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Sample records for ps ii activity

  1. The importance of a highly active and DeltapH-regulated diatoxanthin epoxidase for the regulation of the PS II antenna function in diadinoxanthin cycle containing algae.

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    Goss, Reimund; Ann Pinto, Elizabeth; Wilhelm, Christian; Richter, Michael

    2006-10-01

    The present study focuses on the regulation of diatoxanthin (Dtx) epoxidation in the diadinoxanthin (Ddx) cycle containing algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Cyclotella meneghiniana and Prymnesium parvum and its significance for the control of the photosystem II (PS II) antenna function. Our data show that Dtx epoxidase can exhibit extremely high activities when algal cells are transferred from high light (HL) to low light (LL). Under HL conditions, Dtx epoxidation is strongly inhibited by the light-driven proton gradient. Uncoupling of the cells during HL illumination restores the high epoxidation rates observed during LL. In Ddx cycle containing algae, non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence (NPQ) is directly correlated with the Dtx concentration and independent of the presence of the proton gradient. This means that a fast conversion of PS II from the heat dissipating state back to the light-harvesting state can only be realized by an efficient removal of the quenching pigment Dtx. It is proposed that the high Dtx epoxidation rates during LL illumination serve exactly this purpose. The inhibition of Dtx epoxidation by the DeltapH, on the other hand, ensures rapid increases in the Dtx concentration when photoprotection under conditions of HL illumination is required. The regulation of the PS II antenna function in Ddx cycle containing algae is different to that in violaxanthin (Vx) cycle containing plants, where for the zeaxanthin (Zx)-dependent NPQ the presence of a proton gradient is mandatory. In the green alga Chlorella vulgaris conversion of PS II from the heat dissipating state back to the light-harvesting state is controlled by the DeltapH, whose relaxation after a transition from HL to darkness or LL rapidly abolishes the thermal dissipation of excitation energy, including the Zx-dependent NPQ. Due to the inability of Zx to quench fluorescence in the absence of the DeltapH a fast epoxidation of Zx to Vx in LL is not

  2. Light-induced short-term adaptation mechanisms under redox control in the PS II-LHCII supercomplex: LHC II state transitions and PS II repair cycle

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    Kruse, Olaf

    2001-05-01

    Oxygenic photosynthesis takes place in the thylakoid membranes of cyanobacteria, algae and higher plants. While cyanobacteria have adapted to relatively constant environments, higher plants had to evolve mechanisms to adapt to continuous environmental changes. These include changes in light intensity, temperature and availability of water. One of the great challenges in plant cell biology is therefore to determine the regulatory mechanisms employed by higher plants and some algae to adapt to these constant environmental changes. The particular emphasis of this review is the description and characterisation of light-induced redox-controlled processes regulating the photosynthetic reactions, which involves maintaining maximal electron transport flow through the PS II-Cytb6f-PS I-FoF1ATPase electron transport chain and minimising light-induced oxidative damage to PS II which drives the highly oxidising water-splitting reaction. Two of the mechanisms involved in such short-term regulation processes are known as light harvesting complex II (LHC II) state transitions and photosystem II (PS II) repair cycle. They are followed by, and indeed may be a precondition in order to establish, the onset of the subsequent long-term mechanisms of regulation. In particular, the redox control of LHC II state transitions by reversible phosphorylation has been in the focus of many investigations, leading to many new results demonstrating the complexity of thylakoid-associated redox control mechanisms.

  3. New layered tin(II) thiophosphates ASnPS4 (A = K, Rb, Cs): synthesis, structure, glass formation, and the modulated CsSnPS4.

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    Banerjee, Santanu; Malliakas, Christos D; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2012-11-05

    The layered compounds KSnPS(4) (1), RbSnPS(4) (2), and CsSnPS(4) (3) were synthesized using the chalcophosphate flux technique at high temperature and are rare examples of divalent Sn(II) thiophosphates. Orange polyhedral crystals of compound 1 crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with a = 6.6673(13) Å, b = 11.9697(24) Å, c = 8.7604(18), and β=127.347(8)° in a 2-dimensional layered structure. Compound 2 is isostructural to 1. Yellow block shaped crystals of compound 3 crystallize in the monoclinic superspace group P2(1)(αβ0)0 with a commensurate q-vector at 1/4a* + 1/4c* with a = 18.0477(14) Å, b = 6.2021(5) Å, and c = 6.8415(5) Å. The structure of all three compounds contains SnS(3) pyramids, which is an extremely rare solid state chalcogenide coordination environment. All three compounds are semiconductors having well-defined band-gaps between 2.0 and 2.2 eV. The compounds are congruently melting and can be obtained as glasses by rapid quenching of the melt, which subsequently crystallize upon heating.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide down-regulates BACE1 and PS1 via activating PI3K/Akt pathway in the brain of APP/PS1 transgenic mouse.

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    He, Xuan-Li; Yan, Ning; Chen, Xiao-Shan; Qi, Yun-Wen; Yan, Yong; Cai, Zhiyou

    2016-10-01

    Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may have multiple physiological functions in brain. Our previous study showed that H2S improved spatial memory impairment and decreased the production of Aβ in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. However, many of the underlying mechanisms are not still being elucidated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of H2S involving in the activity of β-secretase (BACE1), γ-secretase (PS1) and α-secretase (ADAM17). Morris water maze was used to measure the behavior change. The levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were quantified using colorimetric ELISA kits and immunohistochemical analysis. The levels of BACE1, PS1, ADAM17, pAkt, pp38MAPK, pERK and pJNK were tested by Western blot analysis in normal mice, APP/PS1 transgenic mice and 50μmol/kg-NaHS-treated transgenic mice. On the basis of exogenous H2S treatment, LY294002 (inhibitors of PI3K/Akt) or PD98059 (inhibitors of MAPK/ERK) was injected into lateral cerebral ventricle. The levels of BACE1, PS1 and pp38MAPK were increased and ADAM17 were decreased in the APP/PS1 transgenic mice. After intraperitoneal administration of an H2S donor (NaHS) into APP/PS1 mice, the levels of BACE1, PS1 and pp38MAPK were reduced and ADAM17 increased. The level of pp38 MAPKs, pAkt and pERK1/2 was increased in APP/PS1 transgenic mice compared with normal mice (ptransgenic mice and normal mice (p>0.05). These results demonstrated that LY294002 inhibited the effect of H2S on decreasing the BACE1 and PS1, reducing the level of Aβ and improving memory impairment in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. PD98059 had no influence on the expression of BACE1 and PS1. H2S inhibits the expression of BACE1 and PS1 by activating PI3K/Akt pathway in AD. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. PS-InSAR Monitoring of Landslide Activity in the Black Sea Coast of the Caucasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, E.; Mikhailov, V.; Smolyaninova, E.; Dmitriev, P.; Golubev, V.; Timoshkina, E.; Hooper, A.; Samiei-Esfahany, S.; Hanssen, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    The landslide activity in the area of Bolshoy Sochi (Big Sochi) situated at the Black Sea coast of the Great Caucasus has been studied using the StaMPS PS-InSAR method. We incorporated three sets of radar images from the satellites with different wavelengths ALOS, Envisat and Terra-SAR-X from both

  6. [PS II photochemical efficiency in flag leaf of wheat varieties and its adaptation to strong sun- light intensity on farmland of Xiangride in Qinghai Province, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Bo; Chen, Wen-Jie; Shi, Rui; Li, Miao; Zhang, Huai-Gang; Sun, Ya-Nan

    2014-09-01

    Taking four wheat varieties developed by Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, as test materials, with the measurement of content of photosynthetic pigments, leaf area, fresh and dry mass of flag leaf, the PS II photochemistry efficiency of abaxial and adaxial surface of flag leaf and its adaptation to strong solar radiation during the period of heading stage in Xiangride region were investigated with the pulse-modulated in-vivo chlorophyll fluorescence technique. The results indicated that flag leaf angle mainly grew in horizontal state in Gaoyuan 314, Gaoyuan 363 and Gaoyuan 584, and mainly in vertical state in Gaoyuan 913 because of its smaller leaf area and larger width. Photosynthetic pigments were different among the 4 varieties, and positively correlated with intrinsic PS II photochemistry efficiencies (Fv/Fm). In clear days, especially at noon, the photosynthetic photoinhibition was more serious in abaxial surface of flag leaf due to directly facing the solar radiation, but it could recover after reduction of sunlight intensity in the afternoon, which meant that no inactive damage happened in PS II reaction centers. There were significant differences of PS II actual and maximum photochemical efficiencies at the actinic light intensity (ΦPS II and Fv'/Fm') between abaxial and adaxial surface, and their relative variation trends were on the contrary. The photochemical and non-photochemical quenching coefficients (qP and NPQ) had a similar tendency in both abaxial and adaxial surfaces. Although ΦPS II and qP were lower in adaxial surface of flag leaf, the Fv'/Fm' was significantly higher, which indicated that the potential PS II capture efficiency of excited energy was higher. The results demonstrated that process of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching could effectively dissipate excited energy caused by strong solar radiation, and there were higher adaptation capacities in wheat varieties natively cultivated in

  7. [Effects of NO3- stress on photosynthetic rate, photochemical efficiency of PS II and light energy allocation in cucumber seedling leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiu-Rong; Wang, Xiu-Feng; Yang, Feng-Juan; Wei, Min

    2007-07-01

    This paper studied the effects of different NO3- concentration on the photosynthetic rate, photochemical efficiency, and absorbed light energy allocation in cucumber seedling leaves. The results indicated that when the available NO3- concentration in the medium was low (14-98 mmol NO3- x L(-1)), an appropriate supplement of NO3- could enhance the capability of cucumber leaves in capturing light energy, and promote the photosynthesis. However, with further increase of NO3-, the photochemical efficiency of PS II decreased, electron transfer restrained, and net photosynthetic rate as well as the absorbed light energy used in photochemical reaction of PS II decreased. At the same time, the light energy used in antenna heat dissipation increased, while the photochemical efficiency decreased. After treated with 140 and 182 mmol NO3- x L(-1) for 6 days, the photosynthetic rate (P(n)) was decreased by 35% and 78%, respectively, maximal PS II efficiency at open centers in the absence of NPQ (F(v)/F(m)), antenna efficiency at open centers in the presence of NPQ (F(v)'/F(m)'), actual PS II efficiency (phi (PSII ) and photochemical quenching (q(P)) were lower, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was higher, and the deviation from full balance between PS I and PS II (beta/alpha - 1) was improved significantly, compared with the control. The fluctuant ranges of these chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were increased at higher NO3- concentration, compared with those at lower NO3- concentration. The absorbed light energy allocated to the photochemical reaction of PS II (P) was reduced by high light intensity and high NO3- concentration. Meanwhile, the proportion allocated in antenna heat dissipation (D) increased significantly. Antenna heat dissipation was the main way for excessive energy dissipation.

  8. The chitinase C gene PsChiC from Pseudomonas sp. and its synergistic effects on larvicidal activity

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    Wanfang Zhong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas sp. strain TXG6-1, a chitinolytic gram-negative bacterium, was isolated from a vegetable field in Taixing city, Jiangsu Province, China. In this study, a Pseudomonas chitinase C gene (PsChiC was isolated from the chromosomal DNA of this bacterium using a pair of specific primers. The PsChiC gene consisted of an open reading frame of 1443 nucleotides and encoded 480 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 51.66 kDa. The deduced PsChiC amino acid sequence lacked a signal sequence and consisted of a glycoside hydrolase family 18 catalytic domain responsible for chitinase activity, a fibronectin type III-like domain (FLD and a C-terminal chitin-binding domain (ChBD. The amino acid sequence of PsChiCshowed high sequence homology (> 95% with chitinase C from Serratia marcescens. SDS-PAGE showed that the molecular mass of chitinase PsChiC was 52 kDa. Chitinase assays revealed that the chitobiosidase and endochitinase activities of PsChiCwere 51.6- and 84.1-fold higher than those of pET30a, respectively. Although PsChiC showed little insecticidal activity towards Spodoptera litura larvae, an insecticidal assay indicated that PsChiC increased the insecticidal toxicity of SpltNPV by 1.78-fold at 192 h and hastened death. These results suggest that PsChiC from Pseudomonas sp. could be useful in improving the pathogenicity of baculoviruses.

  9. On the analysis of activation energy of PS 35000 in various solvents

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    Padmanaban, R.; Venkatramanan, K.

    2015-08-01

    Polymer is a macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits. Polystyrene is a polymer of styrene. Polystyrene has very low impact strength. Polystyrene generally leads to lower tensile strength, crystal grades being stiff and brittle. It is used to construct clamshell packs, cookie trays, cups, forks, spoons, cushioning materials for packaging, disposable medical devices, egg cartons, fast food containers, lids, lunch boxes, meat trays and also used in civil construction (concrete form-work or weight reduction on foundations). In the present study an attempt has been made to compute the viscosity of Polystyrene (PS 35000) in toluene and benzene in different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% & 2.5%) at different temperatures (303 K, 308 K, 313 K & 318 K). From these experimental data the activation energy is calculated and the effect of solvent is analysed.

  10. Isolation and biological activities of an antineoplastic protein-polysaccharide complex (PS4A) obtained from Mycobacterium vaccae.

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    Tian, X X; Li, A; Zhou, W; Farrugia, I V; Groves, M J

    1999-01-01

    A mixture of water-soluble protein-polysaccharides (PS4A) was isolated by boiling intact cells of Mycobacterium vaccae, a fast growing mycobacterium. Sephadex G-75 column chromatography of the crude extract separated the biologically active high molecular weight (> 50 kDa) fraction (in the void volume) from the low molecular weight degradation products. Compositional analysis demonstrated that PS4A contained protein and polysaccharide in a ratio of approximately 1.5 to 1, but no lipids were detected. The antineoplastic activity was tested in vivo by a S-180 murine sarcoma model using female CFW mice. The immunostimulating activity was tested in vitro using murine peritoneal macrophages isolated from BALB/C mice. The results demonstrated that PS4A significantly decreased tumor incidence in vivo and produced activation of murine peritoneal macrophages. However, the antineoplastic activity was only attributable to the high molecular weight fraction of the protein-polysaccharide complex. The low molecular weight fraction had no antineoplastic activity in vivo despite stimulation of TNF-alpha production in vitro. In vitro experiments also demonstrated that although all PS4A components significantly increased TNF-alpha production by macrophages, the high molecular weight fraction stimulated more IL-1 production, indicating a better immunostimulating activity.

  11. Acute exercise does not modify brain activity and memory performance in APP/PS1 mice.

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    Miki Stein, Angelica; Munive, Victor; Fernandez, Ana M; Nuñez, Angel; Torres Aleman, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Age is the main risk factor for Alzheimer´s disease (AD). With an increasingly aging population, development of affordable screening techniques to determine cognitive status will help identify population-at-risk for further follow-up. Because physical exercise is known to modulate cognitive performance, we used it as a functional test of cognitive health. Mice were submitted to treadmill running at moderate speed for 30 min, and their brain activity was monitored before and after exercise using electrocorticogram (ECG) recordings. After exercise, normal, but not APP/PS1 mice, a well established AD model, showed significantly increased ECG theta rhythm. At the same time normal, but not AD mice, showed significantly enhanced performance in a spatial memory test after exercise. Therefore, we postulate that a running bout coupled to pre- and post-exercise brain activity recordings will help identify individuals with cognitive alterations, by determining the presence or absence of exercise-specific changes in brain activity. Work in humans using a bout of moderate exercise plus electroencephalography, a clinically affordable procedure, is warranted.

  12. Effects of environmental enrichment and physical activity on neurogenesis in transgenic PS1/APP mice.

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    Catlow, Briony J; Rowe, Amanda R; Clearwater, Courtney R; Mamcarz, Maggie; Arendash, Gary W; Sanchez-Ramos, Juan

    2009-02-23

    Rodents exposed to environmental enrichment show many differences, including improved cognitive performance, when compared to those living in standard (impoverished) housing. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a selective increase in neurogenesis occurred in cognitively-protected Tg mice raised in an enriched environment compared to those reared in physical activity housing. At weaning, double Tg APP+PS1 mice were placed into one of three environments: complete environmental enrichment (CE), enhanced physical activity (PA), or individual, impoverished housing (IMP). At 9-10 months of age, Tg mice were injected with BrdU (100 mg/kg BID) followed by euthanasia either 24 h or 2 weeks after the last injection. Unbiased estimates of BrdU positive cells in the hippocampal subgranular zone revealed a significant increase in cellular proliferation in Tg mice raised in CE or PA compared to Tg mice reared in IMP housing. However, counts of BrdU birth-dated cells 2 weeks after labeling showed no difference among the three groups, indicating decreased survival of cells in those groups (CE and PA) with higher cellular proliferation rates in the neurogenic niche. Counts of calretinin-expressing cells, a marker of immature neurons, also indicated no difference among the three groups of mice. In view of our prior study showing that enhanced cognitive activity (but not enhanced physical activity) protects Tg mice against cognitive impairment, the present results indicate that increased generation and survival of new neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus is not involved with the cognitively-protective effects of complete CE in Alzheimer's transgenic mice.

  13. Intron-exon organization of the active human protein S gene PS. alpha. and its pseudogene PS. beta. : Duplication and silencing during primate evolution

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    Ploos van Amstel, H.; Reitsma, P.H.; van der Logt, C.P.; Bertina, R.M. (University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands))

    1990-08-28

    The human protein S locus on chromosome 3 consists of two protein S genes, PS{alpha} and PS{beta}. Here the authors report the cloning and characterization of both genes. Fifteen exons of the PS{alpha} gene were identified that together code for protein S mRNA as derived from the reported protein S cDNAs. Analysis by primer extension of liver protein S mRNA, however, reveals the presence of two mRNA forms that differ in the length of their 5{prime}-noncoding region. Both transcripts contain a 5{prime}-noncoding region longer than found in the protein S cDNAs. The two products may arise from alternative splicing of an additional intron in this region or from the usage of two start sites for transcription. The intron-exon organization of the PS{alpha} gene fully supports the hypothesis that the protein S gene is the product of an evolutional assembling process in which gene modules coding for structural/functional protein units also found in other coagulation proteins have been put upstream of the ancestral gene of a steroid hormone binding protein. The PS{beta} gene is identified as a pseudogene. It contains a large variety of detrimental aberrations, viz., the absence of exon I, a splice site mutation, three stop codons, and a frame shift mutation. Overall the two genes PS{alpha} and PS{beta} show between their exonic sequences 96.5% homology. Southern analysis of primate DNA showed that the duplication of the ancestral protein S gene has occurred after the branching of the orangutan from the African apes. A nonsense mutation that is present in the pseudogene of man also could be identified in one of the two protein S genes of both chimpanzee and gorilla. This implicates that silencing of one of the two protein S genes must have taken place before the divergence of the three African apes.

  14. Amplified degradation of photosystem II D1 and D2 proteins under a mixture of photosynthetically active radiation and UVB radiation : dependence on redox status of photosystem II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babu, T.S.; Jansen, M.A.K.; Greenberg, B.M.; Gaba, V.; Malkin, S.; Mattoo, A.K.; Edelman, M.

    1999-01-01

    Plants exposed to a mixture of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and UVB radiation exhibit a marked boost in degradation of the D1 and D2 photosystem II (PS II) reaction center proteins beyond that predicted by the sum of rates in PAR and UVB alone (amplified degradation). Becausee

  15. Donepezil improves learning and memory deficits in APP/PS1 mice by inhibition of microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H B; Cheng, Y F; Wu, J G; Wang, C M; Wang, H T; Zhang, C; Qiu, Z K; Xu, J P

    2015-04-02

    Donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, is a representative symptomatic therapy for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies have reported the anti-inflammatory effects of donepezil. However, limited studies that investigate its anti-inflammatory effect in AD have been reported. Considering the role of proinflammatory molecules and microglial activation in the pathogenesis of AD, the current study aimed to elucidate the effects of donepezil on microglial activation induced by amyloid deposition in transgenic mice. Our results showed that chronic treatment with donepezil significantly improved the cognitive function in the novel object recognition test and Morris water maze test in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS1) transgenic mice. We further demonstrated that these cognitive enhancements were related to the anti-inflammatory effect of donepezil. We found that donepezil could inhibit the expression of CD68, a specific marker of microglial activation, and reduce the release of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. Immunohistochemistry and Congo red co-staining revealed that congophilic amyloid and activated microglia around plaques were also reduced by donepezil treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis showed that donepezil decreased insoluble Aβ40/Aβ42 and soluble Aβ40 levels. Moreover, donepezil reversed the impaired expression of insulin-degrading enzyme in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice. Our findings indicated that donepezil improves cognitive deficits in APP/PS1 mice by a mechanism that may be associated with its inhibition of microglial activation and release of proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structure of PS/PMMA Blends with Interfacially Active Janus Particles Derived from ABC Triblock Copolymers

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    Bryson, Kyle; Löbling, Tina; Müller, Axel; Hayward, Ryan; Russell, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Kinetic trapping of bicontinuous polymer morphologies on submicron length scales through the interfacial adsorption of nanoparticles is of interest due to the unique combination of the properties of each component provided by such structures, and their potential for use as membranes and composite materials. However, this strategy is challenging to realize in polymeric systems, due to the difficulties in preparing particles that are neutrally wetted by the two polymer phases. Janus particles afford a route to circumvent the necessity of neutral wettability. Both theory and experiment have shown enhanced interfacial adsorption energies for Janus particles, as well as greater flexibility in controlling particle orientation at the interface, in comparison to homogeneous particles. Janus particles with polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS/PMMA) hemispheres and a crosslinked polybutadiene core were prepared from triblock copolymers. Using blends of PS and PMMA homopolymers and the Janus particles, we examined structures produced by phase separation during solvent casting and thermodynamic demixing transitions via TEM and small-angle light scattering. The results elucidate the role of particle wettability on interfacial behavior and the structure of stabilized emulsions.

  17. A multicenter, phase II study of bortezomib (PS-341) in patients with unresectable or metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.

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    Shah, Manish A; Power, Derek G; Kindler, Hedy L; Holen, Kyle D; Kemeny, Margaret M; Ilson, David H; Tang, Laura; Capanu, Marinela; Wright, John J; Kelsen, David P

    2011-12-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-kB (NFkB) is implicated in gastric cancer carcinogenesis and survival, and its inhibition by proteosome inhibition is associated with preclinical gastric cancer anti-tumor activity. We examined the single agent efficacy of bortezomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor, in gastric adenocarcinoma. We performed a phase II trial of bortezomib in patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) was administered on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 21 days. The primary endpoint was objective response rate(RR); the null hypothesis was RR <1% versus the alternative ≥15%. One response in the first stage(15 patients) was required before proceeding with an additional 18 patients. If at least 2 or more responses out of 33 were observed, further study with bortezomib was warranted. Correlative studies evaluated pre-treatment tumor expression of NFkB, IkB, p53, p21, and cyclin D1. We enrolled 16 patients (15 evaluable for response) from four institutions. No patients demonstrated an objective response(95% CI, 0-22%); one patient achieved stable disease. Fourteen out of 16 patients experienced ≥ grade 2 toxicity. The most common toxicity was fatigue in six patients (n = 4 grade 2, n = 2 grade 3). Seven patients experienced neuropathy (n = 5 grade 1, and 1 each grade 2 and 3). Seven (60%) had high cytoplasmic staining for NFkB. Single agent bortezomib is inactive in metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma and should not be pursued. Future study of proteasome inhibition in gastric adenocarcinoma should be considered in combination with targeted inhibition of other non-overlapping oncogenic pathways as a potential rational approach.

  18. Structural and optical properties of tin (II) sulfide thin films deposited using organophosphorus precursor (Ph3PS)

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    Assili, Kawther; Alouani, Khaled; Vilanova, Xavier

    2017-02-01

    Tin sulfide (SnS) thin films have been deposited onto glass substrates using triphenylphosphine sulfide (Ph3PS) as a sulfur precursor in a chemical vapor deposition reactor in a temperature range of 250 °C-400 °C. The influence of the sulphidisation temperature in the crystal structure, surface morphology, chemical composition and optical properties has been investigated. X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analysis of x-rays, and Raman spectroscopy showed that pure SnS thin films have been successfully obtained at 250 °C. All the deposited films were polycrystalline and showed orthorhombic structure, with a preferential orientation according to the direction . The optical measurements showed that the films deposited exhibited a direct allowed transition and have a relatively high absorption coefficient. The presence of mixed tin sulfide phases granted by the variation of the sulphidisation temperature has affected the optical properties of the deposited films. The refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k), has low values compared to conventional semiconductor materials. The grown films can be considered as a good light absorbing material and a promising candidate for application in optoelectronic devices.

  19. NLRP3 is activated in Alzheimer´s disease and contributes to pathology in APP/PS1 mice

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    Heneka, Michael T.; Kummer, Markus P.; Stutz, Andrea; Delekate, Andrea; Schwartz, Stephanie; Saecker, Ana; Griep, Angelika; Axt, Daisy; Remus, Anita; Tzeng, Te-Chen; Gelpi, Ellen; Halle, Annett; Korte, Martin; Latz, Eicke; Golenbock, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer´s Disease (AD) is the world’s most common dementing illness. Deposition of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) drives cerebral neuroinflammation by activating microglia1,2. Indeed, Aβ activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in microglia is fundamental for IL-1β maturation and subsequent inflammatory events3. However, it remains unknown whether NLRP3 activation contributes to AD in vivo. Here, we demonstrate strongly enhanced active caspase-1 expression in human MCI and AD brains suggesting a role for the inflammasome in this neurodegenerative disease. NLRP3−/− or caspase-1−/− mice carrying mutations associated with familiar AD were largely protected from loss of spatial memory and other AD-associated sequelae and demonstrated reduced brain caspase-1 and IL-1β activation as well as enhanced Aβ clearance. Furthermore, NLRP3 inflammasome deficiency skewed microglial cells to an M2 phenotype and resulted in the decreased deposition of Aβ in the APP/PS1 model of Alzheimer’s disease. These results reveal an important role for the NLRP3 / caspase-1 axis in AD pathogenesis, and suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition represents a novel therapeutic intervention for AD. PMID:23254930

  20. P.S.: I Survived--An Activism Project to Increase Student and Community Trauma Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantas, Susanna; Miller, Sean A.; Kulkarni, Shanti J.

    2017-01-01

    Social work students created a community activism project to raise awareness about trauma prevalence and impact. Trauma theory describes silencing as the mechanism that hinders individual and community healing. Therefore, students sought to create an interactive opportunity to heighten trauma visibility on campus. They created a physical mailbox…

  1. Biologically active new Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes of N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine

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    C. SPÎNU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron(II, cobalt(II, nickel (II, copper (II, zinc(II and cadmium(II complexes of the type ML2Cl2, where M is a metal and L is the Schiff base N-(2-thienylmethylenemethanamine (TNAM formed by the condensation of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylamine, were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis as well as magnetic and spectroscopic measurements. The elemental analyses suggest the stoichiometry to be 1:2 (metal:ligand. Magnetic susceptibility data coupled with electronic, ESR and Mössbauer spectra suggest a distorted octahedral structure for the Fe(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, a square-planar geometry for the Cu(II compound and a tetrahedral geometry for the Zn(II and Cd(II complexes. The infrared and NMR spectra of the complexes agree with co-ordination to the central metal atom through nitrogen and sulphur atoms. Conductance measurements suggest the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes, except for the Cu(II, Zn(II and Cd(II complexes, which are 1:2 electrolytes. The Schiff base and its metal chelates were screened for their biological activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the metal chelates were found to possess better antibacterial activity than that of the uncomplexed Schiff base.

  2. Correlated behavior of the EPR signal of cytochrome b-559 heme Fe(III) ligated by OH- and the multiline signal of the Mn cluster in PS-II membrane fragments.

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    Fiege, R; Shuvalov, V A

    1996-05-27

    EPR signals of Cyt b-559 heme Fe(III) ligated by OH- and the multiline signal of the Mn cluster in PS-II membrane fragments have been investigated. In 2,3-dicyano-5,6-dichloro-p-benzoquinone-oxidized PS-II membrane fragments the light-induced decrease of the EPR signal of the heme Fe(III)-OH- is accompanied by the appearance of the EPR multiline signal of the Mn cluster. Addition of F- ions, which act as a stronger ligand for heme Fe(III) than OH-, decreases to the same extent the dark- and light-induced signal of the heme Fe(III)-OH- and the light-induced multiline signal of the Mn cluster. These results are discussed in terms of the light-induced formation of a bound OH' radical shared between the Cyt b-559 heme Fe and the Mn cluster as a first step of water oxidation.

  3. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 signaling regulates receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) expression in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Harunori [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Kitano, Masayasu, E-mail: mkitano6@hyo-med.ac.jp [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Iwasaki, Tsuyoshi [Department of Pharmacy, Hyogo University of Health Sciences, 1-3-6 Minatojima Kobe, Hyogo 650-8530 (Japan); Kitano, Sachie; Tsunemi, Sachi; Sato, Chieri; Sekiguchi, Masahiro; Azuma, Naoto [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan); Miyazawa, Keiji [Discovery Research III, Research and Development, Kissei Pharmaceutical Company, 4365-1 Hodakakashiwara, Azumino, Nagano 399-8304 (Japan); Hla, Timothy [Center for Vascular Biology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, Box 69, NY 10065 (United States); Sano, Hajime [Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501 (Japan)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of S1P in MH7A cells was inhibited by specific Gi/Go inhibitors. -- Abstract: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)/S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) signaling plays an important role in synovial cell proliferation and inflammatory gene expression by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synoviocytes. The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of S1P/S1P1 signaling in the expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) in RA synoviocytes and CD4{sup +} T cells. We demonstrated MH7A cells, a human RA synovial cell line, and CD4{sup +} T cells expressed S1P1 and RANKL. Surprisingly, S1P increased RANKL expression in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, S1P enhanced RANKL expression induced by stimulation with TNF-{alpha} in MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. These effects of S1P in MH7A cells were inhibited by pretreatment with PTX, a specific Gi/Go inhibitor. These findings suggest that S1P/S1P1 signaling may play an important role in RANKL expression by MH7A cells and CD4{sup +} T cells. S1P/S1P1 signaling of RA synoviocytes is closely connected with synovial hyperplasia, inflammation, and RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA. Thus, regulation of S1P/S1P1 signaling may become a novel therapeutic target for RA.

  4. Responses of photosystems I and II of Acutodesmus obliquus to chemical stress caused by the use of recycled nutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Dominik J; Hindersin, Stefan; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Nutrients derived from hydrothermal gasification of Acutodesmus obliquus were tested on its biological compatibility to support growth of the same microalgae. Photosynthetic parameters of photosystems I and II (PS I and PS II) were investigated to study physiological effects on the microalgal cell. The nutrients were collected as liquid residues. Dilutions of 1:500 showed no effect on both photosystems. Lower dilutions affected PS II initially and later also PS I. Cyclic electron flow around PS I compensated for loss of electrons due to partially inhibited PS II. The highest tested concentration of liquid residue erased any photosynthetic activity of PS II after 28 min and onwards. In contrast, PS I remained active. The results suggest that PS I is less susceptible than PS II and that the mixture of chemicals in the liquid residue did not directly affect PS I but PS II. The toxicants in the residues seemed to interfere with linear electron flow of PS II even though light-driven formation of radicals and subsequent damage to one of the photosystems can be excluded as demonstrated in darkness. Lowered photosynthetic activity of PS I during actinic irradiation was caused due to lack of supply of electrons from PS II. The cyclic electron flow might play a key role in delivering the energy needed to restore PS II activity and to biodegrade the toxicants when linear electron flow failed. These negative effects of liquid residue towards microalgal cells require a remediation step for direct application of the liquid residue to substitute commercial fertilizers in microalgal mass cultures.

  5. Determination of activities of human carbonic anhydrase II inhibitors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the activities of new curcumin analogs as carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) inhibitor. Methods: Carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) inhibition was determined by each ligand capability to inhibit the esterase activity of CA-II using 4-NPA as a substrate in 96-well plates. Dimethyl sulfoxide was used to dissolve each ...

  6. Oxidation of Orange G by persulfate activated by Fe(II), Fe(III) and zero valent iron (ZVI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, S; Vasquez, L; Costa, D; Romero, A; Santos, A

    2014-04-01

    Persulfate (PS) was employed in the oxidation of Orange G (OG), an azo dye commonly found in textile wastewaters. Activation of PS was conducted with iron to generate sulfate free radicals (SO4(-)) with high redox potential capable to oxidize most of the organics in water. Identification of oxidation intermediates was carried out by analyzing at different times organic by-products generated from treatment of a concentrate dye solution (11.6 mM) with 153 mM of PS and 20 mM of Fe(II) at 20 °C. Intermediate reaction products (mainly phenol (PH) and benzoquinone (BQ), and in less extent aniline, phenolic compounds and naphthalene type compounds with quinone groups) were identified by GC/MS and HPLC, and an oxidation pathway was proposed for the oxidation of OG with iron activated PS. The effect of iron valence (0, II and III) in the oxidation of an aqueous solution of OG (containing 0.1 mM) was studied in a 0.5 L batch reactor at 20 °C. Initial activator and PS concentrations employed were both 1 mM. Complete pollutant removal was achieved within the first 30 min when iron II or III were employed as activators. Quinone intermediates generated during pollutant oxidation may act as electron shuttles, allowing the reduction of Fe(III) into Fe(II) in the redox cycling of iron. Therefore, activation of PS by Fe(III) allowed complete OG removal. When zero valent iron (ZVI) was employed (particle diameter size 0.74 mm) the limiting step in SO4(-) generation was the surface reaction between ZVI and the oxidant yielding a lower oxidation rate of the dye. An increase in the oxidant dosage (0.2 mM OG, 2 mM Fe(III) and 6 mM PS) allowed complete pollutant and ecotoxicity removal, as well as mineralization close to 75%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of biologically active tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of Mn(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Pd(II and Pt(II were synthesized with the macrocyclic ligand, i.e., 2,3,9,10-tetraketo-1,4,8,11-tetraazacycoletradecane. The ligand was prepared by the [2 + 2] condensation of diethyloxalate and 1,3-diamino propane and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR and 1H NMR spectral studies. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, electronic and electron paramagnetic resonance spectral studies. The molar conductance measurements of Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes in DMF correspond to non electrolyte nature, whereas Pd(II and Pt(II complexes are 1:2 electrolyte. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been assigned for Mn(II, Co(II and Ni(II complexes, whereas square planar geometry assigned for Pd(II and Pt(II. In vitro the ligand and its metal complexes were evaluated against plant pathogenic fungi (Fusarium odum, Aspergillus niger and Rhizoctonia bataticola and some compounds found to be more active as commercially available fungicide like Chlorothalonil.

  8. Antagonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} induces cerebellar amyloid-{beta} levels and motor dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Jing; Sun, Bing [Protein Science Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Kui [Department of Pharmacology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Fan, Li [Department of Pharmacology, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032 (China); Cardiovascular Research, Starr Academic Center, Providence Heart and Vascular Institute, Portland, OR 97225 (United States); Wang, Zhao, E-mail: zwang@tsinghua.edu.cn [Protein Science Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-07-03

    Recent evidences show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) is involved in the modulation of the amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) cascade causing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and treatment with PPAR{gamma} agonists protects against AD pathology. However, the function of PPAR{gamma} steady-state activity in A{beta} cascade and AD pathology remains unclear. In this study, an antagonist of PPAR{gamma}, GW9662, was injected into the fourth ventricle of APP/PS1 transgenic mice to inhibit PPAR{gamma} activity in cerebellum. The results show that inhibition of PPAR{gamma} significantly induced A{beta} levels in cerebellum and caused cerebellar motor dysfunction in APP/PS1 transgenic mice. Moreover, GW9662 treatment markedly decreased the cerebellar levels of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), which is responsible for the cellular degradation of A{beta}. Since cerebellum is spared from significant A{beta} accumulation and neurotoxicity in AD patients and animal models, these findings suggest a crucial role of PPAR{gamma} steady-state activity in protection of cerebellum against AD pathology.

  9. Induction of reprogramming of human amniotic epithelial cells into iPS cells by overexpression of Yap, Oct4, and Sox2 through the activation of the Hippo-Yap pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhui; Fei, Xinfeng; Guo, Jianming; Zou, Gang; Pan, Weidong; Zhang, Jingju; Huang, Yongyi; Liu, Te; Cheng, Weiwei

    2017-07-01

    The present study has reported a novel method for producing induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Primary human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) were isolated from the amniotic membranes of pregnant women who received Cesarean sections. These cells were infected with retroviruses carrying octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (Sox2) and Yes-associated protein (Yap) (OSY). Following in vitro culture for ~14 days, epithelial-like HuAECs exhibited several iPS clone-like cell colonies (OSY-iPS). These cell clones presented positive alkaline phosphatase features and expressed high levels of embryonic stem cell-like markers (Nanog homeobox, Sox2, Oct4, reduced expression protein 1, and SSES3/4). Additionally, epigenetic analysis results indicated that the methylation of CpG islands on endogenous Oct4 and Sox2 promoters was reduced in OSY-iPS cells. Furthermore, the majority of the histone H3 at lysine 9 sites that interacted with the Oct4 and Sox2 promoters were acetylated, suggesting that the transcription activities of the above two transcription factors significantly increased. In vivo and in vitro induced differentiation experiments demonstrated that OSY-iPS could develop into embryoid bodies in vitro, and express numerous cellular markers in the three germ layers. Furthermore, OSY-iPS could form teratomas in immunodeficient mice. The pathological detection results suggest that these teratomas contain numerous types of cells from the three germ layers. However, the results from the quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses suggest that the Hippo-Yap signaling pathway was significantly activated in OSY-iPS cells. In conclusion, a novel method for iPS induction was established in the present study. HuAECs were successfully induced to reprogram iPS cells through the introduction of OSY to activate the Hippo-Yap signaling pathway.

  10. Long-term treadmill exercise improves spatial memory of male appswe/ps1de9 mice by regulation of BDNF expression and microglia activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JY Xiong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that physical activity could delay or attenuate the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. But the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. To investigate the effect of long-term treadmill exercise on the spatial memory of AD mice and the possible role of β-amyloid, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and microglia in the effect, male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice aged 4 months were subjected to treadmill exercise for 5 months with 6 sessions per week and gradually increased load. A Morris water maze was used to evaluate the spatial memory. Expression levels of β-amyloid, BDNF and Iba-1 (a microglia marker in brain tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry. Sedentary AD mice and wildtype C57BL/6J mice served as controls. The results showed that 5-month treadmill exercise significantly decreased the escape latencies (P 0.05. The study suggested that long-term treadmill exercise could improve the spatial memory of the male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice. The increase in BDNF-positive cells and decrease in activated microglia might underpin the beneficial effect.

  11. Last PS magnet refurbished

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    PS Magnet Refurbishment Programme Completed. The 51st and final refurbished magnet was transported to the PS on Tuesday 3 February. The repair and consolidation work on the PS started back in 2003 when two magnets and a busbar connection were found to be faulty during routine high-voltage tests. The cause of the fault was a combination of age and radiation on electrical insulation. After further investigation the decision was taken to overhaul half of the PS’s 100 magnets to reduce the risk of a similar fault. As from 20 February the PS ring will start a five-week test programme to be ready for operation at the end of March.

  12. Innovative combination of electrolysis and Fe(II)-activated persulfate oxidation for improving the dewaterability of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Guang-Yin; Lu, Xue-Qin; Li, Yu-You; Zhao, You-Cai

    2013-05-01

    The feasibility of electrolysis integrated with Fe(II)-activated persulfate (S2O8(2-)) oxidation to improve waste activated sludge (WAS) dewaterability was evaluated. The physicochemical properties (sludge volume (SV), total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS)) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), including slime EPS, loosely bound EPS (LB-EPS) and tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS) were characterized to identify their exact roles in sludge dewatering. While dewaterability negatively corresponded to LB-EPS, TB-EPS, protein (PN) and polysaccharide (PS) in LB-EPS and TB-EPS, it was independent of SV, TSS, VSS, slime EPS and PN/PS. Further study through scanning electron microscope (SEM) verified the entrapment of bacterial cells by TB-EPS, protecting them against electrolysis disruption. Comparatively, electrolysis integrated with S2O8(2-)/Fe(II) oxidation was able to effectively disrupt the protective barrier and crack the entrapped cells, releasing the water inside EPS and cells. Therefore, the destruction of both TB-EPS and cells is the fundamental reason for the enhanced dewaterability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent advance in Asian polar science - Commemorating ten-year activities of the Asian Forum for Polar Sciences (AFoPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kentaro; Doi, Koichiro; Ewe, Hong Tat; Krishnan, Kottekkatu Padinchati; Lee, Jae Il; Liu, Ruiyuan

    2015-12-01

    The Asian Forum for Polar Sciences (AFoPS) was established in 2004 to encourage and facilitate cooperation for the advance of polar sciences among countries in the Asian region. It commemorated tenth anniversary organizing the AFoPS Symposium on 7 October, 2014 in Port Dickson, Malaysia, hosted by the National Antarctic Research Center (NARC), University of Malaya. This second volume of AFoPS Special Issue includes those presentations submitted to the Symposium and scientific papers from AFoPS countries on wide variety of polar research. This publication is one of the excellent achievements of AFoPS.

  14. Synthesis, stereochemistry and antimicrobial activity of copper(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of the analytical data, magnetic moments and spectral data, a square-planar geometry has been proposed for the nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes with these ligands. Some representative complexes of copper(II) and nickel(II) were found to have remarkable antifungal and antibacterial activity. KEY WORDS: ...

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF COPPER(II COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Čongrádyová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two novel copper(II 5-chlorosalicylate complexes with either 1,10-phenantroline or its methyl derivative 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (neocuproine have been prepared and studied. A potential antimicrobial or antifungal activity of both complexes has been tested on prokaryotic Escherichia coli and eukaryotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae model organisms. Crystal structure of [Cu(phen(5-Clsal(5-ClsalH2]2 a dimeric structure, whereas the second complex of formula [Cu(H2O(5-Clsal(Neo] has been shown to be monomeric. Our results confirmed the toxic effect of prepared copper complexes as well as bioactive ligands on the yeast and bacteria growth. The effect of copper complexes was stronger compared to the solutions of free ligands. Our preliminary results showed that the complex [Cu(H2O(5-Clsal(Neo] exhibited higher antimicrobial activity compared to the complex [Cu(phen(5-Clsal(5-ClsalH2]2.

  16. Inside the PS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Pre-start work is going on at the end of the PS long shut-down. The photo shows secondary beams drawn from an internal target (bottom) towards South Hall, behind the shielding wall (top) (see also photo 7409012X).

  17. PS Control Room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1963-01-01

    The good old PS Control Room, all manual. For each parameter, a knob or a button to control it; for each, a light or meter or oscilloscope to monitor it; carefully written pages serve as the data bank; phones and intercom for communication. D.Dekkers is at the microphone, M.Valvini sits in front.

  18. PS auxiliary magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    Units of the PS auxiliary magnet system. The picture shows how the new dipoles, used for vertical and horizontal high-energy beam manipulation, are split for installation and removal so that it is not necessary to break the accelerator vacuum. On the right, adjacent to the sector valve and the windings of the main magnet, is an octupole of the set.

  19. psRNATarget: a plant small RNA target analysis server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xinbin; Zhao, Patrick Xuechun

    2011-07-01

    Plant endogenous non-coding short small RNAs (20-24 nt), including microRNAs (miRNAs) and a subset of small interfering RNAs (ta-siRNAs), play important role in gene expression regulatory networks (GRNs). For example, many transcription factors and development-related genes have been reported as targets of these regulatory small RNAs. Although a number of miRNA target prediction algorithms and programs have been developed, most of them were designed for animal miRNAs which are significantly different from plant miRNAs in the target recognition process. These differences demand the development of separate plant miRNA (and ta-siRNA) target analysis tool(s). We present psRNATarget, a plant small RNA target analysis server, which features two important analysis functions: (i) reverse complementary matching between small RNA and target transcript using a proven scoring schema, and (ii) target-site accessibility evaluation by calculating unpaired energy (UPE) required to 'open' secondary structure around small RNA's target site on mRNA. The psRNATarget incorporates recent discoveries in plant miRNA target recognition, e.g. it distinguishes translational and post-transcriptional inhibition, and it reports the number of small RNA/target site pairs that may affect small RNA binding activity to target transcript. The psRNATarget server is designed for high-throughput analysis of next-generation data with an efficient distributed computing back-end pipeline that runs on a Linux cluster. The server front-end integrates three simplified user-friendly interfaces to accept user-submitted or preloaded small RNAs and transcript sequences; and outputs a comprehensive list of small RNA/target pairs along with the online tools for batch downloading, key word searching and results sorting. The psRNATarget server is freely available at http://plantgrn.noble.org/psRNATarget/.

  20. Synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial activities of cobalt(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial activities of cobalt(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) mixed-ligand complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline and 2 ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  1. CART treatment improves memory and synaptic structure in APP/PS1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jia-li; Liou, Anthony K F; Shi, Yejie; Yin, Kai-lin; Chen, Ling; Li, Ling-ling; Zhu, Xiao-lei; Qian, Lai; Yang, Rong; Chen, Jun; Xu, Yun

    2015-05-11

    Major characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD) include deposits of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide in the brain, loss of synapses, and cognitive dysfunction. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) has recently been reported to attenuate Aβ-induced toxicity. In this study, CART localization in APP/PS1 mice was characterized and the protective effects of exogenous CART treatment were examined. Compared to age-matched wild type mice, 8-month-old APP/PS1 mice had significantly greater CART immunoreactivity in the hippocampus and cortex. A strikingly similar pattern of Aβ plaque-associated CART immunoreactivity was observed in the cortex of AD cases. Treatment of APP/PS1 mice with exogenous CART ameliorated memory deficits; this effect was associated with improvements in synaptic ultrastructure and long-term potentiation, but not a reduction of the Aβ plaques. Exogenous CART treatment in APP/PS1 mice prevented depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane and stimulated mitochondrial complex I and II activities, resulting in an increase in ATP levels. CART treatment of APP/PS1 mice also reduced reactive oxygen species and 4-hydroxynonenal, and mitigated oxidative DNA damage. In summary, CART treatment reduced multiple neuropathological measures and improved memory in APP/PS1 mice, and may therefore be a promising and novel therapy for AD.

  2. (ABA)-simulating photosystem II

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Leaf photosynthetic activity limited by summer heat stress represents large constraint to production process of fruit trees. To cope with this problem, we tested photosystem II (PS II) thermostability in clonal apple tree rootstocks with different growth intensity - semi-vigorous-MM106 and dwarfing-J-TE-F.

  3. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Looking against the direction of protons in the main ring (left): the beam coming from the linac 1 either goes to the booster (on the right) or is deflected towards the PS to be directly injected into section 26 (facing the camera). Also shown the start of the TT2 line, ejected from straight section 16 to go towards the ISR passing over the beam line from the linac. (see Photo Archive 7409009)

  4. PS injection area

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    To the right is the PS ring viewed along the direction of the protons. At the left the injection line coming from the 50 MeV Linac 1 (bottom) and going towards the 800 MeV booster, or deflected to the right to be injected directly into straight section 16. The drumlike element behind the (blue) dipole magnet is a 'debuncher' (a 200 MHz cavity). See photos 7409014X and 7409009.

  5. Conflicto psíquico y actividad representativa como ejes del tratamiento psicopedagógico Psychical conflict and representative activity as central core of psychopedagogical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Rego

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es presentar un modo de análisis de las transformaciones en la producción simbólica de niños con problemas de aprendizaje que asisten a tratamiento psicopedagógico grupal en el marco del Servicio de Asistencia Psicopedagógica de la Cátedra de Psicopedagogía Clínica de la Facultad de Psicología. Se plantean dos categorías para dicho análisis: conflicto psíquico y actividad representativa. A partir de las mismas se busca dar cuenta de un particular modo de interpretación teórico - clínico de las características que presentan los procesos de simbolización en niños con dificultades en sus aprendizajes, así como de sus cambios psíquicos y transformaciones a lo largo de un año de tratamiento. Se plantea como hipótesis que la inclusión del conflicto en la actividad representativa despliega las restricciones simbólicas de estos niños, hacia nuevos modos de representación más dinámicos y enriquecedores. Finalmente se muestra también un caso clínico para ampliar y profundizar la presentación teórica.The purpose of this article is to show the way of analysing the changes of the symbolic production in children who suffer from learning disorders and attend to the Assistance Program which belongs to the Psychopedagogical Clinic Department of Psychology School. Two categories are put forward: psychical conflict and representative activity. Both are used in a particular way of theoretical and clinical analysis for the features presented in the symbolic process of these children and in their psychical changes along one year of treatment as well. One hypothesis is that the inclusion of the conflict in the representative activity displays the symbolical obstacles and restrictions, to create new dynamic ways of representation and performance. To finish, a clinical case is shown, to amplify and deepen this presentation.

  6. DNA topoisomerase II enzyme activity appears in mouse sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. DNA topoisomerase II enzyme activity ... examine the presence of DNA topoisomerase II (top 2) activity in sperm heads. The initial percentage motile of male A was ..... topoisomerase 2 is required for segregation of daughter molecules at termination of DNA replication. Proc.

  7. At PS170 (APPLE)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    APPLE stands for Antiproton-Proton to Pair of LEptons (an acronym of the ancestor experiment PAPLEP), the PS170 experiment setup at LEAR to study e+e-pair production in antiproton-proton annihilation by Padova-(CEN) Saclay- Torino Collaboration. It consisted of a liquid hydrogen target surrounded by several layers of proportional chambers in the vertical field of a C-magnet (this photo), a gas Cerenkov counter, wire chambers, hodoscopes, and an electromagnetic calorimeter (see photo 8302539X, 8302540X). See also photo 8301539X for the setup assembly at an early stage.

  8. PS16dtm: A Tidal Disruption Event in a Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, P. K.; Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Guillochon, J.; Margutti, R.; Chornock, R.; Alexander, K. D.; Leja, J.; Drout, M. R.

    2017-07-01

    We present observations of PS16dtm (also known as SN 2016ezh), a luminous transient that occurred at the nucleus of a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy hosting a 106 M ⊙ black hole. The light curve shows that PS16dtm exhibited a plateau phase for ˜100 days, during which it showed no color evolution, maintained a blackbody temperature of ˜ 1.7× {10}4 K, and radiated at approximately the Eddington luminosity of the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The spectra exhibit multicomponent hydrogen emission lines and strong Fe II emission, show little time evolution, and closely resemble the spectra of NLS1s while being distinct from those of Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn). Moreover, PS16dtm is undetected in the X-rays to a limit an order of magnitude below an archival X-ray detection of its host galaxy. These observations strongly link PS16dtm to activity associated with the SMBH and are difficult to reconcile with an SN origin or known forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) variability. Therefore, we argue that PS16dtm is a tidal disruption event (TDE) in which the accretion of the stellar debris powers the rise in the continuum and excitation of the preexisting broad-line region, while obscuring the X-ray-emitting region of the preexisting AGN disk. We predict that PS16dtm will remain bright for years and that the X-ray emission will reappear on a similar timescale as the accretion rate declines. Placing PS16dtm in the context of other TDEs, we find that TDEs in AGN galaxies are more efficient and reach Eddington luminosities, likely due to interaction of the stellar debris with the preexisting accretion disk.

  9. Beyond iPS!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It’s undoubtedly a jubilant moment for scientists and clinicians working in the stem cell arena as Prof. Gurdon and Prof. Shinya Yamanaka have been chosen for the Nobel Prize in Physiology & Medicine this year. The mystery of cell biology is something unfathomable and probably the work of this duo as well as the other scientists, who have put their hands on in- vitro de-differentiation have opened our eyes to a new window or a new paradigm in cell biology. The iPS invention has brought a lot of hope in terms of potential direct benefits to treat several diseases, which have no definite options at the moment. But, we envisage that several spin-offs could come out of this invention and one very significant spin-off finding recently witnessed is the finding by Prof. Masaharu Seno and his team of researchers at the Okayama University, Japan (Chen L, et al. 2012, PLoS ONE 7(4:e33544.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033544. According to Prof. Seno, mouse iPS cells (miPS when cultured in the conditioned medium derived from cancer cell lines, differentiate into cancer stem cells (CSCs. While differentiating into CSCs, they do retain the potential to develop endothelial progenitor cells. Several questions arise here: 1.Are these miPS derived CSCs really pluripotent, even if the terminal differentiation destined to specific phenotypes? 2.Shouldn’t the Cancer Stem Cells be termed as cancer progenitor cells, as till date they are considered to be producing only cancer cells but not pluripotent to yield other types of normal tissues? The spin-offs could be infinite as the process of differentiation and de-differentiation happening due to trillions of signals and pathways, most still remaining not-so-well understood. A special mention should be made to Prof. Shinya Yamanaka as he has several sterling qualities to be a role-model for budding scientists. Apart from his passion for science, which made him shift his career from orthopedics to a cell biologist, his

  10. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Copper(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of copper(II) complexes of some ortho-substituted aniline Schiff bases (L1–L8). The Schiff bases and their respective copper(II) complexes were characterized by a combination of elemental analysis, infrared and UV/Visible studies. The structures of ...

  11. Antineoplastic activity of N–salicylideneglycinato–di–aquanickel(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr gatsin

    and J. A. KHANAM 2*. 1 Department of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi–6205, ... aquanickel(II) complex was synthesized and characterized. The antitumour ... Keywords: Antineoplastic activity, N-salicylideneglycinato-di-aquanickel(II) (SGN), EAC, and ALP. INTRODUCTION.

  12. Ulex europaeus agglutinin II (UEA-II) is a novel, potent inhibitor of complement activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekowski, R; Collard, C D; Reenstra, W R; Stahl, G L

    2001-02-01

    Complement is an important mediator of vascular injury following oxidative stress. We recently demonstrated that complement activation following endothelial oxidative stress is mediated by mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and activation of the lectin complement pathway. Here, we investigated whether nine plant lectins which have a binding profile similar to that of MBL competitively inhibit MBL deposition and subsequent complement activation following human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) oxidative stress. HUVEC oxidative stress (1% O(2), 24 hr) significantly increased Ulex europaeus agglutinin II (UEA-II) binding by 72 +/- 9% compared to normoxic cells. UEA-II inhibited MBL binding to HUVEC in a concentration-dependent manner following oxidative stress. Further, MBL inhibited UEA-II binding to HUVEC in a concentration-dependent manner following oxidative stress, suggesting a common ligand. UEA-II (< or = 100 micromol/L) did not attenuate the hemolytic activity, nor did it inhibit C3a des Arg formation from alternative or classical complement pathway-specific hemolytic assays. C3 deposition (measured by ELISA) following HUVEC oxidative stress was inhibited by UEA-II in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50) = 10 pmol/L). UEA-II inhibited C3 and MBL co-localization (confocal microscopy) in a concentration-dependent manner on HUVEC following oxidative stress (IC(50) approximately 1 pmol/L). Finally, UEA-II significantly inhibited complement-dependent neutrophil chemotaxis, but failed to inhibit fMLP-mediated chemotaxis, following endothelial oxidative stress. These data demonstrate that UEA-II is a novel, potent inhibitor of human MBL deposition and complement activation following human endothelial oxidative stress.

  13. Endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II disrupts alveolar epithelial type II to type I cell transdifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distal alveolar morphogenesis is marked by differentiation of alveolar type (AT-II to AT-I cells that give rise to the primary site of gas exchange, the alveolar/vascular interface. Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide (EMAP II, an endogenous protein with anti-angiogenic properties, profoundly disrupts distal lung neovascularization and alveolar formation during lung morphogenesis, and is robustly expressed in the dysplastic alveolar regions of infants with Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Determination as to whether EMAP II has a direct or indirect affect on ATII→ATI trans-differentiation has not been explored. Method In a controlled nonvascular environment, an in vitro model of ATII→ATI cell trans-differentiation was utilized to demonstrate the contribution that one vascular mediator has on distal epithelial cell differentiation. Results Here, we show that EMAP II significantly blocked ATII→ATI cell transdifferentiation by increasing cellular apoptosis and inhibiting expression of ATI markers. Moreover, EMAP II-treated ATII cells displayed myofibroblast characteristics, including elevated cellular proliferation, increased actin cytoskeleton stress fibers and Rho-GTPase activity, and increased nuclear:cytoplasmic volume. However, EMAP II-treated cells did not express the myofibroblast markers desmin or αSMA. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that EMAP II interferes with ATII → ATI transdifferentiation resulting in a proliferating non-myofibroblast cell. These data identify the transdifferentiating alveolar cell as a possible target for EMAP II's induction of alveolar dysplasia.

  14. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  15. SPS and PS Experiments Committee

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    OPEN SESSION: 09:00 Status report of NA58 / COMPASS: A. Magnon 09:40 Status report of PS212 / DIRAC: L. Tausher 10:10 PS212 / DIRAC Addendum: L. Nemenov CLOSED SESSION on Tuesday, 27 April 2004 after the open session, Main Building, 6th floor conference room

  16. The Libera as a PS orbit measurement system building block

    CERN Document Server

    Belleman, J M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2005-01-01

    During the year 2004, extensive tests using a Libera data processor have been made in order to study its suitability as a building block for a complete PS trajectory and orbit measurement system. The Libera consists of four fast 12-bits ADCs, a Virtex II Pro FPGA and a large memory. This note presents some of the results of the analysis of acquisitions made on a position pick-up in the CERN PS.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Activity of Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Cd(II, and Hg(II Complexes of Schiff's Base Type Ligands Containing Benzofuran Moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shashidhar Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six new complexes of Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Cd(II, and Hg(II with substituted benzofuran derivatives have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic moments, conductance measurements, spectral characterization, and so forth. Elemental data coincide with the general formula MLC1n, where L = (E-7-Methoxy-N1-(2,4,5-trimethoxy benzylidene benzofuran-2-carbohydrazide (L1 or (E-N1-(2,6-dichloro benzylidene-7-methoxy benzofuran-2-carbohydrazide (L2, of the complexes. The ligands coordinate to the metal ions through the oxygen of the carbonyl group and the nitrogen of the hydrazine group. Electronic spectral data of the complexes suggests the probable geometry is octahedral in nature. All the complexes and ligands were screened for their antibacterial activity. Among them, Co, Ni, and Cu complexes of L2 showed good activity against all microbes.

  18. Preconcentration and extraction of copper(II) on activated carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbon modified method was used for the preconcentration and determination of copper content in real samples such as tap water, wastewater and a synthetic water sample by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The copper(II) was adsorbed quantitatively on activated carbon due to its complexation with ...

  19. Optimization of lead (ii) ions adsorption on to chemically activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption of Lead (II) ion on to chemically activated carbon has been studied and optimized in a batch reactor system. The zinc chloride impregnated sugarcane bagasse was thermal activated in a fixed bed reactor in the presence of argon gas. The surface morphology, surface functional group and thermal stability ...

  20. Toward active x-ray telescopes II

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Lillie, Charles F.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan E.; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2012-10-01

    In the half century since the initial discovery of an astronomical (non-solar) x-ray source, the observation time required to achieve a given sensitivity has decreased by eight orders of magnitude. Largely responsible for this dramatic progress has been the refinement of the (grazing-incidence) focusing x-ray telescope, culminating with the exquisite subarcsecond imaging performance of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The future of x-ray astronomy relies upon the development of x-ray telescopes with larger aperture areas (technologically challenging—requiring precision fabrication, alignment, and assembly of large areas (x-ray optics. This paper discusses relevant programmatic and technological issues and summarizes current progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  1. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzhen Ji

    Full Text Available Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells. Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  2. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Guangzhen; Ruan, Weimin; Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Sakellariou, Despoina; Chen, Jijun; Yang, Yang; Okuka, Maja; Han, Jianyong; Liu, Zhonghua; Lai, Liangxue; Gagos, Sarantis; Xiao, Lei; Deng, Hongkui; Li, Ning; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells). Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  3. Determination of activities of human carbonic anhydrase II inhibitors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (the concentration at which 50 % of the enzyme activity inhibited), which were calculated using. Microsoft Excel 2011 from a dose-response curve obtained using at least five concentrations. (ranging from 1–10 µg/mL) of the inhibitor and carried out in triplicate. Molecular docking. The initial structure of CA-II was obtained ...

  4. LEADIR-PS: providing unprecedented SMR safety and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, R.S., E-mail: N2i2@xplornet.ca [Northern Nuclear Industries Incorporated, Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Northern Nuclear Industries Incorporated (N{sup 2} I{sup 2}) is developing Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) called LEADIR-PS, an acronym for LEAD-cooled Integral Reactor-Passively Safe. LEADIR-PS integrates proven technologies including TRISO fuel, Pebble Bed core and graphite moderator, with molten lead coolant in an integral pool type reactor configuration to achieve unprecedented safety and economics. Plants under development are LEADIR-PS30, producing 30 MWth, LEADIR-PS100 producing 100 MWth and LEADIR-PS300 producing 300 MWth that are focused on serving the energy demands of areas with a small electrical grid and/or process heat applications. A plant consisting of six LEADIR-PS300 reactor modules serving a common turbine-generator, called the LEADIR-PS Six-Pack, is focused on serving areas with higher energy demands and a robust electricity grid. The Gen{sup +} I LEADIR-PS plants are inherently/passively safe. There is no potential for a Loss Of Coolant Accident, a reactivity transient without shutdown, a loss of heat sink, or hydrogen generation. No active systems or operator actions are required to assure safety. The unprecedented safety of LEADIR-PS reactors avoids large exclusion radius and demanding evacuation plan requirements. LEADIR-PS, with steam conditions of 370 {sup o}C and 12 MPa can serve over 85% of the world's non-transportation process heat demands. In Canada, the electricity and process heat demands, ranging from those of remote communities and the oil sands to densely populated areas can be served by LEADIR-PS. (author)

  5. DNA topoisomerase II enzyme activity appears in mouse sperm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sperm suspensions of 4 male mice (A, B, C and D), having an initial motility grade of 3.5 were used to examine the presence of DNA topoisomerase II (top 2) activity in sperm heads. The initial percentage motile of male A was 75%, male B was 80%, male C was 70% and male D was 60%. Top 2 activity was examined by ...

  6. A severe skeletal Class II correction by activator headgear combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivam Agrawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal Class II malocclusion with mandibular deficiency and maxillary excess is a severe skeletal problem encountered in growing individuals. Correction of mandibular deficiency and maxillary excess in a skeletal Class II patient with a vertical growth pattern poses a great challenge. The control of vertical dimension becomes very important as downward and backward rotation of mandible will exaggerate the facial convexity. The present case signifies the importance of functional jaw orthopedic treatment in a vertically growing female patient with mandibular deficiency and maxillary vertical excess. Activator headgear combination was used for skeletal correction which was followed by fixed mechanotherapy. Superimposition of pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric tracings shows desired treatment outcomes.

  7. Nickel (II and Iron (II Complexes with Azole Derivatives: Synthesis, Crystal Structures and Antifungal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel N. Nfor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new complexes of nickel (II with 4-amino-3, 5-bis(pyridyl-1, 2, 4-triazole (abpt and iron (II with 2-(3-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-5-yl pyridine (phpzpy have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy. The crystal structures of the complexes have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. In the nickel and iron complexes, the ligands are coordinated through nitrogen atoms in bidentate manner. The ligands and their respective complexes have been tested for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, and Candida albicans. From the study, the complexes showed enhanced activities against the tested organisms compared to the ligands.

  8. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Nickel (II and Palladium (II Complex with Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (PDTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk Imadul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of square planar Ni(II and Pd(II complexes with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC was characterized by elemental, physiochemical, and spectroscopic methods. Two complexes were prepared by the reaction of nickel acetate and palladium acetate with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC in 1 : 2 molar ratio. The bovine serum albumin (BSA interaction with complexes was examined by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques at pH 7.4. All the spectral data suggest that coordination of the pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC takes place through the two sulphur atoms in a symmetrical bidentate fashion. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against some species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Bacillus cereus. It has been observed that complexes have higher activity than the free ligand.

  9. Polysaccharides PS-G and protein LZ-8 from Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) exhibit diverse functions in regulating murine macrophages and T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chen-Hao; Chen, Hsiao-Chin; Yang, Jeng-Je; Chuang, Wen-I; Sheu, Fuu

    2010-08-11

    Bioactive components in Ganoderma lucidum mainly include polysaccharides (PS-G) and immunomodulatory protein Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8). These components may have diverse regulatory functions in the immune system. However, the PS-G preparations from different procedures still contained partial LZ-8 residue, indicating that the specific target and regulating function of PS-G and LZ-8 were not fully understood. In the present study, PS-G was subjected to 15% TCA for removing proteins and the LZ-8 detection using anti-LZ-8 monoclonal antibodies showed a remarkable 89.7% protein reduction of the deproteinized PS-G (dpPS-G). The Saccharomyces cerevisiae which expressed recombinant LZ-8 protein (rLZ-8) without glycosylation was generated and then compared with dpPS-G in the induction toward murine primary macrophage and T lymphocytic cells. The peritoneal macrophages from TLR4-deficient and wild type mice revealed that TLR4 was a putative receptor of dpPS-G, mediating the TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-12p70 cytokine production and CD86, MHC II expression on macrophages, while rLZ-8 enhanced the production of IL-1beta, IL-12p70, CD86, and MHC II expression by another obscure route. rLZ-8-treated macrophages enhanced the release of IFN-gamma and IL-2 by murine CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, whereas dpPS-G treatment did not enhance the release of IFN-gamma and IL-2. Furthermore, although the direct rLZ-8-treatment conduced dramatic CD154, CD44 expression on CD3(+) T cells and increased IL-2, IFN-gamma secretion on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, the dpPS-G was incapable of priming CD3(+), CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells unitarily. Taken together, these results demonstrated that LZ-8 could activate murine macrophages and T lymphocytes but PS-G was merely the activator for macrophages, suggesting their diverse roles in activating the innate and adaptive immunity.

  10. Electrochemical studies of DNA interaction and antimicrobial activities of MnII, FeIII, CoII and NiII Schiff base tetraazamacrocyclic complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuj; Vashistha, Vinod Kumar; Tevatia, Prashant; Singh, Randhir

    2017-04-01

    Tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of MnII, FeIII, CoII and NiII have been synthesized by template method. These tetraazamacrocycles have been analyzed with various techniques like molar conductance, IR, UV-vis, mass spectral and cyclic voltammetric studies. On the basis of all these studies, octahedral geometry has been assigned to these tetraazamacrocyclic complexes. The DNA binding properties of these macrocyclic complexes have been investigated by electronic absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, cyclic voltammetric and differential pulse voltammetric studies. The cyclic voltammetric data showed that ipc and ipa were effectively decreased in the presence of calf thymus DNA, which is a strong evidence for the interaction of these macrocyclic complexes with the calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA). The heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant found in the order: KCoII > KNiII > KMnII which indicates that CoII macrocyclic complex has formed a strong intercalated intermediate. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) and voltammetric binding constant were found in the order KSV(CoII) > KSV(NiII) > KSV(MnII) and K+(CoII) > K+(NiII) > K+(MnII) which shows that CoII macrocyclic complex exhibits the high interaction affinity towards ct-DNA by the intercalation binding. Biological studies of the macrocyclic complexes compared with the standard drug like Gentamycin, have shown antibacterial activities against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, B. cereus, S. aureus and antifungal activity against C. albicans.

  11. Islet Specific Wnt Activation in Human Type II Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Hee Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt pathway effector gene TCF7L2 has been linked to type II diabetes, making it important to study the role of Wnt signaling in diabetes pathogenesis. We examined the expression of multiple Wnt pathway components in pancreases from normal individuals and type II diabetic individuals. Multiple members of the Wnt signaling pathway, including TCF7L2, Wnt2b, β-catenin, pGSK3β, TCF3, cyclinD1, and c-myc, were undetectable or expressed at low levels in islets from nondiabetic individuals, but were also upregulated specifically in islets of type II diabetic patients. Culture of pancreatic tissue and islet isolation led to Wnt activation that was reversed by the Wnt antagonist sFRP, demonstrating that Wnt activation in that setting was due to soluble Wnt factors. These data support a model in which the Wnt pathway plays a dynamic role in the pathogenesis of type II diabetes and suggest manipulation of Wnt signaling as a new approach to β-cell-directed diabetes therapy.

  12. Environmental pH and the requirement for the extrinsic proteins of Photosystem II in the function of cyanobacterial photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaz N Morris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In one of the final stages of cyanobacterial Photosystem II (PS II assembly, binding of up to four extrinsic proteins to PS II stabilizes the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC. Growth of cyanobacterial mutants deficient in certain combinations of these thylakoid-lumen-associated polypeptides is sensitive to changes in environmental pH, despite the physical separation of the membrane-embedded PS II complex from the external environment. In this perspective, we discuss the effect of environmental pH on OEC function and photoautotrophic growth in cyanobacteria, with reference to pH-sensitive PS II mutants lacking extrinsic proteins. We consider the possibilities that, compared to pH 10.0, pH 7.5 increases susceptibility to PS II-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS, causing photoinhibition and reducing PS II assembly in some mutants and that perturbations to channels in the lumenal regions of PS II might alter the accessibility of water to the active site, and egress of oxygen and protons to the thylakoid lumen. Reduced levels of PS II in these mutants and reduced OEC activity arising from the disruption of substrate/product channels could reduce the trans-thylakoid pH gradient (ΔpH, leading to the impairement of photosynthesis. Growth of some PS II mutants at pH 7.5 can be rescued by elevating CO2 levels, suggesting that the pH-sensitive phenotype might primarily be an indirect result of back-pressure in the electron transport chain that results in heightened production of ROS by the impaired photosystem.

  13. Photosystem II cycle activity and alternative electron transport in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under dynamic light conditions and nitrogen limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Heiko; Jakob, Torsten; Lavaud, Johann; Wilhelm, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Alternative electron sinks are an important regulatory mechanism to dissipate excessively absorbed light energy particularly under fast changing dynamic light conditions. In diatoms, the cyclic electron transport (CET) around Photosystem II (PS II) is an alternative electron transport pathway (AET) that contributes to avoidance of overexcitation under high light illumination. The combination of nitrogen limitation and high-intensity irradiance regularly occurs under natural conditions and is expected to force the imbalance between light absorption and the metabolic use of light energy. The present study demonstrates that under N limitation, the amount of AET and the activity of CETPSII in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were increased. Thereby, the activity of CETPSII was linearly correlated with the amount of AET rates. It is concluded that CETPSII significantly contributes to AET in P. tricornutum. Surprisingly, CETPSII was found to be activated already at the end of the dark period under N-limited conditions. This coincided with a significantly increased degree of reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool. The analysis of the macromolecular composition of cells of P. tricornutum under N-limited conditions revealed a carbon allocation in favor of carbohydrates during the light period and their degradation during the dark phase. A possible linkage between the activity of CETPSII and degree of reduction of the PQ pool on the one side and the macromolecular changes on the other is discussed.

  14. Mitotic Transcriptional Activation: Clearance of Actively Engaged Pol II via Transcriptional Elongation Control in Mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kaiwei; Woodfin, Ashley R; Slaughter, Brian D; Unruh, Jay R; Box, Andrew C; Rickels, Ryan A; Gao, Xin; Haug, Jeffrey S; Jaspersen, Sue L; Shilatifard, Ali

    2015-11-05

    Although it is established that some general transcription factors are inactivated at mitosis, many details of mitotic transcription inhibition (MTI) and its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We have identified mitotic transcriptional activation (MTA) as a key regulatory step to control transcription in mitosis for genes with transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to activate and transcribe until the end of the gene to clear Pol II from mitotic chromatin, followed by global impairment of transcription reinitiation through MTI. Global nascent RNA sequencing and RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrate the existence of transcriptionally engaged Pol II in early mitosis. Both genetic and chemical inhibition of P-TEFb in mitosis lead to delays in the progression of cell division. Together, our study reveals a mechanism for MTA and MTI whereby transcriptionally engaged Pol II can progress into productive elongation and finish transcription to allow proper cellular division. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The PS locomotive runs again

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Over forty years ago, the PS train entered service to steer the magnets of the accelerator into place... ... a service that was resumed last Tuesday. Left to right: Raymond Brown (CERN), Claude Tholomier (D.B.S.), Marcel Genolin (CERN), Gérard Saumade (D.B.S.), Ingo Ruehl (CERN), Olivier Carlier (D.B.S.), Patrick Poisot (D.B.S.), Christian Recour (D.B.S.). It is more than ten years since people at CERN heard the rumbling of the old PS train's steel wheels. Last Tuesday, the locomotive came back into service to be tested. It is nothing like the monstrous steel engines still running on conventional railways -just a small electric battery-driven vehicle employed on installing the magnets for the PS accelerator more than 40 years ago. To do so, it used the tracks that run round the accelerator. In fact, it is the grandfather of the LEP monorail. After PS was commissioned in 1959, the little train was used more and more rarely. This is because magnets never break down, or hardly ever! In fact, the loc...

  16. The PS Booster hits 40

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    Many accelerators’ "round" birthdays are being celebrated at CERN these days – the PS turned 50 in 2009, the SPS was 35 in 2011, and this year it's the turn of the PS Booster to mark its 40th anniversary. Originally designed to accelerate 1013 protons to 800 MeV, it has far exceeded its initial design performance over the years.   The PS Booster in the 1970s. Imagine the scene: a group of accelerator physicists staring expectantly at a monitor, when suddenly a shout of joy goes up as a signal flickers across the screen. Does that sound familiar? Well, turn the clock back 40 years (longer hair, wider trouser legs) and you have the situation at the PS Booster on 26 May 1972. On that day, beam was injected into the Booster for the first time. “It was a real buzz,” says Heribert Koziol, then Chairman of the Running-in Committee. “We were very happy – and also a little relieved – when the beam finally...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... World War II veterans. 404.1311 Section 404.1311 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1311 Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to be...

  18. Cadmium activates CaMK-II and initiates CaMK-II-dependent apoptosis in mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Templeton, Douglas M

    2007-04-03

    Cadmium is a toxic metal that initiates both mitogenic responses and cell death. We show that Cd(2+) increases phosphorylation and activity of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK-II) in mesangial cells, in a concentration-dependent manner. Activation is biphasic with peaks at 1-5 min and 4-6 h. Cadmium also activates Erk, but this appears to be independent of CaMK-II. At 10-20 microM, Cd(2+) initiates apoptosis in 25-55% of mesangial cells by 6h. Inhibition of CaMK-II, but not of Erk, suppresses Cd(2+)-induced apoptosis. We conclude that activation of CaMK-II by Cd(2+) contributes to apoptotic cell death, independent of Erk activation.

  19. Casein kinase II activity in the brain of an insect, Acheta domesticus: characterization and hormonal regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrelle, F; Renucci, M; Charpin, P; Tirard, A

    1997-01-01

    This study documented casein kinase II (CK II) activity in Acheta domesticus brain using specific antibodies and its regulation by polyamines. In control animals a transient decrease in CK II activity at day 3 after imaginal moult was observed in the brain but not in the fat body. If deprived of ecdysone by ovariectomy a different pattern was observed, with CK II activity being significantly higher on days 3 and 4 after emergence. After ecdysone injection in ovariectomized females, CK II activity decreased to levels similar to those in controls. The implications of ecdysone regulation of brain CK II activity are discussed.

  20. Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN reduces damages to freezing temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan eSU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Several plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are known to improve plant tolerance to multiple stresses, including low temperatures. However, mechanisms underlying this protection are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the endophytic PGPR, Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN (Bp PsJN, on Arabidopsis thaliana cold tolerance using photosynthesis parameters as physiological markers.Under standard conditions, our results indicated that Bp PsJN inoculation led to growth promotion of Arabidopsis plants without significant modification on photosynthesis parameters and chloroplast organization. However, bacterial colonization induced a cell wall strengthening in the mesophyllImpact of inoculation modes (either on seeds or by soil irrigation and their effects overnight at 0, -1 or -3°C, were investigated by following photosystem II (PSII activity and gas exchanges. Following low temperatures stress, a decrease of photosynthesis parameters was observed. In addition, during three consecutive nights or days at -1°C, PSII activity was monitored. Pigment contents, RuBisCO protein abundance, expression of several genes including RbcS, RbcL, CBF1, CBF2, CBF3, ICE1, COR15a, and COR78 were evaluated at the end of exposure. To assess the impact of the bacteria on cell ultrastructure under low temperatures, microscopic observations were achieved. Results indicated that freezing treatment induced significant changes in PSII activity as early as the first cold day, whereas the same impact on PSII activity was observed only during the third cold night. The significant effects conferred by PsJN were differential accumulation of pigments, and reduced expression of RbcL and COR78. Microscopical observations showed an alteration/disorganization in A. thaliana leaf mesophyll cells independently of the freezing treatments. The presence of bacteria during the three successive nights or days did not significantly improved A

  1. Cadmium(II) and lead(II) adsorption onto hetero-atom functional mesoporous silica and activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, Motoi, E-mail: machida@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faulty of Science and Engineering, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Fotoohi, Babak [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faulty of Science and Engineering, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); Amamo, Yoshimasa [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Mercier, Louis [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faulty of Science and Engineering, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2012-07-15

    Adsorption of cadmium(II) and lead(II) on amino-, mercapto-functionalized mesoporous silica (HMS) and carboxylic-functionalized activated carbon (AC) were examined. The resultant isotherms fitted the Langmuir model and amino-functionalized HMS exhibited the highest adsorption capacity for both cadmium(II) and lead(II). Adsorption affinities for cadmium(II) were always greater than those for lead(II) in all three adsorbent types, while the difference between the two values was the largest for mercapto-functionalized HMS indicating a selective adsorption of cadmium(II). Influence of equilibrium solution pH on adsorption of cadmium(II), lead(II) and their binary mixtures was also studied. Carboxylic-functionalized AC adsorbed cadmium(II) and lead(II) in a wide pH range than conditions for the mercapto-functionalized HMS. It was concluded that each functional group had its own characteristics and advantages for adsorption of heavy metal ions; amino-groups showed high adsorption capacity, while mercapto-groups had good selectivity toward cadmium(II) adsorption and a wide solution pH in adsorption by carboxylic-groups were established in this study.

  2. DNA binding and biological activity of mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II, Ni(II and Co(II with quinolones and N donor ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M M Akram

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  AbstractMixed ligand complexes of  Cu(II, Ni(II and Co(II have been synthesized by using levofloxacin and bipyridyl and characterized using spectral and analytical techniques. The binding behavior of the Ni(II and Cu(II complexes with herring sperm DNA(Hs-DNA were determined using electronic absorption titration, viscometric measurements and cyclic voltammetry measurements. The binding constant calculated  for Cu(II and Ni(II complexes are 2.0 x 104 and 4.0 x 104 M-1 respectively. Detailed analysis reveals that these metal complexes interact with DNA through intercalative binding mode. The nuclease activity of  Cu(II and Ni(II complexes with ct-DNA was carried out using agarose gel electrophoresis technique. The antioxidant activities for the synthesized complexes have been tested and the antibacterial activity for Ni(II complex was also checked.Key words: Intercalation, hypochromism, red shift and  peak potential.

  3. TRPV-1-mediated elimination of residual iPS cells in bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Seta, Hiroyoshi; Haraguchi, Yuji; Alsayegh, Khaled; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Yamazaki, Kenji; Okano, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42 °C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42 °C, almost all cells disappeared by 48 hours through apoptosis. However, iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts maintained transcriptional and protein expression levels, and cardiac cell sheets were fabricated after reducing the temperature. TRPV-1 expression in iPS cells was upregulated at 42 °C, and iPS cell death at 42 °C was TRPV-1-dependent. Furthermore, TRPV-1 activation through thermal or agonist treatment eliminated iPS cells in cardiac tissues for a final concentration of 0.4% iPS cell contamination. These findings suggest that the difference in tolerance to TRPV-1 activation between iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cardiac cells could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues, which will further reduce the risk of tumour formation. PMID:26888607

  4. TRPV-1-mediated elimination of residual iPS cells in bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Seta, Hiroyoshi; Haraguchi, Yuji; Alsayegh, Khaled; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Yamazaki, Kenji; Okano, Teruo

    2016-02-18

    The development of a suitable strategy for eliminating remaining undifferentiated cells is indispensable for the use of human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells in regenerative medicine. Here, we show for the first time that TRPV-1 activation through transient culture at 42 °C in combination with agonists is a simple and useful strategy to eliminate iPS cells from bioengineered cardiac cell sheet tissues. When human iPS cells were cultured at 42 °C, almost all cells disappeared by 48 hours through apoptosis. However, iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts maintained transcriptional and protein expression levels, and cardiac cell sheets were fabricated after reducing the temperature. TRPV-1 expression in iPS cells was upregulated at 42 °C, and iPS cell death at 42 °C was TRPV-1-dependent. Furthermore, TRPV-1 activation through thermal or agonist treatment eliminated iPS cells in cardiac tissues for a final concentration of 0.4% iPS cell contamination. These findings suggest that the difference in tolerance to TRPV-1 activation between iPS cells and iPS cell-derived cardiac cells could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues, which will further reduce the risk of tumour formation.

  5. Antiplasmodial activity study of angiotensin II via Ala scan analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriana Farias; Bastos, Erick Leite; Torres, Marcelo Der Torossian; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Ioshino, Rafaella Sayuri; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Alves, Flávio Lopes; Miranda, Antonio; Vieira, Renata de Freitas Fischer; Oliveira, Vani Xavier

    2014-08-01

    Angiotensin II (AII) as well as analog peptides shows antimalarial activity against Plasmodium gallinaceum and Plasmodium falciparum, but the exact mechanism of action is still unknown. This work presents the solid-phase synthesis and characterization of eight peptides corresponding to the alanine scanning series of AII plus the amide-capped derivative and the evaluation of the antiplasmodial activity of these peptides against mature P. gallinaceum sporozoites. The Ala screening data indicates that the replacement of either the Ile(5) or the His(6) residues causes minor effects on the in vitro antiplasmodial activity compared with AII, i.e. AII (88%), [Ala(6) ]-AII (79%), and [Ala(5) ]-AII (75%). Analogs [Ala(3) ]-AII, [Ala(1) ]-AII, and AII-NH2 showed antiplasmodial activity around 65%, whereas the activity of the [Ala(8) ]-AII, [Ala(7) ]-AII, [Ala(4) ]-AII, and [Ala(2) ]-AII analogs is lower than 45%. Circular dichroism data suggest that AII and the most active analogs adopt a β-fold conformation in different solutions. All AII analogs, except [Ala(4) ]-AII and [Ala(8) ]-AII, show contractile responses and interact with the AT1 receptor, [Ala(5) ]-AII and [Ala(6) ]-AII. In conclusion, this approach is helpful to understand the contribution of each amino acid residue to the bioactivity of AII, opening new perspectives toward the design of new sporozoiticidal compounds. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Synthesis, physico-chemical studies of manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes with some p-substituted acetophenone benzoylhydrazones and their antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinod P; Singh, Shweta; Katiyar, Anshu

    2009-04-01

    Complexes of the type [M(pabh)(H2O)Cl], [M(pcbh)(H2O)Cl] and [M(Hpabh)(H2O)2 (SO4)] where, M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II); Hpabh = p-amino acetophenone benzoyl hydrazone and Hpcbh = p-chloro acetophenone benzoyl hydrazone have been synthesized and characterized with the help of elemental analyses, electrical conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, ESR and IR spectra, thermal (TGA & DTA) and X-ray diffraction studies. Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) chloride complexes are square planar, whereas their sulfate complexes have spin-free octahedral geometry. ESR spectra of Cu(II) complexes with Hpabh are axial and suggest d(x(2)-y(2) as the ground state. The ligand is bidentate bonding through > C = N--and deprotonated enolate group in all the chloro complexes, whereas, >C = N and >C = O groups in all the sulfato complexes. Thermal studies (TGA & DTA) on [Cu(Hpabh)(H2O)2(SO4)] indicate a multistep decomposition pattern, which are both exothermic and endothermic in nature. X-ray powder diffraction parameters for [Co(pabh)(H2O)Cl] and [Ni(Hpabh)(H2O)2(SO4)] correspond to tetragonal and orthorhombic crystal lattices, respectively. The ligands as well as their complexes show a significant antifungal and antibacterial activity. The metal complexes are more active than the ligand.

  7. Anticancer Activities of Mononuclear Ruthenium(II Coordination Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Motswainyana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruthenium compounds are highly regarded as potential drug candidates. The compounds offer the potential of reduced toxicity and can be tolerated in vivo. The various oxidation states, different mechanism of action, and the ligand substitution kinetics of ruthenium compounds give them advantages over platinum-based complexes, thereby making them suitable for use in biological applications. Several studies have focused attention on the interaction between active ruthenium complexes and their possible biological targets. In this paper, we review several ruthenium compounds which reportedly possess promising cytotoxic profiles: from the discovery of highly active compounds imidazolium [trans-tetrachloro(dmso(imidazoleruthenate(III] (NAMI-A, indazolium [trans-tetrachlorobis(1H-indazoleruthenate(III](KP1019, and sodium trans-[tetrachloridobis(1H-indazoleruthenate(III] (NKP-1339 to the recent work based on both inorganic and organometallic ruthenium(II compounds. Half-sandwich organometallic ruthenium complexes offer the opportunity of derivatization at the arene moiety, while the three remaining coordination sites on the metal centre can be functionalised with various coordination groups of various monoligands. It is clear from the review that these mononuclear ruthenium(II compounds represent a strongly emerging field of research that will soon culminate into several ruthenium based antitumor agents.

  8. Advanced treatment of effluents from an industrial park wastewater treatment plant by ferrous ion activated persulfate oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Songmei; Zhou, Zhen; Jiang, Haitao; Ye, Jianfeng; Ren, Jiamin; Gu, Lingyun; Wang, Luochun

    The advanced oxidation technology, ferrous ion (Fe(II)) activated persulfate (PS) producing sulfate radicals, was used for the advanced treatment of effluent from an integrated wastewater treatment plant in a papermaking industrial park. Separate and interactive effects of PS dosage, Fe(II)/PS ratio and initial pH on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were analyzed by the response surface methodology (RSM). The results showed that Fe(II)-PS system was effective in COD removal from the secondary effluent. PS dosage was the most dominant factor with positive influence on COD removal, followed by initial pH value. The optimum conditions with COD removal of 54.4% were obtained at PS/COD of 2.2, initial pH of 6.47 and Fe(II)/PS of 1.89. UV-visible spectrum analysis showed that after RSM optimization, Fe(II)-PS system effectively degraded large organic molecules into small ones, and decreased humification degree of the effluent. Three-dimensional fluorescence analysis demonstrated that aromatic protein and fulvic substances were fully decomposed by the Fe(II)-PS treatment.

  9. Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone: Synthesis, characterization and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathima, B.; Subba Rao, Y.; Adinarayana Reddy, S.; Reddy, Y. P.; Varada Reddy, A.

    2010-09-01

    Benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone ligand (L) has been synthesized from benzyloxybenzaldehyde and 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazide. Complexes of this ligand with chlorides of Cu(II) and Ni(II) have been prepared. The structure of the ligand (L) is proposed based on elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectra. Its complexes with Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions are characterized from the studies of electronic as well as EPR spectra. On the basis of electronic and EPR studies, rhombically distorted octahedral structure has been proposed for Cu(II) complex while the Ni(II) complex has been found to acquire an octahedral structure. The ligand and their metal complexes have been tested in vitro for their biological effects. Their antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and Gram-positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) have been investigated. The prepared metal complexes exhibit higher antibacterial activities than the parent ligand. The in vitro antioxidant activity of free ligand and its metal(II) complexes have also been investigated and the results however reveal that the ligand exhibits greater antioxidant activity than its complexes.

  10. KSR-based medium improves the generation of high-quality mouse iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Fang; Ye, Xiaoying; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Jiao; Zhang, Jingzhuo; Liu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells have great potential for regenerative medicine. The efficiency in generation of iPS cells has been significantly improved in recent years. However, the generation of high-quality iPS cells remains of high interest. Consistently, we demonstrate that knockout serum replacement (KSR)-based medium accelerates iPS cell induction and improves the quality of iPS cells, as confirmed by generation of chimeras and all iPS cell-derived offspring with germline transmission competency. Both alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity assay and expression of Nanog have been used to evaluate the efficiency of iPS cell induction and formation of ES/iPS cell colonies; however, appropriate expression of Nanog frequently indicates the quality of ES/iPS cells. Interestingly, whereas foetal bovine serum (FBS)-based media increase iPS cell colony formation, as revealed by AP activity, KSR-based media increase the frequency of iPS cell colony formation with Nanog expression. Furthermore, inhibition of MAPK/ERK by a specific inhibitor, PD0325901, in KSR- but not in FBS-based media significantly increases Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. In contrast, addition of bFGF in KSR-based media decreases proportion of Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. Remarkably, PD can rescue Nanog-GFP+ deficiency caused by bFGF. These data suggest that MAPK/ERK pathway influences high quality mouse iPS cells and that KSR- and PD-based media could enrich homogeneous authentic pluripotent stem cells.

  11. Cu(II AND Zn(II COMPLEX COMPOUNDS WITH BIGUANIDES AROMATIC DERIVATIVES. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticuţa Negreanu-Pîrjol

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the synthesis, physical-chemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of some new complex compounds of hetero-aromatic biguanides ligands, chlorhexidine base (CHX and chlorhexidine diacetate (CHXac2 with metallic ions Cu(II and Zn(II, in different molar ratio. The synthesized complexes were characterized by elemental chemical analysis and differential thermal analysis. The stereochemistry of the metallic ions was determined by infrared spectra, UV-Vis, EPR spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility in the aim to establish the complexes structures. The biological activity of the new complex compounds was identified in solid technique by measuring minimum inhibition diameter of bacterial and fungal culture, against three standard pathogen strains, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphilococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results show an increased specific antimicrobial activity for the complexes chlorhexidine:Cu(II 1:1 and 1:2 compared with the one of the Zn(II complexes.

  12. Myosin II activity regulates vinculin recruitment to focal adhesions through FAK-mediated paxillin phosphorylation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana M. Pasapera; Ian C. Schneider; Erin Rericha; David D. Schlaepfer; Clare M. Waterman

    2010-01-01

    ...) are myosin II and extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness dependent. Myosin II activity promotes FAK/ Src-mediated phosphorylation of paxillin on tyrosines 31 and 118 and vinculin association with paxillin...

  13. A Comparative Study on the Sorption Characteristics of Pb(II and Hg(II onto Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muthulakshmi Andal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption equilibrium and kinetics of Pb(II and Hg(II on coconut shell carbon (CSC were investigated by batch equilibration method. The effects of pH, adsorbent dosage, contact time, temperature and initial concentration of Pb(II and Hg(II on the activated carbon of coconut shell wastes were studied. Maximum adsorption of Pb(II occurred at pH 4.5 and Hg(II at pH 6. The sorptive mechanism followed the pseudo second order kinetics. The equilibrium data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. The equilibration data fitted well with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The Langmuir adsorption capacity for Pb(II was greater than Hg(II. The mean free energy of adsorption calculated from Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R isotherm model indicated that the adsorption of metal ions was found to be by chemical ion exchange. Thermodynamic parameter showed that the sorption process of Pb(II onto SDC was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic under studied conditions. A comparison was evaluated for the two metals.

  14. Urotensin II and urotensin II-related peptide activate somatostatin receptor subtypes 2 and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagon, Maria M; Molina, Marcelo; Gahete, Manuel D; Duran-Prado, Mario; Martinez-Fuentes, Antonio J; Alcain, Francisco J; Tonon, Marie-Christine; Leprince, Jérôme; Vaudry, Hubert; Castaño, Justo P; Vazquez-Martinez, Rafael

    2008-05-01

    The UII and urotensin II-related peptide (URP) genes belong to the same superfamily as the somatostatin gene. It has been previously shown that somatostatin activates the UII-receptor (UTR). In contrast, the possible interaction between UII and URP and somatostatin receptors has remained scarcely analyzed. Herein, we have investigated the effects of UII and URP on cell proliferation and free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in CHO-K1 cells stably expressing the porcine somatostatin receptor subtypes sst2 and sst5. Results show that both UII and URP induce stimulation of cell proliferation mediated by sst2 receptors and UII provokes inhibition of cell proliferation mediated by sst5 receptors. UII and URP also provoked an increase of [Ca2+]i in both sst2- and sst5-transfected cells. Together, our present data demonstrate that UII and URP directly activate sst2 and sst5 and thus mimic the effect of somatostatin on its cognate receptors.

  15. EDH 'Millionaire' in PS Division

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Christmas cheer! Left to right: Gerard Lobeau receives a bottle of Champagne from Derek Mathieson and Jurgen De Jonghe in recognition of EDH's millionth document. At 14:33 on Monday 3 December a technician in PS division, Gerard Lobeau, unwittingly became part of an important event in the life of CERN's Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). While ordering some pieces of aluminum for one of the PS's 10Mhz RF cavities, he created EDH document number 1,000,000. To celebrate the event Derek Mathieson (EDH Project Leader) and Jurgen De Jonghe (Original EDH Project Leader) presented Mr Lobeau with a bottle of champagne. As with 93% of material requests, Mr Lobeau's order was delivered within 24 hours. 'I usually never win anything' said Mr Lobeau as he accepted his prize, 'I initially though there may have been a problem with EDH when the document number had so many zeros in it, and was then surprised to get a phone call from you a few minutes later.' The EDH team had been monitoring the EDH document number ...

  16. Copper(II Complexes with Ligands Derived from 4-Amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one: Synthesis and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Cernat

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of Cu(II complexes derived from Schiff base ligands obtainedby the condensation of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde or terephtalic aldehyde with 4-amino-antipyrine (4-amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one is presented. The newlyprepared compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR, UV-VIS, IR and ESRspectroscopy. The determination of the antimicrobial activity of the ligands and of thecomplexes was carried out on samples of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae,Acinetobacter boumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candidasp. The qualitative and quantitative antimicrobial activity test results proved that all theprepared complexes are very active, especially against samples of Ps. aeruginosa, A.Boumanii, E. coli and S. aureus.

  17. Spectroscopic, DNA binding ability, biological activity, DFT calculations and non linear optical properties (NLO) of novel Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes with ONS Schiff base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aziz, Ayman A.; Elantabli, Fatma M.; Moustafa, H.; El-Medani, Samir M.

    2017-08-01

    The reaction of Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) with the synthesized N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene)-2-aminothiophenol Schiff base ligand (H2L) at room temperature resulted in the formation of the five complexes; [Co(HL)2]H2O, 1; [M(HL)2] (M = Cu, Zn and Cd), (2-4) and [Hg(HL)Cl], 5. The ligand and its complexes were characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, magnetic measurement, molar conductance, and thermal analysis. Coats and Redfern method was used to compute the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. Antimicrobial activities of H2L and its complexes have been studied. The binding of Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated using UV-Vis and fluorescence absorption spectra. The results indicated that the ligand and its complexes may bind to DNA by intercalation modes, with a much higher binding affinity of the complexes than that of the ligand. The equilibrium geometries of the studied complexes are investigated theoretically at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory, and it was found that these geometries are non-linear. The calculated EHOMO and ELUMO energies of the studied complexes can be used to calculate the global properties. The calculated nonlinear optical parameters (NLO); first order hyperpolarizibility (β) of the studied complexes show promising optical properties.

  18. Constitutive activity of inwardly rectifying K+ channel at physiological [Ca]i is mediated by Ca2+/CaMK II pathway in opossum kidney proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Hideyo; Miyamoto, Manabu; Sohma, Yoshiro; Kubota, Takahiro

    2008-06-01

    Using patch-clamp technique, we studied the role of the Ca2+/calmodulin kinase II (CaMK II)-mediated phosphorylation process on the K+ channel with an inward conductance of 90 pS in opossum kidney proximal tubule cells (OKPCs). The intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca]i) was measured by use of the fluorescent dye fura 2. The following results were obtained: (i) In cell-attached patches, the channel activity was inhibited by a decrease in [Ca]i induced by perfusion with low Ca2+ (10(-8) M), La3+ (100 microM), or EGTA/AM (100 microM) contained in the bath solution. The application of KN-62 (10 microM) or KN-93 (5 microM), inhibitors of CaMK II, also inhibited the channel activity. (ii) The membrane potential measured with nystatin-perforated patches was significantly decreased by the fall in [Ca]i induced by the perfusion with EGTA- or La(3+)-containing solution. Also, the application of KN-62 (10 microM) or KN-93 (5 microM) to the bath significantly decreased the membrane potential. (iii) In inside-out patches, the channel activity was significantly stimulated by the application of CaMK II (300 pM) at 10(-7) M Ca2+ in the bath. Furthermore, the application of KN-62 (10 microM) to the bath significantly decreased the channel activity. Our findings show that the constitutive activity of inwardly rectifying K+ channel at physiological [Ca]i is mediated by the Ca2+/CaMK II pathway in OKPCs.

  19. Redox-active dirhodium(II,II) species covalently entrapped into a methylmethacrylate backbone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Schiavo, Sandra; Mineo, Placido; Tresoldi, Giuseppe; Cardiano, Paola; Piraino, Pasquale

    2005-09-21

    A novel class of polymers was obtained by insertion of dirhodium(II,II) metal systems into a methacrylate backbone; the synthesis was realized by free radical polymerization of an appropriate methacrylate-functionalized dirhodium polymer precursor, namely [Rh2(form)2(MA-COO)2](form =N,N'-di-p-tolylformamidinate)(MA-COO = 2-(methacroyloxy)ethyl-phthalate), with methylmethacrylate (MMA); the new copolymers, in solution, show reversible CO-absorption, connected to the axial reactivity of dirhodium(II,II) species.

  20. Electrical responses and spontaneous activity of human iPS-derived neuronal networks characterized for three-month culture with 4096-electrode arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayder eAmin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent availability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs holds great promise as a novel source of human-derived neurons for cell and tissue therapies as well as for in vitro drug screenings that might replace the use of animal models. However, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge on the functional properties of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks, thus limiting their application. Here, upon optimization of cell culture protocols, we demonstrate that both spontaneous and evoked electrical spiking activities of these networks can be characterized on-chip by taking advantage of the resolution provided by CMOS multielectrode arrays (CMOS-MEAs. These devices feature a large and closely-spaced array of 4096 simultaneously recording electrodes and multi-site on-chip electrical stimulation. Our results show that networks of human-derived neurons can respond to electrical stimulation with a physiological repertoire of spike waveforms after three months of cell culture, a period of time during which the network undergoes the expression of developing patterns of spontaneous spiking activity. To achieve this, we have investigated the impact on the network formation and on the emerging network-wide functional properties induced by different biochemical substrates, i.e. poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO, poly-l-ornithine (PLO, and polyethylenimine (PEI, that were used as adhesion promoters for the cell culture. Interestingly, we found that neuronal networks grown on PDLO coated substrates show significantly higher spontaneous firing activity, reliable responses to low-frequency electrical stimuli, and an appropriate level of PSD-95 that may denote a physiological neuronal maturation profile and synapse stabilization. However, our results also suggest that even three-month culture might not be sufficient for human-derived neuronal network maturation. Taken together, our results highlight the tight relationship existing between substrate coatings

  1. Electrical Responses and Spontaneous Activity of Human iPS-Derived Neuronal Networks Characterized for 3-month Culture with 4096-Electrode Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Marinaro, Federica; Zordan, Stefano; Nieus, Thierry; Berdondini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The recent availability of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) holds great promise as a novel source of human-derived neurons for cell and tissue therapies as well as for in vitro drug screenings that might replace the use of animal models. However, there is still a considerable lack of knowledge on the functional properties of hiPSC-derived neuronal networks, thus limiting their application. Here, upon optimization of cell culture protocols, we demonstrate that both spontaneous and evoked electrical spiking activities of these networks can be characterized on-chip by taking advantage of the resolution provided by CMOS multielectrode arrays (CMOS-MEAs). These devices feature a large and closely-spaced array of 4096 simultaneously recording electrodes and multi-site on-chip electrical stimulation. Our results show that networks of human-derived neurons can respond to electrical stimulation with a physiological repertoire of spike waveforms after 3 months of cell culture, a period of time during which the network undergoes the expression of developing patterns of spontaneous spiking activity. To achieve this, we have investigated the impact on the network formation and on the emerging network-wide functional properties induced by different biochemical substrates, i.e., poly-dl-ornithine (PDLO), poly-l-ornithine (PLO), and polyethylenimine (PEI), that were used as adhesion promoters for the cell culture. Interestingly, we found that neuronal networks grown on PDLO coated substrates show significantly higher spontaneous firing activity, reliable responses to low-frequency electrical stimuli, and an appropriate level of PSD-95 that may denote a physiological neuronal maturation profile and synapse stabilization. However, our results also suggest that even 3-month culture might not be sufficient for human-derived neuronal network maturation. Taken together, our results highlight the tight relationship existing between substrate coatings and emerging network

  2. Antiviral Activity of Substituted Chalcones and their Respective Cu(ii, Ni(ii and Zn(ii Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Mallikarjun

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II with of 3-(phenyl-1-(2’-hydroxynaphthyl – 2 – propen – 1 – one (PHPO , 3 - (4-chlorophenyl - 1- (2’-hydroxynaphthyl–2–propen – 1 – one (CPHPO, 3 - (4 -methoxyphenyl -1-(2’-hydroxynapthyl-2-propen-1-one(MPHPO,3 - (3,4-dimethoxyphenyl –1-(2’-hydroxynaphthyl – 2 - propen– 1 – one (DMPHPO have been prepared and the purity of the samples were checked by elemental analysis. The ligands and their Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II complexes were tested on the infectivity of tobacco ring spot virus(TRSV using cowpea (Vigna Sinensis as a local lesions assay host. All the compounds were tested at different concentrations (250 ppm to 1500 ppmon the infectivity of the virus by applying them either with virus inoculum or 24 h before of after virus inoculation to the test plants. The compounds were found to have varied effects on virus infectivity depending on compounds concentration and method of application. The statistical significance of the data was determined by using analysis of variance.

  3. Adsorption efficiencies of calcium (II ion and iron (II ion on activated carbon obtained from pericarp of rubber fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orawan Sirichote

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of adsorption efficiencies of activated carbon from pericarp of rubber fruit for calcium (II ion and iron (II ion has been performed by flowing the solutions of these ions through a column of activated carbon. The weights of activated carbon in 500 mL buret column (diameter 3.2 cm for flowing calcium (II ion and iron (II ion solutions were 15 g and 10 g, respectively. The initial concentration of calcium ion was prepared to be about eight times more diluted than the true concentration found in the groundwater from the lower part of southern Thailand. Calcium (II ion concentrations were analysed by EDTA titration and its initial concentration was found to be 23.55 ppm. With a flow rate of 26 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 11.4 % with passed through volume 4.75 L. Iron (II ion concentrations were analysed by spectrophotometric method; its initial concentration was found to be 1.5565 ppm. At a flow rate of 22 mL/min, the adsorption efficiency was 0.42 % with passed through volume of 34.0 L.

  4. 78 FR 9915 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Basel II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... CORPORATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Basel II... without revision its Basel II--Recordkeeping and Disclosures information collection, which is currently... INFORMATION: Proposal to renew the following currently approved collections of information: Title: Basel II...

  5. Sorption of Lead (II Ions on Activated Coconut Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Jahangard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, various toxic chemicals/compounds have been widely detected at dangerous levels in drinking water in many parts of the world posing a variety of serious health risks to human beings. One of these toxic chemicals is lead, so this paper aimed to evaluate of efficiency coconut husk as cheap adsorbent for removal lead under different conditions. Methods: In the spring of 2015, batch studies were performed in laboratory (Branch of Hamadan, Islamic Azad University, to evaluate the influences of various experimental parameters like pH, initial concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time and the effect of temperature on the adsorption capacity of coconut husk for removal lead from aqueous solution. Results: Optimum conditions for Pb (II removal were pH 6, adsorbent dosage 1g/100ml of solution and equilibrium time 120 min. The adsorption isotherm was also affected by temperature since the adsorption capacity was increased by raising the temperature from 25 to 45 °C. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm was better described by Freuindlich adsorption isotherm model. Conclusion: It is evident from the literature survey that coconut-based biosorbents have shown good potential for the removal of various aquatic pollutants. Coconut husk-based activated carbon can be a promising adsorbent for removal of Pb from aqueous solutions.

  6. Superoxide dismutase mimetic activity of cytokinin-copper(II) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, H.; Hirobe, M.

    1986-05-29

    Dissociation constants of cytokinins, derivatives of purine which form complexes which cupric ion, were determined by spectrophotometry and the stability constants of their copper complexes by pH titration. The values found for kinetic were 3.76, 9.96, 7.8, and 15.3 for pK/sub 1/ for pK/sub 2/, logk/sub 1/, and log..beta../sub 2/, respectively, and those for 6-benzylaminopurine were, in the same order, 3.90, 9.84, 8.3, and 15.9. The copper(II) complexes with kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine had superoxide dismutase mimetic activity, and the reaction rate constants with superoxide, which were determined by polarography. were 2.3 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/s/sup -1/ for kinetin and 1.5 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/s/sup -1/ for 6-benzylaminopurine at pH 9.8 and 25/sup 0/C.

  7. Reduced basal and novelty-induced levels of activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc) and c-Fos mRNA in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-01-01

    in APP/PS1ΔE9 compared to wild-type mice. Novelty exposure induced an increase in Arc and c-Fos mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), parietal cortex, and hippocampal formation in both APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic and wild-type mice. However, novelty-induced IEG expression did not reach the same levels...

  8. Effects of activator and activator headgear treatment: comparison with untreated Class II subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkkahraman, Hakan; Sayin, M Ozgür

    2006-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether the activator and activator headgear encourage mandibular growth, and whether there is any superiority of one appliance over the other or if the resultant changes are due to normal growth. Forty-nine skeletal Class II division 1 patients were selected. Thirty-three (13 females, 20 males; mean age 12.52 +/- 1.42 years) were treated with an Andresen activator and the remaining 16 (7 females, 9 males; mean age 13.04 +/- 1.47 years) with an activator headgear combination. Twenty Class II subjects (9 females, 11 males; mean age 12.57 +/- 1.11 years) who had previously refused treatment served as a control group. Cephalometric landmarks were marked and digitized by one author to avoid inter-observer variability. Nine angular and 12 linear measurements were established and measured using Vistadent AT software. A paired-sample t-test and an ANOVA test were used to statistically evaluate the findings. The results revealed that both the activator and the activator headgear combination significantly (P headgear combination group. The resultant skeletal, dentoalveolar and soft tissue changes differed significantly from those due to growth.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Nickel (II) and Palladium (II) Complex with Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (PDTC)

    OpenAIRE

    Sk Imadul Islam; Suvendu Bikash Das; Sutapa Chakrabarty; Sudeshna Hazra; Akhil Pandey; Animesh Patra

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of square planar Ni(II) and Pd(II) complexes with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) was characterized by elemental, physiochemical, and spectroscopic methods. Two complexes were prepared by the reaction of nickel acetate and palladium acetate with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) in 1 : 2 molar ratio. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) interaction with complexes was examined by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques at pH 7.4. All the spectral data suggest that coor...

  10. Optimization of protease production by an actinomycete Strain, PS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Actinomycetes were isolated from the sediment samples of an estuarine shrimp pond located along the south east coast of India. During the investigation, a total of 28 strains of actinomycetes were isolated and examined for their protease activity. Among them, one strain PS-18A which was tentatively identified as ...

  11. Design, synthesis, spectral characterization, DNA interaction and biological activity studies of copper(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes of 6-amino benzothiazole derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daravath, Sreenu; Kumar, Marri Pradeep; Rambabu, Aveli; Vamsikrishna, Narendrula; Ganji, Nirmala; Shivaraj

    2017-09-01

    Two novel Schiff bases, L1 = (2-benzo[d]thiazol-6-ylimino)methyl)-4,6-dichlorophenol), L2 = (1-benzo[d]thiazol-6-ylimino)methyl)-6-bromo-4-chlorophenol) and their bivalent transition metal complexes [M(L1)2] and [M(L2)2], where M = Cu(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, NMR, IR, UV-visible, mass, magnetic moments, ESR, TGA, SEM, EDX and powder XRD. Based on the experimental data a square planar geometry around the metal ion is assigned to all the complexes (1a-2c). The interaction of synthesized metal complexes with calf thymus DNA was explored using UV-visible absorption spectra, fluorescence and viscosity measurements. The experimental evidence indicated that all the metal complexes strongly bound to CT-DNA through an intercalation mode. DNA cleavage experiments of metal(II) complexes with supercoiled pBR322 DNA have also been explored by gel electrophoresis in the presence of H2O2 as well as UV light, and it is found that the Cu(II) complexes cleaved DNA more effectively compared to Co(II), Ni(II) complexes. In addition, the ligands and their metal complexes were screened for antimicrobial activity and it is found that all the metal complexes were more potent than free ligands.

  12. Jak2-Independent Activation of Stat3 by Intracellular Angiotensin II in Human Mesangial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ang II is shown to mediate the stimulatory effect of high glucose on TGF-b1 and extracellular matrix proteins in glomerular mesangial cells. Also inhibition of Ang II formation in cell media (extracellular and lysates (intracellular blocks high-glucose effects on TGF-b1 and matrix more effectively compared to inhibition of extracellular Ang II alone. To investigate whether intracellular Ang II can stimulate TGF-b1 and matrix independent of extracellular Ang II, cultured human mesangial cells were transfected with Ang II to increase intracellular Ang II levels and its effects on TGF-b1 and matrix proteins were determined. Prior to transfection, cells were treated with candesartan to block extracellular Ang II-induced responses via cell membrane AT1 receptors. Transfection of cells with Ang II resulted in increased levels of intracellular Ang II which was accompanied by increased production of TGF-b1, collagen IV, fibronectin, and cell proliferation as well. On further examination, intracellular Ang II was found to activate Stat3 transcription factor including increased Stat3 protein expression, tyrosine 705 phosphorylation, and DNA-binding activity. Treatment with AG-490, an inhibitor of Jak2, did not block intracellular Ang II-induced Stat3 phosphorylation at tyrosine 705 residue indicating a Jak2-independent mechanism used by intracellular Ang II for Stat3 phosphorylation. In contrast, extracellular Ang II-induced tyrosine 705 phosphorylation of Stat3 was inhibited by AG-490 confirming the presence of a Jak2-dependent pathway. These findings suggest that intracellular Ang II increases TGF-b1 and matrix in human mesangial cells and also activates Stat3 transcription factor without involvement of the extracellular Ang II signaling pathway.

  13. The S(1) split signal of photosystem II; a tyrosine-manganese coupled interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Nicholas; Ho, Felix M; Pewnim, Naray; Steffen, Ronald; Smith, Paul J; Havelius, Kajsa G V; Hughes, Joseph L; Debono, Lesley; Styring, Stenbjörn; Krausz, Elmars; Pace, Ron J

    2009-07-01

    Detailed optical and EPR analyses of states induced in dark-adapted PS II membranes by cryogenic illumination permit characterization and quantification of all pigment derived donors and acceptors, as well as optically silent (in the visible, near infrared) species which are EPR active. Near complete turnover formation of Q(A)((-)) is seen in all centers, but with variable efficiency, depending on the donor species. In minimally detergent-exposed PS II membranes, negligible (ii) reduced cytochrome b(559) ( approximately 30-50% centers), and (iii) an organic donor, possibly an amino acid side chain, ( approximately 30% centers).

  14. Chronic hypoxia induces the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis in wild-type and APPswe-PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Rojas-Abalos, Macarena; Abbott, Ana C.; Moya, Esteban A.; Iturriaga, Rodrigo; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia modulates proliferation and differentiation of cultured embryonic and adult stem cells, an effect that includes β-catenin, a key component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Here we studied the effect of mild hypoxia on the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the hippocampus of adult mice in vivo. The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α) was analyzed as a molecular control of the physiological hypoxic response. Exposure to chronic hypoxia (10% oxygen for 6–72 h) stimulated the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Because the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a positive modulator of adult neurogenesis, we evaluated whether chronic hypoxia was able to stimulate neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Results indicate that hypoxia increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in adult wild-type mice as determined by Ki67 staining, Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and double labeling with doublecortin (DCX). Chronic hypoxia also induced neurogenesis in a double transgenic APPswe-PS1ΔE9 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which shows decreased levels of neurogenesis in the SGZ. Our results show for the first time that exposure to hypoxia in vivo can induce the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade in the hippocampus, suggesting that mild hypoxia may have a therapeutic value in neurodegenerative disorders associated with altered Wnt signaling in the brain and also in pathological conditions in which hippocampal neurogenesis is impaired. PMID:24574965

  15. Chronic hypoxia induces the in vivo activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis in wild-type and APPswe-PS1deltaE9 transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena eVarela-Nallar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia modulates proliferation and differentiation of cultured embryonic and adult stem cells, an effect that includes β-catenin a key component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Here we studied in vivo the effect of mild hypoxia on the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the hippocampus of adult mice. As a molecular control of the physiological hypoxic response the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α was analyzed. Exposure to chronic hypoxia (10% oxygen for 6-72 h stimulated the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Because the Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a positive modulator of adult neurogenesis, we evaluated whether chronic hypoxia was able to stimulate neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Results indicate that hypoxia increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in adult wild-type mice as determined by Ki67 staining, BrdU incorporation and double labeling with doublecortin. Chronic hypoxia also induced neurogenesis in double transgenic APPswe-PS1deltaE9 mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, which shows decreased levels of neurogenesis at the SGZ. Our results show for the first time that in vivo exposure to hypoxia can induce the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade in the hippocampus, suggesting that mild hypoxia may have a therapeutic value in neurodegenerative disorder associated with altered Wnt signaling in the brain and also in pathological conditions in which hippocampal neurogenesis is impaired.

  16. Coordination behavior of tetraaza [N4] ligand towards Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cu(I) and Pd(II) complexes: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and anticancer activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Boraey, Hanaa A.

    2012-11-01

    Novel eight Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cu(I) and Pd(II) complexes with [N4] ligand (L) i.e. 2-amino-N-{2-[(2-aminobenzoyl)amino]ethyl}benzamide have been synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, spectral, thermal (TG/DTG), magnetic, and molar conductivity measurements. On the basis of IR, mass, electronic and EPR spectral studies an octahedral geometry has been proposed for Co(II), Ni(II) complexes and Cu(II) chloride complex, square-pyramidal for Cu(I) bromide complex. For Cu(II) nitrate complex (6), Pd(II) complex (8) square planar geometry was proposed. The EPR data of Cu(II) complexes in powdered form indicate dx2-y2 ground state of Cu(II) ion. The antitumor activity of the synthesized ligand and some selected metal complexes has been studied. The palladium(II) complex (8) was found to display cytotoxicity (IC50 = 25.6 and 41 μM) against human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and human hepatocarcinoma HEPG2 cell line.

  17. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of Hexakis(imidazole nickel (II O,O′-diphenyldithiophosphate [Ni(Im6](Ph2O2PS22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui Jiao

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The crystal and molecular structures of [Ni(Im6](dtp2 (Im = imidazole, dtp = O,O′-diphenyldithiophosphate have been determined by X-ray crystallography. It crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group Pī, with cell parameters a = 9.375 (2, b = 12.324(3, c = 13.285(3 Å, α = 107.86(3, β = 102.28(3, γ = 109.24(3, and Z = 1. The crystal structure of the title compound is built up of discrete monomeric molecules of [Ni(Im6](dtp2. The nickel (II ion is hexacoordinated by six imidazole molecules and the coordination environment of Ni (II is of octahedral geometry. In the solid state, a network of N-H···S intermolecular hydrogen bonds connect the Ni(Im6 moieties and O,O′-diphenyldithiophosphate molecules, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  18. Integrin αII b tail distal of GFFKR participates in inside-out αII b β3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A; Guo, Q; Kim, C; Hu, W; Ye, F

    2014-07-01

    Increases in ligand binding to integrins (activation) play critical roles in platelet and leukocyte function. Integrin activation requires talin and kindlin binding to integrin β cytoplasmic tails. Research has focused on the conserved GFFKR motif in integrin αII b tails, integrin β cytoplasmic tails and the binding partners of β tails. However, the roles of αII b tail distal of GFFKR motif are unexplored. To investigate the role of αII b tail distal of GFFKR in talin-mediated inside-out integrin signaling. We used model cell systems to examine the role of αII b tail distal of GFFKR in bidirectional αII b β3 signaling and αII b β3 -talin interactions. Deletion of amino acid residues after the GFFKR motif in αII b tail moderately decreased β3 (D723R)-induced activation, abolished talin-induced αII b β3 activation in model cells, and inhibited agonist-induced αII b β3 activation in megakaryocytic cells. Furthermore, residues in αII b tail distal of GFFKR did not affect outside-in αII b β3 signaling or αII b β3 -talin interaction. Addition of non-homologous or non-specific amino acids to the GFFKR motif restored αII b β3 activation in model cells and in megakaryocytic cells. Molecular modeling indicates that β3 -bound talin sterically clashes with the αII b tail in the αII b β3 complexes, potentially disfavoring the α-β interactions that keep αII b β3 inactive. The αII b tail sequences distal of GFFKR participate in talin-mediated inside-out αII b β3 activation through its steric clashes with β3 -bound talin. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  19. The directed differentiation of human iPS cells into kidney podocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Song

    Full Text Available The loss of glomerular podocytes is a key event in the progression of chronic kidney disease resulting in proteinuria and declining function. Podocytes are slow cycling cells that are considered terminally differentiated. Here we provide the first report of the directed differentiation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells to generate kidney cells with podocyte features. The iPS-derived podocytes share a morphological phenotype analogous with cultured human podocytes. Following 10 days of directed differentiation, iPS podocytes had an up-regulated expression of mRNA and protein localization for podocyte markers including synaptopodin, nephrin and Wilm's tumour protein (WT1, combined with a down-regulation of the stem cell marker OCT3/4. In contrast to human podocytes that become quiescent in culture, iPS-derived cells maintain a proliferative capacity suggestive of a more immature phenotype. The transduction of iPS podocytes with fluorescent labeled-talin that were immunostained with podocin showed a cytoplasmic contractile response to angiotensin II (AII. A permeability assay provided functional evidence of albumin uptake in the cytoplasm of iPS podocytes comparable to human podocytes. Moreover, labeled iPS-derived podocytes were found to integrate into reaggregated metanephric kidney explants where they incorporated into developing glomeruli and co-expressed WT1. This study establishes the differentiation of iPS cells to kidney podocytes that will be useful for screening new treatments, understanding podocyte pathogenesis, and offering possibilities for regenerative medicine.

  20. Ps-atom scattering at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Fabrikant, I I

    2015-01-01

    A pseudopotential for positronium-atom interaction, based on electron-atom and positron-atom phase shifts, is constructed, and the phase shifts for Ps-Kr and Ps-Ar scattering are calculated. This approach allows us to extend the Ps-atom cross sections, obtained previously in the impulse approximation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 243201 (2014)], to energies below the Ps ionization threshold. Although experimental data are not available in this low-energy region, our results describe well the tendency of the measured cross sections to drop with decreasing velocity at $v<1$ a.u. Our results show that the effect of the Ps-atom van der Waals interaction is weak compared to the polarization interaction in electron-atom and positron-atom scattering. As a result, the Ps scattering length for both Ar and Kr is positive, and the Ramsauer-Townsend minimum is not observed for Ps scattering from these targets. This makes Ps scattering quite different from electron scattering in the low-energy region, in contrast to the inter...

  1. Enhanced personal protection at the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Samuel Morier Genoud

    2013-01-01

    Pictures 03, 06, 07 08 : Pierre Ninin, deputy group leader of GS-ASE and responsible for the installation of the new PS complex safety system, in front of a new access control system.Pictures 10, 12 ,13 : View of Building 271, the future control centre of the new PS complex safety system.

  2. PS, SL and LHC Auditoria change names

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Following the replacement of the PS, SL and LHC Divisions by the AB and AT Divisions, the Auditoria are also changing their names. PS Auditorium is renamed AB Meyrin SL Auditorium is renamed AB Prévessin LHC Auditorium is renamed AT

  3. Synthesis and phosphatase activity of a Cobalt (II) phenanthroline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phenanthroline) has been synthesized and structurally characterized by different spectroscopic methods including single crystal X-ray structural study.X-ray crystal structural analysis revealed that the cobalt(II) complex crystallizes in amonoclinicsystem with ...

  4. Synthesis and phosphatase activity of a Cobalt(II) phenanthroline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MAMONI GARAI

    2017-09-19

    phenanthroline) has been synthesized and structurally characterized by different spectroscopic methods including single crystal X-ray structural study. X-ray crystal structural analysis revealed that the cobalt(II) complex crystallizes in ...

  5. Protease-activated receptor 1 and 2 contribute to angiotensin II-induced activation of adventitial fibroblasts from rat aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Rui-Qing; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Bao-Li [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Li, Xiao-Dong [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Hong, Mo-Na [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Chen, Qi-Zhi [Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Han, Wei-Qing, E-mail: whan020@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China); Gao, Ping-Jin, E-mail: gaopingjin@sibs.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension and Department of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (China); Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Institute of Health Sciences, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Institute of Hypertension, Shanghai (China)

    2016-04-29

    Adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) can be activated by angiotensin II (Ang II) and exert pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory effects in vascular remodeling. Protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and 2 play a significant role in fibrogenic and inflammatory diseases. The present study hypothesized that PAR1 and PAR2 are involved in Ang II-induced AF activation and contribute to adventitial remodeling. We found that direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 with PAR1-AP and PAR2-AP led to AF activation, including proliferation and differentiation of AFs, extracellular matrix synthesis, as well as production of pro-fibrotic cytokine TGF-β and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, PAR1 and PAR2 mediated Ang II-induced AF activation, since both PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists inhibited Ang II-induced proliferation, migration, differentiation, extracellular matrix synthesis and production of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in AFs. Finally, mechanistic study showed that Ang II, via Ang II type I receptor (AT1R), upregulated both PAR1 and PAR2 expression, and transactivated PAR1 and PAR2, as denoted by internalization of both proteins. In conclusion, our results suggest that PAR1 and PAR2 play a critical role in Ang II-induced AF activation, and this may contribute to adventitia-related pathological changes. - Highlights: • Direct activation of PAR1 and PAR2 led to adventitial fibroblast (AF) activation. • PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists attenuated Ang II-induced AF activation. • Ang II induced the upregulation and transactivation of PAR1/PAR2 in AFs.

  6. UVB-induced DNA and photosystem II damage in two intertidal green macroalgae: distinct survival strategies in UV-screening and non-screening Chlorophyta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescheck, Frauke; Lohbeck, Kai T; Roleda, Michael Y; Bilger, Wolfgang

    2014-03-05

    Ultraviolet-B-induced (UVB, 280-315 nm) accumulation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and deactivation of photosystem II (PS II) was quantified in two intertidal green macroalgae, Ulva clathrata and Rhizoclonium riparium. The species were chosen due to their shared habitats but contrasting UVB screening potentials. In the non-screening U. clathrata CPDs accumulated and PS II activity declined as a linear function of applied UVB irradiance. In R. riparium UVB-induced damage was significantly lower than in U. clathrata, demonstrating an efficient UVB protection of DNA and PS II by screening. Based on the UVB irradiance reaching the chloroplasts, both species showed an identical intrinsic sensitivity of PS II towards UVB, but DNA lesions accumulated slower in U. clathrata. While repair of CPDs was similar in both species, U. clathrata was capable of restoring its PS II function decidedly faster than R. riparium. In R. riparium efficient screening may represent an adaptation to its high light habitat, whereas in U. clathrata high repair rates of PS II appear to be important to survive natural UVB exposure. The role of shading of the nucleus by the large chloroplasts in U. clathrata is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Adsorption of As(V), Cd(II) and Pb(II), in Multicomponent Aqueous Systems using Activated Carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirilä, M; Cruz, G J F; Ainassaari, K; Gomez, M M; Matějová, L; Keiski, R L

    2017-09-01

      This paper studies the use of two activated carbon samples made of cocoa pod husk (CPH-AC) and one commercial activated carbon sample in the adsorption of As(V), Cd(II) and Pb(II) from multicomponent synthetic solutions and from the Puyango-Tumbes River water, a river located in northwest Peru. The characterization of the activated carbon samples was conducted. The CPH-AC samples exhibited a specific surface area (SBET) between 709 and 1117 m2/g and a pH point of zero charge (pHPZC) between 4.4 ± 0.2 and 5 ± 0.2, while the commercial material gave an SBET value of 775 m2/g and a pHPZC value of 7.6 ± 0.1. All the evaluated samples displayed the capacity to adsorb As(V), Cd(II) and Pb(II) from both aqueous systems. The adsorption efficiency for Pb was outstanding reaching the value of 89%. A pseudo-second order kinetic model was satisfactorily applied for most of the activated carbon samples.

  8. Effects of Class II activator and Class II activator high-pull headgear combination on the mandible: a 3-dimensional finite element stress analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Cağri; Darendeliler, Nilüfer

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Class II activator and the Class II activator high-pull headgear (HG) combination on the mandible with 3-dimensional (3D) finite element stress analysis. A 3D finite element model of the mandible was constructed from a dry human mandible. To investigate the effects of the Class II activator, a 3D model of the lower part of this appliance was constructed and fixed on the mandibular model. The Class II activator high-pull headgear model was established as described, and an extraoral traction force of 350 g was directed from the middle of the Class II activator to the top of the mandibular condyle. The stress regions were studied with the finite element method. The regions near the muscle attachment areas were affected the most. The inner part of the coronoid process and the gonial area had the maximum stress values. Both functional appliances can cause morphologic changes on the mandible by activating the masticatory muscles to change the growth direction.

  9. Tartrazine modified activated carbon for the removal of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monser, Lotfi; Adhoum, Nafaâ

    2009-01-15

    A two in one attempt for the removal of tartrazine and metal ions on activated carbon has been developed. The method was based on the modification of activated carbon with tartrazine then its application for the removal of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) ions at different pH values. Tartrazine adsorption data were modelled using both Langmuir and Freundlich classical adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacities qm were 121.3, 67 and 56.7mgg(-1) at initial pH values of 1.0, 6.0 and 10, respectively. The adsorption of tartrazine onto activated carbon followed second-order kinetic model. The equilibrium time was found to be 240min at pH 1.0 and 120min at pH 10 for 500mgL(-1) tartrazine concentration. A maximum removal of 85% was obtained after 1h of contact time. The presence of tartrazine as modifier enhances attractive electrostatic interactions between metal ions and carbon surface. The adsorption capacity for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) ions has been improved with respect to non-modified carbon reaching a maximum of 140%. The adsorption capacity was found to be a pH dependent for both modified and non-modified carbon with a greater adsorption at higher pH values except for Cr(III). The enhancement percent of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) at different pH values was varied from 28% to 140% with respect to non-modified carbon. The amount of metal ions adsorbed using static regime was 11-40% higher than that with dynamic mode. The difference between adsorption capacities could be attributed to the applied flow rate.

  10. The Rho kinases I and II regulate different aspects of myosin II activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoneda, Atsuko; Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Couchman, John R

    2005-01-01

    The homologous mammalian rho kinases (ROCK I and II) are assumed to be functionally redundant, based largely on kinase construct overexpression. As downstream effectors of Rho GTPases, their major substrates are myosin light chain and myosin phosphatase. Both kinases are implicated in microfilament...

  11. Microfabricated device for co-culture of sympathetic neuron and iPS-derived cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akimasa; Shimba, Kenta; Takayama, Yuzo; Kotani, Kiyoshi; Lee, Jong-Kook; Noshiro, Makoto; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs) has been expected as a cell source for therapy of serious heart failure. However, it is unclear whether the function of iPS-CMs is modulated by the host sympathetic nervous system. Here we developed a device for co-culture of sympathetic neurons and iPS-CMs using microfabrication technique. The device consisted of a culture chamber and a microelectrode-array (MEA) substrate. The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons were co-cultured with iPS-CMs in a microfabricated device, which had multiple compartments. Several days after seeding, synapses were formed between SCG neurons and iPS-CMs, as confirmed by immunostaining. Spontaneous electrical activities of the SCG neurons and the iPS-CMs were observed from the electrode of the MEA substrate. The beat rate of iPS-CMs increased after electrical stimulation of the co-cultured SCG neurons. Such changes in the beat rate were prevented in the presence of propranolol, a β-adrenoreceptor antagonist. These results suggest that the microfabricated device will be utilized for studying the functional modulation of iPS-CMs by connected sympathetic neurons.

  12. Angiotensin II contributes to renal fibrosis independently of Notch pathway activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Lavoz

    Full Text Available Recent studies have described that the Notch signaling pathway is activated in a wide range of renal diseases. Angiotensin II (AngII plays a key role in the progression of kidney diseases. AngII contributes to renal fibrosis by upregulation of profibrotic factors, induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition and accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins. In cultured human tubular epithelial cells the Notch activation by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 has been involved in epithelial mesenchymal transition. AngII mimics many profibrotic actions of TGF-β1. For these reasons, our aim was to investigate whether AngII could regulate the Notch/Jagged system in the kidney, and its potential role in AngII-induced responses. In cultured human tubular epithelial cells, TGF-β1, but not AngII, increased the Notch pathway-related gene expression, Jagged-1 synthesis, and caused nuclear translocation of the activated Notch. In podocytes and renal fibroblasts, AngII did not modulate the Notch pathway. In tubular epithelial cells, pharmacological Notch inhibition did not modify AngII-induced changes in epithelial mesenchymal markers, profibrotic factors and extracellular matrix proteins. Systemic infusion of AngII into rats for 2 weeks caused tubulointerstitial fibrosis, but did not upregulate renal expression of activated Notch-1 or Jagged-1, as observed in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Moreover, the Notch/Jagged system was not modulated by AngII type I receptor blockade in the model of unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. These data clearly indicate that AngII does not regulate the Notch/Jagged signaling system in the kidney, in vivo and in vitro. Our findings showing that the Notch pathway is not involved in AngII-induced fibrosis could provide important information to understand the complex role of Notch system in the regulation of renal regeneration vs damage progression.

  13. Laminin activates CaMK-II to stabilize nascent embryonic axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Charles A; Faison, Milton O; Kirsch, Therese L; Lee, Jocelyn A; Seward, Matthew E; Tombes, Robert M

    2006-05-30

    In neurons, the interaction of laminin with its receptor, beta1 integrin, is accompanied by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+. Neuronal behavior is influenced by CaMK-II, the type II Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, which is enriched in axons of mouse embryonic neurons. In this study, we sought to determine whether CaMK-II is activated by laminin, and if so, how CaMK-II influences axonal growth and stability. Axons grew up to 200 microm within 1 day of plating P19 embryoid bodies on laminin-1 (EHS laminin). Activated CaMK-II was found enriched along the axon and in the growth cone as detected using a phospho-Thr(287) specific CaMK-II antibody. beta1 integrin was found in a similar pattern along the axon and in the growth cone. Direct inhibition of CaMK-II in 1-day-old neurons immediately froze growth cone dynamics, disorganized F-actin and ultimately led to axon retraction. Collapsed axonal remnants exhibited diminished phospho-CaMK-II levels. Treatment of 1-day neurons with a beta1 integrin-blocking antibody (CD29) also reduced axon length and phospho-CaMK-II levels and, like CaMK-II inhibitors, decreased CaMK-II activation. Among several CaMK-II variants detected in these cultures, the 52-kDa delta variant preferentially associated with actin and beta 3 tubulin as determined by reciprocal immunoprecipitation. Our findings indicate that persistent activation of delta CaMK-II by laminin stabilizes nascent embryonic axons through its influence on the actin cytoskeleton.

  14. Synthesis, structural and biochemical activity studies of a new hexadentate Schiff base ligand and its Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekcioglu, Pinar; Karabocek, Nevin; Karabocek, Serdar; Emirik, Mustafa

    2015-11-01

    A new Schiff base ligand (H2L) and its metal complexes have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic moment and spectral studies. The comparative in-vitro antimicrobial activities against various pathogens with reference to known antibiotics activity under the standard control of different concentrations revealed that the metal complexes (6-8) showed enhanced antimicrobial activities in general as compared to free ligand. As an exception, the free ligand showed better activity against Trichoderma. The antifungal activity experiments were performed in triplicate. The order of biochemical activity for metal complexes were observed as in the following. CuL > CoL > NiL, which is exactly same as the order of stability constants of these complexes. Additionally, we performed DFT and TD-DFT calculation for free ligand and Cu(II) complex to support the experimental data. The geometries of the Cu(II) complex have been optimized using the B3LYP level of theory. The theoretical calculations confirm that the copper (II) center exhibits a distorted square pyramidal geometry which is favored by experimental results.

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the desoxyribonuclease II activity of isolated mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OKADA, S; PEACHY, L D

    1957-03-25

    1. Exposure of isolated liver mitochondria to high doses of gamma rays from a Co(60) source causes the level of DNase II activity to increase. Treatment of the mitochondria with sonic vibration causes a further elevation of the activity to a level which is independent of the prior radiation dose. 2. Such increased mitochondrial DNase II activity appears to be due to the "structural damage" of the subcellular particulates caused by the ionizing radiation. Other methods of disrupting the mitochondrial structure also cause increased DNase II activity. A causal relationship between the structural alteration and the increased enzymatic activity is postulated. 3. The DNase II activity appears to be closely associated with the structural elements of the mitochondria and remains associated with the fragments after irradiation. 4. Upon irradiation, the mitochondrial suspension releases ultraviolet-absorbing materials which are probably nucleotide in nature. 5. The possibility of localization of DNase activity in the lysosome fraction of de Duve (15) is discussed. It is felt that DNase II is at least in part a mitochondrial enzyme and that probably the conclusions drawn here would be applicable to any DNase II present in the lysosomes as well. 6. Irradiation of whole liver homogenate causes no increased DNase II activity. The experiments do not provide any information on the presence or action of protective substances in the homogenate.

  16. Study of Interaction Platinum Salts (Ii and Palladium (Ii on the Biologically Active Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmat Nizami Kyzy Azizova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studied complexing ability of platinum (II and palladium (II with a time of personal gray-oxygen and sulfur-containing ligands donor nitrogens in different taniyah. A combination of functional groups. It is found that the complexation unimportant role nature of the starting metal salts, the pH of the medium, the nature of the solvent and the ratio of reactants. Determine the actual denticity tiodiuksusnoy, tiodipro propionic acid, mercaptoethanol, and bis -- hydroxyethyl sulfide. Discovered that a molecule entering the reaction of cysteamine origin walks splitting S–S communication and the resulting deproto-bined mercamine enter into complexation. In non-aqueous medium splitting S–S communication occurs.

  17. On the crystallization behavior of syndiotactic-b-atactic polystyrene stereodiblock copolymers, atactic/syndiotactic polystyrene blends, and aPS/sPS blends modified with sPS-b-aPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunziata, Liana, E-mail: liana.annunziatta@univ-rennes1.fr [Organométalliques et Catalyse, UMR 6226 Sciences Chimiques CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Monasse, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.monasse@mines-paristech.fr [Mines-ParisTech, CEMEF, Centre de Mise en Forme des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 7635, Sophia Antipolis (France); Rizzo, Paola; Guerra, Gaetano [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università degli studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano, SA (Italy); Duc, Michel [Total Petrochemicals Research Feluy, Zone Industrielle Feluy C, B-7181 Seneffe (Belgium); Carpentier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.carpentier@univ-rennes1.fr [Organométalliques et Catalyse, UMR 6226 Sciences Chimiques CNRS, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2013-09-16

    Crystallization and morphological features of syndiotactic-b-atactic polystyrene stereodiblock copolymers (sPS-b-aPS), atactic/syndiotactic polystyrene blends (aPS/sPS), and aPS/sPS blends modified with sPS-b-aPS, with different compositions in aPS and sPS, have been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized light optical microscopy (POM) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXRD) techniques. For comparative purposes, the properties of parent pristine sPS samples were also studied. WAXRD analyses revealed for all the samples, independently from their composition (aPS/sPS ratio) and structure (blends, block copolymers, blends modified with block copolymers), the same polymorphic β form of sPS. The molecular weight of aPS and sPS showed opposite effects on the crystallization of 50:50 aPS/sPS blends: the lower the molecular weight of aPS, the slower the crystallization while the lower the molecular weight of sPS, the faster the crystallization. DSC studies performed under both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions, independently confirmed by POM studies, led to a clear trend for the crystallization rate at a given sPS/aPS ratio (ca. 50:50 and 20:80): sPS homopolymers > sPS-b-aPS block copolymers ∼sPS/aPS blends modified with sPS-b-aPS copolymers > sPS/aPS blends. Interestingly, sPS-b-aPS block copolymers not only crystallized faster than blends, but also affected positively the crystallization behavior of blends. At 50:50 sPS/aPS ratio, blends (Blend-2), block copolymers (Cop-1) and blends modified with block copolymers (Blend-2-mod) crystallized via spherulitic crystalline growth controlled by an interfacial process. In all cases, an instantaneous nucleation was observed. The density of nuclei in block copolymers (160,000−190,000 nuclei mm{sup −3}) was always higher than that in blends and modified blends (30,000−60,000 nuclei mm{sup −3}), even for quite different sPS/aPS ratio. At 20:80 sPS/aPS ratio, the block copolymers

  18. A study of the activity and effectiveness of recombinant fibroblast growth factor (Q40P/S47I/H93G rFGF-1 in anti-aging treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Żerańska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1 is a powerful mitogen involved in the stimulation of DNA synthesis and the proliferation of a wide variety of cell types. Fibroblast growth factor 1 was genetically modified to improve its thermal stability and resistance to protease degradation without losing its biological activity. Aim : To study the impact of Q40P/S47I/H93G rFGF-1 on skin cells, its penetration through the skin and the evaluation of the rFGF-1-cosmetic product properties. Material and methods : In vitro studies included the examination of primary fibroblast and keratinocyte viability after the incubation with rFGF-1. The penetration abilities of rFGF-1 in various formulations and carrier systems were examined ex vivo by the Raman spectroscopy. In vivo studies – HF Ultrasound and 3D Imaging System – were used to evaluate the anti-aging properties of creams containing rFGF-1. Results : In vitro studies demonstrated that rFGF-1 strongly enhanced the viability of the treated cells. The Raman Spectroscopy analysis indicated that rFGF-1 encapsulated in lipid spheres penetrate through the stratum corneum to the depth of 60 μm, and added to the o/w formulation – could penetrate to a depth of 90 μm. The results obtained from Primos revealed the reduction of the volume and the depth of the wrinkles. Changes in the skin structure in the analyzed areas were evaluated by HF Ultrasonography. Conclusions : Recombinant FGF-1 strongly stimulated fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation. However, the transition of this protein through the SC required an appropriate carrier system – lipid spheres. All tests – in vitro , ex vivo and in vivo – have proved that rFGF-1 is a substance with a potentially wide spectrum of use.

  19. Photocatalytic activity of nanostructured copper (ii) oxide Particles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copper (II) Oxide nanostructured particles have been successfully synthesized by a simple wet chemistry method. The materials obtained were characterized and applied in photodegradation of methylene blue. The XRD pattern obtained reveals crystallinity with major peaks at 2q values 35.53°, 38.71° and 48.75° exhibiting ...

  20. Angiotensin II Stimulation of DPP4 Activity Regulates Megalin in the Proximal Tubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annayya Aroor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteinuria is a marker of incipient kidney injury in many disorders, including obesity. Previously, we demonstrated that megalin, a receptor endocytotic protein in the proximal tubule, is downregulated in obese mice, which was prevented by inhibition of dipeptidyl protease 4 (DPP4. Obesity is thought to be associated with upregulation of intra-renal angiotensin II (Ang II signaling via the Ang II Type 1 receptor (AT1R and Ang II suppresses megalin expression in proximal tubule cells in vitro. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that Ang II will suppress megalin protein via activation of DPP4. We used Ang II (200 ng/kg/min infusion in mice and Ang II (10−8 M treatment of T35OK-AT1R proximal tubule cells to test our hypothesis. Ang II-infused mouse kidneys displayed increases in DPP4 activity and decreases in megalin. In proximal tubule cells, Ang II stimulated DPP4 activity concurrent with suppression of megalin. MK0626, a DPP4 inhibitor, partially restored megalin expression similar to U0126, a mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK/extracellular regulated kinase (ERK kinase kinase (MEK 1/2 inhibitor and AG1478, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitor. Similarly, Ang II-induced ERK phosphorylation was suppressed with MK0626 and Ang II-induced DPP4 activity was suppressed by U0126. Therefore, our study reveals a cross talk between AT1R signaling and DPP4 activation in the regulation of megalin and underscores the significance of targeting DPP4 in the prevention of obesity related kidney injury progression.

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Some New Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II Complexes with Salicylidene Thiosemicarbazones: Antibacterial, Antifungal and in Vitro Antileukemia Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Rosu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty two new Cu(II, Ni(II and Zn(II complexes (1–32 with salicylidene thiosemicarbazones (H2L1–H2L10 were synthesized. Salicylidene thiosemicarbazones, of general formula (XN-NH-C(S-NH(Y, were prepared through the condensation reaction of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and its derivatives (X with thiosemicarbazide or 4-phenylthiosemicarbazide (Y = H, C6H5. The characterization of the new formed compounds was done by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, magnetochemical, thermoanalytical and molar conductance measurements. In addition, the structure of the complex 5 has been determined by X-ray diffraction method. All ligands and metal complexes were tested as inhibitors of human leukemia (HL-60 cells growth and antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  2. 20 CFR 404.1321 - Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... post-World War II veterans. 404.1321 Section 404.1321 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1321 Ninety-day active service requirement for post-World War II veterans. (a) The 90 days of active service required for post-World War II...

  3. Sulforaphane Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Testicular Cell Death via Activation of NRF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although angiotensin II (Ang II was reported to facilitate sperm motility and intratesticular sperm transport, recent findings shed light on the efficacy of Ang II in stimulating inflammatory events in testicular peritubular cells, effect of which may play a role in male infertility. It is still unknown whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death, which may be a more direct action of Ang II in male infertility. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death and whether this action can be prevented by sulforaphane (SFN via activating nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF2, the governor of antioxidant-redox signalling. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J wild type (WT and Nrf2 gene knockout mice were treated with Ang II, in the presence or absence of SFN. In WT mice, SFN activated testicular NRF2 expression and function, along with a marked attenuation in Ang II-induced testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic cell death. Deletion of the Nrf2 gene led to a complete abolishment of these efficacies of SFN. The present study indicated that Ang II may result in testicular apoptotic cell death, which can be prevented by SFN via the activation of NRF2.

  4. Signal transduction by HLA class II antigens expressed on activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Martin, P J; Schieven, G L

    1991-01-01

    Human T cells express HLA class II antigens upon activation. Although activated, class II+ T cells can present alloantigens under certain circumstances, the functional role of class II antigens on activated T cells remains largely unknown. Here, we report that cross-linking of HLA-DR molecules...... after cross-linking CD4. Ligation of CD4 and class II molecules generated a synergistic effect of the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration response that required an interaction between the molecules on the cell surface. Since class II is the natural ligand for CD4, the present data suggest that class...... expressed on allospecific, CD4+ T clones and cell lines can function as transduction elements that trigger rapid cellular responses including tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins and mobilization of Ca2+ from internal stores. The proteins phosphorylated on tyrosine were distinct from those observed...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of the synthetic peptide scolopendrasin ii from the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young-Nam; Lee, Joon Ha; Kim, In-Woo; Kim, Sang-Hee; Yun, Eun-Young; Nam, Sung-Hee; Ahn, Mi-Young; Jeong, Mihye; Kang, Dong-Chul; Lee, In Hee; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2013-10-28

    The centipede Scolopendra subpinipes mutilans is a medicinally important arthropod species. However, its transcriptome is not currently available and transcriptome analysis would be useful in providing insight into a molecular level approach. Hence, we performed de novo RNA sequencing of S. subpinipes mutilans using next-generation sequencing. We generated a novel peptide (scolopendrasin II) based on a SVM algorithm, and biochemically evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of scolopendrasin II against various microbes. Scolopendrasin II showed antibacterial activities against gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains, including the yeast Candida albicans and antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria, as determined by a radial diffusion assay and colony count assay without hemolytic activity. In addition, we confirmed that scolopendrasin II bound to the surface of bacteria through a specific interaction with lipoteichoic acid and a lipopolysaccharide, which was one of the bacterial cell-wall components. In conclusion, our results suggest that scolopendrasin II may be useful for developing peptide antibiotics.

  6. Educacion al Aire Libre: Libro de Actividades II = Outdoor Education: Student Activity Book II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ada, Alma Flor, Comp.; And Others

    Divided into four sections, the book includes activities for students to do before camp, on the way to camp, at camp, and after camp. Activities to do before camp include writing proverbs, tongue twisters, riddles, poems, and stories. Activities to do on the way to camp include singing songs and reading a map. The words to the following songs are…

  7. Ps 22 in Gospels’ interpretation of Passion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwester Jędrzejewski

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ps 22 is a piece of artistically high poetry, clear images and metaphors, historical and prophetic references. The conviction of biblical scholars that the New Testament writers has recognized in Ps 22 prophetic witness of passion, accompanies the Church from its beginnings. The words of Jesus on the cross, taken from Ps 22: 2, have a character of lamentable re-symbolization of the prayer of Israel. These words establish a theological answer in the form of suitable credo as well. Dramatic question “why?” is connected with a proclamation and identification “My God”. The personal experience of oppression and death is included by Jesus in the history of his nation and in the experience of God. Ps 22 in the Gospels’ passion context becomes a proclamation form of prayer and a very personal, expressed in such dramatic circumstances confession of the faith.

  8. Effects of collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis on amyloidosis and microvascular pathology in APP/PS1 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Gyeong

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that rheumatoid arthritis (RA may enhance or reduce the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD. The present study was performed to directly explore the effects of collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis (CIA on amyloid plaque formation, microglial activation, and microvascular pathology in the cortex and hippocampus of the double transgenic APP/PS1 mouse model for AD. Wild-type or APP/PS1 mice that received type II collagen (CII in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA at 2 months of age revealed characteristics of RA, such as joint swelling, synovitis, and cartilage and bone degradation 4 months later. Joint pathology was accompanied by sustained induction of IL-1β and TNF-α in plasma over 4 weeks after administration of CII in CFA. Results CIA reduced levels of soluble and insoluble amyloid beta (Aβ peptides and amyloid plaque formation in the cortex and hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice, which correlated with increased blood brain barrier disruption, Iba-1-positive microglia, and CD45-positive microglia/macrophages. In contrast, CIA reduced vessel density and length with features of microvascular pathology, including vascular segments, thinner vessels, and atrophic string vessels. Conclusions The present findings suggest that RA may exert beneficial effects against Aβ burden and harmful effects on microvascular pathology in AD.

  9. Synthesis and topoisomerase II inhibitory and cytotoxic activity of oxiranylmethoxy- and thiiranylmethoxy-chalcone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Younghwa; Nam, Jung-Min

    2011-01-01

    In order to find potential anticancer drug candidate targeting topoisomerases enzyme, we have designed and synthesized oxiranylmethoxy- and thiiranylmethoxy-retrochalcone derivatives and evaluated their pharmacological activity including topoisomerases inhibitory and cytotoxic activity. Of the compounds prepared compound 25 showed comparable or better cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines tested. Compound 25 inhibited MCF7 (IC(50): 0.49 ± 0.21 μM) and HCT15 (IC(50): 0.23 ± 0.02 μM) carcinoma cell growth more efficiently than references. In the topoisomerases inhibition test, all the compounds were inactive to topoisomerase I but moderate inhibitors to topoisomerase II enzyme. Especially, compound 25 inhibited topoisomerase II activity with comparable extent to etoposide at 100 μM concentrations. Correlation between cytotoxicity and topoisomerase II inhibitory activity implies that compound 25 can be a possible lead compound for anticancer drug impeding the topoisomerase II function. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Charge requirements of lipid II flippase activity in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily K; Tan, Wee Boon; Joseph, Hildy; Ruiz, Natividad

    2014-12-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG) is an extracytoplasmic glycopeptide matrix essential for the integrity of the envelope of most bacteria. The PG building block is a disaccharide-pentapeptide that is synthesized as a lipid-linked precursor called lipid II. The translocation of the amphipathic lipid II across the cytoplasmic membrane is required for subsequent incorporation of the disaccharide-pentapeptide into PG. In Escherichia coli, the essential inner membrane protein MurJ is the lipid II flippase. Previous studies showed that 8 charged residues in the central cavity region of MurJ are crucial for function. Here, we completed the functional analysis of all 57 charged residues in MurJ and demonstrated that the respective positive or negative charge of the 8 aforementioned residues is required for proper MurJ function. Loss of the negative charge in one of these residues, D39, causes a severe defect in MurJ biogenesis; by engineering an intragenic suppressor mutation that restores MurJ biogenesis, we found that this charge is also essential for MurJ function. Because of the low level of homology between MurJ and putative orthologs from Gram-positive bacteria, we explored the conservation of these 8 charged residues in YtgP, a homolog from Streptococcus pyogenes. We found that only 3 positive charges are similarly positioned and essential in YtgP; YtgP possesses additional charged residues within its predicted cavity that are essential for function and conserved among Gram-positive bacteria. From these data, we hypothesize that some charged residues in the cavity region of MurJ homologs are required for interaction with lipid II and/or energy coupling during transport. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Characterization of Dye-decolorizing Peroxidase (DyP) from Thermomonospora curvata Reveals Unique Catalytic Properties of A-type DyPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Shrestha, Ruben; Jia, Kaimin; Gao, Philip F; Geisbrecht, Brian V; Bossmann, Stefan H; Shi, Jishu; Li, Ping

    2015-09-18

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) comprise a new family of heme peroxidases, which has received much attention due to their potential applications in lignin degradation. A new DyP from Thermomonospora curvata (TcDyP) was identified and characterized. Unlike other A-type enzymes, TcDyP is highly active toward a wide range of substrates including model lignin compounds, in which the catalytic efficiency with ABTS (kcat(app)/Km(app) = (1.7 × 10(7)) m(-1) s(-1)) is close to that of fungal DyPs. Stopped-flow spectroscopy was employed to elucidate the transient intermediates as well as the catalytic cycle involving wild-type (wt) and mutant TcDyPs. Although residues Asp(220) and Arg(327) are found necessary for compound I formation, His(312) is proposed to play roles in compound II reduction. Transient kinetics of hydroquinone (HQ) oxidation by wt-TcDyP showed that conversion of the compound II to resting state is a rate-limiting step, which will explain the contradictory observation made with the aspartate mutants of A-type DyPs. Moreover, replacement of His(312) and Arg(327) has significant effects on the oligomerization and redox potential (E°') of the enzyme. Both mutants were found to promote the formation of dimeric state and to shift E°' to a more negative potential. Not only do these results reveal the unique catalytic property of the A-type DyPs, but they will also facilitate the development of these enzymes as lignin degraders. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Characterization of Dye-decolorizing Peroxidase (DyP) from Thermomonospora curvata Reveals Unique Catalytic Properties of A-type DyPs*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Shrestha, Ruben; Jia, Kaimin; Gao, Philip F.; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Bossmann, Stefan H.; Shi, Jishu; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) comprise a new family of heme peroxidases, which has received much attention due to their potential applications in lignin degradation. A new DyP from Thermomonospora curvata (TcDyP) was identified and characterized. Unlike other A-type enzymes, TcDyP is highly active toward a wide range of substrates including model lignin compounds, in which the catalytic efficiency with ABTS (kcatapp/Kmapp = (1.7 × 107) m−1 s−1) is close to that of fungal DyPs. Stopped-flow spectroscopy was employed to elucidate the transient intermediates as well as the catalytic cycle involving wild-type (wt) and mutant TcDyPs. Although residues Asp220 and Arg327 are found necessary for compound I formation, His312 is proposed to play roles in compound II reduction. Transient kinetics of hydroquinone (HQ) oxidation by wt-TcDyP showed that conversion of the compound II to resting state is a rate-limiting step, which will explain the contradictory observation made with the aspartate mutants of A-type DyPs. Moreover, replacement of His312 and Arg327 has significant effects on the oligomerization and redox potential (E°′) of the enzyme. Both mutants were found to promote the formation of dimeric state and to shift E°′ to a more negative potential. Not only do these results reveal the unique catalytic property of the A-type DyPs, but they will also facilitate the development of these enzymes as lignin degraders. PMID:26205819

  13. Yasp for LEIR to PS injection

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V; Bartosik, H; Huschauer, A; Jacquet, D; Nicosia, D; Pasinelli, S; Wenninger, J

    2017-01-01

    The steering program YASP was introduced in the LEIRinjection as well as the extraction lines in 2016 to correctthe trajectories with well-known model based correctionalgorithms such as MICADO or SVD. In addition a YASPconfiguration was prepared to correct the extraction linetogether with the first turn of the PS. In this way the injectionoscillations can be corrected while keeping the trajectoryreasonable in the PS injection line.

  14. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. Here we see the PS magnet string awaiting the replacement no. 6 magnet.

  15. Updating the Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set: A Report from the PsA Workshop at OMERACT 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbai, Ana-Maria; de Wit, Maarten; Mease, Philip J; Callis Duffin, Kristina; Elmamoun, Musaab; Tillett, William; Campbell, Willemina; FitzGerald, Oliver; Gladman, Dafna D; Goel, Niti; Gossec, Laure; Hoejgaard, Pil; Leung, Ying Ying; Lindsay, Chris; Strand, Vibeke; van der Heijde, Désirée M; Shea, Bev; Christensen, Robin; Coates, Laura; Eder, Lihi; McHugh, Neil; Kalyoncu, Umut; Steinkoenig, Ingrid; Ogdie, Alexis

    2017-10-01

    To include the patient perspective in accordance with the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Filter 2.0 in the updated Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA) Core Domain Set for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and longitudinal observational studies (LOS). At OMERACT 2016, research conducted to update the PsA Core Domain Set was presented and discussed in breakout groups. The updated PsA Core Domain Set was voted on and endorsed by OMERACT participants. We conducted a systematic literature review of domains measured in PsA RCT and LOS, and identified 24 domains. We conducted 24 focus groups with 130 patients from 7 countries representing 5 continents to identify patient domains. We achieved consensus through 2 rounds of separate surveys with 50 patients and 75 physicians, and a nominal group technique meeting with 12 patients and 12 physicians. We conducted a workshop and breakout groups at OMERACT 2016 in which findings were presented and discussed. The updated PsA Core Domain Set endorsed with 90% agreement by OMERACT 2016 participants included musculoskeletal disease activity, skin disease activity, fatigue, pain, patient's global assessment, physical function, health-related quality of life, and systemic inflammation, which were recommended for all RCT and LOS. These were important, but not required in all RCT and LOS: economic cost, emotional well-being, participation, and structural damage. Independence, sleep, stiffness, and treatment burden were on the research agenda. The updated PsA Core Domain Set was endorsed at OMERACT 2016. Next steps for the PsA working group include evaluation of PsA outcome measures and development of a PsA Core Outcome Measurement Set.

  16. An investigation into the origin of the biased agonism associated with the urotensin II receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancaccio, Diego; Merlino, Francesco; Limatola, Antonio; Yousif, Ali Munaim; Gomez-Monterrey, Isabel; Campiglia, Pietro; Novellino, Ettore; Grieco, Paolo; Carotenuto, Alfonso

    2015-05-01

    The urotensin II receptor (UTR) has long been studied mainly for its involvement in the cardiovascular homeostasis both in health and disease state. Two endogenous ligands activate UTR, i.e. urotensin II (U-II) and urotensin II-related peptide (URP). Extensive expression of the two ligands uncovers the diversified pathophysiological effects mediated by the urotensinergic system such as cardiovascular disorders, smooth muscle cell proliferation, renal disease, diabetes, and tumour growth. As newly reported, U-II and URP have distinct effects on transcriptional activity, cell proliferation, and myocardial contractile activities supporting the idea that U-II and URP interact with UTR in a distinct manner (biased agonism). To shed light on the origin of the divergent activities of the two endogenous ligands, we performed a conformational study on URP by solution NMR in sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle solution and compared the obtained NMR structure of URP with that of hU-II previously determined. Finally, we undertook docking studies between URP, hU-II, and an UT receptor model. Copyright © 2015 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Removal of lead(II) ions from aqueous solutions using activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The adsorption of lead(II) on to activated carbon developed from an indigenous Ethiopian medicinal plant leaves namely Birbira (Militia ferruginea) was investigated to assess the possible use of this adsorbent. The influences of contact time, adsorbent dose, Pb(II) concentration, pH and temperature on adsorption were ...

  18. Comparison of the characteristics and mechanisms of Hg(II) sorption by biochars and activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyun; Schierz, Ariette; Xu, Nan; Cao, Xinde

    2016-02-01

    Two biochars were produced from bagasse and hickory chips (referred to as BB and HCB, respectively) and evaluated for their sorption ability of Hg(II) in aqueous solution. A commercial activated carbon (AC) which is commonly used for Hg(II) removal was included for comparison. Both biochars showed higher sorption capacities than AC, following the trend of BB>HCB>AC. The sorption of Hg(II) by BB and AC was mainly attributed to the formation of (COO)2Hg(II) and (O)2Hg(II). As a result, the adsorption capacity of Hg(II) by BB decreased 17.6% and 37.6% after COOH and OH were blocked, respectively and that of Hg(II) by AC decreased 6.63% and 62.2% for COOH and OH hindered, respectively. However, blocking the function groups had little effect on the Hg removal by HCB since sorption of Hg(II) by HCB was mainly resulted from the π electrons of CC and CO induced Hg-π binding. Further X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicated the possibility of reduction of the Hg(II) to Hg(I) by phenol groups or π electrons during the removal of Hg(II) by both biochars. In conclusion, biochar is more effective than activated carbon in removing Hg(II) and there exists a high potential that biochar can be a substitute of activated carbon for removal of Hg(II) from wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. NI (II AND PB (II INHIBIT THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF DNA IN AN ELECTRON TRANSFER REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B FARZAMI

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ni and Pb are metals with several suggested mechanisms for their toxicity on the biological systems. We have recently investigated involvement of DNA in an electron transfer reaction as an enzyme. In this reaction non- fluorescent dichlorofluorescin (LDCF is converted to the dichlorofluorescein (DCF in the presence of peroxides and hematin. Methods. The fluorometric technique was used in this study. The pH effect on the reaction rate was investigated. The results showed that DCF has the maximum emission on tris buffer 0.05 Mat pH 8.4. Results. DNA and carnosine catalyze the reaction, which proceeds by the electron transfer mechanism. The presence of carnosine is necessary for the catalytic action of DNA as a cofactor. Ni (II and Pb (11 are the potent inhibitors of the reaction. The kinetic parameters and determined in the presence and absence of the above ligands. Discussion. DNA, which has the electrical properties only in the double helical forms, acts as a catalyst in the conversion of LDCF to DCF. The existence of the carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide with antioxidant and free radical scavenging roles, is an important factor for the progress of the reaction. Both Ni (11 and Pb (II inhibit the reaction. These metals could act as the electron pool to cause inhibition in such electron transfer reaction. This phenomenon could be related to the carcinogenic effect of these metals.

  20. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, DNA interaction and biological activities of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with [(1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylimino)methyl]naphthalene-2-ol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Mohamed; El-Wakiel, Nadia A.; El-Ghamry, Hoda; Fathalla, Shaimaa K.

    2014-11-01

    Manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes of [(1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylimino)methyl]naphthalene-2-ol have been synthesized. The structure of complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment measurements and spectral (IR, 1H NMR, EI-mass, UV-Vis and ESR), and thermal studies. The results showed that the chloro and nitrato Cu(II) complexes have octahedral geometry while Ni(II), Co(II) and Mn(II) complexes in addition to acetato Cu(II) complex have tetrahedral geometry. The possible structures of the metal complexes have been computed using the molecular mechanic calculations using the hyper chem. 8.03 molecular modeling program to confirm the proposed structures. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the thermal decomposition steps were calculated from the TG curves. The binding modes of the complexes with DNA have been investigated by UV-Vis absorption titration. The results showed that the mode of binding of the complexes to DNA is intercalative or non-intercalative binding modes. Schiff base and its metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activities against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pesudomonas aeruginosa), fungi (Asperigllus flavus and Mucer) and yeast (Candida albicans and Malassezia furfur).

  1. THE Fe II EMISSION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: EXCITATION MECHANISMS AND LOCATION OF THE EMITTING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinello, M. [Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Rua Doutor Pereira Cabral 1303, 37500-903, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Garcia-Rissmann, A. [Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Rua Estados Unidos 154, Itajubá, MG, 37504-364 (Brazil); Sigut, T. A. A. [The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Pradhan, A. K., E-mail: murilo.marinello@gmail.com [McPherson Laboratory, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We present a study of Fe ii emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ an NIR Fe ii template derived in the literature and find that it successfully reproduces the observed Fe ii spectrum. The Fe ii bump at 9200 Å detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyα fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Å bump, the 1 μm lines, and the optical Fe ii implies that Lyα fluorescence plays an important role in Fe ii production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical Fe ii is due to this process, while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed Fe ii. The line profiles of Fe ii λ10502, O i λ11287, Ca ii λ8664, and Paβ were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that Fe ii, O i and Ca ii have similar widths and are, on average, 30% narrower than Paβ. Assuming that the clouds emitting the lines are virialized, we show that the Fe ii is emitted in a region twice as far from the central source than Paβ. The distance, though, strongly varies: from 8.5 light-days for NGC 4051 to 198.2 light-days for Mrk 509. Our results reinforce the importance of the Fe ii in the NIR to constrain critical parameters that drive its physics and the underlying AGN kinematics, as well as more accurate models aimed at reproducing this complex emission.

  2. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Cu(II, Co(II, Mn(II, Fe(II, and UO2(VI Complexes with a New Schiff Base Hydrazone: O-Hydroxyacetophenone-7-chloro-4-quinoline Hydrazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora H. Al-Shaalan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Schiff base hydrazone ligand HL was prepared by the condensation reaction of 7-chloro-4-quinoline with o-hydroxyacetophenone. The ligand behaves either as monobasic bidentate or dibasic tridentate and contain ONN coordination sites. This was accounted for be the presence in the ligand of a phenolic azomethine and imine groups. It reacts with Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II, Mn(II, UO2 (VI and Fe(II to form either mono- or binuclear complexes. The ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, NMR, Mass, and UV-Visible spectra. The magnetic moments and electrical conductance of the complexes were also determined. The Co(II, Ni(II and UO2 (VI complexes are mononuclear and coordinated to NO sites of two ligand molecules. The Cu(II complex has a square-planar geometry distorted towards tetrahedral, the Ni(II complex is octahedral while the UO2 (VI complex has its favoured heptacoordination. The Co(II, Mn(II complexes and also other Ni(II and Fe(III complexes, which were obtained in the presence of Li(OH as deprotonating agent, are binuclear and coordinated via the NNNO sites of two ligand molecules. All the binuclear complexes have octahedral geometries and their magnetic moments are quite low compared to the calculated value for two metal ions complexes and thus antiferromagnetic interactions between the two adjacent metal ions. The ligand HL and metal complexes were tested against a strain of Gram +ve bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Gram −ve bacteria (Escherichia coli, and fungi (Candida albicans. The tested compounds exhibited high antibacterial activities.

  3. Preconcentration of copper(II) and mercury(II) using dithizone and carbon powder followed by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaiwa, H.; Kawamoto, H.; Ogura, K.; Koizumi, T. (Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Technology)

    1981-10-01

    A combined method of dithizone-extraction and carbon powder column adsorption was applied to concentrate trace amounts of copper(II) and mercury(II) in natural water samples before neutron activation analysis. The sample solution was adjusted to pH 1.0 with nitric acid, an aliquot of which was taken in a 500 cm/sup 3/ separating funnel and then 5.0 cm/sup 3/ of 0.01% dithizone-benzene and 25 cm/sup 3/ of n-hexane were added. The mixture was shaken for 10 min and stood for 30 min. After the aqueous phase was discarded, another aliquot of the sample solution was added. The above procedure was repeated until the treatment of the sample solution (1.00 dm/sup 3/) was completed. The organic phase was then flowed through the column (6 mm diameter x 50 mmh) containing carbon powder, and the resulting column was dried. The monitor containing 10 ..mu..g of mercury or copper was also prepared according to the above procedure. The samples and monitors were irradiated together in a pneumatic tube of JRR-3. After cooling, copper and mercury were determined by ..gamma..-spectrometry using /sup 64/Cu, /sup 197/Hg, respectively. The recovery of trace metal ions obtained by this method was more than 99%, and the present method was found to be applicable to the preconcentration of copper(II) and mercury(II) in natural water samples.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and biocidal activity of some transition metal(II) complexes with isatin salicylaldehyde acyldihydrazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vinod P; Singh, Shweta; Singh, Divya P

    2012-06-01

    Cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) complexes with two new unsymmetrical ligands, isatin salicylaldehyde oxalic acid dihydrazide (isodh) and isatin salicylaldehyde malonic acid dihydrazide (ismdh) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, electrical conductance, magnetic moments, electronic, NMR, ESR and IR spectral studies. The isodh acts as a dibasic tetra dentate ligand bonding through two >C=N-, a deprotonated phenolate and deprotonated indole enolate groups to the metal. The ismdh ligand shows monobasic tetra dentate behaviour in bonding with metal ion through two >C=N-, indole >C=O and a deprotonated phenolate group. The electronic spectral data suggest 4-coordinate square planar geometry for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes of isodh, whereas, 6-coordinate octahedral structure for the ismdh complexes. The ESR studies also indicate a square planar and distorted octahedral environment around Cu(II) for isodh and ismdh complexes, respectively. Most of the metal complexes show better antifungal activity than the standard and a significant antibacterial activity against various fungi and bacteria.

  5. Cell proliferation and migration are modulated by Cdk-1-phosphorylated endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Schwarz

    Full Text Available Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide (EMAP II is a secreted protein with well-established anti-angiogenic activities. Intracellular EMAP II expression is increased during fetal development at epithelial/mesenchymal boundaries and in pathophysiologic fibroproliferative cells of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, emphysema, and scar fibroblast tissue following myocardial ischemia. Precise function and regulation of intracellular EMAP II, however, has not been explored to date.Here we show that high intracellular EMAP II suppresses cellular proliferation by slowing progression through the G2M cell cycle transition in epithelium and fibroblast. Furthermore, EMAP II binds to and is phosphorylated by Cdk1, and exhibits nuclear/cytoplasmic partitioning, with only nuclear EMAP II being phosphorylated. We observed that extracellular secreted EMAP II induces endothelial cell apoptosis, where as excess intracellular EMAP II facilitates epithelial and fibroblast cells migration.Our findings suggest that EMAP II has specific intracellular effects, and that this intracellular function appears to antagonize its extracellular anti-angiogenic effects during fetal development and pulmonary disease progression.

  6. A Myb transcription factor of Phytophthora sojae, regulated by MAP kinase PsSAK1, is required for zoospore development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    Full Text Available PsSAK1, a mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinase from Phytophthora sojae, plays an important role in host infection and zoospore viability. However, the downstream mechanism of PsSAK1 remains unclear. In this study, the 3'-tag digital gene expression (DGE profiling method was applied to sequence the global transcriptional sequence of PsSAK1-silenced mutants during the cysts stage and 1.5 h after inoculation onto susceptible soybean leaf tissues. Compared with the gene expression levels of the recipient P. sojae strain, several candidates of Myb family were differentially expressed (up or down in response to the loss of PsSAK1, including of a R2R3-type Myb transcription factor, PsMYB1. qRT-PCR indicated that the transcriptional level of PsMYB1 decreased due to PsSAK1 silencing. The transcriptional level of PsMYB1 increased during sporulating hyphae, in germinated cysts, and early infection. Silencing of PsMYB1 results in three phenotypes: a no cleavage of the cytoplasm into uninucleate zoospores or release of normal zoospores, b direct germination of sporangia, and c afunction in zoospore-mediated plant infection. Our data indicate that the PsMYB1 transcription factor functions downstream of MAP kinase PsSAK1 and is required for zoospore development of P. sojae.

  7. Non-Dive Activities for Lophelia II 2009 - Office of Ocean Exploration and Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Non-dive activities reported to the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research for the "Lophelia II" expedition, Aug. 19 through Sept. 12, 2009. Information...

  8. Synthesis, characterization and DNA cleavage activity of nickel(II adducts with aromatic heterocyclic bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. PHILIP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed ligand complexes of nickel(II with 2,4-dihydroxyaceto-phenone oxime (DAPO and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone oxime (DBPO as primary ligands, and pyridine (Py and imidazole (Im as secondary ligands were synthesized and characterized by molar conductivity, magnetic moments measurements, as well as by electronic, IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Electrochemical studies were performed by cyclic voltammetry. The active signals are assignable to the NiIII/II and NiII/I redox couples. The binding interactions between the metal complexes and calf thymus DNA were investigated by absorption and thermal denaturation. The cleavage activity of the complexes was determined using double-stranded pBR322 circular plasmid DNA by gel electrophoresis. All complexes showed increased nuclease activity in the presence of the oxidant H2O2. The nuclease activities of mixed ligand complexes were compared with those of the parent copper(II complexes.

  9. Performance of Spent Mushroom Farming Waste (SMFW) Activated Carbon for Ni (II) Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desa, N. S. Md; Ghani, Z. Ab; Talib, S. Abdul; Tay, C. C.

    2016-07-01

    The feasibility of a low cost agricultural waste of spent mushroom farming waste (SMFW) activated carbon for Ni(II) removal was investigated. The batch adsorption experiments of adsorbent dosage, pH, contact time, metal concentration, and temperature were determined. The samples were shaken at 125 rpm, filtered and analyzed using ICP-OES. The fifty percent of Ni(II) removal was obtained at 0.63 g of adsorbent dosage, pH 5-6 (unadjusted), 60 min contact time, 50 mg/L Ni(II) concentration and 25 °C temperature. The evaluated SMFW activated carbon showed the highest performance on Ni(II) removal compared to commercial Amberlite IRC86 resin and zeolite NK3. The result indicated that SMFW activated carbon is a high potential cation exchange adsorbent and suitable for adsorption process for metal removal. The obtained results contribute toward application of developed SMFW activated carbon in industrial pilot study.

  10. Low energy o-Ps-o-Ps elastic scattering using a simple model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanshu, Sharma [Veer Kunwar Singh Univ., Dept. of Physics, Bihar (India); Kiran, Kumari [R N College, P. G. Dept. of Physics, Bihar (India); Sumana, Chakraborty [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Dept. of Theoretical Physics (India)

    2009-06-15

    A simple model is employed to investigate o-Ps-o-Ps (positronium-positronium) scattering at low energies. This model contains the effect of exchange explicitly and a model long range potential in the framework of static-exchange model. These two physical features are of key importance in Ps-Ps (atom-atom) scattering system. S-wave triplet-triplet and singlet-singlet scattering lengths and corresponding phase shifts up to the incident momentum k = 0.5 a.u. are in excellent agreement with those yielded by most elaborate and theoretically sound predictions. (authors)

  11. Photosystem II electron flow as a measure for phytoplankton gross primary production = [Fotosysteem II elektronentransport als een maat voor de bruto primaire produktie van fytoplankton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geel, C.

    1997-01-01

    Saturating pulse fluorescence measurements, well known from studies of higher plants for determination of photosystem II (PS II) characteristics, were applied to cultures of the green alga Dunaliella teitiolecta (Chapter 2). The actual efficiency of PS IIPS

  12. Sonication-assisted synthesis of polystyrene (PS)/organoclay nanocomposites: influence of clay content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Kelothu; Kumar, R. Vinoth; Kumar, Manish; Jeyapriya, M.; Anbarasan, R.; Pugazhenthi, G.

    2017-06-01

    This article presents the synthesis of a series of polystyrene (PS)/organoclay nanocomposite films consisting of different contents of clay (1-7 wt%) by sonication-coupled solvent-blending technique. The prepared PS nanocomposite films were characterized using various techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD and TEM results revealed the formation of exfoliated nanocomposites at lower loading of organoclay (<5 wt%). The presence of various functional groups in the organoclay and PS/organoclay nanocomposite was verified by FTIR spectra. The thermal stability of PS nanocomposites was significantly improved as compared to pristine PS, which is evident from TGA analysis. When 10% mass loss was chosen as a point of reference, the thermal degradation temperature of PS nanocomposite holding 7 wt% of organoclay was found to be 30 °C more over pristine PS. The thermal kinetic parameters such as activation energy ( E a), pre-exponential factor ( A), and the order of reaction ( n) were determined by employing the Coats-Redfern model. Thermal degradation reaction mechanism of PS nanocomposites was also investigated.

  13. [Methionine metabolism regulates maintenance and differentiation of human ES/iPS cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Nobuaki; Kume, Shoen

    2015-05-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are pluripotent and can give rise to all cell types. ES/iPS cells have a unique transcriptional circuit that sustains the pluripotent state. These cells also possess a characteristically high rate of proliferation as well as an abbreviated G1 phase. These unique molecular properties distinguish ES and iPS cells from somatic cells. Mouse ES/iPS cells are in a high-flux metabolic state, with a high dependence on threonine catabolism. However, little is known about amino acid metabolism in human ES/iPS cells. Recently, we reported that human ES/iPS cells require high amounts of methionine (Met) and express high levels of Met metabolism enzymes (Shriaki N, et al: Cell Metabolism, 2014). Met deprivation results in a rapid decrease in intracellular S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), triggering the activation of p53 signaling, reducing pluripotent marker gene NANOG expression, and poising human ES/iPS cells for differentiation, follow by potentiated differentiation into all three germ layers. However, when exposed to prolonged Met deprivation, the cells went to apoptosis. In this review, we explain the importance of SAM in Met metabolism and its relationship with pluripotency, cell survival, and differentiation of human ES/iPS cells.

  14. Retinoid Uptake, Processing, and Secretion in Human iPS-RPE Support the Visual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, Alberto; Greene, Whitney A.; Plamper, Mark L.; Choi, Jae Hyek; Johnson, Anthony J.; Tsin, Andrew T.; Wang, Heuy-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Retinal pigmented epithelium derived from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells (iPS-RPE) may be a source of cells for transplantation. For this reason, it is essential to determine the functional competence of iPS-RPE. One key role of the RPE is uptake and processing of retinoids via the visual cycle. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of visual cycle proteins and the functional ability of the visual cycle in iPS-RPE. Methods. iPS-RPE was derived from human iPS cells. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis were used to detect expression of RPE genes lecithin-retinol acyl transferase (LRAT), RPE65, cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), and pigment epithelium–derived factor (PEDF). All-trans retinol was delivered to cultured cells or whole cell homogenate to assess the ability of the iPS-RPE to process retinoids. Results. Cultured iPS-RPE expresses visual cycle genes LRAT, CRALBP, and RPE65. After incubation with all-trans retinol, iPS-RPE synthesized up to 2942 ± 551 pmol/mg protein all-trans retinyl esters. Inhibition of LRAT with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) prevented retinyl ester synthesis. Significantly, after incubation with all-trans retinol, iPS-RPE released 188 ± 88 pmol/mg protein 11-cis retinaldehyde into the culture media. Conclusions. iPS-RPE develops classic RPE characteristics and maintains expression of visual cycle proteins. The results of this study confirm that iPS-RPE possesses the machinery to process retinoids for support of visual pigment regeneration. Inhibition of all-trans retinyl ester accumulation by NEM confirms LRAT is active in iPS-RPE. Finally, the detection of 11-cis retinaldehyde in the culture medium demonstrates the cells' ability to process retinoids through the visual cycle. This study demonstrates expression of key visual cycle machinery and complete visual cycle activity in iPS-RPE. PMID:24255038

  15. Retinoid uptake, processing, and secretion in human iPS-RPE support the visual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz, Alberto; Greene, Whitney A; Plamper, Mark L; Choi, Jae Hyek; Johnson, Anthony J; Tsin, Andrew T; Wang, Heuy-Ching

    2014-01-09

    Retinal pigmented epithelium derived from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells (iPS-RPE) may be a source of cells for transplantation. For this reason, it is essential to determine the functional competence of iPS-RPE. One key role of the RPE is uptake and processing of retinoids via the visual cycle. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of visual cycle proteins and the functional ability of the visual cycle in iPS-RPE. iPS-RPE was derived from human iPS cells. Immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis were used to detect expression of RPE genes lecithin-retinol acyl transferase (LRAT), RPE65, cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). All-trans retinol was delivered to cultured cells or whole cell homogenate to assess the ability of the iPS-RPE to process retinoids. Cultured iPS-RPE expresses visual cycle genes LRAT, CRALBP, and RPE65. After incubation with all-trans retinol, iPS-RPE synthesized up to 2942 ± 551 pmol/mg protein all-trans retinyl esters. Inhibition of LRAT with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) prevented retinyl ester synthesis. Significantly, after incubation with all-trans retinol, iPS-RPE released 188 ± 88 pmol/mg protein 11-cis retinaldehyde into the culture media. iPS-RPE develops classic RPE characteristics and maintains expression of visual cycle proteins. The results of this study confirm that iPS-RPE possesses the machinery to process retinoids for support of visual pigment regeneration. Inhibition of all-trans retinyl ester accumulation by NEM confirms LRAT is active in iPS-RPE. Finally, the detection of 11-cis retinaldehyde in the culture medium demonstrates the cells' ability to process retinoids through the visual cycle. This study demonstrates expression of key visual cycle machinery and complete visual cycle activity in iPS-RPE.

  16. Active-site solvent replenishment observed during human carbonic anhydrase II catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Kyun Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration/dehydration of CO2/HCO3−. Although hCA II has been extensively studied to investigate the proton-transfer process that occurs in the active site, its underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. Here, ultrahigh-resolution crystallographic structures of hCA II cryocooled under CO2 pressures of 7.0 and 2.5 atm are presented. The structures reveal new intermediate solvent states of hCA II that provide crystallographic snapshots during the restoration of the proton-transfer water network in the active site. Specifically, a new intermediate water (WI′ is observed next to the previously observed intermediate water WI, and they are both stabilized by the five water molecules at the entrance to the active site (the entrance conduit. Based on these structures, a water network-restructuring mechanism is proposed, which takes place at the active site after the nucleophilic attack of OH− on CO2. This mechanism explains how the zinc-bound water (WZn and W1 are replenished, which are directly responsible for the reconnection of the His64-mediated proton-transfer water network. This study provides the first `physical' glimpse of how a water reservoir flows into the hCA II active site during its catalytic activity.

  17. Discovery of orally active hepatoselective glucokinase activators for treatment of Type II Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiayi; Lin, Songnian; Myers, Robert W; Trujillo, Maria E; Pachanski, Michele J; Malkani, Sunita; Chen, Hsuan-Shen; Chen, Zhesheng; Campbell, Brian; Eiermann, George J; Elowe, Nadine; Farrer, Brian T; Feng, Wen; Fu, Qinghong; Kats-Kagan, Roman; Kavana, Michael; McMasters, Daniel R; Mitra, Kaushik; Tong, Xinchun; Xu, Libo; Zhang, Fengqi; Zhang, Rui; Addona, George H; Berger, Joel P; Zhang, Bei; Parmee, Emma R

    2017-05-01

    Systemically acting glucokinase activators (GKA) have been demonstrated in clinical trials to effectively lower blood glucose in patients with type II diabetes. However, mechanism-based hypoglycemia is a major adverse effect that limits the therapeutic potential of these agents. We hypothesized that the predominant mechanism leading to hypoglycemia is GKA-induced excessive insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells at (sub-)euglycemic levels. We further hypothesized that restricting GK activation to hepatocytes would maintain glucose-lowering efficacy while significantly reducing hypoglycemic risk. Here we report the discovery of a novel series of carboxylic acid substituted GKAs based on pyridine-2-carboxamide. These GKAs exhibit preferential distribution to the liver versus the pancreas in mice. SAR studies led to the identification of a potent and orally active hepatoselective GKA, compound 6. GKA 6 demonstrated robust glucose lowering efficacy in high fat diet-fed mice at doses ⩾10mpk, with ⩾70-fold liver:pancreas distribution, minimal effects on plasma insulin levels, and significantly reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Class II HDAC inhibition hampers hepatic stellate cell activation by induction of microRNA-29.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Mannaerts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The conversion of a quiescent vitamin A storing hepatic stellate cell (HSC to a matrix producing, contractile myofibroblast-like activated HSC is a key event in the onset of liver disease following injury of any aetiology. Previous studies have shown that class I histone deacetylases (HDACs are involved in the phenotypical changes occurring during stellate cell activation in liver and pancreas. AIMS: In the current study we investigate the role of class II HDACs during HSC activation. METHODS: We characterized the expression of the class II HDACs freshly isolated mouse HSCs. We inhibited HDAC activity by selective pharmacological inhibition with MC1568, and by repressing class II HDAC gene expression using specific siRNAs. RESULTS: Inhibition of HDAC activity leads to a strong reduction of HSC activation markers α-SMA, lysyl oxidase and collagens as well as an inhibition of cell proliferation. Knock down experiments showed that HDAC4 contributes to HSC activation by regulating lysyl oxidase expression. In addition, we observed a strong up regulation of miR-29, a well-known anti-fibrotic miR, upon treatment with MC1568. Our in vivo work suggests that a successful inhibition of class II HDACs could be promising for development of future anti-fibrotic compounds. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the use of MC1568 has enabled us to identify a role for class II HDACs regulating miR-29 during HSC activation.

  19. Synthesis, spectral characterization, solution equilibria, in vitro antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes with Schiff base derived from 5-bromosalicylaldehyde and 2-aminomethylthiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Ahmed A.; Eldebss, Taha M. A.

    2011-09-01

    Schiff base namely 2-aminomethylthiophenyl-4-bromosalicylaldehyde (ATS)(4-bromo-2-(thiophen-2-yl-imino)methylphenol) and its metal complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance, mass spectra, ESR and thermal analysis (TGA). The analytical data of the complexes show the formation of 1:2 [M:L] ratio of the formula [ML 2], where M represents Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cu(II) ions, while L represents the deprotonated Schiff base. IR spectra show that ATS is coordinated to the metal ions in a bidentate manner through azomethine-N and phenolic-oxygen groups. The ligand and their metal chelates have been screened for their antimicrobial activities using the disc diffusion method against the selected bacteria. A cytotoxicity of the compounds against colon (HCT116) and larynx (HEP2) cancer cells have been studied. Protonation constants of (ATS) ligand and stability constants of its Cu 2+, Co 2+, Mn 2+, Zn 2+ and Ni 2+ complexes were determined by potentiometric titration method in 50% (v/v) DMSO-water solution at ionic strength of 0.1 M NaNO 3.

  20. LS1 Report: PS beams are back!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony & Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in over 15 months, there are beams back in the PS. Making their first tour of the accelerator today, 20 June, their injection marks the end of weeks of cold checkouts and hardware commissioning in the PS.   The CERN Control Centre (CCC) is back in business: people gather to restart the LHC injectors, today the PS. Since hardware commissioning was wrapped up on 23 May, the Operations Group (BE-OP) has been conducting cold checkouts on the PS. This involves switching on all of the machine's systems, verifying that they respond to commands by OP and ensuring they are calibrated to beam timings. "These verifications were done, in part, during the hardware commissioning dry runs," says Rende Steerenberg, PS section leader. "But the cold checkouts are on a much larger scale, as we act as if there is beam in the whole machine. We placed a full load on the controls system, cooling, networks, etc. in order to setup the accelerator in the most realis...

  1. Zn(II)-Coordinated Quantum Dot-FRET Nanosensors for the Detection of Protein Kinase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Butaek; Park, Ji-In; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin-Won; Kim, Tae-Wuk; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-07-23

    We report a simple detection of protein kinase activity using Zn(II)-mediated fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) between quantum dots (QDs) and dye-tethered peptides. With neither complex chemical ligands nor surface modification of QDs, Zn(II) was the only metal ion that enabled the phosphorylated peptides to be strongly attached on the carboxyl groups of the QD surface via metal coordination, thus leading to a significant FRET efficiency. As a result, protein kinase activity in intermixed solution was efficiently detected by QD-FRET via Zn(II) coordination, especially when the peptide substrate was combined with affinity-based purification. We also found that mono- and di-phosphorylation in the peptide substrate could be discriminated by the Zn(II)-mediated QD-FRET. Our approach is expected to find applications for studying physiological function and signal transduction with respect to protein kinase activity.

  2. Structure of catabolite activator protein with cobalt(II) and sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Ramya R.; Lawson, Catherine L., E-mail: cathy.lawson@rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    The crystal structure of E. coli catabolite activator protein with bound cobalt(II) and sulfate ions at 1.97 Å resolution is reported. The crystal structure of cyclic AMP–catabolite activator protein (CAP) from Escherichia coli containing cobalt(II) chloride and ammonium sulfate is reported at 1.97 Å resolution. Each of the two CAP subunits in the asymmetric unit binds one cobalt(II) ion, in each case coordinated by N-terminal domain residues His19, His21 and Glu96 plus an additional acidic residue contributed via a crystal contact. The three identified N-terminal domain cobalt-binding residues are part of a region of CAP that is important for transcription activation at class II CAP-dependent promoters. Sulfate anions mediate additional crystal lattice contacts and occupy sites corresponding to DNA backbone phosphate positions in CAP–DNA complex structures.

  3. Inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase activity by the sphingosine kinase inhibitor SKI II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingolani, Francesca; Casasampere, Mireia; Sanllehí, Pol; Casas, Josefina; Bujons, Jordi; Fabrias, Gemma

    2014-08-01

    Sphingosine kinase inhibitor (SKI) II has been reported as a dual inhibitor of sphingosine kinases (SKs) 1 and 2 and has been extensively used to prove the involvement of SKs and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in cellular processes. Dihydroceramide desaturase (Des1), the last enzyme in the de novo synthesis of ceramide (Cer), regulates the balance between dihydroceramides (dhCers) and Cers. Both SKs and Des1 have interest as therapeutic targets. Here we show that SKI II is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki = 0.3 μM) of Des1 activity with effect also in intact cells without modifying Des1 protein levels. Molecular modeling studies support that the SKI II-induced decrease in Des1 activity could result from inhibition of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. SKI II, but not the SK1-specific inhibitor PF-543, provoked a remarkable accumulation of dhCers and their metabolites, while both SKI II and PF-543 reduced S1P to almost undetectable levels. SKI II, but not PF543, reduced cell proliferation with accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase. SKI II, but not PF543, induced autophagy. These overall findings should be taken into account when using SKI II as a pharmacological tool, as some of the effects attributed to decreased S1P may actually be caused by augmented dhCers and/or their metabolites. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Effect of angiotensin II on proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells into mesodermal progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizuka, Toshiaki, E-mail: tishizu@ndmc.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513 (Japan); Goshima, Hazuki; Ozawa, Ayako; Watanabe, Yasuhiro [Department of Pharmacology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513 (Japan)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with angiotensin II enhanced LIF-induced DNA synthesis of mouse iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II may enhance the DNA synthesis via induction of superoxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with angiotensin II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II enhanced differentiation into mesodermal progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II may enhance the differentiation via activation of p38 MAPK. -- Abstract: Previous studies suggest that angiotensin receptor stimulation may enhance not only proliferation but also differentiation of undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, in the present study, we determined the involvement of the angiotensin receptor in the proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II) significantly increased DNA synthesis in mouse iPS cells cultured in a medium with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Pretreatment of the cells with either candesartan (a selective Ang II type 1 receptor [AT{sub 1}R] antagonist) or Tempol (a cell-permeable superoxide scavenger) significantly inhibited Ang II-induced DNA synthesis. Treatment with Ang II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Pretreatment with candesartan significantly inhibited Ang II- induced JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. In contrast, induction of mouse iPS cell differentiation into Flk-1-positive mesodermal progenitor cells was performed in type IV collagen (Col IV)- coated dishes in a differentiation medium without LIF. When Col IV-exposed iPS cells were treated with Ang II for 5 days, the expression of Flk-1 was significantly increased compared with that in the cells treated with the vehicle alone. Pretreatment of the cells with both candesartan and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly inhibited the Ang II- induced increase in Flk-1 expression

  5. LS1 Report: PS Booster prepares for beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    With Linac2 already up and running, the countdown to beam in the LHC has begun! The next in line is the PS Booster, which will close up shop to engineers early next week. The injector will be handed over to the Operations Group who are tasked with getting it ready for active duty.   Taken as we approach the end of LS1 activities, this image shows where protons will soon be injected from Linac2 into the four PS Booster rings. Over the coming two months, the Operations Group will be putting the Booster's new elements through their paces. "Because of the wide range of upgrades and repairs carried out in the Booster, we have a very full schedule of tests planned for the machine," says Bettina Mikulec, PS Booster Engineer in Charge. "We will begin with cold checks; these are a wide range of tests carried out without beam, including system tests with power on/off and with varying settings, as well as verification of the controls system and timings." Amon...

  6. Syntheses, characterization and antifungal activity of tris(1,10-phenanthrolineiron(ii bis(n-r-sulfonyldithiocarbimatezincate(ii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. Bottega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four new compounds with the general formula [Fe(phen3][Zn(RSO2N=CS22], where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, R = 4-FC6H4 (1, 4-ClC6H4 (2, 4-BrC6H4 (3 and 4-IC6H4 (4, respectively, were obtained by the reaction of the appropriate potassium N-R-sulfonyldithiocarbimate (RSO2N=CS2K2 and tris(1,10-phenanthrolineiron(II sulfate, with zinc(II acetate dihydrate in dimethylformamide. The elemental analyses and the IR data were consistent with the formation of the expected complexes salts. The ¹H and 13C NMR spectra showed the signals for the cationic iron(II complex and dithiocarbimate moieties. The molar conductance data were consistent with the 1:1 cation:anion complexes in 1-4. The antifungal activities of the compounds were tested in vitro against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

  7. Salt mine Asse II. Status of the retrieval activities; Schachtanlage Asse II. Stand der Arbeiten und Rueckholung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-02-15

    The booklet on the status of retrieval activities in the salt mine Asse II includes information on the background of medium-level radioactive waste disposal during 1967 to 1978 on behalf of the Federal government. Since 2009 the former mine is operated by the BfS with the assignment of decommissioning. The potential risk for stability and safety due to problems of water ingress were known before beginning of the disposals. The retrieval of the radioactive waste will require many decades; the costs are financed by tax money. The planning of the retrieval is currently on the way, details of the concept are described.

  8. Class II MHC molecules are spontaneously internalized in acidic endosomes by activated B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D A; Buck, L B; Delohery, T M; Agostino, N; Pernis, B

    1990-01-01

    The antibody response to protein antigens requires specific cooperation between B and T cells. In order to deliver the helper signal, T cells must recognize, in the context of Class II MHC, processed antigen on the membrane of B cells. Processed antigen is in the form of peptides bound in a given site of the Class II MHC molecule; in order to address the question of where, in the B cell, the complex of Class II MHC and processed antigen is formed, we studied the subcellular localization of these two molecules. Since the formation of this complex is the crucial step in antigen processing and presentation, the answer to this question is central to the whole problem of the physiology of antigen handling by B cells. To collect information pertinent to the question, we have compared, in B cells, the intracellular traffic of Class II MHC and of monovalent and divalent anti-immunoglobulin antibodies used as protein ligands of the membrane immunoglobulins. We have done so by two-color immunofluorescence microscopy, and we have detected extensive confluence of Class II MHC molecules with the immunoglobulin ligand, both mono- and bi-valent, in the endosomes of LPS-activated murine B cells. Whereas the ligand clearly reaches the endosomes by internalization from the cell membrane, the Class II MHC molecules could reach the same location either by endocytosis from the membrane or through targeting to the endosomes of newly synthesized Class II MHC molecules. We have collected quantitative evidence for endocytosis of Class II MHC by following, with the fluorescence activated cell sorter, the quenching of the fluorescence of fluoresceinated Fab' anti Class II MHC in LPS-activated murine B cells; this quenching indicates the entry of the label into an acidic intracellular compartment. Together with the results of others, obtained with different methods, our observations support the concept that, at least in mature activated B cells, Class II MHC molecules reach the organelles

  9. Trimethoprim degradation by Fenton and Fe(II)-activated persulfate processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizong; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-10-09

    Trimethoprim is a pollutant ubiquitous in the environment due to its extensive application, and it cannot be effectively removed by conventional wastewater treatment processes. In this study, the Fenton and the Fe(II)-activated persulfate processes were employed to degrade trimethoprim in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the concentration of persulfate, H2O2 and Fe(II) a had significant influence on the degradation of trimethoprim in both processes. De-ionized water spiked with trimethoprim resulted in the complete degradation of trimethoprim (0.05 mM) by the mineralization of 54.9% of Fenton's reagent when the concentrations of H2O2 and Fe(II) were 1 mM and 0.05 mM, respectively. In contrast, 73.4% of trimethoprim was degraded by the mineralization of 40.5% of the Fe(II)-activated persulfate process when the concentration of persulfate and Fe(II) were each 4 mM. Intermediate compounds with different m/z were detected for the Fenton and the Fe(II)-activated persulfate processes, indicating alternative degradation pathways. In the actual wastewater spiked with trimethoprim, the removal efficiency of trimethoprim decreased to 35.8% and 43.6%, respectively, for the Fenton and the Fe(II)-activated persulfate processes. In addition, the decomposition efficiencies for hydrogen peroxide and persulfate were 43.8% and 92.5%, respectively, which was lower than those in the de-ionized water system. These results demonstrated that wastewater components had a negative influence on trimethoprim degradation and the decomposition of the oxidants (persulfate and H2O2). In summary, the Fe(II)-activated persulfate process could be used as an alternative technology for treating trimethoprim-containing wastewater. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. These pictures show one of the magnets (no. 19) on the PS locomotive brought back into service for the removal and replacement operations.

  11. Mitogenic activities in African traditional herbal medicines (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Y; Kato, A; Nishiyama, Y; Ikemi, M; Ohoka, K; Kawanishi, K; Juma, F D; Ngángá, J N; Mathenge, S G

    1996-03-01

    Mitogenic activities in African traditional herbal medicines were examined on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and mouse spleen cells using protein fractions obtained from their extracts by precipitation with ammonium sulfate. Target specificity for these mitogens was investigated by using isolated T cells and lymphocytes from athymic nude mice. Among 20 plants investigated, potent mitogenic activities for both human and mouse lymphocytes were found in 7 plants: Monanthotaxis sp. (Annonaceae), Uvaria lucida (Annonaceae), Maytenus buchananii (Celastraceae), Lonchocarpus bussei (Leguminosae), Phytolacca dodecandra (Phytolaccaceae), Phytolacca octandra (Phytolaccaceae), and Toddalia asiatica (Rutaceae). The U. lucida stem demonstrated the highest activity among all and induced mitogenesis both in human and mouse isolated T cells, but not in lymphocytes from athymic nude mice. Copyright © 1996 Gustav Fischer Verlag · Struttgart · Jena · New York. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Copper(II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... matory activity.20 It has been discovered that the biological activity of some Schiff base ligands ... S. Afr. J. Chem., 2014, 67, 45–51, ..... nC=N/cm–1. nC-O/cm–1. nCu-O/cm–1. nCu-N/cm–1 lmax/nm. L1. 3149–2365. 1613. 1277. –. –. 215, 227, 284, 320, 471. Cu(L1)2. –. 1603. 1336. 559. 464. 236, 292, 403 ...

  13. Activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II following bovine rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavinikoo, Hadi; Soleimanjahi, Hoorieh; Haqshenas, Gholamreza; Bamdad, Taravat; Teimoori, Ali; Goodarzi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): The rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) is responsible for the increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration through a phospholipase C-dependent and phospholipase C-independent pathways in infected cells. It is shown that increasing of intracellular calcium concentration in rotavirus infected cells is associated with the activation of some members of protein kinases family such as calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, which plays a crucial role in replication and pathogenesis of the virus. The aim of this study was to expression bovine rotavirus NSP4 gene in HEK293 cell and evaluation of its biological effect related to activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in cell culture. Materials and Methods: MA104 cells was used as a sensitive cell for propagation of virus and defined as a positive control. The NSP4 gene was amplified and inserted into an expression vector, and introduced as a recombinant plasmid into HEK293T cells. Western blot analysis was performed as a confirmation test for both expression of NSP4 protein and activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. Results: Expression of NSP4 and activated form of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II were demonstrated by western blotting. Conclusion: It was shown that the expression of biologically active full- length NSP4 protein in HEK293T cells may be associated with some biological properties such as calcium calmodulin kinase II activation, which was indicator of rotaviruses replication and pathogenesis. PMID:26019803

  14. Activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II following bovine rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Razavinikoo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The rotavirus nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4 is responsible for the increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration through a phospholipase C-dependent and phospholipase C-independent pathways in infected cells. It is shown that increasing of intracellular calcium concentration in rotavirus infected cells is associated with the activation of some members of protein kinases family such as calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II, which plays a crucial role in replication and pathogenesis of the virus. The aim of this study was to expression bovine rotavirus NSP4 gene in HEK293 cell and evaluation of its biological effect related to activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II in cell culture. Materials and Methods: MA104 cells was used as a sensitive cell for propagation of virus and defined as a positive control. The NSP4 gene was amplified and inserted into an expression vector, and introduced as a recombinant plasmid into HEK293T cells. Western blot analysis was performed as a confirmation test for both expression of NSP4 protein and activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II. Results:Expression of NSP4 and activated form of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II were demonstrated by western blotting. Conclusion: It was shown that the expression of biologically active full- length NSP4 protein in HEK293T cells may be associated with some biological properties such as calcium calmodulin kinase II activation, which was indicator of rotaviruses replication and pathogenesis

  15. Keratin sponge/hydrogel II, active agent delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keratin sponge/hydrogels from oxidation and reduction hydrolysis of fine and coarse wool fibers were formed to behave as cationic hydrogels to swell and release active agents in the specific region of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. Their porous, interpenetrating networks (IPN) were effective for...

  16. synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial activities of cobalt(ii)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    synthesized. The complexes were characterized by elemental, IR and visible spectroscopic analyses and the results indicate that both ligands are coordinated to the respective metal ions giving octahedral complexes. Antimicrobial studies showed that there is increased antimicrobial activity of the metal ions on coordination ...

  17. Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological activities of Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes with benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathima, B.; Subba Rao, Y.; Ramesh, G. N.; Jagadeesh, M.; Reddy, Y. P.; Chalapathi, P. V.; Varada Reddy, A.

    2011-06-01

    Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes of benzyloxybenzaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone have been synthesized and characterized by the investigations of electronic and EPR spectra and X-ray diffraction. Based on the spectral studies, an octahedral geometry is assigned for the Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes. X-ray powder diffraction studies reveal that Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes have triclinic crystal lattices. The unit cell parameters of the Mn(II) complex are a = 11.0469 Å, b = 6.2096 Å, c = 7.4145 Å, α = 90.646°, β = 95.127°, γ = 104.776°, V = 489.7 Å 3 and those of Co(II) complex are a = 9.3236 Å, b = 10.2410 Å, c = 7.8326 Å, α = 90.694°, β = 99.694°, γ = 100.476°, V = 724.2 Å 3. When the free ligand and its metal complexes are subjected to antibacterial activity, the metal complexes are proved to be more active than the ligand. However with regard to in vitro antioxidant activity, the ligand exhibits greater antioxidant activity than its metal(II) complexes.

  18. [Adsorption kinetics and mechanism of lead (II) on polyamine-functionalized mesoporous activated carbon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun-Quan; Wang, Yan-Jin; Yang, Mei-Rong; Zhu, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Zheng

    2014-08-01

    Bagasse mesoporous carbon was prepared by microwave assisted H3 PO4 activation. Amido and imido groups were modified with ethanediamine on the channels' surface of mesoporous carbon through nitric oxidation and amide reaction. The influence of Pb(II) concentration, adsorption time on Pb(II) adsorption on the ethanediamine-modified mesoporous carbon (AC-EDA) was investigated. The adsorption kinetics and mechanism were also discussed. The results showed that AC-EDA had a great performance for Pb(II) adsorption, and more than 70% of Pb(II) was adsorbed in 5 minutes. The adsorption amount of Pb(II) on the carbon increased with the increase of solution pH in acidic conditions. It was found that AC-EDA had different binding energies on different adsorption sites for Pb(II) separation. The Pb(II) adsorption process on AC-EDA was controlled by intra-particle diffusion in the first 3 min, and then film diffusion played the important pole on the adsorption. The adsorption amount increased with the increase of temperature, indicating the adsorption was an endothermic reaction. The high adsorption energy (> 11 kJ x mol(-1)) implied that the) adsorption was a chemical adsorption. The XPS of AC-EDA before and after Pb(II) adsorption showed that the polyamine group was involved in the adsorption, and should be a main factor of the high efficient adsorption.

  19. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Hardik; Patel, Sejal; Patel, Ghanshyam; Paranjape, Archana

    2014-04-01

    Glucova Active Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic formulation with ingredients reported for anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic activity and antioxidant properties. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats. Experimental Type I diabetes was induced in 24 albino rats with intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Type II diabetes was induced in 18 albino rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) along with high fat diet. The rats were divided in 5 groups for Type I model and 4 groups for Type II model. Normal control group was kept common for both experimental models. Glucova Active Tablet (108 mg/kg) treatment was provided for 28 days twice daily orally. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profile and liver anti-oxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione was carried out in both experimental models. Pancreas histopathology was also done. Statistical analysis were done by 'analysis of variance' test followed by post hoc Tukey's test, with significant level of P anti-diabetic activity in Type I and Type II diabetic rats. It was also found showing good anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-oxidant property.

  20. Proximity of the manganese cluster of photosystem II to the redox-active tyrosine YZ.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilchrist, M L; Ball, J. A.; Randall, D W; Britt, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    Electron spin echo electron-nuclear double resonance (ESE-ENDOR) experiments performed on a broad radical electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal observed in photosystem II particles depleted of Ca2+ indicate that this signal arises from the redox-active tyrosine YZ. The tyrosine EPR signal width is increased relative to that observed in a manganese-depleted preparation due to a magnetic interaction between the photosystem II manganese cluster and the tyrosine radical. The manganese clus...

  1. Comparison of Activator-Headgear and Twin Block Treatment Approaches in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Spalj, Stjepan; Mroz Tranesen, Kate; Birkeland, Kari; Katic, Visnja; Pavlic, Andrej; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the treatment effects of functional appliances activator-headgear (AH) and Twin Block (TB) on skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue structures in class II division 1 malocclusion with normal growth changes in untreated subjects. The sample included 50 subjects (56% females) aged 8?13 years with class II division 1 malocclusion treated with either AH (n = 25) or TB (n = 25) appliances. Pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were evaluated and compared to 50 untreate...

  2. Palladium(II) and platinum(II) derivatives of benzothiazoline ligands: Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial and antispermatogenic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Krishna; Singh, R. V.; Fahmi, Nighat

    2011-01-01

    A series of Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes with two N ∩S donor ligands, 5-chloro-3-(indolin-2-one)benzothiazoline and 6-nitro-3-(indolin-2-one)benzothiazoline, have been synthesized by the reaction of metal chlorides (PdCl 2 and PtCl 2) with ligands in 1:2 molar ratios. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, melting point determinations and a combination of electronic, IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopic techniques for structure elucidation. In order to evaluate the effect of metal ions upon chelation, both the ligands and their complexes have been screened for their antimicrobial activity against the various pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. The metal complexes have shown to be more antimicrobial against the microbial species as compared to free ligands. One of the ligands, 5-chloro-3-(indolin-2-one)benzothiazoline and its corresponding palladium and platinum complexes have been tested for their antifertility activity in male albino rats. The marked reduction in sperm motility and density resulted in infertility by 62-90%. Significant alterations were found in biochemical parameters of reproductive organs in treated animals as compared to control group. It is concluded that all these effects may finally impair the fertility of male rats.

  3. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II activity regulates the proliferative potential of growth plate chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuwei; Ahrens, Molly J; Wu, Amy; Liu, Jennifer; Dudley, Andrew T

    2011-01-01

    For tissues that develop throughout embryogenesis and into postnatal life, the generation of differentiated cells to promote tissue growth is at odds with the requirement to maintain the stem cell/progenitor cell population to preserve future growth potential. In the growth plate cartilage, this balance is achieved in part by establishing a proliferative phase that amplifies the number of progenitor cells prior to terminal differentiation into hypertrophic chondrocytes. Here, we show that endogenous calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CamkII, also known as Camk2) activity is upregulated prior to hypertrophy and that loss of CamkII function substantially blocks the transition from proliferation to hypertrophy. Wnt signaling and Pthrp-induced phosphatase activity negatively regulate CamkII activity. Release of this repression results in activation of multiple effector pathways, including Runx2- and β-catenin-dependent pathways. We present an integrated model for the regulation of proliferation potential by CamkII activity that has important implications for studies of growth control and adult progenitor/stem cell populations.

  4. Ultrasound-assisted adsorption of copper(II) ions on hazelnut shell activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, D D; Dasić, P V; Veljković, V B

    2009-04-01

    The present study was aimed to removal of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution by ultrasound-assisted adsorption onto the granular activated carbon obtained from hazelnut shells. The attention was focused on modeling the equilibrium and kinetics of Cu(II) adsorption onto the granular activated carbon. The granular activated carbon was prepared from ground dried hazelnut shells by simultaneous carbonization and activation by water steam at 950 degrees C for 2h. Adsorption isotherm data were better fitted by the Langmuir model than the Freundlich model in both the absence and the presence of ultrasound. The maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent for Cu(II), calculated from the Langmuir isotherms, in the presence of ultrasound (3.77 mmol/g) is greater than that in the absence of ultrasound (3.14 mmol/g). The adsorption process in the absence and the presence of ultrasound obeyed to the pseudo second-order kinetics. The removal of Cu(II) ions was higher in the presence of ultrasound than in its absence, but ultrasound reduced the rate constant. The intraparticular diffusion model indicated that adsorption of Cu(II) ions on the granular activated carbon was diffusion controlled as well as that ultrasound promoted intraparticular diffusion.

  5. Effects of nano-copper(II) oxide and nanomagnesium oxide particles on activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Wang, Jianmin

    2012-07-01

    Effects of nano-copper(II) oxide (nano-CuO) and nanomagnesium oxide (nano-MgO) particles on activated sludge endogenous respiration (aerobic digestion), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) biodegradation, and nitrification were investigated through respiration rate measurement. For comparison, the effects of Cu(II) and Mg(II) ions on activated sludge were also studied. Results indicated that soluble Cu(II) has half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 19, 5.5, 53, and 117 mg Cu/L for endogenous respiration, BOD biodegradation, ammonium oxidation, and nitrite oxidation, respectively. However, nano-CuO only inhibited BOD biodegradation at 240 mg Cu/L or more, and its associated toxicity was primarily caused by soluble Cu(II). In contrast, soluble Mg(II) was not toxic to activated sludge in the experimental concentration range, but nano-MgO inhibited BOD biodegradation and nitrification with IC50 values of 70 and 143 mg Mg/L, respectively. Further study indicated that the toxicity of nano-MgO resulted primarily from increased pH following MgO hydrolysis.

  6. Positron Annihilation in the Bipositronium Ps2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Frolov, Alexei M.

    2005-07-01

    The electron-positron-pair annihilation in the bipositronium PS2 is considered. In particular, the two-, three-, one- and zero-photon annihilation rates are determined to high accuracy. The corresponding analytical expressions are also presented. Also, a large number of bound state properties have been determined for this system.

  7. The 4 Ps as a Guiding Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsbeek, David H.

    2013-01-01

    A 4 Ps perspective addresses immediate needs: to help institutions gain traction in their retention strategies by framing and reframing the challenges and the possible responses, by challenging some of the traditional mental models about retention that can distract or dilute those strategies, and by offering focus and coherence to institutional…

  8. 10th Anniversary P.S.

    CERN Multimedia

    Adams,J

    1969-01-01

    John Adams parle de la préhistoire du P.S. avec présentation des dias. Le DG B.Gregory prend la parole. Les organisateurs présentent sous la direction du "Prof.Ocktette"(?) un sketch très humoristique (p.e.existence de Quark etc.....)

  9. Back to work for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 22 June, the PS's rotating machine started turning again for the first time since its enforced shutdown one month ago (see Bulletin No. 23-24/2006) - and the PS was back in operation the very next day! A team from Siemens worked their socks off, 6 days a week for one month (including public holidays), to repair the electrical power supply in collaboration with the AB/PO Group's Main Power Converters (MPC) Section. The generator's faulty rotor was dismantled and replaced by the renovated spare rotor. The multitude of electrical and mechanical connections together with the sheer weight of the rotor (80 tonnes) made this an extremely complex job. The AB/PO Group used the shutdown to test a back-up solution for the PS power supply. The accelerator was directly wired up to the 18 kV electrical network via a 13 MVA transformer, installed at the end of the 1970s but never used. This solution succeeded in bringing the PS back into operation but at limited energy and frequency. Just 14 GeV could be achieved, whic...

  10. NOMAGE4 activities 2011, Part II, Supercritical water loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vierstraete, Pierre; Van Nieuwenhove, Rudi; Lauritzen, Bent

    and fuel tests. Working on this direction, the Halden Reactor Project has started an activity in collaboration with Risoe-DTU (with Mr. Rudi Van Nieuwenhove as the project leader) to study the feasibility of a SCW loop in the Halden Reactor, which is a Heavy Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR). The ultimate goal......The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) is one of the six different reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. Several countries have shown interest to this concept but up to now, there exist no in-pile facilities to perform the required material...

  11. Electron beam injection during active experiments. II - Collisional effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    During active beam experiments, the presence of high neutral densities at low altitudes and/or during thruster firings has been observed to modify the spacecraft charging and the properties of the beam. Two-dimensional (three-velocity) electromagnetic particle simulations with ionizing collisions incorporated are used to investigate the modification of the beam-plasma interaction as the neutral density is increased. It is shown that when the spacecraft is uniformly immersed in a neutral cloud, most of the ionization is produced by direct ionization by the beam and its secondaries, rather than via vehicle-induced or wave-induced ionization for the neutral densities considered.

  12. Microgrids in Active Network Management-Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palizban, Omid; Kauhaniemi, Kimmo; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    The development of distribution networks for participation in active network management (ANM) and smart grids is introduced using the microgrid concept. In recent years, this issue has been researched and implemented by many experts. The second part of this paper describes those developed......, following planned or unplanned transitions to island mode, microgrids may develop instability. For this reason, the paper addresses the principles behind island-detection methods, black-start operation, fault management, and protection systems, along with a comprehensive review of power quality. Finally...

  13. [Mechanical and electrical uterine activity. Part II. Contractions parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietek, Jerzy; Sikora, Jerzy; Horoba, Krzysztof; Matonia, Adam; Jezewski, Janusz; Magnucki, Jacek; Kobielska, Lucyna

    2008-11-01

    Frequency and strength of the uterine contractions monitoring enables to control the labour progress and also, although in a restricted way, to determine the beginning of labour, as long as it is not preterm. Mechanical approach provides only the low frequency signal, which describes the contractions more or less accurately, depending on whether an intrauterine pressure measurement is used in the former case or whether an external stress measurement is applied in the latter case. This signal does not comprise information on contractions characteristics and enables only to estimate their basic timing parameters. Description of the electrophysiological properties may be obtained only by means of the uterine electrical signals measurement. In the following paper, the classical interpretation of the uterine contraction activity which relies upon its mechanical and electrical activity was presented. Additionally, the frequency parameters provided exclusively by the electrical signal were proposed. The possibility of the electrohysterogram analysis may provide more complete information on uterine muscle functioning. Results of the research studies show that further development of electrohysterography will enable its wider application in pregnancy and labour diagnostics.

  14. The Role of Angiotensin II and Cyclic AMP in Alveolar Active Sodium Transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Ismael-Badarneh

    Full Text Available Active alveolar fluid clearance is important in keeping airspaces free of edema. Angiotensin II plays a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, heart failure and others. However, little is known about its contribution to alveolar fluid clearance. Angiotensin II effects are mediated by two specific receptors; AT1 and AT2. The localization of these two receptors in the lung, specifically in alveolar epithelial cells type II, was recently reported. We hypothesize that Angiotensin II may have a role in the regulation of alveolar fluid clearance. We investigated the effect of Angiotensin II on alveolar fluid clearance in rats using the isolated perfused lung model and isolated rat alveolar epithelial cells. The rate of alveolar fluid clearance in control rats was 8.6% ± 0.1 clearance of the initial volume and decreased by 22.5%, 28.6%, 41.6%, 48.7% and 39% in rats treated with 10-10 M, 10-9 M, 10-8 M, 10-7 M or 10-6 M of Ang II respectively (P < 0.003. The inhibitory effect of Angiotensin II was restored in losartan, an AT1 specific antagonist, pretreated rats, indicating an AT1 mediated effect of Ang II on alveolar fluid clearance. The expression of Na,K-ATPase proteins and cAMP levels in alveolar epithelial cells were down-regulated following the administration of Angiotensin II; suggesting that cAMP may be involved in AngII-induced reduced Na,K-ATPase expression, though the contribution of additional factors could not be excluded. We herein suggest a novel mechanism of clinical relevance by which angiotensin adversely impairs the ability of the lungs to clear edema.

  15. Cholinergic degeneration is associated with increased plaque deposition and cognitive impairment in APPswe/PS1dE9 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bettina; Mørk, Arne; Plath, Niels

    2013-01-01

    APP/PS1 mice in a behavioural paradigm addressing working memory. Conversely, the performance of Wt mice was unaffected by SAP treatment. Choline acetyltransferase activity was reduced in the hippocampus and frontal cortex following SAP treatment. The selective effect of a mild SAP lesion in APP/PS1...... mice was not due to a more extensive cholinergic degeneration since the reduction in choline acetyltransferase activity was similar following SAP treatment in APP/PS1 mice and Wt. Interestingly, plaque load was significantly increased in SAP treated APP/PS1 mice relative to sham lesioned APP/PS1 mice...

  16. Active region upflows. II. Data driven magnetohydrodynamic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galsgaard, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Vanninathan, K.; Huang, Z.; Presmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Observations of many active regions show a slow systematic outflow/upflow from their edges lasting from hours to days. At present no physical explanation has been proven, while several suggestions have been put forward. Aims: This paper investigates one possible method for maintaining these upflows assuming, that convective motions drive the magnetic field to initiate them through magnetic reconnection. Methods: We use Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data to provide an initial potential 3D magnetic field of the active region NOAA 11123 on 2010 November 13 where the characteristic upflow velocities are observed. A simple 1D hydrostatic atmospheric model covering the region from the photosphere to the corona is derived. Local correlation tracking of the magnetic features in the HMI data is used to derive a proxy for the time dependent velocity field. The time dependent evolution of the system is solved using a resistive 3D magnetohydrodynamic code. Results: The magnetic field contains several null points located well above the photosphere, with their fan planes dividing the magnetic field into independent open and closed flux domains. The stressing of the interfaces between the different flux domains is expected to provide locations where magnetic reconnection can take place and drive systematic flows. In this case, the region between the closed and open flux is identified as the region where observations find the systematic upflows. Conclusions: In the present experiment, the driving only initiates magneto-acoustic waves without driving any systematic upflows at any of the flux interfaces. Movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. The role of transmembrane segment II in 7TM receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Rosenkilde, M M

    2009-01-01

    , in addition to biogenic amines and retinal a.m.o. bind to residues in this region. Consequently the major helical movements occur here during activation, as described recently in the Global Toggle Switch Model for Family A (also known as rhodopsin-like) members of the 7TM receptors. As a result, the minor......, accumulating evidence emphasize that this is not the case. In this review, we focus on TM-II with an emphasis on position II:20/2.60, and present data from structure-activity studies on a range of Family A 7TM receptors including chemokine, ghrelin and melanocortin receptors in addition to the orphan EBI2...... suggesting that TM-II has important functions for both ligand-dependent and -independent activation of 7TM receptors....

  18. Antibacterial activity on electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide) based membranes via Magainin II grafting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yüksel, Emre; Karakeçili, Ayşe, E-mail: akarakecili@eng.ankara.edu.tr

    2014-12-01

    An antimicrobial peptide (AMP), Magainin II (Mag II) was covalently immobilized on poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and PLGA/gelatin electrospun fibrous membranes. The surface immobilization was characterized by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy studies showed that the surface morphology of the fibers at micron scale was not affected by the immobilization process. The antibacterial activity of the bound Mag II was tested against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial adhesion tests, SEM and confocal analyses revealed that the attachment and survival of bacteria were inhibited on Mag II functionalized membranes. AMP immobilization strategy was introduced as a new perspective for the modulation of antibacterial properties on PLGA based materials prepared by electrospinning. - Highlights: • PLGA and PLGA/gelatin fibrous membranes were prepared by electrospinning. • Antimicrobial peptide Mag II was successfully immobilized on PLGA based membranes. • The antibacterial activity was tested against E. coli and S. aureus. • Bacterial adhesion was inhibited on Mag II functionalized membranes.

  19. Anemonia sulcata toxin (ATX II) enhances spontaneous electrical activity and tension in chronically denervated rat diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravens, U; Wiese, R

    1985-09-01

    In isolated strips of rat diaphragm denervated 9-21 days prior to experimentation, spontaneous action potentials were recorded extracellularly and twitch and resting tension were measured. The sea anemone toxin ATX II enhances the occurrence of spontaneous action potentials, increases resting tension and depresses twitch tension. These effects are essentially irreversible. In low sodium solution substituted with sucrose the effects of ATX II are attenuated, however, they fully develop upon return to normal sodium solution with a marked transient increase in the incidence of spontaneous action potentials and in resting tension. ATX II remains uneffective after pretreatment with tetrodotoxin. Reelevation of the extracellular sodium concentration after exposure to low sodium solution per se causes a marked increase in occurrence of fibrillation potentials, however the transient increase in resting tension was much smaller than in the presence of ATX II. Substitution of chloride with the impermeable anion methylsulphate enhances spontaneous activity and resting tension without an effect on twitch tension. Addition of ATX II elevates resting tension although the concomitant further increase in incidence of spontaneous action potentials is small. It is concluded that the increase in resting tension reflects a summation of the fibrillatory activity, but fibrillations become more effective when the preparations are exposed to ATX II. This finding points at the possible rôle of sodium ions in excitation contraction coupling of denervated skeletal muscle.

  20. NOMAGE4 activities 2011. Part II, Supercritical water loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vierstraete, P. (Ecole Nationale Superieure des mines, Paris (France)); Van Nieuwenhove, R. (Institutt for Energiteknikk, OECD Halden Reactor Project (HRP), Kjeller (Norway)); Lauritzen, B. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2012-01-15

    The supercritical water reactor (SCWR) is one of the six different reactor technologies selected for research and development under the Generation IV program. Several countries have shown interest to this concept but up to now, there exist no in-pile facilities to perform the required material and fuel tests. Working on this direction, the Halden Reactor Project has started an activity in collaboration with Risoe-DTU (with Mr. Rudi Van Nieuwenhove as the project leader) to study the feasibility of a SCW loop in the Halden Reactor, which is a Heavy Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR). The ultimate goal of the project is to design a loop allowing material and fuel test studies at significant mass flow with in-core instrumentation and chemistry control possibilities. The present report focusses on the main heat exchanger required for such a loop in the Halden Reactor. The goal of this heat exchanger is to assure a supercritical flow state inside the test section (the core side) and a subcritical flow state inside the pump section. The objective is to design the heat exchanger in order to optimize the efficiency of the heat transfer and to respect several requirements as the room available inside the reactor hall, the maximal total pressure drop allowed and so on. (Author)

  1. Systems approach to excitation-energy and electron transfer reaction networks in photosystem II complex: model studies for chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Tanaka, Shigenori; Ebina, Kuniyoshi

    2015-09-07

    Photosystem II (PS II) is a protein complex which evolves oxygen and drives charge separation for photosynthesis employing electron and excitation-energy transfer processes over a wide timescale range from picoseconds to milliseconds. While the fluorescence emitted by the antenna pigments of this complex is known as an important indicator of the activity of photosynthesis, its interpretation was difficult because of the complexity of PS II. In this study, an extensive kinetic model which describes the complex and multi-timescale characteristics of PS II is analyzed through the use of the hierarchical coarse-graining method proposed in the authors׳ earlier work. In this coarse-grained analysis, the reaction center (RC) is described by two states, open and closed RCs, both of which consist of oxidized and neutral special pairs being in quasi-equilibrium states. Besides, the PS II model at millisecond scale with three-state RC, which was studied previously, could be derived by suitably adjusting the kinetic parameters of electron transfer between tyrosine and RC. Our novel coarse-grained model of PS II can appropriately explain the light-intensity dependent change of the characteristic patterns of fluorescence induction kinetics from O-J-I-P, which shows two inflection points, J and I, between initial point O and peak point P, to O-J-D-I-P, which shows a dip D between J and I inflection points. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucova Active Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic formulation with ingredients reported for anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic activity and antioxidant properties. Objective: Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental Type I diabetes was induced in 24 albino rats with intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg. Type II diabetes was induced in 18 albino rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg along with high fat diet. The rats were divided in 5 groups for Type I model and 4 groups for Type II model. Normal control group was kept common for both experimental models. Glucova Active Tablet (108 mg/kg treatment was provided for 28 days twice daily orally. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profile and liver anti-oxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione was carried out in both experimental models. Pancreas histopathology was also done. Statistical analysis were done by ′analysis of variance′ test followed by post hoc Tukey′s test, with significant level of P < 0.05.Results and Discussion: Glucova Active Tablet showed significant effect on fasting blood glucose level. It also showed significant alteration in lipid profile and antioxidant parameters. Histopathology study revealed restoration of beta cells in pancreas in Glucova Active Tablet treated group. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Glucova Active Tablet has shown promising anti-diabetic activity in Type I and Type II diabetic rats. It was also found showing good anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-oxidant property.

  3. Comparative Study on Adsorption of Mn(II from Aqueous Solutions on Various Activated Carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of Mn(II on indigenously prepared activated carbons (IPAC from Bombax malabaricum, Pithecelobium dulse, Ipomea batatas and Peltaforum ferraginium have been studied. The effects of various experimental parameters have been investigated using batch adsorption technique. The extent of Mn(II removal increased with decrease in initial concentration of the Mn(II, particle size of the adsorbent and increased with increase in contact time, amount of adsorbent used and the initial pH of the solution. Adsorption data were modeled using Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms and first order kinetic equations. The kinetics of adsorption was found to be first order with regard to intra-particle diffusion rate. The results indicate that such carbons could be employed as low cost adsorbents in waste water treatment for the removal of Mn(II.

  4. Structural insight into activity enhancement and inhibition of H64A carbonic anhydrase II by imidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Mayank; Kondeti, Bhargav; Tu, Chingkuang; Maupin, C Mark; Silverman, David N; McKenna, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Human carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the hydration and dehydration of CO2 and HCO3 (-), respectively. The reaction follows a ping-pong mechanism, in which the rate-limiting step is the transfer of a proton from the zinc-bound solvent (OH(-)/H2O) in/out of the active site via His64, which is widely believed to be the proton-shuttling residue. The decreased catalytic activity (∼20-fold lower with respect to the wild type) of a variant of CA II in which His64 is replaced with Ala (H64A CA II) can be enhanced by exogenous proton donors/acceptors, usually derivatives of imidazoles and pyridines, to almost the wild-type level. X-ray crystal structures of H64A CA II in complex with four imidazole derivatives (imidazole, 1--methylimidazole, 2--methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole) have been determined and reveal multiple binding sites. Two of these imidazole binding sites have been identified that mimic the positions of the 'in' and 'out' rotamers of His64 in wild-type CA II, while another directly inhibits catalysis by displacing the zinc-bound solvent. The data presented here not only corroborate the importance of the imidazole side chain of His64 in proton transfer during CA catalysis, but also provide a complete structural understanding of the mechanism by which imidazoles enhance (and inhibit when used at higher concentrations) the activity of H64A CA II.

  5. Flavonoid Myricetin Modulates GABA(A) Receptor Activity through Activation of Ca(2+) Channels and CaMK-II Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Hu; Ma, Ze Gang; Rowlands, Dewi Kenneth; Gou, Yu Lin; Fok, Kin Lam; Wong, Hau Yan; Yu, Mei Kuen; Tsang, Lai Ling; Mu, Li; Chen, Lei; Yung, Wing Ho; Chung, Yiu Wa; Zhang, Bei Lin; Zhao, Hua; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2012-01-01

    The flavonoid myricetin is found in several sedative herbs, for example, the St. John's Wort, but its influence on sedation and its possible mechanism of action are unknown. Using patch-clamp technique on a brain slice preparation, the present study found that myricetin promoted GABAergic activity in the neurons of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) by increasing the decay time and frequency of the inhibitory currents mediated by GABA(A) receptor. This effect of myricetin was not blocked by the GABA(A) receptor benzodiazepine- (BZ-) binding site antagonist flumazenil, but by KN-62, a specific inhibitor of the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II (CaMK-II). Patch clamp and live Ca(2+) imaging studies found that myricetin could increase Ca(2+) current and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, respectively, via T- and L-type Ca(2+) channels in rat PVN neurons and hypothalamic primary culture neurons. Immunofluorescence staining showed increased phosphorylation of CaMK-II after myricetin incubation in primary culture of rat hypothalamic neurons, and the myricetin-induced CaMK-II phosphorylation was further confirmed by Western blotting in PC-12 cells. The present results suggest that myricetin enhances GABA(A) receptor activity via calcium channel/CaMK-II dependent mechanism, which is distinctively different from that of most existing BZ-binding site agonists of GABA(A) receptor.

  6. Flavonoid Myricetin Modulates GABAA Receptor Activity through Activation of Ca2+ Channels and CaMK-II Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid myricetin is found in several sedative herbs, for example, the St. John's Wort, but its influence on sedation and its possible mechanism of action are unknown. Using patch-clamp technique on a brain slice preparation, the present study found that myricetin promoted GABAergic activity in the neurons of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN by increasing the decay time and frequency of the inhibitory currents mediated by GABAA receptor. This effect of myricetin was not blocked by the GABAA receptor benzodiazepine- (BZ- binding site antagonist flumazenil, but by KN-62, a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II (CaMK-II. Patch clamp and live Ca2+ imaging studies found that myricetin could increase Ca2+ current and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, respectively, via T- and L-type Ca2+ channels in rat PVN neurons and hypothalamic primary culture neurons. Immunofluorescence staining showed increased phosphorylation of CaMK-II after myricetin incubation in primary culture of rat hypothalamic neurons, and the myricetin-induced CaMK-II phosphorylation was further confirmed by Western blotting in PC-12 cells. The present results suggest that myricetin enhances GABAA receptor activity via calcium channel/CaMK-II dependent mechanism, which is distinctively different from that of most existing BZ-binding site agonists of GABAA receptor.

  7. Zn(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II) complexes of tridentate asymmetrical Schiff base ligands: Synthesis, characterization, properties and biological activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Mustafa; Koçak, Nuriye; Erdenay, Damla; Arslan, Uğur

    2013-02-01

    New asymmetrical tridentate Schiff base ligands were synthesized using 1,2-phenylenediamine, 4-methyl-1,2-phenylenediamine, 2-hydroxy-1-napthaldehyde, 9-anthracenecarboxaldehyde. Schiff base ligands and their metal complexes were synthesised and characterized by using FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV-Vis, XRD, ESR, elemental analysis and fluorescence studies. The antimicrobial activity of the ligands and their metal complexes were studied against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus ATCC 25923, Streptococcus mutans RSHM 676, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The determination of the antibacterial activity was done using the broth microdilution methods. In general, it has been determined that the studied compounds have MIC values similar to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It has been found that Ni, Pb, Zn derivatives of HL1A and ZnL2A has lower MIC values than ampicillin for P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 strain.

  8. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets (no.'s 6 and 19)and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. Pictured here are members of the PS team with the replacement no. 6 magnet. From left to right: In the back row, Frédéric Roussel (Transport DBS), Yves Bernard (Transport DBS), Luc Moreno (Cegelec), Thierry Battimanza (Transport DBS), Raymond Brown (AB/ABP), Thomas Zickler (AT/MEL); at the front, Steven Southern (AT/VAC), Thierry Gaidon (Brun & Sorensen), Philippe Vidales (Cegelec), Daniel Aubert (Cegelec), Jerome Cachet (Transport DBS), Jose Manual Gomes de Faria (AT/MEL), Eric Page (AT/VAC).

  9. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators´ spring start-up to two weeks. Here we see one of the replacement magnets (no. 19) being prepared.

  10. The PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks.

  11. Motor-Generator Set, PS Main Supply

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    This is the "new" motor-generator set. It replaced the previous, original, one which had served from the PS start-up in 1959. Ordered in 1965, installed in 1967, it was brought into operation at the beginning of 1968. Regularly serviced and fitted with modern regulation and controls, it still serves at the time of writing (2006) and promises to serve for several more years, as a very much alive museum-piece. See also 6803016 and 0201010.

  12. Measuring target for the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    1971-01-01

    The measuring target for the PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV). It measures the size of the beam by destroying all particles with amplitudes greater than the size of the fork, the position and width of which are adjustable. The plunging time is only 20 ms and the acceleration at the tip of the fork reaches 90 g. The servo-controlled linear motor is shown detached from the mechanism. See also 7602008.

  13. Memories of the PS and of LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Steinberger, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The CERN PS, which started in 1959, and the Brookhaven AGS in 1960, represented an advance by a factor of more than five in the energy of proton accelerators, from the 5 GeV of the Berkeley Bevatron to about 30 GeV. These accelerators made possible the large progress in our understanding of particles and their interactions over the next two decades, culminating in the electroweak and QCD gauge theories.

  14. PS overcomes two serious magnet failures

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Two magnets and a bus bar connection in the PS were found to be faulty during high-voltage tests at the end of the accelerator shutdown. A five-week repair schedule was quickly devised. A team of mechanics, technicians and engineers worked at full speed to replace the faulty magnets, succeeding in limiting the delay of the accelerators' spring start-up to two weeks. Here we see one of the replacement magnets (no. 6) being prepared.

  15. Enhanced personal protection system for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Duc

    2013-01-01

    During the first long shutdown (LS1) a new safety system will be installed in the primary beam areas of the PS complex in order to bring the standard of personnel radiation protection at the PS into line with that of the LHC.   Pierre Ninin, deputy group leader of GS-ASE and responsible for the installation of the new PS complex safety system, in front of a new access control system. The LHC access control systems are state-of-the-art, whereas those of the injection chain accelerators were running the risk of becoming obsolete. For the past two years a project to upgrade the access and safety systems of the first links in the LHC accelerator chain has been underway to bring them into compliance with nuclear safety standards. These systems provide the personnel with automatic protection by limiting access to hazardous areas and by ensuring that nobody is present in the areas when the accelerator is in operation. By the end of 2013, the project teams will ha...

  16. O2 Activation and Double CH Oxidation by a Mononuclear Manganese(II) Complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deville, Claire; Padamati, Sandeep K; Sundberg, Jonas; McKee, Vickie; Browne, Wesley R; McKenzie, Christine J

    2015-01-01

    A Mn(II) complex, [Mn(dpeo)2 ](2+) (dpeo=1,2-di(pyridin-2-yl)ethanone oxime), activates O2 , with ensuing stepwise oxidation of the methylene group in the ligands providing an alkoxide and ultimately a ketone group. X-ray crystal-structure analysis of an intermediate homoleptic alkoxide Mn(III)

  17. Hydrolytic activity of μ-alkoxide/acetato-bridged binuclear Cu(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrolytic activity of μ-alkoxide/acetato-bridged binuclear Cu(II) complexes towards carboxylic acid ester ... relationship of artificial hydrolases, which are able to facilitate the development of novel and efficient ... possess much better reactivity, moreover, two mononu- clear analogues with the same Schiff base compounds.

  18. DNA binding and cleavage activity by a mononuclear iron (II) Schiff ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA binding and cleavage activity by a mononuclear iron(II)Schiff base complex: Synthesis and structural characterization. Abhijit Pal Bhaskar Biswas Merry Mitra Subramaniyam Rajalakshmi Chandra Shekhar Purohit Soumitra Hazra Gopinatha Suresh Kumar Balachandran Unni Nair Rajarshi Ghosh. Volume 125 Issue 5 ...

  19. DNA binding and cleavage activity of a structurally characterized Ni(II)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1375–1381. c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12039-015-0900-4. DNA binding and cleavage activity of a structurally characterized Ni(II). Schiff base complex. SARAT CHANDRA KUMARa, ABHIJIT PALa, MERRY MITRAa,. V M MANIKANDAMATHAVANb, CHIA -HER LINc, BALACHANDRAN UNNI NAIRb,∗.

  20. Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by steam-activated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by steam-activated sulphurised carbon prepared from sugar-cane bagasse pith: kinetics and equilibrium studies. ... the maximum adsorption capacity of SA-S-C calculated by the Langmuir isotherm is 149.93 mg/g at 30°C. Acid regeneration was tried for several cycles with a ...

  1. On the key role of water in the allylic activation catalysed by Pd (II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the key role of water in the allylic activation catalysed by Pd (II) bisphosphinite complexes. RAKESH KUMAR SHARMA and ASHOKA G SAMUELSON*. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 e-mail: ashoka@ipc.iisc.ernet.in. Abstract. Palladium and platinum ...

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure and catecholase activity of a Ni(II ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synthesis, crystal structure and catecholase activity of a Ni(II) complex derived from a tetradentate ... of the crystal are a = 30.6345(4)Å, b = 8.45340(10)Å, c = 7.75180(10)Å. Structural analysis reveals a tetradentate chelation behaviour of ..... Acc. Chem. Res. 35 183. 7. (a) Abuhijleh A L, Pollitte J and Woods C 1994 Inorg.

  3. From Synthesis to Biological Impact of Pd (II Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial and Scavenging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pd (II complexes with a series of halosubstituted benzylamine ligands (BLs have been synthesized and characterized with different spectroscopic technique such as FTIR, UV/Vis, LCMS, 1H, and 13C NMR. Their molecular sustainability in different solvents such as DMSO, DMSO : H2O, and DMSO : PBS at physiological condition (pH 7.2 was determined by UV/Vis spectrophotometer. The in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of the complexes were investigated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microbes and two different fungi indicated their significant biological potential. Additionally, their antioxidant activity has been analyzed with DPPH• free radical through spectrophotometric method and the result inferred them as an antioxidant. The stronger antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the synthesized complexes suggested them as a stronger antimicrobial agent. Our study advances the biological importance of palladium (II amine complexes in the field of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.

  4. Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Tin(II-Morin Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabuddin Memon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the interaction between morin and Tin(II and the resulting complex was characterized through various analytical techniques by comparing it with morin. The complexation was confirmed at first by UV-Vis study, which shows that addition of Tin(II to morin may produce bathochromic shifts indicative of complex formation. IR spectral studies indicated that carbonyl has involved in coordination with Tin(II. Moreover, 1H-NMR studies validated that in conjunction with carbonyl, 3-OH of morin is more appropriate to be involved in complexation by replacement of its proton. Scavenging activities of morin and its Tin(II complex on DPPH• radical showed the inhibitory rates of 65% and 49%, respectively. In addition, the reducing capacity of morin was outstanding at 0.5 and 2.0 mg/ml concentrations relative to Tin(II complex. Overall, the study potentially shows the strong impact in order to design the anticancer drugs jointly from its cytotoxic potential and antioxidant activities, thereby selectively targeting the cancerous cells in result increasing their therapeutic index as well as extra advantages over other anticancer drugs.

  5. Structural correlation of catecholase-like activities of oxy-bridged dinuclear copper(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C H; Wei, H H; Liu, Y H; Lee, G H; Wang, Y; Lee, C J

    2001-04-01

    Eight oxy-bridged dinuclear copper(II) complexes with catecholase-like sites, [Cu(L1)X]2 (HL1 = 1-diethylaminopropan-2-ol, X=N3- 1, NCO- 2, and NO2- 3), [Cu(L2)X]2 (HL2=N-ethylsalicylaldimine, X=NO3- 4, Cl- 5, N3- 6, NCS- 7), and [Cu(L3)]2(ClO4)2, 8 (HL3=N-(salicylidene)-N'-(2-pyridylaldene)propanediamine) have been prepared and characterized. The single crystal X-ray analysis show that the structures of complexes 6 and 8 are dimeric with two adjacent copper(II) atoms bridged by pairs of micro-oxy atoms from the L2 and L3 ligands. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in the temperature range 4-300 K indicate significant antiferromagnetic coupling for 4, 5 and 7 and ferromagnetic coupling for 6 between the copper(II) atoms. The catecholase activity of complexes for the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol by O2 was studied and it was found that the complexes with the bond distance of Cu(II)...Cu(II) located at 2.9-3.0 A show higher catecholase activity.

  6. MYC cis-Elements in PsMPT Promoter Is Involved in Chilling Response of Paeonia suffruticosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxi Zhang

    Full Text Available The MPT transports Pi to synthesize ATP. PsMPT, a chilling-induced gene, was previously reported to promote energy metabolism during bud dormancy release in tree peony. In this study, the regulatory elements of PsMPT promoter involved in chilling response were further analyzed. The PsMPT transcript was detected in different tree peony tissues and was highly expressed in the flower organs, including petal, stigma and stamen. An 1174 bp of the PsMPT promoter was isolated by TAIL-PCR, and the PsMPT promoter::GUS transgenic Arabidopsis was generated and analyzed. GUS staining and qPCR showed that the promoter was active in mainly the flower stigma and stamen. Moreover, it was found that the promoter activity was enhanced by chilling, NaCl, GA, ACC and NAA, but inhibited by ABA, mannitol and PEG. In transgenic plants harboring 421 bp of the PsMPT promoter, the GUS gene expression and the activity were significantly increased by chilling treatment. When the fragment from -421 to -408 containing a MYC cis-element was deleted, the chilling response could not be observed. Further mutation analysis confirmed that the MYC element was one of the key motifs responding to chilling in the PsMPT promoter. The present study provides useful information for further investigation of the regulatory mechanism of PsMPT during the endo-dormancy release.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and carbonic anhydrase enzyme inhibitor effects of salicilaldehyde-N-methyl p-toluenesulfonylhydrazone and its Palladium(II), Cobalt(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyar, Saliha; Adem, Şevki

    2014-10-01

    We report the synthesis of the ligand, salicilaldehyde-N-methyl p-toluenesulfonylhydrazone (salptsmh) derived from p-toluenesulfonicacid-1-methylhydrazide (ptsmh) and its Pd(II) and Co(II) metal complexes were synthesized for the first time. The structure of the ligand and their complexes were investigated using elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance and spectral (IR, NMR and LC-MS) measurements. Salptsmh has also been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. 1H and 13C shielding tensors for crystal structure were calculated with GIAO/DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methods in CDCl3. The complexes were found to have general composition [ML2]. The results of elemental analysis showed 1:2 (metal/ligand) stoichiometry for all the complex. Magnetic and spectral data indicate a square planar geometry for Pd(II) complex and a distorted tetrahedral geometry for Co(II) complexes. The ligand and its metal chelates have been screened for their antimicrobial activities using the disk diffusion method against the selected Gram positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Gram negative bacteria: Eschericha coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia. The inhibition activities of these compounds on carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) and carbonic anhydrase I (CA I) have been investigated by comparing IC50 and Ki values and it has been found that Pd(II) complex have more enzyme inhibition efficiency than salptsmh and Co(II) complex.

  8. Competitive Adsorption of Cadmium(II and Mercury(II Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Activated Carbon from Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge Hull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents low-cost and recyclable activated carbon (XLAC derived from Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge hull for high-efficiency adsorption of Cd(II and Hg(II ions in industrial wastewater. XLAC was prepared through H3PO4 activation and was characterized using N2 adsorption-desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. In single-metal-system adsorption experiments, the maximum adsorption capacities for Cd(II and Hg(II obtained under different experimental conditions were 388.7 and 235.6 mg·g−1, respectively. All adsorption equilibrium data fit perfectly with the Langmuir isotherm model. In a binary metal system, competitive studies demonstrated that the presence of Cd(II significantly decreased the adsorption of Hg(II, but the adsorption of Cd(II showed a little change in the presence of Hg(II. In addition, XLAC can be regenerated with a 0.01 mol·L−1 HNO3 solution and reused at least four times. The FTIR spectra revealed that a chemical interaction occurs between functional groups containing lone electron pairs in XLAC and metal ions. Overall, these results suggest that XLAC may be suitable as an adsorbent for heavy metal removal from wastewater streams.

  9. Single and competitive adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared with Salix matsudana Kiodz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan; Li, Kelin; Song, Jinfeng; Li, Bing; Tang, Chunfang

    2016-12-01

    In this study, Salix matsudana activated carbon (SAC) was prepared by phosphoric acid activation, and the adsorption characteristics of Cd(II) and Pb(II) on SAC in single- and double-component solutions were investigated. In both systems, the adsorption capacities of both ions on SAC increased with the increasing initial pH value and temperature in the solutions, and the adsorption equilibrium was approached at 10 min. The adsorption process was spontaneous, endothermic, and depicted well by the pseudo-second-order adsorption model, and the equilibrium adsorption fitted reasonably well with the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) of Cd(II) and Pb(II) was 58.48 and 59.01 mg/g, respectively, in the single-element systems. However, it reduced to 25.32 and 31.09 mg/g, respectively, in the double-element system. The physicochemical property analysis showed that the specific surface area, total pore volume, and average pore diameter of SAC was 435.65 m2/g, 35.68 mL/g, and 3.86 nm, respectively. The SAC contained groups of -OH, C = O, and P = O. Results suggest that SAC had a good performance for the adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from solution, and the adsorption selectivity sequence was Pb(II) > Cd(II).

  10. Simultaneous activation/sulfurization method for production of sulfurized activated carbons: characterization and Hg(II) adsorption capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsijazeyi, Hadi; Kaghazchi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    As an inexpensive method for modification of activated carbons (ACs), sulfurization has attracted significant attention. However, the resulting sulfurized activated carbons (SACs) often are less porous than the original ACs. In this work, we propose a new method for concurrent sulfurization/activation that can lead to preparation of SACs with more porosity than the corresponding non-sulfurized ACs. By using scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption/desorption, and iodine number experiments, the porous structure of the SACs has been compared with that of non-sulfurized ACs. The specific surface areas of SACs are higher than the corresponding ACs, regardless of the type of activation agents used. For instance, the specific surface area of SAC and AC activated with phosphoric acid is 1,637 and 1,338 m(2)/g, respectively. Additionally, sulfur contents and surface charges (pHpzc) of the SACs and non-sulfurized ACs are compared. In fact, the SACs have higher sulfur contents and more acidic surfaces. Furthermore, the Hg(II) adsorption capacity of SACs has been compared with the corresponding non-sulfurized ACs. The Hg(II) adsorption isotherms on a selected SAC is measured at different pH values and temperatures. Hg(II) adsorptions as high as 293 mg/g are observed by using SACs prepared by the method proposed in this study.

  11. Complexes cobalt(II, zinc(II and copper(II with some newly synthesized benzimidazole derivatives and their antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. PODUNAVAC-KUZMANOVIC

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and properties of some complexes of cobalt(II, zinc(II and copper(II with several newly synthesized benzimidazole derivatives (L are reported. The complexes, of the general formula [MCl2L2] (M=Co(II, Zn(II and [CuCl2L(H2O], have a tetrahedral structure. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR and absorption electronic spectra. The antibacterial activitiy of the benzimidazoles and their complexes was evaluated against Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora and Erwinia amylovora. The complexes were found to be more toxic than the ligands.

  12. Psühhodramaatikud annavad Pärnus eksami

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    29. maist kuni 1. juunini kestab Pärnus psühhodraama konverents "Geeniuste kohtumine", kus rahvusvahelise koolituse läbinud annavad eksami. Ruuda Palmquist on psühhodraama kui teadusharu rajajaid Eestis. Pärnus on kohal Rootsi Moreno Instituudi juhataja, psühhodraama lavastaja Marc Treadwell

  13. An HDAC2-TET1 switch at distinct chromatin regions significantly promotes the maturation of pre-iPS to iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tingyi; Chen, Wen; Wang, Xiukun; Zhang, Man; Chen, Jiayu; Zhu, Songcheng; Chen, Long; Yang, Dandan; Wang, Guiying; Jia, Wenwen; Yu, Yangyang; Duan, Tao; Wu, Minjuan; Liu, Houqi; Gao, Shaorong; Kang, Jiuhong

    2015-06-23

    The maturation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) is one of the limiting steps of somatic cell reprogramming, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we reported that knockdown of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) specifically promoted the maturation of iPS cells. Further studies showed that HDAC2 knockdown significantly increased histone acetylation, facilitated TET1 binding and DNA demethylation at the promoters of iPS cell maturation-related genes during the transition of pre-iPS cells to a fully reprogrammed state. We also found that HDAC2 competed with TET1 in the binding of the RbAp46 protein at the promoters of maturation genes and knockdown of TET1 markedly prevented the activation of these genes. Collectively, our data not only demonstrated a novel intrinsic mechanism that the HDAC2-TET1 switch critically regulates iPS cell maturation, but also revealed an underlying mechanism of the interplay between histone acetylation and DNA demethylation in gene regulation. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Human type II pneumocyte chemotactic responses to CXCR3 activation are mediated by splice variant A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rong; Lee, Clement M; Gonzales, Linda W; Yang, Yi; Aksoy, Mark O; Wang, Ping; Brailoiu, Eugen; Dun, Nae; Hurford, Matthew T; Kelsen, Steven G

    2008-06-01

    Chemokine receptors control several fundamental cellular processes in both hematopoietic and structural cells, including directed cell movement, i.e., chemotaxis, cell differentiation, and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that CXCR3, the chemokine receptor expressed by Th1/Tc1 inflammatory cells present in the lung, is also expressed by human airway epithelial cells. In airway epithelial cells, activation of CXCR3 induces airway epithelial cell movement and proliferation, processes that underlie lung repair. The present study examined the expression and function of CXCR3 in human alveolar type II pneumocytes, whose destruction causes emphysema. CXCR3 was present in human fetal and adult type II pneumocytes as assessed by immunocytochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. CXCR3-A and -B splice variant mRNA was present constitutively in cultured type II cells, but levels of CXCR3-B greatly exceeded CXCR3-A mRNA. In cultured type II cells, I-TAC, IP-10, and Mig induced chemotaxis. Overexpression of CXCR3-A in the A549 pneumocyte cell line produced robust chemotactic responses to I-TAC and IP-10. In contrast, I-TAC did not induce chemotactic responses in CXCR3-B and mock-transfected cells. Finally, I-TAC increased cytosolic Ca(2+) and activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase)/protein kinase B kinases only in CXCR3-A-transfected cells. These data indicate that the CXCR3 receptor is expressed by human type II pneumocytes, and the CXCR3-A splice variant mediates chemotactic responses possibly through Ca(2+) activation of both mitogen-activated protein kinase and PI 3-kinase signaling pathways. Expression of CXCR3 in alveolar epithelial cells may be important in pneumocyte repair from injury.

  15. New nano-complexes of Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) ions; spectroscopy, thermal, structural analysis, DFT calculations and antimicrobial activity application

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafiy, Hoda F.; Saif, M.; Mashaly, Mahmoud M.; Halim, Shimaa Abdel; Eid, Mohamed F.; Nabeel, A. I.; Fouad, R.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents synthesis, characterization, and application of several metal (II) complexes with (E)-2-hydroxy-N/-((thiophen-2-yl)methylene)benzohydrazide (H2L). Prepared complexes were identified by elemental, thermal, FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, and XRD analysis, as well as molar conductivity and magnetic moment measurements. Changes in FT-IR and 1H NMR spectra of hydrazone ligand upon coordination indicated that the ligand behaves the same way as a monoanonic ligand with ONS donor sites. Kinetic parameters were determined for each thermal degradation stage of the ligand and its complexes using 'Coats-Redfern' method. All results confirm that all prepared compounds have 1:2 metal-to-ligand stoichiometry except Zn(II) complex, which has 1:1 metal-to-ligand stoichiometry. The antimicrobial activity for complexes was investigated. The antimicrobial activity results revealed that Zn(II) complex (1) has a good potency against gram positive bacteria (E. coli) and gram negative bacteria (P. vulgaris) in comparision with doxymycin standard, AT B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) level, Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to investigate the optimized structure of both, the ligand and the complexes. Total energy, energy of HOMO, and LUMO as well as Mullikan atomic charges were calculated. Dipole moment, orientation, and structure activity relationship were performed and discussed.DFT calculations, moreover, confirmed practical antimicrobial results.

  16. Efficient genomic correction methods in human iPS cells using CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei Lisa; Gee, Peter; Ishida, Kentaro; Hotta, Akitsu

    2016-05-15

    Precise gene correction using the CRISPR-Cas9 system in human iPS cells holds great promise for various applications, such as the study of gene functions, disease modeling, and gene therapy. In this review article, we summarize methods for effective editing of genomic sequences of iPS cells based on our experiences correcting dystrophin gene mutations with the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Designing specific sgRNAs as well as having efficient transfection methods and proper detection assays to assess genomic cleavage activities are critical for successful genome editing in iPS cells. In addition, because iPS cells are fragile by nature when dissociated into single cells, a step-by-step confirmation during the cell recovery process is recommended to obtain an adequate number of genome-edited iPS cell clones. We hope that the techniques described here will be useful for researchers from diverse backgrounds who would like to perform genome editing in iPS cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. iPS cell-derived cardiogenicity is hindered by sustained integration of reprogramming transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fernandez, Almudena; Nelson, Timothy J; Reyes, Santiago; Alekseev, Alexey E; Secreto, Frank; Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Beraldi, Rosanna; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Nagy, Andras; Terzic, Andre

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear reprogramming inculcates pluripotent capacity by which de novo tissue differentiation is enabled. Yet, introduction of ectopic reprogramming factors may desynchronize natural developmental schedules. This study aims to evaluate the effect of imposed transgene load on the cardiogenic competency of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Targeted inclusion and exclusion of reprogramming transgenes (c-MYC, KLF4, OCT4, and SOX2) was achieved using a drug-inducible and removable cassette according to the piggyBac transposon/transposase system. Pulsed transgene overexpression, before iPS cell differentiation, hindered cardiogenic outcomes. Delayed in counterparts with maintained integrated transgenes, transgene removal enabled proficient differentiation of iPS cells into functional cardiac tissue. Transgene-free iPS cells generated reproducible beating activity with robust expression of cardiac α-actinin, connexin 43, myosin light chain 2a, α/β-myosin heavy chain, and troponin I. Although operational excitation-contraction coupling was demonstrable in the presence or absence of transgenes, factor-free derivatives exhibited an expedited maturing phenotype with canonical responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. A disproportionate stemness load, caused by integrated transgenes, affects the cardiogenic competency of iPS cells. Offload of transgenes in engineered iPS cells ensures integrity of cardiac developmental programs, underscoring the value of nonintegrative nuclear reprogramming for derivation of competent cardiogenic regenerative biologics. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. PS-OCT of occlusal and interproximal caries lesions viewed from occlusal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel; Bush, Jeff; Bell, Steve

    2006-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image early dental caries. The primary objective of this study was to compare the measured reflectivity of natural occlusal caries lesions with the relative mineral loss measured using digital microradiography. There was excellent agreement between the increase in the integrated reflectivity in the perpendicular polarization axis of the PS-OCT system and the increase in the integrated mineral loss or lesion severity for occlusal lesions. Therefore, PS-OCT is ideally suited to image natural caries lesions in the important occlusal surfaces for the assessment of the lesion severity and activity. A secondary objective was to compare the performance of a new autocorrelator-based PS-OCT system employing a novel polarization-switching probe with our polarization-maintaining fiber based PS-OCT system, both operating at 1310-nm. The new PS-OCT system produced clean images with no artifacts and achieved high penetration depth. Yet a third objective was to determine if interproximal lesions can be imaged from the occlusal surface (from above) since interproximal lesions may only be accessible in vivo from buccal or lingual surfaces or from the occlusal surface. Simulated and natural interproximal caries lesions were imaged from the occlusal surfaces as long as there was no intervening dentin.

  19. Peroxydisulfate activation by [RuII(tpy)(pic)(H2O)]+. Kinetic, mechanistic and anti-microbial activity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Debabrata; Banerjee, Priyabrata; Bose, Jagadeesh C K; Mukhopadhyay, Sudit

    2012-03-07

    The oxidation of [Ru(II)(tpy)(pic)H(2)O](+) (tpy = 2,2',6',2''-terpyridine; pic(-) = picolinate) by peroxidisulfate (S(2)O(8)(2-)) as precursor oxidant has been investigated kinetically by UV-VIS, IR and EPR spectroscopy. The overall oxidation of Ru(II)- to Ru(IV)-species takes place in a consecutive manner involving oxidation of [Ru(II)(tpy)(pic)H(2)O](+) to [Ru(III)(tpy)(pic)(OH)](+), and its further oxidation of to the ultimate product [Ru(IV)(tpy)(pic)(O)](+) complex. The time course of the reaction was followed as a function of [S(2)O(8)(2-)], ionic strength (I) and temperature. Kinetic data and activation parameters are interpreted in terms of an outer-sphere electron transfer mechanism. Anti-microbial activity of Ru(II)(tpy)(pic)H(2)O](+) complex by inhibiting the growth of Escherichia coli DH5α in presence of peroxydisulfate has been explored, and the results of the biological studies have been discussed in terms of the [Ru(IV)(tpy)(pic)(O)](+) mediated cleavage of chromosomal DNA of the bacteria.

  20. Antibacterial activity of Pd(II) complexes with salicylaldehyde-amino acids Schiff bases ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rîmbu, Cristina; Danac, Ramona; Pui, Aurel

    2014-01-01

    Palladium(II) complexes with Schiff bases ligands derived from salicylaldehyde and amino acids (Ala, Gly, Met, Ser, Val) have been synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform (FT)-IR, UV-Vis and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS) spectrometry confirms the formation of palladium(II) complexes in 1/2 (M/L) molar ratio. All the Pd(II) complexes 1, [Pd(SalAla)2]Cl2; 2, [Pd(SalGly)2]Cl2; 3, [Pd(SalMet)2]Cl2; 4, [Pd(SalSer)2]Cl2; 5, [Pd(SalVal)2]Cl2; have shown antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli.

  1. Antibacterial activity of cobalt(II complexes with some benzimidazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. PODUNAVAC-KUZMANOVIC

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of cobalt(II complexes with two series of benzimidazoles were evaluated in vitro against three Gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Sarcina lutea and one Gram-negative isolate (Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for all the complexes. The majority of the investtigated complexes displayed in vitro inhibitory activity against very persistent bacteria. They were found to be more active against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria. It may be concluded that the antibacterial activity of the compounds is related to the cell wall structure of the tested bacteria. Comparing the inhibitory activities of the tested complexes, it was found that the 1-substituted-2-aminobenzimidazole derivatives were more active than complexes of 1-substituted-2-amino-5,6-dimethylbenzimidazoles. The effect of chemical structure on the antibacterial activity is discussed.

  2. Cadmium(II) adsorption using functional mesoporous silica and activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, Motoi, E-mail: machida@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faulty of Science and Engineering, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Fotoohi, Babak [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faulty of Science and Engineering, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada); Amamo, Yoshimasa [Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Safety and Health Organization, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Ohba, Tomonori; Kanoh, Hirofumi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Mercier, Louis [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faulty of Science and Engineering, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mono-amino-functional groups were found better than di- and tri-amino for Cd(II) adsorption. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Amino-functional group would serve as a basic adsorption site for heavy metal ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercapto- and carboxyl-groups were found to behave as ion exchange sites for proton. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Introduction of amino- and mercapto-groups onto silica was proven by XPS and FT-IR measurements. - Abstract: The role of surface functionality on silica and carbonaceous materials for adsorption of cadmium(II) was examined using various mesoporous silica and activated carbon. Silica surfaces were principally functionalized by mono-amino- and mercapto-groups, while carboxylic group was introduced to the activated carbons by oxidation. Functional groups on silica surface were formed using grafting and co-condensation techniques in their preparation. Mono-amino group was found more effective than di- and tri-amino groups for cadmium(II) adsorption on the grafted silica. Mono-amino groups prepared by co-condensation adsorbed cadmium(II) as much as 0.25 mmol/g compared to mercapto- and carboxyl-groups which adsorbed around 0.12 mmol/g, whereas Langmuir adsorption affinities were as strong as 50-60 L/mmol for all of the three functions. The working pH range was wider for mercapto- and carboxyl-functions than for amino-group. Basic site could be an adsorption center for amino-functional groups while ion exchange sites were found to work for the mercapto- and carboxyl-functions to adsorb cadmium(II) from aqueous phase. Based on the experimental results, surface functional groups rather than structure of silica and carbon seemed to play a decisive role for cadmium(II) adsorption.

  3. Psychometric properties of the French translation of the reduced KOOS and HOOS (KOOS-PS and HOOS-PS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornetti, P; Perruccio, A V; Roos, E M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the French KOOS physical function (KOOS-PS) and HOOS physical function (HOOS-PS), specifically its feasibility, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness. METHODS: Consecutive outpatients consulting for primary knee or hip osteoarthr......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the French KOOS physical function (KOOS-PS) and HOOS physical function (HOOS-PS), specifically its feasibility, reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness. METHODS: Consecutive outpatients consulting for primary knee or hip...

  4. Angiotensin II activates MAP kinase and NF-kappaB through angiotensin II type I receptor in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Koji; Ohta, Tetsuo; Kitagawa, Hirohisa; Kayahara, Masato; Takamura, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Takashi; Nishimura, Gen-Ichi; Shimizu, Koichi; Miwa, Koichi

    2004-10-01

    Pancreatic ductal cancer has higher angiotensin II concentrations compared with normal pancreas or other solid tumors. This study examined angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor expression and the role of angiotensin II in proliferation and survival of human pancreatic cancer cells. All three pancreatic cancer cell lines studied, from well to poorly-differentiated types, HPAF-II, AsPC-1, and Panc-1, showed strong expression of AT1 receptor. In contrast, HT-29 human colon cancer cells showed extremely weak expression. Angiotensin II stimulated the growth of pancreatic cancer cells through MAP kinase activation but had no significant effect on proliferation of HT-29 colon cancer cells. In addition, angiotensin II significantly prevented cisplatin (CDDP)-induced apoptosis through NF-kappaB activation and the subsequent production of anti-apoptotic molecules, including survivin and Bcl-XL, in pancreatic cancer cells. These findings suggest that angiotensin II plays a role in the growth and chemoresistance of AT1-positive pancreatic cancer cells through its action as a potent mitogen and anti-apoptotic molecule.

  5. Evolving science enhanced with iPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dear friends, Greetings from all in the team. With the stage set for online submissions and the review-response-revision-resubmission process standardized, we have come with the first regular issue and from now there will be quarterly issues of the journal. Since the starting of the JSRM in a short span there have been a lot of developments, which we would rather say as "evolutions" keeping in mind, the recent iPS! This evolution we would like you to see from a background of the various developments in the art and science of medicine throughout in the past three centuries. We have come across the era of investigative tools such as bamboo made laryngoscopes to era of vaccines and antibiotics followed by the era of revolutionary non-invasive procedures and recently the nano technology based drugs and now the iPS! Macro to Micro, but still more to go. All through the influence of the society, religions, philosophies have been playing a very important role in every step the science of biology moves ahead. Starting with the contraception, assisted reproduction then the gene modified plants....and now the embryonic stem cells! With the advent of the iPS, though the issues of oncogenes, teratoma yet to be ruled out, we have found there is a way which can bypass the ES cells! Hats off to those scientists who have burnt their midnight oil to have found this way out! The lesson we learn is to explore things with an open mind and continue to proceed further without spending much time fingers crossed. Yours sincerely,The Editorial team.

  6. 8 CFR 329.5 - Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natives of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. 329.5 Section 329.5 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of the Philippines with active duty service during World War II. (a) A person desiring to naturalize...

  7. Position pickup of the PS Booster

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The beam position around the 4 rings of the PS Booster (originally 800 MeV, now 1.4 GeV), is measured with electrostatic pickups (PU). They consist of a ceramic cylinder forming part of the vacuum chamber, and, in order to save space, they are located inside the multipole lenses. The inside of the ceramic is coated with a metallic layer, into which the form of the electrodes was cut by computer-controlled micro-sandblasting. Each PU has a pair of horizontal and a pair of vertical electrodes, as well as a separate intensity-sensing circular electrode.

  8. Space charge studies in the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Asvesta, F; Damerau, H; Huschauer, A; Papaphilippou, Y; Serluca, M; Sterbini, G; Zisopoulos, P

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the results of Machine Development (MD)studies conducted at the CERN Proton Sychrotron (PS) arepresented. The main focus was the investigation of newworking points in an effort to characterize and potentiallyimprove the brightness for LHC-type beams in view of theLHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU). Various working points werecompared in terms of losses and emittance evolution. Sincespace charge and the resonances it excites are the main causefor emittance blow-up and losses, tunes close to excitedresonances were carefully studied. Mitigation techniques,such as bunch flattening using a double harmonic RF system,were also tested.

  9. Structural insight into activity enhancement and inhibition of H64A carbonic anhydrase II by imidazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Aggarwal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human carbonic anhydrases (CAs are zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the hydration and dehydration of CO2 and HCO3−, respectively. The reaction follows a ping-pong mechanism, in which the rate-limiting step is the transfer of a proton from the zinc-bound solvent (OH−/H2O in/out of the active site via His64, which is widely believed to be the proton-shuttling residue. The decreased catalytic activity (∼20-fold lower with respect to the wild type of a variant of CA II in which His64 is replaced with Ala (H64A CA II can be enhanced by exogenous proton donors/acceptors, usually derivatives of imidazoles and pyridines, to almost the wild-type level. X-ray crystal structures of H64A CA II in complex with four imidazole derivatives (imidazole, 1-methylimidazole, 2-methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole have been determined and reveal multiple binding sites. Two of these imidazole binding sites have been identified that mimic the positions of the `in' and `out' rotamers of His64 in wild-type CA II, while another directly inhibits catalysis by displacing the zinc-bound solvent. The data presented here not only corroborate the importance of the imidazole side chain of His64 in proton transfer during CA catalysis, but also provide a complete structural understanding of the mechanism by which imidazoles enhance (and inhibit when used at higher concentrations the activity of H64A CA II.

  10. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of zinc(II complexes with some 2-methylbenzimidazole derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc(II chloride reacts with 2-methylbenzimidazole derivatives to give complexes of the formula ZnL2Cl2-nH2O, where L=2-methylbenzimidazole l-benzyl-2-methylbenzimida-zole and l-(4-methylbenzyl-2-methylbenzimidazole n=0, 0.5 or 1. All the ligands and their zinc(II complexes were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea and Candida pseudotropicalis. It was found that the majority of the investigated compounds displayed in vitro antimicrobial activity against very persistent microorganisms, except for the starting ligand, 2-methylbenzimidazole and its zinc(II complex which were active only against gram-negative bacteria. None of the compounds was significantly effective against Candida pseudotropicalis, except for l-(4-methylbenzyl-2-methylbenzimidazoleandits complex, which very slightly or slightly inhibited the yeast growth. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined for all the ligands and their complexes. The effect of ligand and complex structure on the antimicrobial activity was discussed.

  11. Renal Denervation Prevents Immune Cell Activation and Renal Inflammation in Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Liang; Kirabo, Annet; Wu, Jing; Saleh, Mohamed A; Zhu, Linjue; Wang, Feng; Takahashi, Takamune; Loperena, Roxana; Foss, Jason D; Mernaugh, Raymond L; Chen, Wei; Roberts, Jackson; Osborn, John W; Itani, Hana A; Harrison, David G

    2015-08-28

    Inflammation and adaptive immunity play a crucial role in the development of hypertension. Angiotensin II and probably other hypertensive stimuli activate the central nervous system and promote T-cell activation and end-organ damage in peripheral tissues. To determine if renal sympathetic nerves mediate renal inflammation and T-cell activation in hypertension. Bilateral renal denervation using phenol application to the renal arteries reduced renal norepinephrine levels and blunted angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Bilateral renal denervation also reduced inflammation, as reflected by decreased accumulation of total leukocytes, T cells, and both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the kidney. This was associated with a marked reduction in renal fibrosis, albuminuria, and nephrinuria. Unilateral renal denervation, which partly attenuated blood pressure, only reduced inflammation in the denervated kidney, suggesting that this effect is pressure independent. Angiotensin II also increased immunogenic isoketal-protein adducts in renal dendritic cells (DCs) and increased surface expression of costimulation markers and production of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, and IL-6 from splenic DCs. Norepinephrine also dose dependently stimulated isoketal formation in cultured DCs. Adoptive transfer of splenic DCs from angiotensin II-treated mice primed T-cell activation and hypertension in recipient mice. Renal denervation prevented these effects of hypertension on DCs. In contrast to these beneficial effects of ablating all renal nerves, renal afferent disruption with capsaicin had no effect on blood pressure or renal inflammation. Renal sympathetic nerves contribute to DC activation, subsequent T-cell infiltration and end-organ damage in the kidney in the development of hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. PAN/PS elctrospun fibers for oil spill cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Qiao; Lili, Zhao; Haixiang, Sun; Peng, Li

    2014-08-01

    A high-capacity oil sorbent was fabricated by electrospinning using PS/PAN blend. Morphology, contact angle and oil adsorption of PAN/PS fiber and PP nonwoven fabric were studied. It was found that the PAN/PS fiber had a smaller diameter than PP, and the maximum sorption capacities of the PAN/PS sorbent for pump oil, peanut oil, diesel, and gasoline were 194.85, 131.7, 66.75, and 43.38 g/g, which were far higher than those of PP. The sorbent PS/PAN fiber showed a contact angle of water144.32° and diesel oil 0°. The sorption kinetics of PAN/PS and PP sorbent were also investigated. Compared with the commercial PP fabric, the PAN/PS fiber seems to have the ability to be used in oil-spill cleanup application.

  13. Chemotherapy and quality of life in NSCLC PS 2 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbekkmo, Nina; Strøm, Hans H; Sundstrøm, Stein H

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nearly 40% of patients with advanced NSCLC are in performance status (PS) 2. These patients have a shorter life expectancy than PS 0/1 patients and they are underrepresented in clinical trials. Data on how platinum-based combination chemotherapy affects Health Related Quality of Life...... (HRQOL) of patients with PS 2 are scarce and the treatment of this important group of patients is controversial. METHODS: A national multicenter phase III study on platinum based chemotherapy to 432 advanced NSCLC patients included 123 patients with PS 2. To explore the treatment impact on HRQOL......: Whereas the demographic data at baseline were well balanced between the groups, the PS 2 patients had significantly worse function and more severe symptoms than the PS 0/1 patients. In response to combination chemotherapy, the PS 2 patients had a more profound improvement of global QOL, cognitive function...

  14. Copper (II) complexes possessing alkyl-substituted polypyridyl ligands: Structural characterization and in vitro antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Noah R; Khatib, Raneen M; Jenkins, Julia; Smith, Michelle; Rubalcava, Justin M; Le, Brian Khoa; Lussier, Daniel; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Tham, Fook S; Wilson, Emma H; Eichler, Jack F

    2017-01-01

    In an effort to find alternatives to the antitumor drug cisplatin, a series of copper (II) complexes possessing alkyl-substituted polypyridyl ligands have been synthesized. Eight new complexes are reported herein: μ-dichloro-bis{2,9-di-sec-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinechlorocopper(II)} {[((di-sec-butyl)phen)ClCu(μ-Cl)2CuCl((di-sec-butyl)phen)]}(1), 2-sec-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedichlorocopper(II) {([mono-sec-butyl)phen) CuCl2} (2), 2,9-di-n-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedichlorocopper(II) {[(di-n-butyl)phen) CuCl2}(3), 2-n-butyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedichlorocopper(II) {[(mono-n-butyl)phen) CuCl2} (4), 2,9-di-methyl-1,10-phenanthrolineaquadichlorocopper(II) {[(di-methyl)phen) Cu(H2O)Cl2}(5), μ-dichloro-bis{6-sec-butyl-2,2'-bipyridinedichlorocopper(II)} {((mono-sec-butyl)bipy) ClCu(μ-Cl)2CuCl((mono-sec-butyl)bipy)} (6), 6,6'-di-methyl-2,2'-bipyridinedichlorocopper(II) {(6,6'-di-methyl)bipy) CuCl2} (7), and 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridinedichlorocopper(II) {(4,4'-di-methyl)bipy) CuCl2} (8). These complexes have been characterized via elemental analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. Single crystal X-ray diffraction experiments revealed the complexes synthesized with the (di-sec-butyl)phen ligand (1) and (mono-sec-butyl)bipy ligand (6) crystallized as dimers in which two copper(II) centers are bridged by two chloride ligands. Conversely, complexes 2, 7, and 8 were isolated as monomeric species possessing distorted tetrahedral geometries, and the [((di-methyl)phen)Cu(H2O)Cl2] (5) complex was isolated as a distorted square pyramidal monomer possessing a coordinating aqua ligand. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their in vitro antitumor efficacy. Compounds 1, 5, and 7 in particular were found to exhibit remarkable activity against human derived lung cancer cells, yet this class of copper(II) compounds had minimal cytotoxic effect on non-cancerous cells. In vitro control experiments indicate the activity of the copper(II) complexes most likely does not arise from the

  15. Synthesis, characterization, computational studies, antimicrobial activities and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor effects of 2-hydroxy acetophenone-N-methyl p-toluenesulfonylhydrazone and its Co(II), Pd(II), Pt(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbek, Neslihan; Alyar, Saliha; Memmi, Burcu Koçak; Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban; Bahçeci, Zafer; Alyar, Hamit

    2017-01-01

    2-Hydroxyacetophenone-N-methyl p-toluenesulfonylhydrazone (afptsmh) derived from p-toluenesulfonicacid-1-methylhydrazide (ptsmh) and its Co(II), Pd(II), Pt(II) complexes were synthesized for the first time. Synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, 1Hsbnd 13C NMR, LC-MS, UV-vis), magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. 1H and 13C shielding tensors for crystal structure of ligand were calculated with GIAO/DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) methods in CDCl3. The vibrational band assignments were performed at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) theory level combined with scaled quantum mechanics force field (SQMFF) methodology. The antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were studied against some Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by using microdilution and disc diffusion methods. In vitro enzyme inhibitory effects of the compounds were measured by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The enzyme activities against human carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) were evaluated as IC50 (the half maximal inhibitory concentration) values. It was found that afptsmh and its metal complexes have inhibitory effects on hCA II isoenzyme. General esterase activities were determined using alpha and beta naphtyl acetate substrates (α- and β-NAs) of Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Activity results show that afptsmh does not strongly affect the bacteria strains and also shows poor inhibitory activity against hCAII isoenzyme whereas all complexes posses higher biological activities.

  16. Synthesis and biocidal activity of Zn(II) complexes of some 2,2'-substituted diphenylamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R C; Parashar, R K

    1987-03-01

    Binary as well as ternary complexes of Zn(II) with diphenylamine-2,2'-dicarboxylic acid (dpdc), diphenylamine-2-amino-2'-carboxylic acid (dpac), diphenylamine-2-hydroxy-2'-carboxylic acid (dphc), diphenylamine-2-mercapto-2'-carboxylic acid (dpmc), and N-(2-pyridino) anthranilic acid (npa) have been synthesized and characterized by their elemental analysis, IR spectral data, and molar conductance measurements. Antimicrobial activity of these ligands and their respective Zn(II) complexes have been determined on gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and on Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus nidulense, two common fungi by the serial dilution method. A considerable increase in the biocidal activity of these ligands on being coordinated with the metal ion has been reported in terms of their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values.

  17. MHD mode activity and the velocity shear layer at TJ-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Milligen, B. Ph.; García, L.; Carreras, B. A.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Hidalgo, C.; Alonso, J. A.; Estrada, T.; Ascasíbar, E.

    2012-01-01

    Low-frequency MHD mode activity was studied at the TJ-II stellarator. A spatiotemporal Fourier technique was used to resolve frequency-degenerate modes. By means of this technique, several MHD modes could be identified in discharges with a spontaneous confinement transition in different but similar magnetic configurations. The configurations differed mainly with respect to the radial position of the rational surfaces, thus allowing the reconstruction of a poloidal mode rotation profile based on the mode activity, which was found to be consistent with earlier work. The detected mode spectrum also provided an explanation for the bicoherence observed in one of the configurations after the confinement transition. Both the mode spectrum and the velocity profile were closely reproduced by nonlinear resistive MHD calculations in simplified geometry. As a consequence, the magnetic Reynolds stress is hypothesized to play an important role in the establishment of the velocity shear layer in TJ-II and the concomitant confinement transition.

  18. Adsorption of Pb(II by Activated Pyrolytic Char from Used Tire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a renewable resource, the pyrolytic char derived from used tire has promising adsorption capacities owing to its similar structure and properties with active carbon. The purification and activation of the pyrolytic char from used tire, as well as the application of this material in the adsorption of Pb(II in water is conducted. The influences on the adsorption capacity by temperature and pH value are investigated and discussed; the adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics are also studied. The results show that the pyrolytic char from used tire has remarkable adsorption capacity for Pb(II, and the adsorption is an endothermic process complying with the Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetics is a pseudo second-order reaction.

  19. The PS Booster Fast Wire Scanner

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, S; Priestnall, K; Raich, U

    2003-01-01

    The very tight emittance budget for LHC type beams makes precise emittance measurements in the injector complex a necessity. The PS machine uses 2 fast wire scanners per transverse plane for emittance measurement of the circulating beams. In order to ease comparison the same type of wire scanners have been newly installed in the upstream machine, the PS Booster, where each of the 4 rings is equipped with 2 wire scanners measuring the horizontal and vertical profiles. Those wire scanners use new and more modern control and readout electronics featuring dedicated intelligent motor movement controllers, which relieves the very stringent real time constraints due to the very high speed of 20m/s. In order to be able to measure primary beams at the very low injection energy of the Booster (50MeV) secondary emission currents from the wire can be measured as well as secondary particle flows at higher primary particle energies during and after acceleration. The solution adopted for the control of the devices is descri...

  20. Sofrimento psíquico e trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rosa Salles Vieira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aprofunda questões clínico-téoricas relacionadas especificamente ao trabalho docente e ao sofrimento psíquico a ele relacionado a partir da observação clínica e vivência grupal nos atendimentos terapêuticos ocupacionais realizados no Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo "Francisco Morato de Oliveira" (HSPE-FMO. Partindo dos estudos acerca da Psicopatologia do Trabalho de Christophe Dejours, do trabalho docente e do relato de um caso clínico, caracteriza a problemática do sofrimento no trabalho, os sistemas de defesa contra este sofrimento, a ameaça à subjetividade do próprio trabalhador, as representações e conflitos vivenciados no trabalho docente, bem como a relação aditiva estabelecida como uma estratégia inconsciente de sobrevivência psíquica.

  1. KAJIAN INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEMCELL (iPS (HARAPAN DAN TANTANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masagus Zainuri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS are adult cells which the genetic information in the nucleus of those cells being reprogrammed (reprogram by inserting exogenous pluripotential genes. The exogenous gene transduction is using vectors, such as lentivirus, retrovirus, or adenovirus, which suppressed the gene expression of the original cells, so they will express the transduced exogenous gene. Viral vectors are then used to reprogramming and producing iPS clones that are pluripotent. iPS derived from adult cells of patient with certain diseases will be used as a tool to study the mechanisms of those specific diseases and the effects of selected drugs against the diseases. Several previous studies have shown that iPS clones developed from specific genetic disease have its original genotype and retain the character of the response to the drug that similar as the original adult cells. Opportunities for the utilization of autologous iPS cell therapy in the future is wide open as expected iPS transplant will not be rejected when transplanted back to the patient. Behind all its potential, iPS production is still facing some problems to be applicable clinically. The use of viruses as vectors may cause problems due to virus gene sequences may be integrated into the genome of the DNA donor cell, thereby causing mutations of the iPS clones. Several subsequent studies have succeeded in replacing the use of viruses as vectors, but the level of efficiency obtained is still very low. Another problem that arises is that epigenetic changes may occur in iPS cultures. Many advanced research related to iPS may be developed in Indonesia and is necessary to improve the production efficiency of iPS and solve iPS clones epigenetic changes problems in the future.Keywords: iPS, pluripotency, transduction, transfection.AbstrakInduced Pluripotent Stemcell (iPS adalah sel somatic dewasa yang informasi genetika dalam inti selnyadiprogram ulang (reprogram dengan cara

  2. Preparation of a toxic derivative of sea anemone toxin II from Anemonia sulcata which has peroxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, M; Isenberg, G

    1986-01-01

    Sea anemone toxin II (ATX II) is a useful tool for investigation of sodium channels in excitable membranes. Coupling of ATX II with microperoxidase, a heme-octapeptide, is described. The isolated cross-linked product possesses both toxic and peroxidase activity. The lowest concentration of the modified toxin that affects the action potential and the membrane currents in single cardiac myocytes is 16 nM. The enzymatically active ATX II derivative may be useful for biochemical applications and as a non-radioactive tracer for electron microscopy studies of excitable tissue.

  3. Impaired ergosterol biosynthesis mediated fungicidal activity of Co(II) complex with ligand derived from cinnamaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreaz, Sheikh; Shiekh, Rayees A; Raja, Vaseem; Wani, Waseem A; Behbehani, Jawad M

    2016-03-05

    In this study, we have used aldehyde function of cinnamaldehyde to synthesize N, N'-Bis (cinnamaldehyde) ethylenediimine [C20H20N2] and Co(II) complex of the type [Co(C40H40N4)Cl2]. The structures of the synthesized compounds were determined on the basis of physiochemical analysis and spectroscopic data ((1)H NMR, FTIR, UV-visible and mass spectra) along with molar conductivity measurements. Anticandidal activity of cinnamaldehyde its ligand [L] and Co(II) complex was investigated by determining MIC80, time-kill kinetics, disc diffusion assay and ergosterol extraction and estimation assay. Ligand [L] and Co(II) complex are found to be 4.55 and 21.0 folds more efficient than cinnamaldehyde in a liquid medium. MIC80 of Co(II) complex correlated well with ergosterol inhibition suggesting ergosterol biosynthesis to be the primary site of action. In comparison to fluconazole, the test compounds showed limited toxicity against H9c2 rat cardiac myoblasts. In confocal microscopy propidium iodide (PI) penetrates the yeast cells when treated with MIC of metal complex, indicating a disruption of cell membrane that results in imbibition of dye. TEM analysis of metal complex treated cells exhibited notable alterations or damage to the cell membrane and the cell wall. The structural disorganization within the cell cytoplasm was noted. It was concluded that fungicidal activity of Co(II) complex originated from loss of membrane integrity and a decrease in ergosterol content is only one consequence of this. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A new Co(II) complex of diniconazole: synthesis, crystal structure and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Teng; Li, Jie; Yan, Biao; Yang, Mingyan; Song, Jirong; Ma, Haixia

    2015-10-01

    A new Co(II) complex of diniconazole, namely diaqua[(E)-(RS)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl-κN(4))pent-1-en-3-ol]cobalt(II) dinitrate dihydrate, [Co(C15H17Cl2N3O)3(H2O)2](NO3)2·2H2O, was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Crystal structural analysis shows that the centrosymmetric Co(II) cation is coordinated by four diniconazole ligands and two water molecules, forming a six-coordinated octahedral structure. There are also two free nitrate counter-anions and two additional solvent water molecules in the structure. Intermolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds link the complex cations into a one-dimensional chain. In addition, the antifungal activity of the complex against Botryosphaeria ribis, Gibberella nicotiancola, Botryosphaeria berengriana and Alternariasolani was studied. The results indicate that the complex shows a higher antifungal activity for Botryosphaeria ribis and Botryosphaeria berengriana than diniconazole, but a lower antifungal activity for Gibberella nicotiancola and Alternariasolani.

  5. Comparison of molecular species of various transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine (PS) with bovine cortex PS by mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Li, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    The exogenous introduction of a molecular species mixture of bovine cortex phosphatidylserine (BC-PS) has been claimed to improve memory function in subjects suffering from age-associated memory impairment and dementia. However, it has been also reported that oral administration of another molecular

  6. Physical activity in type II Diabetes Mellitus, an effective therapeutic element: review of the clinical impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Iván Arias-Vázquez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A review was conducted in databases (PubMed, PEDro of type studies clinical trial, cohort study, systematic reviews, meta-analysis and clinical practice guidelines based on evidence they have studied the benefits of physical activity in the prevention , treatment and decreased risk of complications and death in patients with Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Realization regular physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of developing Diabetes Mellitus; likewise was associated with decrease in glycated hemoglobin percentage A1C values. Diabetic patients undergoing high levels of physical activity had decreased risk of complications and death from cardiovascular disease and all causes. At present the scientific evidence on the impact of physical activity in the prevention and treatment of Diabetes Mellitus is solid, so it must be emphasized promoting physical activity as a fundamental part of the therapeutic regimens for this disease.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and biological activities of Cu(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Fe(II), and UO2(VI) complexes with a new Schiff Base hydrazone: O-hydroxyacetophenone-7-chloro-4-quinoline hydrazone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Shaalan, Nora H

    2011-01-01

    .... This was accounted for be the presence in the ligand of a phenolic azomethine and imine groups. It reacts with Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II), UO(2) (VI) and Fe(II) to form either mono- or binuclear complexes...

  8. Comparison of Activator-Headgear and Twin Block Treatment Approaches in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepan Spalj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to compare the treatment effects of functional appliances activator-headgear (AH and Twin Block (TB on skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue structures in class II division 1 malocclusion with normal growth changes in untreated subjects. The sample included 50 subjects (56% females aged 8–13 years with class II division 1 malocclusion treated with either AH (n=25 or TB (n=25 appliances. Pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were evaluated and compared to 50 untreated class II division 1 cases matched by age, gender, ANB angle, and skeletal maturity. A paired sample, independent samples tests and discriminant analysis were performed for intra- and intergroup analysis. Treatment with both appliances resulted in significant reduction of skeletal and soft-tissue facial convexity, the overjet, and the prominence of the upper lip in comparison to untreated individuals (p<0.001. Retroclination of maxillary incisors and proclination of mandibular incisors were seen, the latter being significantly more evident in the TB group (p<0.05. Increase of effective mandibular length was more pronounced in the TB group. In conclusion, both AH and TB appliances contributed successfully to the correction of class II division 1 malocclusion when compared to the untreated subjects with predominantly dentoalveolar changes.

  9. Comparison of Activator-Headgear and Twin Block Treatment Approaches in Class II Division 1 Malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalj, Stjepan; Mroz Tranesen, Kate; Birkeland, Kari; Katic, Visnja; Pavlic, Andrej; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the treatment effects of functional appliances activator-headgear (AH) and Twin Block (TB) on skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue structures in class II division 1 malocclusion with normal growth changes in untreated subjects. The sample included 50 subjects (56% females) aged 8-13 years with class II division 1 malocclusion treated with either AH ( n = 25) or TB ( n = 25) appliances. Pre- and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were evaluated and compared to 50 untreated class II division 1 cases matched by age, gender, ANB angle, and skeletal maturity. A paired sample, independent samples tests and discriminant analysis were performed for intra- and intergroup analysis. Treatment with both appliances resulted in significant reduction of skeletal and soft-tissue facial convexity, the overjet, and the prominence of the upper lip in comparison to untreated individuals ( p < 0.001). Retroclination of maxillary incisors and proclination of mandibular incisors were seen, the latter being significantly more evident in the TB group ( p < 0.05). Increase of effective mandibular length was more pronounced in the TB group. In conclusion, both AH and TB appliances contributed successfully to the correction of class II division 1 malocclusion when compared to the untreated subjects with predominantly dentoalveolar changes.

  10. Estimating Black Hole Masses in Active Galactic Nuclei Using the Mg II λ2800 Emission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Guo; Dong, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Ting-Gui; Ho, Luis C.; Yuan, Weimin; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the relationship between the linewidths of broad Mg II λ2800 and Hβ in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to refine them as tools to estimate black hole (BH) masses. We perform a detailed spectral analysis of a large sample of AGNs at intermediate redshifts selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, along with a smaller sample of archival ultraviolet spectra for nearby sources monitored with reverberation mapping (RM). Careful attention is devoted to accurate spectral decomposition, especially in the treatment of narrow-line blending and Fe II contamination. We show that, contrary to popular belief, the velocity width of Mg II tends to be smaller than that of Hβ, suggesting that the two species are not cospatial in the broad-line region. Using these findings and recently updated BH mass measurements from RM, we present a new calibration of the empirical prescriptions for estimating virial BH masses for AGNs using the broad Mg II and Hβ lines. We show that the BH masses derived from our new formalisms show subtle but important differences compared to some of the mass estimators currently used in the literature.

  11. Dinaciclib potently suppresses MCL-1 and selectively induces the cell death in human iPS cells without affecting the viability of cardiac tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsayegh, Khaled; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Sekine, Hidekazu; Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2017-03-31

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells hold great potential for being a major source of cells for regenerative medicine. One major issue that hinders their advancement to clinic is the persistence of undifferentiated iPS cells in iPS-derived tissue. In this report, we show that the CDKs inhibitor, Dinaciclib, selectively eliminates iPS cells without affecting the viability of cardiac cells. We found that low nanomolar concentration of dinaciclib increased DNA damage and p53 protein levels in iPSCs. This was accompanied by negative regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL-1. Gene knockdown experiments revealed that p53 downregulation only increased the threshold of dinaciclib induced apoptosis in iPS cells. Dinaciclib also inhibited the phosphorylation of Serine 2 of the C-terminal domain of RNA Polyemrase II through CDK9 inhibition. This resulted in the inhibition of transcription of MCL-1 and the pluripotency genes, NANOG and c-MYC. Even though dinaciclib caused a slight downregulation of MCL-1 in iPS-derived cardiac cells, the viability of the cells was not significantly affected, and beating iPS-derived cardiac cell sheet could still be fabricated. These findings suggest a difference in tolerance of MCL-1 downregulation between iPSCs and iPS-derived cardiac cells which could be exploited to eliminate remaining iPS cells in bioengineered cell sheet tissues.

  12. New bioactive silver(I) complexes: Synthesis, characterization, anticancer, antibacterial and anticarbonic anhydrase II activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ummuhan O.; Ozbek, Neslihan; Genc, Zuhal Karagoz; İlbiz, Firdevs; Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban

    2017-06-01

    Silver(I) complexes of alkyl sulfonic acide hydrazides were newly synthesized as homologous series. Methanesulfonic acide hydrazide (L1), ethanesulfonic acide hydrazide (L2), propanesulfonic acide hydrazide (L3) and butanesulfonic acide hydrazide (L4) were used for complexation with Ag(I) ions. The silver complexes obtained in the mol ratio of 1:2 have the structural formula as Ag(L1)2NO3 (I), Ag(L2)2NO3 (II), Ag(L3)2NO3(III), (Ag(L4)2NO3 (IV). The Ag(I) complexes exhibit distorted linear two-fold coordination in [AgL2]+ cations with uncoordinated nitrates. Ligands are chelated with silver(I) ions through unsubstituted primary nitrogen in hydrazide group. Ag(I) complexes were characterized by using elemental analysis, spectroscopic methods (FT-IR, LC-MS), magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. Silver(I) complexes were optimized using PBEPBE/LanL2DZ/DEF2SV basic set performed by DFT method with the Gaussian 09 program package. The geometrical parameters, frontier molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) mapped surfaces of the optimized geometries were also determined by this quantum set. The anticancer activities of silver(I) complexes on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line were investigated by comparing IC50 values. The antibacterial activities of complexes were studied against Gram positive bacteria; S. aureus ATCC 6538, B. subtilis ATCC 6633, B. cereus NRRL-B-3711, E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and Gram negative bacteria; E. coli ATCC 11230, P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442, K. pneumonia ATCC 70063 by using disc diffusion method. The inhibition activities of Ag(I) complexes on carbonic anhydrase II enzyme (hCA II) were also investigated by comparing IC50 and Ki values. The biological activity screening shows that Ag(I) complex of butanesulfonicacidehydrazide (IV) has the highest activity against tested breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, Gram positive/Gram negative bacteria and carbonic anhydrase II (hCA II) isoenzyme.

  13. Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) Complexes of Salan-Type Ligand Containing Ester Groups: Synthesis, Characterization, Electrochemical Properties, and In Vitro Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Jeslin Kanaga Inba, P.; B. Annaraj; Thalamuthu, S.; Neelakantan, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    A salen ligand on reduction and N-alkylation affords a novel [N2O2] chelating ligand containing ester groups [L = diethyl-2,2′-(propane-1,3-diylbis((2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzyl)azanediyl))diacetate]. The purity of the ligand was confirmed by NMR and HPLC chromatograms. Its Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized by a combination of elemental analysis, IR, NMR, UV-Vis, and mass spectral data, and thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA). The magnetic moments, UV-Vis, ...

  14. Application of EDTA-functionalized bamboo activated carbon (BAC) for Pb(II) and Cu(II) removal from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dan; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Jiasheng; Yang, Kunlun; Lou, Zimo; Baig, Shams Ali; Xu, Xinhua

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a novel bamboo activated carbon (BAC) with ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) functionality was prepared by direct grafting in the presence of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as a crosslinking agent. The BAC@SiO2-EDTA was characterized by SEM, TEM, TGA, FTIR, XPS and its adsorption property for removal of Pb(II) and Cu(II) under various experimental conditions was also investigated. The characterization results reflected that EDTA was successfully assembled on the surface of the BAC and average pore size increased from 4.10 to 4.83 nm as BAC grafted with EDTA. Adsorption data fitted very well in Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. As compared with the raw BAC, the maximum adsorption capacities of BAC@SiO2-EDTA for the Pb(II) and Cu(II) increased from 45.45 to 123.45 mg g-1 and from 6.85 to 42.19 mg g-1, since the existence of EDTA on modified BAC promoted the formation of chemical complex. The removal of heavy metal ions mainly depended on the complexation with EDTA and the electrostatic attractions with negatively charged surface of BAC@SiO2-EDTA. The adsorption of Pb(II)/Cu(II) on the BAC@SiO2-EDTA was pH dependent and pH 5-6 was considered an optimum. However, lower temperature favored the adsorption and the maximum adsorption was recorded at 20 °C. In addition, BAC@SiO2-EDTA had an excellent reusability with about 40% decline in the adsorption capacity for Pb(II) after fifth reuse. Insignificant influences of co-existing cations and natural organic matter (NOM) were found on the adsorption of Pb(II) and Cu(II). All the results demonstrate that BAC@SiO2-EDTA is a potential adsorbent for metal ions in wastewater.

  15. Machine development studies for PSB extraction at 160 MeV and PSB to PS beam transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Forte, V; Bartmann, W; Borburgh, J; Ferrero Colomo, A; Damerau, H; Di Giovanni, G P; Coralejo Feliciano, L M; Fraser, M A; Gamba, D; Mikulec, B; Guerrero Ollacarizqueta, A; Serluca, M; Sermeus, L; Sterbini, G

    2017-01-01

    This paper collects the machine development (MD) activities for the beam transfer studies in 2016 concerning the PSB extraction and the PSB-to-PS transfer. Many topics are covered: from the 160 MeV extraction from the PSB, useful for the future commissioning activities after the connection with Linac4, to new methodologies for measuring the magnetic waveforms of kickers and dispersion reduction schemes at PS injection, which are of great interest for the LHC Injectors Upgrade (LIU) [1] project.

  16. Role of insulin receptor and insulin signaling on αPS2CβPS integrins' lateral diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Dipak; Syed, Aleem; Arora, Neha; Smith, Emily A

    2014-12-01

    Integrins are ubiquitous transmembrane receptors with adhesion and signaling properties. The influence of insulin receptor and insulin signaling on αPS2CβPS integrins' lateral diffusion was studied using single particle tracking in S2 cells before and after reducing the insulin receptor expression or insulin stimulation. Insulin signaling was monitored by Western blotting for phospho-Akt expression. The expression of the insulin receptor was reduced using RNA interference (RNAi). After insulin receptor RNAi, four significant changes were measured in integrin diffusion properties: (1) there was a 24% increase in the mobile integrin population, (2) 14% of the increase was represented by integrins with Brownian diffusion, (3) for integrins that reside in confined zones of diffusion, there was a 45% increase in the diameter of the confined zone, and (4) there was a 29% increase in the duration integrins spend in confined zones of diffusion. In contrast to reduced expression of the insulin receptor, which alters integrin diffusion properties, insulin stimulation alone or insulin stimulation under conditions of reduced insulin receptor expression have minimal effects on altering the measured integrin diffusion properties. The differences in integrin diffusion measured after insulin receptor RNAi in the presence or absence of insulin stimulation may be the result of other insulin signaling pathways that are activated at reduced insulin receptor conditions. No change in the average integrin diffusion coefficient was measured for any conditions included in this study.

  17. Immobilized copper(II) macrocyclic complex on MWCNTs with antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarlani, Aliakbar, E-mail: Tarlani@ccerci.ac.ir [Inorganic Nanostructures and Catalysts Research Lab., Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, Pajoohesh Blvd., km 17, Karaj Hwy, Tehran 14968-13151 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Narimani, Khashayar [Inorganic Nanostructures and Catalysts Research Lab., Chemistry & Chemical Engineering Research Center of Iran, Pajoohesh Blvd., km 17, Karaj Hwy, Tehran 14968-13151 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Hamedi, Javad [Department of Microbial Biotechnology, School of Biology and Center of Excellence in Phylogeny of Living Organisms, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran 14155-6455 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); University of Tehran Biocompound Collection (UTBC), Microbial Technology and Products Research Center, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tahermansouri, Hasan [Department of Chemistry, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amini, Mostafa M. [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Behshti University, 1983963113, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-30

    Graphical abstract: In an antibacterial test, grafted copper(II) macrocyclic complex on the surface of MWCNT showed higher antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis compared to the individual MWCNT-COOH and the complex. - Highlights: • Copper(II) tetraaza macrocyclic complex covalently bonded to modified MWCNT. • Grafting of the complex carried out via an interaction between −C(=O)Cl group and NH of the ligand. • The samples were subjected in an antibacterial assessment to compare their activity. • Immobilized complex showed higher antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 compared to separately MWCNT-C(C=O)-OH and CuTAM. - Abstract: In a new approach, a copper(II) tetraaza macrocyclic complex (CuTAM) was covalently bonded on modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). To achieve this purpose, MWCNTs were converted to MWCNT-COCl and then reacted to NH groups of TAM ligand. The prepared material was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy). FT-IR and TGA demonstrated the presence of the organic moieties, and XRD proved that the structure of MWCNTs remained intact during the three modification steps. An increase in the I{sub D}/I{sub G} ratio in Raman spectra confirmed the surface modifications. Finally, the samples were subjected to an antibacterial assessment to compare their biological activity. The antibacterial test showed that the grafted complex on the surface of the nanotube (MWCNT-CO-CuTAM) has higher antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 than the MWCNT-COOH and CuTAM with 1000 and 2000 μg/mL.

  18. Mn(II) complexes of different nuclearity: synthesis, characterization and catecholase-like activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Prateeti; Majumder, Ishani; Banu, Kazi Sabnam; Ghosh, Bipinbihari; Kara, Hulya; Zangrando, Ennio; Das, Debasis

    2016-01-14

    Two "end-off" compartmental ligands, 2-formyl-4-chloro-6-N-ethylmorpholine-iminomethyl-phenol (HL1) and 2-formyl-4-methyl-6-N-ethylpyrrolidine-iminomethyl-phenol (HL2) have been designed and three complexes of Mn(ii), one mono-, one di- and a polynuclear, namely Mn(L1)(SCN)2(H2O)] (), [Mn2(L1)(OAc)2](BPh4)] (), and [Mn2(L2)(OAc)2(dca)]n () have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Variable temperature magnetic studies of and have been performed and data analyses reveal that Mn centers are antiferromagnetic coupled with J = -9.15 cm(-1) and J = -46.89, respectively. Catecholase activity of all the complexes has been investigated using 3,5-di-tert-butyl catechol (3,5-DTBC). All are highly active and the activity order on the basis of the kcat value is > > . In order to unveil whether the metal centered redox participation or the radical pathway is responsible for the catecholase-like activity of the complexes, detailed EPR and cyclic voltammetric (CV) studies have been performed. In addition to the six-line EPR spectrum characteristic to Mn(ii), an additional peak at g ∼ 2 is observed when the EPR study is done with the mixture of 3,5-DTBC and the catalyst, suggesting the formation of an organic radical, most likely ligand centered. The CV experiment with the mixture of 3,5-DTBC and the catalyst reveals ligand centered reduction rather than reduction of Mn(ii) to Mn(i). It is thus inferred that complexes show catecholase-like activity due to radical generation.

  19. Dinuclear mixed-valence Co(III)Co(II) complexes derived from a macrocyclic ligand: unique example of a Co(III)Co(II) complex showing catecholase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Samit; Mondal, Suraj; Lemoine, Pascale; Mohanta, Sasankasekhar

    2013-04-07

    The work in this paper presents the syntheses, characterization, catecholase activity, and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopic (ESI-MS positive) study of three mixed-valence dinuclear Co(III)Co(II) complexes of composition [Co(III)Co(II)L(N(3))(3)]·CH(3)CN (1), [Co(III)Co(II)L(OCN)(3)]·CH(3)CN (2), and [Co(III)Co(II)L(μ-CH(3)COO)(2)](ClO(4)) (3), derived from a tetraimino diphenolate macrocyclic ligand H(2)L, obtained on [2 + 2] condensation of 4-ethyl-2,6-diformylphenol and 2,2'-dimethyl-1,3-diaminopropane. While 1 and 2 are diphenoxo-bridged, 3 is a heterobridged bis(μ-phenoxo)bis(μ-acetate) system. Utilizing 3,5-di-tert-butyl catechol (3,5-DTBCH(2)) as the substrate, the catecholase activity of all the three complexes has been checked in methanol/acetonitrile/N,N-dimethyl formamide. While 2 and 3 are inactive, complex 1 shows catecholase activity with turnover numbers of 482.16 h(-1) and 45.38 h(-1) in acetonitrile and methanol, respectively. Electrospray ionization mass (ESI-MS positive) spectra of complexes 1-3 have been recorded in acetonitrile solutions and the positive ions have been well characterized. The ESI-MS positive spectrum of complex 1 in the presence of 3,5-DTBCH(2) has also been recorded and, interestingly, two positive ions [Co(III)Co(II)L(N(3))(2)(3,5-DTBCH(-))H](+) and [Co(II)Co(II)L(μ-3,5-DTBCH(2-))Na](+) have been identified.

  20. PS main supply: motor-generator set.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    In picture 04 the motor is on the right in the background and the main view is of the generator. The peak power in each PS cycle drawn from the generator, up to 96 MW, is taken from the rotational kinetic energy of the rotor (a heavy-weight of 80 tons), which makes the rotational speed drop by only a few percent. The motor replenishes the average power of 2 to 4 MW. Photo 05: The motor-generator set is serviced every year and, in particular, bearings and slip-rings are carefully checked. To the left is the motor with its slip-rings visible. It has been detached from the axle and moved to the side, so that the rotor can be removed from the huge generator, looming at the right.

  1. Antimalarial, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, DNA interaction and SOD like activities of tetrahedral copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jugal V.; Gajera, Sanjay B.; Patel, Mohan N.

    2015-02-01

    The mononuclear copper(II) complexes with P, O-donor ligand and different fluoroquinolones have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic spectra, TGA, EPR, FT-IR and LC-MS spectroscopy. An antimicrobial efficiency of the complexes has been tested against five different microorganisms in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and displays very good antimicrobial activity. The binding strength and binding mode of the complexes with Herring Sperm DNA (HS DNA) have been investigated by absorption titration and viscosity measurement studies. The studies suggest the classical intercalative mode of DNA binding. Gel electrophoresis assay determines the ability of the complexes to cleave the supercoiled form of pUC19 DNA. Synthesized complexes have been tested for their SOD mimic activity using nonenzymatic NBT/NADH/PMS system and found to have good antioxidant activity. All the complexes show good cytotoxic and in vitro antimalarial activities.

  2. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) deficiency decreases reprogramming efficiency and leads to genomic instability in iPS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Taisuke [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Nagamatsu, Go, E-mail: gonag@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kosaka, Takeo [Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Takubo, Keiyo [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Hotta, Akitsu [Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Department of Reprogramming Science, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ellis, James [Ontario Human iPS Cell Facility, Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, SickKids, Toronto, Canada MG1L7 (Canada); Suda, Toshio, E-mail: sudato@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Cell Differentiation, The Sakaguchi Laboratory, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan)

    2011-04-08

    Highlights: {yields} iPS cells were induced with a fluorescence monitoring system. {yields} ATM-deficient tail-tip fibroblasts exhibited quite a low reprogramming efficiency. {yields} iPS cells obtained from ATM-deficient cells had pluripotent cell characteristics. {yields} ATM-deficient iPS cells had abnormal chromosomes, which were accumulated in culture. -- Abstract: During cell division, one of the major features of somatic cell reprogramming by defined factors, cells are potentially exposed to DNA damage. Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 raised reprogramming efficiency but resulted in an increased number of abnormal chromosomes in established iPS cells. Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which is critical in the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks, may also play an important role during reprogramming. To clarify the function of ATM in somatic cell reprogramming, we investigated reprogramming in ATM-deficient (ATM-KO) tail-tip fibroblasts (TTFs). Although reprogramming efficiency was greatly reduced in ATM-KO TTFs, ATM-KO iPS cells were successfully generated and showed the same proliferation activity as WT iPS cells. ATM-KO iPS cells had a gene expression profile similar to ES cells and WT iPS cells, and had the capacity to differentiate into all three germ layers. On the other hand, ATM-KO iPS cells accumulated abnormal genome structures upon continuous passages. Even with the abnormal karyotype, ATM-KO iPS cells retained pluripotent cell characteristics for at least 20 passages. These data indicate that ATM does participate in the reprogramming process, although its role is not essential.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of new sulfonyl hydrazone derivatives and their nickel(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Ümmühan Özdemir; Olgun, Gülçin

    2008-08-01

    Prophane sulfonic acid hydrazide (psh: CH 3CH 2CH 2SO 2NHNH 2) derivatives as salicylaldehydeprophanesulfonylhydrazone (salpsh), 5-methylsalicylaldehydeprophanesulfonylhydrazone (5-msalpsh), 2-hydroxyacetophenoneprophanesulfonylhydrazone (afpsh), 5-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenoneprophanesulfonylhydrazone (5-mafpsh) and their Ni(II) complexes have been synthesized. The structure of these compounds has been investigated by using elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H NMR, LC/MS, UV-vis spectrophotometric method, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements. The complexes were found to have general compositions [NiL2]. Square-planer structures are proposed for the Ni(II) complexes on the basis of magnetic evidence, electronic spectra and TGA data. Bacterial activities of sulfonyl hydrazone compounds were studied against gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus magaterium and gram-negative bacteria: Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli by using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) method.

  4. Dichloroacetate Decreases Cell Health and Activates Oxidative Stress Defense Pathways in Rat Alveolar Type II Pneumocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Valauri-Orton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dichloroacetate (DCA is a water purification byproduct that is known to be hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic and to induce peripheral neuropathy and damage macrophages. This study characterizes the effects of the haloacetate on lung cells by exposing rat alveolar type II (L2 cells to 0–24 mM DCA for 6–24 hours. Increasing DCA concentration and the combination of increasing DCA concentration plus longer exposures decrease measures of cellular health. Length of exposure has no effect on oxidative stress biomarkers, glutathione, SOD, or CAT. Increasing DCA concentration alone does not affect total glutathione or its redox ratio but does increase activity in the SOD/CAT oxidative stress defense pathway. These data suggest that alveolar type II cells rely on SOD and CAT more than glutathione to combat DCA-induced stress.

  5. Insight into the role of urotensin II-related peptide tyrosine residue in UT activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, Etienne; Létourneau, Myriam; Hébert, Terence E; Chatenet, David

    2017-11-15

    While sharing common biological activity, the two endogenous ligands of the G protein-coupled receptor UT, e.g. urotensin II (UII) and urotensin II-related peptide (URP), also exhibit distinct effects that could be explained by distinct interactions with their cognate receptor (UT). Accordingly, introduction of a similar substitution at the intracyclic Tyr residue in UII and URP led to compounds with divergent pharmacologic profiles. Hypothesizing that the Tyr6 residue of URP is a key-element to understand the specific activation of UT by URP, we undertook a study of the structure-activity relationship in which this particular residue was replaced by non-natural and constrained amino acids. Each compound was evaluated for its ability to bind UT, to induce rat aortic ring contraction and to activate Gq and G12 signaling pathways. We identified [Pep6]URP, that binds UT with an affinity similar to that of URP, but behaves as a biased ligand. Used as an antagonist, this peptide is also able to selectively reduce the maximal aortic contraction of URP but not UII. Our results suggest that the orientation of the Tyr residue can stabilize at least two different conformations of UT, leading to biased signaling and a probe-dependent allosteric effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Surface Alteration of Activated Carbon for Detoxification of Copper (ii) from Industrial Effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutto, Sadaf; Khan, M. Nasiruddin

    2013-04-01

    The low-cost modified activated carbons were prepared from Thar and Lakhra (Pakistan) coals by activation with sulfuric acid and further modified with citric, tartaric and acetic acids for the selective adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution. The original carbon obtained from activated Thar and Lakhra coals at pH 3.0 displayed significant adsorption capacity for lead and insignificant capacity values (0.880 and 0.830 mgṡg-1) for copper. However, after modification with citric, tartaric and acetic acid the copper adsorption capacities enhanced in the range of 5.56-21.85 and 6.05-44.61 times, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin adsorption isotherms were used to elucidate the observed sorption phenomena. The isotherm equilibrium data was well fitted by the Langmuir and sufficiently fitted to the Freundlich models. The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG°), enthalpy (ΔH°) and entropy (ΔS°) inferred that the investigated adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Based on the results, it was concluded that the surface alteration with citric and tartaric acid, Thar and Lakhra activated carbons had significant potential for selective removal of copper(II) from industrial wastewater.

  7. Metallation of ethylenediamine based Schiff base with biologically active Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) ions: synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, electrochemical behaviour, DNA binding, photonuclease activity and in vitro antimicrobial efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, N; Selvan, A; Sudharsan, S

    2011-09-01

    A new ligand [C28H20N6O8] (L2) has been synthesized by the condensation reaction of 3-hydroxy-4-nitrobenzaldehydenephenylhydrazine (L1) with diethyloxalate. This ligand L2 is allowed to react with bis(ethylenediamine)Cu(II)/Ni(II)/Zn(II) complexes. It affords [(L2)Cu(en)2]Cl2(1)/[(L2)Ni(en)2]Cl2(2)/[(L2)Zn(en)2]Cl2(3) complexes, respectively. These complexes (1-3) have been characterized by the spectral and analytical techniques. The interaction of these complexes with calf thymus (CT) DNA is characterized by the absorption spectra which exhibit a slight red shift with hypochromic effect. Electrochemical analyses and viscosity measurements have also been carried out to determine the mode of binding. The shift in ΔEp, E1/2 and Ipc values explores the interaction of CT DNA with the above metal complexes. The slight increase in the viscosity of CT DNA indicates that these complexes bind to CT DNA through a partial non-classical intercalative mode. Cleavage experiments using pBR322 DNA in presence of H2O2 indicate that these complexes behave as efficient artificial chemical nucleases in the order of 1>2>3. Moreover, the antibacterial and antifungal studies reveal that complex 1 is highly active against the bacterial and fungal growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Adsorption of iron(III), cobalt(II), and nickel(II) on activated carbon derived from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia Bunge hull: mechanisms, kinetics and influencing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaotao; Hao, Yinan; Wang, Ximing; Chen, Zhangjing

    2017-04-01

    Xanthoceras Sorbifolia Bunge hull activated carbon (XSA) was prepared and characterized by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The ability of XSA as an adsorbent was investigated for the removal of the iron group ions Fe(III), Co(II), and Ni(II) from aqueous solution. Optimum adsorption parameters were determined based on the initial concentrations of the iron group ions, pH, adsorption temperature, and adsorption time in adsorption studies. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacities were 241.13 mg/g for Fe(III), 126.05 mg/g for Co(II), and 187.96 mg/g for Ni(II), respectively. Adsorption kinetics and isotherms showed that the adsorption process best fitted the nonlinear pseudo-second-order and Langmuir models, and the affinity of the ions for XSA decreased as follows: Fe(III) > Ni(II) > Co(II). Regeneration studies indicated that XSA could be used after several consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles using HNO3. Fourier transform infrared and EDX spectra revealed the chemical adsorption value of XSA as an adsorbent for removing iron group ions from aqueous solutions.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, antibacterial activities and carbonic anhydrase enzyme inhibitor effects of new arylsulfonylhydrazone and their Ni(II), Co(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Ümmühan Özmen; Arslan, Fatma; Hamurcu, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    Ethane sulfonic acide hydrazide ( esh: CH 3CH 2SO 2NHNH 2) derivatives as 5-methylsalicyl-aldehydeethanesulfonylhydrazone ( 5msalesh), 5-methyl-2-hydroxyacetophenoneethane sulfonylhydrazone ( 5mafesh) and their Ni(II), Co(II) complexes have been synthesized for the first time. The structure of these compounds has been investigated by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, LC/MS, UV-vis spectrophotometric method, magnetic susceptibility, thermal studies and conductivity measurements. The antibacterial activities of synthesized compounds were studied against Gram positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus magaterium and Gram negative bacteria; Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli by using the microdilution broth method. The biological activity screening showed that ligands have more activity than complexes against the tested bacteria. The inhibition activities of these compounds on carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) have been investigated by comparing IC 50 and Ki values and it has been found that 5msalesh and its complexes have more enzyme inhibition efficiency than other compounds.

  10. Transcriptome Profiling of the Endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN Indicates Sensing of the Plant Environment and Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani-Tezerji, Raheleh; Rattei, Thomas; Sessitsch, Angela; Trognitz, Friederike; Mitter, Birgit

    2015-09-08

    It is widely accepted that bacterial endophytes actively colonize plants, interact with their host, and frequently show beneficial effects on plant growth and health. However, the mechanisms of plant-endophyte communication and bacterial adaption to the plant environment are still poorly understood. Here, whole-transcriptome sequencing of B. phytofirmans PsJN colonizing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants was used to analyze in planta gene activity and the response of strain PsJN to plant stress. The transcriptome of PsJN colonizing in vitro potato plants showed a broad array of functionalities encoded in the genome of strain PsJN. Transcripts upregulated in response to plant drought stress were mainly involved in transcriptional regulation, cellular homeostasis, and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, indicating an oxidative stress response in PsJN. Genes with modulated expression included genes for extracytoplasmatic function (ECF) group IV sigma factors. These cell surface signaling elements allow bacteria to sense changing environmental conditions and to adjust their metabolism accordingly. TaqMan quantitative PCR (TaqMan-qPCR) was performed to identify ECF sigma factors in PsJN that were activated in response to plant stress. Six ECF sigma factor genes were expressed in PsJN colonizing potato plants. The expression of one ECF sigma factor was upregulated whereas that of another one was downregulated in a plant genotype-specific manner when the plants were stressed. Collectively, our study results indicate that endophytic B. phytofirmans PsJN cells are active inside plants. Moreover, the activity of strain PsJN is affected by plant drought stress; it senses plant stress signals and adjusts its gene expression accordingly. In recent years, plant growth-promoting endophytes have received steadily growing interest as an inexpensive alternative to resource-consuming agrochemicals in sustainable agriculture. Even though promising effects are

  11. Ternary complexes of copper(II) and cobalt(II) involving nitrite/pyrazole and tetradentate N4-coordinate ligand: Synthesis, characterization, structures and antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Ankita; Sadhu, Mehul H.; Kumar, Sujit Baran

    2015-12-01

    Five new mononuclear mixed ligand complexes of the type [Cu(NCCH3)(dbdmp)](ClO4)2, [M(ONO)(dbdmp)]ClO4, [M(pz) (dbdmp)](ClO4)2 where M = Cu(II) and Co(II), pz = 3,5-dimethylpyrazole and dbdmp = N,N-diethyl-N‧,N‧-bis((3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)methyl)ethane-1,2-diamine have been synthesized and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopy studies. The crystal structures of three copper(II) complexes [Cu(NCCH3)(dbdmp)](ClO4)2, [Cu(ONO)(dbdmp)]ClO4 and [Cu(pz)(dbdmp)](ClO4)2 have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Structural analyses reveal the geometry of [Cu(pz)(dbdmp)](ClO4)2 is distorted square pyramidal and other two copper(II) complexes have distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. Molecular composition of cobalt(II) complexes have been determined by mass spectral data. The EPR spectra of copper(II) complexes in frozen acetonitrile solution exhibit axial spectra, characteristic of dx2-y2 ground state. Electrochemical studies of copper(II) complexes using glassy carbon as working electrode in acetonitrile solution show Cu(II)/Cu(I) couple with quasi reversible electron transfer versus Ag/Ag+ reference electrode. Antimicrobial activity of all the synthesized complexes were investigated against two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacterial strains.

  12. RMS Pictorial Scale (RMS-PS: An innovative scale for the assessment of child′s dental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental anxiety assessment for young children is as important as performing their treatment. Appropriate knowledge of patient′s anxiety boosts confidence and will help us to review potential management options specific to every child. Aim: This study aimed to validate (RMS Pictorial Scale (RMS-PS and to compare it with Venham Picture Test (VPT and Facial image scale (FIS in measuring dental anxiety for young children during their first dental visit. Materials and Methods: A total of 102 healthy children aged between 4 and 14 years during their first dental visit were randomly selected for the study. Childs anxiety level was measured using three different scales namely (i RMS-PS (ii VPT, and (iii FIS. Statistical Analysis: Student t test was used to compare the scores obtained from all the three scales. Pearson correlation test was used to obtain correlation among the scales used in the study. Results: A strong correlation (0·76 was found between the VPT and RMS-PS, and a moderate correlation (0.5 was found between RMS-PS and FIS, indicating good validity for the RMS-PS. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that the RMS-PS can be a newer and easiest means for the assessment of dental anxiety for young children in a clinical context.

  13. Regeneration of tumor antigen-specific CTLs utilizing iPS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Takuya; Masuda, Kyoko; Kawamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Tumor immunotherapy, especially tumor antigen specific T cell therapy, is currently attracting attention. However, a critical issue still awaits resolution; it is difficult to efficiently expand tumor antigen-specific T cells. To solve this problem, we are now utilizing iPS cell technology. When iPS cells are established from tumor antigen specific T cells, T cells regenerated from these iPS cells are expected to express the same TCRs as the original T cells. In line with this concept, we succeeded in regenerating tumor antigen specific cytotoxic T cells. The regenerated T cells exhibited TCR specific killing activity comparable to that of the original cells, and were able to kill leukemia cells in an antigen-specific manner. We are currently endeavoring to apply this method clinically. In the future, we intend to establish an allogeneic transfusion system, in which various tumor antigen specific T-iPS cells from a wide range of HLA haplotype homozygous donors will be lined up as a "T-iPS cell bank", with the aim of making off-the-shelf tumor immunotherapy a reality.

  14. PS: A nonprocedural language with data types and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Problem Specification (PS) nonprocedural language is a very high level language for algorithm specification. PS is suitable for nonprogrammers, who can specify a problem using mathematically-oriented equations; for expert programmers, who can prototype different versions of a software system for evaluation; and for those who wish to use specifications for portions (if not all) of a program. PS has data types and modules similar to Modula-2. The compiler generates C code. PS is first shown by example, and then efficiency issues in scheduling and code generation are discussed.

  15. Distinct iPS Cells Show Different Cardiac Differentiation Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yohei; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Egashira, Toru; Seki, Tomohisa; Hashimoto, Hisayuki; Tohyama, Shugo; Saito, Yuki; Kunitomi, Akira; Shimoji, Kenichiro; Onizuka, Takeshi; Kageyama, Toshimi; Yae, Kojiro; Tanaka, Tomofumi; Kaneda, Ruri; Hattori, Fumiyuki; Murata, Mitsushige; Kimura, Kensuke; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by introducing transcription factors that are highly expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells into somatic cells. This opens up new possibilities for cell transplantation-based regenerative medicine by overcoming the ethical issues and immunological problems associated with ES cells. Despite the development of various methods for the generation of iPS cells that have resulted in increased efficiency, safety, and general versatility, it remains unknown which types of iPS cells are suitable for clinical use. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to assess (1) the differentiation potential, time course, and efficiency of different types of iPS cell lines to differentiate into cardiomyocytes in vitro and (2) the properties of the iPS cell-derived cardiomyocytes. We found that high-quality iPS cells exhibited better cardiomyocyte differentiation in terms of the time course and efficiency of differentiation than low-quality iPS cells, which hardly ever differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Because of the different properties of the various iPS cell lines such as cardiac differentiation efficiency and potential safety hazards, newly established iPS cell lines must be characterized prior to their use in cardiac regenerative medicine.

  16. A polymorphic bipartite motif signals nuclear targeting of early auxin-inducible proteins related to PS-IAA4 from pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, S; Theologis, A

    1995-07-01

    The plant hormone, indoleacetic acid (IAA), transcriptionally activates two early genes in pea, PS-IAA4/5 and PS-IAA6 that encode short-lived nuclear proteins. The identification of the nuclear localization signals (NLS) in PS-IAA4 and PS-IAA6 using progressive deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis is reported. A C-terminal SV40-type NLS is sufficient to direct the beta-glucuronidase reporter to the nucleus of transiently transformed tobacco protoplasts, but is dispensible for nuclear localization of both proteins. The dominant and essential NLS in PS-IAA4 and PS-IAA6 overlap with a bipartite basic motif which is polymorphic and conserved in related proteins from other plant species, having the consensus sequence (KKNEK)KR-X(24-71)-(RSXRK)/(RK/RK). Both basic elements of this motif in PS-IAA4, (KR-X41-RSYRK), function interdependently as a bipartite NLS. However, in PS-IAA6 (KKNEKKR-X36-RKK) the upstream element of the corresponding motif contains additional basic residues which allow its autonomous function as an SV40-type monopartite NLS. The spacer-length polymorphism, X(24-70), in respective bipartite NLS peptides of several PS-IAA4-like proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana does not affect nuclear targeting function. The structural and functional variation of the bipartite basic motif in PS-IAA4-like proteins supports the proposed integrated consensus of NLS.

  17. Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) Complexes of Salan-Type Ligand Containing Ester Groups: Synthesis, Characterization, Electrochemical Properties, and In Vitro Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeslin Kanaga Inba, P; Annaraj, B; Thalamuthu, S; Neelakantan, M A

    2013-01-01

    A salen ligand on reduction and N-alkylation affords a novel [N2O2] chelating ligand containing ester groups [L = diethyl-2,2'-(propane-1,3-diylbis((2-hydroxy-3-methoxy benzyl)azanediyl))diacetate]. The purity of the ligand was confirmed by NMR and HPLC chromatograms. Its Cu(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) complexes were synthesized and characterized by a combination of elemental analysis, IR, NMR, UV-Vis, and mass spectral data, and thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTA). The magnetic moments, UV-Vis, and EPR spectral studies support square planar geometry around the Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions. A tetrahedral geometry is observed in four-coordinate zinc with bulky N-alkylated salan ligand. The redox properties of the copper complex were examined in DMSO by cyclic voltammetry. The voltammograms show quasireversible process. The interaction of metal complexes with CT DNA was investigated by UV-Vis absorption titration, ethidium bromide displacement assay, cyclic voltammetry methods, and agarose gel electrophoresis. The apparent binding constant values suggest moderate intercalative binding modes between the complexes and DNA. The in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of the synthesized compounds were also determined.

  18. Interaction of drug based copper(II) complexes with Herring Sperm DNA and their biological activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mohan N.; Patel, Chintan R.; Joshi, Hardik N.

    2012-11-01

    Square pyramidal Cu(II) complexes with NS donor ligand and ciprofloxacin have been synthesized and characterized using analytical and spectral techniques. The synthesized complexes have been tested for their antimicrobial activity using double dilution technique in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and colony forming unit (CFU). The DNA binding ability of the complexes with Sperm Herring DNA has been performed using absorption titration and viscosity measurement. The nuclease activity of complexes with plasmid DNA (pUC19) has been carried out using agarose gel electrophoresis technique. Synthesized complexes have been tested for their SOD mimic activity using NBT/NADH/PMS system. The cytotoxic properties of metal complexes have been evaluated using brine shrimp lethality bioassay.

  19. Angiotensin II-induced Akt activation through the epidermal growth factor receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells is mediated by phospholipid metabolites derived by activation of phospholipase D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Malik, Kafait U

    2005-03-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) activates cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), phospholipase D (PLD), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and Akt in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between Akt activation by Ang II and other signaling molecules in rat VSMC. Ang II-induced Akt phosphorylation was significantly reduced by the PLD inhibitor 1-butanol, but not by its inactive analog 2-butanol, and by brefeldin A, an inhibitor of the PLD cofactor ADP-ribosylation factor, and in cells infected with retrovirus containing PLD(2) siRNA or transfected with PLD(2) antisense but not control LacZ or sense oligonucleotide. Diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor II diminished Ang II-induced and diC8-phosphatidic acid (PA)-increased Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that PLD-dependent Akt activation is mediated by PA. Ang II-induced EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by 1-butanol and PLD(2) siRNA and also by cPLA(2) siRNA. In addition, the inhibitor of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) reduced both Ang II- and AA-induced EGFR transactivation. Furthermore, ETYA, cPLA(2) antisense, and cPLA(2) siRNA attenuated Ang II-elicited PLD activation. p38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190 [4-(4-flurophenyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)1H-imidazole] reduced PLD activity and EGFR and Akt phosphorylation elicited by Ang II. Pyrrolidine-1, a cPLA(2) inhibitor, and cPLA(2) siRNA decreased p38 MAPK activity. These data indicate that Ang II-stimulated Akt activity is mediated by cPLA(2)-dependent, p38 MAPK regulated PLD(2) activation and EGFR transactivation. We propose the following scheme of the sequence of events leading to activation of Akt in VSMC by Ang II: Ang II-->cPLA(2)-->AA-->p38 MAPK-->PLD(2)-->PA-->EGFR-->Akt.

  20. Spectral, NLO, Fluorescence, and Biological Activity of Knoevenagel Condensate of β-Diketone Ligands and Their Metal(II Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sumathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition metal complexes of various acetylacetone-based ligands of the type ML (where M=  Cu(II, Ni(II, Co(II; L=  3-(aryl-pentane-2,4-dione have been synthesized. The structural features have been derived from their elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, H1NMR, mass and ESR spectral studies. Conductivity measurements reveal that all the complexes are nonelectrolytic in nature. Spectroscopic and other analytical data of the complexes suggest square planar geometry for copper(II, cobalt(II, and nickel(II complexes of 3-(3-phenylallylidenepentane-2,4-dione and octahedral geometry for other metal(II complexes. The redox behaviors of the copper(II complexes have been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The free ligands and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro biological activities against bacteria and fungus. The metal(II complexes are found to possess increased activities compared to those of the free ligands. All synthesized compounds may serve as potential photoactive materials as indicated from their characteristic fluorescence properties. The second harmonic generation (SHG efficiency of the ligands was found to have considerable effect compared to that of urea and KDP.

  1. Land Subsidence Monitoring Using PS-InSAR Technique for L-Band SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, S.; Chatterjee, R. S.; Singh, K. B.; Kumar, D.

    2016-10-01

    Differential SAR-Interferometry (D-InSAR) is one of the potential source to measure land surface motion induced due to underground coal mining. However, this technique has many limitation such as atmospheric in homogeneities, spatial de-correlation, and temporal decorrelation. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry synthetic aperture radar (PS-InSAR) belongs to a family of time series InSAR technique, which utilizes the properties of some of the stable natural and anthropogenic targets which remain coherent over long time period. In this study PS-InSAR technique has been used to monitor land subsidence over selected location of Jharia Coal field which has been correlated with the ground levelling measurement. This time series deformation observed using PS InSAR helped us to understand the nature of the ground surface deformation due to underground mining activity.

  2. PS-OCT of natural pigmented and nonpigmented interproximal caries lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaotheppitak, Patara; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Polarization Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (PS-OCT) can be used to image early dental caries. The purpose of this study was to compare the measured reflectivity of natural caries lesions with the mineral loss measured using digital microradiography. An all polarization-maintaining fiber based PS-OCT system operating at 1310-nm was used to acquire polarization resolved images of natural white spot lesions and pigmented lesions on the smooth surfaces of extracted teeth. There was a strong positive correlation between the increase in the integrated reflectivity in the perpendicular polarization axis of the PS-OCT system and the increase in the integrated mineral loss or lesion severity for both white-spot and pigmented lesions, P caries lesions and resolve the internal structure of early caries lesions for the potential assessment of the lesion activity.

  3. Flightless-I, a gelsolin family member and transcriptional regulator, preferentially binds directly to activated cytosolic CaMK-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Matthew E; Easley, Charles A; McLeod, Jamie J; Myers, Alexandra L; Tombes, Robert M

    2008-07-23

    In order to evaluate links between Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase type II (CaMK-II) and cell cycle progression, CaMK-II binding partners were sought in proliferating cells by epitope-tag tandem mass spectrometry. One protein identified was the gelsolin family member, flightless-I (Fli-I). Fli-I is not a CaMK-II substrate, but binds directly and preferentially to constitutively active (T287D) CaMK-II over inactive CaMK-II. Fli-I gradually enters the nucleus upon CaMK-II inhibition and is retained in the cytosol by T287D CaMK-II. CaMK-II inhibition and Fli-I overexpression suppress transcription of beta-catenin dependent transcriptional reporters, whereas Fli-I suppression enhances their transcription. These findings support a novel mechanism whereby cytosolic CaMK-II influences beta-catenin dependent gene expression through Fli-I.

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, DFT optimization and biological activities of Schiff bases and their metal (II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdur; Shah, Afzal; Munawar, Khurram Shahzad; Khan, Abdul Aziz; Abbasi, Rashda; Yameen, Muhammad Arfat; Khan, Asad Muhammad; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Qureshi, Irfan Zia; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard; Zia-ur-Rehman

    2017-10-01

    A Novel Schiff base, 3-(((4-chlorophenyl)imino)methyl)benzene-1,2-diol (HL1) was successfully synthesized along with a structurally similar Schiff base 3-(((4-bromophenyl)imino)methyl)benzene-1,2-diol (HL2). Both the Schiff bases were used to synthesize their zinc (II) and cobalt (II) complexes. These compounds were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. Metal complexes were confirmed by TGA. Crystals of Schiff bases were also characterized by X-ray analysis and experimental parameters were found in line with the theoretical parameters. Quantum mechanical approach was also used to fine useful structural parameters and to ensure the geometry of metal complexes. The photometric behaviors of all the synthesized compounds were investigated in a wide pH range using BR buffers. The appearance of isosbestic points indicated the existence of Schiff bases in more than one isomeric form. Moreover, these compounds were screened for enzyme inhibition; antibacterial, cytotoxic and in vivo antidiabetic activities and compounds were found active against one or other activity. Results indicate that ZnL22 is a good inhibitor of alkaline phosphatase enzyme and possess highest potential against diabetes, blood cholesterol level and cancer cells. This effort just provides preliminary data for some biological properties. Further investigations are required to precisely determine mechanistic pathways of their use towards drug development.

  5. Copper (II) Adsorption by Activated Carbons from Pecan Shells: Effect of Oxygen Level During Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural by-products represent a considerable quantity of harvested commodity crops. The use of by-products as precursors for the production of widely used adsorbents, such as activated carbons, may impart a value-added component of the overall biomass harvested. Our objective in this paper is...

  6. ANTINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AN N, N'-DISALICYLIDENEMETHYLENDIAMINE-DERIVED SCHIFF BIS BASE AND ITS COPPER(II) COMPLEX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tântaru, Gladiola; Nechifor, M; Apostu, M; Vieriu, Mădălina; Panainte, Alina Diana; Bibire, Nela

    2015-01-01

    The cooper(II) complex combination of N, N'-disalicylidenemethylenediamine and the Schiff bis base were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity. In vivo, the anti-inflammatory activity of the metallic complex in comparison with the activity of the Schiff bis base was tested by the method of Winter and co-workers using the Levy technique. Our study on the anti-inflammatory activity of a new Schiff bis base and its complex cooper(II) combination showed that the Schiff bis bases exhibited significant anti-inflammatory action in acute experimental inflammation when compared to the control group. The copper cation from the complex combination enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of the Schiff bis base, the effect being stronger at doses of 10 mg/kg cooper(II) complex. The Schiff bis base and its cooper(II) complex had an anti-inflammatory effect comparable to that of indomethacin.

  7. Biosorption of toxic lead (II) ions using tomato waste (Solanum lycopersicum) activated by NaOH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permatasari, Diah; Heraldy, Eddy; Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    This research present to uptake lead (II) ion from aqueous solutions by activated tomato waste. Biosorbent were characterized by applying Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The biosorption investigated with parameters including the concentration of NaOH, effects of solution pH, biosorbent dosage, contact time,and initial metal concentration. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of two kinetic model such us the pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied todescribe the biosorption process. According to the experiment, the optimum concentration of NaOH was achieved at 0.1 M. The maximum % lead (II) removal was achieved at pH 4 with 94.5%. Optimum biosorbentdosage were found as 0.1 g/25 mL solution while optimum contact time were found at 75 minutes. The results showed that the biosorption processes of Lead (II) followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Langmuir adsorption isotherm was found fit the adsorption data with amaximum capacity of 24.079 mg/g with anadsorption energy of 28.046 kJ/mol.

  8. Biosorption of lead (II) ions by NaOH-activated apple (Malus domestica) juice residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimurti, Devita Dwi; Heraldy, Eddy; Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    This research studied the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions using NaOH-activated apple (Malus domestica) juice residue. Biosorbent was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The effects of biosorbent dosage, pH, contact time and initial metal ion concentration had been investigated in batch-adsorption method. The biosorption kinetic data were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Freundlich and Langmuir's isotherm were used to describe the biosorption process. The optimum conditions of Pb(II) adsorption was observed at 60 min of contact time, pH 4, and 0.1 g biosorbent dosage in 25 ml solution. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, resulted biosorption constant rate of 0.184 g.mg-1.min-1. The Langmuir isotherm model exhibited the best fit to experimental data. The maximum biosorption capacity of Pb(II) determined according to the Langmuir model was 90.90 mg.g-1 at 302 K, with the adsorption energy of 26.429 kJ.mol-1.

  9. Facilitated transport of Hg(II) through novel activated composite membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez-Hernandez, M.E. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Materiales, Area de Ciencia de los Materiales, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Aguilar-Arteaga, K. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Valiente, M. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Departament de Quimica, Unitat Analitica, Centre GTS, Facultat de Ciencies, Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ramirez-Silva, M.T. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Quimica, Area de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio R-105, Col. Vicentina, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Romero-Romo, M.; Palomar-Pardave, M. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Departamento de Materiales, Area de Ciencia de los Materiales, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas (Mexico)

    2004-10-01

    The results presented in this work deal with the prime application of activated composite membranes (ACMs) for the transport of Hg(II) ions in a continuous extraction-re-extraction system using di-(2-ethylhexyl)dithiophosphoric acid (DTPA) as carrier. The effects of variables such as the pH, the nature of the acid and the concentration of the casting solutions on the transport of Hg(II) are also investigated. When the ACM was prepared with a 0.5 M DTPA solution and when the feed solution contained 2.5 x 10{sup -4} M Hg(II) in 0.1 M HCl, the amount of mercury extracted was greater than 76%. The re-extracted mercury was subsequently recovered by means of a stripping phase comprising 0.3 M thiourea solution in 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, yielding 54% of the initial amount of mercury after transport had taken place for 180 min. (orig.)

  10. [Sodium peroxydisulfate activation by heat and Fe(II) for the degradation of 4-CP].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-ying; Zhang, Yao-bin; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Ya-zhi

    2010-05-01

    The heat and ferrous ion-activated sodium peroxydisulfate (PDS) for the oxidation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) was investigated. These processes are based on the generation of sulfate radicals, which are powerful oxidizing species found in nature. The effects of temperature, pH, the initial concentrations of Fe (II), PDS and citric acid on the degradation efficiencies of 4-CP were studied. The results show that the degradAtion efficiency of 4-CP is significantly enhanced as temperature increases. The degradation efficiencies of 4-CP are 2.5% and 43.5% within 4 h at 30 degrees C and 50 degrees C, respectively. Moreover, 4-CP is degraded completely at 60 degrees C. The degradation efficiency of 4-CP follows the order: pH 4.0 > pH 7.0 > pH 10.0. In the PDS/Fe (II) system, ferrous ion played an important role in generating sulfate radicals at ambient temperature. The optimum experimental condition is established and the addition of probe compounds proves the formation of sulfate radicals. Furthermore, the iron availability in the aqueous solution is manipulated with the optimum amount of citric acid, as a chelating agent. The degradation efficiency of 4-CP is 50.9% in the PDS/Fe (II)/citric acid system, which is superior to 43.5% at 50 degrees C under the same initial concentration of PDS.

  11. FUSE Cycle 3 Program CO22: Chromospheric Activity in Population II Giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Graham M.

    2004-01-01

    One of the mysteries of Population II giants is that they still show chromospheric emission despite their great age. The global dynamo which was active during their main-sequence lifetimes is expected to become extremely weak through magnetic rotational braking. The nature of the observed emission is not understood; although acoustic shock waves might provide the heating, acoustic waves are not predicted to drive the observed mass loss - which in turn requires the dissipation of magneto-hydrodynamic waves. This program was designed to search for the faint stellar H Ly(beta) emission wings and the fluorescent Fe II and H2 emission from one of the brightest, metal poor, Population II stars. These FUSE diagnostics, when combined with existing UV and optical spectra, help determine the major radiative cooling channels for the chromosphere. This observation was to complement that previously planned for the mildly metal deficient giant alpha Boo (K2 III). However, a Boo has yet to be observed with FUSE.

  12. Catecholase activity of a mu-hydroxodicopper(II) macrocyclic complex: structures, intermediates and reaction mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Iryna A; Belle, Catherine; Selmeczi, Katalin; Philouze, Christian; Saint-Aman, Eric; Schuitema, Anna Maria; Gamez, Patrick; Pierre, Jean-Louis; Reedijk, Jan

    2005-11-01

    The monohydroxo-bridged dicopper(II) complex (1), its reduced dicopper(I) analogue (2) and the trans-mu-1,2-peroxo-dicopper(II) adduct (3) with the macrocyclic N-donor ligand [22]py4pz (9,22-bis(pyridin-2'-ylmethyl)-1,4,9,14,17,22,27,28,29,30- decaazapentacyclo -[22.2.1(14,7).1(11,14).1(17,20)]triacontane-5,7(28),11(29),12,18,20(30), 24(27),25-octaene), have been prepared and characterized, including a 3D structure of 1 and 2. These compounds represent models of the three states of the catechol oxidase active site: met, deoxy (reduced) and oxy. The dicopper(II) complex 1 catalyzes the oxidation of catechol model substrates in aerobic conditions, while in the absence of dioxygen a stoichiometric oxidation takes place, leading to the formation of quinone and the respective dicopper(I) complex. The catalytic reaction follows a Michaelis-Menten behavior. The dicopper(I) complex binds molecular dioxygen at low temperature, forming a trans-mu-1,2-peroxo-dicopper adduct, which was characterized by UV-Vis and resonance Raman spectroscopy and electrochemically. This peroxo complex stoichiometrically oxidizes a second molecule of catechol in the absence of dioxygen. A catalytic mechanism of catechol oxidation by 1 has been proposed, and its relevance to the mechanisms earlier proposed for the natural enzyme and other copper complexes is discussed.

  13. Glucose 6P binds and activates HlyIIR to repress Bacillus cereus haemolysin hlyII gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Guillemet

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium causing food poisoning and serious opportunistic infections. These infections are characterized by bacterial accumulation despite the recruitment of phagocytic cells. We have previously shown that B. cereus Haemolysin II (HlyII induces macrophage cell death by apoptosis. In this work, we investigated the regulation of the hlyII gene. We show that HlyIIR, the negative regulator of hlyII expression in B. cereus, is especially active during the early bacterial growth phase. We demonstrate that glucose 6P directly binds to HlyIIR and enhances its activity at a post-transcriptional level. Glucose 6P activates HlyIIR, increasing its capacity to bind to its DNA-box located upstream of the hlyII gene, inhibiting its expression. Thus, hlyII expression is modulated by the availability of glucose. As HlyII induces haemocyte and macrophage death, two cell types that play a role in the sequestration of nutrients upon infection, HlyII may induce host cell death to allow the bacteria to gain access to carbon sources that are essential components for bacterial growth.

  14. Generation of an activation map for decommissioning planning of the Berlin Experimental Reactor-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapins, Janis; Guilliard, Nicole; Bernnat, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    The BER-II is an experimental facility with 10 MW that was operated since 1974. Its planned operation will end in 2019. To support the decommissioning planning, a map with the overall distribution of relevant radionuclides has to be created according to the state of the art. In this paper, a procedure to create these 3-d maps using a combination of MCNP and deterministic methods is presented. With this approach, an activation analysis is performed for the whole reactor geometry including the most remote parts of the concrete shielding.

  15. Active and passive compensation of APPLE II-introduced multipole errors through beam-based measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ting-Yi; Huang, Szu-Jung; Fu, Huang-Wen; Chang, Ho-Ping; Chang, Cheng-Hsiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Ching-Shiang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30050, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-01

    The effect of an APPLE II-type elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) on the beam dynamics were investigated using active and passive methods. To reduce the tune shift and improve the injection efficiency, dynamic multipole errors were compensated using L-shaped iron shims, which resulted in stable top-up operation for a minimum gap. The skew quadrupole error was compensated using a multipole corrector, which was located downstream of the EPU for minimizing betatron coupling, and it ensured the enhancement of the synchrotron radiation brightness. The investigation methods, a numerical simulation algorithm, a multipole error correction method, and the beam-based measurement results are discussed.

  16. Antihypertensive activity of Salvia elegans Vahl. (Lamiaceae): ACE inhibition and angiotensin II antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Badillo, Fidel Hernández; González-Cortazar, Manases; Tortoriello, Jaime; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel

    2010-07-20

    Salvia elegans Vahl. (Lamiaceae), recognized with the popular name of "mirto" is widely used in Mexico for healing purposes, and also them as antihypertensive treatment. The high prevalence of this illness and the side effects of antihypertensive drugs conducted us to the evaluation of the Salvia elegans extract on angiotensin II action. The acute response of blood pressure to angiotensin II administration was measured in mice. We also tested in vitro the inhibitory effect on angiotensin convertase enzyme. Additionally, characterization of the pharmacological effect of the extract fraction was obtained. We obtained dose-response curve for the administration of complete extract and extract fractions. Due to the hydroalcoholic extract (SeHA) treatment blood pressure decreased significantly from systolic dose of 0.75 mg kg(-1) (p<0.05) and even had an antihypertensive effect that was greater than that treatment with losartan. SeHA extract decreased the E(max) of the AG II hypertensive effect by about 20% in both systolic and diastolic pressures, treatment with losartan also decreased the same parameter between 6% and 8% for systolic and diastolic pressures, respectively. Fractions SeF8 and SeF8-8 showed similar levels of AG II ED(50) for both pressures compared with losartan, these fractions showed major compounds with maximum absorbance peaks at 221, 289 and 330 nm typical of flavonoids. In the inhibition assay the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), the extract SeHA showed percentage inhibition (%IACE) of 50.27+/-5.09% (n=5). SeBuOH fraction is found to have greater inhibitory capacity of achieving a IACE 78.40+/-2.24% (n=5), which was similar to the values obtained in the presence of the SeF8-22 fraction (82.61+/-1.74%) and lisinopril (87.18+/-1.16%). The changes in the value of K(M) suggest that components of the extracts and fractions were recognized by the enzyme's active site. The main compounds of the fractions SeBuOH, SeF8-22 were by flavonoid

  17. GSK3 beta forms a tetrameric complex with endogenous PS1-CTF/NTF and beta-catenin. Effects of the D257/D385A and FAD-linked mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesco, G; Tanzi, R E

    2000-01-01

    We have previously shown that the endogenous C-terminal fragment of presenilin 1 co-immunoprecipitates with endogenous beta-catenin. Since PS1 has been suggested to be involved in beta-catenin stabilization, we further investigated whether GSK3 beta, responsible for beta-catenin phosphorylation and degradation, is part of the PS1/beta-catenin complex. In naïve H4 and CHO cells, PS1 co-immunoprecipitated with both endogenous beta-catenin and GSK3 beta. In addition, GSK3 beta endogenously binds to the PS1-CTF/NTF complex and beta-catenin in naïve CHO cells. GSK3 beta also co-immunoprecipitated with PS1 full length in CHO cell lines overexpressing PS1 wild type. Given that it has been recently shown that PS1 mutations of aspartate 257 or 385 result in prevention of PS1 endoproteolysis and inhibition of gamma-secretase activity, we also tested whether PS1 endoproteolysis is required for beta-catenin/GSK3 beta/PS1 binding and whether PS1 FAD-linked mutations affect GSK3 beta recruitment in the PS1/beta-catenin complex. GSK3 beta was detected in PS1 immunoprecipitates from H4 cell lines overexpressing PS1 wild type, delta E10, A286E, L246V and in CHO cell lines overexpressing aspartate or M146L mutations. The latter data show that the absence of PS1 endoproteolysis (D257A/D385A and delta E10) or the presence of PS1-FAD mutations does not interfere with beta-catenin/GSK3 beta/PS1 complex formation.

  18. Study of the adsorption and electroadsorption process of Cu (II) ions within thermally and chemically modified activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-García, A; Gómez Corzo, M; Alfaro Domínguez, M; Alexandre Franco, M; Martínez Naharro, J

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this work is to modify the porous texture and superficial groups of a commercial activated carbon through chemical and thermal treatment and subsequently study the kinetics of adsorption and electroadsorption of Cu (II) ion for these carbons. Samples of three activated carbons were used. These were a commercial activated carbon, commercial activated carbon modified thermically (C-N2-900) and finally commercial activated carbon modified chemically C-SO2-H2S-200. The activated carbons were characterized chemically and texturally and the electrical conductivity of them determined. Different kinetic models were applied. The kinetics of the adsorption and electroadsorption process of the Cu (II) ion fits a pseudo second order model and the most likely mechanism takes place in two stages. A first step through transfer of the metal mass through the boundary layer of the adsorbent and distribution of the Cu (II) on the external surface of the activated carbon and a second step that represents intraparticle diffusion and joining of the Cu (II) with the active centres of the activated carbon. Finally, the kinetics of the adsorption process are faster than the kinetics of the electroadsorption but the percentage of the Cu (II) ion retained is much higher in the electroadsorption process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxygen activation and intramolecular C-H bond activation by an amidate-bridged diiron(II) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew B; Hardcastle, Kenneth I; Hagen, Karl S; MacBeth, Cora E

    2011-07-18

    A diiron(II) complex containing two μ-1,3-(κN:κO)-amidate linkages has been synthesized using the 2,2',2''-tris(isobutyrylamido)triphenylamine (H(3)L(iPr)) ligand. The resulting diiron complex, 1, reacts with dioxygen (or iodosylbenzene) to effect intramolecular C-H bond activation at the methine position of the ligand isopropyl group. The ligand-activated product, 2, has been isolated and characterized by a variety of methods including X-ray crystallography. Electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy of 2 prepared from(18)O(2) was used to confirm that the oxygen atom incorporated into the ligand framework is derived from molecular oxygen.

  20. The HARP detector at the CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Catanesi, M G; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Edgecock, R; Ellis, M; Robbins, S; Soler, F J P; Gößling, C; Mass, M; Bunyatov, S; Chukanov, A; Klimov, O; Krasin, I; Krasnoperov, A; Kustov, D; Popov, B; Serdiouk, V; Tereshchenko, V; Carassiti, V; Di Capua, E; Evangelisti, F; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Artamonov, A; Arce, P; Brocard, R; Decreuse, G; Friend, B; Giani, S; Gilardoni, S; Gorbunov, p; Grant, A; Grossheim, A; Gruber, P; Ivanchenko, V; Legrand, J C; Kayis-Topaksu,A; Panman, P; Papadopoulos, I; Pasternak, J; Chernyaev, E; Tsukerman, I; van der Vlugt, R; Veenhof, R; Wiebusch, C; Zucchelli, P; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Campanelli, M; Cervera-Villanueva, A; Morone, M C; Prior, G; Schroeter, R; Kato, I; Gastaldi, Ugo; Mills, G B; Graulich, J S; Grégoire, G; Bonesini, M; Chignoli, F; Ferri, F; Paleari, F; Kirsanov, M; Postoev, V; Bagulya A; Grichine, V; Polukhina, N; Palladino, V; Coney, L; Schmitz, D; Barr, G; De Santo, A; Pattison, C; Zuber, K; Barichello, G; Bobisut, F; Gibin, D; Guglielmi, A; Laveder, M; Menegolli, A; Mezzetto M; Pepato, Adriano; Dumarchez, J; Troquereau, S; Vannucci, F; Dore, U; Iaciofano, A; Lobello, M; Marinilli, F; Orestano, D; Panayotov, D; Pasquali, M; Pastore, F; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Booth, C; Buttar, C; Hodgson, P; Howlett, L; Nicholson, R; Bogomilovw, M; Burin, K; Chizhov, M; Kolev, D; Petev, P; Rusinov, I; Tsenov, R; Piperov, S; Temnikov, P; Apollonio, M; Chimenti, P; Giannini, G; Santin, G; Burguet-Castell, J; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Novella, P; Sorel, M; Tornero, A

    2007-01-01

    HARP is a high-statistics, large solid angle experiment to measure hadron production using proton and pion beams with momenta between 1.5 and 15 GeV/c impinging on many different solid and liquid targets from low to high Z. The experiment, located in the T9 beam of the CERN PS, took data in 2001 and 2002. For the measurement of momenta of produced particles and for the identification of particle types, the experiment includes a large-angle spectrometer, based on a Time Projection Chamber and a system of Resistive Plate Chambers, and a forward spectrometer equipped with a set of large drift chambers, a threshold Cherenkov detector, a time-of-flight wall and an electromagnetic calorimeter. The large angle system uses a solenoidal magnet, while the forward spectrometer is based on a dipole magnet. Redundancy in particle identification has been sought, to enable the cross-calibration of efficiencies and to obtain a few percent overall accuracy in the cross-section measurements. Detector construction, operation an...

  1. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation of gonadotropin subunit transcription: evidence for the involvement of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (Ca/CAMK II) activation in rat pituitaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisenleder, D J; Burger, L L; Aylor, K W; Dalkin, A C; Marshall, J C

    2003-07-01

    The intracellular pathways mediating GnRH regulation of gonadotropin subunit transcription remain to be fully characterized, and the present study examined whether calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (Ca/CAMK II) plays a role in the rat pituitary. Preliminary studies demonstrated that a single pulse of GnRH given to adult rats stimulated a transient 2.5-fold rise in Ca/CAMK II activity (as determined by an increase in Ca/CAMK II phosphorylation), with peak values at 5 min, returning to basal 45 min after the pulse. Further studies examined the alpha, LHbeta, and FSHbeta transcriptional responses to GnRH or Bay K 8644+KCl (BK+KCl) pulses in vitro in the absence or presence of the Ca/CAMK II-specific inhibitor, KN-93. Gonadotropin subunit transcription was assessed by measuring primary transcripts (PTs) by quantitative RT-PCR. In time-course studies, both GnRH and BK+KCl pulses given alone increased all three subunit PTs after 6 h (2- to 4-fold). PT responses to GnRH increased over time (3- to 8-fold over basal at 24 h), although BK+KCl was ineffective after 24 h. KN-93 reduced the LHbeta and FSHbeta transcriptional responses to GnRH by 50-60% and completely suppressed the alphaPT response. In contrast, KN-93 showed no inhibitory effects on basal transcriptional activity or LH or FSH secretion. In fact, KN-93 tended to increase basal alpha, LHbeta, and FSHbeta PT levels and enhance LH secretory responses to GnRH. These results reveal that Ca/CAMK II plays a central role in the transmission of pulsatile GnRH signals from the plasma membrane to the rat alpha, LHbeta, and FSHbeta subunit genes.

  2. Modelling IRF8 Deficient Human Hematopoiesis and Dendritic Cell Development with Engineered iPS Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontag, Stephanie; Förster, Malrun; Qin, Jie; Wanek, Paul; Mitzka, Saskia; Schüler, Herdit M; Koschmieder, Steffen; Rose-John, Stefan; Seré, Kristin; Zenke, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, including hematopoietic stem cells and their progeny. Interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) is a transcription factor, which acts in hematopoiesis as lineage determining factor for myeloid cells, including dendritic cells (DC). Autosomal recessive or dominant IRF8 mutations occurring in patients cause severe monocytic and DC immunodeficiency. To study IRF8 in human hematopoiesis we generated human IRF8-/- iPS cells and IRF8-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells using RNA guided CRISPR/Cas9n genome editing. Upon induction of hematopoietic differentiation, we demonstrate that IRF8 is dispensable for iPS cell and ES cell differentiation into hemogenic endothelium and for endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition, and thus development of hematopoietic progenitors. We differentiated iPS cell and ES cell derived progenitors into CD141+ cross-presenting cDC1 and CD1c+ classical cDC2 and CD303+ plasmacytoid DC (pDC). We found that IRF8 deficiency compromised cDC1 and pDC development, while cDC2 development was largely unaffected. Additionally, in an unrestricted differentiation regimen, IRF8-/- iPS cells and ES cells exhibited a clear bias toward granulocytes at the expense of monocytes. IRF8-/- DC showed reduced MHC class II expression and were impaired in cytokine responses, migration, and antigen presentation. Taken together, we engineered a human IRF8 knockout model that allows studying molecular mechanisms of human immunodeficiencies in vitro, including the pathophysiology of IRF8 deficient DC. Stem Cells 2017;35:898-908. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  3. Ginsenoside Re prevents angiotensin II-induced gap-junction remodeling by activation of PPARγ in isolated beating rat atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Cui, Xun; Jin, Hong-Hua; Hong, Lan; Liu, Xia; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Qing-Gao; Liu, Li-Ping

    2017-12-01

    Ginsenoside Re (G-Re), a major ginsenoside in ginseng, has many beneficial pharmacological effects on negative cardiac contractility, electromechanical alternans, antiarrhythmia, angiogenic regeneration and cardiac electrophysiological function. However, effects of G-Re on gap-junction remodeling are unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of G-Re on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced downregulation of connexin-40 (CX40) and -43 (CX43) in beating rat left atria. In this study, the isolated perfused beating rat atrial model was used and atrial gap-junction remodeling was induced by Ang II. In vivo hemodynamic experiments were analyzed with a biological recorder. Changes in protein expression were analyzed by western blot. G-Re attenuated Ang II-induced abnormal changes in heart rate, MAP, LVESP, LVEDP, +dp/dt max, -dp/dt min, P wave amplitude, P-R interval and P wave length. This indicated a dose-dependent preventive role against Ang II-induced hyper hemodynamics in rats. Atrial activities of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) were significantly increased by Ang II, as was expression of atrial collagen I and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2). Atrial CX40 and CX43 expression was downregulated by Ang II. These Ang II-induced atrial effects were blocked by G-Re, as well as rosiglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), in a dose-dependent manner. However, this inhibition was abolished by the PPARγ inhibitor GW9662. G-Re may suppress Ang II-induced downregulation of CX40 and CX43, by activating PPARγ signaling, in isolated perfused beating rat atria. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Anti-Leishmania activity of new ruthenium(II) complexes: Effect on parasite-host interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mônica S; Gonçalves, Yasmim G; Nunes, Débora C O; Napolitano, Danielle R; Maia, Pedro I S; Rodrigues, Renata S; Rodrigues, Veridiana M; Von Poelhsitz, Gustavo; Yoneyama, Kelly A G

    2017-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. The many complications presented by the current treatment - including high toxicity, high cost and parasite resistance - make the development of new therapeutic agents indispensable. The present study aims to evaluate the anti-Leishmania potential of new ruthenium(II) complexes, cis‑[RuII(η2-O2CR)(dppm)2]PF6, with dppm=bis(diphenylphosphino)methane and R=4-butylbenzoate (bbato) 1, 4-(methylthio)benzoate (mtbato) 2 and 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate (hmxbato) 3, in promastigote cytotoxicity and their effect on parasite-host interaction. The cytotoxicity of complexes was analyzed by MTT assay against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes and the murine macrophage (RAW 264.7). The effect of complexes on parasite-host interaction was evaluated by in vitro infectivity assay performed in the presence of two different concentrations of each complex: the promastigote IC50 value and the concentration nontoxic to 90% of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Complexes 1-3 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against all Leishmania species assayed. The IC50 values ranged from 7.52-12.59μM (complex 1); 0.70-3.28μM (complex 2) and 0.52-1.75μM (complex 3). All complexes significantly inhibited the infectivity index at both tested concentrations. The infectivity inhibitions ranged from 37 to 85%. Interestingly, the infectivity inhibitions due to complex action did not differ significantly at either of the tested concentrations, except for the complex 1 against Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. The infectivity inhibitions resulted from reductions in both percentage of infected macrophages and number of parasites per macrophage. Taken together the results suggest remarkable leishmanicidal activity in vitro by these new ruthenium(II) complexes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on the removal of Pb(II) from wastewater by activated carbon developed from Tamarind wood activated with sulphuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C K; Sahu, J N; Mahalik, K K; Mohanty, C R; Mohan, B Raj; Meikap, B C

    2008-05-01

    The low-cost activated carbon were prepared from Tamarind wood material by chemical activation with sulphuric acid for the adsorption of Pb(II) from dilute aqueous solution. The activated carbon developed shows substantial capacity to adsorb Pb(II) from dilute aqueous solutions. The parameters studied include physical and chemical properties of adsorbent, pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial concentrations. The kinetic data were best fitted to the Lagergren pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order models. The isotherm equilibrium data were well fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The maximum removal of lead(II) was obtained 97.95% (experimental) and 134.22 mg/g (from Langmuir isotherm model) at initial concentration 40 mg/l, adsorbent dose 3g/l and pH 6.5. This high uptake showed Tamarind wood activated carbon as among the best adsorbents for Pb(II).

  6. Interleaving of beam lines inside the PS tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    View against the direction of the proton beams. The PS ring (section 26) is on the left. The injection tunnel for LEAR leaving from here has increased the trafic in this already busy area where the two Linacs and the transfer tunnel leading to the SPS, ISR and AA join the PS ring (cf. photo 7802260, 7802261, Annual Report 1981, p. 89, fig. 12).

  7. Modulation of enzymatic PS synthesis by liposome membrane composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsolle, Alexandre; Roy, Philippe; Cansell, Maud

    2014-03-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a phospholipid known to exert important physiological roles in humans. However, this phospholipid (PL) is poorly available as a natural source and hardly produced by the chemical route. In this work, PS was obtained by transphosphatidylation using phospholipase D (PLD) and PL self-assembled into liposomes as the substrates. The aim was to better understand how the liposome membrane composition could modulate PS yield. Three lecithins were used as PL substrates, one originated from a marine source providing a high amount of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and two issued from soya differing in their phosphatidylcholine (PC) content. Different parameters such as Ca(2+) content, enzyme and L-serine concentrations modulated PS synthesis. The presence of Ca(2+) increased PS conversion yield. The alcohol acceptor (L-serine) concentration positively acted on PL conversion, by governing the equilibrium between transphosphatidylation and hydrolysis. Beside these specific reaction conditions, it was demonstrated that the membrane composition of the liposomes modulated PS synthesis. A direct correlation between PS accumulation and the amount of cholesterol or α-tocopherol incorporated into the soya lecithins was observed. This result was interpreted in terms of "head" spacers promoting PLD transphosphatidylation. On the whole, this work provided key parameters for the formulation of liposomes using enzymatic PLD technology, to produce lecithins enriched in different proportions of PS and esterified with various types of fatty acids depending on the initial lecithin source. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectroscopic Classification of PS16chs with SOAR/Goodman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. A.; Hounsell, R. A.; Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2016-05-01

    We report the classification of PS16chs from spectroscopic observation with the Goodman spectrograph on the SOAR telescope. The observation was made on 2016 May 08 UT. We classify PS16chs as a SN Ia near maximum light at z = 0.19.

  9. Motor-Generator powering the PS (Proton Synchrotron) main magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This motor-generator,30 MW peak, 1500 r.p.m.,pulsed power supply for the PS main magnet replaced in 1968 the initial 3000 r.p.m. motor-generator-flywheel set which had served from the PS start-up in 1959 until end 1967. See also photo 8302337 and its abstract.

  10. Transfer line TT70 (electrons from PS to SPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    As injectors for LEP, PS and SPS had to be converted to the acceleration of electrons and positrons. So far, only positively charged particles had been transferred from the PS to the SPS, for the negatively charged electrons a new transfer line, TT70, had to be built. Due to the difference in level of the two machines, the transfer line slopes and tilts.

  11. Psühhodraama - spontaansuse kool / Taimi Elenurm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Elenurm, Taimi

    2010-01-01

    Viinis ja New Yorgis tegutsenud psühhiaatri Jakob Levy Moreno loodud psühhodraamast, mis võimaldab rollimängu kaudu näha ennast läbi teiste silmade, aga ka vabaneda pingetest andes võimaluse käituda teisiti kui tavaelus

  12. Basidiomycete DyPs: Genomic diversity, structural-functional aspects, reaction mechanism and environmental significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Dolores; Ruiz-Dueñas, Francisco J; Fernández-Fueyo, Elena; Guallar, Victor; Hammel, Kenneth E; Pogni, Rebecca; Martínez, Angel T

    2015-05-15

    The first enzyme with dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) activity was described in 1999 from an arthroconidial culture of the fungus Bjerkandera adusta. However, the first DyP sequence had been deposited three years before, as a peroxidase gene from a culture of an unidentified fungus of the family Polyporaceae (probably Irpex lacteus). Since the first description, fewer than ten basidiomycete DyPs have been purified and characterized, but a large number of sequences are available from genomes. DyPs share a general fold and heme location with chlorite dismutases and other DyP-type related proteins (such as Escherichia coli EfeB), forming the CDE superfamily. Taking into account the lack of an evolutionary relationship with the catalase-peroxidase superfamily, the observed heme pocket similarities must be considered as a convergent type of evolution to provide similar reactivity to the enzyme cofactor. Studies on the Auricularia auricula-judae DyP showed that high-turnover oxidation of anthraquinone type and other DyP substrates occurs via long-range electron transfer from an exposed tryptophan (Trp377, conserved in most basidiomycete DyPs), whose catalytic radical was identified in the H2O2-activated enzyme. The existence of accessory oxidation sites in DyP is suggested by the residual activity observed after site-directed mutagenesis of the above tryptophan. DyP degradation of substituted anthraquinone dyes (such as Reactive Blue 5) most probably proceeds via typical one-electron peroxidase oxidations and product breakdown without a DyP-catalyzed hydrolase reaction. Although various DyPs are able to break down phenolic lignin model dimers, and basidiomycete DyPs also present marginal activity on nonphenolic dimers, a significant contribution to lignin degradation is unlikely because of the low activity on high redox-potential substrates. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. New Mn(II, Ni(II, Cd(II, Pb(II complexes with 2-methylbenzimidazole and other ligands. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, crystal structure, magnetic susceptibility and biological activity studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shayma A. Shaker

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of Mn(II, Ni(II, Cd(II and Pb(II mixed ligand complexes of 2-methylbenzimidazole with other ligands have been reported. The structure of the ligands and their complexes was investigated using elemental analysis, IR, UV–Vis, (1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy, molar conductivity and magnetic susceptibility measurements. In all the studies of complexes, the 2-methylbenzimidazole behaves as a neutral monodentate ligand which is coordinated with the metal ions through the N atom. While benzotriazole behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand which is coordinated with the Ni(II ion through the two N atoms. Moreover, the N-acetylglycine behaves as a bidentate ligand which is coordinated with the Mn(II, Ni(II and Pb(II ions through the N atom and the terminal carboxyl oxygen atom. The magnetic and spectral data indicate the tetrahedral geometry for Mn(II complex, irregular tetrahedral geometry for Pb(II complex and octahedral geometry for Ni(II complex. The X-ray single crystal diffraction method was used to confirm a centrosymmetric dinuclear Cd(II complex as each two metal ions are linked by a pair of thiocyanate N = S bridge. Two 2-methylbenzimidazole N-atom donors and one terminal thiocyanate N atom complete a highly distorted square pyramid geometry around the Cd atom. Besides, different cell types were used to determine the inhibitory effect of Mn(II, Ni(II, Cd(II and Pb(II complexes on cell growth using MTT assay. Cd(II complex showed cytotoxic effect on various types of cancer cell lines with different EC50 values.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of a new palladium(II) complex with deoxyalliin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbi, P.P.; Massabni, A.C. [Inst. de Quimica - UNESP, Dept., Dept. de Quimica Geral e Inoganica, Araraquara (Brazil)]. E-mail: pedrocorbi@yahoo.com; Moreira, A.G. [Inst. de Quimica - UNESP, Dept. de Quimica Geral e Inoganica, Araraquara (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP, Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Medrano, F.J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS, Campinas (Brazil); Jasiulionis, M.G. [Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP, Dept. de Micro-Imuno-Parasitologia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Costa-Neto, C.M. [Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP, Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2005-02-15

    Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of a new water-soluble Pd(II)-deoxyalliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine) complex are described in this article. Elemental and thermal analysis for the complex are consistent with the formula [Pd(C{sub 6}H{sub 10}NO{sub 2}S){sub 2}]. {sup 13}C NMR, {sup 1}H NMR, and IR spectroscopy show coordination of the ligand to Pd(II) through S and N atoms in a square planar geometry. Final residue of the thermal treatment was identified as a mixture of PdO and metallic Pd. Antiproliferative assays using aqueous solutions of the complex against HeLa and TM5 tumor cells showed a pronounced activity of the complex even at low concentrations. After incubation for 24 h, the complex induced cytotoxic effect over HeLa cells when used at concentrations higher than 0.40 mmol/L. At lower concentrations, the complex was nontoxic, indicating its action is probably due to cell cycle arrest, rather than cell death. In agreement with these results, the flow cytometric analysis indicated that after incubation for 24 h at low concentrations of the complex cells are arrested in G0/G1. (author)

  15. Phaeophytins from Thyrsacanthus ramosissimus Moric. with inhibitory activity on human DNA topoisomerase II-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Analucia Guedes Silveira; Tenorio-Souza, Fabio Henrique; Moura, Marcelo Dantas; Mota, Sabrina Gondim Ribeiro; Silva Lins, Antonio Claudio da; Dias, Celidarque da Silva; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Frmaceuticas; Giulietti, Ana Maria [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas; Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento da [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Moleculares; Santos, Creusioni Figueredo dos, E-mail: jbarbosa@ltf.ufpb.br [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Molecular

    2012-07-01

    Our study reports the extraction and isolation of a new phaeophytin derivative 15{sup 1}-hydroxy-(15{sup 1}-S)-porphyrinolactone, designated anamariaine (1) herein, isolated from the chloroform fraction of aerial parts of Thyrsacanthus ramosissimus Moric. along with the known 15{sup 1}-ethoxy-(15{sup 1}-S)-porphyrinolactone (2). These compounds were identified by usual spectroscopic methods. Both compounds were subjected to in vitro (inhibitory activity) tests by means of supercoiled DNA relaxation techniques and were shown to display inhibitory activity against human DNA topoisomerase II-{alpha} at 50 {mu}M. Interconversion of these two pigments under the mild conditions of the isolation techniques should be highly unlikely but cannot be entirely ruled out. (author)

  16. LWRS II&C Industry and Regulatory Engagement Activities for FY 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Thomas

    2011-09-01

    To ensure broad industry support and coordination for the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Controls (II&C) Systems Technologies research pathway, an engagement process will be continually pursued with nuclear asset owners, vendors, and suppliers, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the major industry support organizations of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), and Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI). Nuclear asset owner engagement is a necessary and enabling activity to obtain data and accurate characterization of long-term operational challenges, assess the suitability of proposed research for addressing long-term needs, and gain access to data and representative infrastructure and expertise needed to ensure success of the proposed research and development (R&D) activities. Engagement with vendors and suppliers will ensure that vendor expectations and needs can be translated into requirements that can be met through technology commercialization.

  17. Identification of peptides in wheat germ hydrolysate that demonstrate calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumrungsee, Thanutchaporn; Akiyama, Sayaka; Guo, Jian; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro

    2016-12-15

    Hydrolysis of wheat germ by proteases resulted in bioactive peptides that demonstrated an inhibitory effect against the vasoconstrictive Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II). The hydrolysate by thermolysin (1.0wt%, 5h) showed a particularly potent CaMK II inhibition. As a result of mixed mode high-performance liquid chromatography of thermolysin hydrolysate with pH elution gradient ranging between 4.8 and 8.9, the fraction eluted at pH 8.9 was the most potent CaMK II inhibitor. From this fraction, Trp-Val and Trp-Ile were identified as CaMK II inhibitors. In Sprague-Dawley rats, an enhanced aortic CaMK II activity by 1μM phenylephrine was significantly (pCaMK II activity assays, it was concluded that Trp-Val and Trp-Ile competed with Ca(2+)-CaM complex to bind to CaMK II with Ki values of 5.4 and 3.6μM, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, biological activity, molecular modeling and docking studies of complexes 4-(4-hydroxy)-3-(2-pyrazine-2-carbonyl)hydrazonomethylphenyl-diazen-yl-benzenesulfonamide with manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II) and cadmium(II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaghaz, Abdel-Nasser M. A.; Zayed, Mohamed E.; Alharbi, Suliman A.; Ammar, Reda A. A.; Elhenawy, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    A new series of complexes of 4-(4-hydroxy)-3-(2-pyrazine-2-carbonyl)hydrazonomethylphenyl-diazen-yl-benzenesulfonamide (HL) with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) have been prepared and characterized by different physical techniques. The IR spectra of the prepared complexes were suggested that the ligand behaves as a tri-dentate ligand through the carbonyl oxygen, azomethine nitrogen and phenolic oxygen atoms (ONO). Electronic spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal octahedral geometry for all complexes. The elemental analyses and mass spectral data have justified the ML2 composition of complexes. The EPR spectra of Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes support the mononuclear structure. The crystal field splitting, Racah repulsion and nephelauxetic parameters and determined from the electronic spectra of the complexes. Thermal properties and decomposition kinetics of all complexes are investigated. The geometry of the metal complexes has been optimized with the help of molecular modeling. The biological activity of these compounds against various fungi has been investigated.

  19. Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide II Suppresses the In Vitro Glioblastoma-Induced Angiogenesis by Inducing Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The obstacle in delivering therapeutics to glioblastoma (GBM is tumor-induced angiogenesis which leads to the formation of abnormal vessels and a dysfunctional blood-tumor barrier. Here, we elucidated the effect of endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II (EMAP II on the GBM-induced angiogenesis as well as its potential mechanisms. Our results proved that EMAP II inhibited the viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, migration and tube formation of GBM-induced endothelial cells (GECs by inducing cell autophagy, demonstrated by cell viability assay, JC-1 staining assay, transwell assay and tube formation assay, respectively. Cell autophagy was induced by EMAP II through the observation of autophagic vacuoles formation and the up-regulation of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3 (LC3-II and p62/SQSTM1 expression, demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy analysis, immunofluorescence assay and Western blot assay. The activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway could be inhibited by the EMAP II treatment. Furthermore, unfolded protein response (UPR-related proteins (GRP78, eIF2α, and CHOP were up-regulated by EMAP II, which suggest that GECs exposed to EMAP II experienced endoplasmic reticulum stress. Further, mechanistic investigations found that EMAP II reduced the miR-96 expression which could directly target the 3′-UTR of these UPR-related proteins, and over-expression of miR-96 inhibited LC3 and p62/SQSTM1 expression by down-regulating these UPR-related proteins in GECs. Moreover, the combination of EMAP II with miR-96 inhibitor showed the inhibitory effect on the viability, migration, and in vitro tube formation of GECs, which are critical for angiogenesis. Taken together, we have demonstrated the fact that EMAP II resulted in the decreased GBM-induced angiogenesis by inducing autophagy, which might contribute to establishing potential strategies for human GBM treatment.

  20. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide II in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: Relation to micro-vascular complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adly, Amira A M; Ismail, Eman A; Tawfik, Lamis M; Ebeid, Fatma S E; Hassan, Asmaa A S

    2015-12-01

    Endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP II) is a multifunctional polypeptide with proinflammatory and antiangiogenic activity. Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia appears to be significant factors contributing to increased EMAP-II levels. We determined serum EMAP II in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes as a potential marker for micro-vascular complications and assessed its relation to inflammation and glycemic control. Eighty children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of micro-vascular complications and compared with 40 healthy controls. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and EMAP II levels were assessed. Serum EMAP II levels were significantly increased in patients with micro-vascular complications (1539 ± 321.5 pg/mL) and those without complications (843.6 ± 212.6 pg/mL) compared with healthy controls (153.3 ± 28.3 pg/mL; pII was increased in patients with microalbuminuria than normoalbuminuric group (pII levels and body mass index, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, serum creatinine, triglycerides, total cholesterol, urinary albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) and hs-CRP (pII at 1075 pg/mL could differentiate diabetic patients with and without micro-vascular complications with a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 82%. We suggest that EMAP II is elevated in type 1 diabetic patients, particularly those with micro-vascular complications. EMAP II levels are related to inflammation, glycemic control, albuminuria level of patients and the risk of micro-vascular complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain iPS cell pluripotency by inhibiting endogenous DNA methyltransferase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Qiu, Chaolin; Huang, Yongyi; Jiang, Lizhen; Huang, Qin; Guo, Lihe; Liu, Te

    2013-11-01

    Maintaining induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in an undifferentiated, self-renewing state during long-term cultivation is, at present, a major challenge. We previously showed that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) were able to provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic or spermatogonial stem cells; however, the epigenetic mechanisms have not been elucidated. In the present study, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and HuAECs were compared as feeder layers for the long-term culture of human iPS cells. The HuAEC feeders allowed human iPS cells to maintain a high level of alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and to express key stem cell markers during long-term subculture whereas the MEF feeders did not,. Moreover, the HuAEC feeders significantly affected the cell cycle regulation of the iPS cells, maintaining them in the resting stage and the early stage of DNA synthesis (G0/G1 stage). Furthermore, the CpG islands of the Nanog and Oct4 promoters were hypomethylated, while the Nanog- and Oct4-specific loci exhibited higher levels of histone H3 acetylation and lower levels of H3K27 trimethylation in iPS cells cultured on HuAECs compared with those cultured on MEFs. The DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression in iPS cells cultured on HuAECs was shown to be lower than in those cultured on MEFs. In addition, DNMT1-silenced human iPS cells were able to maintain pluripotency over long-term culture on MEFs. In combination, these results suggest that endogenous DNMT1 expression in human iPS cells may be regulated by HuAEC feeder cells and that Nanog and Oct4 are crucial components required for the maintenance of iPS cells in an undifferentiated, proliferative state, capable of self-renewal.

  2. A retrospective cephalometric evaluation of dental changes with activator and activator headgear combination in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Rajeev; Kumar, G Anil; Maheshwari, Amit; Kumar, Mukesh

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the dental changes brought about by activator and activator headgear combination (ACHG) and to determine whether we can achieve control over the lower incisor proclination which is a side effect of using functional appliances; or not, while treating cases of skeletal class II malocclusions. Lateral cephalograms of 45 skeletal class II division 1 patients were selected for the study. Fifteen of them were successfully treated with an Andresen activator and the other 15 with an activator headgear combination. Fifteen class II subjects who had declined treatment served as the control group. Cephalometric landmarks were marked by one author to avoid interobserver variability. The results revealed that both the activator and the activator headgear combination significantly (p headgear combination group. An activator headgear combination would offer itself as a better option compared with activator alone in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusions especially in cases with proclined mandibular incisors. When one of the treatment goals is to achieve a greater control over mandibular incisor proclination in the treatment of Skeletal Class II malocclusions, employing a combination of activator and headgear may substantially improve clinical outcomes.

  3. Activity on Trypanosoma cruzi, erythrocytes lysis and biologically relevant physicochemical properties of Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes of thiosemicarbazones derived from 1-indanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Diego; Parajón-Costa, Beatriz; Rossi, Miriam; Caruso, Francesco; Benítez, Diego; Varela, Javier; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes; Gómez, Natalia; Caputto, María E; Moglioni, Albertina G; Moltrasio, Graciela Y; Finkielsztein, Liliana M; Gambino, Dinorah

    2012-12-01

    American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease, caused by the protist parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is a major health concern in Latin America. In the search for new bioactive compounds, eight Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes of thiosemicarbazones derived from 1-indanones (HL) were evaluated as potential anti-T. cruzi compounds. Their unspecific cytotoxicity was determined on human erythrocytes. Two physicochemical features, lipophilicity and redox behavior, that could be potentially relevant for the biological activity of these complexes, were determined. Crystal structure of [Pd(HL1)(L1)]Cl·CH(3)OH, where HL1=1-indanone thiosemicarbazone, was solved by X-ray diffraction methods. Five of the eight metal complexes showed activity against T. cruzi with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range and showed significantly higher activity than the corresponding free ligands. Four of them resulted more active against the parasite than the reference antitrypanosomal drug Nifurtimox. Anti-T. cruzi activity and selectivity towards the parasite were both higher for the Pd(II) compounds than for the Pt(II) analogues, showing the effect of the metal center selection on the biological behavior. Among both physicochemical features tested for this series of compounds, lipophilicity and redox behavior, only the former seemed to show correlation with the antiproliferative effects observed. Metal coordination improved bioactivity but lead to an increase of mammalian cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, some of the metal complexes tested in this work still show suitable selectivity indexes and deserve further developments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Successful online learning – the five Ps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim FLOOD

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful online learning – the five Ps Jim FLOOD E-learning Consultant-UK jimflood@btinternet.com Key learning points • An important aspect of design for online learning is visual ergonomics. • Learning theories offer poor predictive power in terms of how learners work and learn. • Success at learning is closely related to emotional engagement–and learning designers tend to ignore this aspect. • Online learning poses a challenging experience for learners–and they need support to cope with it. • A key goal to achieve Praxis – being able to put learning into practice. Many of you will be familiar with the three (or more Ps of marketing and even if not, as trainers or teachers you are likely to have used mnemonics as an aid to retention and recall. Mnemonics are especially useful when you need to get the key points to ‘stick’ in the minds of your audience. With this in mind I offer you the 5 Ps of online learning: Presentation, Pedagogy, Promotion, Preparation and Props. What I offer is not new; in fact much of it results from the eleven years of online teaching and learning at The Open University, the £22 million it has spent on research and evaluation 1, and the worldwide community that have been sharing experience in recent years. You can therefore consider these 5 Ps to be a convenient re-packing of the information and experience that can be found in abundance on the Internet. Presentation Good graphic design appeals to the subtle process by which the brain processes information and, as a result, we decide if we like the ‘look and feel’ of a visual environment. Part of liking this ‘look and feel’ is the way the text and pictorial layout can appear inviting and encouraging–a vital aspect of any online learning environment. Another aspect of presentation is how the text reads in terms of engaging the learner and introducing the story to be told–as well as being written in clear and concise English When browsing through books

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum and oxidant stress mediate nuclear factor-κB activation in the subfornical organ during angiotensin II hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Colin N; Li, Anfei; Dong, Frederick N; Horwath, Julie A; Clark, Catharine G; Davisson, Robin L

    2015-05-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the brain circumventricular subfornical organ (SFO) mediate the central hypertensive actions of Angiotensin II (ANG II). However, the downstream signaling events remain unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT1aR), ER stress, and ROS induce activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) during ANG II-dependent hypertension. To spatiotemporally track NF-κB activity in the SFO throughout the development of ANG II-dependent hypertension, we used SFO-targeted adenoviral delivery and longitudinal bioluminescence imaging in mice. During low-dose infusion of ANG II, bioluminescence imaging revealed a prehypertensive surge in NF-κB activity in the SFO at a time point prior to a significant rise in arterial blood pressure. SFO-targeted ablation of AT1aR, inhibition of ER stress, or adenoviral scavenging of ROS in the SFO prevented the ANG II-induced increase in SFO NF-κB. These findings highlight the utility of bioluminescence imaging to longitudinally track transcription factor activation during the development of ANG II-dependent hypertension and reveal an AT1aR-, ER stress-, and ROS-dependent prehypertensive surge in NF-κB activity in the SFO. Furthermore, the increase in NF-κB activity before a rise in arterial blood pressure suggests a causal role for SFO NF-κB in the development of ANG II-dependent hypertension. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and properties of some divalent metal(II) complexes: Their electrochemical, catalytic, thermal and antimicrobial activity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tümer, Mehmet; Ekinci, Duygu; Tümer, Ferhan; Bulut, Akif

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we synthesized the amine compound 2-(2-aminoethyliminomethyl)phenol (H 3A) as the starting material, and then we prepared the polydentate Schiff base ligands from the reactions of the amine compound (H 3A) with phtaldialdehyde (H 2L), 4-methyl-2,6-di-formlyphenol (H 3L 1) and 4- t-butyl-2,6-di-formylphenol (H 3L 2) in the ethanol solution. Moreover, the complexes Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Sn(II) of the ligands H 2L, H 3L 1 and H 3L 2 have been prepared. All compounds have been characterized by the analytical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, the magnetic susceptibility and molar conductance measurements have been made. The catalytic properties of the mono- and binuclear Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been studied on the 3,5-di- tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) and ascorbic acid (aa) as a substrate. The oxidative C-C coupling properties of the Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been investigated on the sterically hindered 2,6-di- tert-butylphenol (dtbp). The antimicrobial activity properties of the ligands and their mono- and binuclear complexes have been studied against the bacteria and fungi. The results have been compared to the antibacterial and fungi drugs. The TGA curves show that the decomposition takes place in three steps for all complexes. Electrochemical properties of the complexes Cu(II) and Ni(II) have been investigated for the first time in acetonitrile by cyclic voltammetry.

  7. G-protein coupled receptor 83 (GPR83 signaling determined by constitutive and zinc(II-induced activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Müller

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled receptor 83 (GPR83 is an orphan G-protein coupled receptor for which the natural ligand(s and signaling pathway(s remain to be identified. Previous studies suggest a role of GPR83 in the regulation of thermogenesis and the control of circulating adiponectin. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the molecular underpinnings underlying GPR83 signaling. In particular, we aimed to assess the underlying G-protein activated signaling pathway of GPR83 and how this pathway is affected by mutational activation and zinc(II challenge. Finally, we assessed the capacity of GPR83 for homodimerization. Our results show for the first time that mouse (m GPR83 has high basal Gq/11 activity without affecting Gi or Gs signaling. Furthermore, we found that, under physiological conditions, zinc(II (but not calcium(II and magnesium(II potently activates mGPR83, thus identifying zinc(II as an endogenous molecule with agonistic capability to activate mGPR83. In line with the observation that zinc(II-ions activate mGPR83, we identified a cluster of ion-binding sensitive amino acids (e.g. His145, His204, Cys207, Glu217 in an activation sensitive receptor region of mGPR83. The occurrence of a constitutive activating mutant and a zinc(II-binding residue at the N-terminal part corroborate the importance of this region in mGPR83 signal regulation. Finally, our results indicate that mGPR83 forms homodimers, which extend the current knowledge and molecular facets of GPR83 signaling.

  8. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  9. Hyperoxia-induced p47phox activation and ROS generation is mediated through S1P transporter Spns2, and S1P/S1P1&2 signaling axis in lung endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harijith, Anantha; Pendyala, Srikanth; Ebenezer, David L; Ha, Alison W; Fu, Panfeng; Wang, Yue-Ting; Ma, Ke; Toth, Peter T; Berdyshev, Evgeny V; Kanteti, Prasad; Natarajan, Viswanathan

    2016-08-01

    Hyperoxia-induced lung injury adversely affects ICU patients and neonates on ventilator assisted breathing. The underlying culprit appears to be reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced lung damage. The major contributor of hyperoxia-induced ROS is activation of the multiprotein enzyme complex NADPH oxidase. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling is known to be involved in hyperoxia-mediated ROS generation; however, the mechanism(s) of S1P-induced NADPH oxidase activation is unclear. Here, we investigated various steps in the S1P signaling pathway mediating ROS production in response to hyperoxia in lung endothelium. Of the two closely related sphingosine kinases (SphKs)1 and 2, which synthesize S1P from sphingosine, only Sphk1(-/-) mice conferred protection against hyperoxia-induced lung injury. S1P is metabolized predominantly by S1P lyase and partial deletion of Sgpl1 (Sgpl1(+/-)) in mice accentuated lung injury. Hyperoxia stimulated S1P accumulation in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs), and downregulation of S1P transporter spinster homolog 2 (Spns2) or S1P receptors S1P1&2, but not S1P3, using specific siRNA attenuated hyperoxia-induced p47(phox) translocation to cell periphery and ROS generation in HLMVECs. These results suggest a role for Spns2 and S1P1&2 in hyperoxia-mediated ROS generation. In addition, p47(phox) (phox:phagocyte oxidase) activation and ROS generation was also reduced by PF543, a specific SphK1 inhibitor in HLMVECs. Our data indicate a novel role for Spns2 and S1P1&2 in the activation of p47(phox) and production of ROS involved in hyperoxia-mediated lung injury in neonatal and adult mice. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. THE COORDINATION COMPOUNDS OF COBALT (II, III WITH DITHIOCARBAMIC ACID DERIVATIVES — MODIFICATORS OF HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Varbanets

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloride, bromide and isothiocyanate complexes of cobalt(II with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulfenamides (1–(12, and also complexes of cobalt(II, Ш with derivatives of morpholine-4-carbodithioic acid (13–(18 have been used as modificators of enzymes of hydrolytic action — Bacillus thurin-giensis ІМВ В-7324 peptidases, Bacillus subtilis 147 and Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae 80428 amylases, Eupenicillium erubescens 248 and Cryptococcus albidus 1001 rhamnosidases. It was shown that cobalt (II, Ш compounds influence differently on the activity of enzymes tested, exerted both inhibitory and stimulatory action. It gives a possibility to expect that manifestation of activity by complex molecule depends on ligand and anion presence — Cl–, Br– or NCS–. The high activating action of cobalt(II complexes with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulphenamides (1–(12 on elastase and fibrinolytic activity of peptidases compared to tris(4-morpholinecarbodithioatocobalt(ІІІ (14 and products of its interaction with halogens (15–(17, causes inhibitory effect that is probably due to presence of a weekly S–N link, which is easy subjected to homolytic breaking. The studies of influences of cobalt(II complexes on activity of C. аlbidus and E. еrubescens ?-Lrhamnosidases showed, that majority of compounds inhibits of its activity, at that the most inhibitory effect exerts to C. аlbidus enzyme.To sum up, it is possible to state that character of influence of cobalt(II complexes with N-substituted thiocarbamoyl-N?-pentamethylenesulphenamides, and also cobalt(II, Ш complexes with derivatives of morpholine-4-carbodithioic acid varies depending on both strain producer and enzyme tested. The difference in complex effects on enzymes tested are due to peculiarities of building and functional groups of their active centers, which are also responsible for binding with modificators.

  11. Generation of iPS-derived model cells for analyses of hair shaft differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Takumi; Horigome, Tomoatsu; Uda, Minori; Adachi, Naoki; Hirai, Yohei

    2017-09-01

    Biological evaluation of hair growth/differentiation activity in vitro has been a formidable challenge, primarily due to the lack of relevant model cell systems. To solve this problem, we generated a stable model cell line in which successive differentiation via epidermal progenitors to hair components is easily inducible and traceable. Mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells were selected to stably express a tetracycline (Tet)-inducible bone morphogenic protein-4 (BMP4) expression cassette and a luciferase reporter driven by a hair-specific keratin 31 gene (krt31) promoter (Tet-BMP4-KRT31-Luc iPS). While Tet- BMP4-KRT31-Luc iPS cells could be maintained as stable iPS cells, the cells differentiated to produce luciferase luminescence in the presence of all-trans retinoic acid (RA) and doxycycline (Dox), and addition of a hair differentiation factor significantly increased luciferase fluorescence. Thus, this cell line may provide a reliable cell-based screening system to evaluate drug candidates for hair differentiation activity.

  12. Au coated PS nanopillars as a highly ordered and reproducible SERS substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Tae; Schilling, Joerg; Schweizer, Stefan L.; Sauer, Guido; Wehrspohn, Ralf B.

    2017-07-01

    Noble metal nanostructures with nanometer gap size provide strong surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) which can be used to detect trace amounts of chemical and biological molecules. Although several approaches were reported to obtain active SERS substrates, it still remains a challenge to fabricate SERS substrates with high sensitivity and reproducibility using low-cost techniques. In this article, we report on the fabrication of Au sputtered PS nanopillars based on a template synthetic method as highly ordered and reproducible SERS substrates. The SERS substrates are fabricated by anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template-assisted infiltration of polystyrene (PS) resulting in hemispherical structures, and a following Au sputtering process. The optimum gap size between adjacent PS nanopillars and thickness of the Au layers for high SERS sensitivity are investigated. Using the Au sputtered PS nanopillars as an active SERS substrate, the Raman signal of 4-methylbenzenethiol (4-MBT) with a concentration down to 10-9 M is identified with good signal reproducibility, showing great potential as promising tool for SERS-based detection.

  13. Comparison Among Ca II K Spectroheliogram Time Series with an Application to Solar Activity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolli, I.; Solanki, S. K.; Tlatov, A. G.; Krivova, N. A.; Ulrich, R. K.; Singh, J.

    2009-06-01

    Various observatories around the globe started regular full-disk imaging of the solar atmosphere in the Ca II K line in the early decades of the 20th century. The archives made by these observations have the potential of providing far more detailed information on solar magnetism than just the sunspot number and area records to which most studies of solar activity and irradiance changes are restricted. We evaluate the image quality and contents of three Ca II K spectroheliogram time series, specifically those obtained by the digitization of the Arcetri, Kodaikanal, and Mt Wilson photographic archives, in order to estimate their value for studies focusing on timescales longer than the solar cycle. We analyze the quality of these data and compare the results obtained with those achieved for similar present-day observations taken with the Meudon spectroheliograph and with the Rome-PSPT. We also investigate whether image-segmentation techniques, such as those developed for identification of plage regions on present-day Ca II K observations, can be used to process historic series. We show that historic data suffer from stronger geometrical distortions and photometric uncertainties than similar present-day observations. The latter uncertainties mostly originate from the photographic calibration of the original data and from stray-light effects. We also show that the image contents of the three analyzed series vary in time. These variations are probably due to instrument changes and aging of the spectrographs used, as well as changes of the observing programs. The segmentation technique tested in this study gives reasonably consistent results for the three analyzed series after application of a simple photographic calibration. Although the plage areas measured from the three analyzed series differ somewhat, the difference to previously published results is larger.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, DFT calculations and antibacterial activity of palladium(II) cyanide complexes with thioamides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saeed; Nadeem, Shafqat; Anwar, Aneela; Hameed, Abdul; Tirmizi, Syed Ahmed; Zierkiewicz, Wiktor; Abbas, Azhar; Isab, Anvarhusein A.; Alotaibi, Mshari A.

    2017-08-01

    Palladium(II) cyanide complexes of thioamides (or thiones) having the general formula PdL2(CN)2, where L = Thiourea (Tu), Methylthiourea (Metu), N,N‧-Dimethylthiourea (Dmtu), Tetramethylthiourea (Tmtu), 2-Mercaptopyridine (Mpy) and 2-Mercaptopyrimidine (Mpm) were prepared by reacting K2[PdCl4] with potassium cyanide and thioamides in the molar ratio of 1:2:2. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, thermal and spectroscopic methods (IR, 1H and 13C NMR). The structures of three of the complexes were predicted by DFT calculations. The appearance of a band around 2100 cm-1 in IR and resonances around 120-130 ppm in the 13C NMR spectra indicated the coordination of cyanide to palladium(II). More than one resonances were observed for CN- carbon atoms in 13C NMR indicating the existence of equilibrium between different species in solution. DFT calculations revealed that in the case of the palladium(II) complex of Tmtu, the ionic dinuclear [Pd(Tmtu)4][Pd(CN)4] form was more stable than the dimer of mononuclear complex [Pd(Tmtu)2(CN)2] by 0.91 kcal mol-1, while for the complexes of Tu or Mpy ligands, the nonionic [Pd(L)2(CN)2] forms were more stable than the corresponding [Pd(L)4][Pd(CN)4] complexes by 1.26 and 6.49 kcal mol-1 for L = Tu and Mpy, respectively. The complexes were screened for antibacterial effects and some of them showed significant activities against both gram positive as well as gram negative bacteria.

  15. Catecholase activity of a copper(II) complex with a macrocyclic ligand: unraveling catalytic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Iryna A; Selmeczi, Katalin; Belle, Catherine; Philouze, Christian; Saint-Aman, Eric; Gautier-Luneau, Isabelle; Schuitema, Anna Maria; van Vliet, Marcel; Gamez, Patrick; Roubeau, Olivier; Lüken, Matthias; Krebs, Bernt; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; Pierre, Jean-Louis; Reedijk, Jan

    2006-08-07

    We report the structure, properties and a mechanism for the catecholase activity of a tetranuclear carbonato-bridged copper(II) cluster with the macrocyclic ligand [22]pr4pz (9,22-dipropyl-1,4,9,14,17,22,27,28,29, 30-decaazapentacyclo[22.2.1.1(4,7).1(11,14). 1(17,20)]triacontane-5,7(28),11(29),12,18, 20(30),24(27),25-octaene). In this complex, two copper ions within a macrocyclic unit are bridged by a carbonate anion, which further connects two macrocyclic units together. Magnetic susceptibility studies have shown the existence of a ferromagnetic interaction between the two copper ions within one macrocyclic ring, and a weak antiferromagnetic interaction between the two neighboring copper ions of two different macrocyclic units. The tetranuclear complex was found to be the major compound present in solution at high concentration levels, but its dissociation into two dinuclear units occurs upon dilution. The dinuclear complex catalyzes the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol to the respective quinone in methanol by two different pathways, one proceeding via the formation of semiquinone species with the subsequent production of dihydrogen peroxide as a byproduct, and another proceeding via the two-electron reduction of the dicopper(II) center by the substrate, with two molecules of quinone and one molecule of water generated per one catalytic cycle. The occurrence of the first pathway was, however, found to cease shortly after the beginning of the catalytic reaction. The influence of hydrogen peroxide and di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone on the catalytic mechanism has been investigated. The crystal structures of the free ligand and the reduced dicopper(I) complex, as well as the electrochemical properties of both the Cu(II) and the Cu(I) complexes are also reported.

  16. Carbohydrate binding and resistance to proteolysis control insecticidal activity of Griffonia simplicifolia lectin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu-Salzman, K; Shade, R E; Koiwa, H; Salzman, R A; Narasimhan, M; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M; Murdock, L L

    1998-12-08

    Griffonia simplicifolia leaf lectin II (GSII), a plant defense protein against certain insects, consists of an N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-binding large subunit with a small subunit having sequence homology to class III chitinases. Much of the insecticidal activity of GSII is attributable to the large lectin subunit, because bacterially expressed recombinant large subunit (rGSII) inhibited growth and development of the cowpea bruchid, Callosobruchus maculatus (F). Site-specific mutations were introduced into rGSII to generate proteins with altered GlcNAc binding, and the different rGSII proteins were evaluated for insecticidal activity when added to the diet of the cowpea bruchid. At pH 5.5, close to the physiological pH of the cowpea bruchid midgut lumen, rGSII recombinant proteins were categorized as having high (rGSII, rGSII-Y134F, and rGSII-N196D mutant proteins), low (rGSII-N136D), or no (rGSII-D88N, rGSII-Y134G, rGSII-Y134D, and rGSII-N136Q) GlcNAc-binding activity. Insecticidal activity of the recombinant proteins correlated with their GlcNAc-binding activity. Furthermore, insecticidal activity correlated with the resistance to proteolytic degradation by cowpea bruchid midgut extracts and with GlcNAc-specific binding to the insect digestive tract. Together, these results establish that insecticidal activity of GSII is functionally linked to carbohydrate binding, presumably to the midgut epithelium or the peritrophic matrix, and to biochemical stability of the protein to digestive proteolysis.

  17. Differential Reovirus-Specific and Herpesvirus-Specific Activator Protein 1 Activation of Secretogranin II Leads to Altered Virus Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, Alicia R; Severini, Alberto; Coombs, Kevin M

    2015-12-01

    Viruses utilize host cell machinery for propagation and manage to evade cellular host defense mechanisms in the process. Much remains unknown regarding how the host responds to viral infection. We recently performed global proteomic screens of mammalian reovirus TIL- and T3D-infected and herpesvirus (herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1])-infected HEK293 cells. The nonenveloped RNA reoviruses caused an upregulation, whereas the enveloped DNA HSV-1 caused a downregulation, of cellular secretogranin II (SCG2). SCG2, a member of the granin family that functions in hormonal peptide sorting into secretory vesicles, has not been linked to virus infections previously. We confirmed SCG2 upregulation and found SCG2 phosphorylation by 18 h postinfection (hpi) in reovirus-infected cells. We also found a decrease in the amount of reovirus secretion from SCG2 knockdown cells. Similar analyses of cells infected with HSV-1 showed an increase in the amount of secreted virus. Analysis of the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway indicated that each virus activates different pathways leading to activator protein 1 (AP-1) activation, which is the known SCG2 transcription activator. We conclude from these experiments that the negative correlation between SCG2 quantity and virus secretion for both viruses indicates a virus-specific role for SCG2 during infection. Mammalian reoviruses affect the gastrointestinal system or cause respiratory infections in humans. Recent work has shown that all mammalian reovirus strains (most specifically T3D) may be useful oncolytic agents. The ubiquitous herpes simplex viruses cause common sores in mucosal areas of their host and have coevolved with hosts over many years. Both of these virus species are prototypical representatives of their viral families, and investigation of these viruses can lead to further knowledge of how they and the other more pathogenic members of their respective families interact with the

  18. Poly(PS-b-DMA) Micelles for Reactive Oxygen Species Triggered Drug Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mukesh K.; Meyer, Travis A.; Nelson, Christopher E.; Duvall, Craig L.

    2013-01-01

    A new micelle drug carrier that consists of a diblock polymer of propylene sulfide (PS) and N,N-dimethylacrylamide (poly(PS74−b-DMA310)) has been synthesized and characterized for site-specific release of hydrophobic drugs to sites of inflammation. Propylene sulfide was first polymerized using a thioacyl group transfer (TAGT) method with the RAFT chain transfer agent (CTA) 4-cyano-4-(ethylsulfanylthiocarbonylsulfanyl) pentanoic acid (CEP), and the resultant poly(PS74−CEP) macro-CTA was used to polymerize a second polymer block of DMA using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT). The formation of the poly(PS74−b-DMA310) diblock polymer was confirmed by 1H NMR spectra and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). poly(PS74−b-DMA310) formed 100 nm micelles in aqueous media as confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Micelles loaded with the model drugs Nile red and DiO were used to demonstrate the ROS-dependent drug release mechanism of these micelles following treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), and peroxynitrite. These oxidants were found to oxidize the micelle PPS core, making it more hydrophilic and triggering micelle disassembly and cargo release. Delivery of poly(PS74−b-DMA310) micelles dual-loaded with the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) fluorophore pair DiI and DiO was used to prove that endogenous oxidants generated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages significantly increased release of nanocarrier contents relative to macrophages that were not activated. In vitro studies also demonstrated that the poly(PS74−b-DMA310) micelles were cytocompatible across a broad range of concentrations. These combined data suggest that the poly(PS74−b-DMA310) micelles synthesized using a combination of TAGT and RAFT have significant potential for site-specific drug delivery to tissues with high levels of oxidative stress. PMID:22889714

  19. Drosophila non-muscle myosin II motor activity determines the rate of tissue folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Claudia G; Heissler, Sarah M; Billington, Neil; Sellers, James R; Martin, Adam C

    2016-01-01

    Non-muscle cell contractility is critical for tissues to adopt shape changes. Although, the non-muscle myosin II holoenzyme (myosin) is a molecular motor that powers contraction of actin cytoskeleton networks, recent studies have questioned the importance of myosin motor activity cell and tissue shape changes. Here, combining the biochemical analysis of enzymatic and motile properties for purified myosin mutants with in vivo measurements of apical constriction for the same mutants, we show that in vivo constriction rate scales with myosin motor activity. We show that so-called phosphomimetic mutants of the Drosophila regulatory light chain (RLC) do not mimic the phosphorylated RLC state in vitro. The defect in the myosin motor activity in these mutants is evident in developing Drosophila embryos where tissue recoil following laser ablation is decreased compared to wild-type tissue. Overall, our data highlights that myosin activity is required for rapid cell contraction and tissue folding in developing Drosophila embryos. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20828.001 PMID:28035903

  20. Outcome of early active mobilization after flexor tendons repair in zones II-V in hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Narender

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The functional outcome of a flexor tendon injury after repair depends on multiple factors. The postoperative management of tendon injuries has paved a sea through many mobilization protocols. The improved understanding of splinting techniques has promoted the understanding and implication of these mobilization protocols. We conducted a study to observe and record the results of early active mobilization of repaired flexor tendons in zones II-V. Materials and Methods: 25 cases with 75 digits involving 129 flexor tendons including 8 flexor pollicis longus (FPL tendons in zones II-V of thumb were subjected to the early active mobilization protocol. Eighteen (72% patients were below 30 years of age. Twenty-four cases (96% sustained injury by sharp instrument either accidentally or by assault. Ring and little finger were involved in 50% instances. In all digits, either a primary repair (n=26 or a delayed primary repair (n=49 was done. The repair was done with the modified Kessler core suture technique with locking epitendinous sutures with a knot inside the repair site, using polypropylene 3-0/4-0 sutures. An end-to-end repair of the cut nerves was done under loupe magnification using a 6-0/8-0 polyamide suture. The rehabilitation program adopted was a modification of Kleinert′s regimen, and Silfverskiold regimen. The final assessment was done at 14 weeks post repair using the Louisville system of Lister et al. Results: Eighteen of excellent results were attributed to ring and little fingers where there was a flexion lag of < 1 cm and an extension lag of < 15o. FPL showed 75% (n=6 excellent flexion. 63% (n=47 digits showed excellent results whereas good results were seen in 19% (n=14 digits. Nine percent (n=7 digits showed fair and the same number showed poor results. The cases where the median (n=4 or ulnar nerve (n=6 or both (n=3 were involved led to some deformity (clawing/ape thumb at 6 months postoperatively. The cases with digital

  1. Space exploration by dendritic cells requires maintenance of myosin II activity by IP3 receptor 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanes, Paola; Heuzé, Mélina L; Maurin, Mathieu; Bretou, Marine; Lautenschlaeger, Franziska; Maiuri, Paolo; Terriac, Emmanuel; Thoulouze, Maria-Isabel; Launay, Pierre; Piel, Matthieu; Vargas, Pablo; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) patrol the interstitial space of peripheral tissues. The mechanisms that regulate their migration in such constrained environment remain unknown. We here investigated the role of calcium in immature DCs migrating in confinement. We found that they displayed calcium oscillations that were independent of extracellular calcium and more frequently observed in DCs undergoing strong speed fluctuations. In these cells, calcium spikes were associated with fast motility phases. IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) channels, which allow calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum, were identified as required for immature DCs to migrate at fast speed. The IP3R1 isoform was further shown to specifically regulate the locomotion persistence of immature DCs, that is, their capacity to maintain directional migration. This function of IP3R1 results from its ability to control the phosphorylation levels of myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC) and the back/front polarization of the motor protein. We propose that by upholding myosin II activity, constitutive calcium release from the ER through IP3R1 maintains DC polarity during migration in confinement, facilitating the exploration of their environment. PMID:25637353

  2. Synthesis, Spectral, Thermal, Electrochemical, and Biocidal Activity of Tolyl/Benzyl Dithiocarbonates of Zinc(II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Kalgotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tolyl/benzyl dithiocarbonates of zinc(II [(o-,m-,p-CH3C6H4 and C6H5CH2OCS22Zn] have been synthesized in 1 : 2 molar ratio by the reaction of zinc chloride, ZnCl2, with sodium salts of tolyl/benzyl dithiocarbonates (o-,m-,p-CH3C6H4O/C6H5CH2OCS2Na, in aqueous medium. These complexes were further reacted with nitrogen and phosphorous donor ligands to obtain donor stabilized complex of the type [[(o-,m-,p-CH3C6H4 and C6H5CH2OCS2]2Zn.nL], (L = Bipy, Phen for n=1 and PPh3, Py for n=2. These complexes were characterised by elemental analysis, mass, IR, and NMR (1H, 13C, and 31P spectroscopies. The thermal analysis (TGA/DTA, cyclic voltammetry, and SEM have also been done. Distorted tetrahedral and octahedral geometries around the Zn(II metal are proposed. These complexes have depicted potential antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  3. The NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence - Phase I Lessons and Phase II Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Peter [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada). Uranium and Radioactive Waste Div.; Pescatore, Claudio [Nuclear Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    2006-09-15

    The Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was created under a mandate from the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) to facilitate the sharing of international experience in addressing the societal dimension of radioactive waste management. It explores means of ensuring an effective dialogue with the public, and considers ways to strengthen confidence in decision-making processes. The Forum was launched in August 2000 and completed its first phase in 00 . Major findings and principles for action were published under the title of 'Learning and Adapting to Societal Requirements'. Activities of the FSC were also reported at Valdor 2003. In the second mandate of the FSC, there is continued use of a variety of tools and formats to allow dialogue among stakeholders in an atmosphere of mutual trust: national workshops and community visits, topical sessions, and desk and interview studies. In Phase II, the FSC is exploring: the link between research, development and demonstration and stakeholder confidence; cultural and organisational changes in RWM institutions; the role of media relations and outreach opportunities; tools and processes to help society prepare and manage decisions through stakeholder involvement; and increasing the value of waste management facilities to local communities. Workshops have been held in Germany and Spain. A large set of publications makes both Phase I and Phase II findings widely available.

  4. Maxadilan Prevents Apoptosis in iPS Cells and Shows No Effects on the Pluripotent State or Karyotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyi; Yu, Rongjie; Yang, Jiayin; Liu, Xiaofei; Tan, Meihua; Li, HongYang; Chen, Jiansu

    2012-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a structurally endogenous peptide with many biological roles. Maxadilan, a 61-amino acid vasodilatory peptide, specifically activates the PACAP type I receptor (PAC1). Although PAC1 has been identified in embryonic stem cells, little is known about its presence or effects in human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. In the present study, we investigated the expression of PAC1 in human iPS cells by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. To study the physiological effects mediated by PAC1, we evaluated the role of maxadilan in preventing apoptotic cell death induced by ultraviolet C (UVC). After exposure to UVC, the iPS cells showed a marked reduction in cell viability and a parallel increase of apoptotic cells, as demonstrated by WST-8 analysis, annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis and the terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The addition of 30 nM of maxadilan dramatically increased iPS cell viability and reduced the percentage of apoptotic cells. The anti-apoptotic effects of maxadilan were correlated to the downregulation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Concomitantly, immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis and in vitro differentiation results showed that maxadilan did not affect the pluripotent state of iPS cells. Moreover, karyotype analysis showed that maxadilan did not affect the karyotype of iPS cells. In summary, these results demonstrate that PAC1 is present in iPS cells and that maxadilan effectively protects iPS cells against UVC-induced apoptotic cell death while not affecting the pluripotent state or karyotype. PMID:22457805

  5. Risk assessment in sepsis: a new prognostication rule by APACHE II score and serum soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Mylona, Vassiliki; Savva, Athina; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Dimopoulou, Ioanna; Mouktaroudi, Maria; Raftogiannis, Maria; Georgitsi, Marianna; Linnér, Anna; Adamis, George; Antonopoulou, Anastasia; Apostolidou, Efterpi; Chrisofos, Michael; Katsenos, Chrisostomos; Koutelidakis, Ioannis; Kotzampassi, Katerina; Koratzanis, George; Koupetori, Marina; Kritselis, Ioannis; Lymberopoulou, Korina; Mandragos, Konstantinos; Marioli, Androniki; Sundén-Cullberg, Jonas; Mega, Anna; Prekates, Athanassios; Routsi, Christina; Gogos, Charalambos; Treutiger, Carl-Johan; Armaganidis, Apostolos; Dimopoulos, George

    2012-08-08

    Early risk assessment is the mainstay of management of patients with sepsis. APACHE II is the gold standard prognostic stratification system. A prediction rule that aimed to improve prognostication by APACHE II with the application of serum suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) is developed. A prospective study cohort enrolled 1914 patients with sepsis including 62.2% with sepsis and 37.8% with severe sepsis/septic shock. Serum suPAR was measured in samples drawn after diagnosis by an enzyme-immunoabsorbent assay; in 367 patients sequential measurements were performed. After ROC analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis a prediction rule for risk was developed. The rule was validated in a double-blind fashion by an independent confirmation cohort of 196 sepsis patients, predominantly severe sepsis/septic shock patients, from Sweden. Serum suPAR remained stable within survivors and non-survivors for 10 days. Regression analysis showed that APACHE II ≥ 17 and suPAR ≥ 12 ng/ml were independently associated with unfavorable outcome. Four strata of risk were identified: i) APACHE II APACHE II APACHE II ≥ 17 and suPAR APACHE II ≥ 17 and suPAR ≥ 12 ng/ml with mortality 51.7%. This prediction rule was confirmed by the Swedish cohort. A novel prediction rule with four levels of risk in sepsis based on APACHE II score and serum suPAR is proposed. Prognostication by this rule is confirmed by an independent cohort.

  6. Eriochrome Blue Black modified activated carbon as solid phase extractor for removal of Pb(II ions from water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Albishri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a sensitive and simple method for the removal of lead Pb(II, from water samples prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, was investigated. The method utilized activated carbon (AC physically modified with Eriochrome Blue Black (EBB as a solid-phase extractant. Surface properties of the AC-EBB phase were characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The separation parameters for effective adsorption of lead Pb(II, including effects of pH, initial concentration of Pb(II, coexisting ions and shaking time using batch method were studied. The optimum pH value for the separation of Pb(II on the new sorbent was 7.0, and the maximum static adsorption capacity of Pb(II onto the AC-EBB was 127.896 mg/g at this pH and after 1 h contact time. The Pb(II adsorption data were modeled using Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Results demonstrated that the adsorption of Pb(II onto activated carbon followed pseudo second-order kinetic model.

  7. Synthesis of mixed-valence hexanuclear Mn(II/III) clusters from its Mn(II) precursor: variations of catecholase-like activity and magnetic coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Paramita; Ida, Yumi; Kanetomo, Takuya; Drew, Michael G B; Ishida, Takayuki; Ghosh, Ashutosh

    2015-06-07

    One Mn(II) coordination polymer, [Mn(o-(NO2)C6H4COO)2(pyz)(H2O)]n (1), has been synthesized and oxidized with n-Bu4NMnO4 in non-aqueous media to two mixed-valence hexanuclear Mn(II/III) complexes [MnIII2MnII4O2(pyz)0.61/(MeOH)0.39(o-(NO2)C6H4COO)10·(H2O)·{(CH3)2CO}2]·(CH3)2CO (2) and [MnIII2MnII4O2(pyz)0.28/(MeCN)3.72(o-(NO2)C6H4COO)10·(H2O)] (3) (where pyz = pyrazine). All three complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, and variable-temperature magnetic measurements. The structural analyses reveal that complex 1 is comprised of linear chains of pyz bridged Mn(II), which are further linked to one another by syn–anti carboxylate bridges, giving rise to a two-dimensional (2D) net. Complexes 2 and 3 feature mixed valence [MnIII2MnII4] units in which each of the six manganese centres reside in an octahedral environment. Apart from the variations in terminal ligands (acetone for 2 and acetonitrile for 3), the complexes are very similar. Using 3,5-di-tert-butyl catechol (3,5-DTBC) as the substrate, the catecholase-like activity of the complexes has been studied and it is found that the mixed valent Mn6 complexes (2 and 3) are much more active towards aerial oxidation of catechol compared to the Mn(II) complex (1). Variable-temperature (1.8–300 K) magnetic susceptibility measurements showed the presence of antiferromagnetic coupling in all three complexes. The magnetic data have been fitted with a 2D quadratic model derived by Lines, giving the exchange constant J/kB = −0.0788(5) K for 1. For 2 and 3, antiferromagnetic interactions within the Mn6 cluster have been fitted with models containing three exchange constants: JA/kB = −70 K, JB/kB = −0.5 K, JC/kB = −2.9 K for 2 and JA/kB = −60 K, JB/kB = −0.3 K, JC/kB = −2.8 K for 3.

  8. Superantigen and HLA-DR ligation induce phospholipase-C gamma 1 activation in class II+ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanner, S B; Odum, Niels; Grosmaire, L

    1992-01-01

    activity correlated with T cell responsiveness, alloantigen-primed T cells were activated with immobilized class II-specific mAb or soluble superantigen. Both HLA-DR mAb-stimulated T cells and enterotoxin-treated T cells proliferated strongly in response to co-stimulation by a combination of CD28 receptor...... engagement and PMA addition. In addition, superantigen-induced growth was induced by CD28 receptor ligation with antibody or the B7 counter-receptor expressed on Chinese hamster ovary cells. Taken together, these results indicate that class II molecules expressed on activated T cells are directly coupled...

  9. Shallow PS-logging by high frequency wave; Koshuha wo mochiita senbu PS kenso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, A.; Miyazawa, M.; Azuma, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes the following matters on down-hole PS logging in shallow subsurface. Determining an elastic wave velocity structure in shallow subsurface with high accuracy by using down-hole PS logging requires reduction of errors in reading travel time. Therefore, a high-frequency vibration source was fabricated with an objective to raise frequencies of waves used for the measurement. Measurements were made on two holes, A and B, at a measurement interval of 0.5 m, whereas at the hole A a measurement was performed simultaneously by using a normal type (low-frequency) vibration source. A spectral analysis on the waveform record revealed that the frequencies with each vibration source were 127 Hz and 27 Hz for the hole A, 115 Hz for the hole B, and the S/N ratio was all the same for both holes. When the high-frequency vibration source was used, the velocity was determined at accuracy of 5% over the whole length of the shallow section. When the low-frequency vibration source was used, sections with the velocity determining error greater than 5% were found, and it was not possible to derive the velocity structure in the shallow subsurface in fine segments. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Synthesis, structure and antimicrobial activity of manganese(II) and cobalt(II) complexes of the polyether ionophore antibiotic Sodium Monensin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorkov, Petar; Pantcheva, Ivayla N; Sheldrick, William S; Mayer-Figge, Heike; Petrova, Rositza; Mitewa, Mariana

    2008-01-01

    Mononuclear neutral manganese(II) and cobalt(II) complexes with the antibiotic Sodium Monensin A (Mon-Na, 1b) were synthesized and characterized. The crystal structures of M(Mon-Na)2Cl2.H2O (M=Mn, 2; M=Co, 3) were determined by X-ray crystallography. The complexes crystallize in monoclinic space group C2 with a tetrahedrally coordinated transition metal attached to oxygen atoms of deprotonated carboxyl groups of two Sodium Monensin molecules and two chloride ions. The sodium ion remains in the cavity of the ligand and cannot be replaced by Mn(II) or Co(II). The complexes were additionally characterized by different spectroscopic techniques (UV-Visible, EPR, FAB-MS). A preferable octahedral environment around the transition metal centers is observed in polar solvents while the complexes retain their tetrahedral structure in non-polar media. The antimicrobial activity of 1b, 2 and 3 was tested against Gram(+) and Gram(-) bacteria.

  11. Mononuclear Nickel(II Complexes with Schiff Base Ligands: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity in Norbornene Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Mei Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The nickel(II catalyst has manifested higher catalytic activity compared to that of other late transition metal catalysts for norbornene polymerization. Therefore, several structurally similar trans-nickel(II compounds of N,O-chelate bidentate ligands were synthesized and characterized. Both the electronic effect and the steric hindrance influence polymerization. The molecular structures of 2, 4 and 5 were further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  12. CaMK-II activation is essential for zebrafish inner ear development and acts through Delta-Notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Sarah C; Lahvic, Jamie; Francescatto, Ludmila; McLeod, Jamie J A; Burgess, Shawn M; Tombes, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Zebrafish inner ear development is characterized by the crystallization of otoliths onto immotile kinocilia that protrude from sensory "hair" cells. The stereotypical formation of these sensory structures is dependent on the expression of key patterning genes and on Ca2+ signals. One potential target of Ca2+ signaling in the inner ear is the type II Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK-II), which is preferentially activated in hair cells, with intense activation at the base of kinocilia. In zebrafish, CaMK-II is encoded by seven genes; the expression of one of these genes (camk2g1) is enriched in hair cells. The suppression of camk2g1 expression by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides or inhibition of CaMK-II activation by the pharmacological antagonist, KN-93, results in aberrant otolith formation without preventing cilia formation. In fact, CaMK-II suppression results in additional ciliated hair cells and altered levels of Delta-Notch signaling members. DeltaA and deltaD transcripts are increased and DeltaD protein accumulates in hair cells of CaMK-II morphants, indicative of defective recycling and/or exocytosis. Our findings indicate that CaMK-II plays a critical role in the developing ear, influencing cell differentiation through extranuclear effects on Delta-Notch signaling. Continued expression and activation of CaMK-II in maculae and cristae in older embryos suggests continued roles in auditory sensory maturation and transduction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Subneurotoxic copper(II)-induced NF-κB-dependent microglial activation is associated with mitochondrial ROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhuqin; Yu, Fengxiang; Gong, Ping; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Yongyao; Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuanpharm@gmail.com; Chen, Hongzhuan, E-mail: yaoli@shsmu.edu.cn

    2014-04-15

    Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and the associated neuronal damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence shows an elevated concentration of extracellular copper(II) in the brains of these disorders, which may contribute to neuronal death through direct neurotoxicity. Here we explored whether extracellular copper(II) triggers microglial activation. Primary rat microglia and murine microglial cell line BV-2 cells were cultured and treated with copper(II). The content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide in the medium was determined. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide was quantified by a fluorometric assay with Amplex Red. Mitochondrial superoxide was measured by MitoSOX oxidation. At subneurotoxic concentrations, copper(II) treatment induced a dose- and time-dependent release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from microglial cells, and caused an indirect, microglia-mediated neurotoxicity that was blocked by inhibition of TNF-α and nitric oxide production. Copper(II)-initiated microglial activation was accompanied with reduced IkB-α expression as well as phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and was blocked by NF-κB inhibitors (BAY11-7082 and SC-514). Moreover, copper(II) treatment evoked a rapid release of hydrogen peroxide from microglial cells, an effect that was not affected by NADPH oxidase inhibitors. N-acetyl-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), abrogated copper(II)-elicited microglial release of TNF-α and nitric oxide and subsequent neurotoxicity. Importantly, mitochondrial production of superoxide, paralleled to extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide, was induced after copper(II) stimulation. Our findings suggest that extracellular copper(II) at subneurotoxic concentrations could trigger NF-κB-dependent microglial activation and subsequent neurotoxicity. NADPH oxidase-independent, mitochondria-derived ROS may be involved in this activation

  14. Enhancing physical activity in older adults receiving hospital based rehabilitation: a phase II feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Catherine M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults receiving inpatient rehabilitation have low activity levels and poor mobility outcomes. Increased physical activity may improve mobility. The objective of this Phase II study was to evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT of enhanced physical activity in older adults receiving rehabilitation. Methods Patients admitted to aged care rehabilitation with reduced mobility were randomized to receive usual care or usual care plus additional physical activity, which was delivered by a physiotherapist or physiotherapy assistant. The feasibility and safety of the proposed RCT protocol was evaluated. The primary clinical outcome was mobility, which was assessed on hospital admission and discharge by an assessor blinded to group assignment. To determine the most appropriate measure of mobility, three measures were trialled; the Timed Up and Go, the Elderly Mobility Scale and the de Morton Mobility Index. Results The protocol was feasible. Thirty-four percent of people admitted to the ward were recruited, with 47 participants randomised to a control (n = 25 or intervention group (n = 22. The rates of adverse events (death, falls and readmission to an acute service did not differ between the groups. Usual care therapists remained blind to group allocation, with no change in usual practice. Physical activity targets were met on weekdays but not weekends and the intervention was acceptable to participants. The de Morton Mobility Index was the most appropriate measure of mobility. Conclusions The proposed RCT of enhanced physical activity in older adults receiving rehabilitation was feasible. A larger multi-centre RCT to establish whether this intervention is cost effective and improves mobility is warranted. Trial registration The trial was registered with the ANZTCR (ACTRN12608000427370.

  15. Nickel(II) complexes containing thiosemicarbazone and triphenylphosphine: Synthesis, spectroscopy, crystallography and catalytic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyarega, S.; Kalaivani, P.; Prabhakaran, R.; Hashimoto, T.; Endo, A.; Natarajan, K.

    2011-09-01

    Four new Ni(II) complexes of the general formula [Ni(PPh 3)(L)] (L = dibasic tridentate ligand derived from 4-diethylamino-salicylaldehyde and thiosemicarbazide or 4-N-substituted thiosemicarbazide) have been reported. The new complexes have been synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectroscopic (IR, electronic, 1H NMR and 31P NMR) techniques. Molecular structure of one of the complexes has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The complex, [Ni(PPh 3)(L4)] (H 2L4 = thiosemicarbazone prepared from 4-diethylamino-salicylaldehyde and 4-phenylthiosemicarbazide) crystallized in monoclinic space group with two molecules per unit cell and has the dimensions of a = 13.232(6) Å, b = 10.181(5) Å, c = 13.574(7) Å, α = 90°, β = 98.483(2)° and γ = 90°. Catalytic activity of the complexes has been explored for aryl-aryl coupling reaction.

  16. Tetranuclear copper(ii)-Schiff-base complexes as active catalysts for oxidation of cyclohexane and toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Partha; Manassero, Mario

    2010-02-14

    Three new Cu(ii) complexes, [Cu(4)(O)(L(n))(2)(CH(3)COO)(4)] where HL(1) = 4-methyl-2,6-bis(2-fluoroethyliminomethyl) phenol for complex , HL(2) = 4-methyl-2,6-bis(2-chloroethyliminomethyl) phenol for complex .0.25CH(3)CN and HL(3) = 4-methyl-2,6-bis(2-bromoethyliminomethyl) phenol for complex have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR, UV-vis spectroscopy, and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy. The structure of complex .0.25CH(3)CN has also been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. These complexes have been found to be active catalysts for the oxidation of cyclohexane and toluene in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant under mild conditions. Cyclohexane is oxidized to yield cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone, whereas toluene is oxidized to benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde.

  17. A bacterial ortholog of class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase activates lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrogelly, Alexandre; O'Donoghue, Patrick; Söll, Dieter; Moses, Sarath

    2010-07-16

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases produce aminoacyl-tRNAs, essential substrates for accurate protein synthesis. Beyond their central role in translation some of these enzymes or their orthologs are recruited for alternative functions, not always related to their primary cellular role. We investigate here the enzymatic properties of GenX (also called PoxA and YjeA), an ortholog of bacterial class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase. GenX is present in most Gram-negative bacteria and is homologous to the catalytic core of lysyl-tRNA synthetase, but it lacks the amino terminal anticodon binding domain of the latter enzyme. We show that, in agreement with its well-conserved lysine binding site, GenX can activate in vitro l-lysine and lysine analogs, but does not acylate tRNA(Lys) or other cellular RNAs. Copyright 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Overview of the Moral Status of iPS Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Andreia Martins

    2016-07-01

    The production of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in 2006 by Takahashi and Yamanaka was a major breakthrough in stem cell research. IPS cells technology holds great promise for cell therapy, disease modelling, and drug testing, but it poses ethical questions concerning the moral status of somatic cells, which can re-gain pluripotency (iPS cells). This article provides an overview of the arguments that substantiate the debate on the moral assessment of iPS cells: potentiality argument; relational properties/standard view; and genetic basis for moral status.

  19. Parental influences on adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior: longitudinal findings from Project EAT-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Katherine W

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The long-term role that parental encouragement and attitudes about fitness and exercise play in adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits remains unclear. This paper aims to longitudinally examine how parental encouragement to be physically active and parental concern about staying fit are associated with adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior habits five years later. Methods Project EAT-II adolescent and young adult participants (1130 male, 1386 female completed surveys while in middle school or high school (1998–1999, and again 5 years later. Participants were asked whether their mother and father encourage them to be physically active and care about staying fit and exercising. Adolescent moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA and TV/video watching (hours/week were assessed. Linear regression models adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics and baseline behavior were used to examine the association of Time 1 parental factors with behavioral outcomes among adolescents and young adults five years later (Time 2. Results After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics and baseline MVPA, adolescent-reported maternal and paternal encouragement to be active, and paternal care for fitness, were positively associated with weekly hours of MVPA after five years in young adult males (p for trend ≤ .01. The positive relationship between maternal encouragement and MVPA approached significance among high-school aged females (p for trend = .06, and paternal encouragement was positively related to MVPA among high-school aged males (p for trend = .02. While maternal encouragement to be active was associated with decreased TV/video time among younger females (p for trend = .02, other parental factors were not associated with lower TV/video time among the other groups. Conclusion Parental encouragement to be active was associated with increased physical activity among males and younger

  20. Transition metal complexes of neocryptolepine analogues. Part I: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and invitro anticancer activity of copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, Sanaa Moustafa; El Sayed, Ibrahim El Tantawy; Nassar, Nagla

    2015-03-01

    New generation of copper(II) complexes with aminoalkylaminoneocryptolepine as bidentate ligands has been synthesized and it is characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moment, spectra (IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR and ESR) and thermal studies. The IR data suggest the coordination modes for ligands which behave as a bidentate with copper(II) ion. Based on the elemental analysis, magnetic studies, electronic and ESR data, binuclear square planar geometry was proposed for complexes 7a, 7b, square pyramidal for 9a, 9b and octahedral for 8a, 8b, 10a, 10b. The molar conductance in DMF solution indicates that all complexes are electrolyte except 7a and 7b. The ESR spectra of solid copper(II) complexes in powder form showed an axial symmetry with 2B1g as a ground state and hyperfine structure. The thermal stability and degradation of the ligands and their metal complexes were studied employing DTA and TG methods. The metal-free ligands and their copper(II) complexes were tested for their in vitro anticancer activity against human colon carcinoma (HT-29). The results showed that the synthesized copper(II) complexes exhibited higher anticancer activity than their free ligands. Of all the studied copper(II) complexes, the bromo-substituted complex 9b exhibited high anticancer activity at low micromolar inhibitory concentrations (IC50 = 0.58 μM), compared to the other complexes and the free ligands.

  1. Monitoring interseismic activity on the Ilan Plain (NE Taiwan) using Small Baseline PS-InSAR, GPS and leveling measurements: partitioning from arc-continent collision and backarc extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhe; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Wang, Erchie; Li, Yongsheng; Yang, Yinghui; Wang, Pei-Ling

    2018-01-01

    The Ilan Plain, located in Northeast Taiwan, represents a transition zone between oblique collision (between the Luzon Arc and the Eurasian Plate) and backarc extension (the Okinawa Trough). The mechanism for this abrupt transition from arc-continent collision to backarc extension remains uncertain. We used Global Positioning System (GPS), leveling and multi-interferogram Small Baseline Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (SBAS-PSI) data to monitor the interseismic activity in the basin. A common reference site was selected for the data sets. The horizontal component of GPS and the vertical measurements of the leveling data were converted to line-of-sight (LOS) data and compared with the SBAS-PSI data. The comparison shows that the entire Ilan Plain is undergoing rapid subsidence at a maximum rate of -11 ± 2 mm yr-1 in the LOS direction. We speculate that vertical deformation and anthropogenic activity may play important roles in this deformation. We also performed a joint inversion modeling that combined both the DInSAR and strong motion data to constrain the source model of the 2005 Ilan earthquake. The best-fitting model predicts that the Sansing fault caused the 2005 Ilan earthquake. The observed transtensional deformation is dominated by the normal faulting with a minor left-lateral strike-slip motion. We compared our SBAS-PSI results with the short-term (2005-2009) groundwater level changes. The results indicate that although pumping-induced surface subsidence cannot be excluded, tectonic deformation, including rapid southward movement of the Ryukyu arc and backarc extension of the Okinawa Trough, characterizes the opening of the Ilan Plain. Furthermore, a series of normal and left-lateral strike-slip transtensional faults, including the Choshui and Sansing faults, form a bookshelf-like structure that accommodates the extension of the plain. Although situated in a region of complex structural interactions, the Ilan Plain is primarily controlled by extension

  2. [The effect of vitamin C on the lipolytic activity in type-II diabetics with angiopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana Mantilla, M E; Simón Carballo, R; Fernández Montequín, J I; Lima Santana, B; Cardona Alvarez, M E; Morejón Reinoso, O

    1991-01-01

    Effects produced by different doses of Vit C (2, 3 and 4 gr/day) on lipoprotein and hepatic lipase activities were studied between a group of 35 ambulatory patients, men and women, affected by diabetes mellitus type II with macroangiopathy at lower limbs and/or food. The medium age of patients was 62 years, ranging from 44 to 82 years. Patients were aleatory divided into four groups. One from those four groups was treated with placebo, the other three received Vit C. In the group treated with 3 gr./day of Vit C we found a significant reduction and increase (p less than 0.05) of lipoprotein and hepatic lipase activities, respectively, when we compared outcomes before and after eight weeks of treatment with Vit C. By other hand, when we compared the different groups, we found a significant increase in the hepatic lipase activity in the same group, particularly between the patients whose plasmatic Vit C levels before treatment were reduced. We didn't found any significant change in the rest of parameters.

  3. Improvement of stability and enzymatic activity by site-directed mutagenesis of E. coli asparaginase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shikha; Mehta, Ranjit Kumar; Maiti, Prasanta; Röhm, Klaus-Heinrich; Sonawane, Avinash

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial asparaginases (EC 3.5.1.1) have attracted considerable attention because enzymes of this group are used in the therapy of certain forms of leukemia. Class II asparaginase from Escherichia coli (EcA), a homotetramer with a mass of 138 kDa, is especially effective in cancer therapy. However, the therapeutic potential of EcA is impaired by the limited stability of the enzyme in vivo and by the induction of antibodies in the patients. In an attempt to modify the properties of EcA, several variants with amino acid replacements at subunit interfaces were constructed and characterized. Chemical and thermal denaturation analysis monitored by activity, fluorescence, circular dichroism, and differential scanning calorimetry showed that certain variants with exchanges that weaken dimer-dimer interactions exhibited complex denaturation profiles with active dimeric and/or inactive monomeric intermediates appearing at low denaturant concentrations. By contrast, other EcA variants showed considerably enhanced activity and stability as compared to the wild-type enzyme. Thus, even small changes at a subunit interface may markedly affect EcA stability without impairing its catalytic properties. Variants of this type may have a potential for use in the asparaginase therapy of leukemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alveolar epithelial type II cells activate alveolar macrophages and mitigate P. Aeruginosa infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibichakravarthy Kannan

    Full Text Available Although alveolar epithelial type II cells (AECII perform substantial roles in the maintenance of alveolar integrity, the extent of their contributions to immune defense is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that AECII activates alveolar macrophages (AM functions, such as phagocytosis using a conditioned medium from AECII infected by P. aeruginosa. AECII-derived chemokine MCP-1, a monocyte chemoattractant protein, was identified as a main factor in enhancing AM function. We proposed that the enhanced immune potency of AECII may play a critical role in alleviation of bacterial propagation and pneumonia. The ability of phagocytosis and superoxide release by AM was reduced by MCP-1 neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, MCP-1(-/- mice showed an increased bacterial burden under PAO1 and PAK infection vs. wt littermates. AM from MCP-1(-/- mice also demonstrated less superoxide and impaired phagocytosis over the controls. In addition, AECII conditioned medium increased the host defense of airway in MCP-1(-/- mice through the activation of AM function. Mechanistically, we found that Lyn mediated NFkappaB activation led to increased gene expression and secretion of MCP-1. Consequently Lyn(-/- mice had reduced MCP-1 secretion and resulted in a decrease in superoxide and phagocytosis by AM. Collectively, our data indicate that AECII may serve as an immune booster for fighting bacterial infections, particularly in severe immunocompromised conditions.

  5. Superb hydroxyl radical-mediated biocidal effect induced antibacterial activity of tuned ZnO/chitosan type II heterostructure under dark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podder, Soumik [Jadavpur University, School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology (India); Halder, Suman [Jadavpur University, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology (India); Roychowdhury, Anirban; Das, Dipankar [Kolkata Centre, UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research (India); Ghosh, Chandan Kr., E-mail: chandu-ju@yahoo.co.in [Jadavpur University, School of Materials Science and Nanotechnology (India)

    2016-10-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the most dominating factor for bacteria cell toxicity due to release of oxidative stress. Hydroxyl radical ({sup ·}OH) is a strong oxidizing ROS that has high impact on biocidal activity. This present paper highlights {sup ·}OH influenced antibacterial activity and biocidal propensity of tuned ZnO/chitosan (ZnO/CS) nanocomposite against Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) in the absence of light for the first time. For this purpose, the CS proportion was increased by 25 % (w/w) of ZnO during the preparation of ZnO/CS nanocomposite and a systematic study of different ROS like superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ·−}), hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and {sup ·}OH production as well as their kinetics was carried out both under UV irradiation and in dark by UV–Vis spectroscopy using NBT dye, starch and iodine reaction and fluorescence spectroscopy using terephthalic acid. The decoration of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO·NPs) with CS tuning was characterized by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy, revealing sustained crystallinity and surface coating of ZnO NP (size about ~24 nm) by CS molecule. The hybridization of ZnO nanoparticles with CS@50 wt% (w/w) resulted superior biocidal activity (81 %) within 3 h in dark mediated by optimum production of {sup ·}OH among all ROS. Here we have proposed the enhanced production of {sup ·}OH in ZnO/CS due to generation of holes by entrapment of electrons in acceptor level formed in nanocomposite for the first time, and the acceptor levels were probed by Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The increase in non-positronium (non-Ps) formation probability (I{sub 2}) in ZnO/CS nanocomposite confirmed the acceptor levels. This work also confirms surface defect-mediated ROS generation in dark, and zinc interstitials are proposed as active defect sites for generation of holes and {sup ·}OH for the first time and confirmed by steady-state room temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. Finally, a

  6. Superb hydroxyl radical-mediated biocidal effect induced antibacterial activity of tuned ZnO/chitosan type II heterostructure under dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Soumik; Halder, Suman; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Das, Dipankar; Ghosh, Chandan Kr.

    2016-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the most dominating factor for bacteria cell toxicity due to release of oxidative stress. Hydroxyl radical (·OH) is a strong oxidizing ROS that has high impact on biocidal activity. This present paper highlights ·OH influenced antibacterial activity and biocidal propensity of tuned ZnO/chitosan (ZnO/CS) nanocomposite against Pseudomonas putida (P. putida) in the absence of light for the first time. For this purpose, the CS proportion was increased by 25 % (w/w) of ZnO during the preparation of ZnO/CS nanocomposite and a systematic study of different ROS like superoxide anion (O 2 ·- ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ·OH production as well as their kinetics was carried out both under UV irradiation and in dark by UV-Vis spectroscopy using NBT dye, starch and iodine reaction and fluorescence spectroscopy using terephthalic acid. The decoration of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO·NPs) with CS tuning was characterized by XRD and FTIR spectroscopy, revealing sustained crystallinity and surface coating of ZnO NP (size about 24 nm) by CS molecule. The hybridization of ZnO nanoparticles with CS@50 wt% (w/w) resulted superior biocidal activity (81 %) within 3 h in dark mediated by optimum production of ·OH among all ROS. Here we have proposed the enhanced production of ·OH in ZnO/CS due to generation of holes by entrapment of electrons in acceptor level formed in nanocomposite for the first time, and the acceptor levels were probed by Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. The increase in non-positronium (non-Ps) formation probability (I2) in ZnO/CS nanocomposite confirmed the acceptor levels. This work also confirms surface defect-mediated ROS generation in dark, and zinc interstitials are proposed as active defect sites for generation of holes and ·OH for the first time and confirmed by steady-state room temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy. Finally, a plausible mechanism was hypothesized focusing on hole generation in ZnO NP and

  7. Activation of Firmiana Simplex leaf and the enhanced Pb(II) adsorption performance: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenze; Tang, Xiaowu; Chen, Yunmin; Wei, Liming; Wang, Yan

    2009-09-30

    Although various biosorbents have been reported effective to purify wastewaters containing heavy metals, the high tendency to decomposition in the environment makes them unsuitable for long-term persistent utilization. In this paper, a simple and new activation method was proposed to mineralize the Firmiana Simplex leaf (FSL) into an enhanced adsorbent for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution. The leaves activated at various temperatures were characterized with BET N(2) adsorption test, FT-IR test and XRD test. After activation, the mass percent of inorganic components (including whewellite, quartz, phosphate and calcite) increased and the specific surface area increased from 0.08283 to 9.32 m(2)g(-1) with the increasing activation temperature (AT) from 100 to 400 degrees C. Proper activation temperature (200 degrees C) helps to preserve the beneficial groups (amine and carboxyl). The affinities of the adsorbents towards Pb(II) were increased with increasing AT from 300, 100, 200 to 400 degrees C according to the adsorption isotherms. The adsorbent activated at 200 degrees C (AL2) was found most suitable for Pb(II) adsorption regarding the high yield efficiency (36.52%), high Pb(II) adsorption capacity (136.7 mg g(-1) by Langmuir model), high adsorption affinity (H type isotherm) and rapid adsorption rate (within 20 min by kinetic study). The Pb(II) removal efficiency of AL2 was obviously affected by the solution pH rather than by the adsorbent dosage. The adsorption was viewed as a chemical process based on IR spectra along with a physical process based on the correlation between the average pore size of the adsorbent and the adsorption capacity. The activation method proposed in this paper was proved effective and potentially applicable in the treatment of Pb(II) polluted wastewaters.

  8. Cobalt (II, nickel (II, copper (II and zinc (II complexes of 1-(phenyl(phenylamino methylpyrrolidine-2,5-dione and 2-((phenylaminomethyl isoindoline-1,3-dione and their biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tamil Vendan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Mannich bases 1-(phenyl(phenylaminomethylpyrrolidine-2,5-dione (SBA was synthesized from the condensation of succinimide, benzaldehyde and aniline. 2-((phenylaminomethylisoindoline-1,3-dione (PFA was derived from pthalimide, formaldehyde and aniline. The general formula of the Co (II, Ni (II, Cu (II and Zn (II chloro complexes, ML2X2 are reported. The ligands and the complexes have been characterized by various physical-chemical techniques such as elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, infrared and electronic spectra. The spectral analysis to ascertain mode of bonding and overall geometry of the complexes revealed octahedral geometries.

  9. Antibacterial, DNA interaction and cytotoxic activities of pendant-armed polyamine macrocyclic dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthi, P.; Haleel, A.; Srinivasan, P.; Prabhu, D.; Arulvasu, C.; Kalilur Rahiman, A.

    2014-08-01

    A series of dinuclear nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes (1-6) of hexaaza macrocycles of 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol with three different benzoyl pendant-arms, 2,2‧-benzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L), 2,2‧-4-nitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L‧) and 2,2‧-3,5-dinitrobenzoyliminodi(ethylamine) trihydrochloride (L″) have been synthesized and characterized by spectral methods. The electrochemical studies of these complexes depict two irreversible one electron reduction processes around E1pc = -0.62 to -0.76 V and E2pc = -1.21 to -1.31, and nickel(II) complexes (1-3) exhibit two irreversible one electron oxidation processes around E1pa = 1.08 to 1.14 V and E2pa = 1.71 to 1.74 V. The room temperature magnetic moment values (μeff, 1.52-1.54 BM) indicate the presence of an antiferromagnetic interaction in the binuclear copper(II) complexes (4-6) which is also observed from the broad ESR spectra with a g value of 2.14-2.15. The synthesized complexes (1-6) were screened for their antibacterial activity. The results of DNA interaction studies indicate that the dinuclear complexes can bind to calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode and display efficient cleavage of plasmid DNA. Further, the cytotoxic activity of complexes 2, 5 and 6 on human liver adenocarcinoma (HepG2) cell line has been examined. Nuclear-chromatin cleavage has also been observed with PI staining and comet assays.

  10. PS buildings : reinforced concrete structure for shielding "bridge" pillar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1956-01-01

    The PS ring traverses the region between the experimental halls South and North (buildings Nos 150 and 151) under massive bridge-shaped concrete beams. This pillar stands at the S-W end of the structure.

  11. New safety training for access to the PS complex areas

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Since 10/08/2012, a new course dedicated to the specific radiological risks in the accelerators of the PS complex has been available on SIR (https://sir.cern.ch/). This course complements the general classroom-based Radiation Safety training. Successful completion of the course will be obligatory and verified by the access system as from 01/11/2012 for access to the following accelerator areas: LINAC2, BOOSTER, PS and TT2. Information and reminder e-mails will be sent to all persons currently authorized to access the accelerators of the PS complex. For questions please contact the HSE unit and in particular, the Radiation Protection Group (+41227672504 or safety-rp-ps-complex@cern.ch).

  12. Sol-gel encapsulation of binary Zn(II) compounds in silica nanoparticles. Structure-activity correlations in hybrid materials targeting Zn(II) antibacterial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevas, E; Nday, C M; Kaprara, E; Psycharis, V; Raptopoulou, C P; Jackson, G E; Litsardakis, G; Salifoglou, A

    2015-10-01

    In the emerging issue of enhanced multi-resistant properties in infectious pathogens, new nanomaterials with optimally efficient antibacterial activity and lower toxicity than other species attract considerable research interest. In an effort to develop such efficient antibacterials, we a) synthesized acid-catalyzed silica-gel matrices, b) evaluated the suitability of these matrices as potential carrier materials for controlled release of ZnSO4 and a new Zn(II) binary complex with a suitably designed well-defined Schiff base, and c) investigated structural and textural properties of the nanomaterials. Physicochemical characterization of the (empty-loaded) silica-nanoparticles led to an optimized material configuration linked to the delivery of the encapsulated antibacterial zinc load. Entrapment and drug release studies showed the competence of hybrid nanoparticles with respect to the a) zinc loading capacity, b) congruence with zinc physicochemical attributes, and c) release profile of their zinc load. The material antimicrobial properties were demonstrated against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus) and negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Xanthomonas campestris) bacteria using modified agar diffusion methods. ZnSO4 showed less extensive antimicrobial behavior compared to Zn(II)-Schiff, implying that the Zn(II)-bound ligand enhances zinc antimicrobial properties. All zinc-loaded nanoparticles were less antimicrobially active than zinc compounds alone, as encapsulation controls their release, thereby attenuating their antimicrobial activity. To this end, as the amount of loaded zinc increases, the antimicrobial behavior of the nano-agent improves. Collectively, for the first time, sol-gel zinc-loaded silica-nanoparticles were shown to exhibit well-defined antimicrobial activity, justifying due attention to further development of antibacterial nanotechnology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tanshinone IIA Prevents Leu27IGF-II-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy Mediated by Estrogen Receptor and Subsequent Akt Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yueh-Shan; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Pai, Pei-Ying; Jong, Gwo-Ping; Lai, Chao-Hung; Chung, Li-Chin; Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; HsuanDay, Cecilia; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-01-01

    IGF-IIR plays important roles as a key regulator in myocardial pathological hypertrophy and apoptosis, which subsequently lead to heart failure. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb used to treat cardiovascular diseases. Tanshinone IIA is an active compound in Danshen and is structurally similar to 17[Formula: see text]-estradiol (E[Formula: see text]. However, whether tanshinone IIA improves cardiomyocyte survival in pathological hypertrophy through estrogen receptor (ER) regulation remains unclear. This study investigates the role of ER signaling in mediating the protective effects of tanshinone IIA on IGF-IIR-induced myocardial hypertrophy. Leu27IGF-II (IGF-II analog) was shown in this study to specifically activate IGF-IIR expression and ICI 182,780 (ICI), an ER antagonist used to investigate tanshinone IIA estrogenic activity. We demonstrated that tanshinone IIA significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation through ER activation to inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin expression and subsequent NFATc3 nuclear translocation to suppress myocardial hypertrophy. Tanshinone IIA reduced the cell size and suppressed ANP and BNP, inhibiting antihypertrophic effects induced by Leu27IGF-II. The cardioprotective properties of tanshinone IIA that inhibit Leu27IGF-II-induced cell hypertrophy and promote cell survival were reversed by ICI. Furthermore, ICI significantly reduced phospho-Akt, Ly294002 (PI3K inhibitor), and PI3K siRNA significantly reduced the tanshinone IIA-induced protective effect. The above results suggest that tanshinone IIA inhibited cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, which was mediated through ER, by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibiting Leu27IGF-II-induced calcineurin and NFATC3. Tanshinone IIA exerted strong estrogenic activity and therefore represented a novel selective ER modulator that inhibits IGF-IIR signaling to block cardiac hypertrophy.

  14. A Single Angiotensin II Hypertensive Stimulus Is Associated with Prolonged Neuronal and Immune System Activation in Wistar-Kyoto Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubcevic, Jasenka; Santisteban, Monica M; Perez, Pablo D; Arocha, Rebeca; Hiller, Helmut; Malphurs, Wendi L; Colon-Perez, Luis M; Sharma, Ravindra K; de Kloet, Annette; Krause, Eric G; Febo, Marcelo; Raizada, Mohan K

    2017-01-01

    Activation of autonomic neural pathways by chronic hypertensive stimuli plays a significant role in pathogenesis of hypertension. Here, we proposed that even a single acute hypertensive stimulus will activate neural and immune pathways that may be important in initiation of memory imprinting seen in chronic hypertension. We investigated the effects of acute angiotensin II (Ang II) administration on blood pressure, neural activation in cardioregulatory brain regions, and central and systemic immune responses, at 1 and 24 h post-injection. Administration of a single bolus intra-peritoneal (I.P.) injection of Ang II (36 μg/kg) resulted in a transient increase in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) (by 22 ± 4 mmHg vs saline), which returned to baseline within 1 h. However, in contrast to MAP, neuronal activity, as measured by manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance (MEMRI), remained elevated in several cardioregulatory brain regions over 24 h. The increase was predominant in autonomic regions, such as the subfornical organ (SFO; ~20%), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN; ~20%) and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM; ~900%), among others. Similarly, systemic and central immune responses, as evidenced by circulating levels of CD4+/IL17+ T cells, and increased IL17 levels and activation of microglia in the PVN, respectively, remained elevated at 24 h following Ang II challenge. Elevated Fos expression in the PVN was also present at 24 h (by 73 ± 11%) following Ang II compared to control saline injections, confirming persistent activation of PVN. Thus, even a single Ang II hypertensive stimulus will initiate changes in neuronal and immune cells that play a role in the developing hypertensive phenotype.

  15. A Single Angiotensin II Hypertensive Stimulus Is Associated with Prolonged Neuronal and Immune System Activation in Wistar-Kyoto Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasenka Zubcevic

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of autonomic neural pathways by chronic hypertensive stimuli plays a significant role in pathogenesis of hypertension. Here, we proposed that even a single acute hypertensive stimulus will activate neural and immune pathways that may be important in initiation of memory imprinting seen in chronic hypertension. We investigated the effects of acute angiotensin II (Ang II administration on blood pressure, neural activation in cardioregulatory brain regions, and central and systemic immune responses, at 1 and 24 h post-injection. Administration of a single bolus intra-peritoneal (I.P. injection of Ang II (36 μg/kg resulted in a transient increase in the mean arterial pressure (MAP (by 22 ± 4 mmHg vs saline, which returned to baseline within 1 h. However, in contrast to MAP, neuronal activity, as measured by manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance (MEMRI, remained elevated in several cardioregulatory brain regions over 24 h. The increase was predominant in autonomic regions, such as the subfornical organ (SFO; ~20%, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN; ~20% and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM; ~900%, among others. Similarly, systemic and central immune responses, as evidenced by circulating levels of CD4+/IL17+ T cells, and increased IL17 levels and activation of microglia in the PVN, respectively, remained elevated at 24 h following Ang II challenge. Elevated Fos expression in the PVN was also present at 24 h (by 73 ± 11% following Ang II compared to control saline injections, confirming persistent activation of PVN. Thus, even a single Ang II hypertensive stimulus will initiate changes in neuronal and immune cells that play a role in the developing hypertensive phenotype.

  16. Study of Value Co-Creation in CoPS

    OpenAIRE

    Mingli Zhang; Jianhua Ye

    2013-01-01

    Value co-creation is associated with specific investment in the context of CoPS. The feature of CoPS decides that the study of co-creation cannot execute without regarding asset specificity. This study considers that value co-creation will be associated with specific value, which is outcome of relationship value and asset specificity. Supplier and customer have a close relation, which conducts to specific investment and then it turns to obstacle for competitors. Trust, commitment and satisfac...

  17. Motor-generator set of the PS main supply

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1968-01-01

    Already in 1964, the PS improvement programme included a new main magnet supply with more power for the longer cycles needed for slow extraction at the full energy of 26 GeV. This motor-generator set was installed in 1967 and took up service at the beginning of 1968. Regularly serviced and fitted with modern electronic regulation, it pulses the PS to this day.

  18. DiPS: A Unifying Approach for developing System Software

    OpenAIRE

    Michiels, Sam; Matthijs, Frank; Walravens, Dirk; Verbaeten, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we unify three essential features for flexible system software: a component oriented approach, self-adaptation and separation of concerns.We propose DiPS (Distrinet Protocol Stack), a component framework, which offers components, an anonymous interaction model and connectors to handle non-functional aspects such as concurrency. DiPS has effectively been used in industrial protocol stacks and device drivers.

  19. Motor Cortex Theta and Gamma Architecture in Young Adult APPswePS1dE9 Alzheimer Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Papazoglou

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a multifactorial disorder leading to progressive memory loss and eventually death. In this study, an APPswePS1dE9 AD mouse model has been analyzed for motor cortex theta, beta and gamma frequency alterations using computerized 3D stereotaxic electrode positioning and implantable video-EEG radiotelemetry to perform long-term M1 recordings from both genders considering age, circadian rhythm and activity status of experimental animals. We previously demonstrated that APPswePS1dE9 mice exibit complex alterations in hippocampal frequency power and another recent investigation reported a global increase of alpha, beta and gamma power in APPswePS1dE9 in females of 16-17 weeks of age. In this cortical study in APPswePS1dE9 mice we did not observe any changes in theta, beta and particularly gamma power in both genders at the age of 14, 15, 18 and 19 weeks. Importantly, no activity dependence of theta, beta and gamma activity could be detected. These findings clearly point to the fact that EEG activity, particularly gamma power exhibits developmental changes and spatial distinctiveness in the APPswePS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Influence of the presence of three typical surfactants on the adsorption of nickel (II) to aerobic activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongfang; Tao, Yun; Li, Kexun; Yu, Jie

    2012-12-01

    The effects of different surfactants (SDBS, C(14)BDMA, Tween20) on the sorption of nickel(II) onto aerobic activated sludge were studied. Results showed that the influence of surfactants on the adsorption of nickel(II) strongly depended on the type of the surfactants. The presence of SDBS enhanced nickel(II) sorption, in contrast, the presence of C(14)BDMA and Tween20 both caused a nickel(II) sorption reduction, but Tween20 had a slighter effect. With the presence of individual surfactant, the sorption kinetics and isotherms were good agreement with pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm, respectively. The surfactant impelled the nickel(II) adsorption process onto aerobic activated sludge to transform from chemisorption to physisorption, and the existence of SDBS in solution even changed the exothermic nature. From FT-IR measurements and zeta potential measurements, there was competitive relationship between C(14)BDMA and nickel(II) at the adsorption onto sludge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mononuclear and binuclear copper(II) complexes of the antiinflammatory drug ibuprofen: synthesis, characterization, and catecholase-mimetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhijleh, A L

    1994-09-01

    Two mononuclear copper(II) ibuprofenate adducts with imidazole or 2-methylimidazole and two binuclear copper(II) ibuprofenate adducts with metronidazole or caffeine have been prepared and characterized. Elemental analyses, UV-VIS, IR, EPR, and magnetic moment data for imidazole or 2-methylimidazole adducts are consistent with mononuclear square planar complexes that contain two ibuprofenato ligands and two N-containing imidazole ligands to give essentially a CuO2N2 chromophore. The above data for metronidazole or caffeine adducts are consistent with a binuclear structure as found for copper(II) acetate monohydrate and other copper(II) carboxylate dimers. In these complexes four carboxylate groups are bridging two copper(II) atoms, and two added bases coordinated at axial positions to form CuO4N chromophore around each copper. The catecholase-mimetic catalytic activities of the complexes have been determined by monitoring the formation of o-quinone from catechol. The catalytic activities of the mononuclear complexes are lower than those of the binuclear copper(II) ibuprofenate or its metronidazole or caffeine mono-adducts.

  2. Synthesis and biological activity of acetates of copper (II and iron (III for the control of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica V. Nardeli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to the synthesis of basic acetates of Cu (II and Fe(III against larvae of Aedes aegypti and Gram negative and Gram positive. The transition metal ions Cu (II and Fe (III have bactericidal activity and are toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae in the eggs and larval stages of initial, precludes the eggs hatch and slow reproductive cycle of the insect. The theme investigates the importance of carboxyl groups in complex formation, transport and cellular internalization of the toxic ions. It is known that the bactericide or insecticide activity is due to metal ions and Cu (IIor Fe (III.

  3. The new heart of the PS is beating strongly

    CERN Document Server

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2011-01-01

    The PS has resumed operation with a brand new electrical power system called POPS; this enormous system comprising power electronics and capacitors is crucial because if it broke down practically no particles would be able to circulate at CERN. As soon as it started, POPS passed all the tests with flying colours and is now pulsing at full power.   The new PS power system is made up of 6 containers, each with 60 tonnes of capacitors and 8 power converters. The date 11/02/11 will always be remembered with affection by the engineers in the Electrical Power Converters Group. At 11:11 in the morning (no joke), the first beams powered by the new system began to circulate in the PS. The cutely-named POPS (POwer for PS) took over from the old rotating machine that had been working since 1968. From now on it will be POPS that supplies the PS main magnets with the electrical pulses needed to accelerate the beams for the LHC and all CERN's other facilities. The system is crucial as the PS is one of the lyn...

  4. The PS will soon be back in operation

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The PS's power supply system is undergoing repairs for the accelerator to restart on 26 June. The AB Department's Power Converter Group is working flat out with Siemens to return the PS's power supply system to working order. A problem appeared on the insulation of the power cables of the rotor of the rotating machine (photo) which supplies power to the PS magnets. To prevent more significant damage to the rotating machine, the AB Department, with the approval of the CERN Management, decided to shut down the PS which had started running on 15 May. Everything is being done to restart the accelerator on 26 June. The PS's rotating machine comprises a motor coupled to a generator. The generator's rotor acts like a flywheel, supplying high-power pulses of 40 to 50 megawatts to the PS magnets. The 6 megawatt motor drives the installation at 1000 revolutions per minute and compensates only for variations in speed. It is an essential interface since it would be hard to imagine connecting such an electrical charge, p...

  5. Adsorption of As(V), Cd(II) and Pb(II), in Multicomponent Aqueous Systems using Activated Carbons.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirilä, M.; Cruz, G.J.F.; Ainassaari, K.; Gómez, M.M.; Matějová, Lenka; Keiski, R.L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 9 (2017), s. 846-855 ISSN 1061-4303 Grant - others:NUT(PE) 0722-2014; PNCST(PE) 002/PE/2012 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : activated carbon * agro- waste material * heavy metals adsorption Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.910, year: 2016

  6. Cross-reconstitution of the extrinsic proteins and photosystem II complexes from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Spinacia oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Ohta, H; Enami, I

    2005-06-01

    Cross-reconstitution of the extrinsic proteins and Photosystem II (PS II) from a green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and a higher plant,Spinacia oleracea, was performed to clarify the differences of binding properties of the extrinsic proteins between these two species of organisms. (1) Chlamydomonas PsbP and PsbQ directly bound to Chlamydomonas PS II independent of the other extrinsic proteins but not to spinach PS II. (2) Chlamydomonas PsbP and PsbQ directly bound to the functional sites of Chlamydomonas PS II independent of the origins of PsbO, while spinach PsbP and PsbQ only bound to non-functional sites on Chlamydomonas PS II. (3) Both Chlamydomonas PsbP and spinach PsbP functionally bound to spinach PS II in the presence of spinach PsbO. (4) While Chlamydomonas PsbP functionally bound to spinach PS II in the presence of Chlamydomonas PsbO, spinach PsbP bound loosely to spinach PS II in the presence of Chlamydomonas PsbO with no concomitant restoration of oxygen evolution. (5) Chlamydomonas PsbQ bound to spinach PS II in the presence of Chlamydomonas PsbP and PsbO or spinach PsbO but not to spinach PS II in the presence of spinach PsbP and Chlamydomonas PsbO or spinach PsbO. (6) Spinach PsbQ did not bind to spinach PS II in the presence of Chlamydomonas PsbO and PsbP. On the basis of these results, we showed a simplified scheme for binding patterns of the green algal and higher plant extrinsic proteins with respective PS II.

  7. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  8. Immobilized copper(II) macrocyclic complex on MWCNTs with antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarlani, Aliakbar; Narimani, Khashayar; Mohammadipanah, Fatemeh; Hamedi, Javad; Tahermansouri, Hasan; Amini, Mostafa M.

    2015-06-01

    In a new approach, a copper(II) tetraaza macrocyclic complex (CuTAM) was covalently bonded on modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). To achieve this purpose, MWCNTs were converted to MWCNT-COCl and then reacted to NH groups of TAM ligand. The prepared material was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy). FT-IR and TGA demonstrated the presence of the organic moieties, and XRD proved that the structure of MWCNTs remained intact during the three modification steps. An increase in the ID/IG ratio in Raman spectra confirmed the surface modifications. Finally, the samples were subjected to an antibacterial assessment to compare their biological activity. The antibacterial test showed that the grafted complex on the surface of the nanotube (MWCNT-CO-CuTAM) has higher antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 than the MWCNT-COOH and CuTAM with 1000 and 2000 μg/mL.

  9. An Insight into the Anticancer Activities of Ru(II-Based Metallocompounds Using Docking Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Ajibade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike organic molecules, reports on docking of metal complexes are very few; mainly due to the inadequacy of force fields in docking packages to appropriately characterize the metal atoms that consequentially hinder the rational design of metal-based drug complexes. In this study we have made used Molegro and Autodock to predict the anticancer activities of selected Ru(II complexes against twelve anticancer targets. We observed that introducing the quantum calculated atomic charges of the optimized geometries significantly improved the docking predictions of these anticancer metallocompounds. Despite several limitations in the docking of metal-based complexes, we obtained results that are highly correlated with the available experimental results. Most of our newly proposed metallocompounds are found theoretically to be better anticancer metallocompounds than all the experimentally proposed RAPTA complexes. An interesting features of a strong interactions of new modeled of metallocompounds against the two base edges of DNA strands suggest similar mechanisms of anticancer activities similar to that of cisplatin. There is possibility of covalent bonding between the metal center of the metallocompounds and the residues of the receptors DNA-1, DNA-2, HDAC7, HIS and RNR. However, the general results suggest the possibility of metals positioning the coordinated ligands in the right position for optimal receptor interactions and synergistic effects, rather than forming covalent bonds.

  10. The effect of empagliflozin on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jens; Tank, Jens; Heusser, Karsten; Heise, Tim; Wanner, Christoph; Heer, Martina; Macha, Sreeraj; Mattheus, Michaela; Lund, Søren S; Woerle, Hans J; Broedl, Uli C

    2017-09-01

    Inhibition of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 with empagliflozin results in caloric loss by increasing urinary glucose excretion and has a mild diuretic effect. Diuretic effects are usually associated with reflex-mediated increases in sympathetic tone, whereas caloric loss is associated with decreased sympathetic tone. In an open-label trial, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) (burst frequency, burst incidence, and total MSNA) was assessed using microneurography performed off-treatment and on day 4 of treatment with empagliflozin 25 mg once daily in 22 metformin-treated patients with type II diabetes (mean [range] age 54 [40-65] years). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, urine volume, and body weight were assessed before and on day 4 (BP, heart rate), day 5 (urine volume), or day 6 (body weight) of treatment with empagliflozin. After 4 days of treatment with empagliflozin, no significant changes in MSNA were apparent despite a numerical increase in urine volume, numerical reductions in BP, and significant weight loss. There were no clinically relevant changes in heart rate. Empagliflozin is not associated with clinically relevant reflex-mediated sympathetic activation in contrast to increases observed with diuretics in other studies. Our study suggests a novel mechanism through which sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition affects human autonomic cardiovascular regulation. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Photosystem II characteristics of nine Gramineae species in southern Taklamakan Desert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Xiang-yi; Lin, Li-sha; Wang, Ying-ju; Xue, Wei

    2011-10-01

    Taking the Gramineae species Elytrigia intermedia, Avena sativa, Bromus inermis, Elymus sibiricus, Leymus tianschanicus, Elymus dahuricus, Festuca elata, Agropyron cristatum, and Puccinellia distans at the edge of Cele Oasis in southern Taklimakan Desert as test objects, this paper monitored their fast chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics after 20 minutes adaptation in darkness, compared their photosystem II (PS II) characteristics, and analyzed their adaptability to the local environment. Among the nine Gramineae species, L. tianschanicus and E. dahuricus had markedly higher values of maximum fluorescence yield (F(m)), maximum photochemical efficiency of PS II (F(v)/F(m)), and active reaction centers per cross-section (RC/CS0), but lower values of minimum fluorescence yield (F0), absorption flux per reaction center (ABC/RC), maximal trapping flux per reaction center (TR0/RC), flux of dissipated excitation energy per reaction center (DI0/RC), and initial slope of fluorescence intensity (M0), as compared to F. elata, A. cristatum, and P. distans, whereas E. intermedia, A. sativa, B. inermis, and E. sibiricus had a medium level of the values. These results suggested that all the test pasture species were suffered from the severe environmental conditions of Cele Oasis to some extent, as indicated by the inactivation of PS II reaction center and the depression of electron transport chain. L. tianschanicus and E. dahuricus were least impacted, while F. elata, A. cristatum, and P. distans were most impacted.

  12. Modifications in the glycerophospholipid composition between the Coxiella burnetii phase I and phase II cells suggest an association with phase variation of the bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmelová, M; Toman, R; Pompach, P; Škultéty, L

    2016-03-01

    Glycerophospholipids (GP) extracted from the Coxiella burnetii strain Nine Mile in virulent phase I (NM I) and low virulent phase II (NM II) were analyzed by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS) that gave a superior mass resolution and mass accuracy allowing unambiguous peak recognition and precise assignment of ions. We showed that GP present in the pathogen's outer membrane underwent considerable modifications during the phase variation that might be related to impact of various environmental factors. It was found that GP from phase I cells were much more complex than those from phase II cells. While glycerophosphoethanolamines (PE), glycerophosphocholines (PC) and glycerophosphoglycerols (PG) were present in both phases of C. burnetii, major differences were observed in the presence of glycerophosphates (PA) and glycerophosphoserines (PS). Thus, PA but no PS were detected in NM I variant in contrast with NM II cells where PS but no PA were identified. It is suggested that enzymes for PA head group modifications to form PS, PE, and PG become active during the phase variation of the bacterium.

  13. iPS-Cinderella Story in Cell Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As we step through the frontiers of modern Science, we are all witnesses to the Cinderella story repeating itself in the form of the iPS. The process of re-programming adult somatic cells to derive Induced Pluripotent stem cells (iPS with the wand of transcription factors and then differentiating them back to adult somatic cells resembles the transformation of Cinderella from a Cinder girl to princess and back to a Cinder girl after the ball; but the iPS-Cinderella is the most fascinating thing ever in cell biology!From the day iPS first made its headlines when it was first produced by Shinya Yamanaka at Kyoto University in Japan, Stem Cell scientists all over the world are re- doing their experiments so far done using other sources like embryonic and adult Stem cells with the iPS cells exploring their potential to the fullest. A Stem Cell science news page without this magic word of iPS is difficult to imagine these days and Scientists have been successful in growing most of the adult Cell types from iPS cells.iPS cells was the key to solve the problems of Immune rejection and Immunosupression required when using other allogeneic Stem cell types which had baffled scientists previously. But the issues raised by scientists about the use of viruses and Oncogenes in producing iPS cells were made groundless when scientists in February 2008 published the discovery of a technique that could remove oncogenes after the induction of pluripotency and now it is possible to induce pluripotency using plasmid transfection, piggyback transposon system and piggyback transposon system combined with a non viral vector system. The word of the day is pIPS which are protein-induced Pluripotent stem cells which are iPS cells that were generated without any genetic alteration of the adult cell. This research by the group of Sheng Ding in La Jolla, California made public in April 2009 showed that the generation of poly-arginine anchors was sufficient to induce

  14. Statistical Detection of the He ii Transverse Proximity Effect: Evidence for Sustained Quasar Activity for >25 Million Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias M. Schmidt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The reionization of helium at z ~ 3 is the final phase transition of the intergalactic medium and supposed to be driven purely by quasars. The He ii transverse proximity effect—enhanced He ii transmission in a background sightline caused by the ionizing radiation of a foreground quasar—therefore offers a unique opportunity to probe the morphology of He ii reionization and to investigate the emission properties of quasars, e.g., ionizing emissivity, lifetime and beaming geometry. We use the most-recent HST/COS far-UV dataset of 22 He ii absorption spectra and conduct our own dedicated optical spectroscopic survey to find foreground quasars around these He ii sightlines. Based on a set of 66 foreground quasars, we perform the first statistical analysis of the He ii transverse proximity effect. Despite a large object-to-object variance, our stacking analysis reveals an excess in the average He ii transmission near the foreground quasars at 3σ significance. This statistical evidence for the transverse proximity effect is corroborated by a clear dependence of the signal strength on the inferred He ii ionization rate at the background sightline. Our detection places, based on the transverse light crossing time, a geometrical limit on the quasar lifetime of tQ > 25 Myr. This evidence for sustained activity of luminous quasars is relevant for the morphology of H i and He ii reionization and helps to constrain AGN triggering mechanisms, accretion physics and models of black hole mass assembly. We show how future modeling of the transverse proximity effect can additionally constrain quasar emission geometries and e.g., clarify if the large observed object-to-object variance can be explained by current models of quasar obscuration.

  15. Simulation of a wide area survey for NEOs with Pan-STARRS PS1 & PS2 Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Kenneth C.; Lilly (Schunova), Eva; Dukes, Martin Todd; Wainscoat, Richard J.

    2017-10-01

    We have performed a new survey simulation for a wide area survey with PS1 & PS2 as part of our quest to optimize the discovery rate of Near Earth Objects with the full Pan-STARRS system. The survey is intended to be as unbiased and as complete as possible given the available sky visibility and the anticipated performance of the PS1 and PS2 telescopes working together. The simulation includes a complete model of both telescopes, camera and slew overhead, sky visibility, moon phase, galactic plane exclusion, and weather. The performance of the resulting survey strategy is then evaluated using the method of Lilly et. al. 2017. This uses the Greenstreet et al. 2012 model with 50 million NEOs with absolute magnitudes 13 < H < 29 and the Moving Object Processing System (MOPS, Denneau et al. 2013) for linkages. The results are compared with other possible strategies.

  16. Pyrazole bridged dinuclear Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes as phosphatase models: Synthesis and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Krishna; Nevrekar, Anupama; Kokare, Dhoolesh Gangaram; Kotian, Avinash; Kamat, Vinayak; Revankar, Vidyanand K.

    2016-12-01

    Present work describes synthesis of dibridged dinuclear [Cu2L2(μ2-NN pyr)(NO3)2(H2O)2] and [Zn2L(μ-OH)(μ-NNpyr)(H2O)2] complexes derived from a pyrazole based ligand bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-1H-pyrazole-3,5-dicarbohydrazide. The ligand shows dimeric chelate behaviour towards copper against monomeric for zinc counterpart. Spectroscopic evidences affirm octahedral environment around the metal ions in solution state and non-electrolytic nature of the complexes. Both the complexes are active catalysts towards phosphomonoester hydrolysis with first order kcat values in the range of 2 × 10-3s-1. Zinc complex exhibited promising catalytic efficiency for the hydrolysis. The dinuclear complexes hydrolyse via Lewis acid activation, whereby the phosphate esters are preferentially bound in a bidentate bridging fashion and subsequent nucleophilic attack to release phosphate group.

  17. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells offer a powerful new tool for the life sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Nakamura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell biology started with the analysis of somatic stem cells that function to maintain the adult body. We now know that the body is maintained by regeneration of a wide range of cell types, such as skin cells, blood cells and gastrointestinal mucous cells, from somatic stem cells. This regenerative activity is essential for survival. Regenerative medicine was initiated to identify therapies that support and/or accelerate this natural regenerative ability. For example, bone marrow transplantation is a therapy for reconstituting hematopoiesis from the hematopoietic stem cells present in the donor bone marrow. The successful development of a protocol for obtaining human embryonic stem (ES cells prompted medical scientists to utilize human ES cells for regenerative medicine. However, use of these cells raises ethical issues as they are derived from human embryos. An alternative approach using ES-like pluripotent stem cells has the considerable advantage that it does not necessitate use of human embryos. Pluripotent stem cells can be induced from terminally differentiated somatic cells by the introduction of only four defined factors. The products of this method are termed “induced pluripotent stem (iPS" cells. iPS cells have considerable promise as a substitute for ES cells not only for regenerative medicine but also in many other fields. For example, liver and heart cells derived from iPS cells can be used in pharmaceutical research. In addition, iPS cell technology opens new avenues of disease research, for example, by construction of so-called “disease-specific iPS cells” from a patient's somatic cells.

  18. Structural characterization of 1,8-naphthalimides and in vitro microbiological activity of their Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabchev, Ivo; Yordanova, Stanislava; Bosch, Paula; Vasileva-Tonkova, Evgenia; Kukeva, Rositsa; Stoyanov, Stanimir; Stoyanova, Radostina

    2017-02-01

    Two new 1,8-naphthalimide derivatives (NI1 and NI2) have been synthesized and characterized. The photophysical properties of the new compounds have been investigated in organic solvents of different polarity. It has been shown that both compounds are solvent depended. Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of NI2 were obtained and characterized by IR-NMR, fluorescence and EPR spectroscopy. The influence of different metal cations on the fluorescence intensity has been investigated in acetonitrile solution. Antimicrobial composite PLA-metal complexes materials have been obtained for the first time. Microbiological activity of both metal complexes has been investigated in vitro against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and two yeasts. The various antimicrobial activities and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of both complexes have been determined. The microbiological activity of composite materials PLA-metal complexes in thin polymeric film has also been investigated. The results suggest that the new metal complexes could find application in designing new antimicrobial preparations to control the spread of infections.

  19. Syntheses, characterization and antifungal activity of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) bis(n-r-sulfonyldithiocarbimate)zincate(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottega, Fernanda C.; Oliveira, Marcelo R. L.; Garcia, Camila V.; Menezes, Daniele C.; Rubinger, Mayura M.M., E-mail: marcelor@ufv.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Zambolim, Laercio [Departamento de Fitopatologia, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    Four new compounds with the general formula [Fe(phen){sub 3}][Zn(RSO{sub 2}N=CS{sub 2}){sub 2}], where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, R = 4-FC{sub 6}H{sub 4}(1), 4-ClC{sub 6}H{sub 4} (2), 4-BrC{sub 6}H{sub 4} (3) and 4-IC{sub 6}H{sub 4} (4), respectively, were obtained by the reaction of the appropriate potassium N-R-sulfonyldithiocarbimate (RSO{sub 2}N=CS{sub 2}K{sub 2}) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) sulfate, with zinc(II) acetate dihydrate in dimethylformamide. The elemental analyses and the IR data were consistent with the formation of the expected complexes salts. The {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed the signals for the cationic iron(II) complex and dithiocarbamate moieties. The molar conductance data were consistent with the 1:1 cation:anion complexes in 1-4. The antifungal activities of the compounds were tested in vitro against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. (author)

  20. Mixed ligand Cu(II)N2O2 complexes: biomimetic synthesis, activities in vitro and biological models, theoretical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Yin, Bing; Kang, Yifan; Liu, Ping; Chen, Liang; Wang, Yaoyu; Li, Jianli

    2014-12-15

    Three new mixed ligand Cu(II)N2O2 complexes, namely, [Cu(II)(2-A-6-MBT)2(m-NB)2] (1), [Cu(II)(2-ABT)2(m-NB)2] (2), and [Cu(II)(2-ABT)2(o-NB)2] (3), (2-A-6-MBT = 2-amino-6-methoxybenzothiazole, m-NB = m-nitrobenzoate, 2-ABT = 2-aminobenzothiazole, and o-NB = o-nitrobenzoate), have been prepared by the biomimetic synthesis strategy, and their structures were determined by X-ray crystallography studies and spectral methods. These complexes exhibited the effective superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and catecholase activity. On the basis of the experimental data and computational studies, the structure-activity relationship for these complexes was investigated. The results reveal that electron-accepting abilities of these complexes and coordination geometries have significant effects on the SOD activity and catecholase activity. Then, we found that 1 and 2 exerted potent intracellular antioxidant capacity in the model of H2O2-induced oxidative stress based on HeLa cervical cancer cells, which were screened out by the cytotoxicity assays of different kinds of cells. Furthermore, 1-3 showed the favorable biocompatibility in two different biological models: Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human vascular endothelial cells. These biological experimental data are indicative of the promising application potential of these complexes in biology and pharmacology.

  1. Profiling the microRNA Expression in Human iPS and iPS-derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heuy-Ching; Greene, Whitney A; Kaini, Ramesh R; Shen-Gunther, Jane; Chen, Hung-I H; Cai, Hong; Wang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-RPE). MiRNAs have been demonstrated to play critical roles in both maintaining pluripotency and facilitating differentiation. Gene expression networks accountable for maintenance and induction of pluripotency are linked and share components with those networks implicated in oncogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that miRNA expression profiling will distinguish iPS cells from their iPS-RPE progeny. To identify and analyze differentially expressed miRNAs, RPE was derived from iPS using a spontaneous differentiation method. MiRNA microarray analysis identified 155 probes that were statistically differentially expressed between iPS and iPS-RPE cells. Up-regulated miRNAs including miR-181c and miR-129-5p may play a role in promoting differentiation, while down-regulated miRNAs such as miR-367, miR-18b, and miR-20b are implicated in cell proliferation. Subsequent miRNA-target and network analysis revealed that these miRNAs are involved in cellular development, cell cycle progression, cell death, and survival. A systematic interrogation of temporal and spatial expression of iPS-RPE miRNAs and their associated target mRNAs will provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis, eye differentiation and development.

  2. Angiotensin II inhibits insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation and Akt activation through tyrosine nitration-dependent mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Csibi

    Full Text Available Angiotensin II (Ang II plays a major role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes by inhibiting insulin's metabolic and potentiating its trophic effects. Whereas the precise mechanisms involved remain ill-defined, they appear to be associated with and dependent upon increased oxidative stress. We found Ang II to block insulin-dependent GLUT4 translocation in L6 myotubes in an NO- and O(2(*--dependent fashion suggesting the involvement of peroxynitrite. This hypothesis was confirmed by the ability of Ang II to induce tyrosine nitration of the MAP kinases ERK1/2 and of protein kinase B/Akt (Akt. Tyrosine nitration of ERK1/2 was required for their phosphorylation on Thr and Tyr and their subsequent activation, whereas it completely inhibited Akt phosphorylation on Ser(473 and Thr(308 as well as its activity. The inhibitory effect of nitration on Akt activity was confirmed by the ability of SIN-1 to completely block GSK3alpha phosphorylation in vitro. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase and NAD(PHoxidase and scavenging of free radicals with myricetin restored insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation in the presence of Ang II. Similar restoration was obtained by inhibiting the ERK activating kinase MEK, indicating that these kinases regulate Akt activation. We found a conserved nitration site of ERK1/2 to be located in their kinase domain on Tyr(156/139, close to their active site Asp(166/149, in agreement with a permissive function of nitration for their activation. Taken together, our data show that Ang II inhibits insulin-mediated GLUT4 translocation in this skeletal muscle model through at least two pathways: first through the transient activation of ERK1/2 which inhibit IRS-1/2 and second through a direct inhibitory nitration of Akt. These observations indicate that not only oxidative but also nitrative stress play a key role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. They underline the role of protein

  3. Particulate air pollution induces arrhythmia via oxidative stress and calcium calmodulin kinase II activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Bae; Kim, Changsoo; Choi, Eunmi; Park, Sanghoon; Park, Hyelim; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Shin, Dong Chun; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Joung, Boyoung

    2012-02-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) can increase the incidence of arrhythmia. However, the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM is poorly understood. This study investigated the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM. In Sprague-Dawley rats, QT interval was increased from 115.0±14.0 to 142.1±18.4ms (p=0.02) after endotracheal exposure of DEP (200μg/ml for 30min, n=5). Ventricular premature contractions were more frequently observed after DEP exposure (100%) than baseline (20%, p=0.04). These effects were prevented by pretreatment of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 5mmol/L, n=3). In 12 Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, DEP infusion of 12.5μg/ml for 20min prolonged action potential duration (APD) at only left ventricular base increasing apicobasal repolarization gradients. Spontaneous early afterdepolarization (EAD) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) were observed in 8 (67%) and 6 (50%) hearts, respectively, versus no spontaneous triggered activity or VT in any hearts before DEP infusion. DEP-induced APD prolongation, EAD and VT were successfully prevented with NAC (5mmol/L, n=5), nifedipine (10μmol/L, n=5), and active Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) blockade, KN 93 (1μmol/L, n=5), but not by thapsigargin (200nmol/L) plus ryanodine (10μmol/L, n=5) and inactive CaMKII blockade, KN 92 (1μmol/L, n=5). In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, DEP provoked ROS generation in dose dependant manner. DEP (12.5μg/ml) induced apoptosis, and this effect was prevented by NAC and KN 93. Thus, this study shows that in vivo and vitro exposure of PM induced APD prolongation, EAD and ventricular arrhythmia. These effects might be caused by oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Decrease of Urotensin II activity can impact on the volume status in predialysis chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Banu; Yilmaz, Akar; Sari, Funda; Sarikaya, Abdi Metin; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Kucukseymen, Selcuk; Ozpelit, Ebru

    2015-04-01

    Urotensin II (U-II) was thought to be one of the mediators of primary renal sodium retention due to effects on renal sodium excretion. For this purpose, the relationship between U-II and overhydration was investigated. A total of 107 patients were enrolled in the study. According to body compositor monitor analysis, fluid overload up to 1.1 L, was considered normohydration. Patients were divided according to hydration status; overhydrate (n = 42) and normohydrate (n = 65) were studied in both groups. Pulse waveform velocity propagation for arterial stiffness and blood pressure analysis and echocardiographic left ventricular and left atrial indices were performed with known fluid overload-related parameters. U-II levels were measured by using Human ELISA kit. In overhydrated group, U-II levels were significantly lower. All parameters (blood pressure, arterial stiffness parameters, echocardiographic data, age, gender, diabetes, U-II, hemoglobin) correlated with overhydration, were determined by linear regression model (method = enter), when considered together, U-II was found to be an independent predictor from other conventional overhydration-related parameters. Male sex, left ventricular mass index, left atrial volume index, hemoglobin value were found to be independent predictors for overhydration. Considering the association of low U-II levels with adverse cardiovascular events and its role in sodium retention, we think that low U-II levels can be accepted as a potential therapeutic target in patients with hypervolemic cardio-renal syndrome.

  5. Particulate air pollution induces arrhythmia via oxidative stress and calcium calmodulin kinase II activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Bae [The Division of Cardiology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, 1 Hoegi-dong, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Changsoo [The Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eunmi [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sanghoon; Park, Hyelim; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Chun [The Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ki-Chul [Cardiovascular Research Institute and Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joung, Boyoung, E-mail: cby6908@yuhs.ac [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seungsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) can increase the incidence of arrhythmia. However, the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM is poorly understood. This study investigated the arrhythmogenic mechanism of PM. In Sprague–Dawley rats, QT interval was increased from 115.0 ± 14.0 to 142.1 ± 18.4 ms (p = 0.02) after endotracheal exposure of DEP (200 μg/ml for 30 min, n = 5). Ventricular premature contractions were more frequently observed after DEP exposure (100%) than baseline (20%, p = 0.04). These effects were prevented by pretreatment of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 5 mmol/L, n = 3). In 12 Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, DEP infusion of 12.5 μg/ml for 20 min prolonged action potential duration (APD) at only left ventricular base increasing apicobasal repolarization gradients. Spontaneous early afterdepolarization (EAD) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) were observed in 8 (67%) and 6 (50%) hearts, respectively, versus no spontaneous triggered activity or VT in any hearts before DEP infusion. DEP-induced APD prolongation, EAD and VT were successfully prevented with NAC (5 mmol/L, n = 5), nifedipine (10 μmol/L, n = 5), and active Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) blockade, KN 93 (1 μmol/L, n = 5), but not by thapsigargin (200 nmol/L) plus ryanodine (10 μmol/L, n = 5) and inactive CaMKII blockade, KN 92 (1 μmol/L, n = 5). In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, DEP provoked ROS generation in dose dependant manner. DEP (12.5 μg/ml) induced apoptosis, and this effect was prevented by NAC and KN 93. Thus, this study shows that in vivo and vitro exposure of PM induced APD prolongation, EAD and ventricular arrhythmia. These effects might be caused by oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. -- Highlights: ► The ambient PM consistently prolonged repolarization. ► The ambient PM induced triggered activity and ventricular arrhythmia. ► These effects were prevented by antioxidants, I{sub CaL} blockade and CaMKII blockade. ► The ambient PM can induce

  6. Long-term safety and efficacy of human-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) grafts in a preclinical model of retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Hsu, Chun-Wei; Erol, Deniz; Yang, Jin; Wu, Wen-Hsuan; Davis, Richard J; Egli, Dieter; Tsang, Stephen H

    2012-12-06

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved phase I/II clinical trials for embryonic stem (ES) cell-based retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) transplantation, but this allograft transplantation requires lifelong immunosuppressive therapy. Autografts from patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells offer an alternative solution to this problem. However, more data are required to establish the safety and efficacy of iPS transplantation in animal models before moving iPS therapy into clinical trials. This study examines the efficacy of iPS transplantation in restoring functional vision in Rpe65(rd12)/Rpe65(rd12) mice, a clinically relevant model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Human iPS cells were differentiated into morphologically and functionally RPE-like tissue. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblots confirmed RPE fate. The iPS-derived RPE cells were injected into the subretinal space of Rpe65(rd12)/Rpe65(rd12) mice at 2 d postnatally. After transplantation, the long-term surviving iPS-derived RPE graft colocalized with the host native RPE cells and assimilated into the host retina without disruption. None of the mice receiving transplants developed tumors over their lifetimes. Furthermore, electroretinogram, a standard method for measuring efficacy in human trials, demonstrated improved visual function in recipients over the lifetime of this RP mouse model. Our study provides the first direct evidence of functional recovery in a clinically relevant model of retinal degeneration using iPS transplantation and supports the feasibility of autologous iPS cell transplantation for retinal and macular degenerations featuring significant RPE loss.

  7. Mutational analysis of divalent metal ion binding in the active site of class II α-mannosidase from sulfolobus solfataricus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dennis K.; Webb, Helen; Nielsen, Jonas Willum

    2015-01-01

    Mutational analysis of Sulfolobus solfataricus class II α-mannosidase was focused on side chains that interact with the hydroxyls of the-1 mannosyl of the substrate (Asp-534) or form ligands to the active site divalent metal ion (His-228 and His-533) judged from crystal structures of homologous...

  8. Influence of the π-coordinated arene on the anticancer activity of ruthenium(II) carbohydrate organometallic complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanif, Muhammad; Meier, Samuel M; Nazarov, Alexey A; Risse, Julie; Legin, Anton; Casini, Angela; Jakupec, Michael A; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hartinger, Christian G

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis and in vitro cytotoxicity of a series of Ru(II)(arene) complexes with carbohydrate-derived phosphite ligands and various arene co-ligands is described. The arene ligand has a strong influence on the in vitro anticancer activity of this series of compounds, which correlates fairly well

  9. Post-stroke angiotensin II type 2 receptor activation provides long-term neuroprotection in aged rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennion, Douglas M; Isenberg, Jacob D; Harmel, Allison T

    2017-01-01

    Activation of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) by administration of Compound 21 (C21), a selective AT2R agonist, induces neuroprotection in models of ischemic stroke in young adult animals. The mechanisms of this neuroprotective action are varied, and may include direct and indirect effe...

  10. Daily variations in type II iodothyronine deiodinase activity in the rat brain as controlled by the biological clock.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, A.; Buijs, R.M.; Schaik, R. van; Kaptein, E.; Visser, T.J.; Doulabi, B.Z.; Fliers, E.

    2005-01-01

    Type II deiodinase (D2) plays a key role in regulating thyroid hormone-dependent processes in, among others, the central nervous system (CNS) by accelerating the intracellular conversion of T4 into active T3. Just like the well-known daily rhythm of the hormones of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid

  11. Daily variations in type II iodothyronine deiodinase activity in the rat brain as controlled by the biological clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalsbeek, Andries; Buijs, Ruud M.; van Schaik, Rosalinde; Kaptein, Ellen; Visser, Theo J.; Doulabi, Behrouz Zandieh; Fliers, Eric

    2005-01-01

    Type II deiodinase (D2) plays a key role in regulating thyroid hormone-dependent processes in, among others, the central nervous system (CNS) by accelerating the intracellular conversion of T-4 into active T-3. Just like the well-known daily rhythm of the hormones of the

  12. Angiotensin II signaling increases activity of the renal Na-Cl cotransporter through a WNK4-SPAK-dependent pathway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Cristobal, P.; Pacheco-Alvarez, D.; Richardson, C.; Ring, A.M.; Vazquez, N.; Rafiqi, F.H.; Chari, D.; Kahle, K.T.; Leng, Q.; Bobadilla, N.A.; Hebert, S.C.; Alessi, D.R.; Lifton, R.P.; Gamba, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the kinase WNK4 cause pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII), a syndrome featuring hypertension and high serum K(+) levels (hyperkalemia). WNK4 has distinct functional states that regulate the balance between renal salt reabsorption and K(+) secretion by modulating the activities of

  13. New 8-hydroxyquinoline galactosides. The role of the sugar in the antiproliferative activity of copper(II) ionophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveri, Valentina; Viale, Maurizio; Aiello, Cinzia; Vecchio, Graziella

    2015-01-01

    8-Hydroxyquinoline derivatives and their metal complexes have recently awakened interest as promising therapeutic agents in cancer therapy. We have previously synthesized and evaluated glucoconjugated 8-hydroxyquinolines as copper ionophores activated by β-glucosidases. In order to further evaluate the crucial role of the sugar, we designed and synthesized a series of new galactoconjugates of 8-hydroxyquinolines and investigated their biological properties in comparison with the 8-hydroxyquinoline analogs. The effect of copper(II) ions on their biological activities was evaluated. In particular, two compounds possess a pharmacologically relevant antiproliferative activity against specific tumor cells in the presence of copper(II) ions. Furthermore, the antiproliferative activity of the selected galactosides was successfully investigated in the presence of β-galactosidase as a preliminary model of antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Synthesis, structure, and catecholase activity of bispyrazolylacetate copper(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, Małgorzata J; Ching, Wei-Min; Wen, Yuh-Sheng; Hung, Chen-Hsiung

    2014-10-21

    A series of six-coordination copper(ii) complexes containing bis(3,5-di-t-butylpyrazol-1-yl)acetate (bdtbpza) and N-heterocycles or chelating aliphatic ligands have been synthesized. The steric bulkiness of bis(pyrazol-1-yl)acetate anchors two bdtbpza to situate a trans position and to adopt an O-bound monodentate coordination mode with other nitrogen bases occupying the basal plane. Five mononuclear mixed ligand complexes, [Cu(bdtbpza)2(py)4] , [Cu(bdtbpza)2(t-Bupy)4] , [Cu(bdtbpza)2(pym)2(MeOH)2] , [Cu(bdtbpza)2(eda)2] , [Cu(bdtbpza)2(tmeda)(H2O)2] , where py = pyridine, t-Bupy = tert-butylpyridine, pym = pyrimidine, eda = ethylenediamine, and tmeda = tetramethylethylenediamine, were isolated and thoroughly characterized. Intriguingly, the heteroleptic complex , which has two aquo-ligands oriented in the cis positions, demonstrates higher catecholase-like activity in performing aerial oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) to 3,5-di-tert-butylquinone (3,5-DTBQ) than other bis(pyrazolyl)acetate-embedded copper complexes reported herein, which suggests the essential role of labile cis-aquo ligands to promote the catalytic reaction.

  15. Synthesis, Electrochemical, Spectroscopic, Antimicrobial, and Superoxide Dismutase Activity of Nickel (II Complexes with Bidentate Schiff Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Five new nickel (II complexes, namely, [Ni(L12](ClO42(1; [Ni(L22](ClO42(2; [Ni(L32](ClO42(3; [Ni(L42](ClO42(4; [Ni(L52](ClO42(5, where L1 = benzoylhydrazide; L2 = N-[(1-1-(2-methylphenylethylidene]benzohydrazide; L3=N-[(1-1-(4-methylphenylethylidene]benzohydrazide; L4=N-[(1-1-(2-methoxyphenylethylidene]benzohydrazide; L5 = N-[(1-1-(4-methoxy-phenylethylidene]benzohydrazide, have been synthesized and characterized by various physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The synthesized complexes are stable powders, insoluble in common organic solvents such as ethanol, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and diethyl ether, and are nonelectrolytes. The magnetic and spectroscopic data indicate a distorted square planar geometry for all complexes. The superoxide dismutase activity of these complexes has been measured and discussed. Antibacterial and antifungal properties of these complexes were also tested.

  16. Adsorption of Cd (II on Modified Granular Activated Carbons: Isotherm and Column Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodríguez-Estupiñán

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, equilibrium and dynamic adsorption tests of cadmium Cd (II on activated carbons derived from different oxidation treatments (with either HNO3, H2O2, or NaOCl, corresponding to GACoxN, GACoxP, and GACoxCl samples are presented. The oxidation treatments determined an increase in the surface functional groups (mainly the acidic ones and a decrease in the pHPZC (except for the GACoxCl sample. A slight alteration of the textural parameters was also observed, which was more significant for the GACoxCl sample, in terms of a decrease of both Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET surface area and micropore volume. Adsorption isotherms were determined for all the adsorbents and a significant increase in the adsorption performances of the oxidized samples with respect to the parent material was observed. The performances ranking was GACoxCl > GACoxP > GACoxN > GAC, likely due to the chemical surface properties of the adsorbents. Dynamic tests in a fixed bed column were carried out in terms of breakthrough curves at constant Cd inlet concentration and flow rate. GACoxCl and GACoxN showed a significantly higher value of the breakpoint time, likely due to the higher adsorption capacity. Finally, the dynamic tests were analyzed in light of a kinetic model. In the adopted experimental conditions, the results showed that mass transfer is controlled by internal pore diffusion, in which surface diffusion plays a major role.

  17. Does the APACHE II score predict performance of activities of daily living in patients discharged from a weaning center?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojek-Jarmuła, Anna; Hombach, Rainer; Krzych, Łukasz J

    2016-12-01

    Data regarding the functional status of patients after prolonged mechanical ventilation are scarce, and little is known about its clinical predictors. To investigate whether the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score on admission may predict performance in activities of daily living on discharge from a weaning center. All consecutive patients admitted between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 were enrolled (n = 130). During this period, 15 subjects died, and 115 were successfully discharged (34 women; 81 men). APACHE II was calculated based on the worst values taken during the first 24 hours after admission. On discharge, the Barthel Index (BI) and its extended version, the Early Rehabilitation Barthel Index (ERBI), were assessed. Median BI was 20 points (IQR 5; 40), and ERBI was 20 points (-50; 40). There was no correlation between APACHE II and either BI (R = -0.07; p = 0.47) or ERBI (R = -0.07; p = 0.44). APACHE II predicted the need for assistance with bathing (AUROC = 0.833; p APACHE II had no impact on any ERBI items associated with ventilator weaning, including the need of further mechanical ventilation (AUROC = 0.534; p = 0.65) or tracheostomy (AUROC = 0.544; p = 0.42). Although APACHE II cannot predict the overall functional status in patients discharged from a weaning center, it helps identify subjects who will need support with bathing, grooming, and toilet use. The APACHE II score is inadequate to predict performance in activities associated with further respiratory support.

  18. Fluorescent copper(II complexes: The electron transfer mechanism, interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA and antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhumita Hazra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dinuclear copper(II complexes with formula [Cu2(L2(N32] (1 and [Cu2(L2(NCS2] (2 HL = (1-[(3-methyl-pyridine-2-ylimino-methyl]-naphthalen-2-ol were synthesized by controlling the molar ratio of Cu(OAC2·6H2O, HL, sodium azide (1 and ammonium thiocyanate (2. The end on bridges appear exclusively in azide and thiocyanate to copper complexes. The electron transfer mechanism of copper(II complexes is examined by cyclic voltammetry indicating copper(II complexes are Cu(II/Cu(I couple. The interactions of copper(II complexes towards bovine serum albumin (BSA were examined with the help of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic tools. We report a superficial solution-based route for the synthesis of micro crystals of copper complexes with BSA. The antibacterial activity of the Schiff base and its copper complexes were investigated by the agar disc diffusion method against some species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus pneumonia and Bacillus cereus. It has been observed that the antibacterial activity of all complexes is higher than the ligand.

  19. Synthesis and luminescence properties of polymeric complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Al(III) with 8-hydroxyquinoline side group-containing polystyrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Baojiao; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Three kinds of metalloquinolate-containing polystyrene were prepared via a polymer reaction and a coordination reaction. 5-Chloromethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (CHQ) was first prepared through the chloromethylation reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) with 1,4-bichloromethoxy-butane as chloromethylation reagent. A polymer reaction, Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, was carried out between polystyrene (PS) and CHQ in the presence of Lewis catalyst, and HQ was bonded onto the side chains of PS, obtaining 8-hydroxyquinoline-functionalized Polystyrene, HQ-PS. And then, by using one-pot method with two-stage procedures, the coordination reaction of HQ-PS and small molecule HQ with metal ions including Al(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II) ions, was allowed to be carried out, and three polymeric metalloquinolates, AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, were successfully prepared, respectively. In the chemical structures of these polymeric metalloquinolates, metalloquinolates were chemically attached onto the side chains of PS. HQ-PS and three polymeric metalloquinolates were fully characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and TGA. The luminescence properties of the three polymeric metalloquinolates were mainly investigated by UV/Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence emission spectra in solutions and in solid film states. When excited by the ray at about 365 nm, the three polymeric metalloquinolates have blue-green luminescence, and the main emission peaks in the DMF solutions are located at 490, 482 and 502 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. As compared with their emissions in solutions, the emissions in solid film states are red-shifted to some extent, and the main emission peaks are located at 500, 488 and 510 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. Besides, these polymeric metalloquinolates have higher thermal stability than PS as polymeric skeleton.

  20. In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory active copper(II-lawsone complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Vančo

    Full Text Available We report in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of a series of copper(II-lawsone complexes of the general composition [Cu(Law2(LNx(H2O(2-x]·yH2O; where HLaw = 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, x = 1 when LN = pyridine (1 and 2-aminopyridine (3 and x = 2 when LN = imidazole (2, 3-aminopyridine (4, 4-aminopyridine (5, 3-hydroxypyridine (6, and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (7. The compounds were thoroughly characterized by physical techniques, including single crystal X-ray analysis of complex 2. Some of the complexes showed the ability to suppress significantly the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB both by lipopolysaccharide (LPS and TNF-alpha (complexes 3-7 at 100 nM level in the similar manner as the reference drug prednisone (at 1 μM level. On the other hand, all the complexes 1-7 decreased significantly the levels of the secreted TNF-alpha after the LPS activation of THP-1 cells, thus showing the anti-inflammatory potential via both NF-κB moderation and by other mechanisms, such as influence on TNF-alpha transcription and/or translation and/or secretion. In addition, a strong intracellular pro-oxidative effect of all the complexes has been found at 100 nM dose in vitro. The ability to suppress the inflammatory response, caused by the subcutaneous application of λ-carrageenan, has been determined by in vivo testing in hind-paw edema model on rats. The most active complexes 1-3 (applied in a dose corresponding to 40 μmol Cu/kg, diminished the formation of edema simalarly as the reference drug indomethacine (applied in 10 mg/kg dose. The overall effect of the complexes, dominantly 1-3, shows similarity to anti-inflammatory drug benoxaprofen, known to induce intracellular pro-oxidative effects.

  1. In vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory active copper(II)-lawsone complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vančo, Ján; Trávníček, Zdeněk; Hošek, Jan; Suchý, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    We report in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of a series of copper(II)-lawsone complexes of the general composition [Cu(Law)2(LN)x(H2O)(2-x)]·yH2O; where HLaw = 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, x = 1 when LN = pyridine (1) and 2-aminopyridine (3) and x = 2 when LN = imidazole (2), 3-aminopyridine (4), 4-aminopyridine (5), 3-hydroxypyridine (6), and 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (7). The compounds were thoroughly characterized by physical techniques, including single crystal X-ray analysis of complex 2. Some of the complexes showed the ability to suppress significantly the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) both by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNF-alpha (complexes 3-7 at 100 nM level) in the similar manner as the reference drug prednisone (at 1 μM level). On the other hand, all the complexes 1-7 decreased significantly the levels of the secreted TNF-alpha after the LPS activation of THP-1 cells, thus showing the anti-inflammatory potential via both NF-κB moderation and by other mechanisms, such as influence on TNF-alpha transcription and/or translation and/or secretion. In addition, a strong intracellular pro-oxidative effect of all the complexes has been found at 100 nM dose in vitro. The ability to suppress the inflammatory response, caused by the subcutaneous application of λ-carrageenan, has been determined by in vivo testing in hind-paw edema model on rats. The most active complexes 1-3 (applied in a dose corresponding to 40 μmol Cu/kg), diminished the formation of edema simalarly as the reference drug indomethacine (applied in 10 mg/kg dose). The overall effect of the complexes, dominantly 1-3, shows similarity to anti-inflammatory drug benoxaprofen, known to induce intracellular pro-oxidative effects.

  2. Cooperative activities of hematopoietic regulators recruit RNA polymerase II to a tissue-specific chromatin domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kirby D.; Grass, Jeffrey A.; Boyer, Meghan E.; Kiekhaefer, Carol M.; Blobel, Gerd A.; Weiss, Mitchell J.; Bresnick, Emery H.

    2002-01-01

    The hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-1 regulates erythropoiesis and β-globin expression. Although consensus GATA-1 binding sites exist throughout the murine β-globin locus, we found that GATA-1 discriminates among these sites in vivo. Conditional expression of GATA-1 in GATA-1-null cells recapitulated the occupancy pattern. GATA-1 induced RNA polymerase II (pol II) recruitment to subregions of the locus control region and to the β-globin promoters. The hematopoietic factor NF-E2 cooperated with GATA-1 to recruit pol II to the promoters. We propose that only when GATA-1 attracts pol II to the locus control region can pol II access the promoter in a NF-E2-dependent manner. PMID:12193659

  3. Characterization of crosslinked polystyrene(PS) beads in SBR matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Yoon-Jong; Choe, Soonja [Inha Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Monodisperse sized crosslinked polystyrene(PS) beads were prepared by a reaction of semibatch emulsion polymerization with styrene monomer, divinylbenzene(DVB) crosslinking agent and potassium persulfate(K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 9}) initiator in the absence of emulsifier. The glass transition temperature(T{sub g}) and the mean diameter of the beads were increased from 100{degrees}C to 135{degrees}C and from 402 nm to 532 nm, respectively, for an incorporation of 2 to 10 mol% DVB. Crosslinking density was also linearly increased with DVB content. SEM microphotographs of SBR composite filled with various contents of PS beads revealed that PS beads are relatively well dispersed without changing the spherical shape of the beads in all range of compositions. In stress-strain analysis, elongation at break and tensile strength of SBR composite were increased with the bead content. Applicability of the PS beads as a filler in SBR matrix is tested by plotting Mooney-Rivlin or Guth-Smallwood equations. However, mechanical properties of the composite with the beads were not so excellent as those of the composite with carbon black. Crosslinked PS beads are still tentative as a white color reinforcing filler on SBR matrix.

  4. The PS complex produces the nominal LHC beam

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Borburgh, J; Cappi, R; Chanel, M; Chohan, V; Cyvoct, G; Garoby, R; Grier, D G; Gruber, J; Hancock, S; Hill, C E; Jensen, E; Krusche, A; Lindroos, M; Métral, Elias; Métral, G; Metzmacher, K D; Olsfors, J; Pedersen, F; Raich, U; Riunaud, J P; Royer, J P; Sassowsky, M; Schindl, Karlheinz; Schönauer, Horst Otto; Thivent, M; Ullrich, H M; Völker, F V; Vretenar, Maurizio; Barnes, M; Blackmore, E W; Cifarelli, F; Clark, G; Jones, F; Koscielniak, Shane Rupert; Mammarella, F; Mitra, A; Poirier, R; Reiniger, K W; Ries, T C

    2000-01-01

    The LHC [1] will be supplied, via the SPS, with protons from the pre-injector chain comprising Linac2, PS Booster (PSB) and PS. These accelerators have under-gone a major upgrading programme [2] during the last five years so as to meet the stringent requirements of the LHC. These imply that many high-intensity bunches of small emittance and tight spacing (25 ns) be available at the PS extraction energy (25 GeV). The upgrading project involved an increase of Linac2 current, new RF systems in the PSB and the PS, raising the PSB energy from 1 to 1.4 GeV, two-batch filling of the PS and the installation of high-resolution beam profile measurement devices. With the project entering its final phase and most of the newly installed hardware now being operational, the emphasis switches to producing the nominal LHC beam and tackling the associated beam physics problems. While a beam with transverse characteristics better than nominal has been obtained, the longitudinal density still needs to be increased. An alternativ...

  5. Pressure Monitoring Using Hybrid fs/ps Rotational CARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Sean P.; Danehy, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of gas-phase pressure measurements at kHz-rates using fs/ps rotational CARS. Femtosecond pump and Stokes pulses impulsively prepare a rotational Raman coherence, which is then probed by a high-energy 6-ps pulse introduced at a time delay from the Raman preparation. Rotational CARS spectra were recorded in N2 contained in a room-temperature gas cell for pressures from 0.1 to 3 atm and probe delays ranging from 10-330 ps. Using published self-broadened collisional linewidth data for N2, both the spectrally integrated coherence decay rate and the spectrally resolved decay were investigated as means for detecting pressure. Shot-averaged and single-laser-shot spectra were interrogated for pressure and the accuracy and precision as a function of probe delay and cell pressure are discussed. Single-shot measurement accuracies were within 0.1 to 6.5% when compared to a transducer values, while the precision was generally between 1% and 6% of measured pressure for probe delays of 200 ps or more, and better than 2% as the delay approached 300 ps. A byproduct of the pressure measurement is an independent but simultaneous measurement of the gas temperature.

  6. Synthesis, Characterization, Electrochemical Studies, and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Novel Thiosemicarbazone and Its Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Salman A.; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Al-Amry, Khalid; Malik, Maqsood Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Metal complexes were prepared by the reaction of thiosemicarbazone with CuCl2, NiCl2, CoCl2, Cu(OAc)2, Ni(OAc)2, and Co(OAc)2. The thiosemicarbazone coordinates to metal through the thionic sulfur and the azomethine nitrogen. The thiosemicarbazone was obtained by the thiosemicarbazide with 3-acetyl-2,5-dimethylthiophene. The identities of these compounds were elucidated by IR, 1H, 13C-NMR, and GC-MS spectroscopic methods and elemental analyses. The antibacterial activity of these compounds was first tested in vitro by the disc diffusion assay against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by using chloramphenicol as reference drug. The results showed that compound 1.1 is better inhibitor of both types of tested bacteria as compared to chloramphenicol. PMID:24523641

  7. Synthesis, spectral characterization, in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with 1,2,4-triazole Schiff bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagihalli, Gangadhar B; Avaji, Prakash Gouda; Patil, Sangamesh A; Badami, Prema S

    2008-12-01

    A series of metal complexes of cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) have been synthesized with newly synthesized biologically active 1,2,4-triazole Schiff bases derived from the condensation of 3-substituted-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole and 8-formyl-7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin, which have been characterized by elemental analyses, spectroscopic measurements (IR, UV-vis, fluorescence, ESR), magnetic measurements and thermal studies. Electrochemical study of the complexes is also reported. All the complexes are soluble to limited extent in common organic solvents but soluble to larger extent in DMF and DMSO and are non-electrolytes in DMF and DMSO. All these Schiff bases and their complexes have also been screened for their antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi) and antifungal activities (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Cladosporium) by MIC method. The brine shrimp bioassay was also carried out to study their in vitro cytotoxic properties.

  8. Room Temperature Activation of Aryloxysulfonyl Azides by [Co(II)(TPP)] for Selective Radical Aziridination of Alkenes via Metalloradical Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarayan, Velusamy; Jin, Li-Mei; Xin, Cui; Zhang, X Peter

    2015-06-03

    Aryloxysulfonyl azides can be effectively activated by commercially available cobalt(II) complex of meso-tetraphenylporphyrin ([Co(TPP)]) at room temperature under neutral and nonoxidative conditions for selective radical aziridination of alkenes via metalloradical catalysis. The [Co(TPP)]-catalyzed radical aziridination system is suitable for different combinations of olefin substrates and aryloxysulfonyl azides, producing various N-aryloxysulfonyl aziridine derivatives in good to excellent yields. In addition to generating the environmentally benign N2 as the only byproduct, this Co(II)-based metalloradical aziridination process features mild reaction conditions and operational simplicity.

  9. UCS protein Rng3p is essential for myosin-II motor activity during cytokinesis in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C Stark

    Full Text Available UCS proteins have been proposed to operate as co-chaperones that work with Hsp90 in the de novo folding of myosin motors. The fission yeast UCS protein Rng3p is essential for actomyosin ring assembly and cytokinesis. Here we investigated the role of Rng3p in fission yeast myosin-II (Myo2p motor activity. Myo2p isolated from an arrested rng3-65 mutant was capable of binding actin, yet lacked stability and activity based on its expression levels and inactivity in ATPase and actin filament gliding assays. Myo2p isolated from a myo2-E1 mutant (a mutant hyper-sensitive to perturbation of Rng3p function showed similar behavior in the same assays and exhibited an altered motor conformation based on limited proteolysis experiments. We propose that Rng3p is not required for the folding of motors per se, but instead works to ensure the activity of intrinsically unstable myosin-II motors. Rng3p is specific to conventional myosin-II and the actomyosin ring, and is not required for unconventional myosin motor function at other actin structures. However, artificial destabilization of myosin-I motors at endocytic actin patches (using a myo1-E1 mutant led to recruitment of Rng3p to patches. Thus, while Rng3p is specific to myosin-II, UCS proteins are adaptable and can respond to changes in the stability of other myosin motors.

  10. Removal of copper (II from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto granular activated carbon in the presence of competitor ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Almohammadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the removal of copper from an aqueous solution by granular activated carbon (GAC in the presence of competitor ions was studied. A batch adsorption was carried out and different parameters such as pH, contact time, initial copper concentration and competitor ions concentration were changed to determine the optimum conditions for adsorption. The optimum pH required for maximum adsorption was found to be 4.5 for copper. Equilibrium was evaluated at 144 h at room temperature. The removal efficiency of Cu(II was 71.12% at this time. The kinetics of copper adsorption on activated carbon followed the pseudo second-order model. The experimental equilibrium sorption data were tested using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D-R equations and the Langmuir model was found to be well fitted for copper adsorption onto GAC. The maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent for Cu(II was calculated from the Langmuir isotherm and found to be 7.03 mg/g. Subsequently, the removal of copper by granular activated carbon in the presence of Ag1+ and Mn2+ as competitor ions was investigated. The removal efficiency of Cu(II ions without the presence of the competitor ions was 46% at 6 h, while the removal efficiency of Cu(II ions in the presence of competitor ions, Ag1+ and Mn2+ , was 34.76% and 31.73%, respectively.

  11. Human amniotic epithelial cell feeder layers maintain human iPS cell pluripotency via inhibited endogenous microRNA-145 and increased Sox2 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Te, E-mail: liute79@yahoo.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Shanghai Geriatric Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200031 (China); Cheng, Weiwei [International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Huang, Yongyi [Laboratoire PROTEE, Batiment R, Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, 83957 LA GARDE Cedex (France); Huang, Qin; Jiang, Lizhen [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Guo, Lihe, E-mail: liute79@yahoo.com [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institute for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Currently, human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were generated from patient or disease-specific sources and share the same key properties as embryonic stem cells. This makes them attractive for personalized medicine, drug screens or cellular therapy. Long-term cultivation and maintenance of normal iPS cells in an undifferentiated self-renewing state are a major challenge. Our previous studies have shown that human amniotic epithelial cells (HuAECs) could provide a good source of feeder cells for mouse and human embryonic stem cells, or spermatogonial stem cells, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of endogenous microRNA-145 regulation on Sox2 expression in human iPS cells by HuAECs feeder cells regulation, and in turn on human iPS cells pluripotency. We found that human IPS cells transfected with a microRNA-145 mutant expressed Sox2 at high levels, allowing iPS to maintain a high level of AP activity in long-term culture and form teratomas in SCID mice. Expression of stem cell markers was increased in iPS transfected with the microRNA-145 mutant, compared with iPS was transfected with microRNA-145. Besides, the expression of Drosha proteins of the microRNA-processor complex, required for the generation of precursor pre-miRNA, was significantly increased in human iPS cells cultured on MEF but not on HuAECs. Taken together, these results suggest that endogenous Sox2 expression may be regulated by microRNA-145 in human iPS cells with HuAECs feeder cells, and Sox2 is a crucial component required for maintenance of them in an undifferentiated, proliferative state capable of self-renewal. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 inhibits Sox2 expression in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer microRNA-145 suppresses the self-renewal and pluripotency of human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs regulate expression of microRNA-145 and Sox2 in human iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HuAECs feeder

  12. Polypyridylruthenium(II complexes exert anti-schistosome activity and inhibit parasite acetylcholinesterases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K Sundaraneedi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis affects over 200 million people and there are concerns whether the current chemotherapeutic control strategy (periodic mass drug administration with praziquantel (PZQ-the only licenced anti-schistosome compound is sustainable, necessitating the development of new drugs.We investigated the anti-schistosome efficacy of polypyridylruthenium(II complexes and showed they were active against all intra-mammalian stages of S. mansoni. Two compounds, Rubb12-tri and Rubb7-tnl, which were among the most potent in their ability to kill schistosomula and adult worms and inhibit egg hatching in vitro, were assessed for their efficacy in a mouse model of schistosomiasis using 5 consecutive daily i.v. doses of 2 mg/kg (Rubb12-tri and 10 mg/kg (Rubb7-tnl. Mice treated with Rubb12-tri showed an average 42% reduction (P = 0.009, over two independent trials, in adult worm burden. Liver egg burdens were not significantly decreased in either drug-treated group but ova from both of these groups showed significant decreases in hatching ability (Rubb12-tri-68%, Rubb7-tnl-56% and were significantly morphologically altered (Rubb12-tri-62% abnormal, Rubb7-tnl-35% abnormal. We hypothesize that the drugs exerted their activity, at least partially, through inhibition of both neuronal and tegumental acetylcholinesterases (AChEs, as worms treated in vitro showed significant decreases in activity of these enzymes. Further, treated parasites exhibited a significantly decreased ability to uptake glucose, significantly depleted glycogen stores and withered tubercules (a site of glycogen storage, implying drug-mediated interference in this nutrient acquisition pathway.Our data provide compelling evidence that ruthenium complexes are effective against all intra-mammalian stages of schistosomes, including schistosomula (refractory to PZQ and eggs (agents of disease transmissibility. Further, the results of this study suggest that schistosome AChE is a target of

  13. Commercialization of NASA PS304 Solid Lubricant Coating Enhanced by Fundamental Powder Flow Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a patented high-temperature solid lubricant coating, designated PS304, for reducing friction and wear in bearing systems. The material used to produce the coating is initially a blend of metallic and ceramic powders that are deposited on the bearing surface by the plasma spray process. PS304 was developed to lubricate foil air bearings in Oil-Free turbomachinery, where the moving surfaces are coated with a hydrodynamic air film except at the beginning and end of an operation cycle when the air film is not present. The coating has been successful in several applications including turbochargers, land-based turbines, and industrial drying furnace conveyor components, with current development activities directed at implementation in Oil-Free aeropropulsion engines.

  14. Behavioural Phenotyping of APPswe/PS1δE9 Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Louise Ørum; Bouzinova, Elena V; Severino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating illness characterized by a progressive loss of cognitive, social, and emotional functions, including memory impairments and more global cognitive deficits. Clinical-epidemiological evidence suggests that neuropsychiatric symptoms precede the onset......-cognitive behavioural changes measured at 9, 12, 15, and 18 months of age and applied principal component analysis on data obtained from open field, elevated plus maze, and social interaction tests. Long-term treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine was applied to assess the role of 5......-HT on the behavioural profile; duration of treatment was 9 months, initiated when mice were 9 months of age. Treatment with paroxetine delays the decline in locomotion, in exploration and risk assessment behaviour, found in the APP/PS1 mice. APP/PS1 mice also exhibit low social activity and less...

  15. Monitoring the US ATLAS Network Infrastructure with perfSONAR-PS

    CERN Document Server

    McKee, S; The ATLAS collaboration; Laurens, P; Severini, H; Wlodek, T; Wolff, S; Zurawski, J

    2012-01-01

    We will present our motivations for deploying and using the perfSONAR-PS Performance Toolkit at ATLAS sites in the United States and describe our experience in using it. This software creates a dedicated monitoring server, capable of collecting and performing a wide range of passive and active network measurements. Each independent instance is managed locally, but able to federate on a global scale; enabling a full view of the network infrastructure that spans domain boundaries. This information, available through web service interfaces, can easily be retrieved to create customized applications. USATLAS has developed a centralized “dashboard” offering network administrators, users, and decision makers the ability to see the performance of the network at a glance. The dashboard framework includes the ability to notify users (alarm) when problems are found, thus allowing rapid response to potential problems and making perfSONAR-PS crucial to the operation of our distributed computing infrastructure.

  16. Final Results on the CERN PS Electrostatic Septa Consolidation Program

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, Jan; Bobbio, Piero; Carlier, Etienne; Hourican, Michael; Masson, Thierry; Müller, Tania; Prost, Antoine; Crescenti, Massimo

    2003-01-01

    The CERN PS electrostatic septum consolidation program is coming to completion after almost 4 years of development. The program was started to fulfil the increased requirements on vacuum performance and the need to reduce the time necessary for maintenance interventions. The new design of septum 31, used for the so-called 'continuous transfer' 5-turn extraction, and the related construction issues will be presented together with the operational experience gained during the PS 2002 run. In addition, the experience of two years of operation with the new generation septum 23, used for a resonant slow extraction, will be briefly discussed. The continued development undertaken since its installation in the PS ring in 2001 will also be described.

  17. A&T Sector Note on the PS transverse feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Coly, Marcel; Blas, Alfred; Sterbini, Guido; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    In a particle accelerator, several contributions can degrade the beam quality and particularly the beam transverse emittance. In this document we will describe a system used in the CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) to cope with the injection steering errors and the transverse instabilities: the PS transverse feedback (PS TFB). As time progresses, this system is also being used for other purpose, to increase in a controlled way the beam transverse emittance and to excite the beam for the Multi-Turn-Extraction (MTE). In 2016, it has been successfully used on some operational beams to damp injection oscillations. This allowed to test the reliability of the system for its operational deployment. A piquet service is available in case of problem.

  18. SAFETY: STRICTER CONTROLS IN CONTROLLED AREAS IN THE PS

    CERN Document Server

    G. Daems

    2001-01-01

    The PS accelerators will soon stop for several months. Work will take place in controlled areas in the PS and will involve many people who are not always aware of the risks associated with the work sites. To guarentee the safety of these workers, the following two measures will be applied: everyone working in a controlled zone - Linacs, PSB, and PS machines tunnels, and transfer lines - must wear, visibly, his CERN access card and his film badge. the CERN access card and the film badge will only be issued after following a basic safety course. Regular checks will be carried out during the shutdown. Anyone without these two items on their person will be obliged to leave the area immediately.

  19. Electrophysical properties of PMN-PT-PS-PFN:Li ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Skulski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the technology of obtaining and the electrophysical properties of a multicomponent material 0.61PMN-0.20PT-0.09PS-0.1PFN:Li (PMN-PT-PS-PFN:Li. The addition of PFN into PMN-PT decreases the temperature of final sintering which is very important during technological process (addition of Li decreases electric conductivity of PFN. Addition of PS i.e., PbSnO3 (which is unstable in ceramic form permits to shift the temperature of the maximum of dielectric permittivity. One-step method of obtaining ceramic samples from oxides and carbonates has been used. XRD, microstructure, scanning calorimetry measurements and the main dielectric, ferroelectric and electromechanical properties have been investigated for the obtained samples.

  20. Flavonoid Myricetin Modulates G A B A A Receptor Activity through Activation of Ca 2+ Channels and CaMK-II Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Hu; Ma, Ze Gang; Rowlands, Dewi Kenneth; Gou, Yu Lin; Fok, Kin Lam; Wong, Hau Yan; Yu, Mei Kuen; Tsang, Lai Ling; Mu, Li; Chen, Lei; Yung, Wing Ho; Chung, Yiu Wa; Zhang, Bei Lin; Zhao, Hua; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2012-01-01

    The flavonoid myricetin is found in several sedative herbs, for example, the St. John's Wort, but its influence on sedation and its possible mechanism of action are unknown. Using patch-clamp technique on a brain slice preparation, the present study found that myricetin promoted GABAergic activity in the neurons of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) by increasing the decay time and frequency of the inhibitory currents mediated by GABAA receptor. This effect of myricetin was not blocked by the GABAA receptor benzodiazepine- (BZ-) binding site antagonist flumazenil, but by KN-62, a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II (CaMK-II). Patch clamp and live Ca2+ imaging studies found that myricetin could increase Ca2+ current and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, respectively, via T- and L-type Ca2+ channels in rat PVN neurons and hypothalamic primary culture neurons. Immunofluorescence staining showed increased phosphorylation of CaMK-II after myricetin incubation in primary culture of rat hypothalamic neurons, and the myricetin-induced CaMK-II phosphorylation was further confirmed by Western blotting in PC-12 cells. The present results suggest that myricetin enhances GABAA receptor activity via calcium channel/CaMK-II dependent mechanism, which is distinctively different from that of most existing BZ-binding site agonists of GABAA receptor. PMID:23258999

  1. Some new nano-sized Fe(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) Schiff base complexes as precursor for metal oxides: Sonochemical synthesis, characterization, DNA interaction, in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Laila H; Abu-Dief, Ahmed M; El-Khatib, Rafat M; Abdel-Fatah, Shimaa Mahdy

    2016-12-01

    The complexes of Fe(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) with Schiff base derived from 2-amino-3-hydroxypyridine and 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde have been prepared. Melting points, decomposition temperatures, Elemental analyses, TGA, conductance measurements, infrared (IR) and UV-Visible spectrophotometric studies were utilized in characterizing the compounds. The UV-Visible spectrophotometric analysis revealed 1:1 (metal-ligand) stoichiometry for the three complexes. In addition to, the prepared complexes have been used as precursors for preparing their corresponding metal oxides nanoparticles via thermal decomposition. The structures of the nano-sized complexes and their metal oxides were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and transmittance electron microscopy. Moreover, the prepared Schiff base ligand, its complexes and their corresponding nano-sized metal oxides have been screened in vitro for their antibacterial activity against three bacteria, gram-positive (Microccus luteus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescence) and three strains of fungus. The metal chelates were shown to possess more antimicrobial activity than the free Schiff-base chelate and their nano-sized metal oxides have the highest activity. The binding behaviors of the complexes to calf thymus DNA have been investigated by absorption spectra, viscosity mensuration and gel electrophoresis. The DNA binding constants reveal that all these complexes interact with DNA through intercalative binding mode. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity of the prepared Schiff base complexes on human colon carcinoma cells, (HCT-116 cell line) and hepatic cellular carcinoma cells, (HepG-2) showed potent cytotoxicity effect against growth of carcinoma cells compared to the clinically used Vinblastine standard. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Brian Carpenter at the PS control computer

    CERN Multimedia

    vmo; CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Brian E. Carpenter has been Group Leader of the Communications Systems group at CERN since 1985, following ten years' experience in software for process control systems at CERN, which was interrupted by three years teaching undergraduate computer science at Massey University in New Zealand. He holds a first degree in physics and a Ph.D. in computer science, and is an M.I.E.E. He is Chair of the Internet Architecture Board and an active participant in the Internet Engineering Task Force.

  3. Relationships Between RNA Polymerase II Activity and Spt Elongation Factors to Spt- Phenotype and Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Cui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between adjacent transcription units can result in transcription-dependent alterations in chromatin structure or recruitment of factors that determine transcription outcomes, including the generation of intragenic or other cryptic transcripts derived from cryptic promoters. Mutations in a number of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confer both cryptic intragenic transcription and the Suppressor of Ty (Spt- phenotype for the lys2-128∂ allele of the LYS2 gene. Mutants that suppress lys2-128∂ allow transcription from a normally inactive Ty1 ∂ promoter, conferring a LYS+ phenotype. The arrangement of transcription units at lys2-128∂ is reminiscent of genes containing cryptic promoters within their open reading frames. We set out to examine the relationship between RNA Polymerase II (Pol II activity, functions of Spt elongation factors, and cryptic transcription because of the previous observation that increased-activity Pol II alleles confer an Spt- phenotype. We identify both cooperating and antagonistic genetic interactions between Pol II alleles and alleles of elongation factors SPT4, SPT5, and SPT6. We find that cryptic transcription at FLO8 and STE11 is distinct from that at lys2-128∂, though all show sensitivity to reduction in Pol II activity, especially the expression of lys2-128∂ found in Spt- mutants. We determine that the lys2-128∂ Spt- phenotypes for spt6-1004 and increased activity rpo21/rpb1 alleles each require transcription from the LYS2 promoter. Furthermore, we identify the Ty1 transcription start site (TSS within the ∂ element as the position of Spt- transcription in tested Spt- mutants.

  4. Relationships Between RNA Polymerase II Activity and Spt Elongation Factors to Spt- Phenotype and Growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ping; Jin, Huiyan; Vutukuru, Manjula Ramya; Kaplan, Craig D

    2016-08-09

    The interplay between adjacent transcription units can result in transcription-dependent alterations in chromatin structure or recruitment of factors that determine transcription outcomes, including the generation of intragenic or other cryptic transcripts derived from cryptic promoters. Mutations in a number of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae confer both cryptic intragenic transcription and the Suppressor of Ty (Spt(-)) phenotype for the lys2-128∂ allele of the LYS2 gene. Mutants that suppress lys2-128∂ allow transcription from a normally inactive Ty1 ∂ promoter, conferring a LYS(+) phenotype. The arrangement of transcription units at lys2-128∂ is reminiscent of genes containing cryptic promoters within their open reading frames. We set out to examine the relationship between RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) activity, functions of Spt elongation factors, and cryptic transcription because of the previous observation that increased-activity Pol II alleles confer an Spt(-) phenotype. We identify both cooperating and antagonistic genetic interactions between Pol II alleles and alleles of elongation factors SPT4, SPT5, and SPT6 We find that cryptic transcription at FLO8 and STE11 is distinct from that at lys2-128∂, though all show sensitivity to reduction in Pol II activity, especially the expression of lys2-128∂ found in Spt(-) mutants. We determine that the lys2-128∂ Spt(-) phenotypes for spt6-1004 and increased activity rpo21/rpb1 alleles each require transcription from the LYS2 promoter. Furthermore, we identify the Ty1 transcription start site (TSS) within the ∂ element as the position of Spt(-) transcription in tested Spt(-) mutants. Copyright © 2016 Cui et al.

  5. Effect of interfaces on the melting of PEO confined in triblock PS-b-PEO-b-PS copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, E; Phan, T N T; Robinet, M; Denoyel, R; Davidson, P; Bertin, D; Bouchet, R

    2013-08-27

    Block copolymers form nanostructures that have interesting physical properties because they combine, for a single compound, the complementary features brought by each block. However, in order to fully exploit these properties, the physical state of each kind of domain must be precisely controlled. In this work, triblock PS-b-PEO-b-PS copolymers consisting of a central poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) block covalently bonded to polystyrene (PS) blocks were synthesized by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. Their morphology was investigated by X-ray scattering and TEM experiments whereas their thermodynamic behavior was characterized by DSC. A strong decrease of both the melting temperature and the degree of crystallinity of PEO, due to its confinement between the PS domains, was observed and analyzed with a modified Gibbs-Thomson equation, following the approaches used for fluids confined in porous media. The existence of an amorphous bound layer, a few nanometers thick, at the PEO/PS interface, that does not undergo any phase transition in the temperature range investigated, accounts for both the melting temperature depression and the decrease of crystallinity upon confinement. This interfacial layer may significantly affect the mechanical and transport properties of these block copolymers that find applications as solid polymer electrolytes in batteries for example. Moreover, the value obtained for the solid PEO/liquid PEO surface tension is lower than those previously published but is thermodynamically consistent with the surface tensions of polymers at the solid/vapor and liquid/vapor interfaces.

  6. Highly efficient biallelic genome editing of human ES/iPS cells using a CRISPR/Cas9 or TALEN system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kazuo; Igai, Keisuke; Hagihara, Yasuko; Hashimoto, Rina; Hanawa, Morifumi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Tachibana, Masashi; Sakurai, Fuminori; Yamamoto, Takashi; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-19

    Genome editing research of human ES/iPS cells has been accelerated by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) technologies. However, the efficiency of biallelic genetic engineering in transcriptionally inactive genes is still low, unlike that in transcriptionally active genes. To enhance the biallelic homologous recombination efficiency in human ES/iPS cells, we performed screenings of accessorial genes and compounds. We found that RAD51 overexpression and valproic acid treatment enhanced biallelic-targeting efficiency in human ES/iPS cells regardless of the transcriptional activity of the targeted locus. Importantly, RAD51 overexpression and valproic acid treatment synergistically increased the biallelic homologous recombination efficiency. Our findings would facilitate genome editing study using human ES/iPS cells. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Highly efficient biallelic genome editing of human ES/iPS cells using a CRISPR/Cas9 or TALEN system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kazuo; Igai, Keisuke; Hagihara, Yasuko; Hashimoto, Rina; Hanawa, Morifumi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Tachibana, Masashi; Sakurai, Fuminori; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Genome editing research of human ES/iPS cells has been accelerated by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) technologies. However, the efficiency of biallelic genetic engineering in transcriptionally inactive genes is still low, unlike that in transcriptionally active genes. To enhance the biallelic homologous recombination efficiency in human ES/iPS cells, we performed screenings of accessorial genes and compounds. We found that RAD51 overexpression and valproic acid treatment enhanced biallelic-targeting efficiency in human ES/iPS cells regardless of the transcriptional activity of the targeted locus. Importantly, RAD51 overexpression and valproic acid treatment synergistically increased the biallelic homologous recombination efficiency. Our findings would facilitate genome editing study using human ES/iPS cells. PMID:28334759

  8. PsAP2 an AP2/ERF family transcription factor from Papaver somniferum enhances abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sonal; Phukan, Ujjal J; Tripathi, Vineeta; Singh, Dhananjay K; Luqman, Suaib; Shukla, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    The AP2/ERFs are one of the most important family of transcription factors which regulate multiple responses like stress, metabolism and development in plants. We isolated PsAP2 a novel AP2/ERF from Papaver somniferum which was highly upregulated in response to wounding followed by ethylene, methyl jasmonate and ABA treatment. PsAP2 showed specific binding with both DRE and GCC box elements and it was able to transactivate the reporter genes in yeast. PsAP2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced tolerance towards both abiotic and biotic stresses . Real time transcript expression analysis showed constitutive upregulation of tobacco Alternative oxidase1a and Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase in PsAP2 overexpressing tobacco plants. Further, PsAP2 showed interaction with NtAOX1a promoter in vitro, it also specifically activated the NtAOX1a promoter in yeast and tobacco BY2 cells. The silencing of PsAP2 using VIGS lead to significant reduction in the AOX1 level in P. somniferum. Taken together PsAP2 can directly bind and transcriptionally activate NtAOX1a and its overexpression in tobacco imparted increased tolerance towards both abiotic and biotic stress.

  9. PERSULFATE ACTIVATION BY A NATURAL IRON OXIDE FOR THE REMEDIATION OF DYE CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihem BELAIDI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the removal of crystal violet (CV, a cationic dye, using sodium persulfate (PS as an oxidant in the presence of a natural iron oxide (NIO. Experimental results indicate that approximately 89 % and 98% of CV removal was achieved by PS alone and by (PS/NIO system respectively after 1 hour of reaction. Persulfate oxidation activated with soluble Fe (II enhanced the kinetic oxidation of CV. The increase in the removal extent is due to the adsorption of CV onto NIO surface and to the increased formation of either SO4•- or •OH radicals. The effect of pH on the degradation of CV by PS/NIO was studied. Persulfate degradation increases with a reduction in pH causing increased rate of degradation of organic contaminants. An additional factor in the NIO/PS/UV process is the photolysis of PS which produce two sulfate radicals (SO4•-. Results of this study suggest that NIO can be used as iron source to activate persulfate oxidation.

  10. Inauguration of POPS: the new power system of the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    Pictures 03 and 04 : The team from the Electrical Power Converters Group (TE/EPC) is joined by the Director of Accelerators, the heads of the BE, TE and FI departments, CERN managers and Converteam representatives in a group portrait in front of three of the containers that house the capacitor banks of the PS's new power supply system, POPS. Pictures 01, 06 and 07 : Magid-Michel Saikaly, energy and infrastructure director at Converteam, receives a prize from Steve Myers, Director of Accelerators at CERN, for the development and fabrication of the new electrical power system for the PS, called POPS.

  11. The Septa for LEIR Extraction and PS Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Masson, T; Prost, A

    2006-01-01

    The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) is part of the CERN LHC injector chain for ions. The LEIR extraction uses a pulsed magnetic septum, clamped around a metallic vacuum chamber. Apart from separating the ultra high vacuum in the LEIR ring from the less good vacuum in the transfer line to the PS this chamber also serves as magnetic screen and retains the septum conductor in place. The PS ion injection septum consists of a pulsed laminated magnet under vacuum, featuring a single-turn water cooled coil and a remote positioning system. The design, the construction and the commissioning of both septa are described.

  12. Achilles tendinopathy in elderly subjects with type II diabetes: the role of sport activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, Michele; Salini, Vincenzo; Schiavone, Cosima

    2016-04-01

    Exercise is an important therapeutic tool