Sample records for pseudacteon tricuspis borgmeier

  1. Fire ant venom alkaloids act as key attractants for the parasitic phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis (Diptera: Phoridae) (United States)

    Chen, Li; Sharma, Kavita R.; Fadamiro, Henry Y.


    The phorid fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier, is an introduced parasitoid of imported fire ants, Solenopsis spp., in the USA. Although the assumption that phorid flies use fire ant alarm pheromones for host location is probably true, we demonstrated in a previous study the possible involvement of other ant semiochemicals in the response of P. tricuspis to fire ants. This study was conducted to determine the glandular sources and identity of the semiochemicals mediating this interaction. First, we tested the electroantennogram response of P. tricuspis to extracts of key body parts and glands of workers of the red imported fire ant, S. invicta Buren. The results confirm that the poison (venom) gland/sac is the key source of compounds which elicited strong antennal activity in P. tricuspis. Follow-up studies were conducted by using a combination of bioassay-guided fractionation and behavioral bioassays to test the hypothesis that attraction of this parasitoid to fire ants is mediated by venom alkaloids. The results confirm the response of P. tricuspis to physiologically relevant amounts of the two venom alkaloid fractions ( cis and trans alkaloid fractions) of S. invicta. Further analysis by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection revealed nine venom alkaloid components including two novel 2,6-dialkylpiperideines that elicited significant antennal activity in P. tricuspis. This is the first demonstration of the role of venom alkaloids of ants as attractants for their natural enemies. We propose a semiochemical-mediated host location mechanism for P. tricuspis involving both alarm pheromones and venom alkaloids. The ecological significance of these findings, including the attraction of male P. tricuspis to fire ant venom alkaloids, possibly for mate location, is discussed.

  2. Biological Control of Solenopsis Fire Ants by Pseudacteon Parasitoids: Theory and Practice

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    Lloyd W. Morrison


    Full Text Available Pseudacteon parasitoids are potential biocontrol agents of invasive Solenopsis fire ants. Pseudacteon species that parasitize the invasive S. invicta Buren and S. richteri Forel have been introduced to, and naturally dispersed across, the southeastern USA, although there is no evidence yet that Solenopsis host ant populations have decreased. The ability of introduced Pseudacteon species to regulate Solenopsis populations will depend upon the relative importance of top-down effects in the recipient communities. In this paper, I examine the characteristics of the Pseudacteon/Solenopsis parasitoid/host system and evaluate the extent to which research findings are consistent with top-down control. Laboratory and field experiments evaluating Solenopsis population regulation have been equivocal, and overall the available evidence provides little support for strong top-down effects in this system. Competitive exclusion may occur among introduced Pseudacteon species, and future efforts at biological control are likely to be more efficacious if they focus on other types of natural enemies.

  3. Pseudacteon decapitating flies: Potential vectors of a fire ant virus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valles, S.M.; Porter, S.D.


    Solenopsis invicta virus (SINV-1) is a positive-stranded RNA virus recently found to infect all stages of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Valles et al. 2004; Valles and Strong 2005). SINV-1 and a second genotype have been tentatively assigned to the Dicistroviridae (Mayo 2002). Infected individuals or colonies did not exhibit any immediate, discernible symptoms in the field. However, under stress from introduction into the laboratory, brood death was often observed among infected colonies, ultimately leading to the death of the entire colony (Valles et al. 2004). These characteristics are consistent with other insect-infecting positive-stranded RNA viruses. They often persist as inapparent, asymptomatic infections that, under certain conditions, induce replication within the host, resulting in observable symptoms and often death (Christian and Scotti 1998; Fernandez et al. 2002). The SINV infection rate among colonies was reported to be around 25% in Gainesville, Florida (Valles et al. 2004; Valles and Strong 2005). SINV vertical and horizontal transmission were inferred based on RT-PCR detection of virus genome in eggs and successful colony to colony transfer under lab conditions (Valles et al. 2004). However, the exact mechanisms by which the virus is spread from nest to nest in the field are unknown. Our results indicate that SINV does not replicate within Pseudacteon decapitating flies that parasitize S. invicta. Flies appeared to develop normally from SINV-infected S. invicta workers. Mechanical transmission of SINV to uninfected ants by oviposition appears unlikely

  4. Parasitoids of the endangered leafcutter ant Atta robusta Borgmeier in urban and natural areas

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    Diego S. Gomes


    Full Text Available Parasitoids of the endangered leafcutter ant Atta robusta Borgmeier in urban and natural areas. Hosts of parasitoids in urban areas may suffer from a double threat of habitat destruction by urbanization and parasitism pressure. Moreover, the parasitoids themselves might be at risk if they are specialists. Here, we studied whether Atta robusta (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, which is on the red list of Brazilian threatened species, suffers from higher parasitism pressure in an urban area compared to a natural one. In addition, we determined whether their specialist parasitoids, Eibesfeldtphora breviloba and Myrmosicarius exrobusta (Diptera, Phoridae, are in risk and evaluated whether they are influenced by habitat structure, temperature, humidity, ant traffic, and time of the day. The study was carried out in an urban park and in a natural protected area in the city of Rio de Janeiro. In each site we chose an open area and a closed area (forest and sampled nine nests in each area. We found that parasitism pressure was similar in urban and natural areas, with the same two parasitoid species present in both areas. The main difference was related to habitat structure, since M. exrobusta was mainly present in open areas while E. breviloba was almost exclusively found in closed areas. Myrmosicarius exrobusta was not present during the hottest midday times, and its abundance was negatively correlated to vapor pressure deficit. These results suggest that green areas can be an important component in efforts to conserve diversity in urban areas. However, the complexity of the habitats in those areas is a fundamental issue in designing urban parks.

  5. Gastric Ollulanus tricuspis infection identified in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus with chronic vomiting : case report

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    M.G. Collett


    Full Text Available Gastritis, vomition and weight loss are common in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus. Gastric spiral bacteria (Helicobacter spp. and the very small, viviparous nematode Ollulanus tricuspis, a stomach worm of cats, are believed to be important causes. Three sibling cheetahs at Wellington Zoo, New Zealand, developed chronic vomiting, diarrhoea and debility. Their parents were both South African-born. Response to antibacterial treatment was poor. Endoscopic examinations revealed chronic lymphoplasmacytic gastritis and Ollulanus infection. Treatment with oxfendazole and pyrantel embonate resulted in clinical improvement; however, 1 cheetah, which died 7 months later as a result of a ruptured liver due to hepatic amyloidosis, still had Ollulanus worms present in her stomach. Ollulanus tricuspis is a significant cause of gastritis and vomiting in captive cheetahs, lions and tigers, as well as wild cougars and tigers. The parasite has not yet been found in sub-Saharan Africa. Because of the unusual characteristics of this parasite, the literature on its life history and techniques for diagnosis is reviewed.

  6. A New Stonefly Species, Rhopalopsole tricuspis (Leuctridae: Plecoptera), and Three New Records of Stoneflies from the Qinling Mountains of Shaanxi, China (United States)

    Qian, Yu-Han; Du, Yu-Zhou


    Plecopteran species (Leuctridae) were collected from the Qinling Mountains in southern Shaanxi Province, China. This mountain range is home to nine species of Leuctridae belonging to two genera, and the species identified in this work include one new species and three new records for the Qinling Mountains, all belonging to the genus Rhopalopsole. The new species is named R. tricuspis Qian and Du, sp. nov. A redescription of R. basinigra Yang and Yang 1995 is supplemented. A key is provided for the adult males of Leuctridae from the Qinling Mountains. PMID:22957649

  7. Food habits of Arctic staghorn sculpin (Gymnocanthus tricuspis) and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) in the northeastern Chukchi and western Beaufort Seas (United States)

    Gray, Benjamin P.; Norcross, Brenda L.; Beaudreau, Anne H.; Blanchard, Arny L.; Seitz, Andrew C.


    Arctic staghorn sculpin (Gymnocanthus tricuspis) and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) belong to Cottidae, the second most abundant fish family in the western Arctic. Although considered important in food webs, little is known about their food habits throughout this region. To address this knowledge gap, we examined and compared the diets of 515 Arctic staghorn sculpin and 422 shorthorn sculpin using stomachs collected over three summers in the northeastern Chukchi Sea (2010-2012) and one summer in the western Beaufort Sea (2011). We used permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) to compare sculpin diets between regions and selected size classes. Differences in mouth morphologies and predator size versus prey size relationships were examined using regression techniques. Arctic staghorn sculpin and shorthorn sculpin diet compositions differed greatly throughout the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Regardless of body size, the smaller-mouthed Arctic staghorn sculpin consumed mostly benthic amphipods and polychaetes, whereas the larger-mouthed shorthorn sculpin shifted from a diet composed of benthic and pelagic macroinvertebrates as smaller individuals to shrimps and fish prey as larger individuals. Within shared habitats, the sculpins appear to partition prey, either by taxa or size, in a manner that suggests no substantial overlap occurs between species. This study increases knowledge of sculpin feeding ecology in the western Arctic and offers regional, quantitative diet information that could support current and future food web modeling efforts.

  8. Induced Effects on Red Imported Fire Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Forager Size Ratios by Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae): Implications on Bait Size Selection. (United States)

    Reed, J J; Puckett, R T; Gold, R E


    Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, are adversely affected by phorid flies in the genus Pseudacteon by instigating defensive behaviors in their hosts, and in turn reducing the efficiency of S. invicta foraging. Multiple Pseudacteon species have been released in Texas, and research has been focused on the establishment and spread of these introduced biological control agents. Field experiments were conducted to determine bait particle size selection of S. invicta when exposed to phorid populations. Four different particle sizes of two candidate baits were offered to foragers (one provided by a pesticide manufacturer, and a laboratory-created bait). Foragers selectively were attracted to, and removed more 1-1.4-mm particles than any other bait size. The industry-provided bait is primarily made of particles in the 1.4-2.0 mm size, larger than what was selected by the ants in this study. While there was a preference for foragers to be attracted to and rest on the industry-provided blank bait, S. invicta removed more of the laboratory-created bait from the test vials. There was an abundance of workers with head widths ranging from 0.5-0.75 mm collected from baits. This was dissimilar from a previous study wherein phorid flies were not active and in which large workers were collected in higher abundance at the site. This implies that phorid fly activity caused a shift for red imported fire ant colonies to have fewer large foragers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  9. Cytogenetic data on the threatened leafcutter ant Atta robusta Borgmeier, 1939 (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Attini). (United States)

    Barros, Luísa Antônia Campos; Aguiar, Hilton Jeferson Alves Cardoso de; Teixeira, Gisele Amaro; Mariano, Cléa Dos Santos Ferreira; Teixeira, Marcos da Cunha; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças


    The karyotype of the threatened ant species Atta robusta is described so as to establish the evolutionary relationships of this taxon with other leafcutter ants. Standard Giemsa staining, C-banding, NOR banding, fluorochromes CMA3/DAPI, Hsc-FA technique and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) using 18S rDNA probe were conducted on a population from Aracruz, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, allowing for comparisons with data available on Atta and other fungus-growing ant species. The diploid chromosome number observed for A. robusta was 2n=22, and the karyotypic formula was 18m+2sm+2st. Heterochromatic blocks were observed in the centromeric region of most chromosomes, where one pair of metacentric chromosomes is characterized by a GC-rich heterochromatic band in the interstitial region of its long arm. The detection of 18S rDNA using FISH confirmed the presence of single NOR for A. robusta. This is the first report of rDNA 18S detection using FISH for leafcutter ants. The cytogenetic results of this study confirm the information available for Atta and allow us to confirm the conserved chromosome number, morphology and banding pattern within the genus for the taxa studied to date, which included species from three out of the four groups of Atta indicated by molecular data. The accumulation of cytogenetic data on fungus-growing ants enhances the understanding of the genomic evolutionary patterns of Atta, since it belongs to a group of recent origin between the most well studied ants. Cytogenetic data does not indicate restrictions in relocation or reintroduction in areas where populations were extinct due to the conserved karyotype. This study allows for cytogenetic comparison of A. robusta with other ants of Atta, emphasizing the importance of chromosomal information for species conservation. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Chemical and behavioural studies of the trail-following pheromone in the leaf-cutting ant Atta opaciceps, Borgmeier (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campos, R. S.; Mendonca, A. L.; Cabral Jr, C. R.; Vaníčková, Lucie; do Nascimento, R. R.


    Roč. 86, Mar (2016), s. 25-31 ISSN 0022-1910 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : venom gland * trail pheromone * two-dimensional gas chromatography * leaf-cutting ants Atta sp. Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.227, year: 2016

  11. A survey of helminth parasites of cats from Saskatoon. (United States)

    Pomroy, W E


    In a survey of 52 cats from the Saskatoon area, Ollulanus tricuspis were found in 2 animals with burdens of 2308 and 533, respectively. Small burdens of the following helminths were also found: Physaloptera spp., Toxocara cati, Taenia spp., Dipylidium caninum, and Ancylostoma sp. PMID:10340095

  12. A survey of helminth parasites of cats from Saskatoon.


    Pomroy, W E


    In a survey of 52 cats from the Saskatoon area, Ollulanus tricuspis were found in 2 animals with burdens of 2308 and 533, respectively. Small burdens of the following helminths were also found: Physaloptera spp., Toxocara cati, Taenia spp., Dipylidium caninum, and Ancylostoma sp.

  13. A survey of the parasites of the African white-bellied pangolin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phataginus tricuspis) in Edo State, Nigeria. They were purchased at Ekiuwa Market in Benin City, where they are sold and people consume the meat as a good source of protein and the animal can also be used for medicinal purposes. Four (4) ...

  14. A new genus and species of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae parasitoid of Euxesta eluta Loew (Diptera, Otitidae attacked Bt sweet corn in Argentina

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    Fabiana E. Gallardo


    Full Text Available Euxestophaga Gallardo, a new genus of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae and Euxestophaga argentinensis Gallardo, sp. n. from Argentina, are described and illustrated. This new genus belongs to the Ganaspini and morphologically resembles Epicoela Borgmeier and Striatovertex Schick, Forshage and Nordlander. A key to differentiate these genera is given. Specimens were reared from pupae of Euxesta eluta Loew (Diptera: Otitidae, attacked Bt sweet corn in Santa Fe province and other in Tucumán province (Argentina.


    Disney, R Henry L; Copeland, Robert S; Murrell, Ebony


    Among the insects reported by Copeland (1989) breeding in the waters retained by treeholes in Indiana was a scuttle fly identified by W. H. Robinson as Megaselia scalaris (Loew). It is here reported that in fact this fly, along with fresh material from Illinois and Missouri, is M. imitatrix Borgmeier, whose type series was from Puerto Rico. An aquatic species reported from Texas is recognized as a sibling species of M. imitatrix and is named M. hansonix Disney, sp. nov. A single female from Brazil represents a third species of this complex, thus raising doubts about the identity of specimens from Brazil attributed to M. imitatrix by Benton and Claugher (2000).

  16. Current Understanding and Future Prospects of Host Selection, Acceptance, Discrimination, and Regulation of Phorid Fly Parasitoids That Attack Ants

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    Kaitlyn A. Mathis


    Full Text Available Phorid fly parasitoids (Diptera: Phoridae have evolved a diverse array of cues used to successfully parasitize their ant hosts. Successful parasitism often involves (a host habitat location, (b host location, (c host acceptance, (d host discrimination, and (e host regulation. In this paper we discuss our current understanding of how phorid flies use each of these steps to successfully parasitize ant hosts. We examine the wide variety of strategies and cues used by a multiple species of phorid flies within three separate genera that most commonly parasitize ants (Apocephalus, Pseudacteon, and Neodohrniphora and discuss future directions within this field of study.

  17. Chemically based interactions and nutritional ecology of Labidus praedator (Formicidae: Ecitoninae in an agroecosystem adjacent to a gallery forest Interações de origem química e ecologia nutricional de Labidus praedator (Formicidae: Ecitoninae em um agroecossistema adjacente a uma mata de galeria

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    André F. M. Monteiro


    Full Text Available New World army ants species have an important role in structuring invertebrate communities. Labidus praedator (Fr. Smith, 1858 is a generalist top predator that can reduce pest densities in agroecosystems. The aim of this study was to describe behavioral attributes, diet composition and interspecific interactions of the ant L. praedator. We searched for army ant raids using standardized trail-walk surveys and plotted army ants raids positions on an aerial image. We photographed events at swarm raids of L. praedator and recorded its diet items in basal columns near bivouacs. Six species from four Ecitoninae genera - Labidus (Jurine, 1807, Nomamyrmex (Borgmeier, 1936, Neivamyrmex (Borgmeier, 1940 and Eciton (Latreille, 1804 - were recorded. Caterpillars dominated the composition of the diet of L. praedator. Flowers and diaspores of weeds and aril and flesh of fruits were also transported to bivouacs. One colony stopped foraging after intense rainfall and discrete groups of hundreds of L. praedator ants were separated under patches covered by shrubs. Groups of Crotophaginae birds, Sarcophaginae flies and Polistinae wasps followed L. praedator swarm raids. We discuss the importance of landscape structure for agroecosystem colonization by Ecitoninae and the existence of chemical opportunism between army ants species through the reuse of unoccupied trails.Algumas formigas neotropicais de correição têm um importante papel na estruturação da comunidade de invertebrados. Labidus praedator (Fr. Smith, 1858 como predador generalista de topo pode reduzir as densidades de pragas em agroecossistemas. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever atributos comportamentais, composição de dieta e interações interespecíficas da formiga Labidus praedator. Nós buscamos as colunas das formigas de correição por meio de amostragens por caminhamento em trilhas padronizadas. Nós plotamos as posições das colunas sobre uma imagem aérea. Nós fotografamos eventos

  18. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Denmark assessed by necropsy and concentration McMaster technique. (United States)

    Takeuchi-Storm, N; Mejer, H; Al-Sabi, M N S; Olsen, C S; Thamsborg, S M; Enemark, H L


    The large population of feral cats in Denmark may potentially transmit pathogens to household cats and zoonotic parasites to humans. A total of 99 euthanized cats; feral cats (n=92) and household cats with outdoor access (n=7), were collected from March to May 2014 from the Zealand region, Denmark. The sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) was used to isolate helminths and coproscopy was done by concentration McMaster technique (c-McMaster). Overall, 90.1% of the cats were infected and a total of 10 species were recorded by SCT: 5 nematode species: Toxocara cati (84.8%), Ollulanus tricuspis (13.1%), Aonchotheca putorii (7.1%), Paersonema spp. (3.0%), Strongyloides spp. (1.0%); 3 cestodes: Hydatigera taeniaeformis (36.4%), Mesocestoides sp. (3.0%), Dipylidium caninum (1.0%); and 2 trematodes: Cryptocotyle spp. (5.1%) and Pseudamphistomum truncatum (1.0%). O. tricuspis was the second most common gastrointestinal nematode of cats but had the highest intensity of infection. For T. cati, prevalence and worm burden were significantly higher in feral than household cats. No juvenile cats were infected with H. taeniaeformis, and age thus had a significant effect on prevalence and worm burdens of this species. Rural cats had a higher prevalence and worm burden of A. putorii than urban cats. By c-McMaster, ascarid, capillarid, strongylid or taeniid type eggs were found in 77.9% of the cats while Cystoisospora felis was found in 2.1%. The sensitivity of the c-McMaster was 82.5% for T. cati but 26.5% for taeniid eggs, using the SCT as gold standard. A positive correlation between faecal egg counts and worm burdens was seen for T. cati, but not for taeniid eggs (assumed to be H. taeniaeformis). Coprological examination also detected the eggs of extraintestinal Capillariidae species including Eucoleus aerophilus and Eucoleus boehmi, but further necropsy studies are needed to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Best Host Age of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Multiplication of Four Native Parasitoids from the Americas (United States)

    Poncio, S; Montoya, P; Cancino, J; Nava, D E


    Abstract The success of the mass rearing of parasitoids is directly related to host quality, and it requires selecting the best biological host age to ensure the optimal performance of the parasitoids released into the field. The larval development of the parasitoids Utetes anastrephae (Viereck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Odontosema anastrephae Borgmeier (Hymenoptera: Eucoilidae) and the pupal development of the parasitoids Coptera haywardi (Ogloblin) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) and Dirhinus sp. (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae) on the native host Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in different larvae and pupae ages were investigated under laboratory conditions. Not all parasitoid species developed with the same efficiency in immature individuals of A. obliqua; U. anastrephae and C. haywardi showed the higher parasitism rates. The emergence and parasitism of U. anastrephae were equal using larvae from 5 to 8 d, while C. haywardi reared in 1- to 8-d-old pupae showed higher averages of parasitism. These results suggest that native parasitoids can be used to strengthen the implementation of biological control projects against A. obliqua, a pest of economic importance in South America.

  20. Revision of the fungus-farming ant genus Sericomyrmex Mayr (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae

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    Ana Ješovnik


    Full Text Available The genus Sericomyrmex Mayr (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Attini is a Neotropical group of fungus-farming ants known for its problematic taxonomy, caused by low morphological variability across the species, vague and old species descriptions, and an outdated and incomplete key published in 1916. Recent molecular studies revealed that Sericomyrmex is the product of a rapid recent radiation, with a divergence date of 4.3 million years ago. Here we present a comprehensive taxonomic revision of the genus Sericomyrmex based on morphology and a recently published molecular phylogeny. We discuss and illustrate morphological characters for Sericomyrmex workers, males, queens, and larvae. We report 18 standard morphological measurements and 5 indices for 529 workers, 50 queens, and 39 males, which we employ in morphometric analyses. The revised genus Sericomyrmex comprises eleven species, including three new species, here described as S. maravalhas sp. n., S. radioheadi sp. n., and S. saramama sp. n. We also redescribe S. amabilis Wheeler, S. bondari Borgmeier, S. lutzi Wheeler, S. mayri Forel, S. opacus Mayr, S. parvulus Forel, S. saussurei Emery, and S. scrobifer Forel. The number of recognized species (11 is lower than the previously recognized 19 species and 3 subspecies. The following species and subspecies are synonymized: under S. opacus [=S. aztecus Forel syn. n., S. zacapanus Wheeler syn. n., and S. diego Forel syn. n.]; under S. bondari [=S. beniensis Weber syn. n.]; under S. mayri [=S. luederwaldti Santschi syn. n., S. moreirai Santschi syn. n., S. harekulli Weber syn. n., S. harekulli arawakensis Weber syn. n., S. urichi Forel syn. n.]; under S. saussurei [=S. burchelli Forel syn. n., S. impexus Wheeler syn. n., S. urichi maracas Weber syn. n.]; and under S. parvulus [=S. myersi Weber syn. n.]. We provide a key to Sericomyrmex species for the worker caste and information on the geographic distributions of all species.

  1. Vegetation of high-altitude fens and restio marshlands of the Hottentots Holland Mountains, Western Cape, South Africa

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    E. J. J. Sieben


    Full Text Available Seepages occurring at high altitudes in the Hottentots Holland Mountains (HHM (Western Cape Province. South Africa were subject to a phytosociological survey. Relevé sampling method and classification procedures of the floristic-sociological (Braun-Blanquet approach as well as numerical data analyses (numerical classification and ordination were used to reveal syn- taxonomic patterns and characterize the position of the syntaxa along major environmental gradients. Nine plant communities were recognized, three of which were classified as associations, following formal syntaxonomic and nomenclatural rules of the floristic-sociological approach Most of the studied mire communities were dominated by low-growing clonal restios (Restionaceae. whereas some consisted of other types of graminoids. The most important species determining the structure (and function of the mire communities on sandstones of the HHM include restios Anthochortus crinalis, Chondropetalum deustum.C. mucronatum, Elegia intermedia. E. thyrsifera. Restio subtilis. R. purpurascens. cyperoids Epischoenus villosus. Ficinia argy-ropa, grasses Ehrharta setacea subsp. setacea. Pentameris hirtiglumis as well as shrubs Berzelia squarrosa. Cliffortia tricuspi- data. Erica intenallaris and Grubbia rosmarinifolia. Protea lacticolor and Restio perplexus dominate a rare shale band seep­age community. There are two major groups of communities—the fens (dominated by carpets of Anthochortus crinalis and other low-growing species and the restio marshlands (mosaics of low tussocks of Restio subtilis and tall Chondropetalum mucrona­tum. The degree of soil (and water minerotrophy was found to be the most important differentiating feature between the mire (fen and restio marshland communities studied. The soils in the centre of mires were found to have high contents of peat and showed very little influence from the underlying sandstone. The soils along the mire margins had a greater admixture of

  2. Arcellacea (testate amoebae) as bio-indicators of road salt contamination in lakes. (United States)

    Roe, Helen M; Patterson, R Timothy


    Winter deicing operations occur extensively in mid- to high-latitude metropolitan regions around the world and result in a significant reduction in road accidents. Deicing salts can, however, pose a major threat to water quality and aquatic organisms. In this paper, we examine the utility of Arcellacea (testate amoebae) for monitoring lakes that have become contaminated by winter deicing salts, particularly sodium chloride. We analysed 50 sediment samples and salt-related water property variables (chloride concentrations; conductivity) from 15 lakes in the Greater Toronto Area and adjacent areas of southern Ontario, Canada. The sampled lakes included lakes in proximity to major highways and suburban roads and control lakes in forested settings away from road influences. Samples from the most contaminated lakes, with chloride concentrations in excess of 400 mg/l and conductivities of >800 μS/cm, were dominated by species typically found in brackish and/or inhospitable lake environments and by lower faunal diversities (lowest Shannon diversity index values) than samples with lower readings. Q-R-mode cluster analysis and detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) resulted in the recognition of four assemblage groupings. These reflect varying levels of salt contamination in the study lakes, along with other local influences, including nutrient loading. The response to nutrients can, however, be isolated if the planktic eutrophic indicator species Cucurbitella tricuspis is removed from the counts. The findings show that the group has considerable potential for biomonitoring in salt-contaminated lakes, and their presence in lake sediment cores may provide significant insights into long-term benthic community health, which is integral for remedial efforts.

  3. The complete phylogeny of pangolins: scaling up resources for the molecular tracing of the most trafficked mammals on Earth. (United States)

    Gaubert, Philippe; Antunes, Agostinho; Meng, Hao; Miao, Lin; Peigné, Stéphane; Justy, Fabienne; Njiokou, Flobert; Dufour, Sylvain; Danquah, Emmanuel; Alahakoon, Jayanthi; Verheyen, Erik; Stanley, William T; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E; Luo, Shu-Jin


    Pangolins, considered the most-trafficked mammals on Earth, are rapidly heading to extinction. Eight extant species of these African and Asian scale-bodied anteaters are commonly recognized, but their evolutionary relationships remain largely unexplored. Here we present the most comprehensive phylogenetic assessment of pangolins, based on genetic variation of complete mitogenomes and nine nuclear genes. We confirm deep divergence among Asian and African pangolins occurring not later than the Oligocene-Miocene boundary ca. 23 million-years-ago (Ma) (95% HPD=18.7-27.2), limited fossil evidence suggesting dispersals from Europe. We recognize three genera including Manis (Asian pangolins), Smutsia (large African pangolins) and Phataginus (small African pangolins), which first diversified in the Middle-Upper Miocene (9.8-13.3 Ma) through a period of gradual cooling coinciding with a worldwide taxonomic diversification among mammals. Based on large mitogenomic distances among the three genera (18.3-22.8%) and numerous (18) morphological traits unique to Phataginus, we propose the subfamily Phatagininae subfam. nov. to designate small African pangolins. In contrast with the morphological-based literature, our results establish that the thick-tailed pangolin (M.crassicaudata) is sister-species of the Sunda (M. javanica) and Palawan (M. culionensis) pangolins. Mitogenomic phylogenetic delineations supported additional pangolin species subdivisions (n=13), including six African common pangolin (P. tricuspis) lineages, but these patterns were not fully supported by our multi-locus approach. Finally, we identified over 5,000 informative mitogenomic sites and diagnostic variation from five nuclear genes among all species and lineages of pangolins, providing an important resource for further research and for effectively tracing the worldwide pangolin trade. © The American Genetic Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  4. Metronomic treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with daily oral vinorelbine – a Phase I trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guetz S


    Full Text Available Sylvia Guetz,1,* Amanda Tufman,2,* Joachim von Pawel,3 Achim Rittmeyer,4 Astrid Borgmeier,2 Pierre Ferré,5 Birgit Edlich,6 Rudolf Maria Huber2 1Ev. Diakonissenkrankenhaus Leipzig, Leipzig, 2University Hospital Munich and Thoracic Oncology Centre Munich, Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Comprehensive Pneumology Center Munich (DZL CPC-M, Munich, 3Asklepios Fachkliniken Muenchen-Gauting, Gauting, 4Lungenfachklinik Immenhausen, Immenhausen, Germany; 5Pierre Fabre Pharmaceuticals, Oncology Research and Development Center, Toulouse, France; 6Pierre Fabre Pharma GmbH, Freiburg, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Micro-abstract: In a Phase I dose-finding study of metronomic daily oral vinorelbine in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, a recommended dose was established for this therapeutic approach. In addition, this trial revealed promising efficacy data and an acceptable tolerability profile. The observed vinorelbine blood concentrations suggest continuous anti-angiogenic coverage. Introduction: We present a Phase I dose-finding study investigating metronomic daily oral vinorelbine (Navelbine® Oral, NVBo in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Patients and methods: Patients with stage III/IV NSCLC received daily NVBo at fixed dose levels of 20–50 mg/d for 21 days of each 4-week cycle. Primary end point was the maximum tolerated dose. Secondary end points included tumor response, time to progression (TTP, overall survival (OS and tolerability. Results: Twenty-seven patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled. Most of them were extensively pretreated. Daily NVBo was well tolerated up to 30 mg/d. At 40 mg/d, two of five patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs. Three of six patients had DLTs at the 50 mg/d level. The recommended dose was established at 30 mg/d in cycle 1, with escalation to 40 mg/d in cycle 2, if tolerated. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed continuous blood exposure over 21