-1 decay rate holds in the L1 →L∞ setting if the threshold energies are regular. We also show these bounds hold in the presence of s-wave resonances at the threshold. We further show that, if the threshold energies are regular then a faster decay rate of t-1(log t) - 2 is attained for large t, at the cost of logarithmic spatial weights. The free Dirac equation does not satisfy this bound due to the s-wave resonances at the threshold energies.
Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain
Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Cheng, Yingchun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2013-01-01
The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.
Hole doped Dirac states in silicene by biaxial tensile strain
Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.
2013-03-11
The effects of biaxial tensile strain on the structure, electronic states, and mechanical properties of silicene are studied by ab-initio calculations. Our results show that up to 5% strain the Dirac cone remains essentially at the Fermi level, while higher strain induces hole doped Dirac states because of weakened Si–Si bonds. We demonstrate that the silicene lattice is stable up to 17% strain. It is noted that the buckling first decreases with the strain (up to 10%) and then increases again, which is accompanied by a band gap variation. We also calculate the Grüneisen parameter and demonstrate a strain dependence similar to that of graphene.
Twisting dirac fermions: circular dichroism in bilayer graphene
Suárez Morell, E.; Chico, Leonor; Brey, Luis
2017-09-01
Twisted bilayer graphene is a chiral system which has been recently shown to present circular dichroism. In this work we show that the origin of this optical activity is the rotation of the Dirac fermions’ helicities in the top and bottom layer. Starting from the Kubo formula, we obtain a compact expression for the Hall conductivity that takes into account the dephasing of the electromagnetic field between the top and bottom layers and gathers all the symmetries of the system. Our results are based in both a continuum and a tight-binding model, and they can be generalized to any two-dimensional Dirac material with a chiral stacking between layers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stern, T E; Cazemajou, J; Macherez, B; Valat, J; Vignon, A
1964-07-01
We summarize here the theoretical basis for the production of square wave having the values '1' or '0', the switching times being 'pseudo-random'. More precisely, the square-wave may or may not change value at regular time intervals of length {delta}, with probability approximately. 5 for each alternative. The wave-form is obtained by means of a shift-register having modulo-2 feedback. If the interval {delta} and the feedback connections are well chosen, it is possible to produce a waveform whose autocorrelation function is very close to a Dirac delta function. The square-wave therefore behaves like a quantized white noise, which has very interesting properties in cross-correlation techniques. (authors) [French] On resume ici les bases theoriques permettant d'obtenir un creneau prenant les valeurs '1' ou '0', les instants de commutation etant pseudo-aleatoires. Plus exactement, le creneau a la possibilite de changer (ou de ne pas changer) d'etat a intervalles de temps reguliers, separes par intervalle elementaire {delta}, chacune des deux possibilites possedant une probabilite d'apparition tres voisine de 0,5. Le creneau est obtenu par un registre a decalage (shift register) a contre-reactions logiques modulo-2. Si l'intervalle {delta} et les contre-reactions sont judicieusement choisis, il est possible d'obtenir pour le creneau une fonction d'autocorrelation triangulaire tres voisine d'une impulsion de Dirac. Par suite le creneau se comporte comme un bruit blanc quantifie possedant de tres interessantes proprietes pour les techniques statistiques d'intercorrelation. (auteurs)
Pseudo-communication vs Quasi-communication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Елена Константиновна Черничкина
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of such specific forms of human interaction as quasi- and pseudo-communication. The authors specify the terms which sometimes are used interchangeably. The aim of the conducted research is to find out and demonstrate existing differences and similarities of these communicative phenomena on the basis of theoretical and empirical analysis of the research material in the Russian and English languages. The authors describe communicative features of these phenomena and consider the reasons for such forms of communication and their increased use at present. The research material is represented fiction extracts, film scripts, jokes, print media, a collection of oral speech records both in Russian and English. The authors make use of the following research methods: definitional analysis (to define the terminology of the research, the method of linguistic observation and introspection (to select the communicative situations, the descriptive-analytical method and the method of comparative analysis (to identify similarities and differences of the target phenomena, and the conversational analysis method (to view productivity and effectiveness of a dialogue, etc. The classification of possible forms of their existence in different discourses is suggested. The authors assume that both pseudo- and quasi-communication are characterized as fictitious forms of human interaction with some noticeable violation of the basic communicative model. Pseudo-communication suffers from the discrepancy of the meaning of a coded and decoded message. The authors put forward the main parameters of scientific classification of it as follows: adequate understanding, intentionality, and the stage of communicative action where the failure takes place. At the same time they stress the necessity to distinguish the cases of pseudo talks from phatic and indirect communication. Quasi-communcation is marked by the lack of a real partner and hence
Pseudo-hermafroditismo masculino em cadela
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.S. Fantoni
2012-06-01
Full Text Available A case of male pseudo-hermaphrodite in a six-month-old Pinscher dog with mild signs of agression towards other dogs is reported. The animal presented fibrous mass in clitorial region, with structure similar to a diminutive penis. Testicles were found in the abdominal cavity, uterus had normal size and localization and hypertrophic clitoris was seen during exploratory laparotomy. The histopathological examination revealed testicular tissue, composed of hypotrophic seminipherous tubules and exuberant stroma and uterus with normal histological appearance. Moreover, the animal presented high levels of testosterone.
Pseudo-Hermitian random matrix theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, S.C.L.; Jain, S.R.
2013-01-01
Complex extension of quantum mechanics and the discovery of pseudo-unitarily invariant random matrix theory has set the stage for a number of applications of these concepts in physics. We briefly review the basic ideas and present applications to problems in statistical mechanics where new results have become possible. We have found it important to mention the precise directions where advances could be made if further results become available. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Pseudo ventricular tachycardia: a case report.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Riaz, A
2012-02-01
BACKGROUND: Dramatic artifacts of pseudo flutter have been reported in the past secondary to various factors including tremor (Handwerker and Raptopoulos in N Engl J Med 356:503, 2007) and dialysis machines (Kostis et al. in J Electrocardiol 40(4):316-318, 2007). METHODS: We present this unusual case where the artifact, produced by tremor, was so pronounced to be misdiagnosed and treated as ventricular tachycardia. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of correlating ECG findings with history and clinical examination and of using 12 lead ECGs for rhythm interpretation especially to confirm consistence of arrhythmias in all leads.
Robust Pseudo-Hierarchical Support Vector Clustering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Michael Sass; Sjöstrand, Karl; Olafsdóttir, Hildur
2007-01-01
Support vector clustering (SVC) has proven an efficient algorithm for clustering of noisy and high-dimensional data sets, with applications within many fields of research. An inherent problem, however, has been setting the parameters of the SVC algorithm. Using the recent emergence of a method...... for calculating the entire regularization path of the support vector domain description, we propose a fast method for robust pseudo-hierarchical support vector clustering (HSVC). The method is demonstrated to work well on generated data, as well as for detecting ischemic segments from multidimensional myocardial...
Inflation and pseudo-Goldstone Higgs boson
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alanne, Tommi; Sannino, Francesco; Tenkanen, Tommi
2017-01-01
We consider inflation within a model framework where the Higgs boson arises as a pseudo-Goldstone boson associated with the breaking of a global symmetry at a scale significantly larger than the electroweak one. We show that in such a model the scalar self-couplings can be parametrically suppressed...... and, consequently, the nonminimal couplings to gravity can be of order one or less, while the inflationary predictions of the model remain compatible with the precision cosmological observations. Furthermore, in the model we study, the existence of the electroweak scale is entirely due to the inflaton...
Tilted Dirac Cone Effect on Interlayer Magnetoresistance in α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3
Tajima, Naoya; Morinari, Takao
2018-04-01
We report the effect of Dirac cone tilting on interlayer magnetoresistance in α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3, which is a Dirac semimetal under pressure. Fitting of the experimental data by the theoretical formula suggests that the system is close to a type-II Dirac semimetal.
Functional symptoms in clinically definite MS--pseudo-relapse syndrome.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Merwick, A
2012-02-03
Although the diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS) have become more formalized and sensitive in the era of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning, the assessment of individual relapses may not always be straightforward or easily linked to a particular lesion seen on imaging. In addition, acute episodes often have to be assessed outside of normal working hours or when the individual patients usual medical team is not available. Often the emergency department physicians have little formal neurological training and are under time pressure to get patients through the system as quickly as possible. It is therefore possible to mislabel functional symptoms as being true relapses. To illustrate scenarios of possible pseudo-relapse, three clinical vignettes are described. Misclassification of functional symptoms as relapse carries a number of inherent risks. Functional symptoms can be multifactorial and may cause a burden of disease. A multidisciplinary approach may be useful in minimizing unnecessary harm and identify if there is more than meets the eye to an episode of clinical deterioration.
The Flavor of the Composite Pseudo-Goldstone Higgs
Csaki, Csaba; Weiler, Andreas
2008-01-01
We study the flavor structure of 5D warped models that provide a dual description of a composite pseudo-Goldstone Higgs. We first carefully re-examine the flavor constraints on the mass scale of new physics in the standard Randall-Sundrum-type scenarios, and find that the KK gluon mass should generically be heavier than about 21 TeV. We then compare the flavor structure of the composite Higgs models to those in the RS model. We find new contributions to flavor violation, which while still are suppressed by the RS-GIM mechanism, will enhance the amplitudes of flavor violations. In particular, there is a kinetic mixing term among the SM fields which (although parametrically not enhanced) will make the flavor bounds even more stringent than in RS, and imply the KK gluon mass to be at least about 33 TeV. For both the RS and the composite Higgs models the flavor bounds could be stronger or weaker depending on the assumption on the value of the gluon boundary kinetic term. These strong bounds seem to imply that the...
Higgs as a holographic pseudo-Goldstone boson
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contino, Roberto; Nomura, Yasunori; Pomarol, Alex
2003-01-01
The AdS/CFT correspondence allows one to relate 4D strongly coupled theories to weakly coupled theories in 5D AdS. We use this correspondence to study a scenario in which the Higgs appears as a composite pseudo-Goldstone boson (PGB) of a strongly coupled theory. We show how a non-linearly realized global symmetry protects the Higgs mass and guarantees the absence of quadratic divergences at any loop order. The gauge and Yukawa interactions for the PGB Higgs are simple to introduce in the 5D AdS theory, and their one-loop contributions to the Higgs potential are calculated using perturbation theory. These contributions are finite, giving a squared-mass to the Higgs which is one-loop smaller than the mass of the first Kaluza-Klein state. We also show that if the symmetry breaking is caused by boundary conditions in the extra dimension, the PGB Higgs corresponds to the fifth component of the bulk gauge boson. To make the model fully realistic, a tree-level Higgs quartic coupling must be induced. We present a possible mechanism to generate it and discuss the conditions under which an unwanted large Higgs mass term is avoided
Brane-worlds pseudo-Goldstinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benakli, Karim; Moura, Cesar
2008-01-01
We consider a space-time with extra dimensions containing sectors, branes and bulk, that communicate only through gravitational interactions. In each sector, if considered separately, supersymmetry could be spontaneously broken, leading to the appearance of Goldstinos. However, when taken all together, only certain combinations of the latter states turn out to be true 'would-be-Goldstinos', eaten by the gravitinos. The other (orthogonal) combinations, we call pseudo-Goldstinos, remain in the low energy spectrum. We discuss explicitly how this happen in the simplest set-up of five-dimensional space compactified on S 1 /Z 2 . Our results divide into two parts that can be considered separately. First, we build an extension of the bulk five-dimensional supergravity, by a set of new auxiliary fields, that allows coupling it to branes where supersymmetry is spontaneously broken. Second, we discuss in details the super-Higgs mechanism in the R ξ and unitary gauges, in the presence of both of a bulk Scherk-Schwarz mechanism and brane localized F-terms. This leads us to compute the gravitino mass and provide explicit formulae for the pseudo-Goldstinos spectrum
El Pseudo-Hiepes es Bernardo Polo
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jordan, William B.
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Nearly fifteen years ago, the author proposed the name Pseudo-Hiepes to refer to a then anonymous painter whom certain Italian art historians had called the Master of the Lombard Fruit Bowl. At the time, he argued for an Aragonese origin in the later part of the century. A signed work has finally been discovered and is published here. The artist was indeed from Zaragoza, and his name is Bernardo Polo.
Hace unos quince años, el autor propuso el apodo Pseudo-Hiepes para identificar al pintor anónimo a quien algunos entendidos italianos habían bautizado como Maestro del Frutero lombardo. En aquel entonces, argumentó que debía tratarse de un artista aragonés, de la segunda mitad de siglo. Por fin ha aparecido una obra firmada que se presenta aquí. Efectivamente, el artista era zaragozano y su nombre es Bernardo Polo.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Jong, A.; Roodenburg, H.
1992-01-01
As an introduction to this special issue 'Worlds of difference: Scenarios's for the economy, energy and the environment 1990-2015', an outline is given of the future of the world and the Netherlands, based on four scenarios. These scenarios are published in 'Scanning the future' in May 1992 by the CPB, the Dutch Central Planning Bureau. The Global Shift (GS) scenario is characterized by a very dynamic technological development, the free market perspective, strong economic growth in the Asian economies, and a relative economic regression in Western Europe. In the European Renaissance (ER) scenario the technological development is less dynamic and more gradual than in the GS scenario. The Balanced Growth (BG) scenario is dominated by a sustainable economic development and a strong technological dynamic development. The Global Crisis (GC) scenario shows a downward spiral in many areas, stagnating developments and fragile economies as results of the trends in the eighties. The first three scenarios are elaborated for the Netherlands. Also attention is paid to the aims and meaning of long-term scenarios. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 3 refs
Dirac's Conception of the Magnetic Monopole, and its Modern Avatars
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Dirac's Conception of the Magnetic Monopole, and its Modern Avatars. Sunil Mukhi. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 193-202. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Spinors, tensors and the covariant form of Dirac's equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, W.Q.; Cook, A.H.
1986-01-01
The relations between tensors and spinors are used to establish the form of the covariant derivative of a spinor, making use of the fact that certain bilinear combinations of spinors are vectors. The covariant forms of Dirac's equation are thus obtained and examples in specific coordinate systems are displayed. (author)
U matrix construction for Quantum Chromodynamics through Dirac brackets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, M.A. dos.
1987-09-01
A procedure for obtaining the U matrix using Dirac brackets, recently developed by Kiefer and Rothe, is applied for Quantum Chromodynamics. The correspondent interaction Lagrangian is the same obtained by Schwinger, Christ and Lee, using independent methods. (L.C.J.A.)
Dirac particle in a constant magnetic field: path integral treatment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Merdaci, A.; Boudiaf, N.; Chetouani, L. [Univ. Mentouri, Constantine (Algeria). Dept. de Physique
2008-05-15
The Green functions related to a Dirac particle in a constant magnetic field are calculated via two methods, global and local, by using the supersymmetric formalism of Fradkin and Gitman. The energy spectrum as well as the corresponding wave functions are extracted following these two approaches. (orig.)
Dirac particle in a constant magnetic field: path integral treatment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merdaci, A.; Boudiaf, N.; Chetouani, L.
2008-01-01
The Green functions related to a Dirac particle in a constant magnetic field are calculated via two methods, global and local, by using the supersymmetric formalism of Fradkin and Gitman. The energy spectrum as well as the corresponding wave functions are extracted following these two approaches. (orig.)
A rational interpretation of the Dirac equation for the electron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koga, T.
1975-01-01
Rationalization of the interpretation of the Dirac equation for the electron lies beyond the conventional scope of quantum mechanics. This difficulty motivates a revision of the system of quantum mechanics through which the indeterministic trait is eliminated from the system. (author)
Holographic interaction effects on transport in Dirac semimetals
Jacobs, V.P.J.; Vandoren, S.; Stoof, H.T.C.
2014-01-01
Strongly interacting Dirac semimetals are investigated using a holographic model especially geared to compute the single-particle correlation function for this case, including both interaction effects and non-zero temperature. We calculate the (homogeneous) optical conductivity at zero chemical
Common origin of neutrino mass, dark matter and Dirac leptogenesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borah, Debasish [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Assam 781039 (India); Dasgupta, Arnab, E-mail: dborah@iitg.ernet.in, E-mail: arnab.d@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, HBNI, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneshwar 751005 (India)
2016-12-01
We study the possibility of generating tiny Dirac neutrino masses at one loop level through the scotogenic mechanism such that one of the particles going inside the loop can be a stable cold dark matter (DM) candidate. Majorana mass terms of singlet fermions as well as tree level Dirac neutrino masses are prevented by incorporating the presence of additional discrete symmetries in a minimal fashion, which also guarantee the stability of the dark matter candidate. Due to the absence of total lepton number violation, the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe is generated through the mechanism of Dirac leptogenesis where an equal and opposite amount of leptonic asymmetry is generated in the left and right handed sectors which are prevented from equilibration due to tiny Dirac Yukawa couplings. Dark matter relic abundance is generated through its usual freeze-out at a temperature much below the scale of leptogenesis. We constrain the relevant parameter space from neutrino mass, baryon asymmetry, Planck bound on dark matter relic abundance, and latest LUX bound on spin independent DM-nucleon scattering cross section. We also discuss the charged lepton flavour violation (μ → e γ) and electric dipole moment of electron in this model in the light of the latest experimental data and constrain the parameter space of the model.
Survey on Dirac equation in general relativity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paillere, P.
1984-10-01
Starting from an infinitesimal transformation expressed with a Killing vector and using systematically the formalism of the local tetrades, we show that, in the area of the general relativity, the Dirac equation may be formulated only versus the four local vectors which determine the gravitational potentials, their gradients and the 4-vector potential of the electromagnetic field [fr
Dirac electronics states in graphene systems: optical spectroscopy studies
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Orlita, Milan; Potemski, M.
2010-01-01
Roč. 25, č. 6 (2010), 063001/1-063001/22 ISSN 0268-1242 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400100652 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : graphene * Dirac fermions Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.323, year: 2010
A new derivation of Dirac's magnetic monopole strength
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panat, P V
2003-01-01
A new derivation of the strength of Dirac's magnetic monopole is presented which does not require an explicit form of the magnetic induction in terms of g, the magnetic pole strength. The derivation essentially uses a modification of Faraday's law of induction and quantization of angular momentum
LHCb : The DIRAC Web Portal 2.0
Mathe, Zoltan; Lazovsky, N; Stagni, Federico
2015-01-01
For many years the DIRAC interware (Distributed Infrastructure with Remote Agent Control) has had a web interface, allowing the users to monitor DIRAC activities and also interact with the system. Since then many new web technologies have emerged, therefore a redesign and a new implementation of the DIRAC Web portal were necessary, taking into account the lessons learnt using the old portal. These new technologies allowed to build a more compact and more responsive web interface that is robust and that enables users to have more control over the whole system while keeping a simple interface. The framework provides a large set of "applications", each of which can be used for interacting with various parts of the system. Communities can also create their own set of personalised web applications, and can easily extend already existing web applications with a minimal effort. Each user can configure and personalise the view for each application and save it using the DIRAC User Profile service as RESTful state prov...
On the representation of generalized Dirac (Clifford) algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, T.
1981-10-01
Some results of Brauer and Weyl and of Jordan and Wigner on irreducible representations of generalized Dirac (Clifford) algebras have been proved, adopting a new and simple approach which (i) makes the whole subject straightforward for physicists and (ii) simplifies the demonstration of the fundamental theorem of Pauli. (author)
Chiral Tricritical Point: A New Universality Class in Dirac Systems
Yin, Shuai; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong
2018-05-01
Tricriticality, as a sister of criticality, is a fundamental and absorbing issue in condensed-matter physics. It has been verified that the bosonic Wilson-Fisher universality class can be changed by gapless fermionic modes at criticality. However, the counterpart phenomena at tricriticality have rarely been explored. In this Letter, we study a model in which a tricritical Ising model is coupled to massless Dirac fermions. We find that the massless Dirac fermions result in the emergence of a new tricritical point, which we refer to as the chiral tricritical point (CTP), at the phase boundary between the Dirac semimetal and the charge-density wave insulator. From functional renormalization group analysis of the effective action, we obtain the critical behaviors of the CTP, which are qualitatively distinct from both the tricritical Ising universality and the chiral Ising universality. We further extend the calculations of the chiral tricritical behaviors of Ising spins to the case of Heisenberg spins. The experimental relevance of the CTP in two-dimensional Dirac semimetals is also discussed.
Hydrogenated arsenenes as planar magnet and Dirac material
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Shengli; Cai, Bo; Zeng, Haibo, E-mail: Huziyu@csrc.ac.cn, E-mail: zeng.haibo@njust.edu.cn [Institute of Optoelectronics and Nanomaterials, Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Hu, Yonghong [Institute of Optoelectronics and Nanomaterials, Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); School of Nuclear Technology and Chemistry and Biology, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning 437100 (China); Hu, Ziyu, E-mail: Huziyu@csrc.ac.cn, E-mail: zeng.haibo@njust.edu.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)
2015-07-13
Arsenene and antimonene are predicted to have 2.49 and 2.28 eV band gaps, which have aroused intense interest in the two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, the hydrogenated arsenenes are reported to be planar magnet and 2D Dirac materials based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The semi-hydrogenated (SH) arsenene is found to be a quasi-planar magnet, while the fully hydrogenated (FH) arsenene is a planar Dirac material. The buckling height of pristine arsenene is greatly decreased by the hydrogenation, resulting in a planar and relatively low-mass-density sheet. The electronic structures of arsenene are also evidently altered after hydrogenating from wide-band-gap semiconductor to metallic material for SH arsenene, and then to Dirac material for FH arsenene. The SH arsenene has an obvious magnetism, mainly contributed by the p orbital of the unsaturated As atom. Such magnetic and Dirac materials modified by hydrogenation of arsenene may have potential applications in future optoelectronic and spintronic devices.
Hydrogenated arsenenes as planar magnet and Dirac material
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Shengli; Cai, Bo; Zeng, Haibo; Hu, Yonghong; Hu, Ziyu
2015-01-01
Arsenene and antimonene are predicted to have 2.49 and 2.28 eV band gaps, which have aroused intense interest in the two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, the hydrogenated arsenenes are reported to be planar magnet and 2D Dirac materials based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The semi-hydrogenated (SH) arsenene is found to be a quasi-planar magnet, while the fully hydrogenated (FH) arsenene is a planar Dirac material. The buckling height of pristine arsenene is greatly decreased by the hydrogenation, resulting in a planar and relatively low-mass-density sheet. The electronic structures of arsenene are also evidently altered after hydrogenating from wide-band-gap semiconductor to metallic material for SH arsenene, and then to Dirac material for FH arsenene. The SH arsenene has an obvious magnetism, mainly contributed by the p orbital of the unsaturated As atom. Such magnetic and Dirac materials modified by hydrogenation of arsenene may have potential applications in future optoelectronic and spintronic devices
Hydrogenated arsenenes as planar magnet and Dirac material
Zhang, Shengli; Hu, Yonghong; Hu, Ziyu; Cai, Bo; Zeng, Haibo
2015-07-01
Arsenene and antimonene are predicted to have 2.49 and 2.28 eV band gaps, which have aroused intense interest in the two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, the hydrogenated arsenenes are reported to be planar magnet and 2D Dirac materials based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The semi-hydrogenated (SH) arsenene is found to be a quasi-planar magnet, while the fully hydrogenated (FH) arsenene is a planar Dirac material. The buckling height of pristine arsenene is greatly decreased by the hydrogenation, resulting in a planar and relatively low-mass-density sheet. The electronic structures of arsenene are also evidently altered after hydrogenating from wide-band-gap semiconductor to metallic material for SH arsenene, and then to Dirac material for FH arsenene. The SH arsenene has an obvious magnetism, mainly contributed by the p orbital of the unsaturated As atom. Such magnetic and Dirac materials modified by hydrogenation of arsenene may have potential applications in future optoelectronic and spintronic devices.
Fermi-Dirac statistics and the number theory
Kubasiak, A.; Korbicz, J.; Zakrzewski, J.; Lewenstein, M.
2005-01-01
We relate the Fermi-Dirac statistics of an ideal Fermi gas in a harmonic trap to partitions of given integers into distinct parts, studied in number theory. Using methods of quantum statistical physics we derive analytic expressions for cumulants of the probability distribution of the number of different partitions.
Axial anomaly and index theorem for Dirac-Kaehler fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linhares, C.A.; Mignaco, J.A.; Monteiro, M.A.R.
1985-01-01
We present the calculation of the axial anomaly for Dirac-Kaehler fermions in two and four dimensions applying the procedure developed by Seeley to the signature operator in the twisted complex. The result is equal to the one for the twisted spin complex times 2 n/2 (n:number of dimensions) and agrees with the expressions from the index theorem. (author) [pt
Axial anomaly and index theorem for Dirac-Kaehler fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linhares, C.A.; Mignaco, J.A.; Rego Monteiro, M.A.
1985-01-01
We present a calculation of the axial anomaly for Dirac-Kaehler fermions in two and four dimensions applying the procedure developed by Seeley to the signature operator in the twisted complex. The result is equal to the one for the twisted spin complex times 2sup(π/2) (n: number of dimensions) and agrees with the expressions from the index theorem. (orig.)
New exact solutions of the Dirac equation. 11
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagrov, V.G.; Noskov, M.D.
1984-01-01
Investigations into determining new exact solutions of relativistic wave equations started in another paper were continued. Exact solutions of the Dirac, Klein-Gordon equations and classical relativistic equations of motion in four new types of external electromagnetic fields were found
Majorana zero modes in Dirac semimetal Josephson junctions
Li, Chuan; de Boer, Jorrit; de Ronde, Bob; Huang, Yingkai; Golden, Mark; Brinkman, Alexander
We have realized proximity-induced superconductivity in a Dirac semimetal and revealed the topological nature of the superconductivity by the observation of Majorana zero modes. As a Dirac semimetal, Bi0.97Sb0.03 is used, where a three-dimensional Dirac cone exists in the bulk due to an accidental touching between conduction and valence bands. Electronic transport measurements on Hall-bars fabricated out of Bi0.97Sb0.03 flakes consistently show negative magnetoresistance for magnetic fields parallel to the current, which is associated with the chiral anomaly. In perpendicular magnetic fields, we see Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations that indicate very low carrier densities. The low Fermi energy and protection against backscattering in our Dirac semimetal Josephson junctions provide favorable conditions for a large contribution of Majorana zero modes to the supercurrent. In radiofrequency irradiation experiments, we indeed observe these Majorana zero modes in Nb-Bi0.97Sb0.03-Nb Josephson junctions as a 4 π periodic contribution to the current-phase relation.
Dirac Magnon Nodal Loops in Quasi-2D Quantum Magnets.
Owerre, S A
2017-07-31
In this report, we propose a new concept of one-dimensional (1D) closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in two-dimensional (2D) momentum space of quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. They are termed "2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops". We utilize the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets with intralayer coupling J and interlayer coupling J L , which is realizable in the honeycomb chromium compounds CrX 3 (X ≡ Br, Cl, and I). However, our results can also exist in other layered quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. Here, we show that the magnon bands of the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets overlap for J L ≠ 0 and form 1D closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in 2D momentum space. The 2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops are topologically protected by inversion and time-reversal symmetry. Furthermore, we show that they are robust against weak Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction Δ DM magnon edge modes.
Radiationless Zitterbewegung of Dirac particles and mass formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noboru Hokkyo.
1987-06-01
The Zitterbewegung of the Dirac particle is given a visual representation by solving the two-component difference form of the Dirac equation. It is seen that the space-time trajectory of a Dirac particle can be pictured as a correlated whole of a network of zigzags of left- and right-handed chiral neutrino-like line elements. These zigzags can feel the curl of the external electromagnetic vector potential and give rise to the spin magnetic interaction, confirming Schroedinger's earlier intuitive picture of the spin as the orbital angular momentum of the Zitterbewegung. The network of zigzags associated with an electron splits and reunites in passing through the slits in the electron beam interference experiment. It is proposed to interpret Nambu's empirical mass formula m n =(n/2)137m e =(n/2)((h/2π)/cL), n=integer, as a radiationless condition for the Zitterbewegung of the hadronic Dirac particle of the linear spatial extension of the order of the classical electron radius L=e 2 /m e c 2 . (author). 20 refs, 4 figs
Qualitative analysis of trapped Dirac fermions in graphene
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jakubský, Vít; Krejčiřík, David
2014-01-01
Roč. 349, OCT (2014), s. 268-287 ISSN 0003-4916 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-06818S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : graphene * Dirac fermion * confinement * Varitional principle Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.103, year: 2014
Dirac fermions in nontrivial topology black hole backgrounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gozdz, Marek; Nakonieczny, Lukasz; Rogatko, Marek
2010-01-01
We discuss the behavior of the Dirac fermions in a general spherically symmetric black hole background with a nontrivial topology of the event horizon. Both massive and massless cases are taken into account. We will conduct an analytical study of intermediate and late-time behavior of massive Dirac hair in the background of a black hole with a global monopole and dilaton black hole pierced by a cosmic string. In the case of a global monopole swallowed by a static black hole, the intermediate late-time behavior depends on the mass of the Dirac field, the multiple number of the wave mode, and the global monopole parameter. The late-time behavior is quite independent of these factors and has a decay rate proportional to t -5/6 . As far as the black hole pierced by a cosmic string is concerned, the intermediate late-time behavior depends only on the hair mass and the multipole number of the wave mode, while the late-time behavior dependence is the same as in the previous case. The main modification stems from the topology of the S 2 sphere pierced by a cosmic string. This factor modifies the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator acting on the transverse manifold.
Examples of pseudo-bosons in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagarello, F.
2010-01-01
We discuss two physical examples of the so-called pseudo-bosons, recently introduced in connection with pseudo-hermitian quantum mechanics. In particular, we show that the so-called extended harmonic oscillator and the Swanson model satisfy all the assumptions of the pseudo-bosonic framework introduced by the author. We also prove that the biorthogonal bases they produce are not Riesz bases.
Hawking radiation of Dirac particles in the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, M.
1991-01-01
The Hawking radiation of charged Dirac particles on the horizons of the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman spacetime is studied in this paper. To this end, we obtain the radial decoupled Dirac equation for the electron in the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman spacetime. Next we solve the Dirac equation near the horizons. Finally, by analytic continuation, the Hawking thermal spectrum formula of Dirac particles is obtained. The problem of the Hawking evaporation of Dirac particles in the hot NUT-Kerr-Newman background is thus solved. (orig.)
Scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis: Frequency, pathogenesis and course
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schunk, K.; Teifke, A.; Benning, R.; Dahm, M.; Thelen, R.; Schild, H.
1989-06-01
Eighty-three scaphoid pseudo-arthroses were found amongst 1.104 scaphoid examinations. Sixtyseven were present at the first examination and 16 pseudo-arthroses developed amongst 252 scaphoid fractures. Men were affected predominantly, particularly in the 20 to 40-year old group. Fractures in the proximal third of the scaphoid and vertical oblique fractures had a particular tendency to pseudo-arthrosis formation. The operative treatment of choice is a Matti-Russe bone graft. Only one patient in seven with definite scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis showed firm fusion. (orig.).
Scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis: Frequency, pathogenesis and course
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schunk, K.; Teifke, A.; Benning, R.; Dahm, M.; Thelen, R.; Schild, H.; Mainz Univ.
1989-01-01
Eighty-three scaphoid pseudo-arthroses were found amongst 1.104 scaphoid examinations. Sixtyseven were present at the first examination and 16 pseudo-arthroses developed amongst 252 scaphoid fractures. Men were affected predominantly, particularly in the 20 to 40-year old group. Fractures in the proximal third of the scaphoid and vertical oblique fractures had a particular tendency to pseudo-arthrosis formation. The operative treatment of choice is a Matti-Russe bone graft. Only one patient in seven with definite scaphoid pseudo-arthrosis showed firm fusion. (orig.) [de
Pseudo-random Aloha for inter-frame soft combining in RFID systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Castiglione, Paolo; Ricciato, Fabio; Popovski, Petar
2013-01-01
In this work we consider a recently proposed variant of the classical Framed Slotted-ALOHA where slot selection is based on a pseudo-random function of the message to be transmitted and of the frame index. We couple this feature with convolutional encoding, that allows to perform Inter-frame Soft...... cancellation (instead of combining). Numerical simulation results show that the ISoC scheme brings a noticeable throughput gain over traditional schemes in a dense RFID scenario with multiple concurrent Tag transmissions....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sundbo, Jon
2016-01-01
This article presents the results of a future study of the food sector. Two scenarios have been developed using a combination of: 1) a summary of the relevant scientific knowledge, 2) systematic scenario writing, 3) an expert-based Delphi technique, and 4) an expert seminar assessment. The two...... scenarios present possible futures at global, national (Denmark) and regional (Zealand, Denmark) levels. The main scenario is called ‘Food for ordinary days and celebrations’ (a combination of ‘High-technological food production − The functional society’ and ‘High-gastronomic food − The experience society...
Pointwise estimates of pseudo-differential operators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johnsen, Jon
As a new technique it is shown how general pseudo-differential operators can be estimated at arbitrary points in Euclidean space when acting on functions u with compact spectra.The estimate is a factorisation inequality, in which one factor is the Peetre–Fefferman–Stein maximal function of u......, whilst the other is a symbol factor carrying the whole information on the symbol. The symbol factor is estimated in terms of the spectral radius of u, so that the framework is well suited for Littlewood–Paley analysis. It is also shown how it gives easy access to results on polynomial bounds...... and estimates in Lp , including a new result for type 1,1-operators that they are always bounded on Lp -functions with compact spectra....
Pointwise estimates of pseudo-differential operators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johnsen, Jon
2011-01-01
As a new technique it is shown how general pseudo-differential operators can be estimated at arbitrary points in Euclidean space when acting on functions u with compact spectra. The estimate is a factorisation inequality, in which one factor is the Peetre–Fefferman–Stein maximal function of u......, whilst the other is a symbol factor carrying the whole information on the symbol. The symbol factor is estimated in terms of the spectral radius of u, so that the framework is well suited for Littlewood–Paley analysis. It is also shown how it gives easy access to results on polynomial bounds...... and estimates in Lp, including a new result for type 1, 1-operators that they are always bounded on Lp-functions with compact spectra....
Pseudo-Observables in Higgs decays
CERN. Geneva
2015-01-01
In view of future high-statistics data, it is useful to define a framework for precise determinations of the properties of the Higgs particle valid in generic extensions of the Standard Model. For Higgs decays, this goal can be achieved with a limited set of "Pseudo-Observables" (PO). The PO provides a systematic generalization of the "kappa-framework" so far adopted by the LHC experiments and provide a useful bridge between data and theory predictions. I discuss how the PO are defined, with particular attention to the h->4f decays, and how they can be used to test various dynamical and symmetry hypotheses about the Higgs sector. The relation between PO and EFT couplings is also discussed.
Long period pseudo random number sequence generator
Wang, Charles C. (Inventor)
1989-01-01
A circuit for generating a sequence of pseudo random numbers, (A sub K). There is an exponentiator in GF(2 sup m) for the normal basis representation of elements in a finite field GF(2 sup m) each represented by m binary digits and having two inputs and an output from which the sequence (A sub K). Of pseudo random numbers is taken. One of the two inputs is connected to receive the outputs (E sub K) of maximal length shift register of n stages. There is a switch having a pair of inputs and an output. The switch outputs is connected to the other of the two inputs of the exponentiator. One of the switch inputs is connected for initially receiving a primitive element (A sub O) in GF(2 sup m). Finally, there is a delay circuit having an input and an output. The delay circuit output is connected to the other of the switch inputs and the delay circuit input is connected to the output of the exponentiator. Whereby after the exponentiator initially receives the primitive element (A sub O) in GF(2 sup m) through the switch, the switch can be switched to cause the exponentiator to receive as its input a delayed output A(K-1) from the exponentiator thereby generating (A sub K) continuously at the output of the exponentiator. The exponentiator in GF(2 sup m) is novel and comprises a cyclic-shift circuit; a Massey-Omura multiplier; and, a control logic circuit all operably connected together to perform the function U(sub i) = 92(sup i) (for n(sub i) = 1 or 1 (for n(subi) = 0).
Fahland, D.
2010-01-01
Scenario-based modeling has evolved as an accepted paradigm for developing complex systems of various kinds. Its main purpose is to ensure that a system provides desired behavior to its users. A scenario is generally understood as a behavioral requirement, denoting a course of actions that shall
Nuclear Security Futures Scenarios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin; Warren, Drake Edward; Hayden, Nancy Kay; Passell, Howard D.; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Backus, George A.
2017-01-01
This report provides an overview of the scenarios used in strategic futures workshops conducted at Sandia on September 21 and 29, 2016. The workshops, designed and facilitated by analysts in Center 100, used scenarios to enable thought leaders to think collectively about the changing aspects of global nuclear security and the potential implications for the US Government and Sandia National Laboratories.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehr, Thomas; Lorenz, Ullrich; Willert, Markus
2017-01-01
For over 40 years, scenarios have been promoted as a key technique for forming strategies in uncertain en- vironments. However, many challenges remain. In this article, we discuss a novel approach designed to increase the applicability of scenario-based strategizing in top management teams. Drawi...... Ministry) and a firm affected by disruptive change (Bosch, leading global supplier of technology and solutions)....
Nuclear Security Futures Scenarios.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Warren, Drake Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-01-01
This report provides an overview of the scenarios used in strategic futures workshops conducted at Sandia on September 21 and 29, 2016. The workshops, designed and facilitated by analysts in Center 100, used scenarios to enable thought leaders to think collectively about the changing aspects of global nuclear security and the potential implications for the US Government and Sandia National Laboratories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romero, A.; Bueno, A.; Trigo, J.E.; Torres, A.
1998-01-01
Inflammatory pseudo tumor (pseudosarcoma) of the urinary bladder is an uncommon lesion with benign histopathological features. It consists of large cell proliferation, spindle-cell morphology (myofibroblasts) deriving from the bladder sub mucosa. It can present in patients of either sex and of any age; on occasion, it has been related to a history of surgery or previous bladder injury. Both the clinical and radiological features are nonspecific in that they do not differentiate this lesion from malignant disease; its diagnosis can only be definitively established by histopathological study. We present a case of inflammatory bladder pseudo tumor in a young girl, describing the clinical and radiological features of this lesion, which only rarely has been dealt with in the literature, particularly that concerning radiology. (Author) 13 refs
Integrative Scenario Development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joerg A. Priess
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Scenarios are employed to address a large number of future environmental and socioeconomic challenges. We present a conceptual framework for the development of scenarios to integrate the objectives of different stakeholder groups. Based on the framework, land-use scenarios were developed to provide a common base for further research. At the same time, these scenarios assisted regional stakeholders to bring forward their concerns and arrive at a shared understanding of challenges between scientific and regional stakeholders, which allowed them to eventually support regional decision making. The focus on the integration of views and knowledge domains of different stakeholder groups, such as scientists and practitioners, required rigorous and repeated measures of quality control. The application of the integrative concept provided products for both stakeholder groups, and the process of scenario development facilitated cooperation and learning within both the scientist and practitioner groups as well as between the two groups.
Generating pseudo test collections for learning to rank scientific articles
Berendsen, R.; Tsagkias, M.; de Rijke, M.; Meij, E.
2012-01-01
Pseudo test collections are automatically generated to provide training material for learning to rank methods. We propose a method for generating pseudo test collections in the domain of digital libraries, where data is relatively sparse, but comes with rich annotations. Our intuition is that
Regression analysis of censored data using pseudo-observations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Overgaard, Morten; Andersen, Per K.; Parner, Erik T.
2015-01-01
competing risks, the restricted mean survival-time function, and the causespecific lost-lifetime function. The pseudo-observations can be used to assess the effects of covariates on their respective functions at different times by fitting generalized linear models to the pseudo-observations. The updated...
Pseudo-classical theory of Majorana-Weyl particle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grigoryan, G.V.; Grigoryan, R.P.; Tyutin, I.V.
1996-01-01
A pseudo-classical theory of Weyl particle in the space-time dimensions D = 2 n is constructed. The canonical quantization of that pseudo-classical theory is carried out and it results in the theory of the D = 2 n dimensional Weyl particle in the Foldy-Wouthuysen representation. 28 refs
Higher-order Jordan Osserman pseudo-Riemannian manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilkey, Peter B; Ivanova, Raina; Zhang Tan
2002-01-01
We study the higher-order Jacobi operator in pseudo-Riemannian geometry. We exhibit a family of manifolds so that this operator has constant Jordan normal form on the Grassmannian of subspaces of signature (r, s) for certain values of (r, s). These pseudo-Riemannian manifolds are new and non-trivial examples of higher-order Osserman manifolds
Higher-order Jordan Osserman pseudo-Riemannian manifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilkey, Peter B [Mathematics Department, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Ivanova, Raina [Mathematics Department, University of Hawaii - Hilo, 200 W Kawili St, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Zhang Tan [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Murray State University, Murray, KY 42071 (United States)
2002-09-07
We study the higher-order Jacobi operator in pseudo-Riemannian geometry. We exhibit a family of manifolds so that this operator has constant Jordan normal form on the Grassmannian of subspaces of signature (r, s) for certain values of (r, s). These pseudo-Riemannian manifolds are new and non-trivial examples of higher-order Osserman manifolds.
Degeneracy of energy levels of pseudo-Gaussian oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iacob, Theodor-Felix; Iacob, Felix; Lute, Marina
2015-01-01
We study the main features of the isotropic radial pseudo-Gaussian oscillators spectral properties. This study is made upon the energy levels degeneracy with respect to orbital angular momentum quantum number. In a previous work [6] we have shown that the pseudo-Gaussian oscillators belong to the class of quasi-exactly solvable models and an exact solution has been found
A note on Lorentz transformation and pseudo-rapidity distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hama, Y.
1980-07-01
It is shown that although rapidity and pseudo-rapidity are almost equivalent variables, their difference may in pratice become quite remarkable. Non Lorentz invariance of pseudo-rapidity distributions may cause appearance of strange effects at first sight, such as deformation of a perfectly symmetric particle distribution into an asymmetric one when going to another frame. (Author) [pt
Theory of pseudo-differential operators over C*-Algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammad, N.
1987-06-01
In this article the behaviour of adjoints and composition of pseudo-differential operators in the framework of a C*-algebra is studied. It results that the class of pseudo-differential operators of order zero is a C*-algebra. 8 refs
Pseudo-affinity chromatography of rumen microbial cellulase on ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Pseudo-affinity chromatography of rumen microbial cellulase on Sepharose- Cibacron Blue F3GA. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Pseudo affinity adsorption of bioproducts on Sepharose-cibacron blue F3-GA was subjected to rumen microbial enzyme evaluation through batch binding and column chromatography of ...
Generalized Heisenberg algebra and (non linear) pseudo-bosons
Bagarello, F.; Curado, E. M. F.; Gazeau, J. P.
2018-04-01
We propose a deformed version of the generalized Heisenberg algebra by using techniques borrowed from the theory of pseudo-bosons. In particular, this analysis is relevant when non self-adjoint Hamiltonians are needed to describe a given physical system. We also discuss relations with nonlinear pseudo-bosons. Several examples are discussed.
Realization of non-symmorphic Dirac cones in PbFCl materials
Schoop, Leslie
While most 3D Dirac semimetals require two bands with different orbital character to be protected, there is also the possibility to find 3D Dirac semimetals that are guaranteed to exist in certain space groups. Those are resulting from the non-symmoprhic symmetry of the space group, which forces the bands to degenerate at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Non-symmorphic space groups can force three- four, six and eight fold degeneracies which led to the proposal to find 3D Dirac Semimetals as well as new quasiparticles in such space groups. Problematic for realizing this types of Dirac materials is that they require and odd band filling in order to have the Fermi level located at or also near by the band crossing points. Therefore, although the first prediction for using non-symmoprhic symmetry to create a Dirac material was made in 2012, it took almost four years for an experimental verification of this type of Dirac crossing. In this talk I will introduce the material ZrSiS that has, besides other Dirac features, a Dirac cone protected by non-symmorphic symmetry at about 0.5 eV below the Fermi level and was the first material where this type of Dirac cone was imaged with ARPES. I will then proceed to discuss ways to shift this crossing to the Fermi edge and finally show an experimental verification of a fourfold Dirac crossing, protected by non-symmorphic symmetry, at the Fermi energy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blacic, J.D.
1985-01-01
Two surface base build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second scenario, early development of an infrastructure to exploite the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first, but once begun develops rapidly aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station
New correct solutions of the Dirac equation. 5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagrov, V.G.; Byzov, N.N.; Gitman, D.M.; Klimenko, Yu.I.; Meshkov, A.G.; Shapovalov, V.N.; Shakhmatov, V.M.
1975-01-01
Some exact solutions for the Dirac equation, Klein-Gordon equation and classical relativistic equations of motion of an electron in external electromagnetic fields of a special type are considered. When fields E vector and H vector are related by the expression H vector=[n vector E vector]+n vector H 3 , where n vector is a constant unit vector, it turns out that among fields permitting the separation of variables in the Klein-Gordon equation more than half satisfy this relationship. For such fields the solution of the Dirac equation may be simplified considerably. Four specific kinds of fields are examined. The character of electron motion in such fields is peculiar but in the mathematical aspect, part of the problem is reduced to those considered previously
Chirality correlation within Dirac eigenvectors from domain wall fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blum, T.; Christ, N.; Cristian, C.; Liao, X.; Liu, G.; Mawhinney, R.; Wu, L.; Zhestkov, Y.; Dawson, C.
2002-01-01
In the dilute instanton gas model of the QCD vacuum, one expects a strong spatial correlation between chirality and the maxima of the Dirac eigenvectors with small eigenvalues. Following Horvath et al. we examine this question using lattice gauge theory within the quenched approximation. We extend the work of those authors by using weaker coupling, β=6.0, larger lattices, 16 4 , and an improved fermion formulation, domain wall fermions. In contrast with this earlier work, we find a striking correlation between the magnitudes of the chirality density, |ψ † (x)γ 5 ψ(x)|, and the normal density, ψ † (x)ψ(x), for the low-lying Dirac eigenvectors
Spin-polarized gapped Dirac spectrum of unsupported silicene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Podsiadły-Paszkowska, A., E-mail: agata.podsiadly@gmail.com; Krawiec, M., E-mail: mariusz.krawiec@umcs.pl
2016-06-15
Highlights: • Effects of spin–orbit interaction and atomic reconstruction of silicene on its electronic properties have been studied. • Spin-polarized gapped Dirac spectrum has been revealed. • Two different AFM phases have been obtained. - Abstract: We study effects of the spin–orbit interaction and the atomic reconstruction of silicene on its electronic spectrum. As an example we consider unsupported silicene pulled off from Pb(111) substrate. Using first principles density functional theory we show that the inversion symmetry broken arrangement of atoms and the spin–orbit interaction generate a spin-polarized electronic spectrum with an energy gap in the Dirac cone. These findings are particularly interesting in view of the quantum anomalous and quantum valley Hall effects and should be observable in weakly interacting silicene-substrate systems.
Dynamical class of a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system.
Silva, Érica de Mello
2015-10-01
A current goal in plasmonic science and technology is to figure out how to manage the relaxational dynamics of surface plasmons in graphene since its damping constitutes a hinder for the realization of graphene-based plasmonic devices. In this sense we believe it might be of interest to enlarge the knowledge on the dynamical class of two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac systems. According to the recurrence relations method, different systems are said to be dynamically equivalent if they have identical relaxation functions at all times, and such commonality may lead to deep connections between seemingly unrelated physical systems. We employ the recurrence relations approach to obtain relaxation and memory functions of density fluctuations and show that a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system at long wavelength and zero temperature belongs to the same dynamical class of standard two-dimensional electron gas and classical harmonic oscillator chain with an impurity mass.
Stability of Dirac Liquids with Strong Coulomb Interaction.
Tupitsyn, Igor S; Prokof'ev, Nikolay V
2017-01-13
We develop and apply the diagrammatic Monte Carlo technique to address the problem of the stability of the Dirac liquid state (in a graphene-type system) against the strong long-range part of the Coulomb interaction. So far, all attempts to deal with this problem in the field-theoretical framework were limited either to perturbative or random phase approximation and functional renormalization group treatments, with diametrically opposite conclusions. Our calculations aim at the approximation-free solution with controlled accuracy by computing vertex corrections from higher-order skeleton diagrams and establishing the renormalization group flow of the effective Coulomb coupling constant. We unambiguously show that with increasing the system size L (up to ln(L)∼40), the coupling constant always flows towards zero; i.e., the two-dimensional Dirac liquid is an asymptotically free T=0 state with divergent Fermi velocity.
The strangest man. The hidden life of Paul Dirac
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farmelo, Graham
2016-01-01
The Strangest Man is the Costa Biography Award-winning account of Paul Dirac, the famous physicist sometimes called the British Einstein. He was one of the leading pioneers of the greatest revolution in twentieth-century science: quantum mechanics. The youngest theoretician ever to win the Nobel Prize for Physics, he was also pathologically reticent, strangely literal-minded and legendarily unable to communicate or empathize. Through his greatest period of productivity, his postcards home contained only remarks about the weather. Based on a previously undiscovered archive of family papers, Graham Farmelo celebrates Dirac's massive scientific achievement while drawing a compassionate portrait of his life and work. Farmelo shows a man who, while hopelessly socially inept, could manage to love and sustain close friendship. The Strangest Man is an extraordinary and moving human story, as well as a study of one of the most exciting times in scientific history.
Analysis of DIRAC's behavior using model checking with process algebra
Remenska, Daniela; Willemse, Tim; Bal, Henri; Verstoep, Kees; Fokkink, Wan; Charpentier, Philippe; Diaz, Ricardo Graciani; Lanciotti, Elisa; Roiser, Stefan; Ciba, Krzysztof
2012-01-01
DIRAC is the grid solution developed to support LHCb production activities as well as user data analysis. It consists of distributed services and agents delivering the workload to the grid resources. Services maintain database back-ends to store dynamic state information of entities such as jobs, queues, staging requests, etc. Agents use polling to check and possibly react to changes in the system state. Each agent's logic is relatively simple, the main complexity lies in their cooperation. Agents run concurrently, and collaborate using the databases as shared memory. The databases can be accessed directly by the agents if running locally or through a DIRAC service interface if necessary. This shared-memory model causes entities to occasionally get into inconsistent states. Tracing and fixing such problems becomes formidable due to the inherent parallelism present. We propose more rigorous methods to cope with this. Model checking is one such technique for analysis of an abstract model of a system. Unlike con...
Dirac bound states of anharmonic oscillator in external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamzavi, Majid; Ikhdair, Sameer M.; Falaye, Babatunde J.
2014-01-01
We explore the effect of the external magnetic and Aharonov–Bohm (AB) flux fields on the energy levels of Dirac particle subjects to mixed scalar and vector anharmonic oscillator field in the two-dimensional (2D) space. We calculate the exact energy eigenvalues and the corresponding un-normalized two-spinor-components wave functions in terms of the chemical potential parameter, magnetic field strength, AB flux field and magnetic quantum number by using the Nikiforov–Uvarov (NU) method. -- Highlights: • Effect of the external fields on the energy levels of Dirac particle with the anharmonic oscillator is investigated. • The solutions are discussed in view of spin and pseudospin symmetries limits. • The energy levels and wave function are presented by the Nikiforov–Uvarov method
Performance of combined production and analysis WMS in DIRAC
Paterson, S
2010-01-01
DIRAC, the LHCb community Grid solution, uses generic pilot jobs to obtain a virtual pool of resources for the VO community. In this way agents can request the highest priority user or production jobs from a central task queue and VO policies can be applied with full knowledge of current and previous activities. In this paper the performance of the DIRAC WMS will be presented with emphasis on how the system copes with many varied job requirements. In order to ensure traceability of jobs as well as security, the actual users identity has to be established before running the actual payload workflow. Generic pilot jobs take advantage of the deployment of the gLExec utility in order to achieve this. Experience with gLExec will be described.
Phase diagram of the Dirac spectrum at nonzero chemical potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Osborn, J. C.; Splittorff, K.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.
2008-01-01
The Dirac spectrum of QCD with dynamical fermions at nonzero chemical potential is characterized by three regions: a region with a constant eigenvalue density, a region where the eigenvalue density shows oscillations that grow exponentially with the volume and the remainder of the complex plane where the eigenvalue density is zero. In this paper we derive the phase diagram of the Dirac spectrum from a chiral Lagrangian. We show that the constant eigenvalue density corresponds to a pion condensed phase while the strongly oscillating region is given by a kaon condensed phase. The normal phase with nonzero chiral condensate but vanishing Bose condensates coincides with the region of the complex plane where there are no eigenvalues.
How (not) to teach Lorentz covariance of the Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolić, Hrvoje
2014-01-01
In the textbook proofs of the Lorentz covariance of the Dirac equation, one treats the wave function as a spinor and gamma matrices as scalars, leading to a quite complicated formalism with several pedagogic drawbacks. As an alternative, I propose to teach the Dirac equation and its Lorentz covariance by using a much simpler, but physically equivalent formalism, in which these drawbacks do not appear. In this alternative formalism, the wave function transforms as a scalar and gamma matrices as components of a vector, such that the standard physically relevant bilinear combinations do not change their transformation properties. The alternative formalism allows also a natural construction of some additional non-standard bilinear combinations with well-defined transformation properties. (paper)
Surface regulated arsenenes as Dirac materials: From density functional calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Junhui; Xie, Qingxing; Yu, Niannian; Wang, Jiafu
2017-01-01
Highlights: • The presence of Dirac cones in chemically decorated buckled arsenene AsX (X = CN, NC, NCO, NCS, and NCSe) has been revealed. • First-principles calculations show that all these chemically decorated arsenenes are kinetically stable in defending thermal fluctuations in room temperature. - Abstract: Using first principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), we have systematically investigated the structure stability and electronic properties of chemically decorated arsenenes, AsX (X = CN, NC, NCO, NCS and NCSe). Phonon dispersion and formation energy analysis reveal that all the five chemically decorated buckled arsenenes are energetically favorable and could be synthesized. Our study shows that wide-bandgap arsenene would turn into Dirac materials when functionalized by -X (X = CN, NC, NCO, NCS and NCSe) groups, rendering new promises in next generation high-performance electronic devices.
Photon-Assisted Spectroscopy of Dirac Electrons in Graphene
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdelrazek A. S.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The quantum Goos-Hanchen effect in graphene is investigated. The Goos-Hanchen phase shift is derived by solving the Dirac eigenvalue differential equation. This phase shift varies with the angle of incidence of the quasiparticle Dirac fermions on the bar- rier. Calculations show that the dependence of the phase shift on the angle of incidence is sensitive to the variation of the energy gap of graphene, the applied magnetic field and the frequency of the electromagnetic waves. The present results show that the con- ducting states in the sidebands is very effective in the phase shift for frequencies of the applied electromagnetic field. This investigation is very important for the application of graphene in nanoelectronics and nanophotonics.
Three-dimensional periodic dielectric structures having photonic Dirac points
Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin
2015-06-02
The dielectric, three-dimensional photonic materials disclosed herein feature Dirac-like dispersion in quasi-two-dimensional systems. Embodiments include a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure formed by alternating layers of dielectric rods and dielectric slabs patterned with holes on respective triangular lattices. This fcc structure also includes a defect layer, which may comprise either dielectric rods or a dielectric slab with patterned with holes. This defect layer introduces Dirac cone dispersion into the fcc structure's photonic band structure. Examples of these fcc structures enable enhancement of the spontaneous emission coupling efficiency (the .beta.-factor) over large areas, contrary to the conventional wisdom that the .beta.-factor degrades as the system's size increases. These results enable large-area, low-threshold lasers; single-photon sources; quantum information processing devices; and energy harvesting systems.
The causal perturbation expansion revisited: Rescaling the interacting Dirac sea
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finster, Felix; Grotz, Andreas
2010-01-01
The causal perturbation expansion defines the Dirac sea in the presence of a time-dependent external field. It yields an operator whose image generalizes the vacuum solutions of negative energy and thus gives a canonical splitting of the solution space into two subspaces. After giving a self-contained introduction to the ideas and techniques, we show that this operator is, in general, not idempotent. We modify the standard construction by a rescaling procedure giving a projector on the generalized negative-energy subspace. The resulting rescaled causal perturbation expansion uniquely defines the fermionic projector in terms of a series of distributional solutions of the Dirac equation. The technical core of the paper is to work out the combinatorics of the expansion in detail. It is also shown that the fermionic projector with interaction can be obtained from the free projector by a unitary transformation. We finally analyze the consequences of the rescaling procedure on the light-cone expansion.
Particlelike solutions of the Einstein-Dirac equations
Finster, Felix; Smoller, Joel; Yau, Shing-Tung
1999-05-01
The coupled Einstein-Dirac equations for a static, spherically symmetric system of two fermions in a singlet spinor state are derived. Using numerical methods, we construct an infinite number of solitonlike solutions of these equations. The stability of the solutions is analyzed. For weak coupling (i.e., small rest mass of the fermions), all the solutions are linearly stable (with respect to spherically symmetric perturbations), whereas for stronger coupling, both stable and unstable solutions exist. For the physical interpretation, we discuss how the energy of the fermions and the (ADM) mass behave as functions of the rest mass of the fermions. Although gravitation is not renormalizable, our solutions of the Einstein-Dirac equations are regular and well behaved even for strong coupling.
A spatially homogeneous and isotropic Einstein-Dirac cosmology
Finster, Felix; Hainzl, Christian
2011-04-01
We consider a spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model where Dirac spinors are coupled to classical gravity. For the Dirac spinors we choose a Hartree-Fock ansatz where all one-particle wave functions are coherent and have the same momentum. If the scale function is large, the universe behaves like the classical Friedmann dust solution. If however the scale function is small, quantum effects lead to oscillations of the energy-momentum tensor. It is shown numerically and proven analytically that these quantum oscillations can prevent the formation of a big bang or big crunch singularity. The energy conditions are analyzed. We prove the existence of time-periodic solutions which go through an infinite number of expansion and contraction cycles.
The causal perturbation expansion revisited: Rescaling the interacting Dirac sea
Finster, Felix; Grotz, Andreas
2010-07-01
The causal perturbation expansion defines the Dirac sea in the presence of a time-dependent external field. It yields an operator whose image generalizes the vacuum solutions of negative energy and thus gives a canonical splitting of the solution space into two subspaces. After giving a self-contained introduction to the ideas and techniques, we show that this operator is, in general, not idempotent. We modify the standard construction by a rescaling procedure giving a projector on the generalized negative-energy subspace. The resulting rescaled causal perturbation expansion uniquely defines the fermionic projector in terms of a series of distributional solutions of the Dirac equation. The technical core of the paper is to work out the combinatorics of the expansion in detail. It is also shown that the fermionic projector with interaction can be obtained from the free projector by a unitary transformation. We finally analyze the consequences of the rescaling procedure on the light-cone expansion.
Spectral density and a family of Dirac operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niemi, A.J.
1985-01-01
The spectral density for a class Dirac operators is investigated by relating its even and odd parts to the Riemann zeta-function and to the eta-invariant by Atiyah, Padoti and Singer. Asymptotic expansions are studied and a 'hidden' supersymmetry is revealed and used to relate the Dirac operator to a supersymmetric quantum mechanics. A general method for the computation of the odd spectral density is developed, and various applications are discussed. In particular the connection to the fermion number and a relation between the odd spectral density and some ratios of Jost functions and relative phase shifts are pointed out. Chiral symmetry breaking is investigated using methods analogous to those applied in the investigation of the fermion number, and related to supersymmetry breaking in the corresponding quantum mechanical model. (orig.)
Disordered Dirac fermions: the marriage of three different approaches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhaseen, Miraculous J. E-mail: bhaseen@thphys.ox.ac.uk; Caux, J.-S. E-mail: caux@thphys.ox.ac.uk; Kogan, Ian I. E-mail: kogan@thphys.ox.ac.uk; Tsvelik, Alexei M. E-mail: tsvelik@thphys.ox.ac.uk
2001-12-17
We compare the critical multipoint correlation functions for two-dimensional (massless) Dirac fermions in the presence of a random su(N) (non-Abelian) gauge potential, obtained by three different methods. We critically reexamine previous results obtained using the replica approach and in the limit of infinite disorder strength and compare them to new results (presented here) obtained using the supersymmetric approach to the N=2 case. We demonstrate that this menage a trois of different approaches leads to identical results. Remarkable relations between apparently different conformal field theories (CFTs) are thereby obtained. We further establish a connection between the random Dirac fermion problem and the c=-2 theory of dense polymers. The presence of the c=-2 theory may be seen in all three different treatments of the disorder.
Disordered Dirac fermions: the marriage of three different approaches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhaseen, Miraculous J.; Caux, J.-S.; Kogan, Ian I.; Tsvelik, Alexei M.
2001-01-01
We compare the critical multipoint correlation functions for two-dimensional (massless) Dirac fermions in the presence of a random su(N) (non-Abelian) gauge potential, obtained by three different methods. We critically reexamine previous results obtained using the replica approach and in the limit of infinite disorder strength and compare them to new results (presented here) obtained using the supersymmetric approach to the N=2 case. We demonstrate that this menage a trois of different approaches leads to identical results. Remarkable relations between apparently different conformal field theories (CFTs) are thereby obtained. We further establish a connection between the random Dirac fermion problem and the c=-2 theory of dense polymers. The presence of the c=-2 theory may be seen in all three different treatments of the disorder
Three-dimensional periodic dielectric structures having photonic Dirac points
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin
2015-06-02
The dielectric, three-dimensional photonic materials disclosed herein feature Dirac-like dispersion in quasi-two-dimensional systems. Embodiments include a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure formed by alternating layers of dielectric rods and dielectric slabs patterned with holes on respective triangular lattices. This fcc structure also includes a defect layer, which may comprise either dielectric rods or a dielectric slab with patterned with holes. This defect layer introduces Dirac cone dispersion into the fcc structure's photonic band structure. Examples of these fcc structures enable enhancement of the spontaneous emission coupling efficiency (the .beta.-factor) over large areas, contrary to the conventional wisdom that the .beta.-factor degrades as the system's size increases. These results enable large-area, low-threshold lasers; single-photon sources; quantum information processing devices; and energy harvesting systems.
Peccei-Quinn symmetry for Dirac seesaw and leptogenesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gu, Pei-Hong [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University,800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)
2016-07-04
We extend the DFSZ invisible axion model to simultaneously explain small Dirac neutrino masses and cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry. After the Peccei-Quinn and electroweak symmetry breaking, the effective Yukawa couplings of the Dirac neutrinos to the standard model Higgs scalar can be highly suppressed by the ratio of the vacuum expectation value of an iso-triplet Higgs scalar over the masses of some heavy gauge-singlet fermions, iso-doublet Higgs scalars or iso-triplet fermions. The iso-triplet fields can carry a zero or nonzero hypercharge. Through the decays of the heavy gauge-singlet fermions, iso-doublet scalars or iso-triplet fermions, we can obtain a lepton asymmetry in the left-handed leptons and an opposite lepton asymmetry in the right-handed neutrinos. Since the right-handed neutrinos do not participate in the sphaleron processes, the left-handed lepton asymmetry can be partially converted to a baryon asymmetry.
Dirac equation in noncommutative space for hydrogen atom
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adorno, T.C., E-mail: tadorno@nonada.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Baldiotti, M.C., E-mail: baldiott@fma.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Chaichian, M., E-mail: Masud.Chaichian@helsinki.f [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, PO Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Gitman, D.M., E-mail: gitman@dfn.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, CEP 05508-090 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Tureanu, A., E-mail: Anca.Tureanu@helsinki.f [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, PO Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)
2009-11-30
We consider the energy levels of a hydrogen-like atom in the framework of theta-modified, due to space noncommutativity, Dirac equation with Coulomb field. It is shown that on the noncommutative (NC) space the degeneracy of the levels 2S{sub 1/2}, 2P{sub 1/2} and 2P{sub 3/2} is lifted completely, such that new transition channels are allowed.
Dirac equation in noncommutative space for hydrogen atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adorno, T.C.; Baldiotti, M.C.; Chaichian, M.; Gitman, D.M.; Tureanu, A.
2009-01-01
We consider the energy levels of a hydrogen-like atom in the framework of θ-modified, due to space noncommutativity, Dirac equation with Coulomb field. It is shown that on the noncommutative (NC) space the degeneracy of the levels 2S 1/2 , 2P 1/2 and 2P 3/2 is lifted completely, such that new transition channels are allowed.
Two-loop Dirac neutrino mass and WIMP dark matter
Bonilla, Cesar; Ma, Ernest; Peinado, Eduardo; Valle, Jose W.F.
2018-01-01
We propose a "scotogenic" mechanism relating small neutrino mass and cosmological dark matter. Neutrinos are Dirac fermions with masses arising only in two--loop order through the sector responsible for dark matter. Two triality symmetries ensure both dark matter stability and strict lepton number conservation at higher orders. A global spontaneously broken U(1) symmetry leads to a physical $Diracon$ that induces invisible Higgs decays which add up to the Higgs to dark matter mode. This enhan...
The overlap Dirac operator as a continued fraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wenger, U.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron
2004-03-01
We use a continued fraction expansion of the sign-function in order to obtain a five dimensional formulation of the overlap lattice Dirac operator. Within this formulation the inverse of the overlap operator can be calculated by a single Krylov space method and nested conjugate gradient procedures are avoided. We point out that the five dimensional linear system can be made well conditioned using equivalence transformations on the continued fractions. (orig.)
The time-of-flight detector of the DIRAC experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adeva, B.; Gallas, M.V.; Gomez, F.; Lopez-Agueera, A.; Nunez-Pardo, T.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Rodriguez, X.M.; Saborido, J.J.; Santamarina, C.; Tobar, M.J.; Vazquez, P.
2002-01-01
The construction and performance of a large area time-of-flight detector for the DIRAC experiment at CERN is reported. With an average time resolution of 123 ps per counter at rates up to 1 MHz, it allows excellent separation of pπ - from π + π - pairs up to 4.6 GeV/c momentum, as well as of Coulomb-correlated pion pairs from accidentals. The optimization of scintillator material, photomultiplier performance and readout electronics is described
A toy model for higher spin Dirac operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eelbode, D.; Van de Voorde, L.
2010-01-01
This paper deals with the higher spin Dirac operator Q 2,1 acting on functions taking values in an irreducible representation space for so(m) with highest weight (5/2, 3/2, 1/2,..., 1/2). . This operator acts as a toy model for generalizations of the classical Rarita-Schwinger equations in Clifford analysis. Polynomial null solutions for this operator are studied in particular.
General method for reducing the two-body Dirac equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galeao, A.P.; Ferreira, P.L.
1992-01-01
A semi relativistic two-body Dirac equation with an enlarged set of phenomenological potentials, including Breit-type terms, is investigated for the general case of unequal masses. Solutions corresponding to definite total angular momentum and parity are shown to fall into two classes, each one being obtained by solving a system of four coupled first-order radial differential equations. The reduction of each of these systems to a pair of coupled Schroedinger-type equations is also discussed. (author)
The Dirac-Kaehler equation and fermions on the lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becher, P.
1982-05-01
The geometrical description of spinor fields by E. Kaehler is used to formulate a consistent lattice approximation of fermions. The relation to free simple Dirac fields as well as to Susskind's description of lattice fermions is clarified. The first steps towards a quantized interacting theory are given. The correspondence between the calculus of differential forms and concepts of algebraic topology is shown to be a useful method for a completely analogous treatment of the problems in the continuum and on the lattice. (orig.)
Algebraic and Dirac-Hestenes spinors and spinor fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues, Waldyr A. Jr.
2004-01-01
Almost all presentations of Dirac theory in first or second quantization in physics (and mathematics) textbooks make use of covariant Dirac spinor fields. An exception is the presentation of that theory (first quantization) offered originally by Hestenes and now used by many authors. There, a new concept of spinor field (as a sum of nonhomogeneous even multivectors fields) is used. However, a careful analysis (detailed below) shows that the original Hestenes definition cannot be correct since it conflicts with the meaning of the Fierz identities. In this paper we start a program dedicated to the examination of the mathematical and physical basis for a comprehensive definition of the objects used by Hestenes. In order to do that we give a preliminary definition of algebraic spinor fields (ASF) and Dirac-Hestenes spinor fields (DHSF) on Minkowski space-time as some equivalence classes of pairs (Ξ u ,ψ Ξ u ), where Ξ u is a spinorial frame field and ψ Ξ u is an appropriate sum of multivectors fields (to be specified below). The necessity of our definitions are shown by a careful analysis of possible formulations of Dirac theory and the meaning of the set of Fierz identities associated with the bilinear covariants (on Minkowski space-time) made with ASF or DHSF. We believe that the present paper clarifies some misunderstandings (past and recent) appearing on the literature of the subject. It will be followed by a sequel paper where definitive definitions of ASF and DHSF are given as appropriate sections of a vector bundle called the left spin-Clifford bundle. The bundle formulation is essential in order to be possible to produce a coherent theory for the covariant derivatives of these fields on arbitrary Riemann-Cartan space-times. The present paper contains also Appendixes A-E which exhibits a truly useful collection of results concerning the theory of Clifford algebras (including many tricks of the trade) necessary for the intelligibility of the text
Fermi-Dirac statistics plus liquid description of quark partons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buccella, F.; Migliore, G.; Tibullo, V.
1995-01-01
A previous approach with Fermi-Dirac distributions for fermion partons is here improved to comply with the expected low x behaviour of structure functions. We are so able to get a fair description of the unpolarized and polarized structure functions of the nucleons as well as of neutrino data. We cannot reach definite conclusions, but confirm our suspicion of a relationship between the defects in Gottfried and spin sum rules. (orig.)
Electric-dipole-induced universality for Dirac fermions in graphene.
De Martino, Alessandro; Klöpfer, Denis; Matrasulov, Davron; Egger, Reinhold
2014-05-09
We study electric dipole effects for massive Dirac fermions in graphene and related materials. The dipole potential accommodates towers of infinitely many bound states exhibiting a universal Efimov-like scaling hierarchy. The dipole moment determines the number of towers, but there is always at least one tower. The corresponding eigenstates show a characteristic angular asymmetry, observable in tunnel spectroscopy. However, charge transport properties inferred from scattering states are highly isotropic.
Algebraic solution for the vector potential in the Dirac equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Booth, H.S. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart Tas (Australia); Centre for Mathematics and its Applications, Australian National University (Australia)]. E-mail: hbooth@wintermute.anu.edu.au; Legg, G.; Jarvis, P.D. [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Tasmania, Hobart Tas (Australia)
2001-07-20
The Dirac equation for an electron in an external electromagnetic field can be regarded as a singular set of linear equations for the vector potential. Radford's method of algebraically solving for the vector potential is reviewed, with attention to the additional constraints arising from non-maximality of the rank. The extension of the method to general spacetimes is illustrated by examples in diverse dimensions with both c- and a-number wavefunctions. (author)
JAXA's Space Exploration Scenario
Sato, N. S.
2018-04-01
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been studying space exploration scenario, including human exploration for Japan since 2015, which encompasses goals, knowledge gap assessment, and architecture. assessment, and technology roadmap.
Learning Through Scenario Planning
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Balarezo, Jose
level variables, this research corrects this void by investigating the dynamics of organizational learning through the lenses of a corporate scenario planning process. This enhances our scientific understanding of the role that scenario planning might play in the context of organizational learning......This project investigates the uses and effects of scenario planning in companies operating in highly uncertain and dynamic environments. Whereas previous research on scenario planning has fallen short of providing sufficient evidence of its mechanisms and effects on individual or organizational...... and strategic renewal. Empirical evidence of the various difficulties that learning flows has to overcome as it journeys through organizational and hierarchical levels are presented. Despite various cognitive and social psychological barriers identified along the way, the results show the novel...
Integrated transportation scenario planning.
2010-07-01
Regional land usetransportation scenario planning emerged as a planning technique in U.S. : metropolitan areas in the 1990s. Building on prior work by this research team, this study continues : to track the development and expansion of regional sc...
New and old symmetries of the Maxwell and Dirac equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fushchich, V.I.; Nikitin, A.G.
1983-01-01
The symmetry properties of Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic field and also of the Dirac and Kemmer-Duffin-Petiau equations are analyzed. In the framework of a ''non-Lie'' approach it is shown that, besides the well-known invariance with respect to the conformal group and the Heaviside-Larmor-Rainich transformations, Maxwell's equations have an additional symmetry with respect to the group U(2)xU(2) and with respect to the 23-dimensional Lie algebra A 23 . The transformations of the additional symmetry are given by nonlocal (integro-differential) operators. The symmetry of the Dirac equation in the class of differential and integro-differential transformations is investigated. It is shown that this equation is invariant with respect to an 18-parameter group, which includes the Poincare group as a subgroup. A 28-parameter invariance group of the Kemmer-Duffin-Petiau equation is found. Finite transformations of the conformal group for a massless field with arbitrary spin are obtained. The explicit form of conformal transformations for the electromagnetic field and also for the Dirac and Weyl fields is given
On new and old symmetries of Maxwell and Dirac equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fushchich, V.I.; Nikitin, A.G.
1983-01-01
Symmetry properties of the Maxwell equation for the electromagnetic field are analysed as well as of the Dirac and Kemmer-Duffin-Petiau one. In the frame of the non-geometrical approach it is demonstrated, that besides to the well-known invariance under the conformal group and Heaviside-Larmor-Rainich transformation, Maxwell equation possess the additional symmetry under the group U(2)xU(2) and under the 23-dimensional Lie algebra A 23 . The additional symmetry transformations are realized by the non-local (integro-differential) operators. The symmetry of the Dirac. equation under the differential and integro-differential transformations is investio.ated. It is shown that this equation is invariant under the 18-parametrical group, which includes the Poincare group as a subgroup. The 28-parametrical invariance group of the Kemmer-Duffin-Petiau equation is found. The finite conformal group transformations for a massless field of any spin are obtained. The explicit form of the conformal transformations for the electromagnetic field as well as for the Dirac and Weyl fields is given
Topological transport in Dirac nodal-line semimetals
Rui, W. B.; Zhao, Y. X.; Schnyder, Andreas P.
2018-04-01
Topological nodal-line semimetals are characterized by one-dimensional Dirac nodal rings that are protected by the combined symmetry of inversion P and time-reversal T . The stability of these Dirac rings is guaranteed by a quantized ±π Berry phase and their low-energy physics is described by a one-parameter family of (2+1)-dimensional quantum field theories exhibiting the parity anomaly. Here we study the Berry-phase supported topological transport of P T -invariant nodal-line semimetals. We find that small inversion breaking allows for an electric-field-induced anomalous transverse current, whose universal component originates from the parity anomaly. Due to this Hall-like current, carriers at opposite sides of the Dirac nodal ring flow to opposite surfaces when an electric field is applied. To detect the topological currents, we propose a dumbbell device, which uses surface states to filter charges based on their momenta. Suggestions for experiments and device applications are discussed.
MPI support in the DIRAC Pilot Job Workload Management System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsaregorodtsev, A; Hamar, V
2012-01-01
Parallel job execution in the grid environment using MPI technology presents a number of challenges for the sites providing this support. Multiple flavors of the MPI libraries, shared working directories required by certain applications, special settings for the batch systems make the MPI support difficult for the site managers. On the other hand the workload management systems with Pilot Jobs became ubiquitous although the support for the MPI applications in the Pilot frameworks was not available. This support was recently added in the DIRAC Project in the context of the GISELA Latin American Grid Initiative. Special services for dynamic allocation of virtual computer pools on the grid sites were developed in order to deploy MPI rings corresponding to the requirements of the jobs in the central task queue of the DIRAC Workload Management System. Pilot Jobs using user space file system techniques install the required MPI software automatically. The same technique is used to emulate shared working directories for the parallel MPI processes. This makes it possible to execute MPI jobs even on the sites not supporting them officially. Reusing so constructed MPI rings for execution of a series of parallel jobs increases dramatically their efficiency and turnaround. In this contribution we describe the design and implementation of the DIRAC MPI Service as well as its support for various types of MPI libraries. Advantages of coupling the MPI support with the Pilot frameworks are outlined and examples of usage with real applications are presented.