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Sample records for prunes prunus domestica

  1. Association between Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA sequences in Chinese Prunus genotypes (Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaiz, Tariq; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Yanyi; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Junhuan; Fang, Jinggui

    2015-01-16

    The nuclear DNA is conventionally used to assess the diversity and relatedness among different species, but variations at the DNA genome level has also been used to study the relationship among different organisms. In most species, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes are inherited maternally; therefore it is anticipated that organelle DNA remains completely associated. Many research studies were conducted simultaneously on organelle genome. The objectives of this study was to analyze the genetic relationship between chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA in three Chinese Prunus genotypes viz., Prunus persica, Prunus domestica, and Prunus avium. We investigated the genetic diversity of Prunus genotypes using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers relevant to the chloroplast and mitochondria. Most of the genotypes were genetically similar as revealed by phylogenetic analysis. The Y2 Wu Xing (Cherry) and L2 Hong Xin Li (Plum) genotypes have a high similarity index (0.89), followed by Zi Ye Li (0.85), whereas; L1 Tai Yang Li (plum) has the lowest genetic similarity (0.35). In case of cpSSR, Hong Tao (Peach) and L1 Tai Yang Li (Plum) genotypes demonstrated similarity index of 0.85 and Huang Tao has the lowest similarity index of 0.50. The mtSSR nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that each genotype has similar amplicon length (509 bp) except M5Y1 i.e., 505 bp with CCB256 primer; while in case of NAD6 primer, all genotypes showed different sizes. The MEHO (Peach), MEY1 (Cherry), MEL2 (Plum) and MEL1 (Plum) have 586 bps; while MEY2 (Cherry), MEZI (Plum) and MEHU (Peach) have 585, 584 and 566 bp, respectively. The CCB256 primer showed highly conserved sequences and minute single polymorphic nucleotides with no deletion or mutation. The cpSSR (ARCP511) microsatellites showed the harmonious amplicon length. The CZI (Plum), CHO (Peach) and CL1 (Plum) showed 182 bp; whileCHU (Peach), CY2 (Cherry), CL2 (Plum) and CY1 (Cherry) showed 181 bp amplicon lengths. These results

  2. Screening of solvent dependent antibacterial activity of Prunus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqeen, Zahra; Naqvi, Naim-ul-Hasan; Sohail, Tehmina; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat; Imran, Hina; Rehman, Atiqur

    2013-03-01

    Fruit of Prunus domestica was extracted in ethanol. The ethanol extract was further extracted with two solvents ethyl acetate and chloroform. The crude ethanol extract and two fractions (ethyl acetate and chloroform) were screened for their antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method .They were tested against nine bacteria; five Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuc intermedius, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus) and four Gram negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Proteus mirabilis Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiela pneumoniae). The susceptibility of microorganisms to all three fractions was compared with each other and with standard antibiotic (Ampicillin) Among all fractions ethyl acetate exhibited highest antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 34.57mm ± 1.3) while ethyl alcohol exhibited least antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 17.42mm ± 3.3). Minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions was found in the range of 78 μ g/ml to 2500 μ gl/ml against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  3. Effects of root pruning in sour cherry (Prunus cersus) "Stevnsbaer"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Jensen, Nauja Lisa; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    (May), initial and final fruit set (June) were recorded. Root pruning had little effect on fruit set, fruit size and yield in the year of pruning. Only in one plot with a severe root pruning (26 cm from the trunks), negative effects were found. The effects on growth, flowering and fruit set in 2003...

  4. Molecular characterization of the plum collection [Prunus domestica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight Random Amplified Microsatellite markers (RAMs) were used to characterize the genetic diversity found in 14 Prunus materials belonging to the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia. A total of 121 bands were generated: they range from nine for the GT primer to 26 for the ...

  5. Variabilidad interspecifica de duraznos (Prunus persica L. Batsch.) y ciruelos (Prunus domestica) usando RAMs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado; Yacenia Morillo Coronado; Leonardo Ariel González Mendoza; Iván Adiel Ávila Morales

    2015-01-01

      A sample of 41 Prunus materials from the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia was selected to evaluate its genetic diversity using eight primers for Random...

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to dried plums of „prune‟ cultivars (Prunus domestica L.) and maintenance of normal bowel function (ID 1164, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    ’ cultivars (Prunus domestica L.) and maintenance of normal bowel function. The food that is the subject of the claim, prunes (dried plums of ‘prune’ cultivars (Prunus domestica L.)) is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal bowel function, is a beneficial physiological effect....... The proposed target population is the general population. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that two human intervention studies showed an effect of dried plums on bowel function, that one study with considerable limitations showed an effect of dried plums on stool consistency......, but not on other measures of bowel function, that another study with considerable limitations did not show an effect of dried plums on bowel function when compared to dried apple, and that there is good evidence for plausible mechanisms by which some components of prunes may contribute to the claimed effect...

  7. Factors affecting branch wound occlusion and associated decay following pruning – a case study with wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

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    Jonathan Sheppard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Pruning wild cherry (Prunus avium L. is a common silvicultural practice carried out to produce valuable timber at a veneer wood quality. Sub-optimal pruning treatments can permit un-occluded pruning wounds to develop devaluing decay. The aim of this study is to determine relevant branch, tree and pruning characteristics affecting the occlusion process of pruning wounds. Important factors influencing occlusion time for an optimised pruning treatment for valuable timber production utilising wild cherry are derived. 85 artificially pruned branches originating from ten wild cherry trees were retrospectively analysed. Branch stub length, branch diameter and radial stem increment during occlusion were found to be significant predictors for occlusion time. From the results it could be concluded that for the long term success of artificial pruning of wild cherry it is crucial to (i keep branch stubs short (while avoiding damage to the branch collar, (ii to enable the tree to maintain significant radial growth after pruning, (iii to avoid large pruning wounds (>2.5 cm by removing steeply angled and fast growing branches at an early stage.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

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    Bernardo Rodamilans

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01. Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  10. A multi-target therapeutic potential of Prunus domestica gum stabilized nanoparticles exhibited prospective anticancer, antibacterial, urease-inhibition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazar Ul Islam; Raza Amin; Muhammad Shahid; Muhammad Amin; Sumera Zaib; Jamshed Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    .... In this study, Prunus domestica gum-loaded, stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles (Au/Ag-NPs) were evaluated for their prospective anticancer, antibacterial, urease-inhibition, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties...

  11. Análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica

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    Yineth Ruiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El aroma de las frutas se debe a los constituyentes volátiles presentes que, aunque se encuentran en muy bajas concentraciones, contribuyen al aroma global en grados muy diversos. Se hace necesario usar técnicas de aislamiento y concentración que garanticen el análisis de una composición química semejante a la de la fruta. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp.domestica por el método de evaporación del aroma asistida por solvente (SAFE. Este método utiliza un equipo de destilación conectado a una bomba de alto vacío que ofrece la posibilidad de aislar rápidamente compuestos volátiles sin daño térmico en diferentes matrices alimentarias. La separación e identificación de los compuestos volátiles se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se identificaron 47 compuestos (6,55 mg/kg de pulpa de fruta, entre ellos 14 alcoholes, 8 aldehídos, 7 ésteres, 5 cetonas, 4 ácidos carboxílicos, 4 hidrocarburos aromáticos, 3 lactonas, un compuesto azufrado y una hidroxicetona; 16 de ellos se informan por primera vez. El acetato de etilo (2,88 mg/kg, etanol (1 mg/kg y ácido octanoico (0,78 mg/kg fueron los constituyentes volátiles mayoritarios de esta variedad de ciruela.

  12. Análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica

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    Yineth Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El aroma de las frutas se debe a los constituyentes volátiles presentes que, aunque se encuentran en muy bajas concentraciones, contribuyen al aroma global en grados muy diversos. Se hace necesario usar técnicas de aislamiento y concentración que garanticen el análisis de una composición química semejante a la de la fruta. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo el análisis de los compuestos volátiles de la ciruela amarilla (Prunus domestica L. ssp. domestica por el método de evaporación del aroma asistida por solvente (SAFE. Este método utiliza un equipo de destilación conectado a una bomba de alto vacío que ofrece la posibilidad de aislar rápidamente compuestos volátiles sin daño térmico en diferentes matrices alimentarias. La separación e identificación de los compuestos volátiles se realizó por cromatografía de gases-espectrometría de masas (GC-MS. Se identificaron 47 compuestos (6,55 mg/kg de pulpa de fruta, entre ellos 14 alcoholes, 8 aldehídos, 7 ésteres, 5 cetonas, 4 ácidos carboxílicos, 4 hidrocarburos aromáticos, 3 lactonas, un compuesto azufrado y una hidroxicetona; 16 de ellos se informan por primera vez. El acetato de etilo (2,88 mg/kg, etanol (1 mg/kg y ácido octanoico (0,78 mg/kg fueron los constituyentes volátiles mayoritarios de esta variedad de ciruela.

  13. Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in the ovary of plum culture (Prunus domestica L.

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    Đorđević Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in different combinations of pollination was observed in the ovary of the plum (Prunus domestica L. cv 'Čačanska Lepotica'. It primarily refers to several issues, i.e. the curling up of pollen tubes within the micropyle, the growth of two pollen tubes into the nucellus of an ovule, the occurrence of a bundle above the nucellar cap and fluorescence of the part of the embryo sac containing the egg apparatus. Upon the growth of pollen tubes into the nucellus of the ovule, subsequently penetrating pollen tubes form a bundle either above the micropyle entrance or above the nucellus. Branching and bending of pollen tubes by 180o upon their growth into the micropyle was also observed.

  14. Free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples

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    Amin Morabbi Najafabad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Consumption of fruits, such as plums and prunes, is useful in treating blood circulation disorder, measles, digestive disorder, and prevention of cancer, diabetes, and obesity. The paper presents a description of antioxidant and antiradical capacity of plum (Prunus domestica L. in both fresh and dried samples. Materials and Methods: Samples were mixed with methanol and ethanol (as solvents and were extracted on magnetic shaker, separately. The experiments were carried out to measure the Total Phenolic Content (TPC, Total Flavonoid Content (TFC, Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC, Reducing Power Assay (RPA, Chain Breaking Activity (CBA, and quantity of Malondialdehyde (MDA, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH,Nitric Oxide (NO,Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide(O2- radicals inhibition. Results: The results showed that the highest values for the TPC, TFC,TAC, RPA, CBA, DPPH, and NO were related to ethanolic extractsof dried sample which showed statistically significant differences (p2O2 and O2-were related to ethanolic extracts of fresh sample. The correlations data were analyzed among all parameters and the TPC and TFC had a significant correlation (r2=0.977. Moreover, it was found that methanol was more successful in extraction procedure than ethanol (p

  15. Initial and final fruit set in some plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids under different pollination types

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    Glišić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of two-year study (2009-2010 of initial and final fruit set in promising plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids developed at Fruit Research Institute - Čačak, under different pollination conditions. The following hybrids were studied: 38/62/70 (‘Hall’ x ‘California Blue’, 32/21/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’, IV/63/81 (‘Large Sugar Prune’ x ‘Scoldus’, 22/17/87 (‘Čačanska Najbolja’ x ‘Zh'lta Butilcovidna’, 29/29/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’ and 34/41/87 (‘Valjevka’ x ‘Čačanska Lepotica’. Each of the hybrids was studied both under self- pollination and open pollination. In vitro pollen germination was also performed as well as characteristics of flowering phenophase and flowering abundance. Generally, the results suggest lower flowering abundance in the second year of the study. Pollen germination ranged from averagely 25.31% (29/29/87 to 40.01% (38/62/70. With averagely 31.59% final fruit set under self-pollination and 29.38% under open pollination variants, respectively, hybrid 34/41/87 gave the best results. The lowest performance was observed in hybrid 32/21/87 with 1.61% and 7.69% final fruit set under self- and open pollination variants, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31064

  16. Ectopic expression of Malus domestica class 1 knox genes altered growth and development of Nicotiana tabacum and Prunus domestica, and induced adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants without exogenous cytokinin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and plum (Prunus domestica L) plants were regenerated by transforming with apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKNP1 and MdKNP2) or a corn KN1 (ZmKN1) gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were produced in vitro from transformed leaf discs in the absence of cytokinin in th...

  17. Stability of gene silencing-based resistance to Plum pox virus in transgenic plum (Prunus domestica L.) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hily, Jean-Michel; Scorza, Ralph; Malinowski, Tadeusz; Zawadzka, Barbara; Ravelonandro, Michel

    2004-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is one of the most devastating diseases of Prunus species. Since few sources of resistance to PPV have been identified, transgene-based resistance offers a complementary approach to developing PPV-resistant stone fruit cultivars. C5, a transgenic clone of Prunus domestica L., containing the PPV coat protein (CP) gene, has been described as highly resistant to PPV in greenhouse tests, displaying characteristics typical of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). We show in this report that C5 trees exposed to natural aphid vectors in the field remained uninfected after 4 years while susceptible transgenic and untransformed trees developed severe symptoms within the first year. C5 trees inoculated by chip budding showed only very mild symptoms and PPV could be detected in these trees by IC-RT-PCR. The PPV-CP transgene in C5 was specifically hyper-methylated with no detectable expression. These results indicate both stability and efficiency of PTGS-based PPV resistance in plum under field conditions.

  18. Plum (Prunus domestica) trees transformed with poplar FT1 result in altered architecture, dormancy requirement, and continuous flowering.

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    Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Dardick, Chris; Callahan, Ann; Scorza, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    The Flowering Locus T1 (FT1) gene from Populus trichocarpa under the control of the 35S promoter was transformed into European plum (Prunus domestica L). Transgenic plants expressing higher levels of FT flowered and produced fruits in the greenhouse within 1 to 10 months. FT plums did not enter dormancy after cold or short day treatments yet field planted FT plums remained winter hardy down to at least -10°C. The plants also displayed pleiotropic phenotypes atypical for plum including shrub-type growth habit and panicle flower architecture. The flowering and fruiting phenotype was found to be continuous in the greenhouse but limited to spring and fall in the field. The pattern of flowering in the field correlated with lower daily temperatures. This apparent temperature effect was subsequently confirmed in growth chamber studies. The pleitropic phenotypes associated with FT1 expression in plum suggests a fundamental role of this gene in plant growth and development. This study demonstrates the potential for a single transgene event to markedly affect the vegetative and reproductive growth and development of an economically important temperate woody perennial crop. We suggest that FT1 may be a useful tool to modify temperate plants to changing climates and/or to adapt these crops to new growing areas.

  19. Chemometric evaluation of trace metals in Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica from Minićevo (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagić, Slađana Č; Tošić, Snežana B; Dimitrijević, Mile D; Petrović, Jelena V; Medić, Dragana V

    2017-02-15

    The samples of spatial soils and different organs of Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica were analyzed by methods such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), One-way ANOVA, and calculation of biological accumulation factors (BAFs) with the aim of investigating whether these methods may help in the evaluation of trace metals in plants, as well as in the estimation of plant bioaccumulation potentials. ICP-OES provided accurate data on present concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni which showed that most concentrations were in normal ranges, except in some cases for Cu, Zn, and As. HCA illustrated nicely various specifics in the distribution of metals in both investigated systems plant-soil. One-way ANOVA pointed successfully on the existing statistical differences between metal concentrations. Calculated BAFs showed that both plants had very low accumulation rates for all elements; they acted as metal excluders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prunus domestica pathogenesis-related protein-5 activates the defense response pathway and enhances the resistance to fungal infection.

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    Ashraf El-kereamy

    Full Text Available Pathogenesis-related protein-5 (PR-5 has been implicated in plant disease resistance and its antifungal activity has been demonstrated in some fruit species. However, their roles, especially their interactions with the other defense responses in plant cells, are still not fully understood. In this study, we have cloned and characterized a new PR-5 cDNA named PdPR5-1 from the European plum (Prunus domestica. Expression of PdPR5-1 was studied in different cultivars varying in resistance to the brown rot disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus Monilinia fructicola. In addition transgenic Arabidopsis, ectopically expressing PdPR5-1 was used to study its role in other plant defense responses after fungal infection. We show that the resistant cultivars exhibited much higher levels of transcripts than the susceptible cultivars during fruit ripening. However, significant rise in the transcript levels after infection with M. fructicola was observed in the susceptible cultivars too. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited more resistance to Alternaria brassicicola. Further, there was a significant increase in the transcripts of genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and phytoalexin (camalexin pathway leading to an increase in camalexin content after fungal infection. Our results show that PdPR5-1 gene, in addition to its anti-fungal properties, has a possible role in activating other defense pathways, including phytoalexin production.

  1. Examining self-compatibility in plum (Prunus domestica L. by fluorescence microscopy

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    Nikolić Dragan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-compatibility in 18 European plum cultivars was examined using the method of fluorescence microscopy. According to selfcompatibility, cultivars were divided into two groups: self-compatible and self-incompatible. In self-compatible cultivars the number of pistils, where pollen tubes reached the base of the style varied from 32.00% (Anna Späth to 91.18% (Wangenheims Frühzwetsche. Mean number of pollen tubes at the base of style in these cultivars ranged from 0.52 to 3.97. Cultivars were considered self-incompatible if pollen tubes stopped their growth in the style along with forming characteristic swellings at their tips. Of the studied cultivars, 13 were found to be self-compatible: Wangenheims Frühzwetsche, Cacanska Lepotica, Valjevka, California Blue, Cacanska Rodna, Italian Prune, Stanley, Požegaca, Herman, Bluefre, Jelica, Ruth Gerstetter and Anna Späth, while 5 were found to be self-incompatible: Cacanska Rana, Zimmers Frühzwetsche, Cacanska Najbolja, Pacific and President.

  2. A simple model to predict the probability of a peach (Prunus persicae tree bud to develop as a long or short shoot as a consequence of winter pruning intensity and previous year growth.

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    Daniele Bevacqua

    Full Text Available In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots.

  3. 'HoneySweet' (C5), the first genetically engineered Plum pox virus-resistant plum (Prunus domestica L.) cultivar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘HoneySweet’ plum was released by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, to provide U.S. growers and P. domestica plum breeders with a high fruit quality plum cultivar resistant to Plum pox virus (PPV). ‘HoneySweet’ was developed through genetic engineering utilizing the...

  4. Evaluation of the Resistance of Transgenic C5 Plum (Prunus domestica L. against Four Chilean Plum Pox Virus Isolates through Micro-Grafting Evaluación de la Resistencia de Ciruelo Transgénico C5 (Prunus domestica L. contra Cuatro Aislamientos Chilenos del Virus Pox del Ciruelo a través de Microinjertos

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    Wendy Wong

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The transgenic plum (Prunus domestica L. C5, in which the coat protein (CP gene of the Plum pox virus (PPV is inserted, represents a unique example of the use of genetic engineering for fruit crop improvement in Prunus spp. Field trials in Poland, Romania, and Spain have demonstrated resistance of C5 to several D and M strain PPV isolates. In Chile, the quarantine regulations for PPV and for genetically modified (GM plants require that the testing of C5 for resistance to Chilean PPV isolates be done under controlled isolated conditions. To carry out these tests C5 shoots were multiplied in vitro and micro-grafted onto four Adesoto101 (Prunus insititia L. rootstock populations that had been previously infected each with one of four Chilean PPV-Ds. Tests were carried out under controlled conditions in a biosafety greenhouse. Symptoms appearance, virus detection, and viral mRNA levels for the cylindrical inclusion (CI and CP genes were determined during three consecutive growing seasons. Complete resistance to all PPV isolates was demonstrated during the first 2 yr in all of the C5 plants. In the third season, four of 10 C5 plants showed mild symptoms on leaves close to the graft union and low but detectable CI mRNA levels in the C5 scions. These results support the effectiveness of using of micro-grafting on P. insititia for PPV resistance studies, especially in the limited space of a quarantine facility; whereas resistance levels in C5 after 3 yr indicate the importance of long term and field scale evaluations.El ciruelo (Prunus domestica L. transgénico C5, que posee inserto el gen de la proteína de cubierta (CP del Plum pox virus (PPV, es un ejemplo excepcional del uso de ingeniería genética para el mejoramiento de Prunus spp. Pruebas de campo realizadas en Polonia, Rumania y España han demostrado su resistencia a distintos aislamientos de PPV cepas D y M. En Chile, dadas las regulaciones cuarentenarias para PPV y para plantas gen

  5. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma

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    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-β-ionone, Γ-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, Γ-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, Δ-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.

  6. Improvement of growth parameters of prune callus cultures destined to initiate celi suspensions

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    Ewa Hanus-Fajerska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Callus was inducted on wounded leaf explants from shoot tips of a particular Prunus domestica 'Węgierka Zwykła' clone cultivated in vitro. The improvement of Sweet Common Prune stock callus tissue parameters has been approached by experiments on culture protocols. Either for the induction or maintenance of tissue modified Murashige and Skoog medium, supplemented with different auxins and cytokinins at varying concentrations, was used. The goal was to obtain the highiest possible proliferative capacity of friable tissue without any signs of cell redifferentiation for about 10 weeks. The choice of auxin was an important factor regulating the rate and kind of tissue growth, and for the examined prune clone auxin alone brought a relatively small proportion of cells into division, so advantageous was to combine it with oxygenated cytokinin. Friable tissue was obtained on media supplemented with dicamba or with picloram, but not with 2.4-D neither alone nor combinated with IBA.

  7. The evaluation of extraction techniques for Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) from apple (Malus domestica) and cherry (Prunus avium) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Adrian L; Ullah, Roshan; Fountain, Michelle T

    2017-08-01

    Tetranychus urticae is a widespread polyphagous mite, found on a variety of fruit crops. Tetranychus urticae feeds on the underside of the leaves perforating plant cells and sucking the cell contents. Foliar damage and excess webbing produced by T. urticae can reduce fruit yield. Assessments of T. urticae populations while small provide reliable and accurate ways of targeting control strategies and recording their efficacy against T. urticae. The aim of this study was to evaluate four methods for extracting low levels of T. urticae from leaf samples, representative of developing infestations. These methods were compared to directly counting of mites on leaves under a dissecting microscope. These methods were ethanol washing, a modified paraffin/ethanol meniscus technique, Tullgren funnel extraction and the Henderson and McBurnie mite brushing machine with consideration to: accuracy, precision and simplicity. In addition, two physically different leaf morphologies were compared; Prunus leaves which are glabrous with Malus leaves which are setaceous. Ethanol extraction consistently yielded the highest numbers of mites and was the most rapid method for recovering T. urticae from leaf samples, irrespective of leaf structure. In addition the samples could be processed and stored before final counting. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in detail.

  8. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE PHYSICAL CHANGES AND DRYING KINETICS IN PLUM (Prunus domestica L. POŽEGAČA VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Nikolić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, drying kinetics of autochthonous variety Požegača plum was examined in a laboratory dryer at three temperatures. The whole plum fruits, together with the kernels were subjected to the drying process. The effect of drying has been examined at temperatures of 55, 60 and 75 °C, with a constant air velocity of 1.1 m s-1. The corresponding experimental results were tested using six nonlinear regression models. Coefficient of determination (R2, standard regression error (SSE, model correlation coeficient (Vy, as well as the maximum absolute error (ΔY showed that the logaritmic model was in good agreement with the experimental data obtained. During drying of plums, the effective diffusivity was found to be between 5.6×10-9 for 55 °C and 8.9×10-9 m2s-1 at 75 °C, respectively. The physical characteristics of fresh (length 39.64 mm and width 29.15 mm and dried (length 37.52 mm and width 22.85 mm plum fruit were determined. Finally, by chemical analysis, the contents of micro-and macro-elements (Fe, Mn, Cu, B and N, F, K, Ca, Mg and S in the skin and flesh of the dried product, prunes, has been established.

  9. Study of the volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and estimation of their contribution to the fruit aroma Estudo de compostos voláteis de ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e estimativa da sua contribuição ao aroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Pino

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction (SDE and headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME combined with GC-FID and GC-MS were used to analyze volatile compounds from plum (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin and to estimate the most odor-active compounds by application of the Odor Activity Values (OAV. The analyses led to the identification of 148 components, including 58 esters, 23 terpenoids, 14 aldehydes, 11 alcohols, 10 ketones, 9 alkanes, 7 acids, 4 lactones, 3 phenols, and other 9 compounds of different structures. According to the results of SDE-GC-MS, SPME-GC-MS and OAV, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, hexyl acetate, (E-2-nonenal, ethyl butanoate, (E-2-decenal, ethyl hexanoate, nonanal, decanal, (E-β-ionone, Γ-dodecalactone, (Z-3-hexenyl acetate, pentyl acetate, linalool, Γ-decalactone, butyl acetate, limonene, propyl acetate, Δ-decalactone, diethyl sulfide, (E-2-hexenyl acetate, ethyl heptanoate, (Z-3-hexenol, (Z-3-hexenyl hexanoate, eugenol, (E-2-hexenal, ethyl pentanoate, hexyl 2-methylbutanoate, isopentyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, Γ-nonalactone, myrcene, octyl acetate, phenylacetaldehyde, 1-butanol, isobutyl acetate, (E-2-heptenal, octadecanal, and nerol are characteristic odor active compounds in fresh plums since they showed concentrations far above their odor thresholds.As técnicas de extração-destilação simultâneas (SDE e de headspace-microextração em fase sólida (HS-SPME combinadas com GC-FID e GC-MS foram usadas para analisar compostos voláteis da ameixa (Prunus domestica L. cv. Horvin e para estimar os compostos de aroma mais ativos, pela aplicação de valores de atividade olfativa (OAV, considerando os compostos voláteis presentes no headspace da fruta. As análises levaram à identificação de 148 componentes, incluindo 58 ésteres, 23 terpenoides, 14 aldeídos, 11 álcoois, 10 cetonas, 9 alcanos, 7 ácidos, 4 lactonas, 3 fenóis e 9 outros compostos de diferentes estruturas. De acordo om os resultados de SDE

  10. Prunus domestica, Prunus persica and Prunus avium extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    water emulsions. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) ... Test formulations containing fruit extracts (6%) showed good stability compared to control formulations and pH and conductivity were found as desired. Formulations were studied for patch ...

  11. Pectin of Prunus domestica L. alters sulfated structure of cell-surface heparan sulfate in differentiated Caco-2 cells through stimulation of heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Mitsutaka; Murata, Kazuma; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Although previous reports have suggested that pectin induces morphological changes of the small intestine in vivo, the molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. As heparan sulfate plays important roles in development of the small intestine, to verify the involvement of heparan sulfate (HS) in the pectin-induced morphological changes of the small intestine, the effects of pectin from Prunus domestica L. on cell-surface HS were investigated using differentiated Caco-2 cells. Disaccharide compositional analysis revealed that sulfated structures of HS were markedly changed by pectin administration. Real-time RT-PCR showed that pectin upregulated human HS 6-O-endosulfatase-2 (HSulf-2) expression and markedly inhibited HSulf-1 expression. Furthermore, inhibition analysis suggested that pretreatment with fibronectin III1C fragment, RGD peptide, and ERK1/2 inhibitor suppressed pectin-induced HSulf-2 expression. These observations indicate that pectin induced the expression of HSulf-2 through the interaction with fibronectin, α5β1 integrin, and ERK1/2, thereby regulating the sulfated structure of HS on differentiated Caco-2 cells.

  12. Pectin from Prunus domestica L. induces proliferation of IEC-6 cells through the alteration of cell-surface heparan sulfate on differentiated Caco-2 cells in co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Mitsutaka; Murata, Kazuma; Oshima, Kazuya; Itoh, Chihiro; Kitaguchi, Kohji; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2015-05-01

    Dietary fiber intake provides various physiological and metabolic effects for human health. Pectin, a water-soluble dietary fiber, induces morphological changes of the small intestine in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pectin-derived morphological alterations have not been elucidated. Previously, we found that pectin purified from Prunus domestica L. altered the sulfated structure of cell-surface heparan sulfate (HS) on differentiated Caco-2 cells via fibronectin and α5β1 integrin. In this study, we investigated the biological significance of the effect of pectin on HS in differentiated Caco-2 cells. An in vitro intestinal epithelium model was constructed by co-culture of differentiated Caco-2 cells and rat IEC-6 cells, which were used as models of intestinal epithelium and intestinal crypt cells, respectively. We found that pectin-treated differentiated Caco-2 cells promoted growth of IEC-6 cells. Real-time RT-PCR analysis and western blotting showed that relative mRNA and protein expression levels of Wnt3a were upregulated by pectin treatment in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Analysis by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy demonstrated that pectin-induced structural alteration of HS markedly decreased the interaction with Wnt3a. However, depression in the secretion of Wnt3a from Caco-2 cells by anti-Wnt3a antibody did not affect the proliferation of IEC-6 cells in co-culture system. These observations indicated that pectin altered the sulfated structure of cell-surface HS to promote secretion of Wnt3a from differentiated Caco-2 cells and Wnt3a indirectly stimulated the proliferation of IEC-6 cells.

  13. Host status of fresh prunes by potential quarantine pests in laboratory tests and evaluation of packinghouse culls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, V Y; Miller, G T

    1999-04-01

    The status of fresh prunes, Prunus domestica L., as a host for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); peach twig borer, Anarsia lineatella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae); omnivorous leafroller, Platynota stultana Walshingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae); and walnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae), was investigated in laboratory tests and by examination of packinghouse culls. In laboratory no-choice tests, the mean number of adults reared per fruit was 0.01 for codling moth, 0.08 for omnivorous leafroller, 0 for oriental fruit moth, and 1.6 for navel orangeworm. In choice tests the mean number of adults reared per apple or fresh prune was for codling moth, 0.78 and 0.02 (significantly different); for omnivorous leafroller, 0.05 and 0.02; and for oriental fruit moth, 2.07 and 0 (significantly different), respectively. Walnut husk fly oviposited in fresh prunes in no-choice tests but pupae did not develop from the fruit. In choice tests, walnut husk fly did not oviposit in fresh prunes when caged with its normal host, green walnuts, in which large numbers of pupae developed. Inspection of packinghouse culls for immature insects showed that fresh prunes with possible larval feeding sites in the form of frass or fruit gum extrusions were lighter in weight, significantly less firm, similar in color, and had significantly higher soluble solids than noninfested fruit. Based on packinghouse cull samples, 1 fresh prune per 133 harvested fruit would be expected to show possible insect damage. Eleven peach twig borer larvae were found in fresh prune cull samples (213.9 kg) removed from a 16,744.5-kg harvest. The calculated level of infestation was 1 infested fruit per 8,501.8 fruit harvested or per 21.7 cartons of medium-sized packed fruit. Based on our results, the risk of

  14. Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Prunus salicina

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation from hypocotyls slices of two Prunus salicina varieties, 'Angeleno' and 'Larry Anne', using a modification of the technique previously described for P. domestica. Regeneration rates on thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supp...

  15. PP prune users guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N.A. Bolon; R.D. Fight; J.M. Cahill

    1992-01-01

    The PP PRUNE program allows users to conduct a financial analysis of pruning ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.). The increase in product value and rate of return from pruning the butt 16.5-foot log can be estimated. Lumber recovery information is based on actual mill experience with pruned and unpruned logs. Users supply lumber prices...

  16. How to Prune Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Bedker; Joseph O' Brien; Manfred Mielke

    2012-01-01

    The objective of pruning is to produce strong, healthy, attractive plants. By understanding how, when and why to prune, and by following a few simple principles, this objective can be achievedHow to Prune Trees (Revised 2012) Agency Publisher: Agriculture Dept., Forest Service, Northeastern Area State and Price forestry USA List Price:$4.00 Sale...

  17. Two Types of New Natural Materials for Fruit Vinegar in Prunus Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica and P. domestica × P. armeniaca added value; three natural fruit vinegars were designed. The results showed the nutrition of Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca cultivar Fengweimeigui vinegar (T1 had high minerals and microelements, especially the Ca and Mg reached to the 150.00mg/L, 85.40 mg/L, respectively; the vinegar of Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica cultivar Zhongren No.1 (T2 not only have rich Na (2800.00 mg/L, P (123.00 mg/L, but also have plentiful amino acid that content reached to 200.08 mg/L. However, the mixture vinegar (T3 with pulps from Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca and Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica had the middle nutrient contents, but the property was balanced. We therefore conclude that solid fermentation is a suitable method to preserve nutrients and value-added for Prunus plants fruit, and three types vinegars are suitable for different age people, and the difference nutrient contents and typical characteristic indicate that three vinegars are competitive products in market.

  18. Pruning Allegheny hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. D. Zeedyk; A. F. Hough

    1958-01-01

    The continuing heavy demand for high-quality Allegheny hardwoods, particularly black cherry and sugar maple, impresses on us the need for more information responses of hardwoods to pruning. Pruning may have beneficial effects: it may increase quality without sacrificing growth. Or it may have detrimental effects: it may cause dieback of cambium, decay, staining and...

  19. Seasonal changes and content of sodium in main organs of European plum trees (Prunus domestica L., fruit size and yield as affected by rootstocks on acidic soilMudanças sazonais no teor de sódio dos órgãos, tamanho do fruto e produção da ameixeira européia (Prunus domestica L. em função de porta-enxertos em solo ácido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Milosevic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the seasonal changes of Na content of shoots, flower buds and flowers, and fruit weight and yield of two European plum cultivars (‘Cacanska Lepotica’ and ‘Cacanska Najbolja’ budded on Myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. and Stanley rootstocks were analyzed after 6-8 years of planting on acidic sandy-loam soil. The Na content of the shoots and flower buds of each rootstock/cultivar combination varied during season, and the highest content in above organs was observed in May and August, respectively. The effect of rootstocks on the examined parameters was variable due to the strong rootstock/cultivar/year interaction observed. The shoots and flower buds of cultivars budded on Stanley and Myrobalan rootstocks gave the highest and lowest Na content, respectively, whereas the highest Na content in flowers registered in ‘Cacanska Lepotica’ on Myrobalan. The content of Na in the plum organs suggests the following trends: 1-year old shoots > 2-year-old shoots > flower buds > flowers. There were no statistically significant correlations among plum organs with respect to Na content. The Principal Component Analysis showed that Stanley rootstock had a higher Na accumulation and distribution capacity than Myrobalan rootstock in plum trees. Finally, content of Na in the main organs of plum trees and acidic soil have not a negative effect on fruit weight and yield of plum cultivars, since these properties were respectable. Neste estudo, foram analisadas as mudanças sazonais do teor de Na nos ramos, botões florais e flores, bem como no peso dos frutos e na produtividade de duas cultivares de ameixeiras européias (‘Cacanska lepotica’ e ‘Cacanska najbolja’ enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos Myrobalan (Prunus cerasifera Ehch. e Stanley, aos 6-8 anos após o plantio em solo ácido areno-argiloso. O conteúdo de Na nos ramos e nos botões florais para cada combinação de copa/porta-enxerto teve a variação durante a

  20. Prune belly syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    The causes of prune belly syndrome are unknown. The condition affects mostly boys. While in the womb, the developing baby's abdomen swells with fluid. Often, the cause is a problem in the urinary tract. The fluid disappears after birth, leading ...

  1. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox...

  2. Training and Pruning Apple Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Marini, Richard P. (Richard Paul), 1952-

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the pruning and training of apple trees, placing emphasis on proper training of young trees to save time and the expense of future pruning, and to produce earlier profitable crops. Advises about the best techniques for pruning in relation to age of the apple tree.

  3. Coast redwood responses to pruning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin L. O' Hara

    2012-01-01

    A large-scale pruning study was established in the winter of 1999 to 2000 at seven different sites on Green Diamond Resource Company forestlands in Humboldt County. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pruning on increment, epicormic sprouting, stem taper, heartwood formation, and bear damage on these young trees. Pruning treatments varied...

  4. Prune Belly Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    a rare case and review of literature. Europe- an Journal of Plastic Surgery 35, 241-243. Moerman P., Fryns J.P., Goddeeris P. and Lau- weryns J.M. (1984) Pathogenesis of the. Prune-Belly Syndrome: A Functional Ure- thral Obstruction Caused by Prostatic Hy- poplasia. PEDIATRICS 73, 470-475. Okeniyi J.A., Ogunlesi T.A, ...

  5. Oggetti e memoria domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Brancato

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo contributo è un ideale viaggio nella memoria attraverso le stanze che compongono le nostre case. Un itinerario fra gli oggetti che fanno da sfondo quotidiano alla nostra scenografia domestica. Nello specifico indagheremo album fotografici, souvenir, ninnoli (mnemoteche domestiche. Sin dall’inizio abbiamo considerato gli ambienti domestici veri e propri serbatoi di memorie individuali e collettive. In tali serbatoi i soggetti depositano tracce delle proprie biografie, esprimendo e confermando progetti identitari.

  6. Aerial pruning mechanism, initial real environment test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Javier; Hirai, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    In this research, a pruning mechanism for aerial pruning tasks is tested in a real environment. Since the final goal of the aerial pruning robot will be to prune tree branches close to power lines, some experiments related to wireless communication and pruning performance were conducted. The experiments consisted of testing the communication between two XBee RF modules for monitoring purposes as well as testing the speed control of the circular saw used for pruning tree branches. Results show that both the monitoring and the pruning tasks were successfully done in a real environment.

  7. Peach (Prunus persica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbadini, Silvia; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Girolomini, Luca; Molesini, Barbara; Navacchi, Oriano

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the application of genetic transformation techniques in peach has been limited by the difficulties in developing efficient regeneration and transformation protocols. Here we describe an efficient regeneration protocol for the commercial micropropagation of GF677 rootstock (Prunus persica × Prunus amygdalus). The method is based on the production, via organogenesis, of meristematic bulk tissues characterized by a high competence for shoot regeneration. This protocol has also been used to obtain GF677 plants genetically engineered with an empty hairpin cassette (hereafter indicated as hp-pBin19), through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. After 7-8 months of selection on media containing kanamycin, we obtained two genetically modified GF677 lines. PCR and Southern blot analyses were performed to confirm the genetic status.

  8. Regularization with a pruning prior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Hansen, Lars Kai

    1997-01-01

    We investigate the use of a regularization priorthat we show has pruning properties. Analyses areconducted both using a Bayesian framework and withthe generalization method, on a simple toyproblem. Results are thoroughly compared withthose obtained with a traditional weight decay.......We investigate the use of a regularization priorthat we show has pruning properties. Analyses areconducted both using a Bayesian framework and withthe generalization method, on a simple toyproblem. Results are thoroughly compared withthose obtained with a traditional weight decay....

  9. Financial analysis of pruning ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Fight; Natalie A. Bolon; James M. Cahill

    1992-01-01

    A recent lumber recovery study of pruned and unpruned ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) was used to project the financial return from pruning ponderosa pine in the Medford District of the Bureau of Land Management and in the Ochoco and Deschutes National Forests. The cost of pruning at which the investment would yield an expected 4-...

  10. 7 CFR 993.5 - Prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prunes. 993.5 Section 993.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.5 Prunes. Prunes means and includes all sun-dried or artificially...

  11. Development of a Grapevine Pruning Algorithm for Using in Pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Hosseini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Great areas of the orchards in the world are dedicated to cultivation of the grapevine. Normally grape vineyards are pruned twice a year. Among the operations of grape production, winter pruning of the bushes is the only operation that still has not been fully mechanized while it is known as the most laborious jobs in the farm. Some of the grape producing countries use various mechanical machines to prune the grapevines, but in most cases, these machines do not have a good performance. Therefore intelligent pruning machine seems to be necessary in this regard and this intelligent pruning machines can reduce the labor required to prune the vineyards. It this study in was attempted to develop an algorithm that uses image processing techniques to identify which parts of the grapevine should be cut. Stereo vision technique was used to obtain three dimensional images from the bare bushes whose leaves were fallen in autumn. Stereo vision systems are used to determine the depth from two images taken at the same time but from slightly different viewpoints using two cameras. Each pair of images of a common scene is related by a popular geometry, and corresponding points in the images pairs are constrained to lie on pairs of conjugate popular lines. Materials and Methods Photos were taken from gardens of the Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources of Fars province, Iran. At first, the distance between the plants and the cameras should be determined. The distance between the plants and cameras can be obtained by using the stereo vision techniques. Therefore, this method was used in this paper by two pictures taken from each plant with the left and right cameras. The algorithm was written in MATLAB. To facilitate the segmentation of the branches from the rows at the back, a blue plate with dimensions of 2×2 m2 were used at the background. After invoking the images, branches were segmented from the background to produce the binary

  12. Apple (Malus x domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandekar, Abhaya M; Teo, Gianni; Uratsu, Sandra L; Tricoli, David

    2006-01-01

    Apple (Malus x domestica) is one of the most consumed fruit crops in the world. The major production areas are the temperate regions, however, because of its excellent storage capacity it is transported to distant markets covering the four corners of the earth. Transformation is a key to sustaining this demand - permitting the potential enhancement of existing cultivars as well as to investigate the development of new cultivars resistant to pest, disease, and storage problems that occur in the major production areas. In this paper we describe an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol that utilizes leaf tissues from in vitro grown plants. Shoot regeneration is selected with kanamycin using the selectable kanamycin phosphotransferase (APH(3)II) gene and the resulting transformants confirmed using the scorable uidA gene encoding the bacterial beta-glucuronidase (GUS) enzyme via histochemical staining. Transformed shoots are propagated, rooted to create transgenic plants that are then introduced into soil, acclimatized and transferred to the greenhouse from where they are taken out into the orchard for field-testing.

  13. Flavonoids from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Monika

    2005-01-01

    In the course of chemotaxonomic study of the genus Prunus, seven flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Prunus serotina Ehrh., characterized by UV and NMR spectroscopy, and identified finally as three quercetin monosides: hyperoside, avicularin, reynoutrin, three quercetin biosides: 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside as well isorhamnetin 3-O-(6"-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside. The presence of determined flavonoids in the flowers was confirmed by TLC.

  14. The Over-Pruning Hypothesis of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Davis, Rachael; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Knowland, Victoria C. P.; Charman, Tony

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines the "over-pruning hypothesis" of autism. The hypothesis originates in a neurocomputational model of the regressive sub-type (Thomas, Knowland & Karmiloff-Smith, 2011a, 2011b). Here we develop a more general version of the over-pruning hypothesis to address heterogeneity in the timing of manifestation of ASD,…

  15. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Aguiar

    Full Text Available S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI; tribe Pyreae, P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC; Amygdaleae, P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae, Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae, and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  16. Convergent Evolution at the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility System in Malus and Prunus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ana E.; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P.

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen. PMID:25993016

  17. Utfordringer i norsk produksjon av plommer (Prunus domestica L.) og søtkirsebær (Prunus avium L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Heidi; Olsen, Anne Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Hensikten med denne studien var å kartlegge mulige årsaker til hvorfor steinfruktavlingene i Norge ikke har økt som følge av omfattende satsing på steinfruktproduksjon. De siste16 år har det vært stort fokus på produksjon av plomme og søtkirsebær. Arealet av steinfrukt har i denne perioden økt betraktelig, uten at fruktmengden har økt tilsvarende. Det er også store årlige variasjoner i avlingsmengde, noe som ofte begrunnes med klima. Interessen for kvalitetsfrukt av søtkirsebær og plommer er ...

  18. Carbohydrate-free peach (Prunus persica and plum (Prunus domestica juice affects fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana D Noratto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each, wild-type group was named lean (n = 10. Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice. Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals to the observed changes is unknown.

  19. Financial analysis of pruning coast Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Fight; James M. Cahlll; Thomas D. Fahey; Thomas A. Snellgrove

    1987-01-01

    Pruning of coast Douglas-fir was evaluated; recent product recovery information for pruned and unpruned logs for both sawn and peeled products was used. Dimensions of pruned and unpruned trees were simulated with the Douglas-fir stand simulator (DFSIM). Results are presented for a range of sites, ages at time of pruning, ages at time of harvest, product prices, and...

  20. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes commonly...

  1. Megalourethra associated with prune-belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökalp, A; Gültekin, E Y

    1993-01-01

    A 14-day-old male infant with megalourethra is presented because of the rarity of the anomaly and its association with prune-belly syndrome. The lax, wrinkled appearance of the abdomen, bilateral cryptorchidism and severe dilatation of the urinary system are features included in the classic triad of the prune-belly syndrome. Our patient had the scaphoid variety of megalourethra since the penis appeared elongated and floppy in the fusiform form.

  2. Abdominoplasty in Prune Belly Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, F T; Park, R; Lopes, R I; Moscardi, P R M; Srougi, M

    2015-10-01

    Many patients with Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS) require abdominoplasty alone or in combination with correction of any urogenital abnormalities. This video presents a simplified technique with which to treat the abdominal flaccidity in PBS. A longitudinal xypho-pubic fusiform figure is drawn on the abdomen, based on the area of skin and subcutaneous tissue to be removed. This is performed with preservation of the musculo-fascial layer and the umbilicus. A lateral elliptical single xypho-pubic line is drawn in the most lax side of the fascia, which is incised along this line. After urinary tract reconstruction and orchidopexy, closure is initiated by suturing the medial edge of the wider fascial flap laterally to the peritoneal side of the contralateral flap. Next, the now outer fascial flap is laid over the inner flap, and a buttonhole is made to expose the umbilicus. The subcutaneous tissue of the inner flap is laterally undermined to gain extra distance for the suture of the outer flap over the inner flap. The subcutaneous tissue and skin are sutured in the midline, incorporating the umbilicus. In a 30-year period, 43 PBS patients underwent this procedure with good cosmetic and long-term functional results. This abdominoplasty technique is simple and presents good functional and cosmetic results in PBS patients. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pruning in poplar plantations by mechanized device Stihl HT-75

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Milorad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of branch pruning device Stihl HT-75 were researched on sample plots in FA Kupinovo and FA Klenak, in poplar plantations of Populus×euramericana 'I-214', Populus×euramericana 'M1' and Populus deltoides of different planting spaces and different ages. The analysed factors were: pruning method, site conditions, number of pruned branches, pruning height, branch diameter, etc. Time measurement was performed by the flow method, and the required number of measurements was calculated by variation statistics. The results of the analysis of variance show the statistical significance of the differences between pruning times of different clone species, different planting spaces and different plantation ages. The results of the analysis of variance and statistical tests show that there are no statistically significant differences between the average time of poplar pruning in plantations of the same age and different planting spaces. The correlation of branch pruning time and the number of pruned branches is represented by the power function model, which according to the results of the regression analyses, is the best representation of the nature of this dependence. Exponential function represents the correlation of the average diameter of pruned branches and the time of pruning. Also, there is a correlation of the average diameter of pruned branches and fuel consumption. Pruning time of poplar trees increases with the increase of the average diameter of pruned branches.

  4. Investigation on the pollen morphology of traditional cultivars of Prunus species in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Geraci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study pollen grains of 13 cultivars and 3 rootstocks belonging to 5 species (P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. dulcis, P. persica, P. avium of the genus Prunus collected from North-East Sicily were examined for the micromorphological characterization through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The length of polar axis (P and the equatorial diameter (E of grain, P/E ratio, the length of colpi (C, diameter of perforations (DP and the number of perforations in 25 μm2 (PN, the width of muri (WM, the distance between muri (DM and their number in 25 μm2 (MN, the width of grooves (WG were measured and their variation was compared among studied taxa. Moreover multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to distinguish morphometric information from measured parameters. All pollen grains are trizonocolpate, isopolar, medium-large sized and their shape varies from prolate to perprolate. Regarding outline pollen grains are subtriangular in polar view and elliptic in equatorial view. Exine sculpturing is striate with perforations on grain surface. The arrangement of ridges appears roughly parallel but too sloped (sometimes curved compared to polar axis, or branched and oriented in different directions, or perfectly parallel or more irregular with bifurcated ridges often sinuous. The analyses showed a great variability (particularly in P. domestica cultivars related in some cases to the diversity in the morphological features of the leaves and the fruits of the investigated entities.

  5. Enhanced Context Recognition by Sensitivity Pruned Vocabularies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    Language independent `bag-of-words' representations are surprisingly effective for text classification. The generic BOW approach is based on a high-dimensional vocabulary which may reduce the generalization performance of subsequent classifiers, e.g., based on ill-posed principal component...... transformations. In this communication our aim is to study the effect of sensitivity based pruning of the bag-of-words representation. We consider neural network based sensitivity maps for determination of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using...... a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Pruning the vocabularies to approximately 20% of the original size, we find consistent context recognition enhancement for two mid size data-sets for a range of training set sizes. We also study the applicability...

  6. Effect of different winter pruning systems on grapes produced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Caprara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these trials was to evaluate possible effects on properties of grapes, particularly the physical and mechanical features, depending on the winter pruning system. The following pruning techniques were carried out: manual pruning (m; mechanical pruning (M; mechanical pre-pruning and subsequent manual finishing (Mm; mechanical pre-pruning and contemporary fast manual finishing, using a wagon facility with two operators equipped with pneumatic scissors (Mw. The trials were carried out on Sangiovese trained to spurred cordon. During the trials were measured: time and cost of pruning, quality of pruning and the vegetative-productive response of vines. During grape harvesting a consolidated analytical method of texture analysis was applied to evaluate the physical parameters of grapevine cultivar: pedicel detachment, skin perforation, skin thickness, grape features as hardness, cohesiveness, springiness. Analysis of working time showed that the manual pruning (m determined a greater commitment of time, while the mechanized pruning (M presented a time reduction of 95%. The two mechanized pruning associated with manual finishing reduced the time of 21% (Mm and 69% (Mw. The lowering cost is less evident but important anyway. Regarding the quality of pruning, the increase in the level of mechanization has produced an increase of spurs and buds density. It was also detected a higher percentage of damaged spurs and in wrong position. The increasing of mechanization levels of pruning also has produced smaller and sparser bunches with smaller berries. The study of mechanical properties of berries showed significant differences in the mechanical behaviours of the different pruning tests. The mechanized pruning presented higher values for the pedicel detachment, skin perforation and cohesiveness, while it gave lower values for thickness of skin and springiness. The results showed that mechanical pruning can modify properties of the berries which

  7. A Case of Prune Belly Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome (PBS is a rare congenital disorder characterized by deficient abdominal wall muscles, urinary tract malformation, and, in males, cryptorchidism. We present a case of PBS in China. The patient was a newborn baby boy who had wrinkled, “prune-like” abdominal skin, bilateral cryptorchidism, and urinary system malformation, complicated with hypoplasia of the lung and branch of the coronary artery–right ventricular fistula. His kidney function was inadequate. The patient subsequently died at age 28 days due to septicemia from a severe urinary tract infection.

  8. Veneer grade yield from pruned Douglas-fir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward J. II Dimock; Henry H. Haskell

    1962-01-01

    This paper reports actual veneer yields obtained from 10 trees pruned at age 38 and harvested 20 years later. Information of this kind is needed to help determine if and when to prune and ultimately will be essential to a thorough economic analysis of expected returns from pruning.

  9. 7 CFR 993.149 - Receiving of prunes by handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... same procedure shall apply as set forth in paragraph (d)(1) of this section. For each day on which a... and usually received by a handler in any considerable volume as ranch deliveries, and at which there... samples of prunes drawn as prune plums and dehydrated in the same manner as the prunes to which they are...

  10. Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early growth performances of various seed sources of black (Prunus serotina Erhr.) and wild cherry ( Prunus avium L.) seedlings on low and high elevation sites in the western Black Sea Region of Turkey.

  11. Industrial and selectional value of plum Izyum erik (Prunus domestica L. in the Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. П. Шоферістов

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The results of expeditional collections and first varietal study of local varieties of plum Izyum erik have been given in the article. The perspectives of the further use of the studied varieties for selection and testing in industrial conditions, in orchards and plots near the houses have been discussed.

  12. Advances in the genetic improvement of Prunus domestica utilizing genetic engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plum producers world-wide are facing multiple challenges including climate change, reductions in available labor, the need for reduced chemical inputs, the spread of native and exotic pests and pathogens, and consumer demands for improved fruit quality and health benefits. Meeting these challenges ...

  13. Transgenic plums (Prunus domestica L.) express the plum pox virus coat protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, R; Ravelonandro, M; Callahan, A M; Cordts, J M; Fuchs, M; Dunez, J; Gonsalves, D

    1994-11-01

    Plum hypocotyl slices were transformed with the coat protein (CP) gene of plum pox virus (PPV-CP) following cocultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the plasmid pGA482GG/PPVCP-33. This binary vector carries the PPV-CP gene construct, as well as the chimeric neomycin phosphotransferase and β-glucuronidase genes. Integration and expression of the transferred genes into regenerated plum plants was verified through kan resistance, GUS assays, and PCR amplification of the PPV-CP gene. Twenty-two transgenic clones were identified from approximately 1800 hypocotyl slices. DNA, mRNA, and protein analyses of five transgenic plants confirmed the integration of the engineered CP gene, the accumulation of CP mRNA and of PPV-CP-immunoreactive protein. CP mRNA levels ranged from high to undetectable levels, apparently correlated with gene structure, as indicated by DNA blot analysis. Western analysis showed that transgenic plants produced amounts of CP which generally correlated with amounts of detected mRNA.

  14. Pruning the vocabulary for better context recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies, documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  15. Vocabulary Pruning for Improved Context Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    of term relevancy, when pruning the vocabularies. With reduced vocabularies documents are classified using a latent semantic indexing representation and a probabilistic neural network classifier. Reducing the bag-of-words vocabularies with 90%-98%, we find consistent classification improvement using two...

  16. 21 CFR 145.190 - Canned prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned prunes. 145.190 Section 145.190 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...: (1) Natural and artificial flavors. (2) Spice. (3) Vinegar, lemon juice, or organic acids. (4...

  17. 7 CFR 993.109 - Modified definition of non-French prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modified definition of non-French prunes. 993.109... definition of non-French prunes. The definition of non-French prunes set forth in § 993.6 is modified to read as follows: Non-French Prunes means prunes commonly known as Imperial, Sugar, Robe de Sargent, Burton...

  18. Prune Belly syndrome: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Samal, Sunil Kumar; Rathod, Setu

    2015-01-01

    Prune Belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain etiology almost exclusive to males. We report a case of term male baby born to a 39-year-old grand multipara with previous four normal vaginal births. There was no history of genetic or congenital anomaly in her family. Examination of the baby revealed hypotonia, deficient abdominal muscle, cryptorchidism, palpable kidney, and bladder. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen revealed bilateral gross hydronephrosis and megauret...

  19. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perazzolli

    Full Text Available The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh. cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80% of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15, and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera.

  20. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzolli, Michele; Malacarne, Giulia; Baldo, Angela; Righetti, Laura; Bailey, Aubrey; Fontana, Paolo; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael

    2014-01-01

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar 'Golden Delicious'. This represents 1.51% of the total number of predicted genes for this cultivar. Several evolutionary features are pronounced in M. domestica, including a high fraction (80%) of RGAs occurring in clusters. This suggests frequent tandem duplication and ectopic translocation events. Of the identified RGAs, 56% are located preferentially on six chromosomes (Chr 2, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 15), and 25% are located on Chr 2. TIR-NBS and non-TIR-NBS classes of RGAs are primarily exclusive of different chromosomes, and 99% of non-TIR-NBS RGAs are located on Chr 11. A phylogenetic reconstruction was conducted to study the evolution of RGAs in the Rosaceae family. More than 1400 RGAs were identified in six species based on their NBS domain, and a neighbor-joining analysis was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the protein sequences. Specific phylogenetic clades were found for RGAs of Malus, Fragaria, and Rosa, indicating genus-specific evolution of resistance genes. However, strikingly similar RGAs were shared in Malus, Pyrus, and Prunus, indicating high conservation of specific RGAs and suggesting a monophyletic origin of these three genera.

  1. Unusual presentation of prune belly syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Demisse, Abayneh Girma; Berhanu, Ashenafi; Tadesse, Temesgen

    2017-01-01

    Background Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital malformation of unknown etiology, with the following triad of findings: abdominal muscle wall weakness, undescended testes, and urinary tract abnormalities. In most cases, detection of prune belly syndrome occurs during neonatal or infancy period. In this case report, we describe a 12-year-old boy from Ethiopia with the triad of findings of prune belly syndrome along with skeletal malformations. We are unaware of any previous report of prun...

  2. Effect of mechanical pruning on the yield and quality of ‘Fortune’ mandarins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Martin-Gorriz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work compares mechanical pruning followed up by hand pruning versus manual pruning in the case of ‘Fortune’ mandarins. Yield and fruit quality were measured over a three-year period. Two mechanical pruning intensities were tested, these intensities being measured as the width of the row middles left free after mechanical pruning. Although there were differences in biomass and diameter of the branches that were cut, no differences were observed between the two mechanical pruning intensities in terms of yield or fruit quality. In all pruning treatments, fruit size reached the highest category. The pruning treatments consisted in: (i hand pruning every year, (ii mechanical pruning followed up by hand pruning every year, and (iii alternating the two previous methods over the years studied. On analysing the accumulated fruit production of the three years, it can be observed that there were no significant differences in yield when mechanical pruning was alternated with hand pruning over the years. When only mechanical pruning was used for the three years, however, a 22% reduction in yield was observed with respect to the treatment involving hand pruning alone. From the economic point of view, mechanical pruning shortened the time needed to complete the follow-up hand pruning by 13% with respect to just hand pruning, but this reduction in labour does not offset the cost of the mechanical equipment.

  3. Prune belly syndrome with pouch colon and absent dermatome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prune belly syndrome with pouch colon and absent dermatome. AA Baba, SA Hussain, AH Shera, R Patnaik. Abstract. Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital constellation of defects in pediatric surgical practice. Although anorectal anomalies have been reported in association with PBS, only few case of pouch ...

  4. Prune belly syndrome: Early management outcome of nine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prune belly syndrome: Early management outcome of nine consecutive cases. ... Background: Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital malformation of unclear etiology. The disease progress and ... The degree of the anterior abdominal wall and the urinary tract morphology varies from patient to patient. Urinary tract ...

  5. Pruning quality affects infection of Acacia mangium and A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pruning (singling) is a common silvicultural practice in commercial Acacia plantations because these trees tend to have multiple stems. The wounds resulting from pruning are susceptible to infection by pathogens. Ceratocystis acaciivora and Lasiodiplodia theobromae have been shown recently to be important pathogens ...

  6. Prune Belly Syndrome | Hammond | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two cases of prune belly syndrome in Black infants are presented. The prune belly syndrome, or congenital absence of abdominal muscles, is accompanied by hydro-ureter, hydronephrosis, megalocystis and usually undescended testes. Other associated congenital defects occur, of which orthopaedic defects appear to be ...

  7. Effect of mycorrhiza and pruning regimes on seasonality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of mycorrhiza and pruning regimes on seasonality of hedgerow tree mulch contribution to alley-cropped cassava in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... promoted dry season pruning production which was masked in Leucaena at 3 months by biomass diversion into flowering and in Gliricidia with both flowering and mite infestation.

  8. Pruning Chinese trees : an experimental and modelling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Bo

    2001-01-01

    Pruning of trees, in which some branches are removed from the lower crown of a tree, has been extensively used in China in silvicultural management for many purposes. With an experimental and modelling approach, the effects of pruning on tree growth and on the harvest of plant material were studied.

  9. Silvical characteristics of black cherry (Prunus serotina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbel F. Hough

    1960-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is the largest of the native cherry trees of the United States. It may grow to more than 100 feet in height, and to as much as 5 feet in diameter. It is the only species of its genus that provides lumber for commerce. And this lumber, because of its stability and its superior working qualities, is one of the most...

  10. DIAGNOSTICS OF VIRUS PHYTOPATHOGENS FRUIT TREE PLUM POX VIRUS, PRUNUS NECROTIC RINGSPOT VIRUS AND PRUNUS DWARF VIRUS BY BIOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Július Rozák

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of viral phytopathogen Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus in selected localities of Slovakia and diagnose them using a molecular and biological methods. Forty samples of fruit trees of the genus Prunus, twenty samples from intensive plantings and twenty samples from wild subject were analysed. Biological diagnostic by using biological indicators Prunus persica cv. GF 305, Prunus serrulata cv. Schirofugen and molecular diagnostic by mRT-PCR were applied. Five samples with Plum pox virus were infected. The two samples positive for Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and one sample for Prunus dwarf virus were confirmed. The two samples were found to be infected with two viruses Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prunus dwarf virus. This work focuses on two techniques, their application to the diagnosis of stone fruit viruses and their routinely used for sanitary and certification programmes.

  11. SEEDLINGS GROWTH OF Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. IN SEWAGE SLUDGE-BASED COMPOST AND MINERAL FERTILIZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050987555The increasing amount of solid waste generates the need for its use. An opportunity is the use of sewage sludge to attend the demand for alternative inputs in the agricultural and forestry practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. (pessegueiro – bravo grown on substrates prepared from aerobic sewage sludge composted with ground tree pruning and with different levels of a granulated fertilizer, and to compare its performance with those grown on commercial substrate, which is widely used in forest nurseries. The experiment was conducted in a shadehouse (from July/08 to Oct/08 and in an outdoor growing area (from Nov/08 to Feb/09 at Sanitation Company of Paraná State, located in Araucária, southern Brazil. Three different substrates were used: commercial substrate, consisting of composted pine bark and vermiculite, and 3:1 (v:v and 2:1 (v:v composted substrate based on crushed tree pruning and sewage sludge. The following variables were measured: seedling height, diameter and biomass of leaves and branches. The results showed higher growth rates of seedlings grown on substrates containing sewage sludge than on those grown on commercial substrate. Both composts with sewage sludge, using the two levels of fertilization (2,7 and 4 g dm-3, present similar results for the majority of the variables tested.

  12. Interspecific hybridizations in ornamental flowering cherries (Prunus species)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. Controlled cross...

  13. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, the genus Prunus was studied in detail to find out the phylogenetic relationship among the 12 species of Prunus selected from different regions of Pakistan and GenBank using the maximum parsimony analysis of sequence polymorphism in chloroplast TRN-L and TRN-F spacer DNA. The results for the ...

  14. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) was used as an oviposition surrogate for the congeneric S. exitiosa (Say) to examine possible preference for Prunus germplasm. We assayed limbs of a peach cultivar (Prunus persica), peach rootstocks, plum-peach hybrid rootstocks, the...

  15. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... Sorbus L. (mountain ash) and Spiraea L. (bridal wreath). (Potter, 2003). According to Rehder (1940), Prunus has nearly 200 species, mostly in ... DNA was extracted from the fresh and herbarium samples of. Prunus by the method of Doyle and Doyle (1987). For the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis ...

  16. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliss Fredrick A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a

  17. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica) progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a valuable tool for dissecting the

  18. Antimicrobial activity of alcohols from Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Wieloch, Wioletta; Włóka, Emilia; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Przybysz, Elżbieta; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2012-10-01

    Information on the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of cuticular alcohols on growth and virulence of insecticidal fungi is unavailable. Therefore, we set out to describe the content of cuticular and internal alcohols in the body of housefly larvae, pupae, males and females. The total cuticular alcohols in larvae, males and females of Musca domestica were detected in comparable amounts (4.59, 3.95 and 4.03 μg g(-1) insect body, respectively), but occurred in smaller quantities in pupae (2.16 μg g(-1)). The major free alcohol in M. domestica larvae was C(12:0) (70.4%). Internal alcohols of M. domestica larvae were not found. Among cuticular pupae alcohols, C(12:0) (31.0%) was the most abundant. In the internal lipids of pupae, only five alcohols were identified in trace amounts. The most abundant alcohol in males was C(24:0) (57.5%). The percentage content of cuticular C(24:0) in males and females (57.5 and 36.5%, respectively) was significantly higher than that of cuticular lipids in larvae and pupae (0.9 and 5.6%, respectively). Only two alcohols were present in the internal lipids of males in trace amounts (C(18:0) and C(20:0)). The most abundant cuticular alcohols in females were C(24:0) (36.5%) and C(12:0) (26.8%); only two alcohols (C(18:0) and C(20:0)) were detected in comparable amounts in internal lipids (3.61±0.32 and 5.01±0.42 μg g(-1), respectively). For isolated alcohols, antimicrobial activity against 10 reference strains of bacteria and fungi was determined. Individual alcohols showed approximately equal activity against fungal strains. C(14:0) was effective against gram-positive bacteria, whereas gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all tested alcohols. Mixtures of alcohols found in cuticular lipids of larvae, pupae, males and females of M. domestica generally presented higher antimicrobial activity than individual alcohols. In contrast, crude extracts containing both cuticular and internal lipids showed no antifungal activity against the

  19. Suitability Of Plum And Prune Cultivars, Grown In A High Density Planting System, For Mechanical Harvesting With A Canopy Contact, Straddle Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Augustyn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The relation of hand-harvesting cost in plum and prune production to the total costs amounts to 25-40%. Mechanical harvesting makes it possible to cut drastically both the harvesting and total costs. To test the suitability of plum and prune species to be mechanically harvested, an experimental grove (area 0.8 ha was established in 2008. Three plum cultivars and one prune cultivar grafted on semi-dwarf and vigorous rootstocks were planted at high density (1250; 1666; 2500 trees·ha−1. During the span of full yielding (2012-2014, fruits were harvested mechanically with a canopy contact, straddle harvester in continuous motion, designed at the Institute of Horticulture in Skierniewice, to harvest tart cherry, and later adapted to harvesting plums and prunes. Trees grafted on semi-dwarf rootstock (‘Wangenheim Prune’ appeared to be more suitable for mechanical harvesting than strong-growing trees grafted on Prunus cerasifera clone ‘Myrobalan’. Cumulative yield per ha (years 2012-2014 was the highest at the highest planting density. Trees grafted on the semi-dwarf rootstock had a higher productivity index than trees grafted on the vigorous rootstock. There was no significant difference in fruit quality related to planting distance. Mechanical harvesting was nearly 40 times more efficient than hand picking. The efficiency of mechanical harvest was from 85% to 90%. Over 5% of fruits were lost on the ground and from 1 to 5% of fruits were left on the tree. Up to 18% of the plums and no more than 10% of the prunes harvested mechanically showed some damage. They can be fully acceptable for processing, for up to 10 days, providing the potential deterioration processes are inhibited by cold storage. The large-fruited cultivars seem to be more susceptible to bruising than the small-fruited ones. For the latter, the share of marketable quality fruits within the mechanically harvested crop amounted to about 80%, which could be a good prognostic

  20. Prune Belly syndrome: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Sunil Kumar; Rathod, Setu

    2015-01-01

    Prune Belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain etiology almost exclusive to males. We report a case of term male baby born to a 39-year-old grand multipara with previous four normal vaginal births. There was no history of genetic or congenital anomaly in her family. Examination of the baby revealed hypotonia, deficient abdominal muscle, cryptorchidism, palpable kidney, and bladder. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen revealed bilateral gross hydronephrosis and megaureter. Provisional diagnosis of PBS was made and the baby was admitted in neonatal intensive care units for further management. Routine antenatal care with ultrasonography will help in detecting renal anomalies, which can be followed postnatally. Early diagnosis of this syndrome and determining its optimal treatment are very important in helping to avoid its fatal course.

  1. Efficient Pruning Method for Ensemble Self-Generating Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Inoue

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, multiple classifier systems (MCS have been used for practical applications to improve classification accuracy. Self-generating neural networks (SGNN are one of the suitable base-classifiers for MCS because of their simple setting and fast learning. However, the computation cost of the MCS increases in proportion to the number of SGNN. In this paper, we propose an efficient pruning method for the structure of the SGNN in the MCS. We compare the pruned MCS with two sampling methods. Experiments have been conducted to compare the pruned MCS with an unpruned MCS, the MCS based on C4.5, and k-nearest neighbor method. The results show that the pruned MCS can improve its classification accuracy as well as reducing the computation cost.

  2. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  3. Changes of quality in the fruits of Prunus mume during deacidification by fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Zhang, Yousheng; Chen, Weidong

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of quality attributes of Prunus mume fruits during deacidification using the fermentation of Lactobacillus fermentium. Results of HPLC analysis showed that the sucrose and glucose were dominant sugars, and citric acid was dominant organic acids in P. mume fruits. The level of citric acid reaches 39.3 g/kg, and yet the sucrose and glucose content in the P. mume fruits was very lower, which were 2.16 and 0.66 g/L, respectively. After 8 d of fermentation, sugar and citric acid in the P. mume fruits was completely consumed, and the total phenolics, antioxidant activity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity value), and sarcocarp firmness retained 64.4%, 70.0%, 62.6%, respectively. Also, the viability counts of L. fermentium in fermentation broth increased slowly, which were near 8.0 lg CFU/mL after 8 d of fermentation at 30 °C. Overall, fermentation with L. fermentium can be applied in deacidification of P. mume fruits, and also the fermented P. mume fruits can meet the standard to be further processed into prune or sauces, and the fermentation broth of P. mume fruits with L. fermentium have a good prospect in the development of probiotic beverage. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Partial prune belly syndrome: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Pratap Singh; Vinay Mathur; Ramesh Tanger; Arun Kumar Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is characterized by deficient development of abdominal muscles that causes the skin of the abdomen to wrinkle like a prune, bilateral cryptorchidism, abnormalities of the urinary tract. The etiology of PBS is unclear and possible familial genetic inheritance was reported in some of the studies. We are presenting here a case with the absence of the muscle in the right side of the abdomen as hernia, thinning of the muscle on left side with bilateral cryptorchidism, an...

  5. Differential dependence of apple ( Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Golden Delicious' and 'Topred' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) peel on the xanthophyll cycle for photoprotection was studied under laboratory conditions. Mature fruit peel was either treated with 1 mm dithiothreitol (DTT) to inhibit the ...

  6. R. Strauss: Symphonia domestica, Op. 53 / David Nice

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nice, David

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "R. Strauss: Symphonia domestica, Op. 53. National Youth Orchestra of Great Britain / Christopher Seaman. Pickwick IMP Classics CD PCD 1080; Selected comparisons: SNO, Järvi (3/88) Chandos CHAN 8572"

  7. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  8. DANNP: an efficient artificial neural network pruning tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Alshahrani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Artificial neural networks (ANNs are a robust class of machine learning models and are a frequent choice for solving classification problems. However, determining the structure of the ANNs is not trivial as a large number of weights (connection links may lead to overfitting the training data. Although several ANN pruning algorithms have been proposed for the simplification of ANNs, these algorithms are not able to efficiently cope with intricate ANN structures required for complex classification problems. Methods We developed DANNP, a web-based tool, that implements parallelized versions of several ANN pruning algorithms. The DANNP tool uses a modified version of the Fast Compressed Neural Network software implemented in C++ to considerably enhance the running time of the ANN pruning algorithms we implemented. In addition to the performance evaluation of the pruned ANNs, we systematically compared the set of features that remained in the pruned ANN with those obtained by different state-of-the-art feature selection (FS methods. Results Although the ANN pruning algorithms are not entirely parallelizable, DANNP was able to speed up the ANN pruning up to eight times on a 32-core machine, compared to the serial implementations. To assess the impact of the ANN pruning by DANNP tool, we used 16 datasets from different domains. In eight out of the 16 datasets, DANNP significantly reduced the number of weights by 70%–99%, while maintaining a competitive or better model performance compared to the unpruned ANN. Finally, we used a naïve Bayes classifier derived with the features selected as a byproduct of the ANN pruning and demonstrated that its accuracy is comparable to those obtained by the classifiers trained with the features selected by several state-of-the-art FS methods. The FS ranking methodology proposed in this study allows the users to identify the most discriminant features of the problem at hand. To the best of our knowledge

  9. DANNP: an efficient artificial neural network pruning tool

    KAUST Repository

    Alshahrani, Mona

    2017-11-06

    Background Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a robust class of machine learning models and are a frequent choice for solving classification problems. However, determining the structure of the ANNs is not trivial as a large number of weights (connection links) may lead to overfitting the training data. Although several ANN pruning algorithms have been proposed for the simplification of ANNs, these algorithms are not able to efficiently cope with intricate ANN structures required for complex classification problems. Methods We developed DANNP, a web-based tool, that implements parallelized versions of several ANN pruning algorithms. The DANNP tool uses a modified version of the Fast Compressed Neural Network software implemented in C++ to considerably enhance the running time of the ANN pruning algorithms we implemented. In addition to the performance evaluation of the pruned ANNs, we systematically compared the set of features that remained in the pruned ANN with those obtained by different state-of-the-art feature selection (FS) methods. Results Although the ANN pruning algorithms are not entirely parallelizable, DANNP was able to speed up the ANN pruning up to eight times on a 32-core machine, compared to the serial implementations. To assess the impact of the ANN pruning by DANNP tool, we used 16 datasets from different domains. In eight out of the 16 datasets, DANNP significantly reduced the number of weights by 70%–99%, while maintaining a competitive or better model performance compared to the unpruned ANN. Finally, we used a naïve Bayes classifier derived with the features selected as a byproduct of the ANN pruning and demonstrated that its accuracy is comparable to those obtained by the classifiers trained with the features selected by several state-of-the-art FS methods. The FS ranking methodology proposed in this study allows the users to identify the most discriminant features of the problem at hand. To the best of our knowledge, DANNP (publicly

  10. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  11. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryun; Kim, Il-Doo; Dhungana, Sanjeev Kumar; Kim, Mi-Ok; Shin, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample. Methods The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid ( ˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities. Results Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively. Conclusions The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health. PMID:25182279

  12. Dehydrogenase isoenzyme polymorphism in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrogenase polymorphism was studied in 36 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., sweet cherry (Prunus avuim L., mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L., ground cherry (Prunus fruticosa Pall., duke cherry (Prunus gondounii Redh., Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. and four iterspecific hybrids (standard cherry rootstocks ‘Gisela 5’, ‘Gisela 6’, ‘Max Ma’ and ‘Colt’. Inner bark of one-year-old shoots, in dormant stage, was used for enzyme extraction. Vertical PAGE was used for isoenzyme analysis: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, formate dehydrogenase (FDH, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, isocitrate dehydrogenaze (IDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH. All studied systems were polymorphic at 10 loci: Adh -1 (3 genotypes and Adh-2 (5 genotypes, Fdh-1 (2 genotypes, Gdh-1 (3 genotypes, Idh-1 (4 genotypes i Idh -2 (5 genotypes, Mdh-1 (3 genotypes, Pgd-1 (4 genotypes, Sdh-1 (1 genotype i Sdh-2 (3 genotypes. Cluster analysis was used to construct dendrogram on which four groups of similar genotypes were separated. Obtained results indicate that studied enzyme systems can be used for determination of genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus. Among studied enzyme systems ADH, IDH and SDH were the most polymorphic and most useful to identify genetic variability. Polymorphism of FDH and GDH in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus was described first time in this work. First results for dehydrogenase variability of Oblačinska indicate that polymorphism of loci Idh-2 and Sdh-2 can be useful for discrimination of different clones.

  13. Antioxidant and sensorial properties of acacia honey supplemented with prunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in total phenol and flavonoid content, as well as antioxidant activity was monitored in acacia honey supplemented with prunes in 20, 30 and 40% mass concentrations. The total phenolic content increased by 2.5 times (from 16.18 to 41.64 mg GAE/100 g with increasing concentration of prunes in honey, while the increase in flavonoid content was even higher, approximately 11.5-fold (from 2.65 to 30.86 mg RE/100 g. The addition of prunes also improved the antioxidant activity of acacia honey. The honey samples with highest content of prunes, 40%, exhibited the best antioxidant activity measured by hydroxyl radical sacvenging assay (EC50 •OH=4.56 mg/ml, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay (EC50 DPPH=16.48 mg/ml, and reducing power (EC50 RP=81.17 mg/ml. Judging from the high correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.771 to 0.947 for total phenolics, and from 0.862 to 0.993 for total flavonoids, it is obvious that these compounds were associated with the antioxidant mechanisms. On the other hand, sensorial properties of supplemented honeys were lower than that of pure acacia honey, where flavor of supplemented honey was the least affected. Our results indicate that the supplementation of honey with prunes improves antioxidant activity of honey by enriching the phenolic composition, with slight modifications in sensorial characteristics.

  14. Energy potential of fruit tree pruned biomass in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzija, N.; Voca, N.; Kricka, T.; Martin, A.; Jurisic, V.

    2012-11-01

    The world's most developed countries and the European Union (EU) deem that the renewable energy sources should partly substitute fossil fuels and become a bridge to the utilization of other energy sources of the future. This paper will present the possibility of using pruned biomass from fruit cultivars. It will also present the calculation of potential energy from the mentioned raw materials in order to determine the extent of replacement of non-renewable sources with these types of renewable energy. One of the results of the intensive fruit-growing process, in post pruning stage, is large amount of pruned biomass waste. Based on the calculated biomass (kg ha{sup 1}) from intensively grown woody fruit crops that are most grown in Croatia (apple, pear, apricots, peach and nectarine, sweet cherry, sour cherry, prune, walnut, hazelnut, almond, fig, grapevine, and olive) and the analysis of combustible (carbon 45.55-49.28%, hydrogen 5.91-6.83%, and sulphur 0.18-0.21%) and non-combustible matters (oxygen 43.34-46.6%, nitrogen 0.54-1.05%, moisture 3.65-8.83%, ashes 1.52-5.39%) with impact of lowering the biomass heating value (15.602-17.727 MJ kg{sup 1}), the energy potential of the pruned fruit biomass is calculated at 4.21 PJ. (Author) 31 refs.

  15. Wound Myiasis Due to Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae in Persian Horned Viper, Pseudocerastes persicus (Squamata: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dehghani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of myiasis due to Musca domestica describes in Pseudocerastes persicus for the first time. The snake was found in Bari Karafs, Kashan, Iran, with a lesion on its body. Fourteen live larvae of M. domestica removed from its wound. This is the first report of a new larval habitat of M. domestica.

  16. Influence of combined pretreatments on color parameters during convective drying of Mirabelle plum ( Prunus domestica subsp. syriaca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghannya, Jalal; Gorbani, Rasoul; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak

    2017-07-01

    Discoloration and browning are caused primarily by various reactions, including Maillard condensation of hexoses and amino components, phenol polymerization and pigment destruction. Convective drying can be combined with various pretreatments to help reduce undesired color changes and improve color parameters of dried products. In this study, effects of ultrasound-assisted osmotic dehydration as a pretreatment before convective drying on color parameters of Mirabelle plum were investigated. Variations of L* (lightness), a* (redness/greenness), b* (yellowness/blueness), total color change (ΔE), chroma, hue angle and browning index values were presented versus drying time during convective drying of control and pretreated Mirabelle plums as influenced by ultrasonication time, osmotic solution concentration and immersion time in osmotic solution. Samples pretreated with ultrasound for 30 min and osmotic solution concentration of 70% had a more desirable color among all other pretreated samples, with the closest L*, a* and b* values to the fresh one, showing that ultrasound and osmotic dehydration are beneficial to the color of final products after drying.

  17. Silencing in genetically engineered Prunus domestica provides durable and safe resistance to Plum pox virus (sharka disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Originally identified in Bulgaria in 1915, Plum pox virus (PPV) is the most damaging virus of stone fruit trees including apricot, plum, peach, and cherry. PPV steadily spread throughout Europe over the years since its discovery, and at the turn of the century (1999-2000), it reached North America ...

  18. Estudio preliminar del potencial bioactivo de la Annona cherimola (anona y Prunus domestica (ciruelo cultivadas en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirtha Navarro-Hoyos

    2014-06-01

    Se ubicaron plantas de ambas especies, recolectándose los frutos que luego de su debido procesamiento fueron analizados en laboratorio en cuanto a su contenido de polifenoles y a su bioactividad. Asimismo se extrajeron estacas de las plantas para reproducción vegetativa tradicional y se sembraron en las comunidades de Cabuyal de San Pedro de Poás, Alajuela (Damas Verdes y Llano Bonito de León Cortés, San José (PROAL donde se trabajó con grupos de mujeres organizadas que elaboran productos artesanales como champú, cremas y aceites, contribuyendo con ellas en el adiestramiento con las buenas prácticas en laboratorio y la importancia del cuido del germoplasma.

  19. Ensemble Pruning for Glaucoma Detection in an Unbalanced Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Werner; Gefeller, Olaf; Gul, Asma; Horn, Folkert K; Khan, Zardad; Lausen, Berthold

    2016-12-07

    Random forests are successful classifier ensemble methods consisting of typically 100 to 1000 classification trees. Ensemble pruning techniques reduce the computational cost, especially the memory demand, of random forests by reducing the number of trees without relevant loss of performance or even with increased performance of the sub-ensemble. The application to the problem of an early detection of glaucoma, a severe eye disease with low prevalence, based on topographical measurements of the eye background faces specific challenges. We examine the performance of ensemble pruning strategies for glaucoma detection in an unbalanced data situation. The data set consists of 102 topographical features of the eye background of 254 healthy controls and 55 glaucoma patients. We compare the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and the Brier score on the total data set, in the majority class, and in the minority class of pruned random forest ensembles obtained with strategies based on the prediction accuracy of greedily grown sub-ensembles, the uncertainty weighted accuracy, and the similarity between single trees. To validate the findings and to examine the influence of the prevalence of glaucoma in the data set, we additionally perform a simulation study with lower prevalences of glaucoma. In glaucoma classification all three pruning strategies lead to improved AUC and smaller Brier scores on the total data set with sub-ensembles as small as 30 to 80 trees compared to the classification results obtained with the full ensemble consisting of 1000 trees. In the simulation study, we were able to show that the prevalence of glaucoma is a critical factor and lower prevalence decreases the performance of our pruning strategies. The memory demand for glaucoma classification in an unbalanced data situation based on random forests could effectively be reduced by the application of pruning strategies without loss of performance in a population with increased

  20. Partial prune belly syndrome: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Pratap Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome (PBS is characterized by deficient development of abdominal muscles that causes the skin of the abdomen to wrinkle like a prune, bilateral cryptorchidism, abnormalities of the urinary tract. The etiology of PBS is unclear and possible familial genetic inheritance was reported in some of the studies. We are presenting here a case with the absence of the muscle in the right side of the abdomen as hernia, thinning of the muscle on left side with bilateral cryptorchidism, and abnormalities of the urinary tract. It is the partial presentation of the PBS.

  1. Black Walnut on Kansas Strip Mine Spoils: Some Observations 25 Years after Pruning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex L. Shigo; Nelson F. Rogers; E. Allen, Jr. McGinnes; David T. Funk

    1978-01-01

    Dissections of 14 slow-growing black walnut trees on a strip-mine site revealed that bands of discolored heartwood were associated with pruned and nonpruned branch stubs. Ring shakes were associated with a few pruned and nonpruned stubs, especially with groups of stubs at the same position on the stem. The advantage of early pruning was that even the defects that...

  2. Effect of Root Pruning and Irrigation Regimes on Yield and Physiology of Pear Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yufei

    Clara Frijs’ is the dominant pear (Pyrus communis L.) cultivar in Denmark. It is vigorous with long annual shoots, and therefore can be difficult to prune. Root pruning has been widely used to control the canopy size of fruit trees including pears. However, root pruned trees are more likely to su...

  3. Structure Learning by Pruning in Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Andreas; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    We discuss pruning as a means of structure learning in independent component analysis. Sparse models are attractive in both signal processing and in analysis of abstract data, they can assist model interpretation, generalizability and reduce computation. We derive the relevant saliency expressions...

  4. Structure learning by pruning in independent component analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    We discuss pruning as a means of structure learning in independent component analysis (ICA). Learning the structure is attractive in both signal processing and in analysis of abstract data, where it can assist model interpretation, generalizability and reduce computation. We derive the relevant...

  5. Pathophysiologic and anesthetic correlations of the prune-belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, J P

    1989-04-01

    "Prune-Belly" is the name given to the disease which is characterized by a congenital wrinkled appearance of the abdomen. Usually, a triad of congenital anomalies highlights the components of the prune-belly syndrome. This triad consists of undescended testicles, abdominal musculature deficiency and urinary tract abnormalities. The previously described triad of the syndrome is by no means the total spectrum of the disease. Prune-belly syndrome is also associated with diseases of the respiratory, cardiovascular, skeletal, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. Associated diseases of major body systems which are caused by renal and cardiopulmonary anomalies, as well as the surgical procedure to be performed, influence the plan for the administration of anesthesia. The nature of the genitourinary diseases in the prune-belly baby may obviate the need for surgical intervention as early as the neonatal period of life. Although this congenital disease occurs with some rarity, the gravity of the syndrome demands an in-depth knowledge of its pathophysiology in order to assure uncomplicated anesthetic care. Astute surveillance during preanesthetic, anesthetic, and postanesthetic management is germane to the prevention of mishaps.

  6. On the use of a pruning prior for neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril

    1996-01-01

    We address the problem of using a regularization prior that prunes unnecessary weights in a neural network architecture. This prior provides a convenient alternative to traditional weight-decay. Two examples are studied to support this method and illustrate its use. First we use the sunspots...

  7. Prune-Belly Syndrome: A Case Report from Rwanda | Ngendahayo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prune-Belly syndrome, Eagle-Barret syndrome and triad syndrome, all refer to congenital anomalies involving abdominal musculature, urinary tract and testicles. The syndrome consists of a triad of abdominal muscle aplasia, massive ureteral and bladder dilatation and cryptorchidism. Kidneys are often affected ...

  8. Effect of mycorrhiza and pruning regimes on seasonality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-07-16

    Jul 16, 2006 ... Effect of mycorrhiza and pruning regimes on seasonality of hedgerow tree mulch contribution to .... Mycorrhizae are symbiotic association between plant roots and certain soil fungi (Sieverding, 1991). ..... inoculum was put under the seeds in the polythene bags for inoculated hedgerow tree seedlings and ...

  9. Chemical root pruning of conifer seedlings in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnulfo Aldrete; John G. Mexal

    2002-01-01

    Many countries grow seedlings for reforestation in polybags where root spiraling and root egression can decrease seedling survival and growth following outplanting. The overall objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of chemical root pruning on root spiraling, root egression, and nursery performance of Pinus pseudostrobus, P...

  10. 7 CFR 993.150 - Disposition of prunes by handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... manifest or billing number; and (2) receive from the inspection service a DFA Form P-5 “Shipping Inspection...)(iii) of this section) the Committee's approval of his application to do so. (ii) Application for approval. The handler's application to ship or otherwise make final disposition of any such prunes shall be...

  11. influence of cassava planting patterns and pruning methods on crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-12-03

    Dec 3, 2003 ... Field experiments were conducted at the University of Ibadan, Ni geria on the effect ofcassava (Manihot esculenta. Crantz) planting pattern and pruning methods on eassava yield and yield ofassociated crops, namely, maize (Zea mays L. ), melon (Colocynthis vulgaris L.) and cowpea ( Vigna unguiculaia) in ...

  12. Growth responses of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens to pruning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The responses of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens to pruning (removal of 0 or 60% of the green crown depth) in two lifts and nitrogen (N) fertiliser application (0 [N0], 100 [N1], 300 [N3] and 500 [N5] kg N ha–1) were compared at a site in south-east Tasmania under conditions where both species can be successfully grown.

  13. Gene flow in Prunus species in the context of novel trait risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cici, S Zahra H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2010-01-01

    Prunus species are important commercial fruit (plums, apricot, peach and cherries), nut (almond) and ornamental trees cultivated broadly worldwide. This review compiles information from available literature on Prunus species in regard to gene flow and hybridization within this complex of species. The review serves as a resource for environmental risk assessment related to pollen mediated gene flow and the release of transgenic Prunus. It reveals that Prunus species, especially plums and cherries show high potential for transgene flow. A range of characteristics including; genetic diversity, genetic bridging capacity, inter- and intra-specific genetic compatibility, self sterility (in most species), high frequency of open pollination, insect assisted pollination, perennial nature, complex phenotypic architecture (canopy height, heterogeneous crown, number of flowers produced in an individual plant), tendency to escape from cultivation, and the existence of ornamental and road side Prunus species suggest that there is a tremendous and complicated ability for pollen mediated gene movement among Prunus species. Ploidy differences among Prunus species do not necessarily provide genetic segregation. The characteristics of Prunu s species highlight the complexity of maintaining coexistence between GM and non-GM Prunus if there were commercial production of GM Prunus species. The results of this review suggest that the commercialization of one GM Prunus species can create coexistence issues for commercial non-GM Prunus production. Despite advances in molecular markers and genetic analysis in agroecology, there remains limited information on the ecological diversity, metapopulation nature, population dynamics, and direct measures of gene flow among different subgenera represented in the Prunus genus. Robust environmental impact, biosafety and coexistence assessments for GM Prunus species will require better understanding of the mechanisms of gene flow and hybridization

  14. Unusual presentation of prune belly syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demisse, Abayneh Girma; Berhanu, Ashenafi; Tadesse, Temesgen

    2017-12-04

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital malformation of unknown etiology, with the following triad of findings: abdominal muscle wall weakness, undescended testes, and urinary tract abnormalities. In most cases, detection of prune belly syndrome occurs during neonatal or infancy period. In this case report, we describe a 12-year-old boy from Ethiopia with the triad of findings of prune belly syndrome along with skeletal malformations. We are unaware of any previous report of prune belly syndrome in Ethiopia. A 12-year-old Amhara boy from the Northwest Gondar Amhara regional state presented to our referral hospital with a complaint of swelling over his left flank for the past 3 months. Maternal pregnancy course and medical history were noncontributory, and he had an attended birth at a health center. He has seven siblings, none of whom had similar symptoms. On examination he had a distended abdomen, asymmetric with bulging left flank, visible horizontal line, upward umbilical slit, and absent rectus abdominis muscles. His abdomen was soft with a tender cystic, bimanually palpable mass on the left flank measuring 13 × 11 cm. Both testes were undescended and he also has developmental dysplasia of the hips. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a large cystic mass in his left kidney area with echo debris and a hip X-ray showed bilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip. Intraoperative findings were cystic left kidney, both testes were intraperitoneal, tortuous left renal vein, enlarged bladder reaching above umbilicus, and left megaureter. bilateral orchidectomy and left nephrectomy were done. He was given intravenously administered antibiotics for treatment of pyelonephritis and discharged home with an appointment for follow up and possible abdominoplasty. In the current report delayed presentation contributed to testicular atrophy and decision for orchidectomy. Furthermore, he will be at potential risk for sex hormone abnormality. Therefore, diagnosis of prune

  15. Estimation of soil coverage of chopped pruning residues in olive orchards by image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jiménez-Jiménez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Residue chopping from orchard pruning is becoming a common practice in conservation agriculture after the establishment of eco-conditionality policies in the European Union. This type of residue is used to protect the soil from erosion and improve the water balance and fertility of soils by improving the organic matter content. However, no studies have evaluated the influence of pruning residues and size on soil coverage. This study examines the effect of different treatments on pruning residue soil coverage in an olive orchard (cv. Picual. Treatments consisted of two quantities of pruning residues, specifically, high (2.04 kg m-2 and low (1.02 kg m-2, and two chopping speeds, low (2.4 km h-1 and high (3.2 km h-1. The different treatments were evaluated by image analysis and pixel counting to determine the soil cover percentage, size, number and distribution of the pruning residues after chopping. After chopping, the soil cover percentage was 39% higher in the high quantity pruning residue treatments but was not significantly influenced by the chopping speed. The size and number of lignified residues was quantified via pixel counting. In the high quantity pruning residue treatments, the number of large lignified residues (> 6 cm2 was higher, and the number of pruning residues smaller than 2 cm2 was lower, when compared with low quantity pruning residue treatments. The high chopping speed treatments produced more smaller-sized pruning residues.

  16. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  17. Characterization and Comparison of the CPK Gene Family in the Apple (Malus × domestica and Other Rosaceae Species and Its Response to Alternaria alternata Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghan Wei

    Full Text Available As one of the Ca2+ sensors, calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK plays vital roles in immune and stress signaling, growth and development, and hormone responses, etc. Recently, the whole genome of apple (Malus × domestica, pear (Pyrus communis, peach (Prunus persica, plum (Prunus mume and strawberry (Fragaria vesca in Rosaceae family has been fully sequenced. However, little is known about the CPK gene family in these Rosaceae species. In this study, 123 CPK genes were identified from five Rosaceae species, including 37 apple CPKs, 37 pear CPKs, 17 peach CPKs, 16 strawberry CPKs, and 16 plum CPKs. Based on the phylogenetic tree topology and structural characteristics, we divided the CPK gene family into 4 distinct subfamilies: Group I, II, III, and IV. Whole-genome duplication (WGD or segmental duplication played vital roles in the expansion of the CPK in these Rosaceae species. Most of segmental duplication pairs in peach and plum may have arisen from the γ triplication (~140 million years ago [MYA], while in apple genome, many duplicated genes may have been derived from a recent WGD (30~45 MYA. Purifying selection also played a critical role in the function evolution of CPK family genes. Expression of apple CPK genes in response to apple pathotype of Alternaria alternata was verified by analysis of quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR. Expression data demonstrated that CPK genes in apple might have evolved independently in different biological contexts. The analysis of evolution history and expression profile laid a foundation for further examining the function and complexity of the CPK gene family in Rosaceae.

  18. Enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus In vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação de Prunus sp., o enraizamento tem sido considerado uma fase crítica, pois determina a sobrevivência das plantas durante a aclimatização. Dentre os fatores importantes ao enraizamento in vitro, destacam-se o genótipo e as auxinas por serem determinantes na indução e na formação de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de IBA no enraizamento in vitro dos porta-enxertos de espécies do gênero Prunus: cultivares Capdeboscq e GF677, e seleções VP411 e VP417. Para o enraizamento in vitro, brotos com 2-3cm de comprimento foram introduzidos em meio de Lepoivre suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 IBA. Observou-se que o porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' apresentou maior taxa de enraizamento e maior número de raízes in vitro, sendo superior aos demais genótipos quanto a estas características. O nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA esteve associado à maior taxa média de enraizamento (100%, 64% e 64,0%, respectivamente para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'GF677' e VP411. O nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA foi superior para a seleção VP417 com taxa de 64% de enraizamento. Para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq' e 'GF677', o número máximo de raízes foi de 9,6 e 5,2 raízes por broto, respectivamente, em resposta ao nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA, enquanto as seleções VP411 e VP417 apresentaram o maior número de raízes (3,6 e 3,9, respectivamente em resposta ao nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA.In Prunus sp. micropropagation of rooting is considered a critical stage, since it determines the plant survival during the acclimatization. Among important factors associated with rooting, the genotype and the auxins are considered important in the induction and formation of roots. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different IBA on the in vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. For the in vitro rooting stage, shoots of

  19. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... For the out groups, Sorbaria sorbifolia and Spiraea canto- niensis, were selected which have been proposed as the sister to Prunus in past studies e.g. Spiraea and Sorbaria which were supported by data from PGIP and Mat-K, separately and combined (Potter et al., 1999). ITS analysis. The aligned ITS ...

  20. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Mostert, L.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from

  1. Characterization of polymorphic SSRs among Prunus chloroplast genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An in silico mining process yielded 80, 75, and 78 microsatellites in the chloroplast genome of Prunus persica, P. kansuensis, and P. mume. A and T repeats were predominant in the three genomes, accounting for 67.8% on average and most of them were successful in primer design. For the 80 P. persica ...

  2. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prunus is found in all four provinces of Pakistan, that is, Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Baluchistan including Azad Kashmir region. Studies on the family Rosaceae is scanty in the Flora of Pakistan and there is a lot of taxonomic work yet to be done, for the proper classification and placement of different genera under different ...

  3. ( Prunus avium L.) as affected by training system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high quality cultivars on the dwarfing rootstocks in high density orchards. The most productive training system is used, providing an ideal condition for undisturbed growth and yield. The main objective of this study was to determine the best ...

  4. Cryopreservation of in vitro -grown shoot tips of apricot ( Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro grown apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cv. El-Hamawey shoot tips were successfully cryopreserved using an encapsulation-dehydration procedure. Shoot tips were encapsulated in calcium-alginate beads before preculture on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with different sucrose concentrations; 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, ...

  5. Kweker kan zelf toetsen op Xanthomonas in Prunus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Martin, W.S.; Kuik, van A.J.; Beckhoven, van J.R.C.M.; Raaij, van H.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Prime Diagnostics uit Wageningen heeft een methode ontwikkeld waarmee kwekers eenvoudig kunnen bepalen of Prunus is aangetast door de bacterie Xanthomonas arboricola pv pruni. Voor een officiële uitslag is nog steeds wel een test uitgevoerd door de nVWA of Naktuinbouw nodig.

  6. Slaat Xanthomonas dit jaar weer toe in Prunus laurocerasus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van J.; Dalfsen, van P.; Pham, K.T.K.

    2012-01-01

    Een diagnostische test moet duidelijk maken of er sprake is van Xanthomonas in Prunus laurocerasus. De bacterieziekte is namelijk makkelijk te verwarren met andere ziekten. Onderzoek, gefinancierd door het Productschap Tuinbouw, richt zich op het toetsen van moerplanten voordat hier van gestekt gaat

  7. [A case of Prune Belly Syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, S; Palomo Góngora, E; García, V

    1995-09-01

    Prune Belly Syndrome is a rare and complicated condition affecting the genitourinary organs and abdominal wall, it was named after the aspect of the abdomen after the bladder has been drained. In its fully developed form presents with the triad: megalocyst, abdominal muscle deficiency and cryptorchidism. We present a case of a patient with 22 weeks of gestation with ultrasonographic diagnosis of a large thoracoabdominal cyst. The delivery was by cesarean operation. We analyzed the literature.

  8. Critical Dynamics of the k-Core Pruning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Baxter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the theory of the k-core pruning process (progressive removal of nodes with degree less than k in uncorrelated random networks. We derive exact equations describing this process and the evolution of the network structure and solve them numerically and, in the critical regime of the process, analytically. We show that the pruning process exhibits three different behaviors depending on whether the mean degree ⟨q⟩ of the initial network is above, equal to, or below the threshold ⟨q⟩_{c} corresponding to the emergence of the giant k-core. We find that above the threshold the network relaxes exponentially to the k-core. The system manifests the phenomenon known as “critical slowing-down,” as the relaxation time diverges when ⟨q⟩ tends to ⟨q⟩_{c}. At the threshold, the dynamics become critical, characterized by a power-law relaxation (∝1/t^{2}. Below the threshold, a long-lasting transient process (a “plateau” stage occurs. This transient process ends with a collapse in which the entire network disappears completely. The duration of the process diverges when ⟨q⟩→⟨q⟩_{c}. We show that the critical dynamics of the pruning are determined by branching processes of spreading damage. Clusters of nodes of degree exactly k are the evolving substrate for these branching processes. Our theory completely describes this branching cascade of damage in uncorrelated networks by providing the time-dependent distribution function of branching. These theoretical results are supported by our simulations of the k-core pruning in Erdős-Rényi graphs.

  9. Partial polygon pruning of hydrographic features in automated generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stum, Alexander K.; Buttenfield, Barbara P.; Stanislawski, Larry V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a working method to automatically detect and prune portions of waterbody polygons to support creation of a multi-scale hydrographic database. Water features are known to be sensitive to scale change; and thus multiple representations are required to maintain visual and geographic logic at smaller scales. Partial pruning of polygonal features—such as long and sinuous reservoir arms, stream channels that are too narrow at the target scale, and islands that begin to coalesce—entails concurrent management of the length and width of polygonal features as well as integrating pruned polygons with other generalized point and linear hydrographic features to maintain stream network connectivity. The implementation follows data representation standards developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). Portions of polygonal rivers, streams, and canals are automatically characterized for width, length, and connectivity. This paper describes an algorithm for automatic detection and subsequent processing, and shows results for a sample of NHD subbasins in different landscape conditions in the United States.

  10. On the use of inexact, pruned hardware in atmospheric modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düben, Peter D; Joven, Jaume; Lingamneni, Avinash; McNamara, Hugh; De Micheli, Giovanni; Palem, Krishna V; Palmer, T N

    2014-06-28

    Inexact hardware design, which advocates trading the accuracy of computations in exchange for significant savings in area, power and/or performance of computing hardware, has received increasing prominence in several error-tolerant application domains, particularly those involving perceptual or statistical end-users. In this paper, we evaluate inexact hardware for its applicability in weather and climate modelling. We expand previous studies on inexact techniques, in particular probabilistic pruning, to floating point arithmetic units and derive several simulated set-ups of pruned hardware with reasonable levels of error for applications in atmospheric modelling. The set-up is tested on the Lorenz '96 model, a toy model for atmospheric dynamics, using software emulation for the proposed hardware. The results show that large parts of the computation tolerate the use of pruned hardware blocks without major changes in the quality of short- and long-time diagnostics, such as forecast errors and probability density functions. This could open the door to significant savings in computational cost and to higher resolution simulations with weather and climate models.

  11. Phenotypic diversity among peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) fruit in the national prunus collection at the USDA-ARS, National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diversity and relationships of fruit quality traits peach and nectarine (Prunus persica L.) in the National Prunus collection were studied using comprehensive phenotyping methods. The collection was re-propagated in 2013 and planted in 2014 providing a unique opportunity to evaluate an even-aged...

  12. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was

  13. Síndrome de prune belly: presentación de caso Prune belly syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    María Elena Toledo Lamela; Orlando Rafael Expósito Reyes; Roberto E Segura Figueredo; Elsa M Díaz Suárez; Carlos Tornés Salgado

    2008-01-01

    El síndrome de prune belly es una rara enfermedad congénita de causa desconocida. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido a término, del sexo masculino y de un día de nacido, que fue remitido al servicio de urología pediátrica por presentar ausencia de los músculos de la pared anterior del abdomen (rectos anteriores), criptorquidia bilateral y gran globo vesical. A partir de los hallazgos del examen físico se planteó el diagnóstico de síndrome de prune belly. Se encontraron anomalías asociada...

  14. PHENOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GENOTYPES FROM CATTLEY GUAVA AND GUAVA TREES SUBMITTED TO FRUCTIFICATION PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CINTIA APARECIDA BREMENKAMP

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Psidium cattleianum Sabine is a species from the Myrtaceae family that serves as an option for the native fruits cultivation, besides being considered a source of resistance to the Meloidogyne enterolobii nematode. Although cattley guava trees from this species produce flower buds in young branches, there are no reports of response to fructification pruning or phenological synchronism with the guava tree. The objective of this paper was the comparative evaluation of the genotype response of strawberry guava trees and guava cultivars to fructification pruning, thus, describing the phenology of both species under the same cultivation conditions. The experiment was conducted under an entirely randomized outline, in 7x2 factorial scheme, being evaluated seven genotypes (three from strawberry guava and four from guava trees, and with pruning performed in two seasons (May 2012 and March 2013, with three repetitions. Fructification pruning was executed by a lopping on all mature branches, from the last growth flow in the woody branch region. Were evaluated budding characteristics and fruit harvesting, as well as number of days from pruning to the observation of the phenological event. Cattley guava tree pruning stimulated fructification of all three genotypes after pruning done on May and two genotypes after the March’s pruning. There has been a sync between the guava cultivars’ flowering and both strawberry guava trees genotypes, when those were pruned on May.

  15. The potential of Prunus davidiana for introgression into peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] assessed by comparative mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulongne, M; Pascal, T; Arús, P; Kervella, J

    2003-07-01

    The potential for introgression of Prunus davidiana, a wild species related to peach, was evaluated with respect to problems of non-Mendelian segregation or suppressed recombination which often hamper breeding processes based on interspecific crosses. Three connected (F1, F2 and BC2) populations, derived from a cross between P. davidiana clone P1908 and the peach cultivar Summergrand were used. The intraspecific map of P. davidiana already established using the F1 progeny was complemented, and two interspecific maps, for the F2 and BC2 progenies, were built with a set of markers selected from the Prunus reference map. With the molecular data collected for the F2 map construction, regions with distorted marker segregation were detected on the genome; one third of all loci deviated significantly from the expected Mendelian ratios. However, some of these distorted segregations were probably not due to the interspecific cross. On linkage group 6, a skewed area under gametic selection was most likely influenced by the self-incompatibility gene of P. davidiana. Using anchor loci, a good colinearity between the three maps built and the Prunus reference map was demonstrated. Comparative mapping also revealed that homologous recombination occurred normally between P. davidiana and the Prunus persica genome. This confirmed the closeness of the two species. Higher recombination rates were generally observed between P. davidiana and P. persica than between Prunus amygdalus and P. persica. The consequences for plant breeding strategy are discussed. The three maps of the F1, F2 and BC2 progenies provide useful tools for QTL detection and marker-assisted selection, as well as for assessing the efficiency of the peach breeding scheme applied to introgress P. davidiana genes into peach cultivated varieties.

  16. transportados por Musca domestica. Lima-Perú.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Castillo Elera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar el porcentaje de parásitos de importancia en salud pública que son transportados por Musca domestica. Diseño: Estudio transversal, descriptivo no experimental. Lugar: Instituto de Medicina Tropical ¿Daniel A. Carrión¿, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Participantes: 1867 ejemplares de Musca domestica. Intervenciones: Técnicas de lavado y machacado de moscas; los sedimentos se analizaron con las coloraciones de Lugol y Kinyoun empleando microscopio óptico. Principales medidas de resultado: Análisis en frecuencias absolutas y relativas de parasitos encontrados en las técnicas de machacado y lavado. Resultados: Se hallaron los siguientes parásitos: Endolimax nana (41.13%, Blastocystis hominis (34.68%, Entamoeba hartmanni (10.86%, Entamoeba coli (4.34%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (4.34%, Giardia lamblia (2.17% y Toxocara canis (2,17%. Conclusiones: Los parásitos encontrados en Musca domestica del mercado Caquetá fueron los siguientes: Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba coli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Giardia lamblia y Toxocara canis, siendo el de mayor frecuencia E. nana en el total de la muestra y a su vez, en el subgrupo de lavado. Se describe el hallazgo de Toxocara canis no reportado en estudios similares.

  17. Abdominal wall reconstruction in the prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, J; Cavett, C; Eng, G

    1981-12-01

    In our institution, 12 patients have been encountered with prune belly syndrome. Eight children have undergone evaluation of their abdominal musculature by electromyography. Results of their studies show that major functioning or recoverable muscle exists in the lateral and upper sector of the abdomen, but that little or no muscle exists in the lower central abdomen. Based in part on these findings, an operation has been devised which spares all potentially functioning musculature and corresponding motor nerves, and disposes of nonfunctioning and nonrecoverable muscle. In terms of cosmetic appearance and gross motor testing, these growing boys show significant improvement.

  18. REDUCING COMPETITION IN AGROFORESTRY BY PRUNING NATIVE TREES

    OpenAIRE

    Nicodemo,Maria Luiza Franceschi; Castiglioni, Paula Priscila; Pezzopane,José Ricardo Macedo; Tholon, Patrícia; Carpanezzi, Antônio Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The degree to which pruning helps reestablish balance in agroforestry was assessed in a system established in São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil, in 2008. Seven native tree species were planted at a density of 600 trees/ha in five strips of three rows each, and annual crops were cultivated in the 17-m crop strips between the tree strips. Competition was established after 35 months, decreasing the aboveground biomass production of corn planted close to the trees. An assessment of black oat...

  19. Influence of plant prunings on soil properties and yield of yam minisett

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of the application of agroforestry prunings on improvement of the soil organic matter cannot be overemphasized. The study focused on the influence of plant prunings on soil properties and yield of yam minisett. There is no doubt that effective production of seed yam through minisett technique requires ...

  20. Prune belly syndrome associated with bilateral multicystic dysplastic kidneys and urethral obstruction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Akdag

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital disorder defined by a characteristic clinical triad: Abdominal muscle deficiency, severe urinary tract abnormalities, and bilateral cryptorchidism. We describe a preterm neonate of Prune Belly syndrome who had abdominal muscle deficiency, multicystic dysplastic kidney, urethral hypoplasia and pulmonary hypoplasia. We presented this rare case with the data gathered from the literatüre.

  1. Source-Sink Relations in Fruits VII. Effects of Pruning in Sour Cherry and Plum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Hansen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Sour cherries cv. 'Stevnsbær' and plums cv. 'Victoria' were heavily pruned in 1987. Fruit samples were collected during the growing season and concentrations of different quality components were determined. Pruning resulted in a small increase in fruit size, the effect being greater on the older...

  2. Response of smaller European elm bark beetles to pruning wounds on American elm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack H. Barger; William N. Cannon

    1987-01-01

    From 1982 to 1984, inflight smaller European elm bark beetles, Scolytus multistriatus, were captured on American elms, Ulmus americana, that were therapeutically pruned for Dutch elm disease control. Pruning wounds were treated with wound dressing or left untreated to determine effects of the treatments on beetle attraction....

  3. EVALUATION OF THE CUTTING FORCE ON VINE BRANCHES IN WINTER PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Pezzi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical pruning, usually integrated with manual finishing, still excites some doubts regarding the quality of the cut which appears not to be the best as precision and cleanliness. This aspect, probably conditioned by the model and the application of pruning machines, might also be affected by the characteristics of the vine branches in particular by their cutting force. In order to evaluate the cutting force on different vine type, laboratory and field trails were carried out. The experiments were set in order to evaluate this parameter during winter pruning in relation to three variables: vine type; branch size; pruning time. The results show how the cutting resistance of vine branches during vegetative rest depends on vine variety (Trebbiano 675 N Cabernet 1175 N, on the diameter of the canes (increase of force from 56 % to 86 % between the classes of diameter and on the pruning date (26% decrease of the cutting force in the latest period for Trebbiano and Sangiovese, and 32 % for Cabernet Sauvignon. Such variations, which can be considerable, affect directly the pruning results. High values of cutting force can generate tiring of operator in manual pruning or cutting damages on the vegetation during mechanical pruning.

  4. An Integrated Pruning Criterion for Ensemble Learning Based on Classification Accuracy and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Bin; Wang, Zhihai; Pan, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Ensemble pruning is an important issue in the field of ensemble learning. Diversity is a key criterion to determine how the pruning process has been done and measure what result has been derived. However, there is few formal definitions of diversity yet. Hence, three important factors that should......-climbing search, compared with other definitions of diversity and other criteria....

  5. Evaluation of soil carbon pools after the addition of prunings in subtropical orchards placed in terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez San Emeterio, Layla; Martín Reyes, Marino Pedro; Ortiz Bernad, Irene; Fernández Ondoño, Emilia; Sierra Aragón, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    The amount of carbon that can be stored in a soil depends on many factors, such as the type of soil, the chemical composition of plant rests and the climate, and is also highly affected by land use and soil management. Agricultural ecosystems are proved to absorb a large amount of CO2 from the atmosphere through several sustainable management practices. In addition, organic materials such as leaves, grass, prunings, etc., comprise a significant type of agricultural practices as a result of waste recycling. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of the addition of different organic prunings on the potential for carbon sequestration in agricultural soils placed in terraces. Three subtropical orchards were sampled in Almuñécar (Granada, S Spain): mango (Mangifera indica L.), avocado (Persea americana Mill.) and cherimoya (Annonacherimola Mill.). The predominant climate is Subtropical Mediterranean and the soil is an Eutric Anthrosol. The experimental design consisted in the application of prunings from avocado, cherimoya and mango trees, placed on the surface soil underneath their correspondent trees, as well as garden prunings from the green areas surrounding the town center on the surface soils under the three orchard trees. Control experiences without the addition of prunings were also evaluated. These experiences were followed for three years. Soil samples were taken at4 cm depth. They were dried for 3-4 days and then sieved (avocado prunings and their control soil, and between soils under garden prunings with cherimoya and their control soil. Regarding the water-soluble soil organic carbon, low differences were shown. Differences in mineral-associated and non-oxidable organic carbon fractions were also statistically significant between soils under avocado prunings and their control soil, and between soils under garden prunings with cherimoya and their control soil. No significant differences in any organic carbon pool were founded for the soils

  6. Phenotype profiling and multivariate statistical analysis of Spur-pruning type Grapevine in National Clonal Germplasm Repository (NCGR, Davis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most Korean vineyards employed spur-pruning type modified-T trellis system. This produce system is suitable to spur-pruning type cultivars. But most European table grape is not adaptable to this produce system because their fruitfulness is sufficient to cane-pruning type system. Total 20 of fruit ch...

  7. Síndrome de prune belly: presentación de caso Prune belly syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Toledo Lamela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de prune belly es una rara enfermedad congénita de causa desconocida. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido a término, del sexo masculino y de un día de nacido, que fue remitido al servicio de urología pediátrica por presentar ausencia de los músculos de la pared anterior del abdomen (rectos anteriores, criptorquidia bilateral y gran globo vesical. A partir de los hallazgos del examen físico se planteó el diagnóstico de síndrome de prune belly. Se encontraron anomalías asociadas como escoliosis y agenesia del pie derecho. En el estudio radiológico del tracto urinario se confirmaron malformaciones congénitas como valva de uretra posterior y megavejiga con uretero-hidronefrosis bilateral. Los análisis de laboratorio confirmaron la afectación de la función renal y una infección urinaria asociada. Se practicó una cistostomía a cielo abierto. El paciente falleció a los 10 días a causa de las complicaciones de la insuficiencia renalThe prune belly syndrome is a congenital rare disease of unknown origin. The case of a one-day-old full- term male newborn infant that was referred to the pediatric urology service for presenting absence of the muscles of the anterior abdomen wall (anterior rectus muscle, bilateral cryptochordism and big vesical globe, was presented. Starting from the findings of the physical examination, the prune belly syndrome was diagnosed. Associated abnormalities such as scoliosis and agenesis of the right leg were found. In the radiological study of the urinary tract, congenital malformations as posterior urethra valve and megabladder with bilateral ureterohydronephrosis were confirmed. The lab tests corroborated the affectation of the renal function and an associated urinary infection. The patient died at 10 days as a result of the complications of renal failure

  8. Pruning method for a cluster-based neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Kenneth I.; Khatri, Hiralal; Nguyen, Lam H.; Sichina, Jeffrey

    2000-08-01

    Many radar automatic target detection (ATD) algorithms operate on a set of data statistics or features rather than on the raw radar sensor data. These features are selected based on their ability to separate target data samples from background clutter samples. The ATD algorithms often operate on the features through a set of parameters that must be determined from a set of training data that are statistically similar to the data set to be encountered in practice. The designer usually attempts to minimize the number of features used by the algorithm -- a process commonly referred to as pruning. This not only reduces the computational demands of the algorithm, but it also prevents overspecialization to the samples from the training data set. Thus, the algorithm will perform better on a set of test data samples it has not encountered during training. The Optimal Brain Surgeon (OBS) and Divergence Method provide two different approaches to pruning. We apply the two methods to a set of radar data features to determine a new, reduced set of features. We then evaluate the resulting feature sets and discuss the differences between the two methods.

  9. A Pruning Neural Network Model in Credit Classification Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajiao Tang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, credit classification models are widely applied because they can help financial decision-makers to handle credit classification issues. Among them, artificial neural networks (ANNs have been widely accepted as the convincing methods in the credit industry. In this paper, we propose a pruning neural network (PNN and apply it to solve credit classification problem by adopting the well-known Australian and Japanese credit datasets. The model is inspired by synaptic nonlinearity of a dendritic tree in a biological neural model. And it is trained by an error back-propagation algorithm. The model is capable of realizing a neuronal pruning function by removing the superfluous synapses and useless dendrites and forms a tidy dendritic morphology at the end of learning. Furthermore, we utilize logic circuits (LCs to simulate the dendritic structures successfully which makes PNN be implemented on the hardware effectively. The statistical results of our experiments have verified that PNN obtains superior performance in comparison with other classical algorithms in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency.

  10. Susceptibility, Oviposition Preference, and Biology of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Prunus Spp. Rootstock Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, D; Lazzari, J C; Andreazza, F; Mayer, N A; Botton, M; Nava, D E

    2017-08-01

    Studying the susceptibility of peach trees to Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the major steps in the development of pest-resistant peach varieties. This work evaluated the susceptibility of 55 genotypes of the "Prunus Rootstock Collection" ("Coleção Porta-enxerto de Prunus") of Embrapa Temperate Climate (Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) to the natural infestation of G. molesta, assessed the oviposition preference of G. molesta in choice and no-choice bioassays, and estimated the biological parameters and the fertility life table on different Prunus spp. genotypes in the laboratory. Genotypes Prunus kansuensis (Rehder), I-67-52-9, and I-67-52-4 were the most susceptible to G. molesta infestation in the field (>60% of branches infested), while 'Sharpe' (Prunus angustifolia x Prunus spp.) and Prunus sellowii (Koehne) were the least infested (0% of branches infested). In choice and no-choice bioassays, G. molesta preferred to oviposit on P. kansuensis when compared with Sharpe. The Sharpe genotype also showed an antibiosis effect, resulting in negative effects on the fertility life table parameters when compared with the genotypes P. kansuensis and 'Capdeboscq.' The results found in the present study can provide information to initiate a long-term breeding program moving desired G. molesta resistance traits from the rootstock into the Prunus spp. cultivars. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Genomic analysis reveals candidate genes for PPV resistance in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharka disease, caused by Plum pox virus (PPV), is the most important disease affecting Prunus species. A major PPV resistance locus (PPVres) was previously mapped to the upper part of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) linkage group 1. In this study, a physical map of the PPVres locus in the PPV resistan...

  12. First steps in translating human cognitive processes of cane pruning grapevines into AI rules for automated robotic pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxton Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cane pruning of grapevines is a skilled task for which, internationally, there is a dire shortage of human pruners. As part of a larger project developing an automated robotic pruner, we have used artificial intelligence (AI algorithms to create an expert system for selecting new canes and cutting off unwanted canes. A domain and ontology has been created for AI, which reflects the expertise of expert human pruners. The first step in the creation of an expert system was to generate virtual vines, which were then ‘pruned’ by human pruners and also by the expert system in its infancy. Here we examined the decisions of 12 human pruners, for consistency of decision, on 60 virtual vines. 96.7% of the 12 pruners agreed on at least one cane choice after which there was diminishing agreement on which further canes to select for laying. Our results indicate that techniques developed in computational intelligence can be used to co-ordinate and synthesise the expertise of human pruners into a best practice format. This paper describes first steps in this knowledge elicitation process, and discusses the fit between cane pruning expertise and the expertise that can be elicited using AI based expert system techniques.

  13. Results of target tracking with a Musca domestica inspired sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Robert W; Khan, Arif; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Frost, Susan

    2014-01-01

    As a follow-up to previous work done at the University of Wyoming (and presented at a previous Rocky Mountain Bioengineering Symposium), this paper discusses the results of using a Musca domestica based sensor platform as a target tracking mechanism for the measurement of wing deflection of fixed-wing aircraft. The testing of the sensor hardware and accompanying software is described, and the results are analyzed. Work remains to be done to improve robustness and adaptability, but given specific operating conditions, the sensor is a viable alternative to other technologies, and provides results with improved efficiency, speed, and computational load.

  14. Effects of pruning in Monterey pine plantations affected by Fusarium circinatum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezos, D.; Lomba, J. M.; Martinez-Alvarez, P.; Fernandez, M.; Diez, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O'Donnell (1998) is the causal agent of Pitch Canker Disease (PCD) in Pinus species, producing damage to the main trunk and lateral branches as well as causing branch dieback. The disease has been detected recently in northern Spain in Pinus spp. seedlings at nurseries and in Pinus radiata D. Don adult trees in plantations. Fusarium circinatum seems to require a wound to enter the tree, not only that as caused by insects but also that resulting from damage by humans, i.e. mechanical wounds. However, the effects of pruning on the infection process have yet to be studied. The aim of the present study was to know how the presence of mechanical damage caused by pruning affects PCD occurrence and severity in P. radiata plantations. Fifty P. radiata plots (pruned and unpruned) distributed throughout 16 sites affected by F. circinatum in the Cantabria region (northern Spain) were studied. Symptoms of PCD presence, such as dieback, oozing cankers and trunk deformation were evaluated in 25 trees per plot and related to pruning effect. A significant relationship between pruning and the number of cankers per tree was observed, concluding that wounds caused by pruning increase the chance of pathogen infection. Other trunk symptoms, such as the presence of resin outside the cankers, were also higher in pruned plots. These results should be taken into account for future management of Monterey Pine plantations. (Author) 36 refs.

  15. Engulfing action of glial cells is required for programmed axon pruning during Drosophila metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasaki, Takeshi; Ito, Kei

    2004-04-20

    Axon pruning is involved in establishment and maintenance of functional neural circuits. During metamorphosis of Drosophila, selective pruning of larval axons is developmentally regulated by ecdysone and caused by local axon degeneration. Previous studies have revealed intrinsic molecular and cellular mechanisms that trigger this pruning process, but how pruning is accomplished remains essentially unknown. Detailed analysis of morphological changes in the axon branches of Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons revealed that during early pupal stages, clusters of neighboring varicosities, each of which belongs to different axons, disappear simultaneously shortly before the onset of local axon degeneration. At this stage, bundles of axon branches are infiltrated by the processes of surrounding glia. These processes engulf clusters of varicosities and accumulate intracellular degradative compartments. Selective inhibition of cellular functions, including endocytosis, in glial cells via the temperature-sensitive allele of shibire both suppresses glial infiltration and varicosity elimination and induces a severe delay in axon pruning. Selective inhibition of ecdysone receptors in the MB neurons severely suppressed not only axon pruning but also the infiltration and engulfing action of the surrounding glia. These findings strongly suggest that glial cells are extrinsically activated by ecdysone-stimulated MB neurons. These glial cells infiltrate the mass of axon branches to eliminate varicosities and break down axon branches actively rather than just scavenging already-degraded debris. We therefore propose that neuron-glia interaction is essential for the precisely coordinated axon-pruning process during Drosophila metamorphosis.

  16. Rootstock on vine performance and wine quality of ‘Syrah’ under double pruning management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Alcântara Novelli Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the Brazilian Southeast, the production of high quality wines is attained by a new management approach called double pruning. This management changes the harvesting of wine grape (Vitis vinifera L. from wet summer to dry winter through a two pruning procedures carried out during the year. The first pruning is done during the winter to induce a vegetative cycle (all clusters are removed and a second pruning is done during the summer to induce the reproductive cycle. In this study, ten different rootstocks were compared in order to optimize yield and wine quality of Syrah vines conducted under autumn-winter season by double pruning approach. Syrah grapevines grafted onto ‘Rupestris du Lot’ and ‘IAC 766’ showed the highest pruning weight, while ‘110 Richter’ and ‘161-49 Courdec’ induced the lowest cane vigor. The average production of two seasons identified ‘IAC 766’, ‘Kober 5BB’ and ‘Rupestris du Lot’ as the most productive rootstocks. In both seasons, the grape quality was more influenced by the plant development status than by rootstocks. ‘Syrah’ wine from vigorous and high yielding rootstocks, ‘IAC 766’ and ‘Rupestris du Lot’, showed satisfactory wine phenolic composition and alcohol/acidity balance. This study showed that vigorous rootstock increased yield without compromising grape and winter wine quality of Syrah grapevines subjected to double pruning management in the Brazilian Southeast.

  17. Effect of root pruning and irrigation regimes on leaf water relations and xylem ABA and ionic concentrations in pear trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yufei; Bertelsen, Marianne G.; Petersen, Karen Koefoed

    2014-01-01

    pruning caused water deficit stress in pear trees. Further RP trees had significantly lower concentrations of total cations and anions and the sum of cations and anions than the NP trees implying root pruning decreased acquisition of nutrients from the soil. In the root pruned trees, the leaf water......Root pruning is an effective approach for controlling vegetative growth of pear trees (Pyrus communis L.), yet the underlying mechanisms for such effect remain largely elusive. A two-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of root pruning and irrigation regimes on leaf water...... relation characteristics, stomatal conductance and xylem sap abscisic acid (ABA) and ionic concentrations. Results showed that leaf water potential, leaf turgor and stomatal conductance of root pruning (RP) treatment was significantly lower than those of non-root pruning (NP) treatment indicating that root...

  18. Post-pruning shoot growth increases fruit abscission and reduces stem carbohydrates and yield in macadamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen, Lisa M; Robertson, David; Sedgley, Margaret; Kristiansen, Paul; Olesen, Trevor

    2011-05-01

    There is good evidence for deciduous trees that competition for carbohydrates from shoot growth accentuates early fruit abscission and reduces yield but the effect for evergreen trees is not well defined. Here, whole-tree tip-pruning at anthesis is used to examine the effect of post-pruning shoot development on fruit abscission in the evergreen subtropical tree macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia, M. integrifolia × tetraphylla). Partial-tree tip-pruning is also used to test the localization of the effect. In the first experiment (2005/2006), all branches on trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R treatment) and shoots were removed from others (NR treatment). Fruit set and stem total non-structural carbohydrates (TNSC) over time, and yield were measured. In the second experiment (2006/2007), upper branches of trees were tip-pruned at anthesis, some trees were allowed to re-shoot (R) and shoots were removed from others (NR). Fruit set and yield were measured separately for upper (pruned) and lower (unpruned) branches. In the first experiment, R trees set far fewer fruit and had lower yield than NR trees. TNSC fell and rose in all treatments but the decline in R trees occurred earlier than in NR trees and coincided with early shoot growth and the increase in fruit abscission relative to the other treatments. In the second experiment, fruit abscission on upper branches of R trees increased relative to the other treatments but there was little difference in fruit abscission between treatments on lower branches. This study is the first to demonstrate an increase in fruit abscission in an evergreen tree in response to pruning. The effect appeared to be related to competition for carbohydrates between post-pruning shoot growth and fruit development and was local, with shoot growth on pruned branches having no effect on fruit abscission on unpruned branches.

  19. Growing degree-days for the `Niagara Rosada' grapevine pruned in different seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpare, Fábio Vale; Scarpare Filho, João Alexio; Rodrigues, Alessandro; Reichardt, Klaus; Angelocci, Luiz Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Plant growth and development are proportional to biological time, or the thermal time of the species, which can be defined as the integral of the temperature over time between the lower and upper temperature developmental thresholds. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the growing degree-day (GDD) approach for vines of the `Niagara Rosada' cultivar pruned in winter and summer seasons, and physiological phases (mobilisation and reserve accumulation) in a humid subtropical region. The experiment was carried out on 13-year-old plants in Piracicaba, São Paulo State-Brazil, evaluating 24 production cycles, 12 from the winter pruning, and 12 from the summer pruning. The statistical design was comprised of randomised blocks, using the pruning dates as treatment: 20 July, 4 August, 19 August, and 3 September (winter); 1 February, 15 February, 2 March, and 16 March (summer). Comparison of the mean values of GDD among pruning dates was evaluated by the Tukey test, and comparison between pruning seasons was made by the F test for orthogonal contrasts, both at the 5% probability level. The results showed good agreement between the values of GDD required to complete the cycle from the winter pruning until harvest when compared with other studies performed with the same cultivar grown in the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. However, there was a consistent statistical difference between GDD computed for winter and summer pruning, which allowed us to conclude that this bio-meteorological index is not sufficient to distinguish vines pruned in different seasons and physiological phases applied in humid subtropical climates.

  20. Growing degree-days for the 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine pruned in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpare, Fábio Vale; Scarpare Filho, João Alexio; Rodrigues, Alessandro; Reichardt, Klaus; Angelocci, Luiz Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Plant growth and development are proportional to biological time, or the thermal time of the species, which can be defined as the integral of the temperature over time between the lower and upper temperature developmental thresholds. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficiency of the growing degree-day (GDD) approach for vines of the 'Niagara Rosada' cultivar pruned in winter and summer seasons, and physiological phases (mobilisation and reserve accumulation) in a humid subtropical region. The experiment was carried out on 13-year-old plants in Piracicaba, São Paulo State-Brazil, evaluating 24 production cycles, 12 from the winter pruning, and 12 from the summer pruning. The statistical design was comprised of randomised blocks, using the pruning dates as treatment: 20 July, 4 August, 19 August, and 3 September (winter); 1 February, 15 February, 2 March, and 16 March (summer). Comparison of the mean values of GDD among pruning dates was evaluated by the Tukey test, and comparison between pruning seasons was made by the F test for orthogonal contrasts, both at the 5% probability level. The results showed good agreement between the values of GDD required to complete the cycle from the winter pruning until harvest when compared with other studies performed with the same cultivar grown in the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. However, there was a consistent statistical difference between GDD computed for winter and summer pruning, which allowed us to conclude that this bio-meteorological index is not sufficient to distinguish vines pruned in different seasons and physiological phases applied in humid subtropical climates.

  1. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents: The role of the cotyledonary petiole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W; Agosta, Salvatore J; Steele, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak (Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ≥6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to

  2. Ability of chestnut oak to tolerate acorn pruning by rodents. The role of the cotyledonary petiole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xianfeng; Curtis, Rachel; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Steele, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Acorns of many white oak species germinate soon after autumn seed fall, a characteristic widely interpreted as a general adaptation to escape predation by small rodents. However, the mechanism by which early, rapid germination allows escape and/or tolerance of seed damage remains unclear. Here we reported how specific germination traits of chestnut oak ( Quercus montana) acorns, and those of other white oak species, allow successful escape from acorn pruning by rodents. During germination, chestnut oak acorns develop elongated cotyledonary petioles, which extend beyond the distal end of the acorn (1-2 cm) to the point at which the epicotyl and radicle diverge. However, granivorous rodents often prune the taproots above or below the plumule when eating or caching these germinated acorns in autumn. Hence, we hypothesized elongation of cotyledonary petioles allows chestnut oaks to escape acorn pruning by rodents. We simulated pruning by rodents by cutting the taproot at different stages of germination (radicle length) to evaluate the regeneration capacity of four resulting seedling remnants following taproot pruning: acorns with the plumule (remnant I), acorns without the plumule (remnant II), and pruned taproots with (remnant III) or without the plumule (remnant IV). Our results showed that remnant I germinated into seedlings regardless of the length of the taproot previously pruned and removed. Remnant III successfully germinated and survived provided that taproots were ≥6 cm in length, whereas remnant IV was unable to produce seedlings. Remnant II only developed adventitious roots near the severed ends of the cotyledonary petioles. Field experiments also showed that pruned taproots with the plumule successfully regenerated into seedlings. We suggest that the elongated cotyledonary petioles, typical of most white oak species in North America, represent a key adaptation that allows frequent escape from rodent damage and predation. The ability of pruned taproots to

  3. Feticismo e desiderio in Poulet aux prunes di Marjane Satrapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rimini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio si propone di individuare e descrivere le sfumature erotiche e sentimentali del film Poulet aux prunes di Marjane Satrapi, felice adattamento dell’omonima graphic novel. Il racconto procede per scarti, ellissi, anticipazioni e flasback, dando luogo a una narrazione labirintica dalla singolare trama arabescante. Le sottili dinamiche seduttive messe in campo dal complesso stile di regia di Satrapi-Paronnaud vengono analizzate alla luce delle categorie feticistiche individuate da Massimo Fusillo, che offrono interessanti modelli di interazione fra desiderio e creatività. L’esito di tale indagine consente di ampliare il dibattito relativo al rapporto di scambio e interferenza fra oggetti, pulsioni e sguardi nel cinema contemporaneo.

  4. Generalized k-core pruning process on directed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua

    2017-06-01

    The resilience of a complex interconnected system concerns the size of the macroscopic functioning node clusters after external perturbations based on a random or designed scheme. For a representation of interconnected systems with directional or asymmetrical interactions among constituents, the directed network is a convenient choice. Yet, how the interaction directions affect the network resilience still lacks a thorough exploration. Here, we study the resilience of directed networks with a generalized k-core pruning process as a simple failure procedure based on both the in- and out-degrees of nodes, in which any node with an in-degree  networks more vulnerable against perturbations based on in- and out-degrees separately.

  5. Associated rare anomalies in prune belly syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fette

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The triad of deficient abdominal wall musculature, undescended testes and urinary tract anomalies characterizes the Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS. PBS can be associated with other comorbid urological and non urological conditions. But the full pathogenesis and best treatment is still a matter of debate. A term newborn with a classical PBS (Woodhouse Group 2, Smith and Woodard Group 2 plus lung hypoplasia and funnel chest deformity, a megapenis with a tight phimosis and an obturated anterior urethra is presented. Unfortunately, the baby died in urosepsis and renal failure in his 3rd week of life, despite urine drainage surgery and peritoneal dialysis undertaken. According to the best of our knowledge, this is an unique combination of rare anomalies in PBS patients.

  6. Musca domestica laboratory susceptibility to three ethnobotanical culinary plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zayyat, Elham A; Soliman, Mohammed I; Elleboudy, Noha A; Ofaa, Shaimaa E

    2015-10-01

    Throughout history, synanthropic Musca domestica had remained a worldwide problem whenever poor sanitation and bad hygienic conditions exists. Houseflies growing resistance to chemical insecticides are a rising environmental problem that necessitates search for alternatives. Mentha cervina, Ocimum basilicum, and Coriandrum sativum were tested for bioactivity on M. domestica adults and larvae. They are culinary Mediterranean plants. In adulticidal bioassay, using both CDC bottles and fumigation techniques, basil was the most effective extract with LC50 1.074 and 34.996 g/L, respectively. Concerning larvicidal bioassay by fumigation technique, coriander had the highest toxicity index with LC50 29.521 g/L. In both dipping and feeding technique, basil had the highest toxicity with LC50 32.643 and 0.749 g/L, respectively. Basil showed the highest toxicity results in four out of the five models tested followed by coriander then mint; this result highlights the potentiality of basil as a green insecticide in management of flies and opens new insight in the industrialization of basil-based fly control products.

  7. Quantifying pruning impacts on olive tree architecture and annual canopy growth by using UAV-based 3D modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Brenes, F M; López-Granados, F; de Castro, A I; Torres-Sánchez, J; Serrano, N; Peña, J M

    2017-01-01

    Tree pruning is a costly practice with important implications for crop harvest and nutrition, pest and disease control, soil protection and irrigation strategies. Investigations on tree pruning usually involve tedious on-ground measurements of the primary tree crown dimensions, which also might generate inconsistent results due to the irregular geometry of the trees. As an alternative to intensive field-work, this study shows a innovative procedure based on combining unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology and advanced object-based image analysis (OBIA) methodology for multi-temporal three-dimensional (3D) monitoring of hundreds of olive trees that were pruned with three different strategies (traditional, adapted and mechanical pruning). The UAV images were collected before pruning, after pruning and a year after pruning, and the impacts of each pruning treatment on the projected canopy area, tree height and crown volume of every tree were quantified and analyzed over time. The full procedure described here automatically identified every olive tree on the orchard and computed their primary 3D dimensions on the three study dates with high accuracy in the most cases. Adapted pruning was generally the most aggressive treatment in terms of the area and volume (the trees decreased by 38.95 and 42.05% on average, respectively), followed by trees under traditional pruning (33.02 and 35.72% on average, respectively). Regarding the tree heights, mechanical pruning produced a greater decrease (12.15%), and these values were minimal for the other two treatments. The tree growth over one year was affected by the pruning severity and by the type of pruning treatment, i.e., the adapted-pruning trees experienced higher growth than the trees from the other two treatments when pruning intensity was low (<10%), similar to the traditionally pruned trees at moderate intensity (10-30%), and lower than the other trees when the pruning intensity was higher than 30% of the crown volume

  8. CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. EM SUBSTRATOS À BASE DE LODO DE ESGOTO COMPOSTADO E FERTILIZANTE MINERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Bergamini Scheer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of solid waste generates the need for its use. An opportunity is the use of sewage sludge to attend the demand for alternative inputs in the agricultural and forestry practices. The aim of thisstudy was to evaluate the performance of Prunus brasiliensis (Cham. & Schltdl. D. Dietr. (pessegueiro - bravo grown on substrates prepared from aerobic sewage sludge composted with ground tree pruningand with different levels of a granulated fertilizer, and to compare its performance with those grown on commercial substrate, which is widely used in forest nurseries. The experiment was conducted in a shadehouse (from July/08 to Oct/08 and in an outdoor growing area (from Nov/08 to Feb/09 at Water and Sanitation Company of Paraná, located in Araucária, southern Brazil. Three different substrates were used: commercial substrate, consisting of composted pine bark and vermiculite, and 3:1 (v:v and 2:1 (v:v composted substrate based on crushed tree pruning and sewage sludge. The following variables were measured: seedling height, diameter and dry biomass of leaves and branches. The results showed higher growth rates of seedlings grown on substrates containing sewage sludge than on those grown on commercial substrate. Both composts with sewage sludge, using the two levels of fertilization (2.7 and 4 g dm-3, present similar results for the majority of the variables tested.

  9. Supertrees Based on the Subtree Prune-and-Regraft Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whidden, Christopher; Zeh, Norbert; Beiko, Robert G

    2014-07-01

    Supertree methods reconcile a set of phylogenetic trees into a single structure that is often interpreted as a branching history of species. A key challenge is combining conflicting evolutionary histories that are due to artifacts of phylogenetic reconstruction and phenomena such as lateral gene transfer (LGT). Many supertree approaches use optimality criteria that do not reflect underlying processes, have known biases, and may be unduly influenced by LGT. We present the first method to construct supertrees by using the subtree prune-and-regraft (SPR) distance as an optimality criterion. Although calculating the rooted SPR distance between a pair of trees is NP-hard, our new maximum agreement forest-based methods can reconcile trees with hundreds of taxa and>50 transfers in fractions of a second, which enables repeated calculations during the course of an iterative search. Our approach can accommodate trees in which uncertain relationships have been collapsed to multifurcating nodes. Using a series of benchmark datasets simulated under plausible rates of LGT, we show that SPR supertrees are more similar to correct species histories than supertrees based on parsimony or Robinson-Foulds distance criteria. We successfully constructed an SPR supertree from a phylogenomic dataset of 40,631 gene trees that covered 244 genomes representing several major bacterial phyla. Our SPR-based approach also allowed direct inference of highways of gene transfer between bacterial classes and genera. A Small number of these highways connect genera in different phyla and can highlight specific genes implicated in long-distance LGT. [Lateral gene transfer; matrix representation with parsimony; phylogenomics; prokaryotic phylogeny; Robinson-Foulds; subtree prune-and-regraft; supertrees.]. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.

  10. Lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) oviposition on Prunus germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Beckman, T G; Horton, D L

    2011-12-01

    The lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), is a serious pest of peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, across the southeastern United States. We examined oviposition by S. pictipes on field-grown Prunus scion and rootstock cultivars and two endemic Prunus spp. when sawn limbs, not roots, were assayed in the laboratory. A choice test compared oviposition on the peach scion 'Harvester', peach rootstock 'Guardian', plum×peach hybrid rootstock 'MP-29', and the plum hybrid rootstock 'Sharpe'. A significantly lower percentage of eggs occurred on limbs of Sharpe rootstock than other choices. A choice test using two endemic hosts, black cherry (P. serotina Ehrh.) and Chickasaw plum (P. angustifolia Marsh.), along with Sharpe rootstock, found a lower percentage of eggs on limbs of Sharpe than either endemic host. However, when only limbs of Sharpe and a decoy were used, almost all eggs were laid on Sharpe. Interestingly, when Harvester and Sharpe limbs were paired side by side, a higher percentage of eggs were recovered from the Harvester limb than from the Sharpe limb. An analysis of volatiles from Sharpe may identify why fewer eggs were laid on it. Because S. pictipes attacks host trees above ground and Sharpe rootstock on grafted trees grows below ground, this rootstock might be a management option against the congeneric, root-attacking peachtree borer, S. exitiosa (Say). Our results suggest that high budding a peach scion onto Sharpe rootstock, thus allowing the rootstock to serve as the trunk, warrants further investigation against S. exitiosa under orchard conditions.

  11. Síndrome de Prune Belly: Presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura Prune Belly Syndrome: Case report and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Franz Guerrero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El síndrome de Prune Belly (SPB, también conocido como el síndrome de Eagle Barrett, se caracteriza por una triada de anomalías que incluye grados variables de hipoplasia de la musculatura abdominal, anomalías del tracto urinario y criptorquidia bilateral. Objetivo: Se describe el caso de un paciente masculino con Síndrome de Prune Belly y se realiza una revisión de la literatura sobre esta rara enfermedad. Conclusión: La característica arrugada del abdomen similar a una ciruela pasa, le da el nombre al síndrome. Además, puede estar asociado a alteraciones cardiovasculares, respiratorias, ortopédicas y gastrointestinales. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 78-85Introduction: Prune-belly syndrome, also known as Eagle-Barrett syndrome is characterized by a triad of anomalies that include varying degrees of abdominal musculature hypoplasia, urinary tract anomalies, and bilateral cryptorchidism. Objective: We describe the case of a male patient with Prune Belly Syndrome and we review the literature on this rare disease. Conclusions: The characteristic wrinkled, prune-like abdomen, gives the name to the syndrome. Can also be associated with cardiovascular, respiratory, orthopedic and gastrointestinal anomalies. Salud UIS 2010; 42: 78-85.

  12. EVALUATION OF TEMPORALVARIATIONS IN MOISTURE AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF VINE AND OLIVE PRUNING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porceddu, Pier Riccardo; Rosati, Laura; Dionigi, Marco

    2012-01-01

    .... The calorific value is significantly influenced by the moisture content of wood. This work has evaluated the changes in moisture content and calorific value with time for different harvesting and storage systems of vine and olive pruning...

  13. [On breeding burst-resistant self-pruning tomatoes : Preliminary communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, M; Schwanitz, F

    1968-01-01

    From crossings of a self-pruning German commercial tomato variety with medium sized round fruits, relative resistance against bursting in rain with a self-pruning Central American form with medium sized pruneshaped and never bursting fruits a selfpruning F1 was obtained whose round fruits of medium size never burst. In the F2 a greater number of self-pruning types with round fruits completely burst-resistant and of medium size was found. One self-pruning and burst-resistant plant had remarkably large fruits. Furthermore, two dwarfs and a great number of "cherry"-tomatoes were found. The value of these findings for plant breeding and evolution is discussed.

  14. Valor diagnostico del Dominic Interactive Assessment con ninos expuestos a violencia domestica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de la Osa, Nuria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; Olaya, Beatriz; Domenech, Josep Maria

    2011-01-01

    ...) en una muestra de ninos espanoles expuestos a violencia domestica (VD). Los participantes en el estudio fueron 55 ninos de entre 6 y 11 anos cuyas madres acudian a un centro de asesoramiento para victimas de VD...

  15. Regulating mineralization rates of Tithonia diversifolia and Lantana camara prunings to improve phosphorus availability in calcareous soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Nuraini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of mixing of Tithonia diversifolia and Lantana camara prunings to improve synchronization between P released from the prunings with crop demand for P was studied in a laboratory and in a glasshouse. Tithonia diversifolia prunings (Td, Lantana camara prunings (Lc, and farmyard manure (Pk were thoroughly mixed with the proportion (% of dry weight of; 25Td +75 Lc ; 50Td +50 Lc ; 75Td +25 Lc ; 90Lc +10 Pk ; 45Td +45 +10 Lc Pk ; 100Td and 100Lc, and then mixed with 100 g of air-dried soil with a rate equivalent to 100 kg P / ha. Results of the study showed that the pruning mixtures decomposed and mineralized faster than that of Lantana camara pruning only, but slower than that of Tithonia diversifolia pruning only. The amount of P released from the pruning mixtures increased with increasing proportion of Tithonia diversifolia pruning in the mixtures. Increasing proportion of Tithonia diversifolia pruning in the mixture applied to the soil increased the amount of P taken up by maize.

  16. Congenital megalourethra in 2 weeks old boy associated with Prune-Belly syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawal Barau Abdullahi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The megalourethra is a rare congenital anomaly of the penile urethra. It is characterized by the congenital absence of the corpus spongiosum and/or corpus cavernosum. It is especially common associated with Prune-Belly syndrome, and with upper tract abnormalities. We present a 2 weeks old boy with congenital megalourethra because of its association with the Prune-Belly syndrome.

  17. Pseudo Prune Belly Syndrome: Diagnosis Revealed by Imaging ? A Case Report and Brief Review

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, Hemal; Sethi, Sanjay; Garg, Jatin; Ahluwalia, Amrit Pal

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS) is a rare entity, usually found in male neonates. It comprises complex urinary tract anomalies, bilateral undescended testis and absence of anterior abdominal wall muscles. Patients with unilateral abdominal wall deficiency, unilateral undescended testis and female neonates with abdominal wall laxity are classified as Pseudo Prune Belly syndrome (PPBS). Reports on PPBS do not highlight the radiological and imaging characteristics of this syndrome ...

  18. Prune belly syndrome in an Egyptian infant with Down syndrome: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Metwalley Kotb A; Farghalley Hekma S; Abd-Elsayed Alaa A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain aetiology almost exclusive to males. The association between prune belly syndrome and Down syndrome is very rare. Case presentation A 4-month-old Egyptian boy was admitted to our institute for management of acute bronchiolitis. He was born at full term by normal vaginal delivery. His mother, a 42-year-Egyptian villager with six other children, had no antenatal or prenatal care. On examination, the boy was fou...

  19. Growth and fruit bearing of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radunic

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Die Flachkronen- Erziehung bei Zwetschen. Erwerbsobstbau, 32(2): 39-42. Kappel F, Bouthillier M (1995). Rootstock, severity of dormant pruning, and summer pruning influences on peach tree size, yield, and fruit quality. Can. J. Plant Sci. 75: 491-496. Lang GA (2001). Intensive Sweet Cherry Orchard ...

  20. Pengaruh Lama Penyimpanan Rimpang Kunyit (Curcuma Domestica Vahl) terhadap Daya Hambat Antioksidan

    OpenAIRE

    Suparmajid, Armin H; Sabang, Sri Mulyani; Ratman, Ratman

    2016-01-01

    The research about the effect of storage time of tumeric (curcuma domestica vahl) for inhibition of antioxidant has been conducted. The study aims to determine the effect of storage time of tumeric (curcuma domestica vahl) for inhibition of antioxidants as well as to determine how much inhibition of antioxidant found in tumeric. This study used a variation of storage time namely 8, 13 and 18 days. The extract of tumeric was obtained by maceration method using ethanol. The antioxidant activity...

  1. Assessment of Prunus persica fruit softening using a proteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P, Ricardo Nilo; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Orellana, Ariel

    2012-02-16

    Fruit ripening in Prunus persica involves a number of physiological changes, being one of the most significant the mesocarp softening in melting varieties. In order to get a better understanding of the molecular processes involved in this phenomenon, the protein accumulation patterns in firm and soft fruit of three peach and two nectarine melting flesh varieties were assessed using 2D gel analysis. A General Linear Model (GLM) two-way analysis of variance determined that 164 of the 621 protein spots analyzed displayed a differential accumulation associated with the softening process. Among them, only 14 proteins changed their accumulation in all the varieties assessed, including proteins mostly involved in carbohydrates and cell wall metabolism as well as fruit senescence. The analysis among varieties showed that 195 and 189 spots changed within the firm and soft fruit conditions, respectively. Despite the changes in relative abundance in the spot proteins, the proteome is conserved among varieties and during the transition from firm to soft fruit. Only two spots proteins exhibited a qualitative change in all the conditions assessed. These results are in agreement with the notion that Prunus persica commercial varieties have a narrow genetic background. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PRUNE is crucial for normal brain development and mutated in microcephaly with neurodevelopmental impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollo, Massimo; Ahmed, Mustafa; Ferrucci, Veronica; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asadzadeh, Fatemeh; Carotenuto, Marianeve; Maroofian, Reza; Al-Amri, Ahmed; Singh, Royana; Scognamiglio, Iolanda; Mojarrad, Majid; Musella, Luca; Duilio, Angela; Di Somma, Angela; Karaca, Ender; Rajab, Anna; Al-Khayat, Aisha; Mohan Mohapatra, Tribhuvan; Eslahi, Atieh; Ashrafzadeh, Farah; Rawlins, Lettie E; Prasad, Rajniti; Gupta, Rashmi; Kumari, Preeti; Srivastava, Mona; Cozzolino, Flora; Kumar Rai, Sunil; Monti, Maria; Harlalka, Gaurav V; Simpson, Michael A; Rich, Philip; Al-Salmi, Fatema; Patton, Michael A; Chioza, Barry A; Efthymiou, Stephanie; Granata, Francesca; Di Rosa, Gabriella; Wiethoff, Sarah; Borgione, Eugenia; Scuderi, Carmela; Mankad, Kshitij; Hanna, Michael G; Pucci, Piero; Houlden, Henry; Lupski, James R; Crosby, Andrew H; Baple, Emma L

    2017-04-01

    PRUNE is a member of the DHH (Asp-His-His) phosphoesterase protein superfamily of molecules important for cell motility, and implicated in cancer progression. Here we investigated multiple families from Oman, India, Iran and Italy with individuals affected by a new autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and degenerative disorder in which the cardinal features include primary microcephaly and profound global developmental delay. Our genetic studies identified biallelic mutations of PRUNE1 as responsible. Our functional assays of disease-associated variant alleles revealed impaired microtubule polymerization, as well as cell migration and proliferation properties, of mutant PRUNE. Additionally, our studies also highlight a potential new role for PRUNE during microtubule polymerization, which is essential for the cytoskeletal rearrangements that occur during cellular division and proliferation. Together these studies define PRUNE as a molecule fundamental for normal human cortical development and define cellular and clinical consequences associated with PRUNE mutation. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  3. Síndrome de Prune Belly: Presentación de un caso y revisión de la literatura Prune Belly Syndrome: Case report and review

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Franz Guerrero; Carlos Augusto Cuadros; Diana Carolina Archila; Sandra Milena Beltrán; Gustavo Adolfo Cuadros

    2010-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de Prune Belly (SPB), también conocido como el síndrome de Eagle Barrett, se caracteriza por una triada de anomalías que incluye grados variables de hipoplasia de la musculatura abdominal, anomalías del tracto urinario y criptorquidia bilateral. Objetivo: Se describe el caso de un paciente masculino con Síndrome de Prune Belly y se realiza una revisión de la literatura sobre esta rara enfermedad. Conclusión: La característica arrugada del abdomen similar a una ciruel...

  4. O pessegueiro em pomar compacto. IX. dez anos de produção de cultivares sob poda drástica bienal The peach meadow orchard system. IX. yield of cultivars during ten years on biennial drastic pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desenvolvimento vegetativo e reprodutivo de quatorze cultivares e seleções de pessegueiro (Prunus persica L. Batsch e nectarineira cultivadas no espaçamento de 4 x 1,5 m (1.667 pl/ha, sob poda drástica bienal da copa. Pelos resultados obtidos no decênio 1986-95, verificou-se que as cultivares e seleções mais produtivas foram (número e kg de frutos/planta respectivamente: Aurora-1 (112; 9,2, IAC 680-178 (94; 8,5, IAC 680-13 (95; 8,1, Talismã (99; 8,1, Régis (98; 7,8 e Flordaprince (91; 7,7. No ano agrícola de 1995, as variáveis analisadas, área da secção transversal do tronco, área da folha, número e massa dos frutos por cm² de tronco, apresentaram diferenciação estatística entre cultivares e seleções. A poda drástica bienal da copa ocasionou, tanto em material precoce quanto mediano, diminuição de produção a cada duas safras, não chegando, porém, a prejudicar a produtividade média do pomar.Fourteen peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch and nectarine cultivars and selections, budded on Okinawa rootstock, were grown under the meadow orchard system, with biennial drastic pruning at 4 x 1.5 m spacing. Results obtained during ten years of experiments (1986-95 clearly indicate that 'Aurora-1', IAC 680-178, IAC 680-13, 'Talismã', 'Régis' and 'Flordaprince' peaches were the best, with an average yield (fruits per tree of 112, 9.2; 94, 8.5; 95, 8.1; 99, 8.1; 98, 7.8 and 91, 7.7 number and kg/tree respectively. The biennial drastic pruning decreased the yield of trees every two years, without affecting the average decennial productivity. In 1995, data on trunk cross-sectional area, fruits and mass per cm² of trunk and leaf area presented significant differences among cultivars and selections.

  5. Variation of Musca domestica L. acetylcholinesterase in Danish housefly populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Huang, Jing; Qiao, Chuan-Ling

    2006-01-01

    Anti-cholinesterase resistance is in many cases caused by modified acetylcholinesterase (MACE). A comparison was made of toxicological data and AChE activity gathered from 21 field populations and nine laboratory strains of houseflies, Musca domestica L., to elucidate the best way of generating...... data to provide advice for management strategies and gathering information for resistance risk assessment on the organophosphates azamethiphos and dimethoate and the carbamate methomyl, which have been the primary insecticides used against adult houseflies in Denmark. Cluster analysis was performed...... by methomyl and omethoate was shown to be linked to methomyl resistance. It was not possible to define any clusters that could be linked to azamethiphos or dimethoate resistance. The five mutations V180L, G262A, G262V, F327Y and G365A causing anticholinesterase resistance in houseflies were all identified...

  6. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Juice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maja Repajic; Danijela Bursac Kovacevic; Predrag Putnik; Verica Dragovic-Uzelac; Josipa Kust; Zrinka Cosic; Branka Levaj

    2015-01-01

      The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs...

  7. Screening of natural organic volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. honey: coumarin and vomifoliol as nonspecific biomarkers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Staver, Mladenka Malenica

    2011-01-01

    ...) were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing...

  8. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome-Wide Analysis Characterization and Evolution of SBP Genes in Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica and Prunus mume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abdullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP-box proteins are plant-specific transcriptional factors in plants. SBP TFs are known to play important functions in a diverse development process and also related in the process of evolutionary novelties. SBP gene family has been characterized in several plant species, but little is known about molecular evolution, functional divergence and comprehensive study of SBP gene family in Rosacea. We carried out genome-wide investigations and identified 14, 32, 17, and 17 SBP genes from four Rosacea species (Fragaria vesca, Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica and Prunus mume, respectively. According to phylogenetic analysis arranged the SBP protein sequences in seven groups. Localization of SBP genes presented an uneven distribution on corresponding chromosomes of Rosacea species. Our analyses designated that the SBP genes duplication events (segmental and tandem and divergence. In addition, due to highly conserved structure pattern of SBP genes, recommended that highly conserved region of microsyneteny in the Rosacea species. Type I and II functional divergence was detected among various amino acids in SBP proteins, while there was no positive selection according to substitutional model analysis using PMAL software. These results recommended that the purifying selection might be leading force during the evolution process and dominate conservation of SBP genes in Rosacea species according to environmental selection pressure analysis. Our results will provide basic understanding and foundation for future research insights on the evolution of the SBP genes in Rosacea.

  10. Disomic segregation of microsatellites in the tetraploid Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Rosaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2005-01-01

    Tetraploid black cherry (Prunus serotina) is the only Prunus L. species that has commercial importance as a timber tree in North America and is well known in Europe for its invasive behavior. Inheritance studies have never been performed and it is not known whether the species is allo or autotetraploid. Six microsatellite nuclear markers were used to test the inheritance in progenies of controlled crosses. Inheritance was proven to be disomic at all loci and a typical diploid mendelian inheri...

  11. Dictionary Pruning with Visual Word Significance for Medical Image Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Yang; Cai, Weidong; Hauptmann, Alexander G.; Liu, Sidong; Pujol, Sonia; Kikinis, Ron; Fulham, Michael J; Feng, David Dagan; Chen, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Content-based medical image retrieval (CBMIR) is an active research area for disease diagnosis and treatment but it can be problematic given the small visual variations between anatomical structures. We propose a retrieval method based on a bag-of-visual-words (BoVW) to identify discriminative characteristics between different medical images with Pruned Dictionary based on Latent Semantic Topic description. We refer to this as the PD-LST retrieval. Our method has two main components. First, we calculate a topic-word significance value for each visual word given a certain latent topic to evaluate how the word is connected to this latent topic. The latent topics are learnt, based on the relationship between the images and words, and are employed to bridge the gap between low-level visual features and high-level semantics. These latent topics describe the images and words semantically and can thus facilitate more meaningful comparisons between the words. Second, we compute an overall-word significance value to evaluate the significance of a visual word within the entire dictionary. We designed an iterative ranking method to measure overall-word significance by considering the relationship between all latent topics and words. The words with higher values are considered meaningful with more significant discriminative power in differentiating medical images. We evaluated our method on two public medical imaging datasets and it showed improved retrieval accuracy and efficiency. PMID:27688597

  12. Randomised clinical trial: dried plums (prunes) vs. psyllium for constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attaluri, A; Donahoe, R; Valestin, J; Brown, K; Rao, S S C

    2011-04-01

    Treatment of chronic constipation remains challenging with 50% of patients dissatisfied with current therapy. There is an unmet need for natural and safe alternatives. Dried plums (prunes) have been used traditionally for constipation but their efficacy is not known. Aim To assess and compare the effects of dried plums and psyllium in patients with chronic constipation. Subjects were enrolled in an 8-week, single-blind, randomised cross-over study. Subjects received either dried plums (50 g b.d., fibre=6 gm/day) or psyllium (11 g b.d., fibre=6 gm/day) for 3 weeks each, in a crossover trial with a 1-week washout period. Subjects maintained a daily symptom and stool diary. Assessments included number of complete spontaneous bowel movements per week, global relief of constipation, stool consistency, straining, tolerability and taste. Forty constipated subjects (m/f=3/37, mean age=38 years) participated. The number of complete spontaneous bowel movements per week (primary outcome measure) and stool consistency scores improved significantly (Ppsyllium. Straining and global constipation symptoms did not differ significantly between treatments (P=N.S.). Dried plums and psyllium were rated as equally palatable and both were safe and well tolerated. Dried plums are safe, palatable and more effective than psyllium for the treatment of mild to moderate constipation, and should be considered as a first line therapy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Prune belly syndrome, splenic torsion, and malrotation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Sifrance; Grossman, Eric; Barsness, Katherine A

    2013-02-01

    An 18 year old male with a history of prune belly syndrome (PBS) presented with acute abdominal pain and palpable left upper quadrant mass. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen revealed a medialized spleen with a "whirl sign" in the splenic vessels, consistent with splenic torsion. Coincidentally, the small bowel was also noted to be on the right side of the abdomen, while the colon was located on the left, indicative of malrotation. Emergent diagnostic laparoscopy confirmed splenic torsion and intestinal malrotation. Successful laparoscopic reduction of the splenic torsion was achieved, however, conversion to an open procedure by a vertical midline incision was necessary owing to the patient's unique anatomy. Open splenopexy with a mesh sling and Ladd's procedure were subsequently performed. Malrotation and wandering spleen are known, rare associated anomalies in PBS; however, both have not been reported concurrently in a patient with PBS in the literature. In patients with PBS, acute abdominal pain, and an abdominal mass, high clinical suspicion for gastrointestinal malformations and prompt attention can result in spleen preservation and appropriate malrotation management. We present a case of a teenager who presented with a history of PBS, acute abdominal pain, and a palpable abdominal mass. The patient was found to have splenic torsion and intestinal malrotation. The clinical findings, diagnostic imaging, and surgical treatment options of splenic torsion are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Formation of acrylamide at temperatures lower than 100°C: the case of prunes and a model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becalski, A.; Brady, B.; Feng, S.; Gauthier, B.R.; Zhao, T.

    2011-01-01

    Acrylamide concentrations in prune products – baby strained prunes (range = 75–265 μg kg−−1), baby apple/prune juice (33–61 μg kg−−1), prune juice (186–916 μg kg−−1) and prunes (58–332 μg kg−−1) – on the Canadian market were determined. The formation of acrylamide in a simulated plum juice was also investigated under ‘drying conditions’ in an open vessel at temperatures Acrylamide was produced in a simulated plum juice under ‘drying conditions’ in amounts comparable with those found in prunes and prune juices. Acrylamide was not produced in simulated plum juice under ‘wet conditions’ in a closed vessel at temperature of 120°C for 1 h, but under the same condition an authentic prune juice doubled its acrylamide concentration. Formation of acrylamide in prune products was attributed to the presence of asparagine and sugars in the starting materials. PMID:21623495

  15. Yield and crop cycle time of peaches cultivated in subtropical climates and subjected to different pruning times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Augusto Ferraz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of peaches in regions of subtropical and tropical climate is currently achieved through a set of practices such as using less demanding cultivars in cold conditions, applying plant growth regulators to break dormancy, and performing specific pruning, like production and renewal pruning. Research on the climate adaptation of cultivars is of great importance in establishing a crop in a given region. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of three cultivars subjected to different production pruning times in Botucatu/SP, where 2-year old peach trees were evaluated, grown at a spacing of 6.0 x 4.0 meters. The experimental design was a split plot design with four blocks, using the cultivars Douradão, BRS Kampai and BRS Rubimel, and the subplots corresponded to pruning times in May, June, July and August. Ten plants were used per plot, with the four central plants considered useful and the remaining considered as margins. Pruning in June and July showed the best results in terms of percentage of fruit set and production. The cultivar BRS Rubimel showed the best percentage of fruit set when pruned in June (44.96%, and best fruit production when pruned in July (18.7 kg plant-1. Pruning in May anticipated the harvest of cultivar BRS Rubimel by 13 days whereas pruning carried out in July and August provided late harvests for cultivars Douradão and BRS Kampai.

  16. Cover crops and pruning in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards have little influence on grapevine nutrition

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    Pedro Pérez-Bermúdez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cover crops may improve vineyard soil properties, grapevine nutrient status and berry composition, however, factors such as cover crop type, annual rainfall, climate and irrigation may change their effects on vineyards. From 2008 to 2011, the effects of a non-permanent cover crop and two pruning techniques on soil as well as vine nutrients and grapevine performance of two vineyards (cv. Tempranillo and cv. Bobal were evaluated. For that purpose, two legumes were sown in inter-rows of hand-pruned vines in February and were tilled at flowering. Soil tillage, or cover cropping, was combined with either light pruning or severe pruning to study foliar nutrient variations. Soil N, P, K and total organic carbon (TOC were determined in samples taken from the Ap1 horizon in January prior to vine pruning. Foliar N, P, K contents were measured in leaves sampled upon grape veraison. The differences between vineyards with cover cropping and bare soils suggest that legumes positively affected soil N (1.55 vs. 1.68 g kg−1 and 1.49 vs. 1.76 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively and soil organic matter (SOM (12.5 vs. 15.5 g kg−1 and 12.9 vs. 17.2 g kg−1 in Bobal and Tempranillo vineyards, respectively. The use of cover crops did not affect grapevine yields nor quality of Bobal and Tempranillo berry . Cover crops, or light pruning, did not alter the foliar N, P, K contents of both cultivars since their concentrations were similar to those found in the leaves from vineyards with soil tillage or severe pruning.

  17. EVALUATION OF TEMPORALVARIATIONS IN MOISTURE AND CALORIFIC VALUE OF VINE AND OLIVE PRUNING

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    Pier Riccardo Porceddu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Italy arboreal crops, in particular vine and olive, cover a surface area of around 19.6×109 m2 from which about 4.6×109 kg of pruning are cut. These by-products are currently ploughed into the soil or else harvested and burned in open fields. On the other hand such materials would be more useful as an energy source. If these materials are to be used as fuel, it is important to know their calorific value. The calorific value is significantly influenced by the moisture content of wood. This work has evaluated the changes in moisture content and calorific value with time for different harvesting and storage systems of vine and olive pruning. The observed decrease in the moisture content of the vine and olive pruning depended on the storage system utilized, in particular on the product compression ratio and air circulation. Some differences were observed between the results obtained for vine and olive pruning. The time required for these materials to obtain their best energetic performance was identified at 32 weeks from their harvesting. Harvesting with balers and forwarding costs are about 6.21×10-2 €/kg for vine pruning and 4.64×10-2 €/kg for olive pruning. They are very similar to the price currently offered for energy biomass in Italy (5.00×10-2 €/kg. While the cost actually paid to plough pruning into the soil amounts to about 2.50×10-2 €/kg. Therefore the energy chain encourages a cost-and-benefit analysis.

  18. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers in Prunus sibirica (Rosaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Bo Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for Prunus sibirica to investigate genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and marker-assisted selection of late-blooming cultivars in the breeding of P. sibirica. Methods and Results: Using a magnetic bead enrichment strategy, 19 primer pairs were developed and characterized across 40 individuals from three P. sibirica wild populations and six individuals of P. armeniaca. The number of alleles per locus varied from three to 11 and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.917 and 0.295 to 0.876, respectively, in the three P. sibirica wild populations. All primer pairs could be successfully amplified in six individuals of P. armeniaca. Conclusions: These microsatellite primer pairs should be useful for population genetics, germplasm identification, and marker-assisted selection in the breeding of P. sibirica and related species.

  19. Ectopic expression of a novel peach (Prunus persica) CBF transcription factor in apple (Malus × domestica) results in short-day induced dormancy and increased cold hardiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Michael; Norelli, John; Bassett, Carole; Artlip, Timothy; Macarisin, Dumitru

    2011-05-01

    Low, non-freezing temperatures and/or short daylength (SD) regulates cold acclimation and dormancy in fruit trees. Regarding cold acclimation, C-repeat binding factor (CBF/DREB) transcriptional activator genes have the well-documented ability to induce the expression of a suite of genes associated with increased cold tolerance. We isolated a full-length cDNA of a peach CBF gene, designated PpCBF1 (GenBank Accession HM992943), and constitutively expressed it using an enhanced 35S promoter in apple. Unexpectedly, constitutive overexpression of the PpCBF1 in apple resulted in strong sensitivity to short daylength. Growth cessation and leaf senescence were induced in transgenic lines exposed to SD and optimal growth temperatures of 25°C over a 4-week period. Following 1-4 weeks of SD and 25°C trees were returned to LD and 25°C in the greenhouse. Control (untransformed) plants continued to grow while transgenic lines receiving two or more weeks of SD remained dormant and began to drop leaves. Constitutive overexpression of the PpCBF1 in apple resulted in a 4-6°C increase in freezing tolerance in both the non-acclimated and acclimated states, respectively, compared with untransformed M.26 trees. This is the first instance that constitutive overexpression of a CBF gene has resulted in SD-induction of dormancy and to our knowledge the first time apple has been shown to strongly respond to short daylength as a result of the insertion of a transgene.

  20. Ecotopic expression of a novel peach (Prunus persica) CBF transcription factor in apple (Malus x domestica) results in short-day induced dormancy and increased cold hardiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulation of growth and dormancy in temperate perennials such as fruit trees is essential, as is the ability to acclimate to freezing temperatures. Depending on the species, the onset of either dormancy and or cold acclimation can be triggered to varying degrees by either or both low, non-freezing...

  1. Overexpression of a peach (Prunus persica) AP2/ERF-family transcription factor in apple (Malus x domestica) induces growth cessation in response to short photoperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will result in extreme swings in temperature during late fall and early spring that will have a negative impact on woody plants. Apple may be especially sensitive to the predicted weather patterns since growth cessation is regulated by low temperature rather than daylength. We have ...

  2. Role of the 25-26 nt siRNA in the resistance of transgenic Prunus domestica graft inoculated with plum pox virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Jiban Kumar; Briard, Pascal; Hily, Jean Michel; Ravelonandro, Michel; Scorza, Ralph

    2008-02-01

    The reaction of a genetically engineered plum clone (C5) resistant to plum pox virus (PPV) by graft inoculation with the virus was evaluated. The resistance in this clone has been demonstrated to be mediated through post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS). A single C5 plant out of 30 plants inoculated with PPV M strain by double chip-budding showed mild diffuse mosaic 'Sharka' symptom at the bottom section of the scion. The upper leaves of this PPV-infected C5 plant remained symptomless and the virus was not detected in them by either DAS-ELISA or RT-PCR. An RNA silencing associated small interfering RNA duplex, siRNA (21-26 nt), was detected in non-inoculated C5 plants and in the portions of inoculated C5 plant in which PPV could not be detected. In the PPV-infected portion of the C5 plant and in C6 PPV susceptible plants only the approximately 21-22 nt siRNAs was detected. Cytosine-methylation was confirmed in C5 plants both uninfected and showing PPV symptoms. The 25-26 nt siRNA normally present in C5 was absent in PPV-infected C5 tissues confirming the critical role of this siRNA in the resistance of clone C5 to PPV infection. We also show that this PPV infection was limited and transient. It was only detected in one plant at one of four post-dormancy sampling dates and did not appear to affect the overall PPV resistance of the C5 clone.

  3. Olive Crown Porosity Measurement Based on Radiation Transmittance: An Assessment of Pruning Effect

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    Francisco J. Castillo-Ruiz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Crown porosity influences radiation interception, air movement through the fruit orchard, spray penetration, and harvesting operation in fruit crops. The aim of the present study was to develop an accurate and reliable methodology based on transmitted radiation measurements to assess the porosity of traditional olive trees under different pruning treatments. Transmitted radiation was employed as an indirect method to measure crown porosity in two olive orchards of the Picual and Hojiblanca cultivars. Additionally, three different pruning treatments were considered to determine if the pruning system influences crown porosity. This study evaluated the accuracy and repeatability of four algorithms in measuring crown porosity under different solar zenith angles. From a 14° to 30° solar zenith angle, the selected algorithm produced an absolute error of less than 5% and a repeatability higher than 0.9. The described method and selected algorithm proved satisfactory in field results, making it possible to measure crown porosity at different solar zenith angles. However, pruning fresh weight did not show any relationship with crown porosity due to the great differences between removed branches. A robust and accurate algorithm was selected for crown porosity measurements in traditional olive trees, making it possible to discern between different pruning treatments.

  4. Density based pruning for identification of differentially expressed genes from microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Motivation Identification of differentially expressed genes from microarray datasets is one of the most important analyses for microarray data mining. Popular algorithms such as statistical t-test rank genes based on a single statistics. The false positive rate of these methods can be improved by considering other features of differentially expressed genes. Results We proposed a pattern recognition strategy for identifying differentially expressed genes. Genes are mapped to a two dimension feature space composed of average difference of gene expression and average expression levels. A density based pruning algorithm (DB Pruning is developed to screen out potential differentially expressed genes usually located in the sparse boundary region. Biases of popular algorithms for identifying differentially expressed genes are visually characterized. Experiments on 17 datasets from Gene Omnibus Database (GEO with experimentally verified differentially expressed genes showed that DB pruning can significantly improve the prediction accuracy of popular identification algorithms such as t-test, rank product, and fold change. Conclusions Density based pruning of non-differentially expressed genes is an effective method for enhancing statistical testing based algorithms for identifying differentially expressed genes. It improves t-test, rank product, and fold change by 11% to 50% in the numbers of identified true differentially expressed genes. The source code of DB pruning is freely available on our website http://mleg.cse.sc.edu/degprune

  5. Pruning management of Chardonnay grapevines at high altitude in Brazilian southeast

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    Tania dos Reis Mendonça

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The agronomical responses of Chardonnay, a variety indicated for sparkling wine production, is influenced by the vineyard management and the edaphoclimatic conditions of the region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two pruning types (Royat and double Guyot on vegetative and reproductive development of Chardonnay vine growing at high altitude in the Brazilian southeastern region. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard located at 1,280 m of altitude in Divinolândia, São Paulo State, Brazil. The Chardonnay vines (clone 96, grafted onto 1103 Paulsen rootstock and trained in a vertical shoot positioning trellis system, were assessed. Vegetative vigor, bud fruitfulness, production and physicochemical composition of grapes were evaluated during 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. The Royat pruning induced higher vegetative vigor and increased the bud fruitfulness, the cluster number and the productivity of Chardonnay vine when compared to Guyot pruning. Even though the increase on yield was observed, there was no effect of pruning type on grape final quality. Therefore, the choice of pruning method in function of variety genetic characteristics and their interaction with environment can optimize the vineyard profitability. In the Brazilian southeast, the Royat system is the most suitable one to grow Chardonnay for sparkling wines production.

  6. Modified abdominoplasty for patients with the Prune Belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, Francisco Tibor; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; Oliveira, Lorena Marçalo; Tavares, Alessandro; Srougi, Miguel

    2014-02-01

    To present the results of a new technique for abdominoplasty in patients with the Prune Belly syndrome (PBS). Since 1985, 46 children with PBS underwent surgical treatment that included urinary tract reconstruction (UTR), orchidopexy, and abdominoplasty. In 41 patients, we performed the abdominoplasty as follows: (1) fusiform longitudinal resection of the mid-abdominal skin and subcutaneous tissue, with preservation of the musculo-aponeurotic fascia (MAF) and umbilicus, (2) ellipsoid unilateral longitudinal incision of the MAF in the most weakened side of the abdomen, producing 2 flaps, with the umbilicus being kept intact in the widest flap, (3) after UTR and bilateral orchiopexy, suture fixation of the widest MAF layer to the inner side of the contralateral abdominal wall, creating an inner MAF layer, (4) lateral suture fixation of the other flap over the inner layer, creating an outer MAF layer with a buttonhole exposing the umbilicus, that is sutured to the outer layer, and (5) approximation of the skin edges with incorporation of the umbilicus in the suture. Skin coaptation was excellent in all patients, and no trimming was necessary in incision extremities. There was no dehiscence or skin necrosis and all patients presented immediate improvement of the abdominal tonus and appearance. Further improvement with growth was observed in all except 4 patients, 2 requiring secondary abdominoplasties. We conclude that this technique is applicable in all forms of weakened abdomen typical of PBS, even in asymmetrical cases, requiring only 1 MAF incision, with good cosmetic and functional results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus, a Globally Distributed Insect Virus that Infects and Sterilizes Female Houseflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The house fly, Musca domestica, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and poultry that is of economic, veterinary, and public health importance. Populations of M. domestica are naturally infected with salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a non-occluded dsDNA virus that inhibits egg production in...

  8. Duplication in the Domestica Apple Collection within the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System in Geneva, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System maintains more than 1300 named accessions of Malus x domestica in a field collection in Geneva, NY. Seven microsatellite markers (GD12, GD15, GD96, GD103, GD142, GD147, GD162) were used to identify duplicates within a set of 1240 domestica accessions with...

  9. Urethral obstruction malformation complex: a cause of abdominal muscle deficiency and the "prune belly".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagon, R A; Smith, D W; Shepard, T H

    1979-06-01

    Abdominal muscle deficiency with a "prune belly" abdomen as been a major feature of the so-called prune belly syndrome, which has been regarded as a specific entity, although the etiology and developmental pathology are not understood. We present evidence that abdominal muscle deficiency is an etiologically nonspecific anatomic defect which is secondary to fetal abdominal distention of various causes. One of the more common causes is urethral obstruction with consequent early bladder distention, causing abdominal distention and other anomalies, a constellation of findings which we have termed the urethral obstruction malformation complex. This interpretation of the etiology of most cases of prune belly syndrome accounts for the male predominance, the observed variability in severity, and the lack of a defined mode of inheritance. Recurrence risk figures need to be redefined for each specific obstructing lesion of the urethra. The possibility of early prenatal diagnosis and management of fetuses with urethral obstruction needs further study.

  10. An Artificial Neural Network Modeling for Force Control System of a Robotic Pruning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hashemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there has been an increasing application of pruning robots for planted forests due to the growing concern on the efficiency and safety issues. Power consumption and working time of agricultural machines have become important issues due to the high value of energy in modern world. In this study, different multi-layer back-propagation networks were utilized for mapping the complex and highly interactive of pruning process parameters and to predict power consumption and cutting time of a force control equipped robotic pruning machine by knowing input parameters such as: rotation speed, stalk diameter, and sensitivity coefficient. Results showed significant effects of all input parameters on output parameters except rotational speed on cutting time. Therefore, for reducing the wear of cutting system, a less rotational speed in every sensitivity coefficient should be selected.

  11. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  12. Longleaf Pine Root System Development and Seedling Quality in Response to Copper Root Pruning and Cavity Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Shi-Jean Susana Sung; James D. Haywood

    2011-01-01

    Cultural practices that modify root system structure in the plug of container-grown seedlings have the potential to improve root system function after planting. Our objective was to assess how copper root pruning affects the quality and root system development of longleaf pine seedlings grown in three cavity sizes in a greenhouse. Copper root pruning increased seedling...

  13. Effects of leader topping and branch pruning on efficiency of Douglas-fir cone harvesting with a tree shaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.L. Copes

    1985-01-01

    In 1983, a study was conducted to evaluate the effects of leader topping and branch pruning on the efficiency to tree shaking to remove Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) cones. Removal efficiency for three topping and pruning treatments averaged 69 percent, whereas for the uncut control treatment it was 62 percent. The treatment...

  14. Pruning for crop regulation in high density guava (Psidium guajava L.) plantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, M.; Lal, S.; Uniyal, S.; Goswami, A.K. Prakash. P.

    2016-11-01

    High density management and crop regulation are two important aspects in guava (Psidium guajava L.) production. Therefore, to find out the economic way of managing high density planting and crop regulation, the present work was carried out on 6-year-old guava trees of cv. Pant Prabhat under double-hedge row system of planting during 2009-10 and 2010-11. Seven different forms of pruning [FBT: flower bud thinning by hand, FBTT: flower bud thinning by hand followed by removal of terminal one leaf pair, RLFO: removal of leaves and flower buds by hand, retaining one leaf pair at the top, RLF: removal of all leaves and flowers by hand, OLPS: one leaf pair shoot pruning, FSP: full shoot pruning, OLPF: one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only] were studied along with control (C).Minimum annual increase in tree volume (6.764 m3) was recorded with the treatment OLPF, which was 2.31 times less than the control (15.682 m3). Highest yield during winter season (55.30 kg/tree) and total yield (59.87 kg/tree) was obtained from treatment OLPF. One leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only (OLPF) was also found profitable among other treatments by recording cost:benefit ratio of 1:2.96. This treatment also recorded the highest return distributed in rainy as well as in winter season. On the basis of findings it can be concluded that one leaf pair pruning of fruited shoots only is suitable for profitable high density management as well as crop regulation of guava in farmer friendly manner. (Author)

  15. Six-year performance of 14 Prunus rootstocks at 11 sites in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. This test planting was a...

  16. Case Report: Prune perineum syndrome: a rare case with an unfavourable outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Roberto I.; D?nes, Francisco T.; Messi, Gustavo B.; Machado, Marcos G.

    2016-01-01

    Prune perineum syndrome (PPS) is a rare anomaly, with only two previous case reports, both dying in the perinatal period. We report the first case of PPS that reached childhood. The patient presented with a hypoplastic genitalia and bilateral cryptorchidism. There was no evidence of an anal orifice. A significant prune-like mass was observed, extending from the perineum to both gluteal regions and to a cephalic mid-line bony prominence, with a 1cm central orifice that discharged urine. MRI co...

  17. Cane pruning on Chardonnay grapevine in the high-altitude regions of Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filho José Luiz Marcon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-altitude regions of southern Brazil, located above 900 m above sea level, the cordon training with spur pruning is widely used because of easier application. In these regions, Chardonnay wine grape shows potential to produce quality wines, however, in commercial vineyards, the training system used has not provided productivities that makes economically viable the cultivation of this variety. Given this, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different cane-pruning systems on the vegetative, productive and enological potential of Chardonnay grapevines grown in the high-altitude region of Southern Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a commercial Chardonnay vineyard, located in São Joaquim – Santa Catarina State (28o17 ′39”S and 49∘ 55′56” W, to 1230 m a.s.l during 2015 and 2016 vintages. Chardonnay vines (grafted on 1103 Paulsen were planted in 2010, with a 3.0 m (row × 1.0 m (vine spacing. The treatments consisted of different cane-pruning systems: Cordon spur-pruning (control; Sylvoz; Cazenave; Capovolto; single Guyot and double Guyot. Pruning was performed in August of each year when the buds were in the green tip developmental stage. Data was analyzed by Scott Knott test (p < 0.05 following a randomized block design with four replicates, each consisting of 12 vines per plot. We observed higher yield in the Cazenave and double Guyot training system with three and two more tons of grapes than spur-pruning respectively. The bud fertility was higher in plants trained in double Guyot. Vines spur-pruned showed higher relation of leaf area: production, with values above 100 cm2 g−1 grape at 2016 vintage. Commercial maturity of grapes (soluble solids, acidity and polyphenols did not differ among training systems studied. The results suggest that cane-pruning systems could be an alternative to increase production efficiency of Chardonnay in high-altitude region of southern Brazil.

  18. Grapevine cultivar variation to pruning wound protection by Trichoderma species against trunk pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheusi MUTAWILA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using Trichoderma species to protect grapevine pruning wounds from trunk disease pathogensis one of the options available for managing grapevine trunk diseases. The growth and persistence of Trichoderma species in the pruning wound and the resulting control effect may depend on intrinsic wound factors and hence may vary between cultivars. Cultivar variability to pruning wound protection by Trichoderma species was evaluated in eight wine grape (Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay, Chenin blanc, Colombar, Merlot,Pinotage, Sauvignon blanc and Shiraz and four table grape (Prime, Red Globe, Thompson Seedless andVictoria cultivars. Two strains of Trichoderma atroviride (USPP-T1 and USPP-T2 separately or in combinationand Eco 77® a registered pruning wound biocontrol agent based on T. harzianum, were applied to fresh pruning wounds of spur-pruned wine grapevines and cane-pruned table grapevines. Trichoderma spp. and a variety of trunk pathogens, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and species of Phaeoacremonium, Phomopsis, Botryosphaeriaceae and Diatrypaceae, were isolated from the pruning wounds eight months after treatment. Significant treatment × cultivar interactions (P<0.01 were found in the incidence of Trichoderma spp. in table and wine grapes. Trichoderma incidence varied greatly between cultivars and was less between Trichoderma treatments within the same cultivar. The highest Trichoderma incidence in wine grapes was found in Chenin blanc (71.4–82.5% and in table grapes in Thompson Seedless (43.5–76.7%. In the remaining winegrape cultivars Trichoderma incidence varied between 20–50% while with all treatments in Chardonnay Trichoderma incidence was less than 24%. In table grapes Trichoderma incidence varied from 20-67% in the other cultivars. Trichoderma reduced the pathogen by between 10.3% in Chardonnay to 66.7% in Cheninblanc. Trichoderma incidence and pathogen reduction were significantly correlated in most cultivars (r> 0.50;P<0.05 though not

  19. Dried Plums, Prunes and Bone Health: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Wallace

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advocate for increasing fruit intake and replacing energy-dense foods with those that are nutrient-dense. Nutrition across the lifespan is pivotal for the healthy development and maintenance of bone. The National Osteoporosis Foundation estimates that over half of Americans age 50+ have either osteoporosis or low bone mass. Dried plums, also commonly referred to as prunes, have a unique nutrient and dietary bioactive profile and are suggested to exert beneficial effects on bone. To further elucidate and summarize the potential mechanisms and effects of dried plums on bone health, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature was conducted. The PubMed database was searched through 24 January 2017 for all cell, animal, population and clinical studies that examined the effects of dried plums and/or extracts of the former on markers of bone health. Twenty-four studies were included in the review and summarized in table form. The beneficial effects of dried plums on bone health may be in part due to the variety of phenolics present in the fruit. Animal and cell studies suggest that dried plums and/or their extracts enhance bone formation and inhibit bone resorption through their actions on cell signaling pathways that influence osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation. These studies are consistent with clinical studies that show that dried plums may exert beneficial effects on bone mineral density (BMD. Long-term prospective cohort studies using fractures and BMD as primary endpoints are needed to confirm the effects of smaller clinical, animal and mechanistic studies. Clinical and prospective cohort studies in men are also needed, since they represent roughly 29% of fractures, and likewise, diverse race and ethnic groups. No adverse effects were noted among any of the studies included in this comprehensive review. While the data are not completely consistent, this review suggests that

  20. Molecular characterization of Prunus mahaleb L. rootstock canditates by ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozyurt Ibrahim Kursat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus mahaleb is widely used as rootstocks particularly on calcareous and dry soils for both sweet and sour cherry cultivars in Turkey. Genetic diversity and relationships among members of Prunus mahaleb including 29 preselected rootstock candidate accessions from Tokat region in Turkey were investigated by using 15 ISSR markers. The study revealed high genetic diversity among accessions, detecting 138 fragments, of which 103 (75% were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic bands per primer was between 3-13, with average of 6.86. The primers 890 and 891 gave the highest polymorphism ratio (100%. The UPGMA dendrogram and the principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear differentiation among accessions. Reference rootstock, SL-64 clustered separately. The study demonstrates that ISSRs provide promising marker tools in revealing genetic diversity and relationships in Prunus mahaleb rootstock candidate accessions and can contribute to efficient identification, conservation, and utilization of germplasm for rootstock improvement through conventional as well as molecular breeding approaches.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a TERMINAL FLOWER 1 homolog from Prunus serotina Ehrh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Pijut, Paula M

    2013-08-01

    Flowering control is one of the several strategies for gene containment of transgenic plants. TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) is known to be involved in the transcriptional repression of genes for inflorescence development. Two TFL1 transcripts with different 3' UTR were cloned from black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Corresponding to the two TFL1 transcripts, two PsTFL1 gene sequences, 1248 bp and 1579 bp, were obtained and both contained the same 519 bp coding region which encoded a putative protein of 172 amino acid residues. The phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences showed high identity of PsTFL1 to TFL1 orthologs of other Prunus species, including Yoshino cherry (Prunus × yedoensis Matsum.), peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch), apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.). The real-time quantitative PCR detected a single copy of PsTFL1 gene sequences in the black cherry genome with two alleles. The gene expression of PsTFL1 was examined in several tissues including the stems, leaves, shoot tips, and vegetative and floral buds. The highest mRNA level was detected in shoot tips, and the lowest level in the leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants overexpressing PsTFL1 showed significantly delayed flowering. These plants also showed largely increased vegetative growth, plant height, number of nodes, trichome density, and the conversion of flower to shoot was observed at each node and shoot apex.

  2. Utilization of Amygdalin during Seedling Development of Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E.; Poulton, J. E.

    1994-10-01

    Cotyledons of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seeds contain the cyanogenic diglucoside (R)-amygdalin. The levels of amygdalin, its corresponding monoglucoside (R)-prunasin, and the enzymes that metabolize these cyanoglycosides were measured during the course of seedling development. During the first 3 weeks following imbibition, cotyledonary amygdalin levels declined by more than 80%, but free hydrogen cyanide was not released to the atmosphere. Concomitantly, prunasin, which was not present in mature, ungerminated seeds, accumulated in the seedling epicotyls, hypocotyls, and cotyledons to levels approaching 4 [mu]mol per seedling. Whether this prunasin resulted from amygdalin hydrolysis remains unclear, however, because these organs also possess UDPG:mandelonitrile glucosyltransferase, which catalyzes de novo prunasin biosynthesis. The reduction in amygdalin levels was paralleled by declines in the levels of amygdalin hydrolase (AH), prunasin hydrolase (PH), mandelonitrile lyase (MDL), and [beta]-cyanoalanine synthase. At all stages of seedling development, AH and PH were localized by immunocytochemistry within the vascular tissues. In contrast, MDL occurred mostly in the cotyledonary parenchyma cells but was also present in the vascular tissues. Soon after imbibition, AH, PH, and MDL were found within protein bodies but were later detected in vacuoles derived from these organelles.

  3. On-line identification of hybrid systems using an adaptive growing and pruning RBF neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alizadeh, Tohid

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces an adaptive growing and pruning radial basis function (GAP-RBF) neural network for on-line identification of hybrid systems. The main idea is to identify a global nonlinear model that can predict the continuous outputs of hybrid systems. In the proposed approach, GAP-RBF neu...

  4. Fast pairwise structural RNA alignments by pruning of the dynamical programming matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havgaard, Jakob Hull; Torarinsson, Elfar; Gorodkin, Jan

    2007-01-01

    not be present and pre-folding ignores the comparative information. Here, pruning of the dynamical programming matrix is presented as an alternative novel heuristic constraint. All subalignments that do not exceed a length-dependent minimum score are discarded as the matrix is filled out, thus giving...

  5. Pruning affects the vegetative balance of the wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro José Almanza-Merchán

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Grape cultivation for wine production at altitudes between 2,200 and 2,600 m a.s.l. started in the department of Boyaca in 1982. Quality wines are produced by the AinKarim Vineyard in Ricaurte High. Wine grapes have to possess suitable organoleptic compounds at harvest in order to guarantee quality grape must that can be converted into wine. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain a suitable ratio the sources and the sinks and to guarantee production, quality and vegetative sustainability over time, conserving the equilibrium and benefiting the productive potential of the vineyard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and vegetative balance effect in the wine grape varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc in Sutamarchan-Boyaca, considering different pruning types (short, long, and mixed. A bifactorial, completely random statistical design was used. At the time of harvest, the fruit production and pruned wood were evaluated. The long-pruned vines showed the best behavior and the most balanced source/sink relationship,, while Sauvignon Blanc demonstrated a better productive yield. Meanwhile, the short and mixed prunings had the better values for the Ravaz index (balance between fruit production and vegetative growth, indicating that they are more suitable for the conditions of the region, allowing for sustainability during the productive cycles of the wine grapes.

  6. Sensitivity of directed networks to the addition and pruning of edges and vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, A. V.; Timár, G.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2017-08-01

    Directed networks have various topologically different extensive components, in contrast to a single giant component in undirected networks. We study the sensitivity (response) of the sizes of these extensive components in directed complex networks to the addition and pruning of edges and vertices. We introduce the susceptibility, which quantifies this sensitivity. We show that topologically different parts of a directed network have different sensitivity to the addition and pruning of edges and vertices and, therefore, they are characterized by different susceptibilities. These susceptibilities diverge at the critical point of the directed percolation transition, signaling the appearance (or disappearance) of the giant strongly connected component in the infinite size limit. We demonstrate this behavior in randomly damaged real and synthetic directed complex networks, such as the World Wide Web, Twitter, the Caenorhabditis elegans neural network, directed Erdős-Rényi graphs, and others. We reveal a nonmonotonic dependence of the sensitivity to random pruning of edges or vertices in the case of C. elegans and Twitter that manifests specific structural peculiarities of these networks. We propose the measurements of the susceptibilities during the addition or pruning of edges and vertices as a new method for studying structural peculiarities of directed networks.

  7. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables... plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes for processing; (3) Olives for processing into oil; (4) Grapefruit for animal feed; or (5) Avocados for seed shall obtain an “Importer's Exempt Commodity Form” (FV-6...

  8. Pruning dwarf mistletoe brooms reduces stress on Jeffrey pines, Cleveland National Forest, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Scharpf; Richard S. Smith; Detlev Vogler

    1987-01-01

    Western dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium campylopodum) is a damaging parasite of Jeffrey pines (Pinus jeffreyi) in southern California. Infected branches that develop into brooms are believed to reduce tlee vigor and increase mortality. Brooms were pruned from Jeffrey pines with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection and live...

  9. Prune belly syndrome in an Egyptian infant with Down syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwalley, Kotb A; Farghalley, Hekma S; Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A

    2008-10-02

    Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain aetiology almost exclusive to males. The association between prune belly syndrome and Down syndrome is very rare. A 4-month-old Egyptian boy was admitted to our institute for management of acute bronchiolitis. He was born at full term by normal vaginal delivery. His mother, a 42-year-Egyptian villager with six other children, had no antenatal or prenatal care. On examination, the boy was found to be hypotonic. In addition to features of Down syndrome, karyotyping confirmed the diagnosis of trisomy 21. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen showed bilateral gross hydronephrosis with megaureter. Micturating cystourethrography showed grade V vesicoureteric reflux bilaterally with no urethral obstruction. Serum creatinine concentration was 90 mumol/litre, serum sodium was 132 mmol/litre and serum potassium was 5.9 mmol/litre. We report an Egyptian infant with Down syndrome and prune belly syndrome. The incidence of this association is unknown. Routine antenatal ultrasonography will help in discovering renal anomalies which can be followed postnatally. Postnatal detection of prune belly syndrome necessitates full radiological investigation to detect any renal anomalies. Early diagnosis of this syndrome and determining its optimal treatment are very important in helping to avoid its fatal course.

  10. Prune belly syndrome in an Egyptian infant with Down syndrome: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metwalley Kotb A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly of uncertain aetiology almost exclusive to males. The association between prune belly syndrome and Down syndrome is very rare. Case presentation A 4-month-old Egyptian boy was admitted to our institute for management of acute bronchiolitis. He was born at full term by normal vaginal delivery. His mother, a 42-year-Egyptian villager with six other children, had no antenatal or prenatal care. On examination, the boy was found to be hypotonic. In addition to features of Down syndrome, karyotyping confirmed the diagnosis of trisomy 21. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen showed bilateral gross hydronephrosis with megaureter. Micturating cystourethrography showed grade V vesicoureteric reflux bilaterally with no urethral obstruction. Serum creatinine concentration was 90 μmol/litre, serum sodium was 132 mmol/litre and serum potassium was 5.9 mmol/litre. Conclusion We report an Egyptian infant with Down syndrome and prune belly syndrome. The incidence of this association is unknown. Routine antenatal ultrasonography will help in discovering renal anomalies which can be followed postnatally. Postnatal detection of prune belly syndrome necessitates full radiological investigation to detect any renal anomalies. Early diagnosis of this syndrome and determining its optimal treatment are very important in helping to avoid its fatal course.

  11. 75 FR 1269 - Dried Prunes Produced in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ..., Regional Manager, California Marketing Field Office, Marketing Order Administration Branch, Fruit and... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 993 Dried Prunes Produced in California; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Affirmation of interim final rule as final rule...

  12. Growing Up With Prune Belly Syndrome In A Resource Poor Setting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges here are for the care givers as well as the physicians who are confronted with the enormous task of taking care of a child with congenital abnormality against a backdrop of lack of resources and a cultural environment that is almost intolerant of dysmorphology. Keywords : Dysmorphology, Prune belly ...

  13. Decreasing-Rate Pruning Optimizes the Construction of Efficient and Robust Distributed Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saket Navlakha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust, efficient, and low-cost networks are advantageous in both biological and engineered systems. During neural network development in the brain, synapses are massively over-produced and then pruned-back over time. This strategy is not commonly used when designing engineered networks, since adding connections that will soon be removed is considered wasteful. Here, we show that for large distributed routing networks, network function is markedly enhanced by hyper-connectivity followed by aggressive pruning and that the global rate of pruning, a developmental parameter not previously studied by experimentalists, plays a critical role in optimizing network structure. We first used high-throughput image analysis techniques to quantify the rate of pruning in the mammalian neocortex across a broad developmental time window and found that the rate is decreasing over time. Based on these results, we analyzed a model of computational routing networks and show using both theoretical analysis and simulations that decreasing rates lead to more robust and efficient networks compared to other rates. We also present an application of this strategy to improve the distributed design of airline networks. Thus, inspiration from neural network formation suggests effective ways to design distributed networks across several domains.

  14. Prune belly syndrome in a set of twins, a family tragedy: Case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report prune belly syndrome, a rare congenital malformation, in a set of twins delivered to a young couple with a history of three previous first trimester spontaneous abortions, discordant HIV seropositivity and antenatal ultrasound report that indicated renal abnormalities in only one of the twins. The challenges of ...

  15. On failure of the pruning technique in "error repair in shift-reduce parsers"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertsch, E; Nederhof, MJ

    A previous article presented a technique to compute the least-cost error repair by incrementally generating configurations that result from inserting and deleting tokens in a syntactically incorrect input. An additional mechanism to improve the run-time efficiency of this algorithm by pruning some

  16. 76 FR 75805 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Prune Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation 7 CFR Part 457 RIN 0563-AC36 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Prune Crop Insurance Provisions AGENCY: Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation (FCIC) proposes to amend the Common Crop Insurance...

  17. Development of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce following thinning and pruning in south-east Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Deal; R. James Barbour; Michael H. McClellan; Dean L. Parry

    2003-01-01

    The frequency and size of epicormic sprouts in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were assessed in five 23-29 year-old mixed Sitka spruce-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) stands that were uniformly thinned and pruned to 2.4, 3.7 and 5.2 m lift heights. Six to nine years after treatment sprouts were...

  18. Can early thinning and pruning lessen the impact of pine plantations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dwelling insects found in pine tree plantations in Patagonia. We compared the abundance, species richness and composition of the beetle and ant assemblages within 16-year-old pine stands (n = 10) subjected to early pruning and thinning (i.e. ...

  19. Competition in apple, as influenced by Alar sprays, fruiting, pruning and tree spacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, E.W.M.

    1972-01-01

    In the spring of 1965 a trial was planted with Golden Delicious IX and James Grieve 'aimed' VII, in which tree spacing, deblossoming, Alar sprays and pruning were variable factors, Results are presented over the period 1966-1969.

    At the end of 1969, the 5th year from planting, 400

  20. Effect of Staking and Pruning on the Growth and Yield of Cucumber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of pruning and staking on the vegetative growth and yield of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.). The experiment was a 3 x 2 factorial laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five replications. The results showed that vine length, number of flowers, total ...

  1. Effect of Time and Level of Pruning on Vegetative Growth, Flowering, Yield, and Quality of Guava

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Shiva; Kandel, Tanka Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Poor quality fruit production in the rainy season and failure to manipulate production periods are common problems for guava production in India and Nepal. As a possible management to overcome these problems, a field experiment was conducted to understand the effect of time and level of pruning o...

  2. Evaluation of fungicides as potential grapevine pruning wound protectants against Botryosphaeria species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bester, W.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Protection of wounds against infection by trunk disease pathogens is the most efficient and cost-effective means to prevent grapevine trunk diseases. Studies done to determine the effectiveness of chemical pruning wound protectants have mostly focused on the control of Eutypa lata. However, other

  3. Effect of electrical conductivity, fruit pruning, and truss position on quality in greenhouse tomato fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanasca, S.; Martino, A.; Heuvelink, E.; Stanghellini, C.

    2007-01-01

    The combined effects of electrical conductivity (an EC of 2.5 dS m-1 or 8 dS m-1 in the root zone) and fruit pruning (three or six fruit per truss) on tomato fruit quality were studied in a greenhouse experiment, planted in January 2005. Taste-related attributes [dry matter content (DM), total

  4. Effect of edge pruning on structural controllability and observability of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengiste, Simachew Abebe; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-12-01

    Controllability and observability of complex systems are vital concepts in many fields of science. The network structure of the system plays a crucial role in determining its controllability and observability. Because most naturally occurring complex systems show dynamic changes in their network connectivity, it is important to understand how perturbations in the connectivity affect the controllability of the system. To this end, we studied the control structure of different types of artificial, social and biological neuronal networks (BNN) as their connections were progressively pruned using four different pruning strategies. We show that the BNNs are more similar to scale-free networks than to small-world networks, when comparing the robustness of their control structure to structural perturbations. We introduce a new graph descriptor, ‘the cardinality curve’, to quantify the robustness of the control structure of a network to progressive edge pruning. Knowing the susceptibility of control structures to different pruning methods could help design strategies to destroy the control structures of dangerous networks such as epidemic networks. On the other hand, it could help make useful networks more resistant to edge attacks.

  5. 78 FR 63128 - Dried Prunes Produced in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 993 Dried Prunes Produced in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This... the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 601-674), hereinafter referred...

  6. Mineralization and N-use efficiency of tree legume prunings from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment combinations were laid out as a randomized complete blocks design. Mixtures of tree prunings with 2.5 t ha-1 maize stover increased maize N uptake and grain yield whereas 5 t ha-1 maize stover reduced maize N uptake and grain yield during the wetter season. Mixtures of Pea-R, Stover-1 or Stover-2 with ...

  7. Estimating the fruit quality after application the pruning of blue honeysuckle bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Szot

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed at University of Life Science in the eighth year after plant’s establishment in 2001. In 2008 the “crown thinning” of blue honeysuckle cv. ‘Atut’ and‘Duet’, to improve light penetration and air circulation, was done. In the next year during the “crown reduction” the shortening branches to 5 cm height from ground surface was applied. Effect of treatments on fruit quality in 2010 was evaluated. Berries from pruned bushes characterized significantly by bigger mass of individual fruit and length of fruit, however the diameters of fruit were similar to that from non-pruned bushes Berries from non-pruned bushes had significantly higher content of soluble solids, sugar and acidity and lower content of anthocyanins as compared to fruits from pruned bushes. Significantly bigger fruit with regard to their weight, length and diameter stated in the 2 nd harvest. Fruits from 2 nd harvest had much more soluble solids, sugar, anthocyanins and acidy versus that harvested in the 1 st term.

  8. Wood quality for longleaf pines: a spacing, thinning and pruning study on the Kisatchie National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Leung So; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Daniel J. Leduc; Leslie H. Groom; Jeffery C. G. Goelz

    2010-01-01

    Twenty 70-year-old longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) trees were harvested from a spacing, thinning, and pruning study on the Kisatchie National Forest, LA. Tree property mapping was used to show the property variation within and between three of the trees. The construction of such maps is both time consuming and cost prohibitive using traditional...

  9. Delayed axonal pruning in the ant brain: a study of developmental trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seid, Marc A; Wehner, Rüdiger

    2009-05-01

    The coordination of neuronal maturation and behavioral development is a vital component of survival. The degradation of excessive axonal processes and neuronal networks is a ubiquitous developmental process. In Drosophila, a great portion of axonal pruning occurs during metamorphosis and transpires within hours after pupation. In contrast, we show, using EM-serial sectioning and 3D-reconstructions, that axonal pruning occurs after eclosion and over the course of 60 days in Cataglyphis albicans. Using the mushroom bodies of the brains of Cataglyphis, which have well-developed lip (olfactory integrator) and collar (visual integrator) regions, we show that axonal pruning is dependent upon the differences in the developmental trajectory of the lip and the collar brain regions and happens after eclosion. The elimination of the axonal boutons is most delayed in the collar region, where it is postponed until the ant has had extensive visual experience. We found that individual brain components within a single neuropil can develop at different rates that correlate with the behavioral ecology of these ants and suggest that glia may be mediating the axonal pruning. Our study provides evidence that adult ants may have relatively neotenous brains, and thus more flexibility, allowing them to neuronally adapt to the environment. This neoteny may, in part, explain the neural basis for age-dependent division of labor and the amazing behavioral flexibility exhibited by ants.

  10. [Determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shu-Fang; Shi, Song-Li; Wang, Deng-Kui; Cheng, Xiang-Hui; Liu, Zong-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    For determination of elements in the leaves of Prunus mongolica, the samples were digested by nitric acid-perchloric. The contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Al, Sr, Sn and Pb in the leaves of Prunus mongolica were determined by ICP-AES, at the same time a blank experiment was carried out. The results showed that the recovery rate of the ten elements was between 93% and 110%, and the relative standard deviation was between 0.33% and 2.94%. This method is fast, simple and accurate.

  11. The potential of legume tree prunings as organic matters for improving phosphorus availability in an acid soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wahyudi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study that was aimed to elucidate roles of Gliricidia sepium and Tithonia diversifolia prunings and their extracted humic and fulvic acids on improving phosphorus availability and decreasing aluminum concentration in an Ultisol was conducted in a glasshouse. Thirteen treatments consisting of two prunings, six rates of pruning application (5, 7.5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 t/ha and one control (no added prunings were arranged in a randomized block design with four replicates. Each mixture of prunings and soil was placed in a pot containing 8 kg of soil and maize of Srikandi cultivar was grown on it for 45 days. At harvest, soil pH, P content and aluminium concentration were measured. Results of the glasshouse experiment showed that application of Gliricidia and Tithonia prunings significantly increased soil pH, reduced Alo concentration, increased Alp content, increased P availability, and increased P taken up by maize grown for 45 days. The optimum rate of both Gliricidia and Tithonia pruning should be 40 t/ha. However, at the same rate, optimum production gained by Tithonia would be higher than that of Gliricidia.

  12. Effect of pruning height on the architecture of plants of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia HBK Mc Vaugh in the experimental station of IIAP, Ucayali, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Abanto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the response camu camu’s plants in plantations initial undergoing training pruning, an experiment was installed in EE - IIAP-Ucayali, under a design randomized complete block, with 3 replications, making use of 20 plants per experimental unit. The pruning treatments were performing at different heights from the base of the stem, it was considered T0 [witness without pruning], T1 [pruning to 10 cm from the base], T2 [pruning to 20 cm from the base] and T3 [pruning to 40 cm from the base] in plants of known provenance. The investigation was directed to evaluate the number of shoots, shoot growth, plant height, basal diameter, crown diameter and number of branches. After of 9 months of evaluation was found significant differences between the variables except in top diameter. In the variable Height, treatment T0 [witness without pruning] outstanding because they were not pruned, among the remaining treatments has similarly behaved, surpassing the control treatment by 267 %. In addition to this, the basal diameter was found that T1 [pruning to 10 cm from the base] has a better performed with an average value of 1.96 cm compared with the control (1.7cm. The pruning had a positive influence in the number of branches, with an average of 13.4 branches compared with T0 that get 3.1 branches on average, its shows that the pruning can increased up the production of branches to 432.3%.

  13. Towards an Efficient Artificial Neural Network Pruning and Feature Ranking Tool

    KAUST Repository

    AlShahrani, Mona

    2015-05-24

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are known to be among the most effective and expressive machine learning models. Their impressive abilities to learn have been reflected in many broad application domains such as image recognition, medical diagnosis, online banking, robotics, dynamic systems, and many others. ANNs with multiple layers of complex non-linear transformations (a.k.a Deep ANNs) have shown recently successful results in the area of computer vision and speech recognition. ANNs are parametric models that approximate unknown functions in which parameter values (weights) are adapted during training. ANN’s weights can be large in number and thus render the trained model more complex with chances for “overfitting” training data. In this study, we explore the effects of network pruning on performance of ANNs and ranking of features that describe the data. Simplified ANN model results in fewer parameters, less computation and faster training. We investigate the use of Hessian-based pruning algorithms as well as simpler ones (i.e. non Hessian-based) on nine datasets with varying number of input features and ANN parameters. The Hessian-based Optimal Brain Surgeon algorithm (OBS) is robust but slow. Therefore a faster parallel Hessian- approximation is provided. An additional speedup is provided using a variant we name ‘Simple n Optimal Brain Surgeon’ (SNOBS), which represents a good compromise between robustness and time efficiency. For some of the datasets, the ANN pruning experiments show on average 91% reduction in the number of ANN parameters and about 60% - 90% in the number of ANN input features, while maintaining comparable or better accuracy to the case when no pruning is applied. Finally, we show through a comprehensive comparison with seven state-of-the art feature filtering methods that the feature selection and ranking obtained as a byproduct of the ANN pruning is comparable in accuracy to these methods.

  14. Genomic Selection for Fruit Quality Traits in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, S.; Chagné, D.; Bink, M.C.A.M.; Volz, R.K.; Whitworth, C.; Carlisle, C.

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of apple (Malus×domestica Borkh.) was published more than a year ago, which helped develop an 8K SNP chip to assist in implementing genomic selection (GS). In apple breeding programmes, GS can be used to obtain genomic breeding values (GEBV) for choosing next-generation parents

  15. Isolation and characterization of strong gene regulatory sequences from apple, Malus x domestica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.; Tinnenbroek, I.E.M.; Krens, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    For the strong expression of genes in plant tissue, the availability of specific gene regulatory sequences is desired. We cloned promoter and terminator sequences of an apple (Malus x domestica) ribulose biphosphate carboxylase small subunit gene (MdRbcS), which is known for its high expression and

  16. Behavioral and Physiological Response of Musca domestica to Colored Visual Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Medical, Agricultural, andVeterinaryEntomology,Mosquito andFlyResearch Unit, 1600 SW 23rd Dr ., Gainesville, FL 32608. 3 Corresponding author: Navy...Observaciones sobre la busqueda de sitios de reposo y estudio experimental sobre la seleccion de colores porMusca domestica en el ambiente natural. M.S

  17. Effect of Triflumuron and Pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L Larval Stages in the Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The residual effect of triflumuron and pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L larval stages was studied in the laboratory."n"nMethods: Both IGRs at varying concentrations ranging between 0.5 to 2.5 mg/L were placed inside beakers with mice chow and vitamin B complex and water as food for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae."n"nResults: Both IGRs inhibit M. domestica adult emergence of 98-98.5% when applied at the lowest concentration of 0.5 mg/L on the 1st instar, 93-97% of adult emergence inhibition on the 2nd instar,and 91-97% of adult emergence inhibi­tion on the 3rd instar larvae respectively. There was no significant difference between triflumuron and pyriproxy­fen on house­fly adult emergence inhibition when fed to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae (P> 0.05. However, there was a significant difference between the IGRs and the control (P< 0.05."n"nConclusion: Both triflumuron and pyriproxyfen are effective in inhibiting adult emergence of housefly M  domes­tica and therefore should be recommended for fly control particularly in chicken farms and dumping grounds in Malaysia for housefly control activities.

  18. Adaptation of Musca domestica L. field population to laboratory breeding causes transcriptional alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højland, Dorte H.; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin; Kristensen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica, has developed resistance to most insecticides applied for its control. Expression of genes coding for detoxification enzymes play a role in the response of the housefly when encountered by a xenobiotic. The highest level of constitutive gene expression of nine P450...

  19. Effect of Triflumuron and Pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L Larval Stages in the Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sulaiman

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:  The residual effect of triflumuron and pyriproxyfen on Musca domestica L larval stages was studied in the laboratory.Methods: Both IGRs at varying concentrations ranging between 0.5 to 2.5 mg/L were placed inside beakers with mice chow and vitamin B complex and water as food for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae.Results: Both IGRs inhibit M. domestica adult emergence of 98-98.5% when applied at the lowest concentration of 0.5 mg/L on the 1st instar, 93-97% of adult emergence inhibition on the 2nd instar,and 91-97% of adult emergence inhibi­tion on the 3rd instar larvae respectively. There was no significant difference between triflumuron and pyriproxy­fen on house­fly adult emergence inhibition when fed to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars M.domestica larvae (P> 0.05. However, there was a significant difference between the IGRs and the control (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Both triflumuron and pyriproxyfen are effective in inhibiting adult emergence of housefly M  domes­tica and therefore should be recommended for fly control particularly in chicken farms and dumping grounds in Malaysia for housefly control activities.

  20. Selection, resistance risk assessment, and reversion toward susceptibility of pyriproxyfen in Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Sial, Ashfaq Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone mimic, is an effective larvicide against many pests of veterinary and public health importance. Pyriproxyfen is a biorational insecticide having many environmentally friendly attributes that make it compatible with integrated pest management programs. This experiment was performed for the assessment of resistance evolution and reversion toward susceptibility of Musca domestica to pyriproxyfen. Repeated selection at successive generations resulted in 5.09- and 130-fold increase in lethal concentration 50 (LC50) compared to field and susceptible strain, respectively. A significant decline after 22 generations without selection suggesting resistance to pyriproxyfen was unstable in M. domestica. Realized heritability (h (2)) of resistance to pyriproxyfen was 0.035 in pyriproxyfen-selected strain of M. domestica. The projected rate of resistance development indicated that, if slope = 1.28 and h (2) = 0.035, then 46-21 generations are required for 10-fold increase in LC50 at 50-90 % selection intensity. These findings suggest that a risk for resistance development to pyriproxyfen occurred in M. domestica under continuous selection pressure. Pyriproxyfen susceptibility reversed when its application is ceased for a specified duration.

  1. Light conditions affect the performance of Yponomeuta evonymellus on its native host Prunus padus and the alien Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowski, A; Giertych, M J; Walczak, U; Baraniak, E; Karolewski, P

    2017-04-01

    The bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus L., is considered an obligatory monophagous insect pest that feeds only on native European Prunus padus L. In recent years, however, increased larval feeding on alien P. serotina Ehrh. has been observed. In both species, general defoliation is extensive for shade grown trees, whereas it is high in P. padus, but very low in P. serotina, when trees are grown in full light conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify how the plant host species and light conditions affect the performance of Y. evonymellus. The influence of host species and light condition on their growth and development, characterized by the parameters of pupation, adult eclosion, body mass, potential fecundity, and wing size, was measured in a 2 × 2 experimental design (two light treatments, two hosts). In comparison with high light (HL) conditions, a greater percentage of pupation and a longer period and less dynamic adult emerge was observed under low light (LL) conditions. The effect of host species on these parameters was not significant. In contrast, mass, fecundity and all of the studied wing parameters were higher in larvae that grazed on P. padus than on P. serotina. Similarly the same parameters were also higher on shrubs in HL as compared with those grown under LL conditions. In general, light conditions, rather than plant species, were more often and to a greater extent, responsible for differences in the observed parameters of insect development and potential fecundity.

  2. Impact of wood pruning to greenhouse gas emissions in three orchards and a vineyard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, Sonja; Schleicher, Sarah; Bischoff, Wolf-Anno; Gomez Palermo, Maider; Kern, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Pruning of orchards and vineyards is usually burned or left on the soil for nutrient and organic carbon recycling. Recently the interest rose to extract pruning for energetic use. Very few studies exist that analyzed the effects of pruning removal on soil physical and chemical characteristics. This is linked to the fact that changes are expected rather in the long term, but project funding is typically restricted to 2 or 3 years. Some soil characteristics, however, as organic carbon content and greenhouse gas emissions might also change on the short term as our literature review reveals. The main objective of this research is to determine if pruning extraction from orchards and vineyards impact greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CH4, and CO2) from soil to the atmosphere, change soil nitrogen and carbon content or effect nitrogen leaching. Results from our study and from the literature will be compiled to formulate best management practices for sustainable pruning utilization from orchards and vineyards. Here we compare four different study sites in a block design over two rows each with two parcels where we extracted pruning and two parcels where pruning was chipped and left on the soil (n=4). Comparisons were made for initial soil chemistry and greenhouse gas emissions in a cherry orchard without irrigation in Germany, a vineyard without irrigation in France, an almond orchard with drip irrigation in Spain and a peach orchard with flood irrigation in Spain. Soil greenhouse gas emissions depend on soil chemistry and soil moisture. These characteristics can be expected to vary between the tree rows and inter-rows of orchards. Therefore we took soil samples from row and inter-row positions of each study site and analyzed them for chemical parameters (pH, total C, N, S, and H, and available PO4, NH4, NO3, K, Mg, Ca). Additionally soil moisture and temperature data have been recorded for tree rows and inter-rows in the cherry orchard and the vineyard. Gas samples were

  3. The Issues of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca L. Micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kudělková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of four modified mediums for apricot multiplication was observed in this study. A total number of 1864 single nodes of 20 Prunus armeniaca L.varieties were established. Explants surface was disinfected with 0.2 % mercuric chloride for 5 minutes. MS (1962 medium with 0.5 mg.l−1 BA, 0.01 mg.l−1 NAA and 0.5 mg.l−1 GA3 was used as a medium for primary culture. ‘Velkopavlovická’, ‘Bergeron’, genotype 1128 and genotype LE 2927 Š9 were successfully transferred to aseptic conditions and multiplied. Modified MS medium (1962, DKW/Juglans medium, Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977 medium and Marino et al. (1991 medium were used for multiplication. Modified MS medium and modified DKW/Juglans medium were not suitable for apricot multiplication at all and explants did not grow. The best results were observed in the case of Quoirin, Lepoivre (1977 medium with 0.4 mg.l−1 BA and 0.01 mg.l−1 NAA. Young plants multiplied well, were fresh and vital and no damage was observed. The highest number of new shoots was observed in the case of Marino et al. (1991 medium. The average growth of new shoots after the last passaging was 600 %, rate 7.33 (Velkopavlovická; 566 %, rate 7.0 (Bergeron; 475 %, rate 6.25 (1128 and 483 %, rate 6.33 (LE 2927 Š9. However, new shoots in clusters were too dense and stunted and this medium is not recommended for apricot multiplication.

  4. Prunus serotina Amygdalin Hydrolase and Prunasin Hydrolase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Ping; Swain, Elisabeth; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) seed homogenates, amygdalin hydrolase (AH) participates with prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitrile lyase in the sequential degradation of (R)-amygdalin to HCN, benzaldehyde, and glucose. Four isozymes of AH (designated AH I, I′, II, II′) were purified from mature cherry seeds by concanavalin A-Sepharose 4B chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and chromatofocusing. All isozymes were monomeric glycoproteins with native molecular masses of 52 kD. They showed similar kinetic properties (pH optima, Km, Vmax) but differed in their isoelectric points and N-terminal amino acid sequences. Analytical isoelectric focusing revealed the presence of subisozymes of each isozyme. The relative abundance of these isozymes and/or subisozymes varied from seed to seed. Three isozymes of PH (designated PH I, IIa, and IIb) were purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity, ion-exchange, and hydroxyapatite chromatography and by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PH I and PH IIb are 68-kD monomeric glycoproteins, whereas PH IIa is dimeric (140 kD). The N-terminal sequences of all PH and AH isozymes showed considerable similarity. Polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against deglycosylated AH I or a mixture of the three deglycosylated PH isozymes were not monospecific as judged by immunoblotting analysis, but also cross-reacted with the opposing glucosidase. Monospecific antisera deemed suitable for immunocytochemistry and screening of expression libraries were obtained by affinity chromatography. Each antiserum recognized all known isozymes of the specific glucosidase used as antigen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 9 PMID:16652959

  5. Dormancy in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Flower Buds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Virginia; Lorenzo, Eugenia; Reinoso, Herminda; Tordable, Maria C.; Abdala, Guillermina; Pharis, Richard P.; Bottini, Ruben

    1990-01-01

    Flower buds of peach (Prunus persica L.) trees, cv Novedad de Cordoba (Argentina), were collected near the end of the dormant period and immediately before anthesis. After removal of scale leaves, morphological observations of representative buds, made on transverse and longitudinal microtome sections, showed that all verticils making up the flower are present in an undifferentiated form during the dormant period (June). Flower buds collected at the end of dormant period (August) showed additional growth and differentiation, at which time formation of two ovules was beginning in the unicarpelar gynoecium. Dehiscence of anthers had not yet occurred 10 days before full bloom, and the ovules were still developing. Free endogenous gibberellin (GA)-like substances were quantified by bioassay (Tan-ginbozu dwarf rice microdrop) after SiO2 partition column chromatography, reversed phase C18-high performance liquid chromatography, and finally Nucleosil [N(CH3)2]high performance liquid chromatography. Bioactive fractions were then subjected to capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring (GC-MS-SIM). Gibberellins A1, A3, and A8 were tentatively identified in peach flower buds using GC-SIM and Kovat's retention indices, and relative amounts approximated by GC-SIM (2:8:6 for GA1, GA3, and GA8, respectively). The highest concentration (330 nanograms per gram dry weight) of free GA1/GA3 was found in dormant buds (June) and diminished thereafter. The concentration free of GA1/GA3 did not increase immediately prior to bud break. However, high GA1/GA3 concentrations occurred during stages where rate of growth and cellular differentiation of (mainly fertile) verticils can be influenced. Images Figure 1 PMID:16667435

  6. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt O. Reinhart; Alejandro Royo; Wim H. Van der Putten; Keith Clay

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments, soil sterilization was used to test the...

  7. Agrobacterium-medicated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of trangenic shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for in vitro leaf explants of an elite, mature Prunus serotina tree. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring an RNAi plasmid with the black cherry AGAMOUS (AG) gene was used. Bacteria were induced...

  8. Molecular mechanisms regulating flowering time in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra

    as a result of hydrogen cyanamide treatment: the jasmonate pathway, the hydrogen cyanide pathway and the cytokinin pathway. We further analyzed the levels of cyanogenic glucosides and their derivatives during endodormancy and its release in sweet cherry and almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb). Prunasin...

  9. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, K.O.; Royo, A.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Clay, K.

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments,

  10. Adventitious shoot regeneration and rooting of Prunus serotina in vitro cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Carolina Espinosa; Paula M. Pijut; Charles H. Michler

    2006-01-01

    A complete regeneration protocol was developed for Prunus serotina Ehrh., an important hardwood species for timber and sawlog production in the central and eastern United States. Nodal sections were cultures on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.44 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.49 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA),...

  11. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  12. Cloning and characterization of prunus serotina AGAMOUS, a putative flower homeotic gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Joseph Anderson; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors play an important role in regulating the development of reproductive organs in flowering plants. To help understand the mechanism of floral development in black cherry (Prunus serotina), PsAG (a putative flower homeotic identity gene) was isolated...

  13. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Anthocyanins: effects of juice processing on phenolic compounds and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Capanoglu, E.

    2014-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), has gained growing interest in recent years due to the envisaged health benefits associated with a regular intake of anthocyanins and related polyphenolic compounds. Turkish sour cherries are widely consumed as processed products and are renowned for their high juice

  14. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale

  15. Mass of Prunus africana stem barks on Tchabal mbabo and Tchabal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study which aimed to produce a formula for establishing the mass of the bark of Prunus africana specimens was carried out in May 2011 on Tchabal Mbabo and Tchabal Gang Daba mountain forests, in the Adamaoua region of Cameroon. The diameter at breast height (DBH), the height of the tree and the thickness of the ...

  16. A synonymic revision of the Prunus-infesting aphid genus Hyalopterus Koch 1854 (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three species of Hyalopterus Koch cause economic damage to various stone fruit trees of the genus Prunus L., H. pruni (Geoffroy), H. amygdali (Blanchard), and H. persikonus Miller et al. Although the third species was established recently, it has been suggested that one of the twelve older synon...

  17. Quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in Prunus serotina Ehrh. using 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Pimenta, Lucia P.; Schilthuizen, Menno; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    Introduction Prunus serotina is native to North America but has been invasively introduced in Europe since the seventeenth century. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides that are believed to be related to its success as an invasive plant. For these compounds, chromatographic- or

  18. Can Prunus serotina be genetically engineered for reproductive sterility and insect pest resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is a valuable hardwood timber species, and its value highly depends on the wood quality which is often threatened by insect pests. Transgenic black cherry plants that are more resistant to cambial-mining insects may reduce the occurrence of gummosis and have great economic benefits to landowners and the forest products...

  19. Pegamento e crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas Tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o pegamento e o crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, adotando-se a enxertia de borbulhia por escudo (março e borbulhia por escudo modificada (julho. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que é viável a realização da enxertia do 'Aurora-1' nos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e no 'Okinawa', tanto em março quanto em julho, com as metodologias utilizadas. O 'Okinawa' induz crescimento mais rápido ao enxerto, de forma que o ponto máximo do comprimento é atingido em tempo menor.This study aimed to evaluate the tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings. Two experiments were carried out, being adopted the chip budding (March and chip budding modified (July. The results showed that accomplishment of 'Aurora-1' peach bud on mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' is viable, in both periods, with the methodologies used. The 'Okinawa' induces faster growth to the bud and the maximum length point is reached in a short time.

  20. Plant regeneration from in vitro leaves of mature black cherry (Prunus serotina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula M. Pijut

    2008-01-01

    A regeneration system was developed for Prunus serotina from a juvenile (F) and two mature genotypes (#3 and #4). Adventitious shoots regenerated from leaves of in vitro cultures on woody plant medium with thidiazuron (TDZ) and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The best regeneration for genotype F (91.4%) was observed on medium with 9.08 µM TDZ...

  1. Molecular characterization of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] is an important medicinal fruit with immense health benefits and antioxidant activity. In this study, microsatellite markers were used as DNA fingerprinting tools for the identification and characterization of peach germplasm in the United States. Eleven microsatel...

  2. Performance of Prunus rootstocks in the 2001 NC-140 peach trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourteen Prunus rootstock cultivars and selections budded with either ‘Redtop’, ‘Redhaven’ or ‘Cresthaven’ peach were planted at 11 locations in North America in 2001 in a randomized block design with a tree spacing of 5 by 6 m and 8 replicates. These rootstocks included three peach seedling rootst...

  3. The anti-viral effect of Acacia mellifera, Melia azedarach and Prunus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous extracts from the stem barks of Prunus africana(Hook.f.) Kalkm, Acacia mellifera (Vahl.) Benth. and Melia azedarach L. were evaluated for in vivo antiviral activity in Balb/C mice following a cutaneous wild type strain 7401H herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. A significant therapeutic effect was observed ...

  4. Transformation of somatic embryos of Prunus incisa ‘February Pink’ with a visible reporter gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for the ornamental cherry species Prunus incisa. This system uses both an antibiotic resistance gene (NPTII) and a visible selectable marker, the green fluorescent protein (GFP), to select plants. Cells from leaf and root explants were tr...

  5. The effects of sex-ratio and density on locomotor activity in the house fly, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjaersgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino

    2012-01-01

    Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex-ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra-re...... of the behavioral interactions between houseflies and highlight the importance of these factors when designing behavioral experiments using M. domestica....

  6. AVALIAÇÃO DA COMPATIBILIDADE DA ENXERTIA EM Prunus sp. EVALUATION OF THE GRAFT COMPATIBILITY IN Prunus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE COUTO RODRIGUES

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A atividade de peroxidase e concentração de fenóis foi determinada com o objetivo de se avaliar aspectos de compatibilidade entre porta-enxertos e enxertos. As amostras foram processadas e obtidas a partir da casca e lenho dos porta-enxertos de pessegueiros (GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq e Aldrighi e de ameixeiras (Mirabolano e Marianna, enxertados ou não com as cultivares Diamante, Eldorado e Santa Rosa. Concluiu-se que a atividade de peroxidase e a concentração de fenóis foram relacionadas com união entre enxerto e porta-enxerto, particularmente, em Marianna e Mirabolano, onde a atividade de peroxidase e a concentração de fenóis foram mais elevados. A cultivar Santa Rosa foi compatível tanto com os porta-enxertos de ameixeiras quanto com os de pessegueiros.The work was accomplished aiming to quantify the peroxidase activity and total phenols, in order to verify the physiological and biochemical processes in grafting of Prunus sp. cultivars. The samples were processed and obtained in bark and wood of the peach rootstocks (GF 677, Okinawa, Capdeboscq and Aldrighi and plum rootstocks (Mirabolano and Marianna, after they had or not been grafted with the stock Diamante, Eldorado and Santa Rosa. It could be concluded that the peroxidase and the total phenols activity influenced the union between stock and rootstock; after grafting, the incompatibility degree is related with high peroxidase activity and total phenols in the rootstock Marianna and Mirabolano. The Santa Rosa plum graft is as compatible to plum rootstocks as to the peach ones.

  7. Tree growth and management in Ugandan agroforestry systems: effects of root pruning on tree growth and crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajja-Musukwe, Tellie-Nelson; Wilson, Julia; Sprent, Janet I; Ong, Chin K; Deans, J Douglas; Okorio, John

    2008-02-01

    Tree root pruning is a potential tool for managing belowground competition when trees and crops are grown together in agroforestry systems. We investigated the effects of tree root pruning on shoot growth and root distribution of Alnus acuminata (H.B. & K.), Casuarina equisetifolia L., Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br., Maesopsis eminii Engl. and Markhamia lutea (Benth.) K. Schum. and on yield of adjacent crops in sub-humid Uganda. The trees were 3 years old at the commencement of the study, and most species were competing strongly with crops. Tree roots were pruned 41 months after planting by cutting and back-filling a trench to a depth of 0.3 m, at a distance of 0.3 m from the trees, on one side of the tree row. The trench was reopened and roots recut at 50 and 62 months after planting. We assessed the effects on tree growth and root distribution over a 3 year period, and crop yield after the third root pruning at 62 months. Overall, root pruning had only a slight effect on aboveground tree growth: height growth was unaffected and diameter growth was reduced by only 4%. A substantial amount of root regrowth was observed by 11 months after pruning. Tree species varied in the number and distribution of roots, and C. equisetifolia and M. lutea had considerably more roots per unit of trunk volume than the other species, especially in the surface soil layers. Casuarina equisetifolia and M. eminii were the tree species most competitive with crops and G. robusta and M. lutea the least competitive. Crop yield data provided strong evidence of the redistribution of root activity following root pruning, with competition increasing on the unpruned side of tree rows. Thus, one-sided root pruning will be useful in only a few circumstances.

  8. Integrating olive grove maintenance and energy biomass recovery with a single-pass pruning and harvesting machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Nati, Carla; Picchi, Gianni [CNR-IVALSA, Via Madonna del Piano 10, I 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, FI (Italy); Magagnotti, Natascia [DEIAGRA, University of Bologna, Via Fanin 50, Bologna (Italy); Cantini, Claudio; Sani, Graziano [CNR-IVALSA, Azienda S. Paolina, Follonica, GR (Italy); Biocca, Marcello [CRA-ISMA, Via della Pascolare 16, Monterotondo, Roma (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    In Italy, olive tree groves may offer up to a million tonnes of dry biomass per year as pruning residue. Searching for a cost-effective way to tap this potential, the authors tested a new machine, capable of recovering pruning residue at the same time as pruning. The pre-commercial prototype was tested on four different plots and compared to a simpler tractor-base mechanical pruning unit. The authors conducted detailed time-studies in order to determine machine productivity and residue recovery cost. The integrated machine can treat between 0.2 and 0.6 ha h{sup -1}, producing between 0.33 and 1.03 tonnes of fresh residue hour{sup -1}. Its integrated residue recovery function does not slow the pruning, which actually proceeds faster than with the tractor-base unit, due to the more efficient multiple-disc cutting bar. The marginal cost of residue recovery hovers around 40-45 EUR fresh tonne{sup -1}. However, the new machine must not be considered just as a biomass harvester, but rather as a mechanical pruning unit with an integrated biomass recovery function. Its main benefit derives from the capacity of performing a very effective mechanical pruning, and the residue recovery function is a secondary benefit yet unavailable on standard pruning machines. Its deployment must be seen in the context of a general effort to modernize olive grove management and to develop an integrated biomass production system, rather than as a further attempt to build a specialised biomass supply chain. (author)

  9. Musca domestica Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus, a Globally Distributed Insect Virus That Infects and Sterilizes Female Houseflies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prompiboon, Pannipa; Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Denton, John S S

    2010-01-01

    The housefly, Musca domestica, is a cosmopolitan pest of livestock and poultry and is of economic, veterinary, and public health importance. Populations of M. domestica are naturally infected with M. domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus (MdSGHV), a nonoccluded double-stranded DNA virus that...... that was significantly greater than that displayed by newly eclosed adults. Regardless of the MdSGHV isolate tested, all susceptible insects displayed similar degrees of SGH and complete suppression of oogenesis....

  10. Sec71 functions as a GEF for the small GTPase Arf1 to govern dendrite pruning ofDrosophilasensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Heng; Shi, Meng; Liou, Yih-Cherng; Lu, Lei; Yu, Fengwei

    2017-05-15

    Pruning, whereby neurons eliminate their excess neurites, is central for the maturation of the nervous system. In Drosophila , sensory neurons, ddaCs, selectively prune their larval dendrites without affecting their axons during metamorphosis. However, it is unknown whether the secretory pathway plays a role in dendrite pruning. Here, we show that the small GTPase Arf1, an important regulator of the secretory pathway, is specifically required for dendrite pruning of ddaC/D/E sensory neurons but dispensable for apoptosis of ddaF neurons. Analyses of the GTP- and GDP-locked forms of Arf1 indicate that the cycling of Arf1 between GDP-bound and GTP-bound forms is essential for dendrite pruning. We further identified Sec71 as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Arf1 that preferentially interacts with its GDP-bound form. Like Arf1, Sec71 is also important for dendrite pruning, but not for apoptosis, of sensory neurons. Arf1 and Sec71 are interdependent for their localizations on Golgi. Finally, we show that the Sec71/Arf1-mediated trafficking process is a prerequisite for Rab5-dependent endocytosis to facilitate endocytosis and degradation of the cell-adhesion molecule Neuroglian (Nrg). © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Influence of rootstocks and pruning times on yield and on nutrient content and extraction in 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of rootstocks and pruning times on yield and on nutrient content and extraction by pruned branches and harvested bunches of 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine in subtropical climate. The rootstocks 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572', 'IAC 313', 'IAC 571-6', and '106-8 Mgt' were evaluated. Treatments consisted of a combination between five rootstocks and three pruning times. At pruning, fresh and dry matter mass of branches were evaluated to estimate biomass accumulation. At harvest, yield was estimated by weighing of bunches per plant. Branches and bunches were sampled at pruning and at harvest, respectively, for nutrient content analysis. Nutrient content and dry matter mass of branches and bunches were used to estimate total nutrient extraction. 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine grafted onto the 'IAC 572' rootstock had the highest yield and dry matter mass of bunches, which were significantly different from the ones observed in 'Niagara Rosada'/'IAC 313'. 'Niagara Rosada' grafted onto the 'IAC 572' rootstock extracted the largest quantity of K, P, Mg, S, Cu, and Fe, differing from 'IAC 313' and 'IAC 766' in K and P extraction, and from '106-8 Mgt' in Mg and S extraction. Winter pruning results in higher yield, dry matter accumulation by branches, and total nutrient content and extraction.

  12. THE EFFECT OF NUTRIENT MEDIA IN MICROPROPAGATION AND IN VITRO CONSERVATION OF WILD POPULATION OF MAHALEB CHERRY (PRUNUS MAHALEB L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valbona Sota; Efigjeni Kongjika

    2014-01-01

      Shoot tips of Prunus mahaleb L. isolated from wild populations of Zejmen (Lezhe), promising as rootstocks for sweet cherry cultivars, were submitted to in vitro culture to test if micropropagation could be used for their rapid production...

  13. Endophytic bacteria in plant tissue culture: differences between easy- and difficult-to-propagate Prunus avium genotypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods...

  14. Pruning-Based Sparse Recovery for Electrocardiogram Reconstruction from Compressed Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the necessity of the low-power implementation of newly-developed electrocardiogram (ECG sensors, exact ECG data reconstruction from the compressed measurements has received much attention in recent years. Our interest lies in improving the compression ratio (CR, as well as the ECG reconstruction performance of the sparse signal recovery. To this end, we propose a sparse signal reconstruction method by pruning-based tree search, which attempts to choose the globally-optimal solution by minimizing the cost function. In order to achieve low complexity for the real-time implementation, we employ a novel pruning strategy to avoid exhaustive tree search. Through the restricted isometry property (RIP-based analysis, we show that the exact recovery condition of our approach is more relaxed than any of the existing methods. Through the simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the existing sparse recovery methods for ECG reconstruction.

  15. A novel technique for reconstruction of the abdominal wall in the prune belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfort, G; Guys, J M; Bocciardi, A; Coquet, M; Chevallier, D

    1991-08-01

    There is currently widespread enthusiasm for abdominal wall reconstruction in patients with the prune belly syndrome. We have devised an operation that appears to offer some advantages over those proposed by Ehrlich and Randolph. The technique preserves the umbilicus, and thickens and strengthens the anterior abdominal wall. By narrowing the waist, it also produces a better cosmetic appearance. After full thickness resection of a varying amount of skin from the central abdomen, the anterior wall is sutured in double-breasted fashion, thus, preserving all vascularization and the umbilicus. Since 1969 we have successfully performed this procedure on 9 prune belly patients including 1 girl. The results were excellent in terms of duration and cosmetic appearance.

  16. Brief clinical report: prune belly syndrome: observations supporting the hypothesis of abdominal overdistention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, B K; Dillard, R G

    1984-03-01

    We report on an infant with the prune belly syndrome who was unusual in that the typical manifestations of the disorder were accompanied by an anterior abdominal wall defect. We speculate that this defect may have occurred as a result of splitting of the abdominal wall secondary to massive bladder dilatation and stretching of the abdominal muscles. An alternative explanation is that the defect may have been the result of secondary pressure necrosis from stretching forces or from contact with another structure, such as the cervix. This case lends further support to the hypothesis that bladder distention with overdistention of the abdomen may be the primary event leading to the findings observed in the prune belly syndrome.

  17. Degree Associated Edge Reconstruction Number of Graphs with Regular Pruned Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Anusha Devi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available An ecard of a graph $G$ is a subgraph formed by deleting an edge. A da-ecard specifies the degree of the deleted edge along with the ecard. The degree associated edge reconstruction number of a graph $G,~dern(G,$ is the minimum number of da-ecards that uniquely determines $G.$  The adversary degree associated edge reconstruction number of a graph $G, adern(G,$ is the minimum number $k$ such that every collection of $k$ da-ecards of $G$ uniquely determines $G.$ The maximal subgraph without end vertices of a graph $G$ which is not a tree is the pruned graph of $G.$ It is shown that $dern$ of complete multipartite graphs and some connected graphs with regular pruned graph is $1$ or $2.$ We also determine $dern$ and $adern$ of corona product of standard graphs.

  18. Combining soft decision algorithms and scale-sequential hypotheses pruning for object recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.P.; Manolakos, E.S. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a system that exploits the synergy of Hierarchical Mixture Density (HMD) estimation with multiresolution decomposition based hypothesis pruning to perform efficiently joint segmentation and labeling of partially occluded objects in images. First we present the overall structure of the HMD estimation algorithm in the form of a recurrent neural network which generates the posterior probabilities of the various hypotheses associated with the image. Then in order to reduce the large memory and computation requirement we propose a hypothesis pruning scheme making use of the orthonormal discrete wavelet transform for dimensionality reduction. We provide an intuitive justification for the validity of this scheme and present experimental results and performance analysis on real and synthetic images to verify our claims.

  19. Growth following pruning of young loblolly pine trees: some early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph L. Amateis; Harold E. Burkhart

    2006-01-01

    In the spring of 2000, a designed experiment was established to study the effects of pruning on juvenile loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) tree growth and the subsequent formation of mature wood. Trees were planted at a 3 m x 3 m square spacing in plots of 6 rows with 6 trees per row, with the inner 16 trees constituting the measurement plot. Among the...

  20. Thinning and Pruning Influence Glaze Damage in a Loblolly Pine Plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Burton

    1981-01-01

    An old-field plantation was thinned and pruned at age 11 and again at age 14 to 4 basal area levels and 3 crown percent levels. A survey was made to determine how damage by an ice storm at age 15 was influenced by treatment. Severe damage was heaviest in the densest stands and in stands with the shortest crowns, while the percent of stand destroyed was least under the...

  1. Using State Merging and State Pruning to Address the Path Explosion Problem Faced by Symbolic Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    Forward and Pruned States. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 xii List of Acronyms Acronym Definition ASLR address space layout randomization CFG control flow...Decomposition LLVM low-level virtual machine SUT system under test CUT component under test CFG control flow graph KLOC thousands (kilo) of lines of code LOC...State merging can be done either statically or dynamically. Static state merging requires the building and traversal of a control flow graph ( CFG ) [20

  2. Mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrettin OZER

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dried fruit is fruit that is preserved by removing the original water content naturally, through sun drying or artificially, by the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia and is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value and long shelf life. Traditional dried fruits such as raisins, figs, dates, apricots and prunes have been a staple of Mediterranean diets for millennia. The Mediterranean region is very favourable for production of dried fruits, not only with its climatic conditions, but also its exceptional fertile lands. Additionally, proximity to trade routes historically has allowed Mediterranean countries more access to dried fruits than landlocked countries. Today, dried fruit consumption is widespread. Nearly half of the dried fruits sold throughout the world are raisins, followed by dates, prunes (dried plums, figs, apricots, peaches, apples and pears. Dates, prunes, apricots, figs and raisins are the major dried fruits produced in the Mediterranean area. Dried fruits are not perishable but can support mold growth, some of which can produce mycotoxins. Occurence of toxigenic molds and mycotoxins on these dried fruits can be a problem in the Mediterranean basin, as in the other parts of the world, being a health hazard to the population as well as a trade issue for the export of local products. Although the most important mycotoxins occuring in Mediterranean crops are aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 and ochratoxin A, the type and level of mycotoxins and toxigenic molds vary by crop and also by country and in some cases geographic location within a country. In this review mycotoxin risks and toxigenic fungi in date, prune and dried apricot among Mediterranean crops are reported and discussed.

  3. Visual versus chemical evaluation: Effects of pruning wood decomposition on soil quality in a cherry orchard (Northeast Germany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Renee; Germer, Sonja; Kern, Jürgen; Stoorvogel, Jetse

    2016-04-01

    Returning crop residues to the soil is a well-known practice to keep a sustainable soil quality in agriculture. In an orchard, pruning material could be returned for soil and water conservation or could be removed for energy production. Pruning wood decomposition rates and their impact on soil quality and greenhouse-gas emissions depend on climate, soil type, land management and water availability. Changing the soil management from leaving wood prunings on soil to removing them from the orchard is expected to result in a slow but lasting change of soil quality. Therefore a quick and cost-effective technique for soil quality evaluation is needed. This study aims to compare pruning wood decomposition effects on soil quality determined by soil chemistry (pH, C/N-ratio) or by Visual Soil Examination and Evaluation (VSEE). In addition, treatments effects on soil quality were compared for sampling positions in tree rows versus interrows. In a cherry orchard (Northeast Germany) six plots were established spreading over two planting rows. At each plot, three subplots with 1x (0.55 kg/m2), 2x (1.10 kg/m2) and 10x (5.50 kg/m2) the average pruning wood rates were installed in both tree and interrows. 5 months later the soils were sampled and a Visual Soil Evaluation and Examination (VSEE) was applied. To relate wood decomposition to impacts on soil quality, wood bags were placed in each plot and were sampled in time intervals of 5 weeks (till a maximum of 20 weeks). Wood decomposition was characterized by decomposition rates and changes in carbon and nitrogen contents. To assess environmental effects, CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions or uptake from soils with different pruning rates were determined with the closed chamber method. There were no significant differences in pH and C/N-ratio between the 3 pruning rates. However, pH was significant higher in the tree row compared to the interrow for the 10-fold pruning rate. The 10-fold pruning rate had significant higher VSEE

  4. Effects of pruning intensity on jujube transpiration and soil moisture of plantation in the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhenyi; Wang, Xing; Wang, Youke; Ma, Jianpeng; Wei, Xinguang; Chen, Dianyu

    2017-01-01

    In order to ease soil desiccation and prevent ecological deterioration in the Loess Plateau, where jujube (Zizyphus jujube MIll) is widely cultivated as a drought tolerant plant, four pruning intensities (PI), from PI-1 (light) to PI-4 (heavy) were set up based on total length of secondary branches to study the effects of pruning on transpiration and soil moisture in jujube plantations. Furthermore, growth indexes were regularly monitored to estimate jujubes biomass. Sap flow, meteorological and soil moisture conditions were monitored using thermal dissipation probes (TDP), weather station (RR-9100) and the combination of time domain transmission (TDT) technology and neutron moisture gauges (CNC503B), respectively. The results showed that daily actual transpiration of jujube was positively correlated with leaf biomass. Compared with PI-1, jujube transpiration during growth period under PI-2, PI-3, and PI-4 dropped by 11.1%, 29.2%, and 47.9%, respectively. On the contrary, annual water storage under PI-2, PI-3, and PI-4 increased by 6.29 mm, 25.78 mm and 34.74 mm while water use efficiency increased by 5.1%, 15.7% and 24.2%, respectively. Overall, increase in pruning intensity could significantly reduce water consumption of jujube and improve soil moisture in jujube plantations.

  5. Carbon footprint associated with four disposal scenarios for urban pruning waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Yuri Rommel Vieira; de Góis, Monijany Lins; Junior, Luiz Moreira Coelho; Carvalho, Monica

    2017-11-04

    The inadequate disposal of urban pruning residues can cause significant environmental impacts. The objective of the study presented herein was to quantify the carbon footprint and analyze four disposal scenarios for the urban pruning waste of the city of Joao Pessoa (Northeast Brazil). Software SimaPro was utilized for the quantification of the carbon footprint, with the IPCC 2013 GWP 100y impact evaluation method. The end-of-life treatments considered were sanitary landfilling (with and without collection of methane), simple municipal incineration, and reutilization of wood (transformation into briquettes). The results indicated that simple disposal in sanitary landfill generated 136.34 kg CO2/t urban pruning waste collected (highest carbon footprint), sanitary landfill with methane collection emitted 113.43 kg CO2/t waste, municipal incineration generated 71.31 kg CO2/t waste, and reutilization of woody residues was the scenario with the lowest carbon footprint, with 27.82 kg CO2/t waste. This study demonstrated that reutilization of biomass, besides being environmentally viable, presents the potential to contribute to the city's environmental quality, including the possibility of being used to obtain carbon credits.

  6. [Prenatal diagnosis of prune belly syndrome occurring in siblings in 2 consecutive pregnancies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feige, A; Fiedler, K; Rempen, A; Osterhage, H R

    1984-01-01

    The present paper reports on the occurrence of Prune Belly syndrome in siblings. The mother, now 21, gave birth in 1981 to a boy with Prune Belly syndrome. In the second pregnancy the changes in the fetus were first diagnosed by sonography in the 26th week. An ovarian tumor was ruled out by transabdominal puncture of the tumor in the girl's lower abdomen; dilatation of the bladder was diagnosed by the subsequent sonographic check-up. At the same time amniotic fluid was taken in order to determine the fetal karyotype. As the quantity of amniotic fluid was normal, further treatment was put off: a vesicoamniotic shunt, which had been considered at one stage, was not constructed, even though the dilatory changes in the urinary tract increased. In the 37th week a girl was delivered by cesarean section. She had Prune Belly syndrome. Kidney function post part was normal; the prognosis for the infant is good, as it is for her brother who was not treated prenatally. The authors' observations, especially of the course of the second pregnancy, show that provided the quantity of amniotic fluid is normal, prenatal therapy with its attendant risks should only be considered with great reservation.

  7. Effect of summer pruning and CPPU on yield and quality of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanick, K K; Kashyap, Poonam; Kishore, D K; Sharma, Y P

    2015-03-01

    A field experiment was conducted on bearing vines of kiwifruit cv. Abbott to find the effect of CPPU (N-(2- chloro-4-pyridyl)-N-phenylurea) and summer pruning on fruit yield, fruit size and quality. CPPU greatly stimulated fruit growth indicating that it can be a powerful tool for improving kiwifruit cropping. Application of CPPU at 10 ppm concentration was done by dipping the fruits for 10 sec in the aqueous solution of compound at petal fall and 30 days after petal fall. CPPU applied fruits increased size by 20-70 g over control. Summer pruning along with CPPU application proved to be more effective in obtaining fruits of high grades with increased fruit weight (95.37 g fruit(-1)) and high quality. Summer pruning, when done by pinching 1/5th at Petal Fall stage + CPPU dipping (10 ml(-1)) and pinching 1/5th continued till harvest, at one month interval resulted in increased fruit yield (54.80 kg vine(-1)), high TSS (17.60 Brix), high total sugar (9.85%), advanced ripening by one week and reduced flesh firmness.

  8. Investigation of the Best Method for Winter Pruning of Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa L., cv. Hayward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Adouli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter pruning of kiwifruit has significant effect on yield and quality of fruits. But many growers do not follow a correct pattern for this practice. To determine the effect of this pruning on performance and introducing the appropriate method to do the pruning, a two-year project was carried out as a RCBD with two factors [number of canes per leader (6, 8, 10 and 12 and number of left buds for each cane (6, 12 and 18] with three replications and two vines of Hayward cultivar for each replication of each treatment. For pollination of the flowers, Tomuri variety was planted with 1: 8 ratio with Hayward cultivar. Obtained results showed that both factors had significant effects on yield and fruit size. The best fruits were produced by vines that had 10 or 12 canes per leader and 12 buds on each cane. By these treatments, the yield was improved approximately 5 t/ha more than local orchards. Quality of the fruits was not affected by the studied factors.

  9. Rapid Retrieval of Lung Nodule CT Images Based on Hashing and Pruning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Pan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The similarity-based retrieval of lung nodule computed tomography (CT images is an important task in the computer-aided diagnosis of lung lesions. It can provide similar clinical cases for physicians and help them make reliable clinical diagnostic decisions. However, when handling large-scale lung images with a general-purpose computer, traditional image retrieval methods may not be efficient. In this paper, a new retrieval framework based on a hashing method for lung nodule CT images is proposed. This method can translate high-dimensional image features into a compact hash code, so the retrieval time and required memory space can be reduced greatly. Moreover, a pruning algorithm is presented to further improve the retrieval speed, and a pruning-based decision rule is presented to improve the retrieval precision. Finally, the proposed retrieval method is validated on 2,450 lung nodule CT images selected from the public Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC database. The experimental results show that the proposed pruning algorithm effectively reduces the retrieval time of lung nodule CT images and improves the retrieval precision. In addition, the retrieval framework is evaluated by differentiating benign and malignant nodules, and the classification accuracy can reach 86.62%, outperforming other commonly used classification methods.

  10. Rapid Retrieval of Lung Nodule CT Images Based on Hashing and Pruning Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ling; Qiang, Yan; Yuan, Jie; Wu, Lidong

    2016-01-01

    The similarity-based retrieval of lung nodule computed tomography (CT) images is an important task in the computer-aided diagnosis of lung lesions. It can provide similar clinical cases for physicians and help them make reliable clinical diagnostic decisions. However, when handling large-scale lung images with a general-purpose computer, traditional image retrieval methods may not be efficient. In this paper, a new retrieval framework based on a hashing method for lung nodule CT images is proposed. This method can translate high-dimensional image features into a compact hash code, so the retrieval time and required memory space can be reduced greatly. Moreover, a pruning algorithm is presented to further improve the retrieval speed, and a pruning-based decision rule is presented to improve the retrieval precision. Finally, the proposed retrieval method is validated on 2,450 lung nodule CT images selected from the public Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) database. The experimental results show that the proposed pruning algorithm effectively reduces the retrieval time of lung nodule CT images and improves the retrieval precision. In addition, the retrieval framework is evaluated by differentiating benign and malignant nodules, and the classification accuracy can reach 86.62%, outperforming other commonly used classification methods.

  11. Induction and pruning of classification rules for prediction of microseismic hazards in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, M. [Silesian Technical University, Gliwice (Poland)

    2011-06-15

    The paper presents results of application of a rule induction and pruning algorithm for classification of a microseismic hazard state in coal mines. Due to imbalanced distribution of examples describing states 'hazardous' and 'safe', the special algorithm was used for induction and rule pruning. The algorithm selects optimal parameters' values influencing rule induction and pruning based on training and tuning sets. A rule quality measure which decides about a form and classification abilities of rules that are induced is the basic parameter of the algorithm. The specificity and sensitivity of a classifier were used to evaluate its quality. Conducted tests show that the admitted method of rules induction and classifier's quality evaluation enables to get better results of classification of microseismic hazards than by methods currently used in mining practice. Results obtained by the rules-based classifier were also compared with results got by a decision tree induction algorithm and by a neuro-fuzzy system.

  12. Developmental downregulation of LIS1 expression limits axonal extension and allows axon pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Kumamoto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The robust axonal growth and regenerative capacities of young neurons decrease substantially with age. This developmental downregulation of axonal growth may facilitate axonal pruning and neural circuit formation but limits functional recovery following nerve damage. While external factors influencing axonal growth have been extensively investigated, relatively little is known about the intrinsic molecular changes underlying the age-dependent reduction in regeneration capacity. We report that developmental downregulation of LIS1 is responsible for the decreased axonal extension capacity of mature dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. In contrast, exogenous LIS1 expression or endogenous LIS1 augmentation by calpain inhibition restored axonal extension capacity in mature DRG neurons and facilitated regeneration of the damaged sciatic nerve. The insulator protein CTCF suppressed LIS1 expression in mature DRG neurons, and this reduction resulted in excessive accumulation of phosphoactivated GSK-3β at the axon tip, causing failure of the axonal extension. Conversely, sustained LIS1 expression inhibited developmental axon pruning in the mammillary body. Thus, LIS1 regulation may coordinate the balance between axonal growth and pruning during maturation of neuronal circuits.

  13. Evaluation of fungicides to protect pruning wounds from Botryosphaeriaceae species infections on almond trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego OLMO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In vitro efficacy of ten fungicides was evaluated against four Botryosphaeriaceae spp. (Diplodia seriata, Neofusicoccum luteum, N. mediterraneum and N. parvum associated with branch cankers on almond trees. Cyproconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole, and thiophanate-methyl were effective for the inhibition of mycelial growth of most of these fungi. An experiment on 3-year-old almond trees evaluated boscalid, mancozeb, thiophanate-methyl, pyraclostrobin and tebuconazole for preventative ability against infections caused by the four pathogens. Five months after pruning and fungicide application, lesion length measurements and isolation percentages showed no significant differences among the four pathogens after they were inoculated onto the trees, and also between the two inoculation times tested (1 or 7 d after fungicide application. Thiophanate-methyl was the most effective fungicide, resulting in the shortest lesion lengths and the lowest isolation percentages from artificially inoculated pruning wounds. This chemical is therefore a candidate for inclusion in integrated disease management, to protect pruning wounds from infections caused by species of Botryosphaeriaceae. This study represents the first approach to development of chemical control strategies for the management of canker diseases caused by Botryosphaeriaceae fungi on almond trees. 

  14. Effectiveness of Natural Antifungal Compounds in Controlling Infection by Grapevine Trunk Disease Pathogens through Pruning Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos, Rebeca; Mateos, Rosa María; Álvarez-Pérez, José Manuel; Olego, Miguel Angel; Sevillano, Silvia; González-García, Sandra; Garzón-Jimeno, Enrique; Coque, Juan José R

    2015-09-01

    Grapevine trunk fungal pathogens, such as Diplodia seriata and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, can infect plants through pruning wounds. They cause grapevine trunk diseases and are involved in grapevine decline. Accordingly, the protection of pruning wounds is crucial for the management of grapevine trunk diseases. The efficacy of different natural antifungals in inhibiting the growth of several fungi causing grapevine trunk diseases was evaluated in vitro. The fungi showing greater in vitro efficacy were tested on autoclaved grape wood assays against D. seriata and P. chlamydospora. Based on results from these assays, chitosan oligosaccharide, vanillin, and garlic extract were selected for further evaluation on pruning wounds inoculated with D. seriata and P. chlamydospora in field trials. A significant decrease in plant mortality was observed after 2 years of growth in the plants treated with the different natural antifungals compared to the mortality rate observed in infected plants that were not treated with antifungals. Also, the infection rate for the inoculated pathogens was significantly reduced in plants treated with the selected natural antifungals. Therefore, natural antifungals represent a promising alternative for disease control and could provide significant economic benefits for the grape-growing industry. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. A Novel Pruning Algorithm for Smoothing Feedforward Neural Networks Based on Group Lasso Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Xu, Chen; Yang, Xifeng; Zurada, Jacek M

    2017-09-26

    In this paper, we propose four new variants of the backpropagation algorithm to improve the generalization ability for feedforward neural networks. The basic idea of these methods stems from the Group Lasso concept which deals with the variable selection problem at the group level. There are two main drawbacks when the Group Lasso penalty has been directly employed during network training. They are numerical oscillations and theoretical challenges in computing the gradients at the origin. To overcome these obstacles, smoothing functions have then been introduced by approximating the Group Lasso penalty. Numerical experiments for classification and regression problems demonstrate that the proposed algorithms perform better than the other three classical penalization methods, Weight Decay, Weight Elimination, and Approximate Smoother, on both generalization and pruning efficiency. In addition, detailed simulations based on a specific data set have been performed to compare with some other common pruning strategies, which verify the advantages of the proposed algorithm. The pruning abilities of the proposed strategy have been investigated in detail for a relatively large data set, MNIST, in terms of various smoothing approximation cases.

  16. Larvicidal efficiency of the fungus Amanita muscaria (Agaricales, Amanitaceae against Musca domestica (Diptera, Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paiva Carapeto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the larvicidal action of two formulations of Amanita muscaria against Musca domestica. Two methods of extraction were tested: an aqueous extract from dried, powdered basidiomes (DPB; and an extract from fresh basidiomes liquefied in water (FLB. The mortality caused by the DPB extract varied from 14.67% to 100%. The efficiency of the FLB extract varied from 10.67% to 89.33%. The mean lethal concentration (LC50 of the DPB extract was approximately 1,931.02 ppm, whereas the LC50 for the FLB extract was about 30%. The extracted substances from these methods did not interfere with the development period of immatures and did not influence pupal weight. These results show the potential of A. muscaria extracts for controlling M. domestica.

  17. Temperature and Population Density Effects on Locomotor Activity of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, T. M.; Faurby, S.; Kjærsgaard, A.

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of ectotherm organisms is affected by both abiotic and biotic factors. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the synergistic effects on behavioral traits. This study examined the effect of temperature and density on locomotor activity of Musca domestica (L.). Locomotor...... activity was measured for both sexes and at four densities (with mixed sexes) during a full light and dark (L:D) cycle at temperatures ranging from 10 to 40°C. Locomotor activity during daytime increased with temperature at all densities until reaching 30°C and then decreased. High-density treatments...... activity than females. During nighttime, locomotor activity was considerably lower for all treatments. Altogether the results of the current study show that there is a significant interaction of temperature and density on daytime locomotor activity of M. domestica and that houseflies are likely to show...

  18. Insecticidal properties of phenols on Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Musca domestica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman

    2011-12-01

    Thirteen simple phenols and 8 phenolic acids were tested for toxicity to Culex quinquefasciatus larvae and Musca domestica adults. It was found that while the phenolic acids (except salicylic acid) showed little or no effect on acute toxicity, all the tested simple phenols caused mortality within 24 h after application. Lethal doses for acute toxicity of C. quinquefasciatus were successfully estimated for 12 substances using probit analysis. Thymol, carvacrol, 2-ethylphenol, and salicylaldehyde showed significantly the highest efficiency, for which the lethal doses LD(50) were estimated as 30, 36, 38, and 43 μg/ml, respectively. Lethal doses for acute toxicity of M. domestica adults were successfully estimated for ten substances. Thymol, carvacrol, and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol showed significantly the highest efficiency, for which the lethal doses LD(50) were estimated 53, 69, and 87 μg/fly, respectively.

  19. Isolation and chromatographic analysis of bioactive triterpenoids from the bark extract of Cariniana domestica (Mart) Miers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovik, Vanessa; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Frohlich, Janaína Kieling; Schwanz, Thiago Guilherme; Pozzebon, Tarciele Venturini; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Athayde, Margareth Linde

    2012-01-01

    The Lecythidaceae family is composed of 25 genera and 400 species that occur in the form of trees with a pantropical distribution. The genera Cariniana belongs to the family Lecythidaceae, and there are few reports considering these species. In this work, fractionation of the dichloromethane fraction obtained from the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Cariniana domestica (Mart) Miers, popularly known as Jequitibá-roxo, led to the isolation of two mixtures of triterpenoids: lupeol and β-amyrin and β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic (NMR) and chromatographic (GC-MS) techniques as well as literature data comparisons. β-Sitosterol, stigmasterol, lupeol and β-amyrin were quantified in dichloromethane fraction by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/DAD). The dichloromethane fraction was also investigated for antioxidant and antifungal activities. The isolated compounds and their biological activities are reported for the first time for the species C. domestica.

  20. Melia azedarach L. extracts and their activity on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise M. O. Cabral

    Full Text Available Crudes extracts and fractions from seeds of Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae have been assayed on Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae. Thus, the post-embryonic development of the flies was reduced and the delay from newly hatched larvae to adults had significant increase. In addition, the pupal weights were reduced and the sexual ratio altered. Toxicity to fly eggs was also observed.

  1. The occurrence of the cicada Cicadatra persica on apple trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardar, Marah A; Belal, Hamzeh M R; Basheer, Abedlnabi M

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved.

  2. Susceptibility to thiamethoxam of Musca domestica from Danish livestock farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Michael; Jespersen, Jørgen B

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonicotinoid baits are currently replacing anticholinesterase baits for control of adult houseflies (Musca domestica L.). Introduction of new insecticides includes evaluation of their cross-resistance potential, which was assessed for thiamethoxam in field populations from Denmark....... There was a strong significant correlation between the toxicities of thiamethoxam and imidacloprid in field populations. CONCLUSION: Neonicotinoid-resistant houseflies were present at a detectable and noticeable level before thiamethoxam and imidacloprid were introduced for housefly control in Denmark. The toxicity...

  3. Toxicity, growth regulatory and repellent activities of medicinal plant extracts on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Bisseleua, Hervé B. D.; Gbewonyo, Seth W. K.; Obeng-Ofori, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Housefly, Musca domestica, is a major vector for many medical and veterinary pathogenic organisms. The development of naturally occurring insecticides, represent one of the most promising approaches for their ecochemical control. Petroleum-ether extracts of Griffonia simplicifolia and Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides were assessed for their toxicity, growth regulatory and repellency to the housefly. Percent mortality and index of repellency induced by the extracts against the insects we...

  4. Boron Toxicity Causes Multiple Effects on Malus domestica Pollen Tube Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kefeng eFang; Weiwei eZhang; Yu eXing; Qing eZhang; Liu eYang; Qingqin eCao; Ling eQin

    2016-01-01

    Boron is an important micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron toxicity on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results showed that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scannin...

  5. Serbuk Akar Kunyit ( Curcuma Domestica Val ) Sebagai Zat Warna Alternatif pada Histoteknik

    OpenAIRE

    Dzul Effendi Bin Mohd Saidi

    2011-01-01

    Staining is one of the procedures used in the field of histotechnique. Staining is the process colouring on the tissue that has been cut so that the tissue become contrast and can be observe with a microscope. Nowdays, stain that are often used in histotechnique are haematoxylin and eosin. Therefore, the researchers tried to use the stain that obtained from tumeric root powder (Curcuma Domestica Val) to be use as an alternative in histotechnique staining. Tumeric root powder (Curcuma Domestic...

  6. Hermes, a functional non-drosophilid insect gene vector from Musca domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brochta, D.A.; Warren, W.D.; Saville, K.J. [Univ. of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Hermes is a short inverted repeat-type transposable element from the house fly, Musca domestica. Using an extra-chromosomal transpositional recombination assay, we show that Hermes elements can accurately transpose in M. domestica embryos. To test the ability of Hermes to function in species distantly related to M. domestica we used a nonautonomous Hermes element containing the Drosophila melanogaster white (w{sup +}) gene and created D. melanogaster germline transformants. Transgenic G{sub 1} insects were recovered from 34.6% of the fertile G{sub 0} adults developing from microinjected w{sup -} embryos. This transformation rate is comparable with that observed using P or hobo vectors in D. melanogaster; however, many instances of multiple-element insertions and large clusters were observed. Genetic mapping, Southern blotting, polytene chromosome in situ hybridization and DNA sequence analyses confirmed that Hermes elements were chromosomally integrated in transgenic insects. Our data demonstrate that Hermes elements transpose at high rates in D. melanogaster and may be an effective gene vector and gene-tagging agent in this species and distantly related species of medical and agricultural importance. 46 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Infectivity of housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae to different entomopathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzammil Farooq

    Full Text Available Abstract The housefly Musca domestica is a worldwide insect pest that acts as a vector for many pathogenic diseases in both people and animals. The present study was conducted to evaluate the virulence of different local isolates of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosea on M. domestica using two bioassay techniques: (1 adult immersion and (2 a bait method applied to both larvae and adults. The results showed evidence of a broad range of responses by both stages (larvae and adults to the tested isolates of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae and I. fumosorosea. These responses were concentration-dependent, with mortality percentages ranging from 53.00% to 96.00%. Because it resulted in lower LC50 values and a shorter lethal time, B. bassiana (Bb-01 proved to be the most virulent isolate against both housefly larvae and adults. Sublethal doses of the tested isolates were also assessed to evaluate their effect on M. domestica fecundity and longevity. The fungal infections reduced housefly survival regardless of their sex and also decreased egg production in females.

  8. Infectivity of housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) to different entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muzammil; Freed, Shoaib

    The housefly Musca domestica is a worldwide insect pest that acts as a vector for many pathogenic diseases in both people and animals. The present study was conducted to evaluate the virulence of different local isolates of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae and Isaria fumosorosea on M. domestica using two bioassay techniques: (1) adult immersion and (2) a bait method applied to both larvae and adults. The results showed evidence of a broad range of responses by both stages (larvae and adults) to the tested isolates of B. bassiana, M. anisopliae and I. fumosorosea. These responses were concentration-dependent, with mortality percentages ranging from 53.00% to 96.00%. Because it resulted in lower LC 50 values and a shorter lethal time, B. bassiana (Bb-01) proved to be the most virulent isolate against both housefly larvae and adults. Sublethal doses of the tested isolates were also assessed to evaluate their effect on M. domestica fecundity and longevity. The fungal infections reduced housefly survival regardless of their sex and also decreased egg production in females. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Linkage mapping and physical localization of the major histocompatibility complex region of the marsupial Monodelphis domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, N; Deakin, J E; Miska, K B; Miller, R D; Kammerer, C M; Graves, J A M; VandeBerg, J L; Samollow, P B

    2006-01-01

    We used genetic linkage mapping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to conduct the first analysis of genic organization and chromosome localization of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of a marsupial, the gray, short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica. Family based linkage analyses of two M. domestica MHC Class I genes (UA1, UG) and three MHC Class II genes (DAB, DMA, and DMB) revealed that these genes were tightly linked and positioned in the central region of linkage group 3 (LG3). This cluster of MHC genes was physically mapped to the centromeric region of chromosome 2q by FISH using a BAC clone containing the UA1 gene. An interesting finding from the linkage analyses is that sex-specific recombination rates were virtually identical within the MHC region. This stands in stark contrast to the genome-wide situation, wherein males exhibit approximately twice as much recombination as females, and could have evolutionary implications for maintaining equality between males and females in the ability to generate haplotype diversity in this region. These analyses also showed that three non-MHC genes that flank the MHC region on human chromosome 6, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6), and prolactin (PRL), are split among two separate linkage groups (chromosomes) in M. domestica. Comparative analysis with eight other vertebrate species suggests strong conservation of the BMP6-PRL synteny among birds and mammals, although the BMP6-PRL-MHC-ME1 synteny is not conserved. 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Reduction in Musca domestica fecundity by dsRNA-mediated gene knockdown.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D Sanscrainte

    Full Text Available House flies (Musca domestica are worldwide agricultural pests with estimated control costs at $375 million annually in the U.S. Non-target effects and widespread resistance challenge the efficacy of traditional chemical control. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA has been suggested as a biopesticide for M. domestica but a phenotypic response due to the induction of the RNAi pathway has not been demonstrated in adults. In this study female house flies were injected with dsRNA targeting actin-5C or ribosomal protein (RP transcripts RPL26 and RPS6. Ovaries showed highly reduced provisioning and clutch reductions of 94-99% in RP dsRNA treated flies but not in actin-5C or GFP treated flies. Gene expression levels were significantly and specifically reduced in dsRNA injected groups but remained unchanged in the control dsGFP treated group. Furthermore, injections with an Aedes aegypti conspecific dsRNA designed against RPS6 did not impact fecundity, demonstrating species specificity of the RNAi response. Analysis of M. domestica tissues following RPS6 dsRNA injection showed significant reduction of transcript levels in the head, thorax, and abdomen but increased expression in ovarian tissues. This study demonstrates that exogenous dsRNA is specifically effective and has potential efficacy as a highly specific biocontrol intervention in adult house flies. Further work is required to develop effective methods for delivery of dsRNA to adult flies.

  11. Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts compared with ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai; Dajpratham, Piyapat; Taechaarpornkul, Wirat; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana; Lukkanapichonchut, Pranee; Chootip, Chirawan; Saengsuwan, Jittima; Tantayakom, Kesthamrong; Laongpech, Supphalak

    2014-01-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts in pain reduction and functional improvement. 367 primary knee osteoarthritis patients with a pain score of 5 or higher were randomized to receive ibuprofen 1,200 mg/day or C. domestica extracts 1,500 mg/day for 4 weeks. The main outcomes were Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) total, WOMAC pain, WOMAC stiffness, and WOMAC function scores. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. 185 and 182 patients were randomly assigned into C. domestica extracts and ibuprofen groups, respectively. The baseline characteristics were no different between groups. The mean of all WOMAC scores at weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed significant improvement when compared with the baseline in both groups. After using the noninferiority test, the mean difference (95% confidence interval) of WOMAC total, WOMAC pain, and WOMAC function scores at week 4 adjusted by values at week 0 of C. domestica extracts were noninferior to those for the ibuprofen group (P=0.010, P=0.018, and P=0.010, respectively), except for the WOMAC stiffness subscale, which showed a trend toward significance (P=0.060). The number of patients who developed AEs was no different between groups. However, the number of events of abdominal pain/discomfort was significantly higher in the ibuprofen group than that in the C. domestica extracts group (P=0.046). Most subjects (96%-97%) were satisfied with the treatment, and two-thirds rated themselves as improved in a global assessment. C. domestica extracts are as effective as ibuprofen for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. The side effect profile was similar but with fewer gastrointestinal AE reports in the C. domestica extracts group.

  12. Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts compared with ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai; Dajpratham, Piyapat; Taechaarpornkul, Wirat; Buntragulpoontawee, Montana; Lukkanapichonchut, Pranee; Chootip, Chirawan; Saengsuwan, Jittima; Tantayakom, Kesthamrong; Laongpech, Supphalak

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts in pain reduction and functional improvement. Methods 367 primary knee osteoarthritis patients with a pain score of 5 or higher were randomized to receive ibuprofen 1,200 mg/day or C. domestica extracts 1,500 mg/day for 4 weeks. The main outcomes were Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) total, WOMAC pain, WOMAC stiffness, and WOMAC function scores. Adverse events (AEs) were also recorded. Results 185 and 182 patients were randomly assigned into C. domestica extracts and ibuprofen groups, respectively. The baseline characteristics were no different between groups. The mean of all WOMAC scores at weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed significant improvement when compared with the baseline in both groups. After using the noninferiority test, the mean difference (95% confidence interval) of WOMAC total, WOMAC pain, and WOMAC function scores at week 4 adjusted by values at week 0 of C. domestica extracts were noninferior to those for the ibuprofen group (P=0.010, P=0.018, and P=0.010, respectively), except for the WOMAC stiffness subscale, which showed a trend toward significance (P=0.060). The number of patients who developed AEs was no different between groups. However, the number of events of abdominal pain/discomfort was significantly higher in the ibuprofen group than that in the C. domestica extracts group (P=0.046). Most subjects (96%–97%) were satisfied with the treatment, and two-thirds rated themselves as improved in a global assessment. Conclusion C. domestica extracts are as effective as ibuprofen for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. The side effect profile was similar but with fewer gastrointestinal AE reports in the C. domestica extracts group. PMID:24672232

  13. Is cut-stump and girdling an efficient method of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. eradication?

    OpenAIRE

    Otręba Anna; Marciszewska Katarzyna; Janik Daria

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the invasion of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. have a long history in Western Europe. However, effective methods of eliminating it that do not bear negative side effects for ecosystems have not yet been developed. Mechanical methods are the first choice in environmentally sensitive areas. In this study, we aimed to find answers to the questions: does the application of cutting at a height of 1 m from the ground limit the sprouting capacities of black cherry? And, is ste...

  14. Detection and characterization of genome-specific microsatellite markers in the allotetraploid Prunus serotina

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Potter, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The utility of microsatellite markers to characterize the genetic diversity of a polyploid species with disomic inheritance is often hampered by the impossibility of determining allele frequencies and the complexity of inheritance patterns. The objective of this study was to solve these problems in the allotetraploid Prunus serotina Ehrh. by finding genome-specific primers (i.e., primers that are specific to one of the two genomes that initially formed the species). Sixty-seven microsatellite...

  15. Occurrence of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in the State Forests in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Bijak Szymon; Czajkowski Maciej; Ludwisiak Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    Among the invasive tree species identified in Polish forests, black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) appears to pose the greatest threat. The objective of this study was i), to determine the abundance of this species in the forests managed by the State Forests National Forest Holding (PGLLP) and ii), to characterise the ecological conditions that it is found in. The source data was obtained from the State Forests Information System (SILP) database. In Polish forests, black cherry mostly occurs ...

  16. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez; César Ibarra-Alvarado; Alejandra Rojas-Molina; Juana I. Rojas-Molina; Elhadi M. Yahia; Dulce M. Rivera-Pastrana; Adriana Rojas-Molina; Ángel Miguel Zavala-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits po...

  17. Quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in Prunus serotina Ehrh. using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Pimenta, Lúcia P; Schilthuizen, Menno; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2014-01-01

    Prunus serotina is native to North America but has been invasively introduced in Europe since the seventeenth century. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides that are believed to be related to its success as an invasive plant. For these compounds, chromatographic- or spectrometric-based (targeting on HCN hydrolysis) methods of analysis have been employed so far. However, the conventional methods require tedious preparation steps and a long measuring time. To develop a fast and simple method to quantify the cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin and prunasin in dried Prunus serotina leaves without any pre-purification steps using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy. Extracts of Prunus serotina leaves using CH3 OH-d4 and KH2 PO4 buffer in D2 O (1:1) were quantitatively analysed for amygdalin and prunasin using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy. Different internal standards were evaluated for accuracy and stability. The purity of quantitated (1) H-NMR signals was evaluated using several two-dimensional NMR experiments. Trimethylsilylpropionic acid sodium salt-d4 proved most suitable as the internal standard for quantitative (1) H-NMR analysis. Two-dimensional J-resolved NMR was shown to be a useful tool to confirm the structures and to check for possible signal overlapping with the target signals for the quantitation. Twenty-two samples of P. serotina were subsequently quantitatively analysed for the cyanogenic glycosides prunasin and amygdalin. The NMR method offers a fast, high-throughput analysis of cyanogenic glycosides in dried leaves permitting simultaneous quantification and identification of prunasin and amygdalin in Prunus serotina. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Treated Dixiland Prunus persica Fruits: Common and Distinct Response to Heat and Cold

    OpenAIRE

    Lauxmann, Martin Alexander; Brun, Bianca; Borsani, Julia; Bustamante, Claudia Anabel; Budde, Claudio; Lara, Maria Valeria; Drincovich, Maria Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    Cold storage is extensively used to slow the rapid deterioration of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit after harvest. However, peach fruit subjected to long periods of cold storage develop chilling injury (CI) symptoms. Post-harvest heat treatment (HT) of peach fruit prior to cold storage is effective in reducing some CI symptoms, maintaining fruit quality, preventing softening and controlling post-harvest diseases. To identify the molecular changes induced by HT, which may be associated ...

  19. Bonsai trees in your head: how the pavlovian system sculpts goal-directed choices by pruning decision trees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin J M Huys

    Full Text Available When planning a series of actions, it is usually infeasible to consider all potential future sequences; instead, one must prune the decision tree. Provably optimal pruning is, however, still computationally ruinous and the specific approximations humans employ remain unknown. We designed a new sequential reinforcement-based task and showed that human subjects adopted a simple pruning strategy: during mental evaluation of a sequence of choices, they curtailed any further evaluation of a sequence as soon as they encountered a large loss. This pruning strategy was Pavlovian: it was reflexively evoked by large losses and persisted even when overwhelmingly counterproductive. It was also evident above and beyond loss aversion. We found that the tendency towards Pavlovian pruning was selectively predicted by the degree to which subjects exhibited sub-clinical mood disturbance, in accordance with theories that ascribe Pavlovian behavioural inhibition, via serotonin, a role in mood disorders. We conclude that Pavlovian behavioural inhibition shapes highly flexible, goal-directed choices in a manner that may be important for theories of decision-making in mood disorders.

  20. Bonsai trees in your head: how the pavlovian system sculpts goal-directed choices by pruning decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Quentin J M; Eshel, Neir; O'Nions, Elizabeth; Sheridan, Luke; Dayan, Peter; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    When planning a series of actions, it is usually infeasible to consider all potential future sequences; instead, one must prune the decision tree. Provably optimal pruning is, however, still computationally ruinous and the specific approximations humans employ remain unknown. We designed a new sequential reinforcement-based task and showed that human subjects adopted a simple pruning strategy: during mental evaluation of a sequence of choices, they curtailed any further evaluation of a sequence as soon as they encountered a large loss. This pruning strategy was Pavlovian: it was reflexively evoked by large losses and persisted even when overwhelmingly counterproductive. It was also evident above and beyond loss aversion. We found that the tendency towards Pavlovian pruning was selectively predicted by the degree to which subjects exhibited sub-clinical mood disturbance, in accordance with theories that ascribe Pavlovian behavioural inhibition, via serotonin, a role in mood disorders. We conclude that Pavlovian behavioural inhibition shapes highly flexible, goal-directed choices in a manner that may be important for theories of decision-making in mood disorders.

  1. Using a pruned, nondirect product basis in conjunction with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodraszka, Robert; Carrington, Tucker

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a pruned, nondirect product multi-configuration time dependent Hartree (MCTDH) method for solving the Schrödinger equation. MCTDH uses optimized 1D basis functions, called single particle functions, but the size of the standard direct product MCTDH basis scales exponentially with D, the number of coordinates. We compare the pruned approach to standard MCTDH calculations for basis sizes small enough that the latter are possible and demonstrate that pruning the basis reduces the CPU cost of computing vibrational energy levels of acetonitrile (D = 12) by more than two orders of magnitude. Using the pruned method, it is possible to do calculations with larger bases, for which the cost of standard MCTDH calculations is prohibitive. Pruning the basis complicates the evaluation of matrix-vector products. In this paper, they are done term by term for a sum-of-products Hamiltonian. When no attempt is made to exploit the fact that matrices representing some of the factors of a term are identity matrices, one needs only to carefully constrain indices. In this paper, we develop new ideas that make it possible to further reduce the CPU time by exploiting identity matrices.

  2. Axon Termination, Pruning, and Synaptogenesis in the Giant Fiber System of Drosophila melanogaster Is Promoted by Highwire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, Melissa; Rowland, Kimberly; Boerner, Jana; Lloyd, Brandon; Khan, Aruna; Murphey, Rodney

    2017-03-01

    The ubiquitin ligase Highwire has a conserved role in synapse formation. Here, we show that Highwire coordinates several facets of central synapse formation in the Drosophila melanogaster giant fiber system, including axon termination, axon pruning, and synaptic function. Despite the similarities to the fly neuromuscular junction, the role of Highwire and the underlying signaling pathways are distinct in the fly's giant fiber system. During development, branching of the giant fiber presynaptic terminal occurs and, normally, the transient branches are pruned away. However, in highwire mutants these ectopic branches persist, indicating that Highwire promotes axon pruning. highwire mutants also exhibit defects in synaptic function. Highwire promotes axon pruning and synaptic function cell-autonomously by attenuating a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway including Wallenda, c-Jun N-terminal kinase/Basket, and the transcription factor Jun. We also show a novel role for Highwire in non-cell autonomous promotion of synaptic function from the midline glia. Highwire also regulates axon termination in the giant fibers, as highwire mutant axons exhibit severe overgrowth beyond the pruning defect. This excessive axon growth is increased by manipulating Fos expression in the cells surrounding the giant fiber terminal, suggesting that Fos regulates a trans-synaptic signal that promotes giant fiber axon growth. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. Should Pruning be a Pre-Processor of any Linear System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Syamal K.; Ramakrishnan, Suja; Agarwal, Ravi P.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2011-01-01

    There are many real-world problems whose mathematical models turn out to be linear systems Ax = b, where A is an m x n matrix. Each equation of the linear system is an information. An information, in a physical problem, such as 4 mangoes, 6 bananas, and 5 oranges cost $10, is mathematically modeled as an equation 4x(sub 1) + 6x(sub 2) + 5x(sub 3) = 10 , where x(sub 1), x(sub 2), x(sub 3) are each cost of one mango, that of one banana, and that of one orange, respectively. All the information put together in a specified context, constitutes the physical problem and need not be all distinct. Some of these could be redundant, which cannot be readily identified by inspection. The resulting mathematical model will thus have equations corresponding to this redundant information and hence are linearly dependent and thus superfluous. Consequently, these equations once identified should be better pruned in the process of solving the system. The benefits are (i) less computation and hence less error and consequently a better quality of solution and (ii) reduced storage requirements. In literature, the pruning concept is not in vogue so far although it is most desirable. It is assumed that at least one information, i.e. one equation is known to be correct and which will be our first equation. In a numerical linear system, the system could be slightly inconsistent or inconsistent of varying degree. If the system is too inconsistent, then we should fall back on to the physical problem (PP), check the correctness of the PP derived from the material universe, modify it, if necessary, and then check the corresponding mathematical model (MM) and correct it. In nature/material universe, inconsistency is completely nonexistent. If the MM becomes inconsistent, it could be due to error introduced by the concerned measuring device and/or due to assumptions made on the PP to obtain an MM which is relatively easily solvable or simply due to human error. No measuring device can usually

  4. Combustion of a Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning used as biosorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronda, A., E-mail: alirg@ugr.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Della Zassa, M. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, 35131 Padova (Italy); Martín-Lara, M.A.; Calero, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Canu, P. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Padua, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • The fate of Pb during combustion at two scales of investigation was studied. • Results from combustion in a flow reactor and in the thermobalance were consistent. • The Pb contained in the solid remained in the ashes. • The Pb does not interfere in the use of OTP as fuel. • The combustion of Pb(II)-loaded OTP does not cause environmental hazards. - Abstract: The olive tree pruning is a specific agroindustrial waste that can be successfully used as adsorbent, to remove Pb(II) from contaminated wastewater. Its final incineration has been studied in a thermobalance and in a laboratory flow reactor. The study aims at evaluating the fate of Pb during combustion, at two different scales of investigation. The flow reactor can treat samples approximately 10{sup 2} larger than the conventional TGA. A detailed characterization of the raw and Pb(II)-loaded waste, before and after combustion is presented, including analysis of gas and solids products. The Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning has been prepared by a previous biosorption step in a lead solution, reaching a concentration of lead of 2.3 wt%. Several characterizations of the ashes and the mass balances proved that after the combustion, all the lead presents in the waste remained in ashes. Combustion in a flow reactor produced results consistent with those obtained in the thermobalance. It is thus confirmed that the combustion of Pb(II)-loaded olive tree pruning is a viable option to use it after the biosorption process. The Pb contained in the solid remained in the ashes, preventing possible environmental hazards.

  5. Pseudo Prune Belly Syndrome: Diagnosis Revealed by Imaging – A Case Report and Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Hemal; Sethi, Sanjay; Garg, Jatin; Ahluwalia, Amrit Pal

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS) is a rare entity, usually found in male neonates. It comprises complex urinary tract anomalies, bilateral undescended testis and absence of anterior abdominal wall muscles. Patients with unilateral abdominal wall deficiency, unilateral undescended testis and female neonates with abdominal wall laxity are classified as Pseudo Prune Belly syndrome (PPBS). Reports on PPBS do not highlight the radiological and imaging characteristics of this syndrome and the current literature on the role of newer imaging modalities, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), remains relatively sparse. We describe a new case of PPBS and emphasize the role of imaging, especially ultrasound and MRI in the process of diagnosis and briefly review the subject. Case Report A male infant of four months of age was referred for evaluation of left-sided cryptorchidism. Clinical examination revealed laxity of the left abdominal wall. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen, pelvis and scrotum was performed together with routine laboratory tests. Ultrasound examination was followed by intravenous urography, voiding cysto-urethrography and MRI of the abdomen. On ultrasound, the left testis was located in the inguinal canal, the right kidney was slightly enlarged and the left kidney could not be localized. Ultrasound appearances suggested chronic obstruction in the urinary bladder. Intravenous urography, voiding cysto-urethrography and MRI confirmed the ultrasound diagnosis and also revealed a left dysplastic kidney with a dilated, tortuous ureter. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with pseudo prune belly syndrome (PPBS). Conclusions We report a new occurrence of PPBS, a rare entity. The imaging approach for a comprehensive evaluation of the renal system in PPBS, especially with MRI, is emphasized. PMID:28580040

  6. Pseudo Prune Belly Syndrome: Diagnosis Revealed by Imaging - A Case Report and Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Hemal; Sethi, Sanjay; Garg, Jatin; Ahluwalia, Amrit Pal

    2017-01-01

    Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS) is a rare entity, usually found in male neonates. It comprises complex urinary tract anomalies, bilateral undescended testis and absence of anterior abdominal wall muscles. Patients with unilateral abdominal wall deficiency, unilateral undescended testis and female neonates with abdominal wall laxity are classified as Pseudo Prune Belly syndrome (PPBS). Reports on PPBS do not highlight the radiological and imaging characteristics of this syndrome and the current literature on the role of newer imaging modalities, such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), remains relatively sparse. We describe a new case of PPBS and emphasize the role of imaging, especially ultrasound and MRI in the process of diagnosis and briefly review the subject. A male infant of four months of age was referred for evaluation of left-sided cryptorchidism. Clinical examination revealed laxity of the left abdominal wall. Ultrasound examination of the abdomen, pelvis and scrotum was performed together with routine laboratory tests. Ultrasound examination was followed by intravenous urography, voiding cysto-urethrography and MRI of the abdomen. On ultrasound, the left testis was located in the inguinal canal, the right kidney was slightly enlarged and the left kidney could not be localized. Ultrasound appearances suggested chronic obstruction in the urinary bladder. Intravenous urography, voiding cysto-urethrography and MRI confirmed the ultrasound diagnosis and also revealed a left dysplastic kidney with a dilated, tortuous ureter. Clinical and imaging features were consistent with pseudo prune belly syndrome (PPBS). We report a new occurrence of PPBS, a rare entity. The imaging approach for a comprehensive evaluation of the renal system in PPBS, especially with MRI, is emphasized.

  7. Novel methodology for construction and pruning of quasi-median networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Terence A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visualising the evolutionary history of a set of sequences is a challenge for molecular phylogenetics. One approach is to use undirected graphs, such as median networks, to visualise phylogenies where reticulate relationships such as recombination or homoplasy are displayed as cycles. Median networks contain binary representations of sequences as nodes, with edges connecting those sequences differing at one character; hypothetical ancestral nodes are invoked to generate a connected network which contains all most parsimonious trees. Quasi-median networks are a generalisation of median networks which are not restricted to binary data, although phylogenetic information contained within the multistate positions can be lost during the preprocessing of data. Where the history of a set of samples contain frequent homoplasies or recombination events quasi-median networks will have a complex topology. Graph reduction or pruning methods have been used to reduce network complexity but some of these methods are inapplicable to datasets in which recombination has occurred and others are procedurally complex and/or result in disconnected networks. Results We address the problems inherent in construction and reduction of quasi-median networks. We describe a novel method of generating quasi-median networks that uses all characters, both binary and multistate, without imposing an arbitrary ordering of the multistate partitions. We also describe a pruning mechanism which maintains at least one shortest path between observed sequences, displaying the underlying relations between all pairs of sequences while maintaining a connected graph. Conclusion Application of this approach to 5S rDNA sequence data from sea beet produced a pruned network within which genetic isolation between populations by distance was evident, demonstrating the value of this approach for exploration of evolutionary relationships.

  8. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yunpeng; Han, Yahui; Meng, Dandan; Li, Guohui; Li, Dahui; Abdullah, Muhammad; Jin, Qing; Lin, Yi; Cai, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (TFs) specifically found in plant kingdom. WOX TFs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. Although the roles of WOXs in Arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in Rosaceae. Here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and 9 of WOX genes from four Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Pyrus bretschneideri, respectively). According to evolutionary analysis, as well as amino acid sequences of their homodomains, these genes were divided into three clades with nine subgroups. Furthermore, due to the conserved structural patterns among these WOX genes, it was proposed that there should exist some highly conserved regions of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae species. Moreover, most of WOX gene pairs were presented with the conserved orientation among syntenic genome regions. In addition, according to substitution models analysis using PMAL software, no significant positive selection was detected, but type I functional divergence was identified among certain amino acids in WOX protein. These results revealed that the relaxed purifying selection might be the main driving force during the evolution of WOX genes in the tested Rosaceae species. Our result will be useful for further precise research on evolution of the WOX genes in family Rosaceae.

  9. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis Suggests the Relaxed Purifying Selection Affect the Evolution of WOX Genes in Pyrus bretschneideri, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Cao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX family is one of the largest group of transcription factors (TFs specifically found in plant kingdom. WOX TFs play an important role in plant development processes and evolutionary novelties. Although the roles of WOXs in Arabidopsis and rice have been well-studied, however, little are known about the relationships among the main clades in the molecular evolution of these genes in Rosaceae. Here, we carried out a genome-wide analysis and identified 14, 10, 10, and 9 of WOX genes from four Rosaceae species (Fragaria vesca, Prunus persica, Prunus mume, and Pyrus bretschneideri, respectively. According to evolutionary analysis, as well as amino acid sequences of their homodomains, these genes were divided into three clades with nine subgroups. Furthermore, due to the conserved structural patterns among these WOX genes, it was proposed that there should exist some highly conserved regions of microsynteny in the four Rosaceae species. Moreover, most of WOX gene pairs were presented with the conserved orientation among syntenic genome regions. In addition, according to substitution models analysis using PMAL software, no significant positive selection was detected, but type I functional divergence was identified among certain amino acids in WOX protein. These results revealed that the relaxed purifying selection might be the main driving force during the evolution of WOX genes in the tested Rosaceae species. Our result will be useful for further precise research on evolution of the WOX genes in family Rosaceae.

  11. A pruning algorithm for Meta-blocking based on cumulative weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fulin; Gao, Zhipeng; Niu, Kun

    2017-08-01

    Entity Resolution is an important process in data cleaning and data integration. It usually employs a blocking method to avoid the quadratic complexity work when scales to large data sets. Meta-blocking can perform better in the context of highly heterogeneous information spaces. Yet, its precision and efficiency still have room to improve. In this paper, we present a new pruning algorithm for Meta-Blocking. It can achieve a higher precision than the existing WEP algorithm at a small cost of recall. In addition, can reduce the runtime of the blocking process. We evaluate our proposed method over five real-world data sets.

  12. Survival of FUngi Associated with Grapevine Decline in Pruned Wood after Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lecomte

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Recycling vine wood pruned in winter in the vineyard, after grinding and composting, might pose a risk of recontamination with fungi associated with grapevine decline. The survival of four ascomycete fungi (Botryosphaeria obtusa, Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Eutypa lata in composted material was investigated in a 3-year study conducted in the Bordeaux area. Naturally and artificially infested material was examined before and after composting using classical isolation procedures. Results clearly showed that a composting process can eradicate the four target fungi efficiently.

  13. Combustion behaviour of Olive pruning/animal manure blends in a fluidized bed combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Vamvuka

    2017-09-01

    Both fuels burned mostly within the bed. The maximum temperature of animal manure was 50 °C lower than that of olive pruning, however efficiency was nearly 99%. CO emissions were low, SO2 emissions were negligible, whereas NOx emissions of blends exceeded legislation limits, when excess air ratio was over 1.4. Decreasing excess air from 50 to 30%, or reducing reactor loading, resulted in improved burnout. The optimum performance for the blends was achieved when the feed rate was 0.6 kg/h and excess air was 30%.

  14. Repair of pectus excavatum in a toddler with Prune Belly syndrome and left bronchus compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn T. Liechty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old boy with prune-belly syndrome and severe pectus excavatum experienced recurrent pulmonary infections. A CT scan of the chest demonstrated compression of the left mainstem bronchus and leftward shift of the heart. The bronchial compression resulted in left upper lobe collapse and left lower lobe air-trapping requiring two hospitalizations for respiratory distress and pneumonia. The child underwent minimally invasive repair of his pectus excavatum and has not experienced any further pulmonary events. The pectus bar was removed 3 years post-operatively and at seven years following surgery he has a sustained repair.

  15. Essential role of the apoptotic cell engulfment genes draper and ced-6 in programmed axon pruning during Drosophila metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasaki, Takeshi; Tatsumi, Ryoko; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Arai, Kunizo; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Ryu; Ito, Kei

    2006-06-15

    Axon pruning is a common phenomenon in neural circuit development. Previous studies demonstrate that the engulfing action of glial cells is essential in this process. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, remain unknown. We show that draper (drpr) and ced-6, which are essential for the clearance of apoptotic cells in C. elegans, function in the glial engulfment of larval axons during Drosophila metamorphosis. The drpr mutation and glia-specific knockdown of drpr and ced-6 by RNA interference suppress glial engulfment, resulting in the inhibition of axon pruning. drpr and ced-6 interact genetically in the glial action. Disruption of the microtubule cytoskeleton in the axons to be pruned occurs via ecdysone signaling, independent of glial engulfment. These findings suggest that glial cells engulf degenerating axons through drpr and ced-6. We propose that apoptotic cells and degenerating axons of living neurons are removed by a similar molecular mechanism.

  16. Extinction procedure induces pruning of dendritic spines in CA1 hippocampal field depending on strength of training in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garín-Aguilar, María E.; Díaz-Cintra, Sofía; Quirarte, Gina L.; Aguilar-Vázquez, Azucena; Medina, Andrea C.; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous reports indicate that learning and memory of conditioned responses are accompanied by genesis of dendritic spines in the hippocampus, although there is a conspicuous lack of information regarding spine modifications after behavioral extinction. There is ample evidence that treatments that typically produce amnesia become innocuous when animals are submitted to a procedure of enhanced training. We now report that extinction of inhibitory avoidance (IA), trained with relatively low foot-shock intensities, induces pruning of dendritic spines along the length of the apical dendrites of hippocampal CA1 neurons. When animals are trained with a relatively high foot-shock there is a high resistance to extinction, and pruning in the proximal and medial segments of the apical dendrite are seen, while spine count in the distal dendrite remains normal. These results indicate that pruning is involved in behavioral extinction, while maintenance of spines is a probable mechanism that mediates the protecting effect against amnesic treatments produced by enhanced training. PMID:22438840

  17. Extinction procedure induces pruning of dendritic spines in CA1 hippocampal field depending on strength of training in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Garín-Aguilar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous reports indicate that learning and memory of conditioned responses are accompanied by genesis of dendritic spines in the hippocampus, although there is a conspicuous lack of information regarding spine modifications after behavioral extinction. There is ample evidence that treatments that typically produce amnesia become innocuous when animals are submitted to a procedure of enhanced training. We now report that extinction of inhibitory avoidance, trained with relatively low foot-shock intensities, induces pruning of dendritic spines along the length of the apical dendrites of hippocampal CA1 neurons. When animals are trained with a relatively high foot-shock there is a high resistance to extinction, and pruning in the proximal and medial segments of the apical dendrite are seen, while spine count in the distal dendrite remains normal. These results indicate that pruning is involved in behavioral extinction, while maintenance of spines is a probable mechanism that mediates the protecting effect against amnesic treatments produced by enhanced training.

  18. A Cullin1-based SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase targets the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway to regulate neuronal pruning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Jing Lin Wong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pruning that selectively eliminates unnecessary axons/dendrites is crucial for sculpting the nervous system during development. During Drosophila metamorphosis, dendrite arborization neurons, ddaCs, selectively prune their larval dendrites in response to the steroid hormone ecdysone, whereas mushroom body γ neurons specifically eliminate their axon branches within dorsal and medial lobes. However, it is unknown which E3 ligase directs these two modes of pruning. Here, we identified a conserved SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a critical role in pruning of both ddaC dendrites and mushroom body γ axons. The SCF E3 ligase consists of four core components Cullin1/Roc1a/SkpA/Slimb and promotes ddaC dendrite pruning downstream of EcR-B1 and Sox14, but independently of Mical. Moreover, we demonstrate that the Cullin1-based E3 ligase facilitates ddaC dendrite pruning primarily through inactivation of the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway. We show that the F-box protein Slimb forms a complex with Akt, an activator of the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway, and promotes Akt ubiquitination. Activation of the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway is sufficient to inhibit ddaC dendrite pruning. Thus, our findings provide a novel link between the E3 ligase and the InR/PI3K/TOR pathway during dendrite pruning.

  19. The effects of sex-ratio and density on locomotor activity in the house fly, Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrndorff, Simon; Kjaersgaard, Anders; Pertoldi, Cino

    2012-01-01

    Although locomotor activity is involved in almost all behavioral traits, there is a lack of knowledge on what factors affect it. This study examined the effects of sex-ratio and density on the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of adult Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) using an infra...... with and without the presence of females. Overall, this study demonstrates that locomotor activity in M. domestica is affected by sex-ratio and density. Furthermore, the predictability of locomotor activity is affected by both sex-ratio, density, and circadian rhythm. These results add to our understanding...

  20. Efficacy of Essential Oils from Edible Plants as Insecticides Against the House Fly, Musca Domestica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Palacios

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The compositions of 12 essential oils (EOs obtained by hydrodistillation of edible fruits and herbs were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. The insecticidal activity of each oil against the house fly Musca domestica was evaluated by placing flies in a glass jar with a screw cap that held a piece of EO-treated cotton yarn. The dose necessary to kill 50% of flies (LC50 in 30 min was determined at 26 ± 1°C. Twelve EOs and 17 individual terpenes were assayed against M. domestica, showing LC50 values ranging from 3.9 to 85.2 and from 3.3 to >100 mg/dm3, respectively. EO from Citrus sinensis was the most potent insecticide (LC50 = 3.9 mg/dm3, followed by EOs from C. aurantium (LC50 = 4.8 mg/dm3 and Eucalyptus cinerea (LC50 = 5.5 mg/dm3. According to GC/MS analysis, limonene (92.47%, linalool (1.43%, and b-myrcene (0.88% were the principal components of C. sinensis EO. Limonene was also the principal constituent (94.07% of C. aurantium, while 1,8-cineole (56.86% was the major constituent of E. cinerea EO. 1,8-Cineole was most active against M. domestica (LC50 = 3.3 mg/dm3, while (4R(+-limonene, was moderately active (LC50 = 6.2 mg/dm3. Dimethyl 2,2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP selected as a positive control, showed an LC50 of 0.5 mg/dm3. EOs from C. sinensis, C. aurantium, and E. cinerea show promise as natural insecticides against houseflies.

  1. Characterization and determination of lignin in different types of Iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Hilal M; Abdul Latif, Mohammed H; Attiya, Hanaa G

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to find analytical data base for Iraqi phoenix date palm pruning woods, which produced by pruning process at the season of date palm production. Lignin has been extracted and purified for five types of Iraqi date palm using Klason lignin method. The weight of the extracted lignin ranged from 0.410 g to 0.720 g, and the lignin % ranged from 17.6 to 36. The other ingredients (waxes, oils, resin, and proteins of wood gums) % ranged from 20 to 29.5. FT-IR characterization showed that the (-OH) phenolic group appear in Ashrasi lignin structure only and disappear in other lignin samples, and the (4-O-5 inter monomeric lignin linkage) showed strong to moderate intensity peaks for all studied samples except the Austa omran sample has a weak intensity peaks. Also (DODO inter monomeric lignin linkage) showed strong intensity peaks for all studied samples except the Barban sample showed moderate intensity peaks. UV-vis characterization showed that the lowest absorption maximum (266 nm) corresponds to Barban lignin sample, while the highest absorption maximum (271 nm) corresponds to Sultani lignin sample. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Endophytic Fungi as Pretreatment to Enhance Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Olive Tree Pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Martín-Sampedro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive tree pruning, as one of the most abundant lignocellulosic residues in Mediterranean countries, has been evaluated as a source of sugars for fuel and chemicals production. A mild acid pretreatment has been combined with a fungal pretreatment using either two endophytes (Ulocladium sp. and Hormonema sp. or a saprophyte (Trametes sp. I-62. The use of endophytes is based on the important role that some of them play during the initial stages of wood decomposition. Without acid treatment, fungal pretreatment with Ulocladium sp. provided a nonsignificant enhancement of 4.6% in glucose digestibility, compared to control. When a mild acid hydrolysis was carried out after fungal pretreatments, significant increases in glucose digestibility from 4.9% to 12.0% (compared to control without fungi were observed for all fungal pretreatments, with maximum values yielded by Hormonema sp. However, despite the observed digestibility boost, the total sugar yields (taking into account solid yield were not significantly increased by the pretreatments. Nevertheless, based on these preliminary improvements in digestibility, this work proves the potential of endophytic fungi to boost the production of sugar from olive tree pruning, which would add an extra value to the bioeconomy of olive crops.

  3. Early bladder outlet obstruction in fetal lambs induces renal dysplasia and the prune-belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, R; Reinberg, Y; Burke, B; Wells, T; Vernier, R L

    1990-03-01

    A model of posterior urethral valves in fetal lambs was developed in order to evaluate the effect of intrauterine urinary obstruction on the developing kidney. Complete urethral obstruction was induced in five fetal lambs at 43 to 45 days of gestation. Two control fetal lambs underwent sham operations. At full term (140 days), two of the five experimental lambs and both control lambs were available for postmortem examination. Results of gross and histological examination of the control lambs were normal. In contrast, the kidneys of the experimental lambs were markedly asymmetrical in size. Histological examination of the kidneys in experimental lambs showed cystic dilatation of the collecting ducts and occasional cystic dilatation of Bowman's spaces, features compatible with obstruction. Also noted were peripheral cortical cysts and primitive tubules lined with cuboidal epithelium and surrounded by fibromuscular collarettes, characteristic of renal dysplasia. One of the infant lambs had many characteristics of the prune-belly syndrome, including a wrinkled, markedly distended abdomen, deficient abdominal wall musculature, flared chest wall, limb deformities, and undescended testes. These results suggest that early in utero urethral obstruction (at the beginning of the second third of gestation) causes renal dysplasia. The results also support the hypothesis that the prune-belly syndrome results from abdominal distention that occurs early in gestation.

  4. Gasification of agricultural residues in a demonstrative plant: Vine pruning and rice husks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Enrico; Barontini, Federica; Tognotti, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Tests with vine pruning and rice husks were carried out in a demonstrative downdraft gasifier (350 kW), to prove the reactor operability, quantify the plant efficiency, and thus extend the range of potential energy feedstocks. Pressure drops, syngas flow rate and composition were monitored to study the material and energy balances, and performance indexes. Interesting results were obtained for vine pruning (syngas heating value 5.7 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.26, cold gas efficiency 65%, power efficiency 21%), while poorer values were obtained for rice husks (syngas heating value 2.5-3.8 MJ/m(3), equivalent ratio 0.4, cold gas efficiency 31-42%, power efficiency 10-13%). The work contains also a comparison with previous results (wood pellets, corn cobs, Miscanthus) for defining an operating diagram, based on material density and particle size and shape, and the critical zones (reactor obstruction, bridging, no bed buildup, combustion regime). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nonlinear inversion of electrical resistivity imaging using pruning Bayesian neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fei-Bo; Dai, Qian-Wei; Dong, Li

    2016-06-01

    Conventional artificial neural networks used to solve electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) inversion problem suffer from overfitting and local minima. To solve these problems, we propose to use a pruning Bayesian neural network (PBNN) nonlinear inversion method and a sample design method based on the K-medoids clustering algorithm. In the sample design method, the training samples of the neural network are designed according to the prior information provided by the K-medoids clustering results; thus, the training process of the neural network is well guided. The proposed PBNN, based on Bayesian regularization, is used to select the hidden layer structure by assessing the effect of each hidden neuron to the inversion results. Then, the hyperparameter α k , which is based on the generalized mean, is chosen to guide the pruning process according to the prior distribution of the training samples under the small-sample condition. The proposed algorithm is more efficient than other common adaptive regularization methods in geophysics. The inversion of synthetic data and field data suggests that the proposed method suppresses the noise in the neural network training stage and enhances the generalization. The inversion results with the proposed method are better than those of the BPNN, RBFNN, and RRBFNN inversion methods as well as the conventional least squares inversion.

  6. Classification based on pruning and double covered rule sets for the internet of things applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Zhou, Zhongmei; Wang, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    The Internet of things (IOT) is a hot issue in recent years. It accumulates large amounts of data by IOT users, which is a great challenge to mining useful knowledge from IOT. Classification is an effective strategy which can predict the need of users in IOT. However, many traditional rule-based classifiers cannot guarantee that all instances can be covered by at least two classification rules. Thus, these algorithms cannot achieve high accuracy in some datasets. In this paper, we propose a new rule-based classification, CDCR-P (Classification based on the Pruning and Double Covered Rule sets). CDCR-P can induce two different rule sets A and B. Every instance in training set can be covered by at least one rule not only in rule set A, but also in rule set B. In order to improve the quality of rule set B, we take measure to prune the length of rules in rule set B. Our experimental results indicate that, CDCR-P not only is feasible, but also it can achieve high accuracy.

  7. Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and Partition-Wise joins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Zoltan; Charpentier, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as range-hash partition, partition pruning and usage of the Partition-Wise joins. The system has to serve thousands of queries per minute, the performance and capability of the system is measured when the above performance optimization techniques are used.

  8. Parallel gene selection and dynamic ensemble pruning based on Affinity Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Luan, Yu-Shi; He, Xin-Yu; Li, Li-Shuang; Zhu, Yuan-Feng

    2017-08-01

    Gene selection and sample classification based on gene expression data are important research areas in bioinformatics. Selecting important genes closely related to classification is a challenging task due to high dimensionality and small sample size of microarray data. Extended rough set based on neighborhood has been successfully applied to gene selection, as it can select attributes without redundancy and deal with numerical attributes directly. However, the computation of approximations in rough set is extremely time consuming. In this paper, in order to accelerate the process of gene selection, a parallel computation method is proposed to calculate approximations of intersection neighborhood rough set. Furthermore, a novel dynamic ensemble pruning approach based on Affinity Propagation clustering and dynamic pruning framework is proposed to reduce memory usage and computational cost. Experimental results on three Arabidopsis thaliana biotic and abiotic stress response datasets demonstrate that the proposed method can obtain better classification performance than ensemble method with gene pre-selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rootstocks influence yield performance of navel orange trees after drastic pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Belmonte Petry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drastic pruning is an alternative control recommended in orchards affected by citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of six rootstocks on growth, yield and quality of 'Monte Parnaso'(Citrus sinensis (L. Osb. navel oranges, after performing a drastic pruning to eradicate the citrus canker. A complete randomized blocks design, with six treatments and four replicates, was used. The following rootstocks were tested: 'Caipira' sweet orange (C. sinensis (L. Osb., 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana Pasq., 'Cravo' Rangpur lime (C. limonia Osb., 'Swingle'citrumelo (C. paradisi Macf. x Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf., 'Sunki' mandarin (C. sunki Hort. ex Tan. and 'Troyer' citrange (C. sinensis x P. trifoliata. Traits related to plant height, yield and fruit quality were evaluated. The largest cumulative yield was obtained from 'Cravo', 'Volkamer' and 'Sunki'. 'Cravo' and 'Volkamer' induced higher production efficiency, fruits with the highest average weight and the lowest pre-harvest fruit drop. All the evaluated rootstocks produced high quality fruits and similar canopy sizes.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE WORK CONDITIONS OF ACTIVITIES OF URBAN TREE PRUNING

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    Nilton César Fiedler

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available this work analyzed the work environment in the trees pruning activities in the urban arborization, comparison with the values of the legislation and the practical application of results to provide a better comfort, security, health, welfare to workers, and also a better efficiency and quality of the work. The weather conditions, the noise levels, the light conditions and vibration were analyzed using suitable ergonomic methods. The weather conditions in the work environment were according the permissible values in the legislation (NR15 for index of humid bulb and globe thermometer (IBUTG of 25°C for the activities of pruning, with exception of the schedule to twelve hours (26,2°C, the hours of working should be of 30 minutes of work and 30 minutes of rest. The noise levels found in the activities of cut were 105,7 dB (A and bucking were 103.9 dB (A, above the level permited by legislation (NR15. The minimum light conditions values were acceptable for legislation (NBR 5413/92, but the global indices were too high being able to cause problems to the worker health. The vibration conditions were acceptable.

  11. Lost in space? Generalising subtree prune and regraft to spaces of phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordewich, Magnus; Linz, Simone; Semple, Charles

    2017-06-21

    Over the last fifteen years, phylogenetic networks have become a popular tool to analyse relationships between species whose past includes reticulation events such as hybridisation or horizontal gene transfer. However, the space of phylogenetic networks is significantly larger than that of phylogenetic trees, and how to analyse and search this enlarged space remains a poorly understood problem. Inspired by the widely-used rooted subtree prune and regraft (rSPR) operation on rooted phylogenetic trees, we propose a new operation-called subnet prune and regraft (SNPR)-that induces a metric on the space of all rooted phylogenetic networks on a fixed set of leaves. We show that the spaces of several popular classes of rooted phylogenetic networks (e.g. tree child, reticulation visible, and tree based) are connected under SNPR and that connectedness remains for the subclasses of these networks with a fixed number of reticulations. Lastly, we bound the distance between two rooted phylogenetic networks under the SNPR operation, show that it is computationally hard to compute this distance exactly, and analyse how the SNPR-distance between two such networks relates to the rSPR-distance between rooted phylogenetic trees that are embedded in these networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spatial development of transport structures in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Els eHerremans; Pieter eVerboven; Maarten eHertog; Dennis eCantre; Mattias evan Dael; Thomas eDe Schryver; Luc eVan Hoorebeke; Bart eNicolai

    2015-01-01

    The void network and vascular system are important pathways for the transport of gases, water and solutes in apple fruit (Malus x domestica Borkh). Here we used X-ray micro-tomography at various spatial resolutions to investigate the growth of these transport structures in 3D during fruit development of ‘Jonagold’ apple. The size of the void space and porosity in the cortex tissue increased considerably. In the core tissue, the porosity was consistently lower, and seemed to decrease towards t...

  13. The high-quality draft genome of peach (Prunus persica) identifies unique patterns of genetic diversity, domestication and genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Ignazio; Abbott, Albert G; Scalabrin, Simone; Jung, Sook; Shu, Shengqiang; Marroni, Fabio; Zhebentyayeva, Tatyana; Dettori, Maria Teresa; Grimwood, Jane; Cattonaro, Federica; Zuccolo, Andrea; Rossini, Laura; Jenkins, Jerry; Vendramin, Elisa; Meisel, Lee A; Decroocq, Veronique; Sosinski, Bryon; Prochnik, Simon; Mitros, Therese; Policriti, Alberto; Cipriani, Guido; Dondini, Luca; Ficklin, Stephen; Goodstein, David M; Xuan, Pengfei; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Aramini, Valeria; Copetti, Dario; Gonzalez, Susana; Horner, David S; Falchi, Rachele; Lucas, Susan; Mica, Erica; Maldonado, Jonathan; Lazzari, Barbara; Bielenberg, Douglas; Pirona, Raul; Miculan, Mara; Barakat, Abdelali; Testolin, Raffaele; Stella, Alessandra; Tartarini, Stefano; Tonutti, Pietro; Arús, Pere; Orellana, Ariel; Wells, Christina; Main, Dorrie; Vizzotto, Giannina; Silva, Herman; Salamini, Francesco; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2013-05-01

    Rosaceae is the most important fruit-producing clade, and its key commercially relevant genera (Fragaria, Rosa, Rubus and Prunus) show broadly diverse growth habits, fruit types and compact diploid genomes. Peach, a diploid Prunus species, is one of the best genetically characterized deciduous trees. Here we describe the high-quality genome sequence of peach obtained from a completely homozygous genotype. We obtained a complete chromosome-scale assembly using Sanger whole-genome shotgun methods. We predicted 27,852 protein-coding genes, as well as noncoding RNAs. We investigated the path of peach domestication through whole-genome resequencing of 14 Prunus accessions. The analyses suggest major genetic bottlenecks that have substantially shaped peach genome diversity. Furthermore, comparative analyses showed that peach has not undergone recent whole-genome duplication, and even though the ancestral triplicated blocks in peach are fragmentary compared to those in grape, all seven paleosets of paralogs from the putative paleoancestor are detectable.

  14. Identification and expression analysis of the SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box gene family in Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zongda; Sun, Lidan; Zhou, Yuzhen; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2015-10-01

    SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein (SBP)-box family genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that play crucial roles in plant development, especially flower and fruit development. However, little information on this gene family is available for Prunus mume, an ornamental and fruit tree widely cultivated in East Asia. To explore the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus and explore their functions in flower and fruit development, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in P. mume. Fifteen SBP-box genes were identified, and 11 of them contained an miR156 target site. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses revealed that different groups of SBP-box genes have undergone different evolutionary processes and varied in their length, structure, and motif composition. Purifying selection has been the main selective constraint on both paralogous and orthologous SBP-box genes. In addition, the sequences of orthologous SBP-box genes did not diverge widely after the split of P. mume and Prunus persica. Expression analysis of P. mume SBP-box genes revealed their diverse spatiotemporal expression patterns. Three duplicated SBP-box genes may have undergone subfunctionalization in Prunus. Most of the SBP-box genes showed high transcript levels in flower buds and young fruit. The four miR156-nontargeted genes were upregulated during fruit ripening. Together, these results provide information about the evolution of SBP-box genes in Prunus. The expression analysis lays the foundation for further research on the functions of SBP-box genes in P. mume and other Prunus species, especially during flower and fruit development.

  15. Cavity size and copper root pruning affect production and establishment of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marry Anne Sword Sayer; James D. Haywood; Shi-Jean Susana. Sung

    2009-01-01

    With six container types, we tested the effects of cavity size (i.e., 60, 93, and 170 ml) and copper root pruning on the root system development of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings grown in a greenhouse. We then evaluated root egress during a root growth potential test and assessed seedling morphology and root system development 1 year after planting in...

  16. The interplay between branching and pruning on neuronal target search during developmental growth: functional role and implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Oşan

    Full Text Available Regenerative strategies that facilitate the regrowth and reconnection of neurons are some of the most promising methods in spinal cord injury research. An essential part of these strategies is an increased understanding of the mechanisms by which growing neurites seek out and synapse with viable targets. In this paper, we use computational and theoretical tools to examine the targeting efficiency of growing neurites subject to limited resources, such as maximum total neural tree length. We find that in order to efficiently reach a particular target, growing neurites must achieve balance between pruning and branching: rapidly growing neurites that do not prune will exhaust their resources, and frequently pruning neurites will fail to explore space effectively. We also find that the optimal branching/pruning balance must shift as the target distance changes: different strategies are called for to reach nearby vs. distant targets. This suggests the existence of a currently unidentified higher-level regulatory factor to control arborization dynamics. We propose that these findings may be useful in future therapies seeking to improve targeting rates through manipulation of arborization behaviors.

  17. EFFECTS OF SOME CHEMICAL PRE-TREATMENTS ON SOME PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLEBOARD MANUFACTURED FROM VINE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün GÜNTEKİN, Samim YAŞAR, Beyhan KARAKUŞ, Mustafa Burak ARSLAN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of some pre-treatments on some physical and mechanical properties of particleboard manufactured from vine pruning. Chips that were produced from vine pruning were subjected to some pre-treatments namely cold water, 1 % sodium hydroxide, and 1 % acetic acid in order to improve their performance in particleboard manufacturing. One-layer experimental particleboards with density of 0.5 g/cm3 were manufactured from vine pruning using 6,8,10 % percent of urea formaldehyde (UF adhesive. Modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR, internal bond strength (IB, thickness swelling (TS and water absorption properties of the boards were evaluated, and a statistical analysis was performed in order to evaluate effects of pre-treatments on physical and mechanical properties. The results have shown that pre-treatments increase bending and internal bond strength of the boards while no significant effects has been observed on modulus of elasticity. The results also indicate that pre-treatments have significant effects on water absorption values of the boards but not on thickness swelling of the boards. This study demonstrates that vine pruning can be more efficiently used in particleboard manufacturing.

  18. Severity of scab and its effects on fruit weight in mechanically hedge-pruned and topped pecan trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scab is the most damaging disease of pecan in the southeastern USA. Pecan trees can attain 44 m in height, so managing disease in the upper canopy is a problem. Fungicide is ordinarily applied using ground-based air-blast sprayers. Although mechanical hedge-pruning and topping of pecan is done for s...

  19. Thyroid hormone is required for pruning, functioning and long-term maintenance of afferent inner hair cell synapses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Kong, Jee-Hyun; Fang, Qing; Salles, Felipe T.; Wangsawihardja, Felix; Ricci, Anthony J.; Mustapha, Mirna

    2016-01-01

    Functional maturation of afferent synaptic connections to inner hair cells (IHCs) involves pruning of excess synapses formed during development, as well as the strengthening and survival of the retained synapses. These events take place during the thyroid hormone (TH)-critical period of cochlear development, which is in the perinatal period for mice and in the third trimester for humans. Here, we used the hypothyroid Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1dw) as a model to study the role of TH in afferent type I synaptic refinement and functional maturation. We observed defects in afferent synaptic pruning and delays in calcium channel clustering in the IHCs of Pit1dw mice. Nevertheless, calcium currents and capacitance reached near normal levels in Pit1dw IHCs by the age of onset of hearing, despite the excess number of retained synapses. We restored normal synaptic pruning in Pit1dw IHCs by supplementing with TH from postnatal day (P)3 to P8, establishing this window as being critical for TH action on this process. Afferent terminals of older Pit1dw IHCs showed evidence of excitotoxic damage accompanied by a concomitant reduction in the levels of the glial glutamate transporter, GLAST. Our results indicate that a lack of TH during a critical period of inner ear development causes defects in pruning and long-term homeostatic maintenance of afferent synapses. PMID:26386265

  20. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  1. Phenology, canopy aging and seasonal carbon balance as related to delayed winter pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eGatti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER was followed throughout the season.Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs 34 in SWP, highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly

  2. A novel bioconversion for value-added products from food waste using Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yi; Zheng, Dong; Yao, Binghua; Cai, Zizhe; Zhao, Zhimin; Wu, Shengqing; Cong, Peiqing; Yang, Depo

    2017-03-01

    Food waste, as a major part of the municipal solid waste has been generated increasingly worldwide. Efficient and feasible utilization of this waste material for productivity process is significant for both economical and environmental reasons. In the present study, Musca domestica larva was used as the carrier to conduct a bioconversion with food waste to get the value-added maggot protein, oil and organic fertilizers. Methods of adult flies rearing, culture medium adjuvant selection, maggot culture conditions, stocking density and the valorization of the waste have been explored. From the experimental results, every 1000g culture mediums (700g food waste and 300g adjuvant) could be disposed by 1.5g M. domestica eggs under proper culture conditions after emergence in just 4days, 42.95±0.25% of which had been consumed and the culture medium residues could be used as good organic fertilizers, accompanying with the food waste consumption, ∼53.08g dried maggots that contained 57.06±2.19% protein and 15.07±2.03% oil had been produced. The maggot protein for its outstanding pharmacological activities is regarded as a good raw material in the field of medicine and animal feeding. Meanwhile, the maggot oil represents a potential alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. In our study, the maggot biodiesel was obtained after the procedure of transesterification reaction with methanol and the productivity was 87.71%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Boron toxicity causes multiple effects on Malus domestica pollen tube growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefeng eFang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this stress is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron stress on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results show that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique detected that boron stress could decrease [Ca2+]c and induce the disappearance of the [Ca2+]c gradient, which are critical for pollen tube polar growth. Actin filaments were therefore altered by boron stress. Immuno-localization and fluorescence labeling, together with Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR, suggested that boron stress influenced the accumulation and distribution of callose, de-esterified pectins, esterified pectins and arabinogalactan proteins in pollen tubes. All of the above results provide new insights into the regulatory role of boron in pollen tube development. In summary, boron likely plays a structural and regulatory role in relation to [Ca2+]c, actin cytoskeleton and cell wall components and thus regulates Malus domestica pollen germination and tube polar growth.

  4. Tissue distribution and lipophorin transport of hydrocarbons and sex pheromones in the house fly, Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coby Schal

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between epicuticular and internal hydrocarbons in the adult house fly, Musca domestica and the distribution of hydrocarbons, including the female sex pheromone component, (Z-9-tricosene, in tissues. Internal hydrocarbons increased dramatically in relation to sexual maturation and were found in the hemolymph, ovaries, digestive tract, and fat body. (Z-9-Tricosene comprised a relatively large fraction of the hydrocarbons in the female carcass and hemolymph, and less so in other tissues, while other hydrocarbons were represented in greater amounts in the ovaries than in other tissues. It therefore appears that certain hydrocarbons were selectively provisioned to certain tissues such as the ovaries, from which pheromone was relatively excluded. Both KBr gradient ultracentrifugation and specific immunoprecipitation indicated that > 90% of hemolymph hydrocarbons were associated with a high-density lipophorin (density = 1.09 g ml-1, composed of two apoproteins under denaturing conditions, apolipophorin I (~240 kD and apolipophorin II (~85 kD. Our results support a predicted model (Chino, 1985 that lipophorin is involved in the transport of sex pheromone in M. domestica. In addition to delivering hydrocarbons and sex pheromones to the cuticular surface, we suggest that lipophorin may play an important role in an active mechanism that selectively deposits certain subsets of hydrocarbons at specific tissues.

  5. Evaluation of the house fly Musca domestica as a mechanical vector for an anthrax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fasanella

    Full Text Available Anthrax is a disease of human beings and animals caused by the encapsulated, spore-forming, Bacillus anthracis. The potential role of insects in the spread of B. anthracis to humans and domestic animals during an anthrax outbreak has been confirmed by many studies. Among insect vectors, the house fly Musca domestica is considered a potential agent for disease transmission. In this study, laboratory-bred specimens of Musca domestica were infected by feeding on anthrax-infected rabbit carcass or anthrax contaminated blood, and the presence of anthrax spores in their spots (faeces and vomitus was microbiologically monitored. It was also evaluated if the anthrax spores were able to germinate and replicate in the gut content of insects. These results confirmed the role of insects in spreading anthrax infection. This role, although not major, given the huge size of fly populations often associated with anthrax epidemics in domestic animals, cannot be neglected from an epidemiological point of view and suggest that fly control should be considered as part of anthrax control programs.

  6. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chosdu, R.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N.

    1995-02-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and Curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated.

  7. The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chosdu, R.E.; Erizal; Iriawan, T.; Hilmy, N. [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Center for Applications of Isotopes and Radiation

    1995-10-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on curcumin component of Curcuma domestica rhizome were investigated. Pure curcumin, sliced and powdered rhizome with 10% of moisture content were irradiated at 0, 10, 30 and 50 kGy (dose rate of 6 kGy/h). Curcumin content was analysed using HPLC method and ESR spectra. Results show that free radicals are already present in unirradiated rhizome. Gamma irradiation at the doses of 10, 30 and 50 kGy induced the free radicals formation of pure curcumin and curcuma domestica rhizome. The ESR spectra of irradiated rhizome gave a very similar spectra to the signal of irradiated pure curcumin. The percentage of free radicals intensity from pure curcumin was very stable at room temperature up to 670 hours of storage. However, the percentage intensity of free radicals in the irradiated rhizome were decay during storage. Irradiation treatment and storage time did not give a significant change on curcumin content, water activity, pH and moisture content of rhizome investigated. (Author).

  8. Boron Toxicity Causes Multiple Effects on Malus domestica Pollen Tube Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kefeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Xing, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Liu; Cao, Qingqin; Qin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Boron is an important micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron toxicity on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results showed that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique detected that boron toxicity could decrease [Ca(2+)]c and induce the disappearance of the [Ca(2+)]c gradient, which are critical for pollen tube polar growth. Actin filaments were therefore altered by boron toxicity. Immuno-localization and fluorescence labeling, together with fourier-transform infrared analysis, suggested that boron toxicity influenced the accumulation and distribution of callose, de-esterified pectins, esterified pectins, and arabinogalactan proteins in pollen tubes. All of the above results provide new insights into the regulatory role of boron in pollen tube development. In summary, boron likely plays a structural and regulatory role in relation to [Ca(2+)]c, actin cytoskeleton and cell wall components and thus regulates Malus domestica pollen germination and tube polar growth.

  9. Characterisation of Sorbus domestica L. Bark, Fruits and Seeds: Nutrient Composition and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Majić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the nutritional value of service tree (Sorbus domestica L. bark, fruit exocarp and mesocarp, and seeds by establishing the levels of macro- and microelements, total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. Our results revealed that all of the tested service tree samples were rich in potassium. Bark was the best source of calcium and zinc, while seeds were the best source of magnesium. Compared to the bark and seeds, fruit exocarp and mesocarp contained significantly lower amounts of these three elements. Immature exocarp and bark contained the highest amounts of total phenolics and showed the highest antioxidant activity. Maturation significantly decreased the amount of total phenolics in fruits, as well as the antioxidant activity of total phenolics and total tannins from exocarp, but not from mesocarp. Exocarp was the richest in total flavonoids. Based on the obtained data, we have concluded that the under-utilised species S. domestica L. could serve as an important source of mineral elements and antioxidants in the human diet.

  10. Fungicide Aplication From Turminic Extract (Curcuma domestica Val. to Control of Fusarium on Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saktiyono Sigit Tri Pamungkas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt disease is one ofthe important disease of tomato plant that need to be controlled. It can decrease the productivity of the plant. The disease can be usually controlled by using chemicalfungicide which very expensive and can damage the environment. So it needs an alternative control method such as using biological fungicide. Curcuma domestica is one of plants that can be used as a biological fungicide. The aims of this research were to known the effectiveness of the C. domestica rhizome extract to the fusarium wilt diseases intensity and the concentration of the extract that effective to control fusarium wilt diseases in tomato plant. This research was done according to the experimental method employing a Completely RandomizedDesign (CRD. The treatment used C. domesticaextract with concentration 0% (K0, 5%(K1, 10%(K2, 15%(K3, 20%(K4, 25%(K5 and 30%(K6 applied on rhizosphere of tomato plant that has been previously invested by Fusariumoxysporuminoculum.The data wereanalysed with analysis of varian (F test with the confidence level 95% and 99%. The result shown that the extract of C. domesticarhizomes did not effectively control fusarium wilt disease in the plant.

  11. Using multilevel systematic sampling to study apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) quality and its variability at the orchard scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez Vega, Mabel V.; Wulfsohn, Dvoralai; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2013-01-01

    sample of ‘Granny Smith’ (Malus x domestica cv. ‘Granny Smith’) apples obtained from a 17 ha orchard based on a final sample of 74 fruit. Estimates of fruit marketable yield and fruit size distribution agreed well with packing house records. The estimated marketable yield was 356.6 ± 89.2 t compared...

  12. F1 hybrid of cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) and European pear (Pyrus communis) with fertile F2 offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, T.C.; Malnoy, M.; Hofmann, T.; Schwab, W.; Palmieri, L.; Wehrens, H.R.M.J.; Schuch, L.A.; Müller, M.; Schimmelpfeng, H.; Velasco, R.; Martens, S.

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of intergeneric hybrids for horticultural and agricultural crops is still a demanding task for breeding programmes. The aim of such approaches is to introduce new quality and resistance traits and to enlarge the gene pool. Recently, an F1 hybrid between Malus × domestica and Pyrus

  13. The affect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ingestion on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) and lysozyme expression in the common housefly (Musca domestica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common house fly (Musca domestica L.) lives and thrives in one of the most septic niches on Earth, making bacterial exposure imminent. House flies often ingest bacteria and have both physical and chemical defenses utilized to protect themselves from harmful microbes. For example, defense molecul...

  14. Phenolic Compounds in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.): Compounds Characterization and Stability during Postharvest and after Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francini, Alessandra; Sebastiani, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the information on the occurrence of phenolic compounds in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) fruit and juice, with special reference to their health related properties. As phytochemical molecules belonging to polyphenols are numerous, we will focus on the main apples phenolic compounds with special reference to changes induced by apple cultivar, breeding approaches, fruit postharvest and transformation into juice. PMID:26784345

  15. Genetic variability in apple fruit polyphenol composition in Malus × domestica and Malus sieversii germplasm grown in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Richard K; McGhie, Tony K

    2011-11-09

    Variations in the concentrations of flavan-3-ol, oligomeric procyanidin, chlorogenic acid, dihydrochalcone, flavonol, and anthocyanin polyphenol groups and total polyphenols were examined in the fruit peel and cortical flesh of 93 (80 Malus × domestica and 13 Malus sieversii) apple genotypes in at least 1 year between 2003 and 2005 grown at one site in New Zealand (NZ). Differences among genotypes accounted for 46-97% of the total variation in the concentrations of total polyphenols and each of the individual phenol groups in the flesh and peel in both species, whereas effects of year and genotype × year were minimal, except for peel flavonols in M. × domestica and flesh flavonols in both species. In these cases, differences among genotypes accounted for less than 30% of the total variation, which was less than the variation found for the interaction between genotype and year. Total polyphenol concentrations among genotypes were spread over a 7- and 9-fold range in the flesh and a 4- and 3-fold range in the peel of M. sieversii and M. × domestica, respectively, with the spread in concentrations of individual polyphenol groups in each tissue and within each species varying from a 2-fold to over a 500-fold range. Higher concentrations were generally found in M. sieversii. In M. × domestica, cultivars and breeding selections originating in NZ had lower average flesh and peel total polyphenols and chlorogenic acid than older cultivars previously imported into NZ from overseas countries.

  16. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Essential Oil of Leaves of Malus domestica Growing in Western Himalaya (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayanka Walia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Light pale-colored volatile oil was obtained from fresh leaves of Malus domestica tree, growing in Dhauladhar range of Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh, India, with characteristic eucalyptol dominant fragrance. The oil was found to be a complex mixture of mono-, sesqui-, di-terpenes, phenolics, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Seventeen compounds accounting for nearly 95.3% of the oil were characterized with the help of capillary GC, GC-MS, and NMR. Major compounds of the oil were characterized as eucalyptol (43.7%, phytol (11.5%, α-farnesene (9.6%, and pentacosane (7.6%. Cytotoxicity of essential oil of leaves of M. domestica was evaluated by sulforhodamine B (SRB assays. The essential oil of leaves of M. domestica, tested against three cancer cell lines, namely, C-6 (glioma cells, A549 (human lung carcinoma, CHOK1 (Chinese hamster ovary cells, and THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia cell. The highest activity showed by essential oil on C-6 cell lines (98.2% at concentration of 2000 μg/ml compared to control. It is the first paper in literature to exploit the chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of leaves essential oil of M. domestica.

  17. House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...

  18. Effect of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation of house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several s...

  19. Les espèces envahissantes : le cas du cerisier tardif (Prunus serotina Ehrh).

    OpenAIRE

    Pairon, Marie; Vervoort, Arnaud; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure

    2006-01-01

    Introduites pour divers usages, les espèces envahissantes se sont rapidement adaptées et répandues dans leurs nouveaux habitats. Elles ont pour la plupart des impacts environnementaux, économiques et/ou sociaux. Parmi les essences forestières introduites, le cerisier tardif (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), importé d’Amérique du Nord, est une espèce particulièrement en expansion dans nos forêts et est considérée comme espèce envahissante en Belgique, surtout sur les so...

  20. Immunocytochemical Localization of Prunasin Hydrolase and Mandelonitrile Lyase in Stems and Leaves of Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E.; Poulton, J. E.

    1994-12-01

    In macerates of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) leaves and stems, (R)-prunasin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and D-glucose by the sequential action of prunasin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.21) and (R)-(+)-mandelonitrile lyase (EC 4.1.2.10). Immuno-cytochemical techniques have shown that within these organs prunasin hydrolase occurs within the vacuoles of phloem parenchyma cells. In arborescent leaves, mandelonitrile lyase was also located in phloem parenchyma vacuoles, but comparison of serial sections revealed that these two degradative enzymes are usually localized within different cells.

  1. Alternaria cerasidanica sp nov., isolated in Denmark from drupes of Prunus avium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, R. G.; Reymond, S. T.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    The ex-type strain of Alternaria cerasidanica was isolated in 2001 from an immature, asymptomatic drupe of Prunus avium collected at a commercial cherry orchard near Skaelskor, Denmark. Cultural morphology, sporulation pattern and cluster analyses of combined RAPD, RAMS (microsatellite), and AFLP...... fingerprints of A. cerasidanica and 167 strains of Alternaria spp. support the placement of A. cerasidanica within the A. infectoria species-group sensu Simmons and its segregation from other members of this group. A. cerasidanica is currently monotypic and known only from preharvest sweet cherry fruit...

  2. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of a New Triterpenoid from Prunus cerasoides D. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liaqat Ali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One new metabolite, prunol (1, belonging to the pentacyclic triterpenoid skeleton was purified from the dichloromethane soluble fraction of the crude ethanolic extract of Prunus cerasoides D. Don. The structure elucidation was accomplished on the basis of one dimensional 1H and 13C NMR and two dimensional HMQC, HMBC, and COSY experiments. The molecular mass was determined by HRFAB-MS, while the major fragments were observed in the EI-MS. The comparative analysis of the NMR spectral data with the known analogues and the NOESY experiments were helpful in assigning the stereo centers in the molecule.

  3. PRUNUS SERRULATA VAR. 'KANZAN' MICROSHOOTS BEHAVIOUR DURING IN VITRO ROOTING AND ACCLIMATIZATION PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Duţă

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding in vitro rooting and acclimatization percentages of Prunus serrulata var. Kanzan vitroplants. During in vitro rooting stage, good results were obtained using a nutrient medium with the following composition: halved Murashige - Skoog mineral salts, Linsmaier – Skoog vitamins, gibberellic acid (GA 0.1 mg/l, indolelacetic acid (IAA 1.0 mg/l, activated carbon 0.3 mg/l, iron chelate 38 mg/l, 30 g/l dextrose, 7 g/l agar. The substrate recommended for acclimatization of in vitro plants is composed of black peat + perlite (1:1, at pH = 6.0.

  4. The apoplastic antioxidant system in Prunus: response to long-term plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Vivancos, P; Rubio, M; Mesonero, V; Periago, P M; Barceló, A Ros; Martínez-Gómez, P; Hernández, J A

    2006-01-01

    This work describes, for the first time, the changes taking place in the antioxidative system of the leaf apoplast in response to plum pox virus (PPV) in different Prunus species showing different susceptibilities to PPV. The presence of p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid (pHMB)-sensitive ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (class I APX) and pHMB-insensitive APX (class III APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX), NADH-POX, and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) was described in the apoplast from both peach and apricot leaves. PPV infection produced different changes in the antioxidant system of the leaf apoplast from the Prunus species, depending on their susceptibility to the virus. In leaves of the very susceptible peach cultivar GF305, PPV brought about an increase in class I APX, POX, NADH-POX, and PPO activities. In the susceptible apricot cultivar Real Fino, PPV infection produced a decrease in apoplastic POX and SOD activities, whereas a strong increase in PPO was observed. However, in the resistant apricot cultivar Stark Early Orange, a rise in class I APX as well as a strong increase in POX and SOD activities was noticed in the apoplastic compartment. Long-term PPV infection produced an oxidative stress in the apoplastic space from apricot and peach plants, as observed by the increase in H2O2 contents in this compartment. However, this increase was much higher in the PPV-susceptible plants than in the resistant apricot cultivar. Only in the PPV-susceptible apricot and peach plants was the increase in apoplastic H2O2 levels accompanied by an increase in electrolyte leakage. No changes in the electrolyte leakage were observed in the PPV-inoculated resistant apricot leaves, although a 42% increase in the apoplastic H2O2 levels was produced. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analyses revealed that the majority of the polypeptides in the apoplastic fluid had isoelectric points in the range of pI 4-6. The identification of proteins using MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser

  5. Reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] ao nematóide anelado Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nemata: Criconematidae Reaction of mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nemata: Criconematidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] ao nematóide anelado Mesocriconema xenoplax (Raski Loof & de Grise, realizou-se o presente estudo em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica com 6 litros de capacidade, contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121°C e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Cada planta foi inoculada com 10mL de uma suspensão de 200 M. xenoplax por mL. Com os resultados obtidos, após 105 dias da inoculação, pode-se concluir que os Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e as cultivares Okinawa e Aurora-1 de pessegueiro são suscetíveis a M. xenoplax. A cultivar Aurora-1 apresentou maior Fator de Reprodução (93,06.With the objective of evaluating the reaction of mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax (Raski Loof & de Grise, was conducted the present study at a greenhouse, belonging to the Phytosanity Department of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias (FCAV/UNESP, Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. The plants were maintained in ceramic boxes with 6 liters of capacity, contends a soil-sand mixture (1:1, v/v, previously autoclaved at 121°C and 1kgf.cm-2 for 2 hours. Each plant was inoculated with a 10mL suspension of 200 M. xenoplax/mL. With the results, after 105 days of inoculation, was verified that mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' and 'Aurora-1' peach tree cultivars are susceptible to M. xenoplax. The cultivar 'Aurora-1' presented larger reproduction factor (93,06.

  6. The aphrodisiac effect and toxicity of combination Piper retrofractum L, Centella asiatica, and Curcuma domestica infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuning Rahmawati

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang: Cabe jawa (Piper retrofractum L merupakan salah satu tanaman yang diketahui memiliki efek stimulan pada tubuh. Dari penelitian pendahuluan diketahui bahwa dalam bentuk infusa, LD50 nya rendah dan termasuk bahan yang tidak toksik. Infusa pada tikus putih dengan dosis 2,1 mg/10 gram berat badan mempunyai efek androgenik dan anabolik. Alkaloid utama dalam buah cabe jawa yang diduga merupakan senyawa aktif berkhasiat afrodisiaka adalah piperin. Pegagan (Centella asiatica dan temulawak (Curcuma domestica berfungsi sebagai bahan tambahan pendukung. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui toksisitas dan efek afrodisiaka infus ramuan buah cabe jawa, pegagan, dan temulawak pada tikus jantan. Metode: Parameter efek afrodisiaka dilihat dari frekuensi introduction, climbing, dan coitus tikus jantan dibandingkan kontrol serta kadar hormon testosteron sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan. Toksisitas subkronik ditentukan dari kadar SGOT, SGPT, ureum, dan kreatinin sebelum dan sesudah pemberian infusa ramuan selama 3 bulan.Hasil: Terdapat perbedaan yang signifi kan parameter frekuensi climbing dan coitus antara kelompok kontrol dan kelompok yang diberi infusa ramuan (P=0,032. Sementara pemberian infusa ramuan Piper retrofractum L., Centella asiatica, dan Curcuma domestica tidak menyebabkan perbedaan yang signifi kan kadar hormon testosteron tikus jantan sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan. Pemberian infusa ramuan dosis tinggi (5000 mg/200g BB menyebabkan perubahan yang signifi kan kadar SGOT, SGPT dan ureum tikus kelompok perlakuan.Kesimpulan: Infusa ramuan cabe jawa, pegagan, dan temulawak memiliki efek afrodisiaka pada libido tikus jantan galur SD dan pemberian ramuan dosis 5000mg/200g BB tikus setiap hari selama 3 bulan berturut-turut menyebabkan peningkatan yang signifi kan kadar SGOT, SGPT, dan ureum tikus. (Health Science Indones 2012;1:19-22 Kata kunci: afrodisiaka, toksisitas, Piper retrofractum LAbstractIntroduction: Piper retrofractum L

  7. An empirical solution for over-pruning with a novel ensemble-learning method for fMRI decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Satoshi; Nambu, Isao; Naito, Eiichi

    2015-01-15

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoding techniques allow us to predict the contents of sensory and motor events or participants' mental states from multi-voxel patterns of fMRI signals. Sparse logistic regression (SLR) is a useful pattern classification algorithm that has the advantage of being able to automatically select voxels to avoid over-fitting. However, SLR suffers from over-pruning, in which many voxels that are potentially useful for prediction are discarded. We propose an ensemble solution for over-pruning, called "Iterative Recycling" (iRec), in which sparse classifiers are trained iteratively by recycling over-pruned voxels. Our simulation demonstrates that iRec can effectively rectify over-pruning in SLR and improve its classification accuracy. We also conduct an fMRI experiment in which eight healthy volunteers perform a finger-tapping task with their index or middle fingers. The results indicate that SLR with iRec (iSLR) can predict the finger used more accurately than SLR. Further, iSLR is able to identify a voxel cluster representing the finger movements in the biologically plausible contralateral primary sensory-motor cortices in each participant. We also successfully dissociated the regularly arranged representation for each finger in the cluster. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first study to propose a solution for over-pruning with ensemble-learning that is applicable to any sparse algorithm. In addition, from the viewpoint of machine learning, we provide the novel idea of using the sparse classification algorithm to generate accurate divergent base classifiers. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Small-Scale Effect of Pine Stand Pruning on Snowpack Distribution in the Pyrenees Observed with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Revuelto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests in snow-dominated areas have substantial effects on the snowpack and its evolution over time. Such interactions have significant consequences for the hydrological response of mountain rivers. Thus, the impact of forest management actions on the snow distribution, and hence the storage of water in the form of snow during winter and spring, is a major concern. The results of this study provide the first detailed comparison of the small-scale effect of forest characteristics on the snowpack distribution, assessed prior to and following major modification of the structure of the canopy by pruning of the lower branches of the trees to 3 m above the ground. This is a common management practice aimed at reducing the spread of forest fires. The snowpack distribution was determined using terrestrial laser scanning (LiDAR technology at a high spatial resolution (0.25 m over a 1000 m2 study area during 23 survey dates over three snow seasons in a small study area in the central Pyrenees. The pruning was conducted during summer following the snow season in the second year of the study (i.e., the study duration encompassed two seasons prior to canopy pruning and one following. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to identify recurring spatial patterns of snow distribution. The results showed that pruning reduced the average radius of the canopy of trees by 1.2 m, and increased the clearance around the trunks, as all the branches that formerly contacted the ground were removed. However, the impact on the snowpack was moderate. The PCA revealed that the spatial configuration of the snowpack did not change significantly, as the principal components included survey days from different periods of the snow season, and did not discriminate days surveyed prior to and following pruning. Nevertheless, removal of the lower branches reduced the area beneath the canopy by 36%, and led to an average increase in total snow depth of approximately 14%.

  9. Qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Ponkan' após poda de recuperação Quality of 'Ponkan' tangerine tree after recovering pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Mendonça

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar a qualidade de frutos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' em três safras subseqüentes aos tratamentos: poda de topo no rebaixamento da copa e poda da parte baixa da planta (saia. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Vito Crincoli, localizada no município de Perdões - MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo poda do topo (sem poda, poda a 3,0; 2,5 e 2,0 m e poda da saia (sem e com a poda com quatro repetições e três plantas úteis por parcela. Os diferentes tipos de poda não prejudicaram a qualidade de frutos de tangerineira 'Ponkan' nas três safras subseqüente as podas. Após o terceiro ano as plantas que sofreram podas mais severas produziram frutos com peso superiores, demonstrando a viabilidade da poda na recuperação da qualidade dos frutos.This research aimed to test top pruning effect on lowering the top canopy and pruning the lower part of the plant on the recovering of 12 years old 'Ponkan' tangerine tree. Plants were four meters height, 6x4 spacing, grafted on 'Cravo' lemon tree. This experiment was carried out at Vito Crincoli' s Farm in Perdões, MG, Brazil . It was used a randomized block experimental design in a factorial scheme of 4x2, top pruning (without pruning, pruning at 3.0; 2.5 and 2.0m from soil level and circumference pruning (with and without pruning with four replications. The useful plot was constituted of three tangerine plants. After third year of treatment plants that had been under more severe pruning gave higher fruit weight. Indicating the used of pruning to recover fruit quality.

  10. TCF bleaching sequence in kraft pulping of olive tree pruning residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo, A; Rodríguez, A; Colodette, J L; Gomide, J L; Jiménez, L

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to find a suitable Kraft cooking process for olive tree pruning (OTP), in order to produce pulp of kappa number about 17. The Kraft pulp produced under optimized conditions showed a viscosity of 31.5 mPa·s and good physical, mechanical, and optical properties, which are suitable for paper production. The physical-mechanical and optical properties were measured before and after bleaching. Although the OTP pulp was bleached to 90.9% ISO brightness (kappapulp showed a brightness reversion equal to 1.3%. Furthermore, this bleached pulp did not need a high intensity of beating due to high drainability degree in the unbeaten pulp. So that, OTP is suggested as an interesting raw material for cellulosic pulp production because its properties are comparable to those of other agricultural residues, currently used in the paper industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. LHCb: Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and partition wise joins

    CERN Multimedia

    Mathe, Z

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as rang...

  12. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, T; Lim, F K S; Lee, J S H; Carrasco, L R

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia. The results show that, on average, yield increases of 65% were possible and that fertilizer and herbicide use was excessive and inefficient. Adopting industry-supported scheme management practices, use of high-quality seeds and higher pruning and weeding rates were found to improve efficiency. Smallholder oil palm production intensification in Indonesia has the capacity to increase production by 26%, an equivalent of 1.75 million hectares of land.

  13. Distinct Defects in Spine Formation or Pruning in Two Gene Duplication Mouse Models of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Li, Huiping; Takumi, Toru; Qiu, Zilong; Xu, Xiu; Yu, Xiang; Bian, Wen-Jie

    2017-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) encompasses a complex set of developmental neurological disorders, characterized by deficits in social communication and excessive repetitive behaviors. In recent years, ASD is increasingly being considered as a disease of the synapse. One main type of genetic aberration leading to ASD is gene duplication, and several mouse models have been generated mimicking these mutations. Here, we studied the effects of MECP2 duplication and human chromosome 15q11-13 duplication on synaptic development and neural circuit wiring in the mouse sensory cortices. We showed that mice carrying MECP2 duplication had specific defects in spine pruning, while the 15q11-13 duplication mouse model had impaired spine formation. Our results demonstrate that spine pathology varies significantly between autism models and that distinct aspects of neural circuit development may be targeted in different ASD mutations. Our results further underscore the importance of gene dosage in normal development and function of the brain.

  14. CoRPORATE: cortical reconstruction by pruning outliers with Reeb analysis and topology-preserving evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yonggang; Lai, Rongjie; Toga, Arthur W

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel system for the accurate reconstruction of cortical surfaces from magnetic resonance images. At the core of our system is a novel framework for outlier detection and pruning by integrating intrinsic Reeb analysis of Laplace-Beltrami eigen-functions with topology-preserving evolution for localized filtering of outliers, which avoids unnecessary smoothing and shrinkage of cortical regions with high curvature. In our experiments, we compare our method with FreeSurfer and illustrate that our results can better capture cortical geometry in deep sulcal regions. To demonstrate the robustness of our method, we apply it to over 1300 scans from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We show that cross-sectional group differences and longitudinal changes can be detected successfully with our method.

  15. Monomeric carbohydrates production from olive tree pruning biomass: modeling of dilute acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Juan G; Mateo, Soledad; Fonseca, Bruno G; Roberto, Inês C; Sánchez, Sebastián; Moya, Alberto J

    2013-12-01

    Statistical modeling and optimization of dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of olive tree pruning biomass has been performed using response surface methodology. Central composite rotatable design was applied to assess the effect of acid concentration, reaction time and temperature on efficiency and selectivity of hemicellulosic monomeric carbohydrates to d-xylose. Second-order polynomial model was fitted to experimental data to find the optimum reaction conditions by multiple regression analysis. The monomeric d-xylose recovery 85% (as predicted by the model) was achieved under optimized hydrolysis conditions (1.27% acid concentration, 96.5°C and 138 min), confirming the high validity of the developed model. The content of d-glucose (8.3%) and monosaccharide degradation products (0.1% furfural and 0.04% 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) provided a high quality subtract, ready for subsequent biochemical conversion to value-added products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genetic algorithm pruning of probabilistic neural networks in medical disease estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzaris, Dimitrios; Anastassopoulos, George; Adamopoulos, Adam

    2011-10-01

    A hybrid model consisting of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and a Genetic Algorithm procedure for diagnostic risk factors selection in Medicine is proposed in this paper. A medical disease prediction may be viewed as a pattern classification problem based on a set of clinical and laboratory parameters. Probabilistic Neural Network models were assessed in terms of their classification accuracy concerning medical disease prediction. A Genetic Algorithm search was performed to examine potential redundancy in the diagnostic factors. This search led to a pruned ANN architecture, minimizing the number of diagnostic factors used during the training phase and therefore minimizing the number of nodes in the ANN input and hidden layer as well as the Mean Square Error of the trained ANN at the testing phase. As a conclusion, a number of diagnostic factors in a patient's data record can be omitted without loss of fidelity in the diagnosis procedure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Space pruning monotonic search for the non-unique probe selection problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Elisa; Ozkok, Beyza Ahlatcioglu; Pardalos, Panos M

    2014-01-01

    Identification of targets, generally viruses or bacteria, in a biological sample is a relevant problem in medicine. Biologists can use hybridisation experiments to determine whether a specific DNA fragment, that represents the virus, is presented in a DNA solution. A probe is a segment of DNA or RNA, labelled with a radioactive isotope, dye or enzyme, used to find a specific target sequence on a DNA molecule by hybridisation. Selecting unique probes through hybridisation experiments is a difficult task, especially when targets have a high degree of similarity, for instance in a case of closely related viruses. After preliminary experiments, performed by a canonical Monte Carlo method with Heuristic Reduction (MCHR), a new combinatorial optimisation approach, the Space Pruning Monotonic Search (SPMS) method, is introduced. The experiments show that SPMS provides high quality solutions and outperforms the current state-of-the-art algorithms.

  18. Case Report: Prune perineum syndrome: a rare case with an unfavourable outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Roberto I; Dénes, Francisco T; Messi, Gustavo B; Machado, Marcos G

    2016-01-01

    Prune perineum syndrome (PPS) is a rare anomaly, with only two previous case reports, both dying in the perinatal period. We report the first case of PPS that reached childhood. The patient presented with a hypoplastic genitalia and bilateral cryptorchidism. There was no evidence of an anal orifice. A significant prune-like mass was observed, extending from the perineum to both gluteal regions and to a cephalic mid-line bony prominence, with a 1cm central orifice that discharged urine. MRI confirmed the previous findings and revealed a right crossed ectopic kidney, intestinal malrotation, a hypoplastic infrarenal inferior vena cava and a hypoplastic right iliac artery. Endoscopic evaluation through the orifice revealed a cavity lined by urothelial mucosa, with a small communication to the anterior urethra in its anterior wall. A staged reconstruction was planned, with a first-step urinary diversion through a continent abdominal reservoir associated to bilateral orchiopexy. He was discharged from the hospital three weeks later under intermittent catheterization. The next surgical step would be the resection of the perineal mass and its cavity associated to the removal of the prominent sacrococcygeal bones. Unfortunately, four months after the first surgery the patient developed an acute abdomen and was submitted to a laparotomy that revealed a necrotic ileal segment secondary to obstructive adherences. He developed severe malabsorption followed by septic shock, dying five weeks after the procedure. Due to the lack of literature, there is no consensus for the management of these cases. The wish of the family for a better quality of life and social acceptance, compelled us to perform a urinary diversion, to be followed by a plastic and orthopedic reconstruction. Despite the successful initial result, the patient developed a late abdominal obstruction that was misdiagnosed, precipitating his untimely death five months after the first procedure.

  19. GROWTH AND QUALITY OF Pinus taeda. L. SEEDLINGS SUBMITTED TO CHEMICAL ROOT PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Rossi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to study the effects of roots pruning with cupper sulphate, cupper oxychlorate and ethephon (2-cloroethtlphosphonic acid on growth and quality of Pinus taeda L. seedlings produced in tubes. The treatments with cupper sulphate or cupper oxychlorate were applied on the tubes (before their filling with the substrate for plantation, by immersing them into a mixture of equal parts of water and latex paint, at cupper doses of 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48g L-1 of solution (paint + water. The ethefon was sprayed to the aerial part of seedlings (10-15cm height at 0, 50, 75, 100, and 125 mg (a.i. L-1. The experiment followed a completely randomized block design with five replicates. Considering the cupper sources, only cupper sulphate reduced the attributes of root dry matter (mainly by inhibiting the development of lateral roots, collar diameter, seedlings height, and aerial dry matter, with the increase of product dose. The increment of cupper sulphate doses resulted in a higher increase of copper concentration in the substrate than the increase of cupper oxychlorate doses. The increment of cupper oxychlorate doses did not reduce the total root dry matter, but increased the number of lateral roots at the median and higher portion of the root system. Cupper sulphate significantly reduced the emission of lateral roots, as opposed to the effect of cupper oxychlorate. Therefore, the use of increasing doses of cupper oxychlorate seems to show a more positive effect on root pruning, compared to cupper sulphate, since a seedling with a large number of lateral roots of small length is desirable aiming the seedling establishment after transplantation. The increase of ethefon dose sprayed at seedlings aerial part increased the principal root dry matter and the number of later roots at the median (linear effect and lower (quadratic effect parts of root system. There was no effect of ethefon on the other seedling growth attributes.

  20. Shade, leaf growth, and crown development of Quercus rubra, Q. velutina, Prunus serotina, and Acer rubrum seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt W. Gottschalk

    1994-01-01

    The study was conducted in an open field to detennine the optimum irradiance for establishment and growth of two oak species and two major associated woody species. Half-sib seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and black oak (Q. velutina Lam.) were grown for two years under shade-clotht...

  1. Bacterial wetwood detection in Fagus grandifolia and Prunus serotina sapwood using a conducting polymer electronic-nose device

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Wilson

    2014-01-01

    New electronic gas-detection methods were developed and tested for the diagnosis of bacterial wetwood disease in Fagus grandifolia (American beech) and Prunus serotina (black cherry) using a Conducting Polymer (CP)-type electronic nose (e-nose), the Aromascan A32S, based on detection of headspace...

  2. Prokinetic Activity of Prunus persica (L. Batsch Flowers Extract and Its Possible Mechanism of Action in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peach tree, Prunus persica (L. Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10−8–10−5 g/mL caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM, cimetidine (10 µM, and pyrilamine (1 µM produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  3. Cultivar identification, pedigree verification, and diversity analysis among Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) Cultivars based on Simple Sequence Repeat markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic relationships and pedigree inferences among peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) accessions and breeding lines used in genetic improvement were evaluated using 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A total of 80 alleles were detected among the 37 peach accessions with an average of 5.53...

  4. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone

  5. Prokinetic activity of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers extract and its possible mechanism of action in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Xu, Jing Dong; Wei, Feng Xian; Zheng, Yong Dong; Ma, Jian Zhong; Xu, Xiao Dong; Wei, Zhen Gang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, You Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The peach tree, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10(-8)-10(-5) g/mL) caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM), cimetidine (10 µM), and pyrilamine (1 µM) produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  6. Development of sequence-tagged site markers linked to the pillar growth type in peach (Prunus persica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], trees showing columnar [also termed pillar or broomy] growth habit are of interest for high density production systems. While the selection of the columnar homozygote (pillar) phenotype (brbr) can be carried out prior to field planting, the intermediate hetero...

  7. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of Prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone

  8. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU

  9. Ecophysiological and morphological responses to shade and drought in two contrasting ecotypes of Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, M D; Kloeppel, B D; Kubiske, M E

    1992-06-01

    Photosynthesis (A), water relations and stomatal reactivity during drought, and leaf morphology were evaluated on 2-year-old, sun- and shade-grown Prunus serotina Ehrh. seedlings of a mesic Pennsylvania seed source and a more xeric Wisconsin source. Wisconsin plants maintained higher A and leaf conductance (g(wv)) than Pennsylvania plants during the entire drought under sun conditions, and during the mid stages of drought under shade conditions. Compared to shade plants, sun plants of both sources exhibited a more rapid decrease in A or % A(max) with decreasing leaf water potential (Psi). Tissue water relations parameters were generally not significantly different between seed sources. However, osmotic potentials were lower in sun than shade plants under well-watered conditions. Following drought, shade plants, but not sun plants, exhibited significant osmotic adjustment. Sun leaves had greater thickness, specific mass, area and stomatal density and lower guard cell length than shade leaves in one or both sources. Wisconsin sun leaves were seemingly more xerophytic with greater thickness, specific mass, and guard cell length than Pennsylvania sun leaves. No source differences in leaf structure were exhibited in shade plants. Stomatal reactivity to sun-shade cycles was similar between ecotypes. However, well-watered and droughted plants differed in stomatal reactivity within and between multiple sun-shade cycles. The observed ecotypic and phenotypic variations in ecophysiology and morphology are consistent with the ability of Prunus serotina to survive in greatly contrasting environments.

  10. Studies on the susceptibility of pruning wounds to infection by fungi involved in grapevine wood diseases in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of grapevine annual pruning wounds to Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Phaeoacremonium aleophilum and Diplodia seriata was investigated over three years (2005–2007 in a 15 year-old vineyard, cv. Sauvignon blanc. Vines were pruned each year in January, February and March and the wounds were inoculated weekly with conidial suspensions, and with sterile water as a control. Penetration of the fungi into the wood was assessed after 4 weeks by plating pieces of host tissue on agar medium. The susceptibility of annual pruning wounds, expressed as the infection percentages of inoculated spurs, varied with both the trial year and the fungus inoculated. Average infection percentages of inoculated spurs in the three years were respectively 14.7, 38.5 and 50.9% for Pa. chlamydospora, 31.7, 32.2 and 49.4% for Pm. aleophilum and 84.2, 43.8 and 40.9% for D. seriata. The period of pruning was significant for the infection percentages of all fungi in 2005, and for D. seriata in 2006. Natural infection of control spurs by Pa. chlamydospora (2, 4.4, and 11.7% of spurs in the three years respectively and by Pm. aleophilum (0.3, 1.8, and 6.4% began when average weekly temperatures stabilized around 10°C, while infection by D. seriata (12.2, 12 and 18.3% in the same period occurred even below that threshold. Higher infection percentages of both artificially and naturally infected spurs in 2007 were probably due to the higher temperatures recorded in February and March (besides the use of a more efficient selective medium for the isolation of Pa. chlamydospora and Pm. aleophilum. Only artificial infections with D. seriata showed an opposite trend that cannot be explained by the weather data. Infection of one-year-old wood appeared to be an important factor in disease spread. Spurs remained liable to infections with any of the fungi for up to 4 months after pruning, and isolation percentages could be fairly high also in late spring. As a consequence

  11. Perspectives de production et de commercialisation des prunes et des pruneaux au Maroc à l’horizon 2025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issam Eddine Sellika

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La filière de production de prunes et pruneaux au Maroc a connu un développement important du fait de coûts de production relativement faibles comparativement à d’autres rosacées. Cet article propose une réflexion globale sur la situation actuelle de la production et commercialisation des prunes et pruneaux au niveau des exploitations agricoles, et leur possible évolution future. Il présente les principales caractéristiques actuelles de la filière, les principaux facteurs d’évolution et deux scénarios à l’horizon 2025. La filière connait déjà des tensions fortes sur les prix au champ, avec des différences importantes liées à la qualité des productions. Trois facteurs de changement ont été identifiés : 1 l’augmentation des coûts de production ; 2 l’augmentation des surfaces plantées induite par le Plan Maroc Vert ; 3 la baisse des prix de vente. Un premier scénario tendanciel prévoit une faible augmentation des superficies, mais une différenciation forte entre les exploitations en fonction de leurs capacités à maitriser les coûts de production, à produire des prunes de qualité, et à prendre des marges en aval en investissant dans la transformation des prunes et la commercialisation des pruneaux. Cette filière restera ainsi rentable pour certaines exploitations tandis que d’autres opteront pour l’arrachage. Un second scénario prévoit des actions publiques pour promouvoir l’export et améliorer la rentabilité sur le marché intérieur, par une baisse des coûts de production, une augmentation de la qualité des prunes et une organisation collective de la transformation des prunes et la commercialisation des pruneaux. Ces activités, menées dans le cadre de coopératives pour les exploitations de petite taille, permettraient à ces exploitations de maintenir voire d’améliorer la rentabilité de cette production.

  12. Genetics and realized heritability of resistance to imidacloprid in a poultry population of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hussnain; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad

    2014-09-01

    Imidacloprid, a post-synaptic, nicotinic insecticide, has been commonly used for the management of different pests including Musca domestica worldwide. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A 16-fold imidacloprid-resistant population of M. domestica infesting poultry was selected using imidacloprid for 13 continuous generations to study the inheritance and realized heritability of resistance. Toxicological bioassay at G14 showed that the imidacloprid-selected population developed 106-fold resistance when compared to the susceptible population. Reciprocal crosses of susceptible and resistant populations showed an autosomal trait of resistance to imidacloprid in M. domestica. There was incompletely recessive resistance in F1 (Imida-SEL ♂ × Susceptible ♀) and F1(†) (Imida-SEL ♀ × Susceptible ♂) having dominance value 0.53 and 0.31, respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance showed that imidacloprid resistance was controlled by multiple factors. The realized heritability value was 0.09 in the imidacloprid-selected population of M. domestica. It was concluded that imidacloprid resistance in M. domestica was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings should be helpful for better and more successful management of M. domestica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of packaging material and storage conditions on polyphenol stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (prunus cerasus var. Marasca)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Ježek, Damir; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging materials and storage conditions on polyphenols stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Marasca...

  14. Transcriptomic analysis revealed the mechanism of oil dynamic accumulation during developing Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) seed kernels for the development of woody biodiesel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Niu, Jun; An, Jiyong; Wang, Libing; Fang, Chengliang; Ha, Denglong; Fu, Chengyu; Qiu, Lin; Yu, Haiyan; Zhao, Haiyan; Hou, Xinyu; Xiang, Zheng; Zhou, Sufan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Feng, Xinyi; Lin, Shanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Siberian apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) has emerged as a novel potential source of biodiesel in China, but the molecular regulatory mechanism of oil accumulation in Siberian apricot seed kernels (SASK...

  15. Produção da tangerineira 'ponkan' após poda de recuperação Production of 'ponkan' tangerine tree after pruning recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Mendonça

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou esta pesquisa testar o efeito da poda de topo no rebaixamento da copa e poda da saia, na recuperação da tangerineira 'Ponkan' com 12 anos de idade, altura de 4 metros, espaçadas de 6 x 4 m e enxertadas sobre limoeiro 'Cravo'. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Vito Crincoli localizada no município de Perdões, MG. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo poda do topo (sem poda, poda a 3,0; 2,5 e 2,0m e poda da saia (sem e com a poda com quatro repetições. A parcela útil foi constituída de três plantas. As podas drásticas de topo prejudicaram a primeira produção, contudo a partir do segundo ano após a poda, as plantas apresentaram boa recuperação. Esse comportamento foi confirmado na terceira colheita, quando os diferentes tipos de podas do topo não se diferenciaram na produtividade, sendo que o tratamento com poda da saia foi superior ao sem poda.This research aimed to test top pruning effect on the lowering of plant canopy, pruning the lower canopy on the recover of 12 years old 'Ponkan' tangerine tree, 4 meters height, 6 x 4 spaced and grafted on 'Cravo' lemon rootstock. This experiment was carried out at Vito Crincoli's Farm in Perdões, MG. It was carried out under randomized plots in a factorial scheme of 4x2, top pruning (without pruning, pruning at 3.0; 2.5 and 2.0 m and skirt pruning (with and without pruning with 4 replications. Plot size was composed by three plants. Heavy pruning of the top canopy lowered the first tree yield, however, and in the begining of the second year, the plants showed a very good recover. The same behavior was seem for the third harvest when several kinds of top pruning did not differ in the yield. Skirt pruning treatment was superior to that without any pruning.

  16. Ophthalmomyiasis externa by Musca domestica in a case of orbital metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Mary Tomy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Infestation of the living tissues of the eye, ocular adnexae or orbit by larvae of flies of the order Diptera is known as ophthalmomyiasis. Ophthalmomyiasis externa is a limited superficial infestation of external ocular structures such as conjunctiva and adnexae. A case of follicular carcinoma thyroid with orbital metastasis presenting as ophthalmomyiasis externa is reported. The patient presented with foul smelling ulcers of the medial and lateral orbital walls of the right eye extending into the lids and nose, teeming with maggots. Computerized Tomography (CT showed widespread bone destruction with extension into surrounding sinuses. Over 200 maggots were manually removed after immobilisation with turpentine oil instillation. Entomological examination showed it to be a case of accidental myiasis caused by the common housefly Musca domestica. The patient was managed conservatively and the ulcer cavities filled up with healthy granulation tissue. This case is presented on account of its rarity.

  17. Low potential for mechanical transmission of Ebola virus via house flies (Musca domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Andrew D; Nasar, Farooq; Schellhase, Christopher W; Moon, Roger D; Padilla, Susana L; Zeng, Xiankun; Wollen-Roberts, Suzanne E; Shamblin, Joshua D; Grimes, Elizabeth C; Zelko, Justine M; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Bavari, Sina; Pitt, M Louise; Trefry, John C

    2017-05-03

    Ebola virus (EBOV) infection results in high morbidity and mortality and is primarily transmitted in communities by contact with infectious bodily fluids. While clinical and experimental evidence indicates that EBOV is transmitted via mucosal exposure, the ability of non-biting muscid flies to mechanically transmit EBOV following exposure to the face had not been assessed. To investigate this transmission route, house flies (Musca domestica Linnaeus) were used to deliver an EBOV/blood mixture to the ocular/nasal/oral facial mucosa of four cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis Raffles). Following exposure, macaques were monitored for evidence of infection through the conclusion of the study, days 57 and 58. We found no evidence of systemic infection in any of the exposed macaques. The results of this study indicate that there is a low potential for the mechanical transmission of EBOV via house flies - the conditions in this study were not sufficient to initiate infection.

  18. Composting poultry manure by fly larvae (Musca domestica) eliminates Campylobacter jejuni from the manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Steen; Hald, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The common house fly, Musca domestica (Md) is an important carrier of zoonotic agents, and Campylobacter jejuni is one that may be transmitted between animals and humans by flies. Colonized animals shed the bacteria in feces where larval stages of Md flies develops. Aim of the present...... study To monitor fly larvae composting of poultry manure artificially contaminated with C. jejuni, and to investigate a possible transmission route of C. jejuni from the manure through the fly larvae to the adult fly. Conclusions The addition of fly larvae both accelerated the degradation of manure...... and C. jejuni. Pupae or newly hatched flies were not carriers of C. jejuni although larvae were grown in contaminated manure. Impact When composting poultry manure with Md fly larvae, it is possible both to reduce the amount of waste and to sanitize it from C. jejuni, thereby reducing the risk...

  19. Hormones and Sex-Specific Transcription Factors Jointly Control Yolk Protein Synthesis in Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Siegenthaler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the housefly Musca domestica, synthesis of yolk proteins (YPs depends on the level of circulating ecdysteroid hormones. In female houseflies, the ecdysterone concentration in the hemolymph oscillates and, at high levels, is followed by expression of YP. In male houseflies, the ecdysterone titre is constantly low and no YP is produced. In some strains, which are mutant in key components of the sex-determining pathway, males express YP even though their ecdysterone titre is not significantly elevated. However, we find that these males express a substantial amount of the female variant of the Musca doublesex homologue, Md-dsx. The dsx gene is known to sex-specifically control transcription of yp genes in the fat body of Drosophila melanogaster. Our data suggest that Md-dsx also contributes to the regulation of YP expression in the housefly by modulating the responsiveness of YP-producing cells to hormonal stimuli.

  20. Plasticity in behavioural responses and resistance to temperature stress in Musca domestica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Anders; Blackenhorn, Wolf U.; Pertoldi, Cino

    2015-01-01

    performance and morphology of three European populations of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) originating from different thermal conditions (Spain, Switzerland and Denmark) at benign and stressful high temperatures. Spanish flies showed greater heat resistance than Swiss and Danish flies. Similarly......, at the stressful high temperature Spanish flies flew the furthest and Danish flies the shortest distance. Neither body size nor wing loading affected flight performance, although flies with narrower wings tended to fly further (wing shape effect). Swiss flies were most active in terms of locomotor activity...... at the benign temperature, whereas the Spanish flies were able to stay active for longer at the stressful temperature. Population differences in behavioural traits and heat resistance were obtained using flies held for several generations in a laboratory common garden setting; therefore we suggest that exposure...

  1. Optimizing dehydration of apples Malus Domestica with fructo-oligosaccharide incorporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Buranelo Egea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to study the effect of the variables of the osmotic dehydration process on sliced Fuji apples (Malus domestica using a 2 x 3² factorial design. The variables studied in the apple slices were the pretreatment (blanching or acidification, the temperatures (30, 45 and 60ºC and the FOS concentration (40%, 50% and 60% m/v of the osmotic solution. There was no difference among the pretreatments for the water activity and titratable acidity. The slices pre-treated by the acidification presented less enzymatic browning (greatest luminosity L* value combined with a greater soluble solid contents (thus, this treatment was selected. Treatments T4 (45ºC and 40% m/v and T7 (60ºC and 40%m/v, using the acidification presented responses within the recommended standards and FOS were validated by the repetition.

  2. RNA interference silencing of CHS greatly alters the growth pattern of apple (Malus x domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dare, Andrew P; Hellens, Roger P

    2013-08-01

    Plants produce a vast array of phenolic compounds which are essential for their survival on land. One major class of polyphenols are the flavonoids and their formation is dependent on the enzyme chalcone synthase (CHS). In a recent study we silenced the CHS genes of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) and observed a loss of pigmentation in the fruit skin, flowers and stems. More surprisingly, highly silenced lines were significantly reduced in size, with small leaves and shortened internode lengths. Chemical analysis also revealed that the transgenic shoots contained greatly reduced concentrations of flavonoids which are known to modulate auxin flow. An auxin transport study verified this, with an increased auxin transport in the CHS-silenced lines. Overall, these findings suggest that auxin transport in apple has adapted to take place in the presence of high endogenous concentrations of flavonoids. Removal of these compounds therefore results in abnormal auxin movement and a highly disrupted growth pattern.

  3. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated neonicotinoid resistance in the house fly Musca domestica L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D K; Kristensen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Neonicotinoids play an essential role in the control of house flies Musca domestica. The development of neonicotinoid resistance was found in two field populations. 766b was 130- and 140-fold resistant to imidacloprid and 17- and 28-fold resistant to thiamethoxam in males and females, respectively...... impact. Neonicotinoid resistance was in all cases suppressed by PBO. The cytochrome P450 genes CYP6A1, CYP6D1 and CYP6D3 were constitutively over-expressed in resistant strains and CYP6D1 and CYP6D3 differentially expressed between sexes. The highest level of CYP6A1 expression was observed in both gender...... of the imidacloprid-selected strain after neonicotinoid exposure. CYP6D1 expression was increased after neonicotinoid exposure in resistant males. CYP6D3 expression was induced in both sexes upon neonicotinoid exposure but significantly higher in females....

  4. Prevalence of Haemoproteus columbae and Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons (Columba domestica) in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Ahmad; Ebrahimi, Mansour; Ahmadi, Amin; Himan, Mohammadpour

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Haemoproteus columbae and Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons (Columba domestica) in Isfahan, Iran. Study was done on 100 pigeons from January to June 2010 in Isfahan located in south of Iran. Oropharyngeal swabs were taken from all birds. Also blood samples were obtained from wing vein and thin smears were prepared from them. All smears were stained by Giemsa and were examined by immersion. Out of 100 Oropharyngeal swab smears 57 (57%) were positive for T. gallinae and Haemoproteus gallinae were detected in 62 pigeons (62%) from which blood smear were taken. The present study is in close agreement with other studies in Iran. But infestation rate to theses parasite in world are very different. These differences were probably linked to geographical variations and differences in the feeding habitat and abundance of vehicles of Haemoproteus.

  5. Primary characterization and basal promoter activity of two hexamerin genes of Musca domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Moreira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexamerins are high molecular-weight proteins found in the hemolymph of insects and have been proposed to function as storage proteins. In previous studies, two Musca domestica hexamerins, designated Hex-L and Hex-F were characterized. Hex-L is synthesized exclusively by the larval fat bodies, is secreted into the hemolymph and likely provides a source of amino acids and energy during metamorphosis. Hex-F synthesis is induced by a proteinaceous meal and occurs only in the adult insect fat bodies. Hex-F also is secreted into the hemolymph and it has been suggested that in females it may be an amino acid reservoir to be used during the final stages of egg formation. Genomic clones containing full-length copies of the genes MdHexL1 and MdHexF1, encoding subunits of the larval and the adult female hexamerin, respectively, were isolated. Complete nucleotide sequences, including the 5'-end untranscribed regions, were determined and analyzed for each of the genes. Comparisons of the conceptual translation products of the cloned genes indicated that MdHexL1 and MdHexF1 are related to the larval serum proteins (LSP 1 and 2 of Calliphora vicina and Drosophila melanogaster. DNA fragments containing the putative promoters of the two hexamerin genes were compared and cloned into a plasmid vector so as to drive the expression of the GFP reporter gene. The constructs were assayed in vitro in transfected S2 Drosophila melanogaster cells demonstrating that the cloned M. domestica DNA fragments exhibit promoter activity.

  6. House Fly (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera Muscidae) Development in Different Types of Manure Desarrollo de la Mosca Doméstica (Musca domestica L.) (Díptera Muscidae) en Distintos Tipos de Estiércol

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Larraín S; Claudio Salas F

    2008-01-01

    Animal production units with different management systems can be found along the Huasco Valley, Region of Atacama, Chile. These constitute sources of house flies (Musca domestica L.) and other vector fly species that cause damage to animals and nuisance problems in urban areas. In order to asses the importance of fly breeding sources, an experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions to evaluate different types of animal manure and composted swine manure. Time of larval development, l...

  7. Megacystis-microlon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome in a newborn girl whose brother had Prune Belly syndrome: Common Pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, G.; Boechat, M.I.; Fereira, M.A.

    1983-07-01

    A case of Megacystis-Microcolon-Intestinal Hypoperistalsis Syndrome (MMIHS) is presented. There were important findings: a urachal remnant and a brother with Prune Belly Syndrome (PBS). After a review of the literature, many common characteristics of MMIHS and PBS are described: flaccid abdomen, dilatation of the urinary tract, intestinal malrotation, cryptorchidism, urachal remnants and familial incidence. MMIHS and PBS may be manifestations of the same underlying process.

  8. Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome in a newborn girl whose brother had prune belly syndrome: common pathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, G; Boechat, M I; Ferreira, M A

    1983-01-01

    A case of megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is presented. There were important findings: a urachal remnant and a brother with prune belly syndrome (PBS). After a review of the literature, many common characteristics of MMIHS and PBS are described: flaccid abdomen, dilatation of the urinary tract, intestinal malrotation, cryptorchidism, urachal remnants and familial incidence. MMIHS and PBS may be manifestations of the same underlying process.

  9. The effects of root pruning and limb strangulation on physiological responses and flower bud development of longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sdoodee, S.

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Flowering induction by physical methods of root pruning and limb strangulation to alleviate the incidence of biennial fruit-bearing in longkong were investigated. The experiment was conducted at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla Province, from December, 2001 to November, 2002. In the root-pruning trial, twelve 6-year-old longkong trees were used. Each tree was grown in 1 m3 soil volume. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design having 4 treatments in 3 replications. The treatments were: (1 control, (2 cutting 1 side 30 cm from the stem at 30 cm depth, (3 cutting 1 side 20 cm from the stem at 30 cm depth, and (4 cutting 2 sides 30 cm from the stem at 30 cm depth. In the limb strangulation experiment, six 6-year-old longkong trees were used. Again, each tree was grown in 1 m3 soil volume and the experiment was arranged in a com- pletely randomized design. The treatments were: (1 control, (2 limb strangulation 2 months before bloom, and (3 limb strangulation 1 month before bloom. All treatments were done on one plant with 6 replications (one plant per replicate. The root- pruning methods decreased diurnal water use and a physiological response as compared with the control. All three root-pruning treatments induced flowering; however, only the trees cut on 1 side, 30 cm from the stem at 30 cm depth, stimulated flower-bud elongation. Similarly, the limb strangulation treatments resulted in decreased water use and physiological response as compared with the control. Both limb strangulation methods induced flowering, but strangulation at 1 month before bloom was more effective in the flower-bud development.

  10. Phenology, growth and physiological adjustments of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) to sink limitation induced by fruit pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, S; Mialet-Serra, I; Caliman, J-P; Siregar, F A; Clement-Vidal, A; Fabre, D; Dingkuhn, M

    2009-11-01

    Despite its simple architecture and small phenotypic plasticity, oil palm has complex phenology and source-sink interactions. Phytomers appear in regular succession but their development takes years, involving long lag periods between environmental influences and their effects on sinks. Plant adjustments to resulting source-sink imbalances are poorly understood. This study investigated oil palm adjustments to imbalances caused by severe fruit pruning. An experiment with two treatments (control and complete fruit pruning) during 22 months in 2006-2008) and six replications per treatment was conducted in Indonesia. Phenology, growth of above-ground vegetative and reproductive organs, leaf morphology, inflorescence sex differentiation, dynamics of non-structural carbohydrate reserves and light-saturated net photosynthesis (A(max)) were monitored. Artificial sink limitation by complete fruit pruning accelerated development rate, resulting in higher phytomer, leaf and inflorescence numbers. Leaf size and morphology remained unchanged. Complete fruit pruning also suppressed the abortion of male inflorescences, estimated to be triggered at about 16 months before bunch maturity. The number of female inflorescences increased after an estimated lag of 24-26 months, corresponding to time from sex differentiation to bunch maturity. The most important adjustment process was increased assimilate storage in the stem, attaining nearly 50 % of dry weight in the stem top, mainly as starch, whereas glucose, which in controls was the most abundant non-structural carbohydrate stored in oil palm, decreased. The development rate of oil palm is in part controlled by source-sink relationships. Although increased rate of development and proportion of female inflorescences constituted observed adjustments to sink limitation, the low plasticity of plant architecture (constant leaf size, absence of branching) limited compensatory growth. Non-structural carbohydrate storage was thus the main

  11. Highly erodible terrain in agriculture land against chipped pruned branches. Or how to stop the soil erosion with low investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.

    2009-04-01

    The session on "Soil erosion and sediment control with vegetation and bioengineering on severely eroded terrain" pays special attention to the severe soil erosion suffered on steep slopes and erodible parent materials and soils. Within the last 20 years, in the Mediterranean lands, the citrus orchards were reallocated on steep slopes due to the urban development and better climatic and management conditions of the new plantations. The lack of vegetation cover on the new slope plantations of citrus resulted in high erosion rates. Those non-sustainable soil losses were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments, Gerlach collectors, geomorphological transect and topographical measurements. The October 2007 and October 2008 rainy periods resulted in sheet, rill and gully erosion. Some recently planted orchards (2005) had the first pruning season in 2008. The pruned chipped branches reduced the soil losses to 50 % of the expected, although the litter (pruned branches) covered 4.67 % of the soil. This is why a research was developed by means of simulated rainfall experiments to determine the vegetation cover (litter, mainly leaves) to protect the soil to reach a sustainable erosion rate. Rainfall simulation experiments at 43 mm h-1 where performed on 1 m2 plots covered with 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80 and 100 % litter cover (pruned chipped branches) to determine the sustainable litter cover to avoid the soil losses. The results show that more that 45 % litter cover almost reduces the soil losses to negligible rates. The results confirm that 4 % of vegetation cover reduces the soil losses to 50 %. Key words: Agriculture land, erodible terrain, land management, citrus, erosion, Spain, Valencia, herbicides. Acknowledgements, We thanks the financial support of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación by means of the project CGL2008-02879/BTE, "PERDIDA DE SUELO EN NUEVAS EXPLOTACIONES CITRICOLAS EN PENDIENTE. ESTRATEGIAS PARA EL CONTROL DE LA EROSION HIDRICA"

  12. The Effect of Green Pruning on the Yield and Fruit Quality of the Crawling Grape Vines Cultivar Keshmeshy in the Climatic Conditions of Shirvan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sadeghian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green pruning or summer pruning completes winter pruning, and it is conducted during the growing season. The purpose of green pruning is to maximize yield of high quality grapes. Green pruning in fruit trees improves light penetration and increases the quality of fruits. The objectives of this research were to determine the influence of green pruning on fruit quantitative and qualitative attributes in grapevine cultivar 'keshmeshi'. Materials and Methods: The present research was undertaken in Shirvan, Northern Khorasan province. The vines were highly uniform, 17 years old and all had equal vegetative growth strength.The planting distances were 3 × 3 m. The present study was conducted on cultivar 'Keshmeshi' that is considered to be one of the best grapevine cultivars mostly used for raisin production as well as table fresh fruits. In order to evaluate the effect of green pruning on different quantitative and qualitative attributes of fruits in cultivar "keshmeshi", the experiment was carried out in two way randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and three replications. Vines were pruned three times including full bloom, two weeks after full bloom and veraison (eight weeks after full bloom. Pruning was carried out in three levels including tipping after two, four or six nodes above the final cluster. The characteristics studied were cluster weight, berry weight, cluster length and width, berry length and width, number of cluster and berry, vine yield, leaf area, soluble solid, total acidity, pH, berry color, berry sunscald and number of shot berry. The SAS software (SAS, version 9.1 was used for statistical analysis of the recorded data. The mean comparison was performed based on Duncan's multiple range tests at %5 and %1 levels. Results and Discussion: The results of this study indicate that the severity of green pruning has no significant effect on the number and width of berries. This treatment also had no

  13. Thyroid hormone is required for the pruning of afferent type II spiral ganglion neurons in the mouse cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Balasubbu, Suganthalakshmi; Mustapha, Mirna

    2015-01-01

    Afferent connections to the sensory inner and outer hair cells in the cochlea refine and functionally mature during the thyroid hormone (TH)- critical period of inner ear development that occurs perinatally in rodents. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on afferent type II innervation to outer hair cells (OHCs) using the Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1dw). Using a transgenic approach to specifically label type II spiral ganglion neurons, we found that a lack of TH causes persistence of excess type II SGN connections to the OHCs, as well as continued expression of the hair cell functional marker, otoferlin, in the OHCs beyond the maturation period. We also observed a concurrent delay in efferent attachment to the OHCs. Supplementing with TH during the early postnatal period from postnatal day (P) 3 to P4 reversed the defect in type II SGN pruning but did not alter otoferlin expression. Our results show that hypothyroidism causes a defect in the large-scale pruning of afferent type II spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea, and a delay in efferent attachment and the maturation of otoferlin expression. Our data suggest that the state of maturation of hair cells, as determined by otoferlin expression, may not regulate the pruning of their afferent innervation. PMID:26592716

  14. Efficacy of Cinnamomum zeylanicum on third stage larvae and adult fecundity of Musca domestica and Anopheles pharoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Halim, Azza S

    2008-08-01

    The insecticidal activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum against the larval maturation and adult emergency of Anopheles pharoensis and Musca domestica 3rd stage was evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions. A. pharoensis with concentrations (conc.) of 100%, 70%, 50%, 25%, 5%, 2%, 1%, 0.9%, 0.7% & 0.5% showed 100% larval mortality. Conc. of 0.3%, 0.2% & 0.1% caused mortality of 77.8%, 44.4% & 33.3% respectively. The fecundity of emerged adults was 0%, 60% & 50%. In M. domestica the conc. from 50%-100% completely killed the larvae. Conc. of 25%, 5%, 2% & 1% caused mortality of 88.9%, 55.6%, 33.3% & 22.2% respectively. Less conc. of C. zeylanicum was not tested. The fecundity of the emerged adults was 0%, 66.7%, 66.7% & 83.3%. Only one control larva died and the nine emerged adults were fertile in the two cases.

  15. Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts compared with ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuptniratsaikul V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vilai Kuptniratsaikul,1 Piyapat Dajpratham,1 Wirat Taechaarpornkul,2 Montana Buntragulpoontawee,3 Pranee Lukkanapichonchut,4 Chirawan Chootip,5 Jittima Saengsuwan,6 Kesthamrong Tantayakom,7 Supphalak Laongpech8 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Sirindhorn National Medical Rehabilitation Center, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 3Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Ratchaburi Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Ratchaburi, Thailand; 5Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Songkhla Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Songkhla, Thailand; 6Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 7Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Rajvithi Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Bangkok, Thailand; 8Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Vachira Phuket Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Phuket, Thailand Objective: To determine the efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts in pain reduction and functional improvement. Methods: 367 primary knee osteoarthritis patients with a pain score of 5 or higher were randomized to receive ibuprofen 1,200 mg/day or C. domestica extracts 1,500 mg/day for 4 weeks. The main outcomes were Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC total, WOMAC pain, WOMAC stiffness, and WOMAC function scores. Adverse events (AEs were also recorded. Results: 185 and 182 patients were randomly assigned into C. domestica extracts and ibuprofen groups, respectively. The baseline characteristics were no different between groups. The mean of all WOMAC scores at weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed significant improvement when compared with the baseline in both groups. After using the noninferiority test, the mean difference (95% confidence interval of WOMAC total

  16. Ganancia de peso del depredador Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae en combinaciones de las presas Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae y Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto da Costa Matos Neto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre las ninfas de los asopíneos usados para el control de gusanos desfoliadores en plantaciones de eucalipto, Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae representa un potencial agente de control biológico, sin embargo esta especie ha sido poco estudiada. El presente trabajo evaluó el efecto de las diferentes combinaciones de las presas Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae y Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae sobre el peso de ninfas de P. distinctus. El experimento se realizó en laboratorio do "Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuaria (BIOAGRO", a 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% de humedad relativa y 14 horas de fotoperiodo. Las ninfas de P. distinctus fueron individualizadas en cajas de Petri y alimentadas de acuerdo con los siguientes tratamientos: T1- larvas de M. domestica durante toda la fase ninfal; T2- larvas de M. domestica en el II estadio y de T. molitor en los III, IV y V estadios; T3- larvas de M. domestica en el II y III estadios y de T. molitor en los IV y V estadios; T4- larvas de M. domestica en el II, III y IV estadios y de T. molitor en el V estadio; T5- larvas de T. molitor en todos los estadios. Los mejores resultados de peso y ganancia de peso fueron encontrados cuando P. distinctus fue alimentado alternadamente con larvas de M. domestica y T. molitor. Cuando esse depredador fue solamente alimentado con larvas de M. domestica, presentó pesos menoresLitlle is known about Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae one of the Asopinae species with good possibilities for mass rearing and releasing against defoliator caterpillars in eucalyptus reforested areas in Brazil. We evaluated the impact of prey combinations on weight of nymphs and adults of P. distinctus. The prey were Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae and Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The experiment was developed under 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% R.H. and photophase of 14 hr, with nymphs of P. distinctus

  17. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Essential Oil of Leaves of Malus domestica Growing in Western Himalaya (India)

    OpenAIRE

    Walia, Mayanka; Mann, Tavleen S.; Kumar, Dharmesh; Agnihotri, Vijai K.; Singh, Bikram

    2012-01-01

    Light pale-colored volatile oil was obtained from fresh leaves of Malus domestica tree, growing in Dhauladhar range of Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh, India), with characteristic eucalyptol dominant fragrance. The oil was found to be a complex mixture of mono-, sesqui-, di-terpenes, phenolics, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Seventeen compounds accounting for nearly 95.3% of the oil were characterized with the help of capillary GC, GC-MS, and NMR. Major compounds of the oil were characterized as euca...

  18. Phenolic Compounds in Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.: Compounds Characterization and Stability during Postharvest and after Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Francini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the information on the occurrence of phenolic compounds in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh. fruit and juice, with special reference to their health related properties. As phytochemical molecules belonging to polyphenols are numerous, we will focus on the main apples phenolic compounds with special reference to changes induced by apple cultivar, breeding approaches, fruit postharvest and transformation into juice.

  19. A Comparative Study of Melanin Content and Skin Morphology for Three Commonly Used Laboratory Swine (Sus scrofa domestica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Branch AFRL-RH-FS-TR-2013-0004 A Comparative Study of Melanin Content and Skin Morphology for Three Commonly Used Laboratory Swine (Sus scrofa...A Comparative Study of Melanin Content and Skin Morphology for Three Commonly Used Laboratory Swine (Sus scrofa domestica) 2013 0004 Benjamin A...REPORT TYPE Final Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2009- May 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Comparative Study of Melanin Content and Skin

  20. Effects of processing techniques on oxidative stability of Prunus pedunculatus seed oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effects of Prunus pedunculatus (P. pedunculatus seed pre-treatment, including microwaving (M, roasting (R, steaming (S and roasting plus steaming (RS on crude oil quality in terms of yield, color change, fatty acid composition, and oxidative stability. The results showed an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content and oxidative stability of the oils obtained from different processing treatments compared to the oil obtained from raw seeds (RW without processing. The oils, obtained from pretreated seeds, had higher conjugated diene (CD and 2-thiobarbituric acid (2-TBA values, compared to that obtained from RW when stored in a Schaal oven at 65 °C for 168 h. However, polyphenol and tocopherol contents decreased in all oil samples, processed or unprocessed. The effect of pre-treating the seeds was more prominent in the oil sample obtained through the RS technique, and showed higher oxidative stability than the other processed oils and the oil from RW.

  1. Extraction optimization of polyphenols, antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities from Prunus salicina Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin LI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Optimization of polyphenols extraction from plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. was evaluated using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken experimental results showed the optimal conditions involved an extraction temperature of 59 °C, a sonication time of 47 min, and an ethanol concentration of 61% respectively. The maximum extraction yield of total polyphenols was 44.74 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dried plum at optimal conditions. Polyphenol extracts exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than Vc by evaluating of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, polyphenol extracts (IC50 = 179 g/mL showed obvious inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase. These findings suggest that polyphenol extracts from P. salicina can be potentially used as natural antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory agents.

  2. Tissue and Subcellular Localization of Enzymes Catabolizing (R)-Amygdalin in Mature Prunus serotina Seeds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Elisabeth; Li, Chun Ping; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) homogenates, (R)-amygdalin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and d-glucose by the sequential action of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. The tissue and subcellular localizations of these enzymes were determined within intact black cherry seeds by direct enzyme analysis, immunoblotting, and colloidal gold immunocytochemical techniques. Taken together, these procedures showed that the two β-glucosidases are restricted to protein bodies of the procambium, which ramifies throughout the cotyledons. Although amygdalin hydrolase occurred within the majority of procambial cells, prunasin hydrolase was confined to the peripheral layers of this meristematic tissue. Highest levels of mandelonitrile lyase were observed in the protein bodies of the cotyledonary parenchyma cells, with lesser amounts in the procambial cell protein bodies. The residual endosperm tissue had insignificant levels of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:16652960

  3. Tissue and Subcellular Localization of Enzymes Catabolizing (R)-Amygdalin in Mature Prunus serotina Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, E; Li, C P; Poulton, J E

    1992-09-01

    In black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) homogenates, (R)-amygdalin is catabolized to HCN, benzaldehyde, and d-glucose by the sequential action of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. The tissue and subcellular localizations of these enzymes were determined within intact black cherry seeds by direct enzyme analysis, immunoblotting, and colloidal gold immunocytochemical techniques. Taken together, these procedures showed that the two beta-glucosidases are restricted to protein bodies of the procambium, which ramifies throughout the cotyledons. Although amygdalin hydrolase occurred within the majority of procambial cells, prunasin hydrolase was confined to the peripheral layers of this meristematic tissue. Highest levels of mandelonitrile lyase were observed in the protein bodies of the cotyledonary parenchyma cells, with lesser amounts in the procambial cell protein bodies. The residual endosperm tissue had insignificant levels of amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase.

  4. Identification of volatile compounds in thinning discards from plum trees (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar Harry Pickstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Podestá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Harry Pickstone, a China indigenous fruit, is widely produced and consumed in countries such as Japan and Brazil. The practice of thinning is common in horticulture and the fruits removed are discarded as waste. Like the great majority of vegetables, these thinning discards also contain essential oils which have not been investigated until the present time. The extraction of the plum thinning discards volatile oil, through the hydrodistillation method, produced a yield of 0.06% (m/m and a total of 21 components were identified, with 11 of them being responsible for 72,9% of the total oil composition. The major compounds determined through GC and GC-MS were Z-α-bisabolene (13.7%, n-hexadecanoic acid (12.7%, phytol (12.7%, and β-caryophyllene (10.4%.

  5. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M., E-mail: dinakar@nii.res.in [National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2008-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å.

  6. Reaction of Prunus Rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marull, J; Pinochet, J; Verdejo-Lucas, S; Soler, A

    1991-10-01

    Prunus rootstocks were evaluated for their reaction to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria. Most rootstocks were peach-almond hybrids of Spanish origin. In one experiment three selections of Garfi x Nemared (G x N) and Hansen-5 were highly resistant to M. incognita, but four other rootstocks were susceptible showing high galling indices and population increases. In two experiments with M. arenaria, the hybrid selections G x N nos. 1 and 9 were immune, GF-305 and Hansen-5 were resistant, but nine other rootstocks expressed various degrees of susceptibility. All Spanish rootstocks were susceptible to both Meloidogyne species except for the three G x N selections. The root-knot nematode resistant peach Nemared used as a male parent with Garfi was found to transmit a high degree of resistance to M. incognita and immunity to M. arenaria. Progenies of P. davidiana (Ga x D no. 3), a known source of resistance to root-knot nematodes, were susceptible.

  7. Anti-allergic inflammatory effects of cyanogenic and phenolic glycosides from the seed of Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geum Jin; Choi, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Ji Hyang; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Ho

    2013-12-01

    A methanol extract of the seed of Prunus persica (Rosaceae) was found to inhibit histamine release in human mast cells. Activity-guided fractionation of the methanol extract yielded three cyanogenic glycosides (1-3) and other phenolic compounds (4-8). To evaluate their anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities, the isolates (1-8) were tested for their inhibitory effects on histamine release and on the gene expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 in human mast cells. Of these, phenolic glycosides 7 and 8 suppressed histamine release and inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6. These results suggest that isolates from P. persica are among the anti-allergic inflammatory principles in this medicinal plant.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) during the late stage of fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, H F; Sheng, Y; Gao, Z H; Chen, H L; Qi, Y J; Yi, X K; Qin, G H; Zhang, J Y

    2016-12-23

    Fruit ripening is a complex developmental process, the details of which remain largely unknown in fleshy fruits. In this paper, the fruit flesh of two peach varieties, "Zhongyou9" (a nectarine; Prunus persica L. Batsch) and its mutant "Hongyu", was analyzed by RNA-seq technology during two stages of ripening at 20-day intervals. One hundred and eighty significant upregulated and two hundred and thirty-five downregulated genes were identified in the experiment. Many of these genes were related to plant hormones, chlorophyll breakdown, accumulation of aroma and flavor volatiles, and stress. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first transcriptome analysis of peach ripening, and our data will be useful for further studies of the molecular basis of fruit ripening.

  9. Fluidized bed combustion residue as an alternative liming material and Ca source. [Prunus persica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, J.H.; Horton, B.D.; White, A.W. Jr.; Bennett, O.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR), a by-product of fossil fuel fired boilers, was evaluated as a liming material and a source of calcium for peaches (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch). Incubation studies involving a medium textured soil indicated that FBCR (calcite (FBCRC) or dolomitic (FBCRD) sources) was as effective a liming amendment as the respective agricultural limestone. Maximum soil pH occurred after 26 days incubation with FBCRC, but soil pH increased continuously throughout 137 days incubation with dolomitic limestone. Ammonium acetate extractable Ca was not affected by calcitic source, but Mg concentration increased with rates with the two dolomitic sources, and was highest in the FBCRD source after 137 days incubation. In greenhouse studies with Elberta peach seedlings, FBCRC was more effective in neutralizing soil acidity and increasing extractable soil Ca than calcitic limestone.

  10. Microsatellite marker development for the coastal dune shrub Prunus maritima (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgley, Emily M; Grubisha, Lisa C; Roland, Anna K; Connolly, Bryan A; Klooster, Matthew R

    2015-02-01

    • Microsatellite primers were developed in the beach plum, Prunus maritima, to investigate the genetic composition of remaining populations in need of conservation and, in future studies, to determine its relation to P. maritima var. gravesii. • Fourteen primer pairs were identified and tested in four populations throughout the species' geographic range. Of these 14 loci, 12 were shown to be polymorphic among a total of 60 P. maritima individuals sampled (15 individuals sampled from four populations). Among the polymorphic loci, the number of alleles ranged from two to 10 and observed heterozygosity of loci ranged from 0.07 to 0.93 among specimens tested. • These microsatellites will be useful in evaluating the population genetic composition of P. maritima and in developing approaches for further conservation and management of this species within the endangered coastal dune ecosystem of the northeastern United States.

  11. Seasonal variation of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus concentration in almond, peach, and plum cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salem

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Levels of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV infection in almond, peach, and plum cultivars over the course of an entire year were determined by testing different plant parts of naturally infected trees, using the double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. The data showed that spring was the best time of year for PNRSV detection in flowers, active growing buds, and young leaves. PNRSV detection was less reliable during the summer months. Young leaves of all cultivars were the most reliable source for distinguishing between healthy and infected plants, while flowers and buds yielded high values in some cultivars but not in others. Seasonal fluctuations in virus concentration did not follow the same pattern in all cultivars. It is therefore impossible to distinguish between infected and healthy trees on the basis of one single sampling time for all cultivars.

  12. Light as a regulator of structural and chemical leaf defenses against insects in two Prunus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mąderek, Ewa; Zadworny, Marcin; Mucha, Joanna; Karolewski, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    Light is a key factor influencing competition between species, and the mechanisms by which trees overcome insect outbreaks can be associated with alternation of the leaves structure, which then prevent or promotes their susceptibility to herbivores. It was predicted that leaf tissue anatomy would likely be different in sun and shade leaves, with a gradual decline of leaves resistance coupled with reduction of accessible light. We quantified anatomical patterns and the distribution of defence compounds (phenols, total tannins, catechol tannins) within heavily grazed leaves of Prunus padus, native in Europe and Prunus serotina, an invasive to Central Europe. Both species were strongly attacked by folivorous insects when shrubs grew in the shade. In the sun, however only P. padus leaves were grazed, but P. serotina leaves were almost unaffected. We identified that anatomical characteristics are not linked to different P. padus and P. serotina leaf vulnerability to insects. Furthermore, the staining of defence compounds of P. serotina leaves grown in full sun revealed that the palisade mesophyll cells had a higher content of phenolic compounds and catechol tannins. Thus, our results indicate that a specific distribution of defence compounds, but not the anatomical relationships between palisade and spongy mesophyll, may be beneficial for P. serotina growth outside its natural range. The identified pattern of defence compounds distribution is linked to a lower susceptibility of P. serotina leaves to herbivores, and is associated with its invasiveness. This likely reflects that P. serotina is a stronger competitor than P. padus, especially at high sunlit sites i.e. gaps in the forest.

  13. Variation in resistance mechanisms to the green peach aphid among different Prunus persica commercial cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, J A; Méndez, T; Ortiz-Martínez, S A; Cumsille, R; Ramírez, C C

    2012-10-01

    ABSTRACT Peaches and nectarines are frequently attacked by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), with significant negative impacts on fruit production. The genetic variability of resistance to this aphid among commercial cultivars of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch and Prunus persica variety nectarina was evaluated in this study. In total, 16 cultivars of P. persica were selected to evaluate the occurrence and population growth rate of M. persicae in commercial orchards, as well as in no-choice and probing behavior laboratory assays. The results showed variability between cultivars in resistance and susceptibility to M. persicae, with three cultivars exhibiting different signatures of resistance. The peach cultivar 'Elegant Lady' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a low rate of growth, moderate leaf-rejection in a no-choice test and a higher number and longer period of salivation into sieve elements, suggesting resistance at the phloematic level. The nectarine cultivar 'August Red' also exhibited low aphid occurrence in the orchard, a low rate of growth, and resistance at the prephloem and phloem levels. Finally, the nectarine 'July Red-NS92' exhibited a low occurrence of aphids in the orchard, a higher number of rejections in no-choice assays and no ingestion of phloem during the probing behavior experiments, suggesting prephloematic resistance. The rest of the cultivars studied exhibited clear susceptibility. Hence, different resistance mechanisms are apparent among the studied cultivars. The information gathered in this study regarding the resistance to M. persicae may assist breeding programs aimed at increasing aphid resistance to peaches and nectarines.

  14. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  15. PRUNE: Dynamic and Decidable Dataflow for Signal Processing on Heterogeneous Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutellier, Jani; Wu, Jiahao; Huttunen, Heikki; Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S.

    2018-02-01

    The majority of contemporary mobile devices and personal computers are based on heterogeneous computing platforms that consist of a number of CPU cores and one or more Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Despite the high volume of these devices, there are few existing programming frameworks that target full and simultaneous utilization of all CPU and GPU devices of the platform. This article presents a dataflow-flavored Model of Computation (MoC) that has been developed for deploying signal processing applications to heterogeneous platforms. The presented MoC is dynamic and allows describing applications with data dependent run-time behavior. On top of the MoC, formal design rules are presented that enable application descriptions to be simultaneously dynamic and decidable. Decidability guarantees compile-time application analyzability for deadlock freedom and bounded memory. The presented MoC and the design rules are realized in a novel Open Source programming environment "PRUNE" and demonstrated with representative application examples from the domains of image processing, computer vision and wireless communications. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms the state-of-the-art in analyzability, flexibility and performance.

  16. Penerapan Algoritma Alphabeta Pruning Sebagai Kecerdasan Buatan pada Game Pawn Battle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridho Rahman Hariadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Catur merupakan game strategi. Catur dimainkan oleh dua orang. Ada dua jenis warna bidak pada permainan catur, yaitu: bidak hitam dan bidak putih. Agar dapat memenangkan sebuah permainan catur, pemain harus menguasai strategi-strategi dalam bermain catur. Ada banyak startegi dalam bermain catur yang hanya dapat dipahami dengan banyak bermain dan berlatih. Modul-modul cara bermain catur pada umumnya hanya menjelaskan kejadian yang biasa terjadi dalam permainan catur. Sehingga berlatih merupakan satu-satu nya cara yang dapat digunakan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan dalam bermain catur. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian implementasi yang menggunakan algoritma Alpha Beta Prunnning sebagai kecerdasan buatan dalam permainan catur. Algoritma yang biasanya digunakan dalam permainan catur adalah algoritma Min-Max. Algoritma Min-Max merupakan algoritma yang digunakan untuk menemukan langkah terbaik dalam permainan catur. Sedangkan Algoritma Alpha Beta Pruning adalah algoritma yang digunakan untuk mencegah perluasan cabang/node untuk mendapatkan hasil pencarian langkah yang lebih baik dari sebelumnya. Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat membantu memberikan gambaran penerapan algoritma Alpha Beta Prunning yang digunakan dalam  membangun sebuah kecerdasan buatan pada permainan catur.

  17. [Peritoneal dialysis in adult patients with prune belly syndrome: an impossible challenge?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musone, Dario; Nicosia, Valentina; D'Alessandro, Riccardo; Treglia, Antonio; Saltarelli, Giuseppe; Montella, Maurizio; Sparagna, Alessandro; Amoroso, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Prune belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by hypoplasia of the abdominal muscles, urinary tract malformations, and cryptorchidism in males. The estimated incidence is 1 in 35,000 to 50,000 live births. Chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), due both to different degrees of renal hypoplasia or dysplasia and infectious complications, develops in 20-30% of patients who survive the neonatal period. No data are available on progression time to ESRD, owing to the variability of the phenotypic features of nephropathy. Nevertheless, PBS is primarily a pathology of pediatric interest as demonstrated, for example, by the reported average age at transplantation which usually does not exceed fifteen years of age. Therefore the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) in adult patients with PBS is unusual. It is reasonable to suppose that the abdominal muscular defects may represent a limit for peritoneal dialysis (PD) utilization in PBS adult patients in many Kidney Units where, conversely, treatment with hemodialysis would be probably the easier choice. Here we describe the case of a 44 -year- old man with PBS who, at the age of 41, required RRT and was faced with the challenge of accepting PD. After more than three years of nocturnal automated peritoneal dialysis treatment we can safely say, as the following case illustrates, that PD is a feasible option in PBS adult patients.

  18. Multi-pruning of decision trees for knowledge representation and classification

    KAUST Repository

    Azad, Mohammad

    2016-06-09

    We consider two important questions related to decision trees: first how to construct a decision tree with reasonable number of nodes and reasonable number of misclassification, and second how to improve the prediction accuracy of decision trees when they are used as classifiers. We have created a dynamic programming based approach for bi-criteria optimization of decision trees relative to the number of nodes and the number of misclassification. This approach allows us to construct the set of all Pareto optimal points and to derive, for each such point, decision trees with parameters corresponding to that point. Experiments on datasets from UCI ML Repository show that, very often, we can find a suitable Pareto optimal point and derive a decision tree with small number of nodes at the expense of small increment in number of misclassification. Based on the created approach we have proposed a multi-pruning procedure which constructs decision trees that, as classifiers, often outperform decision trees constructed by CART. © 2015 IEEE.

  19. A Pruning-Based Disk Scheduling Algorithm for Heterogeneous I/O Workloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeseok Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In heterogeneous I/O workload environments, disk scheduling algorithms should support different QoS (Quality-of-Service for each I/O request. For example, the algorithm should meet the deadlines of real-time requests and at the same time provide reasonable response time for best-effort requests. This paper presents a novel disk scheduling algorithm called G-SCAN (Grouping-SCAN for handling heterogeneous I/O workloads. To find a schedule that satisfies the deadline constraints and seek time minimization simultaneously, G-SCAN maintains a series of candidate schedules and expands the schedules whenever a new request arrives. Maintaining these candidate schedules requires excessive spatial and temporal overhead, but G-SCAN reduces the overhead to a manageable level via pruning the state space using two heuristics. One is grouping that clusters adjacent best-effort requests into a single scheduling unit and the other is the branch-and-bound strategy that cuts off inefficient or impractical schedules. Experiments with various synthetic and real-world I/O workloads show that G-SCAN outperforms existing disk scheduling algorithms significantly in terms of the average response time, throughput, and QoS-guarantees for heterogeneous I/O workloads. We also show that the overhead of G-SCAN is reasonable for on-line execution.

  20. Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein developmentally regulates activity-dependent axon pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Charles R; Broadie, Kendal

    2008-04-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is a broad-spectrum neurological disorder with symptoms ranging from hyperexcitability to mental retardation and autism. Loss of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene product, the mRNA-binding translational regulator FMRP, causes structural over-elaboration of dendritic and axonal processes, as well as functional alterations in synaptic plasticity at maturity. It is unclear, however, whether FraX is primarily a disease of development, a disease of plasticity or both: a distinction that is vital for engineering intervention strategies. To address this crucial issue, we have used the Drosophila FraX model to investigate the developmental function of Drosophila FMRP (dFMRP). dFMRP expression and regulation of chickadee/profilin coincides with a transient window of late brain development. During this time, dFMRP is positively regulated by sensory input activity, and is required to limit axon growth and for efficient activity-dependent pruning of axon branches in the Mushroom Body learning/memory center. These results demonstrate that dFMRP has a primary role in activity-dependent neural circuit refinement during late brain development.